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Sample records for plateau phase chinese

  1. Soil Erosion Study on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau, because of its highly erodible loess soils and hilly topography, has been extensively studied by soil scientists and geomorphologists. As a research hotspot, there are five national-level field stations across the Loess Plateau, with hundreds of erosion plots set up with various sizes, lengths, slope angles and vegetation covers. In addition, huge indoor rain simulation facilities exist in in different institutes which can provide rainfall simulations under a wide range of controlled conditions. Consequently, national-level restoration projects have achieved tremendous improvements in curbing soil erosion and improving regional agro-ecosystem, mostly by afforestation and soil rehabilitation. However, when implementing the advanced techniques and models that have been widely applied in the rest of the world, there are often regional considerations, which demand new approaches to overcome. One example are the unintentional impacts of restoration efforts, such as the establishment of apple orchards. Over 20 years, they have caused an increase in soil erodibility and lowered local ground water levels. Neither before the introduction of this landscape rehabilitation technique, nor now, has the impact of intensive fruit production been systematically studied, despite lending itself to systematic experiments. The lack of research is attributed to the general idea that trees protect soils and improve environmental services. This presentation identifies several such specific regional environmental issues associated with soil erosion on the Loess Plateau and discusses strategies to avoid missing important research questions.

  2. Red Clay Sediment in the Central Chinese Loess Plateau and Its Implication for the Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yougui; LI Jijun; FANG Xiaomin; XIA Fei; DONG Hongmei

    2005-01-01

    The widely distributed red clay sediment underlying the Chinese Loess Plateau truly records the Neogene environmental evolution, and its genesis and development are intrinsically related to the uplift processes of the Tibetan Plateau and the evolution of East Asia monsoon system. In this paper, a detailed magnetostratigraphy of a loess-red clay section (107°13′E, 35°02′N) from the central Loess Plateau is reported. The loess-red clay sequence is composed of 175 m Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence and 128 m Neogene red clay sediments. Based on the correlation with the standard geomagnetic polarity time scale, the paleomagnetic results indicate that the age of Chaona red clay sequence extends to 8.1Ma, which is the older red clay deposition in the central Chinese Loess Plateau. The commencement of red clay at ~8.1 Ma may imply that the Ordos planation surface was broken by the movement of the Haiyuan-Liupanshan Faults, which was related to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau induced by the collision of India Plate and Eurasian Plate. And the western part adjacent to the Tibetan Plateau was uplifted to form the embryo of the Liupan Shan (Mts.) and the eastern part was down-faulted to receive red clay deposition. We link this faulting to an initial uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. The undulating nature of the broken Ordos planation surface may explain the chronological differences and depth discrepancies among various cross-sections of red clay.

  3. Magnetic properties of Jiaxian red clay sequences from northern Chinese Loess Plateau and its paleoclimatic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG; Xiaoke; AN; Zhisheng; LI; Huamei; CHANG; Hong

    2005-01-01

    Detailed rock magnetism investigation of the Jiaxian red clay sequences indicated that there are common magnetic mineralogy properties in red clay and loess-paleosol sequences from the Chinese Loess Plateau as well as the marked properties of themselves, magnetic minerals mainly with magnetite, maghemite, hematite, and possibly limonite/goethite contributing to the magnetic behavior. Meanwhile, it is found that the strong paleosol in red clay sequences has a lower coercivity and higher content of ultra-fine ferrimagnetic grains than that of the weak paleosol, which is similar to loess and paleosol in upper Wucheng Loess sequences, and indicates that humid conditions and relatively strong pedogenesis play a significant role in the increase of ultra-fine magnetic minerals and transformation of the magnetic minerals. This suggests that, like Quaternary loess-paleosols, the change of characteristics of paleoclimatic conditions of the late Tertiary red clay deposits is fluctuant. In addition, the results of magnetic hysteresis properties show that the applied saturated field for samples from the Jiaxian red clay sequences is higher than that of the samples from eastern and southern Chinese Loess Plateau. It is obviously shown that there exist more hard magnetic minerals and relatively weak biochemical processes in the Jiaxian red clay sequences on northern Chinese Loess Plateau. We conclude that the paleoclimatic environment is different between northern and eastern/southern Chinese Loess Plateau, and it should be more arid in northern Chinese Loess Plateau.

  4. A first paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation of calcareous nodules from the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Hyodo, M.; Yang, Z.; Sun, Z.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation was carried out on calcareous nodule layers embed-ded in the loess-paleosol sequences near Baoji city, southern Chinese Loess Plateau. The anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility confirms that calcareous nodules retain the primary sedimentary fabric of original de-posits. Rock magnetic properties demonstrate that calcareous nodules have the same mineralogy and grain sizes as loess-paleosol deposits. Characteristic remanent magnetizations of calcareous nodules have directions consis-tent with those of adjacent loess and paleosol deposits. The Punaruu event, previously found from loess deposits in the upper part of loess unit L13 in Weinan, southern Chinese Loess Plateau, is observed at the corresponding stratigraphic level in the calcareous nodule layer. These observations indicate that the calcareous nodule layers preserve primary remanent magnetizations of original deposits before calcification, and that they can contribute to paleomagnetic studies in the Chinese Loess Plateau.

  5. Consequences of hyperconcentrated flow for process-based soil erosion modelling on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.

    2006-01-01

    High sediment concentrations in runoff are a characteristic feature of the Chinese Loess Plateau, and are probably caused by factors such as the occurrence of erodible materials on steep slopes, the characteristics of the loess and the harsh climate that results in low plant cover. When sediment con

  6. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau(1981―2006):Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981―1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990―1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999―2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002―2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation

  7. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau (1981―2006): Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981-1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990-1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999-2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002-2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation construction has

  8. Transformation relationship among different magnetic minerals within loess-paleosol sediments of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The dominant magnetic minerals and carriers of magnetic signals within the Chinese Loess Plateau are magnetite, maghemite, hematite, and goethite. In this study, we investigated the provenance and evo- lution of magnetic minerals during loess pedogenesis, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical and electron microscopy, including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high- resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our results reveal that single- and multiphase mineral assemblages among magnetic minerals in the loess-paleosol sequence have been formed. Partial oxidation of coarse eolian magnetite has occurred in the desert source area and the oxidation degree is enhanced after deposition of the dust upon the Chinese Loess Plateau. This mode of origin resulted in a microtexture consisting of an inner magnetite core surrounded by a hematite rim, and strongly affected the magnetic characteristics of the loess. Goethite coexists with hematite in the loess and paleosol, and nanometer-scale hematite is formed upon goethite rims via dehydration. Our study provides direct mineralogical evidence of the magnetic record and paleoclimatic implications of the loess–paleosol sequence of the Chinese Loess Plateau.

  9. Magnetostratigraphy and palaeoclimate of Red Clay sequences from Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东怀; 刘东生; 陈明扬; 安芷生; John Shaw

    1997-01-01

    Two Red Clay profiles near Xi’ an and Xifeng were investigated in an attempt to determine magne-tostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic records. The results show that aeolian dust accumulation and the related East Asia palaeomonsoon system had begun by 6.5 Ma, and it is deduced that the Tibetan Plateau had reached a significant elevation at that time. The late Tertiary palaeoclimatic history of the Red Clay as reflected by magnetic susceptibility is reconstructed during the period of 6.5-2.5 Ma. Stepwise increase in susceptibility of aeolian dust accumulation appears to have a close correlation to the uplift processes of the Tibetan Plateau. The remarkable increase of aeolian dust accumulation at 3.2 Ma appears to be due to the influence of global ice volume on the East Asia monsoon. Palaeomonsoon variation during the late Tertiary as recorded in the Red Clay sequences from the Chinese Loess Plateau can be regarded as the product of a number of interacting factors, such as uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, sola

  10. Evolution of Chinese mammalian faunal regions and elevation of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhuding; LI Chuankui

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of mammal's high evolutionary rates and sensitivity to environment, this paper deals with the evolutionary history of the Chinese Cenozoic mammals and environmental changes, and explores the relationship between the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the evolution of zoogeographic provinces of China, through studying fossil mammal and the lithological characters of fossil-bearing beds. Evolutionary tendency and distribution of the mammals demonstrate that the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang region, onset of the Asian monsoon and differentiation of the mammalian distribution probably initiated in Oligocene. The elevation of the Plateau seems to be a gradual and relatively stable process, and the uplift not only has resulted in significant environmental changes in Asia, but also caused distinct regional differentiation of mammals in China since the middle Miocene, and as a consequence the modern zoogeographic provinces gradually took shape.

  11. Dust provenance change of Chinese Loess Plateau during the past 7Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanzhi

    2017-04-01

    Aeolian deposit (e.g. loess, paleo-soil and Red Clay) in Chinese Loess Plateau is one of the most valuable climate archives on land in late Cenozoic. Surveying the origin of these aeolian sediments is essential for the interpretation of the climate proxies potentially over the past 25Ma. However, disputes still exist on whether or not there is shift of dust origin in tectonic time scale or glacial-interglacial time scale. Detrital zircon dating method is applied on aeolian sediments of Lantian site in south part of Chinese Loess Plateau, which is at the foot of Qinling Mountain in order to reveal the provenance evolution during the past 7Ma. The results indicate that the composition of aeolian sediments shifted at around 2.6 Ma. Detrital zircon age reveals that the tertiary Red Clay is mainly derived from the North Tibet Plateau and Qinling Mountain. This indicates that the origin area for the tertiary Red Clay is relative local. Quaternary Loess of this site is basically mixture of sediments from North Tibet Plateau and Gobi Altay Mountains. The composition of local sediments from Qinling Mountains is relatively low. Sediment in L1 layer contains the highest proportions of Gobi Altay Mountains material, which show completely different pattern from other loess sediments. Besides this, there are no consistent composition shifts between glacial and interglacial periods. The time of dust origin shift is in coincident with initiation of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet. This suggests that the onset of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet enhanced the surface erosion of the area of Gobi Altay Mountains. This process contributed more detrital material to be blown to the air. Furthermore, enhanced winter monsoon played an important role in the transportation of dust material. However, the reason for the unique characteristics of loess in L1 is not clear.

  12. Reworked loess and Yellow River sediment as the main sources of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Alexis; Pullen, Alex; Kapp, Paul; Abell, jordan; Giesler, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    The Quaternary aeolian dust deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau have been attributed to spring and winter monsoonal storms sweeping clastic material from the deserts of the Asian interior into central China. Recent U-Pb geochronological studies of aeolian zircons have emphasized the existence of two major wind pathways: from the north, throughout the Tengger, and Mu Us deserts during interglacials, and from the west, through the Qaidam Basin during glacials. Others have emphasized the importance of Yellow River supply in the Loess Plateau sediment budget. However, tracking dust source regions through U-Pb dating is particularly complex, given the paucity of data in many potential sources regions and the similar ages peak in the age probability distributions of western and Northern deserts in central China. Here, we present an extended dataset of U-Pb ages covering all the potential provenance areas for the aeolian dust in central Asia and including 2400 new ages from loess, paleosols, modern sand dunes and fluvial deposits. We then propose a new mixture modeling technique to statistically address the contribution of these different sources to the Loess Plateau sedimentary budget. Our contribution estimates indicate that aeolian supply is dominated (60-70 %) by reworking of Yellow River sediment. Moreover, evidence of Qaidam Basin sourced zircons (15-20 %) in both loess (glacial) and paleosols (interglacial) layers corroborates the existence of an erosive wind pathway from the west during glacials and implies that a substantial portion of the interglacial dust is recycled from older glacial loess. We propose that sediment reworking of Yellow River sediment and older loesses by wind homogenizes aeolian zircon populations on the Chinese Loess Plateau toward a glacial provenance due to higher dust accumulation rates during glacials. These findings indicate that the Loess Plateau has evolved as a more dynamic landform than previous thought where wind deflation

  13. A long-term increasing aridification and cooling trend at the Chinese Loess Plateau during the Pliocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Liu, X; Chen, Q.; Chang, L.; Niu, H.; Li, P.; Guo, H.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The development of Asian aridification and cooling is a research hotspot nowadays. Loess-Red Clay sequence in the Chinese Loss Plateau provides an excellent terrestrial archive of such paleoclimatic evolution. This paper applied the magnetic “unmixing” technique to isolate the magnetic components of

  14. Evidence of a humid mid-Holocene in the western part of Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Chengbang; FENG Zhaodong; TANG Lingyu

    2003-01-01

    Field works show that the wetland/swamp layers were distributed ubiquitously in the western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Universality of the wetland/swampy layer and the consistency of the age reveal that the layer was developed under the humid climatic condition. Dated between 9 and 3.8 kaBP, the wetland/swampy layer is full of aquatic mollusks and has the highest tree and shrub pollen, indicating a humid mid-Holocene. Variations of grain size suggest that winter monsoon weakened during 9-3.8 kaBP while climate change to humid and vegetation cover increased from 9 kaBP onward. After 5.9 kaBP, the humidity declined gradually. In 3.8 kaBP, summer monsoon sharply retreated, and the climate changed to dry.

  15. Magnetic fabric from red clay sediments in the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hujun; Zhang, Rui; Yue, Leping; Zhang, Yunxiang; Li, Jianxing

    2015-04-27

    Well-distributed eolian red clay in a wide area of northern China is believed to imply the onset of an ancient East Asian monsoon system since Late Miocene. Two continuous red clay sequences spanning the time interval 7-2.6 Ma and 11-2.6 Ma in the Chinese Loess Plateau was investigated to determine the magnetic orientation and grain alignment in the primary fabric of eolian sediments. The north-westerly orientation of the AMS of the eolian red clay sequences parallels the material transportation direction, which differs from the model that suggests that airborne dust from overlying loess-paleosol sequences were transported by the East Asian winter monsoon and fixed by the East Asian summer monsoon. Our results further reveal that present-day climate and air circulation patterns differ from those of the pre-Quaternary, and may provide evidence of a prevailing wind during deposition of the red clay.

  16. Loess magnetic properties in the Ili Basin and their correlation with the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAOTO; Ishikawa

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, magnetoclimatological studies of loess-paleosol sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) have made outstanding achievements, which greatly promote the understanding of East Asian paleomonsoon evolution, inland aridification of Asia, and past global climate changes. Loess magnetic properties of the CLP have been well studied. In contrast, loess magnetic properties from outside the CLP in China have not been fully understood. We have little knowledge about the magnetic properties of loess in the Ili Basin, an intermontane depression of the Tianshan (or Tien Shan) Mountains. Here, we present the results of rock magnetic measurements of the Ili loess including mass magnetic susceptibility (χ) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), high/low temperature dependence of susceptibility (TDS) and hysteresis, as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral analysis. Based on the comparison with loess-paleosol sequences in the CLP (hereafter referred to as the Chinese loess), we discuss the possible magnetic susceptibility enhancement mechanism of the Ili loess. The results show that 1) the total magnetic mineral concentration of the Ili loess is far lower than that of the Chinese loess, though they have similar magnetic mineral compositions. The ferrimagnetic minerals in the Ili loess are magnetite and maghemite, and the antiferromagnetic mineral is hematite; XRD analysis also identifies the presence of ilmenite. The ratio of maghemite is lower in the Ili loess than in the Chinese loess, but the ratios of magnetite and hematite are higher in the Ili loess than in the Chinese loess. 2) The granularity of magnetic minerals in the Ili loess, dominated by pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multi-domain (MD) grains, is generally much coarser than that of the Chinese loess. Ultrafine pedogenically-produced magnetic grains have a very limited contribution to the susceptibility enhancement. Rather, PSD and MD particles of magnetite and maghemite are

  17. Palaeoclimatic records of the loess/palaeosol sequences of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Barbara A.

    2016-12-01

    Whether during past climate stages or into a progressively warming world, changes in precipitation constitute a key component of climatic change. Quantitative proxies for palaeo-precipitation are relatively rare. The magnetic properties of the windblown loess units and interbedded palaeosols of the famous Chinese Loess Plateau provide key palaeo-precipitation data for this populous, monsoon-dominated region. The loess/palaeosol sediments record rainfall totals, directly complementing the oxygen isotope records of Chinese speleothems. These isotopic records predominantly reflect moisture source, and hence large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. The two major Asian monsoon systems appear to display antiphase behaviour. Dominance of the Indian summer monsoon system seems associated with minimum precession/maximum northern hemisphere summer heating; dominance of the East Asian summer monsoons with maximum precession. At ∼2.8 Ma, more intense development of the East Asian winter monsoon initiated major increases in dust deposition rates, and formation of relatively unweathered loess layers. Glacial-stage loess units then interleaved with interglacial/interstadial-stage palaeosols throughout the Quaternary period. Decoupling of the loess/palaeosol rainfall records from the Chinese cave records of moisture source shows that the Indian and East Asian monsoon winds were continuously driven by precessional forcing while summer monsoonal rainfall was greatly suppressed during cool, glacial stages. The timing of these East Asian climatic transitions, the subsequent intensification of northern hemisphere glaciations, and the association between monsoon circulation changes and North Atlantic temperatures, indicates a possibly leading global role for these monsoonal changes via alterations in the poleward distribution of heat and moisture.

  18. Statistical determination of rainfall-runoff erosivity indices for single storms in the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingguo; Chen, Xiaoan

    2015-01-01

    Correlation analysis is popular in erosion- or earth-related studies, however, few studies compare correlations on a basis of statistical testing, which should be conducted to determine the statistical significance of the observed sample difference. This study aims to statistically determine the erosivity index of single storms, which requires comparison of a large number of dependent correlations between rainfall-runoff factors and soil loss, in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Data observed at four gauging stations and five runoff experimental plots were presented. Based on the Meng's tests, which is widely used for comparing correlations between a dependent variable and a set of independent variables, two methods were proposed. The first method removes factors that are poorly correlated with soil loss from consideration in a stepwise way, while the second method performs pairwise comparisons that are adjusted using the Bonferroni correction. Among 12 rainfall factors, I30 (the maximum 30-minute rainfall intensity) has been suggested for use as the rainfall erosivity index, although I30 is equally correlated with soil loss as factors of I20, EI10 (the product of the rainfall kinetic energy, E, and I10), EI20 and EI30 are. Runoff depth (total runoff volume normalized to drainage area) is more correlated with soil loss than all other examined rainfall-runoff factors, including I30, peak discharge and many combined factors. Moreover, sediment concentrations of major sediment-producing events are independent of all examined rainfall-runoff factors. As a result, introducing additional factors adds little to the prediction accuracy of the single factor of runoff depth. Hence, runoff depth should be the best erosivity index at scales from plots to watersheds. Our findings can facilitate predictions of soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. Our methods provide a valuable tool while determining the predictor among a number of variables in terms of correlations.

  19. One-Third Magnetization Plateau with a Preceding Novel Phase in Volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Yoshida, M.; Nawa, K.; Jeong, M.; Krämer, S.; Horvatić, M.; Berthier, C.; Takigawa, M.; Akaki, M.; Miyake, A.; Tokunaga, M.; Kindo, K.; Yamaura, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Hiroi, Z.

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized high-quality single crystals of volborthite, a seemingly distorted kagome antiferromagnet, and carried out high-field magnetization measurements up to 74 T and V 51 NMR measurements up to 30 T. An extremely wide 1 /3 magnetization plateau appears above 28 T and continues over 74 T at 1.4 K, which has not been observed in previous studies using polycrystalline samples. NMR spectra reveal an incommensurate order (most likely a spin-density wave order) below 22 T and a simple spin structure in the plateau phase. Moreover, a novel intermediate phase is found between 23 and 26 T, where the magnetization varies linearly with magnetic field and the NMR spectra indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of the internal magnetic field. This sequence of phases in volborthite bears a striking similarity to those of frustrated spin chains with a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor coupling J1 competing with an antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor coupling J2 .

  20. Accumulation and erosion of aeolian sediments in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and implications for provenance to the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Jun; Xiao, Guoqiao; E, Chongyi; Li, Xiangzhong; Lai, Zhongping; Yu, Lupeng; Wang, Zhong

    2017-03-01

    The northern and northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is regarded as one important source region of the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). However, how the fine grain sediments in this region were transported to the CLP remains debatable. In this study, we dated aeolian sediments, alluviums, beach sediments, and sand wedges in the northeastern QTP using optical dating, combined with previously reported ages, explored the aeolian sediment deposition patterns in this region. The dating results shown that aeolian sediments mainly accumulated during the marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 and since the last deglaciation, alluvial sediments mainly deposited during the middle to late MIS 3 (between ∼40 ka and 22 ka), and sand wedges formed during the MIS 4 and MIS 2 cold intervals. Based on the sedimentary stratigraphic characteristics and existing optical dating chronologies, we propose that fine grain sediments in the northern and northeastern QTP were eroded and carried to the CLP by westerly wind during last glacial and stadial cold stages. However, during last interglacial and interstadial warm stages, aeolian sediments deflated from western barren lands and deserts were mainly trapped in the northeastern QTP, and some were transported to the Alax arid zone or Yinchuan-Hetao plain by rivers that flow out of QTP, then transported to the CLP by northwesterly Asian winter monsoon (AWM). This cold stage westerly wind transport, warm stage rivers plus AWM transport pattern has existed at least since the late middle Pleistocene.

  1. Tetraether biomarker records from a loess-paleosol sequence in the western Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong eJia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous occurrence of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs in soils and their ability to record temperature and environmental changes offer the prospect of independently reconstructing continental paleotemperature and paleoenvironment from the loess-paleosol sequences (LPS from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP. In this study we present records of GDGT-derived proxies for the last 70 kyr from the Yuanbao LPS, western CLP. Temperature record reconstructed from the cyclization and methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT-CBT displays that the onset of deglacial warming at ~20 kyr before present (BP precedes the strengthening of summer monsoon at ~15 kyr BP, which is in agreement in timing with previous MBT-CBT temperature records from the southeastern CLP. The maximal deglacial warming of ~10 °C is slightly higher than those in the southeastern CLP, perhaps due to the higher latitude and farther inland of the study site. The Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether (BIT index shows higher values (0.87–0.96 range, 0.93 average in the glacial loess and lower values (0.76–0.91 range, 0.83 average in the Holocene paleosols, with a steady decreasing trend since the early Holocene. The decreasing trend could suggest enhanced Thaumarchaeota relative to GDGT producing bacteria activity since the early Holocene, but other possibilities, such as preferential degradation of isoprenoid GDGTs or upward increase in living archaea relative to bacteria in the paleosol profile, cannot be fully excluded. Our results thus demonstrate the need of future study on microbial community structure in soil column and differential degradation of GDGT molecules.

  2. Uranium comminution age tested by the eolian deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Liu, Xiangjun; Li, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Zhao, Liang; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Jun; Li, Gaojun

    2017-06-01

    The 234U/238U ratio of fine particles can record the time since their separation from bed rock because of the disruption of uranium series equilibrium introduced by the recoil of daughter 234Th nuclei (precursor of 234U) out of particle surfaces during the decay of 238U. Application of the uranium comminution age method, which has great potential in tracing production and transportation of sediments is however complicated by the weathering dissolution of 234U depleted particle surfaces, the difficulty in determining the fraction of recoiled nuclei, and the precipitation of exogenetic 234U. Here we minimize these complications by using a newly developed precise size separation using electroformed sieve, and a chemical protocol that involves reductive and oxidative leaching. Eolian deposits collected from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were used to test the validity of our method. Possible effects of weathering dissolution were also evaluated by comparing samples with different weathering intensities. The results show decreasing 234U/238U ratios in fine eolian particles with increasing sedimentation age, agreeing well with the theoretical prediction of the comminution age model. This successful application of the uranium comminution age approach to the eolian deposits on the CLP is also aided by a stable dust source, the low weathering intensity, the lack of consolidation, and the well-defined age model of the deposits. A transportation time of 242 ± 18 ka was calculated for the eolian deposits, which indicates a long residence time, and thus extensive mixing, of the dust particles in source regions, partly explaining the stable and homogeneous composition of the eolian dust over glacial-interglacial cycles.

  3. A 1.5 Ma sporopollen record of paleoecologic environment evolution in the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fuli; FANG Xiaomin; MA Yuzhen; AN Zhisheng; LI Jijun

    2004-01-01

    A 1.5 Ma sporopollen record was obtained from a continuous loess-paleosol sequence at Chaona in the central Chinese Loess Plateau. It shows that (1) arid herbs of largely Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae and arbors of mainly Pinus, Betula and Quercus dominate loess and paleosol, respectively, reflecting cycles of cold-dry and warm-humid conditions of glaciation and interglaciation; (2) that similar vegetation pattern and cold-dry condition were found in times of unusual thick and coarse loesses L9 and L15, which have been regarded as two extremely cold and dry times as indicated by inorganic climatic proxies; and (3) that shifts of vegetations from earlier forest-steppe to open-forest and steppe and then to steppe were found at 0.95 and 0.5 Ma, implying a stepwise of drying of the Loess Plateau in the Quaternary.

  4. An 8.1Ma calcite record of Asian summer monsoon evolution on the Chinese central Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiuLing; FANG XiaoMin; AN ZhiSheng; HAN WenXia; WANG Xin; BAI Yan; HONG Ye

    2007-01-01

    Carbonates in loess-red clay sequences consist mainly of calcite and dolomite.The EDTA analysis of carbonates in different size fractions and magnetic susceptibility reveal that calcite is a sensitive index of summer monsoon.The chemical analysis of carbonates and calcite from an 8.1 Ma loess-red clay sequence at Chaona on the Chinese central Loess Plateau shows that the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon experienced four stages,namely 8.1-5.5 Ma,5.5-2.8 Ma,2.8-1.5 Ma and 1.5-0 Ma,with increasing intensification and fluctuation,suggesting a possible combining impacts of uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global changes on the Asian summer monsoon.

  5. An 8.1Ma calcite record of Asian summer monsoon evolution on the Chinese central Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbonates in loess-red clay sequences consist mainly of calcite and dolomite. The EDTA analysis of carbonates in different size fractions and magnetic susceptibility reveal that calcite is a sensitive index of summer monsoon. The chemical analysis of carbonates and calcite from an 8.1 Ma loess-red clay sequence at Chaona on the Chinese central Loess Plateau shows that the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon experienced four stages, namely 8.1―5.5 Ma, 5.5―2.8 Ma, 2.8―1.5 Ma and 1.5―0 Ma, with increasing intensification and fluctuation, suggesting a possible combining impacts of uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global changes on the Asian summer monsoon.

  6. Very early multi-color observations of the plateau phase of GRB 041006 afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Qiu, Y L; Hu, J; Kuo, P H; Tamagawa, T; Ip, W H; Kinoshita, D; Fukushi, H; Isogai, M; Miyata, T; Nakada, Y; Aoki, T; Soyano, T; Tarusawa, K; Mito, H; Onda, K; Ibrahimov, M; Pozanenko, A; Makishima, K

    2006-01-01

    Observations of the optical afterglow of GRB 041006 with the Kiso Observatory 1.05 m Schmidt telescope, the Lulin Observatory 1.0 m telescope and the Xinglong Observatory 0.6 m telescope. Three-bands (B, V and R) of photometric data points were obtained on 2004 October 6, 0.025-0.329 days after the burst. These very early multi band light curves imply the existence of a color dependent plateau phase. The B-band light curve shows a clear plateau at around 0.03 days after the burst. The R band light curve shows the hint of a plateau, or a possible slope change, at around 0.1 days after the burst. The overall behavior of these multi-band light curves may be interpreted in terms of the sum of two separate components, one showing a monotonic decay the other exhibiting a rising and a falling phase, as described by the standard afterglow model.

  7. Vegetation evolution on the central Chinese Loess Plateau since late Quaternary evidenced by elemental carbon isotopic composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; SHEN ChengDe; ZHENG HongBo; ZHAO MeiXun; SUN YanMin

    2009-01-01

    There are many controversial issues in loess studies such as natural vegetation types on the Chinese Loess Plateau during the historical periods and the spatial and temporal evolution of C3/C4 plants.Elemental carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cec) in the loess section may offer new evidence for these problems. Elemental carbon (EC) is produced by incomplete combustion of vegetation, and its carbon isotopic composition has a very small difference from that of the formal vegetation, then δ13Cec can be used as a record to recover the changes of vegetation. Elemental carbon was extracted by applying the oxidation method from the loess-paleosol sequence in the central Chinese Loess Plateau, and its carbon isotope composition was analyzed by the isotope mass spectrometer. The results showed that the vegetation in this region was a mixed type of C3 and C4 plants, dominated with C3 plants in most of the time. Since late Quaternary, C3/C4 plants may not follow a simple glacial-interglacial cycle mode on the Chinese Loess Plateau, but showing fluctuations. C3 plants increased gradually in L4 period, and more C3 plants occurred during S3 period, and C4 plants increased again during L3-L2 periods, after that, C3plants dominated again during S1-S0 periods. During periods of paleosol development, C3 plants were abundant in S3 and S1, and there were more C4 plants in S2 and S0. During periods of loess sedimentation, there were more C3 plants in L4 and L1, and there were more C4 plants in L3 and L2. On the orbital timescale, the vegetation variations revealed by δ13Cec record are consistent with the results of pollen data and also similar to the results obtained by organic carbon isotopic composition since the last glacial period.

  8. A study of gamma ray bursts with afterglow plateau phases associated with supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Nagataki, S.; Maeda, K.; Postnikov, S.; Pian, E.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The analysis of 176 gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow plateaus observed by Swift from GRBs with known redshifts revealed that the subsample of long GRBs associated with supernovae (LONG-SNe), comprising 19 events, presents a very high correlation coefficient between the luminosity at the end of the plateau phase LX(Ta) = La and the end time of the plateau . Furthermore, these SNe Ib/c associated with GRBs also obey the peak-magnitude stretch relation, which is similar to that used to standardize the SNe Ia. Aims: Our aim is to investigate a category of GRBs with plateau and associated with SNe to compare our correlation for this sample with the correlation for long GRBs for which no associated SN has been observed (hereafter LONG-NO-SNe, 128 GRBs) and to check whether there is a difference among these subsamples. Methods: We first adopted a nonparametric statistical method to take redshift evolution into account and to check if and how this effect may steepen the slope for the LONG-NO-SNe sample. This procedure is necessary because this sample is observed at much higher redshift than the GRB-SNe sample. Therefore, removing selection bias is the first step before any comparison among samples observed at different redshifts could be properly performed. Then, we applied the T-student test to evaluate a statistical difference between the slopes of the two samples. Results: We demonstrate that there is no evolution for the slope of the LONG-NO-SNe sample and no evolution is expected for GRBs observed at small redshifts such as those present in the LONG-SNe sample. The difference between the slope of the LONG-NO-SNe and the slope of LONG-SNe, i.e., those with firm spectral detection of SN components, is statistically significant (P = 0.005). Conclusions: This possibly suggests that, unlike LONG-NO-SNe, LONG-SNe with firm spectroscopic features of the associated SNe might not require a standard energy reservoir in the plateau phase. Therefore, this analysis may

  9. Rock magnetic properties of a loess-paleosol couple along an N-S transect in the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We have conducted detailed rock magnetic experiments on samples from loess unit 8(L8) and paleosol unit 8 (S8) in Jingbian, Yichuan and Duanjiapo loess sections along an N-S transect in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Major rock magnetic results are as follows: ( i ) An increase of high field susceptibility (χh) in the same level of loess or paleosol from north to south is observed, suggesting an enhancement of pedogenesis. (ii) The Iow field susceptibility (χL) in loess unit L8 is almost the same in three sections. In contrast, the χL of paleosol unit S8 in Yichuan is highest, and the χL of Duanjiapo is lower than that in Yichuan section, suggesting that there is not correlation between the χL and the degree of pedogenesis in loess-paleosols. (iii) With the increasing of χL, both the contents of the superparamagnetic (SP) and the ferrimagnetic grains in Ioess-paleosol increase, however, the enhancement of magnetic susceptibility is probably dependent more on the increase of the ferrimagnetic concentration than on a change in the grain size. (iv) The content of the maghemite in loess unit 8 increases from the northern to the southern part of the Chinese Loess Plateau, and is positively correlated with the pedogenesis of the loess.

  10. A comparison of heavy mineral assemblage between the loess and the Red Clay sequences on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenbin; Wang, Zhao; Song, Yougui; Pfaff, Katharina; Luo, Zeng; Nie, Junsheng; Chen, Wenhan

    2016-06-01

    QEMSCAN-based (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) heavy mineral analysis has recently been demonstrated an efficient way to allow a rapid extraction of provenance information from sediments. However, one key issue to correctly obtain a provenance signal using this technique is to clearly separate effects of diagenetic alteration on heavy minerals in sediments, especially in fine-grained loess. Here we compare heavy mineral assemblages of bottom Quaternary loess (L33) and upper Pliocene Red Clay of three sites on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Two sites (Chaona and Luochuan) with similar modern climate conditions show similar heavy mineral assemblages but contain much less of the unstable heavy mineral amphibole than the drier Xifeng site. This result provides strong evidence supporting that climate-caused diagenesis is an important factor controlling heavy mineral assemblages of fine-grained loess. However, heavy mineral assemblages are similar for loess and paleosol layers deposited after 0.5 Ma on the Chinese Loess Plateau regardless of climate differences, suggesting that time is also a factor controlling heavy mineral assemblages of loess and Red Clay. Our high resolution sampling of the upper Miocene-Pliocene Chaona Red Clay sequence reveals similar heavy mineral compositions with a minor amphibole content, different from the drier Xifeng site results of the same age. This result indicates that the monsoonal climate pattern might have been maintained since the late Miocene. Furthermore, it indicates that the heavy mineral method is promising in tracing provenance for sites northwest of the Xifeng site on the Loess Plateau.

  11. Impacts of Re-Vegetation on Surface Soil Moisture over the Chinese Loess Plateau Based on Remote Sensing Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Jiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale re-vegetation supported by the Grain for Green Project (GGP has greatly changed local eco-hydrological systems, with an impact on soil moisture conditions for the Chinese Loess Plateau. It is important to know how, exactly, re-vegetation influences soil moisture conditions, which not only crucially constrain growth and distribution of vegetation, and hence, further re-vegetation, but also determine the degree of soil desiccation and, thus, erosion risk in the region. In this study, three eco-environmental factors, which are Soil Water Index (SWI, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and precipitation, were used to investigate the response of soil moisture in the one-meter layer of top soil to the re-vegetation during the GGP. SWI was estimated based on the backscatter coefficient produced by the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1/2 and Meteorological Operational satellite program (MetOp, while NDVI was derived from SPOT imageries. Two separate periods, which are 1998–2000 and 2008–2010, were selected to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of the chosen eco-environmental factors. It has been shown that the amount of precipitation in 1998–2000 was close to that of 2008–2010 (the difference being 13.10 mm. From 1998–2000 to 2008–2010, the average annual NDVI increased for 80.99%, while the SWI decreased for 72.64% of the area on the Loess Plateau. The average NDVI over the Loess Plateau increased rapidly by 17.76% after the 10-year GGP project. However, the average SWI decreased by 4.37% for two-thirds of the area. More specifically, 57.65% of the area on the Loess Plateau experienced an increased NDVI and decreased SWI, 23.34% of the area had an increased NDVI and SWI. NDVI and SWI decreased simultaneously for 14.99% of the area, and the decreased NDVI and increased SWI occurred at the same time for 4.02% of the area. These results indicate that re-vegetation, human activities, and climate change have

  12. Characteristics of the fifth paleosol complex (S-5) in the southernmost part of the Chinese Loess Plateau and its paleo-environmental significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, C.Q.; Tan, W.F.; Wang, M.K.; Koopal, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    The most prominent paleosol unit in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) is the fifth paleosol complex (S-5) with its well-developed very thick and dark colored pedons. To provide more insight in the formation of S-5 and its environmental significance, the pedogenesis and clay mineral transformation in

  13. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E(sub pk) is approx. m(sub e)C(exp 2). We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Gamma to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (approx. 25%) decrease in Gamma at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R(sub D). Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by approx. m(sub p)/m(sub e) than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R(sub D), the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Gamma and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R(sub D) is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R is approx. equal to R(sub D), the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R is approx. equal to R(sub D), thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  14. The supercritical pile gamma-ray burst model: The GRB afterglow steep decline and plateau phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, J. [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malta, Msida MSD2080 (Malta); Kazanas, D. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mastichiadis, A., E-mail: joseph.sultana@um.edu.mt [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, GR 15783 Zografos (Greece)

    2013-12-10

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the 'supercritical pile' GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E {sub pk} ∼ m{sub e}c {sup 2}. We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Γ to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (∼25%) decrease in Γ at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R{sub D} . Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the 'supercritical pile' is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by ∼m{sub p} /m{sub e} than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R{sub D} , the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Γ and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R{sub D} is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the 'unexpected' XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R ≅ R{sub D} , the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a 'plateau,' consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R ≅ R{sub D} , thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  15. IRSL and post-IR IRSL residual doses recorded in modern dust samples from the Chinese Loess Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Thiel, Christine; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a set of modern/young (0 to about 200 years old) dust samples collected from the Chinese Loess Plateau the bleachability of IRSL measured at 50°C (IR50) and post-IR50 elevated temperature IRSL (measured at 225°C and at 290°C) is investigated by measuring the apparent (residual) doses recorded...... by these signals. Doses recorded by quartz OSL are used as a reference. Allowing for differences in dose rates it seems that both IRSL and post-IR IRSL signals yield residual doses that are significantly larger than the doses measured in quartz. These residual doses can be largely explained by thermal transfer...... caused by preheating. Nevertheless, we advise against the use of a low temperature preheat (...

  16. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-08-01

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100-150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information.

  17. Estimation of soil loss by water erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau using Universal Soil Loss Equation and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, S.; Seitz, F.; Eicker, A.; Güntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Menzel, A.

    2013-06-01

    For the estimation of soil loss by erosion in the strongly affected Chinese Loess Plateau we applied the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) using a number of input data sets (monthly precipitation, soil types, digital elevation model, land cover and soil conservation measures). Calculations were performed in ArcGIS and SAGA. The large-scale soil erosion in the Loess Plateau results in a strong non-hydrological mass change. In order to investigate whether the resulting mass change from USLE may be validated by the gravity field satellite mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), we processed different GRACE level-2 products (ITG, GFZ and CSR). The mass variations estimated in the GRACE trend were relatively close to the observed sediment yield data of the Yellow River. However, the soil losses resulting from two USLE parameterizations were comparatively high since USLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio. Most eroded soil stays in the study area and only a fraction is exported by the Yellow River. Thus, the resultant mass loss appears to be too small to be resolved by GRACE.

  18. Holocene vegetation cover in Qin'an area of western Chinese Loess Plateau revealed by n-alkane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG YanXia; CHEN FaHu; AN ChengBang; XIE ShuCheng; HUANG XianYu

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have found that wetlands prevailed in western Chinese Loess Plateau and pine pollen could reach up to 80% in Qin'an area of the plateau during middle Holocene.It was then deduced that forest vegetation covered Qin'an area in a warm and wet climate during middle Holocene.The proxies of molecule biomarkers from two Holocene sections,a swamp-alluvial loess section and a typical loess-paleosol section are used to reconstruct regional vegetation history.It is found that the heavy-molecular-weight(HMW)homologues of the n-alkanes in all samples exhibit a pronounced odd-over-even predominance,maximizing at C31 and the abundance of the nC27-alkanes is the lowest in nC27,nC29,nC31,i.e.C27<C29<C31,a typical grass n-alkanes model.The results are the same as those of model surface soil samples under grass cover but different from both forest cover and modern pine leaves,which yield preferentially nC29-alkanes peak.It could be jnferred that the area was dominated by grass cover but not forest cover during whole Holocene epoch.The study shows that combining both molecule biomarkers and pollen analysis can avoid the disadvantage of pollen analysis in reconstruction of regional vegetation cover.

  19. Agricultural vulnerability over the Chinese Loess Plateau in response to climate change: Exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueling; Philp, Joshua; Cremades, Roger; Roberts, Anna; He, Liang; Li, Longhui; Yu, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate change can differ spatially has practical significance to sustainable management of agricultural systems worldwide. Accordingly, this study developed a conceptual framework to assess the agricultural vulnerability of 243 rural counties on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Indicators representing the climate/agriculture interface were selected to describe exposure and sensitivity, while stocks of certain capitals were used to describe adaptive capacity. A vulnerability index for each county was calculated and the spatial distribution was mapped. Results showed that exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity occur independently, with most contributing indicator values concentrated in a narrow range after normalization. Within the 49 most vulnerable counties, which together encompass 81 % of the vulnerability index range, 42 were characterized by high exposure and sensitivity but low adaptive capacity. The most vulnerable area was found to be located in the central northeast-southwest belt of Loess Plateau. Adaptation measures for both ecological restoration and economic development are needed and potential adaptation options need further investigation.

  20. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon and provenances of Red Clay in the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hujun; Xie, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2017-05-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), which is located in the central part of China, mainly contains two sequences: the Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence and the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from the Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences indicate that the current spatial pattern of central Asian aridification was largely established during the early Quaternary. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from the underlying Red Clay sequences demonstrate that the northern source regions were important contributors for the dust since the late Miocene, except for the periods of ∼8 Ma and ∼5.5 to ∼4 Ma. These two periods correspond to increased and decreased dust deposition in the North Pacific, respectively, ascribed to the late Miocene aridification of the Qaidam Basin (in the west of the CLP) and the early Pliocene aridification of the Tarim Basin (in the west of the CLP). We attribute the increase of the Qaidam Basin-derived North Pacific dust fluxes to the uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau. Such uplift also controlled the climatic and environmental changes in central Asian during the late Miocene. This study highlights the dynamical process of the central Asian aridification during the late Miocene-Pliocene.

  1. Get Ready for the Second Phase of Chinese Military Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Get Ready for the Second Phase of Chinese Military Reform David M...and Force Composition Reform,” a very good indicator that the second phase of Chinese military reform is about to unfold in 2017.  The focus of the...Summary  On 2-3 December 2016, Xi Jinping convened and chaired the “Central Military Commission Work Conference on Armed Forces Scale, Structure

  2. Love wave phase velocity models of the southeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau from a dense seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengqin; Jia, Ruizhi; Fu, Yuanyuan V.

    2017-08-01

    Love wave dispersion maps across the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are obtained using earthquake data recorded by the temporary ChinArray and permanent China Digital Seismic Array. Fundamental mode Love wave phase velocity curves are measured by inverting Love wave amplitude and phase with the two-plane-wave method. The phase velocity maps with resolution better than 150 km are presented at periods of 20-100 s, which is unprecedented in the study area. The maps agree well with each other and show clear correlations with major tectonic structures. The Love wave phase velocity could provide new information about structures in the crust and upper mantle beneath the southeast margin of Tibetan Plateau, like the radial anisotropy.

  3. Magnetostratigraphic age and monsoonal evolution recorded by the thickest Quaternary loess deposit of the Lanzhou region, western Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jijun; Guo, Benhong; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Xiaomiao; Ye, Xiyan; Yu, Hao; Liu, Jia; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Shengda; Song, Chunhui; Hui, Zhengchuang; Peng, Tingjiang

    2016-05-01

    The loess-paleosol sequences of the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) are major paleoclimatic archives which document the evolution of the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and changes in the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. However, the mechanisms regulating the trend of EAM variations on a tectonic scale are unclear. The loess deposits of the western CLP, which have a close relationship with tectonics and climate, are much better-suited to exploring these mechanisms than those of the central CLP. However, studies of long-term EAM evolution from the western CLP have been hindered by the lack of long, accurately-dated sequences with high sediment accumulation rates. Here, we address this problem via high resolution magnetostratigraphic, magnetic susceptibility and grain-size analyses of a 416.2 m-long drill core located at Xijin Village, near Lanzhou. Paleomagnetic dating indicates that the basal age of the Xijin loess is ∼2.2 Ma. The χ and grain-size records reveal that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) strengthened synchronously at ∼1.24 Ma. Subsequently, during interglacial periods, the EASM began to penetrate, and then dominate, in the Lanzhou region. This was followed by two stepwise uptrends, commencing at ∼0.87 and ∼0.62 Ma, which resulted in an increasingly moist interglacial climate in the region. We suggest that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau was largely responsible for these three stepwise enhancements of the EASM. Overall, however, the long-term trend of strengthening in EAWM in the area may have been primarily caused by long-term global cooling from the Late Pliocene onwards.

  4. Detection of Catchment-Scale Gully-Affected Areas Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Loess Plateau suffers from serious gully erosion induced by natural and human causes. Gully-affected areas detection is the basic work in this region for gully erosion assessment and monitoring. For the first time, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was applied to extract gully features in this region. Two typical catchments in Changwu and Ansai were selected to represent loess tableland and loess hilly regions, respectively. A high-powered quadrocopter (md4-1000 equipped with a non-metric camera was used for image acquisition. InPho and MapMatrix were applied for semi-automatic workflow including aerial triangulation and model generation. Based on the stereo-imaging and the ground control points, the highly detailed digital elevation models (DEMs and ortho-mosaics were generated. Subsequently, an object-based approach combined with the random forest classifier was designed to detect gully-affected areas. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of segmentation strategy and feature selection. Results showed that vertical and horizontal root-mean-square errors were below 0.5 and 0.2 m, respectively, which were ideal for the Loess Plateau region. The overall extraction accuracy in Changwu and Ansai achieved was 84.62% and 86.46%, respectively, which indicated the potential of the proposed workflow for extracting gully features. This study demonstrated that UAV can bridge the gap between field measurement and satellite-based remote sensing, obtaining a balance in resolution and efficiency for catchment-scale gully erosion research.

  5. Precipitation phase separation schemes in the Naqu River basin, eastern Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Yan, Denghua; Qin, Tianling; Weng, Baisha; Lu, Yajing; Dong, Guoqiang; Gong, Boya

    2016-11-01

    Precipitation phase has a profound influence on the hydrological processes in the Naqu River basin, eastern Tibetan plateau. However, there are only six meteorological stations with precipitation phase (rainfall/snowfall/sleet) before 1979 within and around the basin. In order to separate snowfall from precipitation, a new separation scheme with S-shaped curve of snowfall proportion as an exponential function of daily mean temperature was developed. The determinations of critical temperatures in the single/two temperature threshold (STT/TTT2) methods were explored accordingly, and the temperature corresponding to the 50 % snowfall proportion (SP50 temperature) is an efficiently critical temperature for the STT, and two critical temperatures in TTT2 can be determined based on the exponential function and SP50 temperature. Then, different separation schemes were evaluated in separating snowfall from precipitation in the Naqu River basin. The results show that the S-shaped curve methods outperform other separation schemes. Although the STT and TTT2 slightly underestimate and overestimate the snowfall when the temperature is higher and colder than SP50 temperature respectively, the monthly and annual separation snowfalls are generally consistent with the observed snowfalls. On the whole, S-shaped curve methods, STT, and TTT2 perform well in separating snowfall from precipitation with the Pearson correlation coefficient of annual separation snowfall above 0.8 and provide possible approaches to separate the snowfall from precipitation for hydrological modelling.

  6. Characters of the Plateau of Methanol Increment in Frontal Analysis in Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG,Xin-Du(耿信笃); REGNIER,Fred E(弗莱德 依 瑞格涅尔)

    2002-01-01

    With insulin methanol-water, and the ion-pairing agent, hydrochloric acid and trifiuroacetic acid (TFA), the character of the first plateau (FP) on the elution curve of frontal analysis in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was investigated by on-line UV-spectrometry and identified with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and mass spectrometry.The proffie of the FP is the same as that of a usual elution curve of methanol in frontal analysis (FA). When the insulin concentration was limited to a certain range, the height of the FP was found to be proportional to the insulin concentration in mobile phase and its length companying to shorten. The FP profile on the intersection of two tangents reflects the components of the microstructure in the depth direction of the bonded stationary phase layer and the desorption dynamics of the displaced components. The displaced methanol was quantitatively determined by NMR and on-line UV spectrometries. TFA with high UV absorbance can not be used as on ionpairing agent for the investigation of the FP in RPLC, but it can be used as a good marker to investigate the complicated transfer process of components in the stationary pdase in RPLC. A stoichiometric displacement process between solute and solvent was proved to be valid in both usual and FA in RPLC. From the point of view of dynamics of mass transfer,the solutes can only contact to the surface of stationary phase in usual RPLC, while solute can penetrate into it in FA of RPLC.The solvation of insulin in methanol and water solution as an example indicating the usage of the FP in the FA was also investigated in this paper.

  7. Variations in vegetation cover and topography control gully density and sediment production on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    The factors controlling topsoil erosion rates are relatively well understood. This explains why topsoil erosion rates on the Chinese loess plateau (CLP) can be relatively accurately estimated using a combination of empirical data and relatively simple models (Zhao et al., in press). This is, however, not the case for non-topsoil erosion (sediment production by gullying and landslides): while it is well known that these processes produce significant amounts of sediment, the factors controlling their intensity on the CLP are far less understood. In this study, the contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production on the CLP was investigated. We estimated non-topsoil erosion rates (ENT) by making the difference between measured total sediment yield and the estimated topsoil erosion in 46 gauged catchments on the CLP for the period 1950-1970, when soil conservation measures were mostly absent in the area. We tested an extensive set of environmental variables related to topography, climate and the impact of land use for correlation Our results showed that the average catchment erosion rate (E) and ENT between 1950 and 1970 were 68.29 tha-1yr-1 and 58.02 tha-1yr-1 respectively. The sediment contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production ranged between 0 and 97% with a mean of 70%. Both E and ENT were significantly related with river slope, land use, NDVI, and gully density. However, gully density was the only variable explaining a major part of the variance in both E (60%) and ENT (57%). Gully density itself was significantly related to topography and vegetation cover but not to precipitation. Importantly, gully density was not only related to overall slope steepness, but also the river gradients and the hypsometric integral, suggesting that not only land cover disturbance but also tectonic uplift may control gully density and erosion rates. The absence of a clear climate signal, both with respect to the variation in gully density and in

  8. [Analysis of sap flow characteristics of the Chinese pine in typical Loess Plateau Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han-dan; Wei, Wei; Chen, Li-ding; Yu, Yang; Yang, Lei; Jia, Fu-yan

    2015-01-01

    Transpiration is one of the major processes of water consumption. It is significant for nutrients transportation, plant development, drought stress alleviation and micro-climate amelioration. In this study, the artificially planted Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) was selected as an example to explore its transpiration characteristics, water-use strategies and the adaptability of the living environment in a typical loess hilly area of China. The results showed that: the sap flow rates of Chinese pine varied obviously in different seasons. The minimum sap flow rate occurred in April, followed by October, September and August, which was 0.024, 0.057, 0.062 and 0.071 mL x (cm2 x min)(-1), respectively. The rule of the diurnal variation of sap flow rate was regular, higher in daytime than at night. The flow rate was low during nighttime, but not zero. In rainfall events, the proportion of sap flow during nighttime was significantly increased, which was 3.9 times of that on sunny days, with 31.8% decrease in daytime. Chinese pine had great adaptability to unexpected climates. The variation trend of flow rate in the clod was similar to that on rainy days. The sap flow velocity was in great relevance with meteorological factors, with a declining order of solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, relative humidity, and atmospheric temperature.

  9. Time-Transgressive Nature of the Magnetic Susceptibility Record across the Chinese Loess Plateau at the Pleistocene/Holocene Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Dong

    Full Text Available The loess stratigraphic boundary at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition defined by the magnetic susceptibility (MS has previously been assumed to be synchronous with the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 2/1 boundary, and approximately time-synchronous at different sections across the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP. However, although this assumption has been used as a basis for proxy-age model of Chinese loess deposits, it has rarely been tested by using absolute dating methods. In this study, we applied a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR protocol to the 45-63 μm quartz grain-size fraction to derive luminescence ages for the last glacial and Holocene sections of three loess sections on a transect from southeast to northwest across the CLP. Based on the 33 closely spaced optically stimulated luminescence (OSL samples from the three sections, OSL chronologies were established using a polynomial curve fit at each section. Based on the OSL chronology, the timing of the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, as defined by rapid changes in MS values, is dated at ~10.5 ka, 8.5 ka and 7.5 ka in the Yaoxian section, Jingchuan and Huanxian sections respectively. These results are clearly inconsistent with the MIS 2/1 boundary age of 12.05 ka, and therefore we conclude that the automatic correlation of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, as inferred from the MS record, with the MIS 2/1 boundary is incorrect. The results clearly demonstrate that the marked changes in MS along the southeast to northwest transect are time-transgressive among the different sites, with the timing of significant paleosol development as indicated by the MS record being delayed by 3-4 ka in the northwest compared to the southeast. Our results suggest that this asynchronous paleosol development during the last deglacial was caused by the delayed arrival of the summer monsoon in the northwest CLP compared to the southeast.

  10. Sap flow in response to rainfall pulses for two shrub species in the semiarid Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shengqi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall pulses can significantly drive the evolution of the structure and function of semiarid ecosystems, and understanding the mechanisms that underlie the response of semiarid plants to rainfall is the key to understanding the responses of semi–arid ecosystems to global climatic change. We measured sap flow in the branches and stems of shrubs (Caragana korshinskii Kom. and Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. using sap flow gauges, and studied the response of sap flow density to rainfall pulses using the “threshold–delay” model in the Chinese Loess Plateau. The results showed that the sap flow began about 1 h earlier, and increased twofold after rainfall, compared to its pre-rainfall value. The sap flow increased significantly with increasing rainfall classes, then gradually decreased. The response of sap flow was different among rainfall, species, position (branch and stem during the pulse period, and the interactive effects also differed significantly (P < 0.0001. The response pattern followed the threshold–delay model, with lower rainfall thresholds of 5.2, 5.5 mm and 0.7, 0.8 mm of stem and branch for C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides, demonstrating the importance of small rainfall events for plant growth and survival in semi–arid regions.

  11. Drought variation of western Chinese Loess Plateau since 1568 and its linkages with droughts in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Keyan; Guo, Zhengtang; Chen, Deliang; Linderholm, Hans W.; Li, Jinbao; Zhou, Feifei; Guo, Guoyang; Dong, Zhipeng; Li, Yingjun

    2017-03-01

    Understanding long-term drought variations in the past can help to evaluate ongoing and future hydroclimate change in the arid western Chinese Loess Plateau (WCLP), a region with increasing demand for water resources due to the increasing population and socioeconomic activities. Here we present a new tree-ring chronology inform the WCLP, which shows coherent interannual variations with tree-ring chronologies from 7 neighboring areas across the WCLP, suggesting a common regional climate control over tree growth. However, considerable differences are observed among their interdecadal variations, which are likely due to growth disturbances at interdecadal timescales. To deal with this issue, we use a frequency based method to develop a composite tree-ring chronology from 401 tree-ring series from these 8 sites, which shows more pronounced interdecadal variability than a chronology developed using traditional methods. The composite tree-ring chronology is used to reconstruct the annual precipitation from previous August to current July from 1568 to 2012, extending about 50 years longer than the previous longest tree-ring reconstruction from the region. The driest epoch of our reconstruction is found in the 1920s-1930s, which matches well with droughts recorded in historical documents. Over the past four centuries, a strong resemblance between drought variability in the WCLP and western North America (WNA) is evident on multidecadal timescales, but this relationship breaks down on timescales shorter than about 50 years.

  12. A review of recent advances in red-clay environmental magnetism and paleoclimate history on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng eNie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The red-clay sequence on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP was deposited during the late Miocene-Pliocene and is encoded with important information of past climate changes. However, it has received much less study in comparison to the overlying Pleistocene loess-paleosol sequence. In this paper, we review recent progress in characterizing the environmental magnetic parameter-based paleoclimate history recorded by the red-clay sequence. Several key conclusions are as follows. 1 the red clay and the loess-paleosol sequences have similar magnetic enhancement mechanisms but magnetic minerals in the red clay sequence have experienced a higher degree of oxidation than in the loess-paleosol sequence. 2 The CLP experienced a cooling and wetting trend from 4.5 to 2.7 Ma, caused by ice sheet expansion and East Asian summer monsoon intensification, respectively. 3 The above conclusions benefit from backfield remanence curve unmixing and comparison of magnetic grain size/concentration records, which are particularly useful in separating the temperature from the precipitation signal. A clear need in future studies is to explore the concentration and the grain size variations of hematite and goethite in the red-clay sequence and their formation mechanisms. The payback would be a clear understanding of climate history during the late Miocene-Pliocene, a possible analog for future warmer climate.

  13. Comparison of time/phase lags in the hard state and plateau state of GRS 1915+105

    CERN Document Server

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J S; Misra, Ranjeev; Uttley, Phil

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex behavior of energy- and frequency-dependent time/phase lags in the plateau state and the radio-quiet hard state of GRS 1915+105. In our timing analysis, we find that when the source is faint in the radio, QPOs are observed above 2 Hz and typically exhibit soft lags (soft photons lag hard photons), whereas QPOs in the radio-bright plateau state are found below 2.2 Hz and consistently show hard lags. The phase lag at the QPO frequency is strongly anti-correlated with the QPO frequency, changing sign at 2.2 Hz. However, the phase lag at the frequency of the first harmonic is positive and nearly independent of frequency at at ~0.172 rad, regardless of the radio emission. The lag-energy dependence at the first harmonic is also independent of radio flux. However, the lags at the QPO frequency are negative at all energies during the radio-quiet state, but lags at the QPO frequency during the plateau state are positive at all energies and show a 'reflection-type' evolution of the lag-energy...

  14. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration: Synthetic effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Qiqi; Wang, Ying; Liu, Qingfang; Du, Lanlan; Zhao, Man; Gao, Xin; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization has the potential to alter soil respiration temperature sensitivity (Q10) by changing soil biochemical and crop physiological process. A four-year field experiment was conducted to determine how Q10 responded to these biochemical and physiological changes in rain-fed agro-ecosystems on the semi-arid Loess Plateau. Soil respiration, as well as biotic and abiotic factors were measured in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with three fertilization treatments: (no fertilization (CK), 160kgNhm(-1) (N), and 160kgNha(-1) with 39kgPha(-1) (N+P). Mean annual soil respiration rate (calculated by averaging the four years) in the N treatment and N+P treatment was 18% and 48% higher than that in the CK treatment, respectively; and it was increased by 26% (14%-48%) in the N+P treatment as compared with that in the N treatment. The decrease of Q10 in the N and N+P treatments against the CK treatment was not stable for each year, ranging from 0.01 to 0.28. The maximum decrease of Q10 in the N and N+P treatments was 10% and 15% in 2014-2015, while in other years the decrease of Q10 was numerical but not significant. Soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) was increased by 10% and 50%, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was increased by 6% and 21%, and photosynthesis rate was increased ranging from 6% to 33% with N and N+P fertilization. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were significantly higher by 32.9%-54.1% in N addition soils (N and N+P) compared to CK treatment, whereas additional P application into soils increased the relative abundance of the family Micrococcaceae, Nocardioidaceae and Chitinophagaceae. Soil respiration was positively related to SMBC, DOC and photosynthesis rate (paffect soil respiration and temperature sensitivity differently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Reconstruction of Temperature and δ18O Data Since the Last Glacial Maximum Using Soil and Gastropods from the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, B.; Mering, J. A.; Eagle, R.; Bricker, H. L.; Davila, N.; Trewman, S.; Burford, S.; Li, G.; Tripati, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The climate of the Chinese Loess Plateau is affected by the East Asian Monsoon, an important water source for over a billion people. We are examining how temperature and hydrology on the Loess Plateau has changed since the Last Glacial Maximum (18,000 - 23,000 years before the present) in response to insolation, deglaciation, and rising levels of greenhouse gases. Specifically, we are reconstructing temperature and meteoric δ18O through paired clumped and oxygen isotope analyses performed on carbonate minerals. Clumped isotope thermometry—the use of 13C—18O bond frequency in carbonates—is a novel geochemical proxy that provides constraints on mineral formation temperatures and can be combined with carbonate δ18O to quantify meteoric δ18O. We have measured a suite of nodular loess concretions and gastropod shells from the modern as well as the Last Glacial Maximum from 15 sites across the Chinese Loess Plateau. These observations constrain spatial variations in temperature and precipitation, which in turn will provide key constraints on models that simulate changes in regional climates and monsoon intensity over the last 20,000 years.

  16. Variations of organic carbon isotopic composition and its environmental significance during the last glacial on western Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fahu; RAO Zhiguo; ZHANG Jiawu; JIN Ming; MA Jianying

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution loess section in the western Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanbao Section,was sampled for organic carbon isotopic analyses.The soil organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) varied between -22.6‰ and -27.5‰ during the last glacial at the section. During the last interstadial, the δ13Corg values were more negative than those in both early and late periods of the last glacial by 4‰. The isotopic composition indicates a coupled response of the pure C3 plants to the temperature, precipitation and the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Decrease in temperature and the atmospheric CO2 concentration from the last interstadial to Last Glaicial Maximum (LGM) caused the organic carbon isotopes to become positive by 1.5‰-2.0‰. The amplitude of 4‰in the δ13Corg variation during the last glacial should be mainly caused by the precipitation change.Therefore, the δ13Corg variations of the Yuanbao Section during the last glacial period documented the large-amplitude fluctuation of the monsoon precipitation, which is estimated to be 250-310 mm more during the last interstadial than that in the LGM, and 100 mm more than that during early last glacial. The rapid changes of the monsoon precipitation on millennial scale during the last glacial have also been recorded in the isotopic variations in Yuanbao loess section. As the isotopic composition varies complicatedly as shown in the Ioess-paleosol sequence, it cannot be simply attributed to the abundances of C3and C4 plants or be used as an indicator of the summer monsoon variations.

  17. Non-Magnetic Factors Affecting Magnetic Susceptibility of the Loess-Paleosol Sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Feng, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Several different proposals have been adopted to explain the linkage between the magnetic susceptibility of loess-paleosol sequences and the associated past climate. First, the intensity of dustfall controlled the variation in the susceptibility. Second, the degree of pedogenesis controlled the variation. A third proposal states that the susceptibility signal is a result of the competing processes between pedogenic enhancement and detrital inheritance. This paper examines the acceptability as the summer monsoon proxy from nonmagnetic perspectives. Several conclusions can be drawn from our data. First, clay translocation within the Last Interglacial paleosol S1 profiles must have moved some of the magnetic minerals downward so that the susceptibility reflects only the post-translocation distribution of the magnetic susceptibility-producing minerals. Second, the best-developed paleosol S1S3 (equivalent to MIS 5e) at most of the sections studied is not well expressed by the magnetic susceptibility because this paleosol developed in underlying coarse loess (L2) and coarse textures tend to lower the susceptibility. Third, carbonate concentration is negatively correlated with the magnetic susceptibility or suppresses the magnetic susceptibility peak when the susceptibility enhancement exceeds the carbonate dilution effect. It should be stressed that the susceptibility signal and its contributors in eolian sequences can be site- and time-dependent within the Chinese Loess Plateau. A stronger eolian component northwestward and a stronger pedogenic component southeastward are the general trends, but the trends can be complicated by those site- and time-dependent factors. Therefore, a more comprehensive model is needed to more precisely address the relationship between the paleoclimate and the proxy.

  18. Vegetation cover and topography rather than human disturbance control gully density and sediment production on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Chen, Longqian; Govers, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    The factors controlling topsoil erosion rates on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) are currently relatively well understood and topsoil erosion rates can now be relatively accurately estimated. This is, however, not the case for non-topsoil erosion (sediment production by gullying and landslides): while it is well known that these processes produce significant amounts of sediment, the factors controlling their intensity and spatial distribution on the CLP are less well understood. In this study we quantified the contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production on the CLP and investigated which factors control spatial and temporal variations in non-topsoil erosion. We estimated non-topsoil erosion rates (ENT) by comparing the measured average sediment yields of 46 gauged catchments for the 1950-1970 period, when soil conservation measures were nearly absent in the area, with predicted topsoil erosion rates (using a recently developed empirical model). In addition, gully density was estimated in each catchment using Google Earth data. Our results showed that the area-weighted average catchment erosion rate (E) and ENT were 58.60 ± 51.80 and 48.68 ± 49.78 t ha- 1 yr- 1 respectively for the studied catchments. The sediment contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production ranged between ca. 0 and 97% with a mean of 70 ± 25%. Both E and ENT were significantly correlated to longitudinal river slope, land use, NDVI, and gully density. However, gully density was the only variable explaining a major part of the variance in both E (60%) and ENT (57%). Gully density itself was significantly related to topography and vegetation cover but not to rainfall erosivity. Importantly, gully density was not only related to overall slope steepness, but also to the longitudinal slope of the river network and the hypsometric integral, suggesting that not only land cover disturbance but also tectonic uplift controls gully density and erosion rates. The

  19. Spatio-temporal variation of erosion-type non-point source pollution in a small watershed of hilly and gully region, Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Xia; Ma, Xiao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in the hilly and gully region of Chinese Loess Plateau not only decreases the utilization rate of fertilizer but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the process of erosion-type non-point source (NPS) pollution in Majiagou watershed of Loess Plateau, a distributed, dynamic, and integrated NPS pollution model was established to investigate impacts of returning farmland on erosion-type NPS pollution load from 1995 to 2012. Results indicate that (1) the integrated model proposed in this study was verified to be reasonable; the general methodology is universal and can be applicable to the hilly and gully region, Loess Plateau; (2) the erosion-type NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load showed an overall decreasing trend; the average nitrogen and phosphorus load modulus in the last four years (2009-2012) were 1.23 and 1.63 t/km(2) · a, respectively, which were both decreased by about 35.4 % compared with the initial treatment period (1995-1998); and (3) The spatial variations of NPS pollution are closely related to spatial characteristics of rainfall, topography, and soil and land use types; the peak regions of TN and TP loss mainly occurred along the main river banks of the Yanhe River watershed from northeast to southeast, and gradually decreased with the increase of distance to the left and right river banks, respectively. Results may provide scientific basis for the watershed-scale NPS pollution control of the Loess Plateau.

  20. Novel phases in a square-lattice frustrated ferromagnet : 1/3 -magnetization plateau, helicoidal spin liquid, and vortex crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Luis; Sindzingre, Philippe; Momoi, Tsutomu; Shannon, Nic

    2016-02-01

    A large part of the interest in magnets with frustrated antiferromagnetic interactions comes from the many new phases found in applied magnetic field. In this article, we explore some of the new phases which arise in a model with frustrated ferromagnetic interactions, the J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model on a square lattice. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation and spin-wave theory, we uncover behavior reminiscent of some widely studied frustrated antiferromagnets, but with a number of new twists. We first demonstrate that, for a suitable choice of parameters, the phase diagram as a function of magnetic field and temperature is nearly identical to that of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice, including the celebrated 1 /3 -magnetization plateau. We then examine how this phase diagram changes when the model is tuned to a point where the classical ground state is highly degenerate. In this case, two new phases emerge: a classical, finite-temperature spin liquid, characterized by a "ring" in the spin structure factor S (q ) ; and a vortex crystal, a multiple-Q state with finite magnetization, which can be viewed as an ordered lattice of magnetic vortices. All of these new phases persist for a wide range of magnetic fields. We discuss the relationship between these results and published studies of frustrated antiferromagnets, together with some of the materials where these new phases might be observed in experiment.

  1. Application of a modified distributed-dynamic erosion and sediment yield model in a typical watershed of a hilly and gully region, Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Xia; Ma, Xiaoyi

    2016-11-01

    Soil erosion not only results in the destruction of land resources and the decline of soil fertility, but also contributes to river channel sedimentation. In order to explore the spatiotemporal evolution of erosion and sediment yield before and after returning farmland in a typical watershed of the hilly and gully region (Chinese Loess Plateau), a distributed-dynamic model of sediment yield based on the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE) was established and modified to assess the effects of hydrological factors and human activities on erosion and sediment yield between 1995 and 2013. Results indicate that (1) the modified model has the characteristics of a simple algorithm, high accuracy, wide practicability and easy expansion, and can be applied to predict erosion and sediment yield in the study area, (2) soil erosion gradations are closely related to the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity and land use patterns, and the current soil and water conservation measures are not efficient for high rainfall intensities, and (3) the average sediment yield rate before and after model modification in the most recent 5 years (in addition to 2013) is 4574.62 and 1696.1 Mg km-2, respectively, decreasing by about 35.4 and 78.2 % when compared to the early governance (1995-1998). However, in July 2013 the once-in-a-century storm is the most important reason for maximum sediment yield. Results may provide an effective and scientific basis for soil and water conservation planning and ecological construction of the hilly and gully region, Chinese Loess Plateau.

  2. Mass accumulation rate and monsoon records from Xifeng, Chinese Loess Plateau, based on a luminescence age model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Thomas; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lu, Huayu

    2016-01-01

    in many other OSL‐dated Loess Plateau sites. East Asian monsoon grain‐size and magnetic susceptibility records also show several differences between independently dated loess sites. This complicates our understanding of any lag between insolation forcing and monsoon response. Nevertheless, the Xifeng...

  3. Gas-Phase Treatment of Technetium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) is present in the vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau and is a concern with respect to the protection of groundwater. The persistence, limited natural attenuation mechanisms, and geochemical behavior of Tc-99 in oxic vadose zone environments must be considered in developing effective alternatives for remediation. This report describes a new in situ geochemical manipulation technique for decreasing Tc-99 mobility using a combination of geochemical Tc-99 reduction with hydrogen sulfide gas and induced sediment mineral dissolution with ammonia vapor, which create conditions for deposition of stable precipitates that decrease the mobility of Tc-99. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine changes in Tc-99 mobility in vadose zone sediment samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment under a variety of operational and sediment conditions.

  4. Inhibition of B-NHEJ in Plateau-Phase Cells Is Not a Direct Consequence of Suppressed Growth Factor Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyendra K.; Bednar, Theresa; Zhang Lihua [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany); Wu, Wenqi [First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou, Urology Department, Minimally Invasive Center, Medical College, 510230 Guangzhou (China); Mladenov, Emil [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany); Iliakis, George, E-mail: Georg.Iliakis@uk-essen.de [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: It has long been known that the proliferation status of a cell is a determinant of radiation response, and the available evidence implicates repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the underlying mechanism. Recent results have shown that a novel, highly error-prone pathway of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) operating as backup (B-NHEJ) processes DSBs in irradiated cells when the canonical, DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase)-dependent pathway of NHEJ (D-NHEJ) is compromised. Notably, B-NHEJ shows marked reduction in efficiency when D-NHEJ-deficient cells cease to grow and enter a plateau phase. This phenomenon is widespread and observed in cells of different species with defects in core components of D-NHEJ, with the notable exception of DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit). Using new, standardized serum-deprivation protocols, we re-examine the growth requirements of B-NHEJ and test the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in its regulation. Methods and Materials: DSB repair was measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in cells maintained under different conditions of growth. Results: Serum deprivation in D-NHEJ-deficient cells causes a rapid reduction in B-NHEJ similar to that measured in normally growing cells that enter the plateau phase of growth. Upon serum deprivation, reduction in B-NHEJ activity is evident at 4 h and reaches a plateau reflecting maximum inhibition at 12-16 h. The inhibition is reversible, and B-NHEJ quickly recovers to the levels of actively growing cells upon supply of serum to serum-deprived cells. Chemical inhibition of EGFR in proliferating cells inhibits only marginally B-NHEJ and addition of EGFR in serum-deprived cells increases only a marginally B-NHEJ. Conclusions: The results document a rapid and fully reversible adaptation of B-NHEJ to growth activity and point to factors beyond EGFR in its regulation. They show notable differences in the regulation of error

  5. Systematics of a Clumped Isotope-Based Reconstruction of Temperature and Precipitation Water δ18O from Late Pleistocene and Holocene Archives of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, H. L.; Mitsunaga, B.; Mering, J. A.; Eagle, R.; Li, G.; Tripati, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau lies at the terminus of the East Asian Monsoon, a massive meteorological phenomenon that provides water to up to a quarter of the world's population. This event has been hypothesized to exhibit shifts in intensity and location over geologic time in response to changes in glaciation and climate forcing, including associated abrupt events, during glacial-interglacial cycles, and over longer (>106) year timescales. We propose to reconstruct and evaluate processes that affect carbonate δ18O and carbonate "clumped" isotope thermometry signatures of archives from the Loess Plateau. We will examine modern and Holocene (5,000-10,000 year old) snail specimens (Sp. Cathaica) from four locations within the Plateau: Yichuan, Xifeng, Mangshan, and Lingtai. We will additionally employ the evaporative flux balance model of Balakrishnan (2005) to analyze snail aragonite crystallization in oxygen isotope equilibrium as a proxy measurement for δ18O evaporation. We will then compare these measurements with empirical, modern-day meteoric δ18O and temperature data from local weather stations and the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), as well as data from in situ carbonate nodular loess concretions. These comparisons will allow us to assess the seasonality of growth and determine if non-climatological parameters (e.g., kinetic effects) dominate isotopic signatures, in order to assess if these proxies represent. If the clumped isotope data conforms to these independently-derived measurements, clumped isotope thermometry may be a valid and robust method for characterizing past environmental changes, and we can extend this procedure to proxy materials.

  6. The Relationships among Language Self-Efficacy, Listening Strategy and Ac-ademic Achievements:A Case of Chinese Qinghai-Tibet Plateau EFL learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the effect of language self-efficacy and listening strategy on academic achievements in Chinese Qinghai-Tibet Plateau EFL learners. To achieve this goal, eighty-seven university students participated in the study and filled in language self-efficacy and listening strategy questionnaire. The result revealed that learners ’language self-efficacy, listening strategy are positively correlated with academic achievements. Comparing the two factors influencing lan-guage learning, self-efficacy has higher prediction than listening strategies to academic achievements. Inner correlation exists in language self-efficacy and listening strategies. No gender exists. The study shed more light on the influence of self-efficacy and listening strategy on students’performance.

  7. Dynamic analysis of eco-environmental changes based on remote sensing and geographic information system: an example in Longdong region of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. C.; Dong, X. F.; Wang, J. H.

    2007-11-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau is suffering from severe soil erosion. The eco-environmental changes of the plateau are believed to have an important influence on global eco-environmental sustainability; hence, this problem has attracted considerable attention from scientists around the world. This study has two purposes; application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in the dynamic analysis of eco-environmental changes in the semiarid zone; and using the Longdong region of the Chinese Loess Plateau as an example, to make dynamic analysis of the eco-environmental changes of the region during the 1986 2004 period and identify controlling factors. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data at a spatial resolution of 30 m were used for analysis. Two training areas were selected in Jingning and Qingcheng counties for analysis using 10-m resolution SPOT and Landsat TM data. The satellite RS images were obtained from the Institute of Remote Sensing Application (IRSA), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Each images was rectified by Albers Equal Area Conic projection based on 1:50,000 scale topographic maps after spectrum preparation of the images. To make the precision within 1 or 2 pixels, the accurate coordinative control points of the two systems were identified. Then the interpretation key was established based on the land use/cover survey in the study area. The images were classified into six primary environmental types (farmland, forest, grassland, water, construction area, and desert) and 25 sub-types using a visual image interactive interpretation method to obtain vector and attribute data. The resultant accuracy of the land use/cover classification reached 95%. Finally, the transformation areas and ratios of various eco-environmental types in the region were calculated to obtain the transition matrixes of eco-environmental types in the two training areas, Jingning and Qingcheng. This study demonstrates that satellite RS and GIS techniques

  8. History and variability of Asian interior aridity recorded by eolian flux in the Chinese Loess Plateau during the past 7 Ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙有斌; 安芷生

    2002-01-01

    Eolian flux in the Chinese Loess Plateau was reconstructed by measuring the dry bulk density and CaCO3 content of the late Cenozoic loess-paleosol-red clay sequences in the Lingtai profile. Comparison of eolian flux variation between the Lingtai profile and the ODP sites 885/886 in the North Pacific shows a significant wet-dry variability in addition to a gradual drying trend in the dust source regions in interior Asia. Especially, the increase of eolian fluxes from both continental and pelagic eolian sediments indicates a sharp drying of the dust source regions between 3.6 and 2.6 MaBP, which might be attributed to the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, which cut down the moisture input to the interior Asia. The average value and variability of eolian flux are higher after 2.6 MaBP than before, which may be related to the Quaternary climatic fluctuations on the glacial-interglacial timescale after the commencement of major Northern Hemisphere Glaciations. The eolian fluxes of the Lingtai profile and Core V21-146 in northwest Pacific show a synchronous variation on the 104-105 a timescale, indicating that the flux variations from both continental and marine records are closely correlated to the Quaternary climatic fluctuation forced by the ice volume changes on a global scale.

  9. Magnetic parameter variations in the Chaona loess/paleosol sequences in the central Chinese Loess Plateau, and their significance for the middle Pleistocene climate transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yougui; Fang, Xiaomin; King, John W.; Li, Jijun; Naoto, Ishikawa; An, Zhisheng

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution rock magnetic investigation was performed on the Chaona Quaternary loess/paleosol sequences in the Central Chinese Loess Plateau. Based on a newly developed independent unturned time scale and magnetic records, we reconstructed the history of the East Asia monsoons during the last 3 Ma and explored the middle Pleistocene climate transition (MPT). Rock magnetic results show that the loess layers are characterized by relatively high coercivity and remanent coercivity, lower magnetic susceptibility (MS), and that the paleosol layers are characterized by relatively high MS, saturation magnetization and remanent saturation magnetization. Spectrum analyses indicate that there are various periods in addition to orbital periodicities. According to the onset and stable appearance of 100 kyr period, we consider that the MPT recorded in this section began at ~ 1.26 Ma and was completed by ~ 0.53 Ma, which differs from previous investigations based on orbitally tuned time scales. The forcing mechanism for the MPT was more complicated than just the orbital forcing. We conclude that the rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in the shift of periodicities during the middle Pleistocene.

  10. Beryllium-7 measurements of wind erosion on sloping fields in the wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaqiong; Yang, Mingyi; Deng, Xinxin; Liu, Zhang; Zhang, Fengbao; Zhou, Weiying

    2017-09-29

    Soil erosion is complex in the wind-water erosion crisscross region of the Chinese Loess Plateau, as interleaving of wind and water erosion occurs on both temporal and spatial scales. It is difficult to distinguish wind erosion from the total erosion in previous studies due to the untraceable of aeolian particles and the limitation of feasible methods and techniques. This study used beryllium-7 measurements to study wind erosion in the wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Chinese Loess Plateau arms to delineate wind erosion distribution, to analyze its implication to erosive winds and surface microrelief, and to determine correlations between erosion rates and slope gradients. Results obtained using beryllium-7 measurements based on observation plots were verified with saltating particle collection method, and were also verified on a field scale. Results indicated that the effective resultant erosion wind was from northward, which was proved by the eight-directional distributed saltating particles. The microrelief of the ground surface contributed to the formation of high or low erosion centers. Wind erosion rates increased with a linear (R(2)≥0.95) or exponential (R(2)≥0.83) fitting increase in the slope gradients as reported in previous studies. Compared to wind erosion on field scale, both the plots and fields exhibited similar distribution patterns in wind erosion isolines. We also determined that the wind erosion rate for two fields estimated, based on equations developed from plot scale was acceptable. This study validates the feasibility of beryllium-7 measurements for soil-wind erosion field experiments and the potential to expand this approach to real field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The occurrence of a grassy vegetation over the Chinese Loess Plateau since the last interglacier: the molecular fossil record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of allochthonous and autochthonous molecular fossils were identified from the Holocene paleosol (S0), Malan Loess (L1) and the top Lishi Loess (S1) in Jiuzhoutai loess profile in Lanzhou through the GC/MS analysis. The allochthonous molecules were transported into the Plateau by the loess grains whilst the autochthonous molecules were related to the input of the local paleo-vegetation and could be used to reconstruct the paleo-vegetation. The distribution of the autochthonous n-alkanes was discriminated from the overlapping allochthonous homologues characterized by the CPI value of unity. The dominance of autochthonous C31 n-alkane implicates the occurrence of a grassy vegetation over the Loess Plateau since the last interglacier. The warmest period of the Holocene, though dominated by grass, was additionally characterized by the relatively increased abundance of C27 n-alkane indicative of woody plants. The desert plants might occur during the last glacier. The molecular fossil record is not contradictory with the recent phytolith data, denying the occurrence of a forest over the Plateau since the last interglacier. These data from the loess molecular stratigraphy indicate the importance of the discrimination of the autochthonous molecules from the allochthonous compounds.

  12. An approach for detecting five typical vegetation types on the Chinese Loess Plateau using Landsat TM data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie; Jiao, Ju-Ying; Lei, Bo; Su, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Remote sensing can provide large-scale spatial data for the detection of vegetation types. In this study, two shortwave infrared spectral bands (TM5 and TM7) and one visible spectral band (TM3) of Landsat 5 TM data were used to detect five typical vegetation types (communities dominated by Bothriochloa ischaemum, Artemisia gmelinii, Hippophae rhamnoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Quercus liaotungensis) using 270 field survey data in the Yanhe watershed on the Loess Plateau. The relationships between 200 field data points and their corresponding radiance reflectance were analyzed, and the equation termed the vegetation type index (VTI) was generated. The VTI values of five vegetation types were calculated, and the accuracy was tested using the remaining 70 field data points. The applicability of VTI was also tested by the distribution of vegetation type of two small watersheds in the Yanhe watershed and field sample data collected from other regions (Ziwuling Region, Huangling County, and Luochuan County) on the Loess Plateau. The results showed that the VTI can effectively detect the five vegetation types with an average accuracy exceeding 80 % and a representativeness above 85 %. As a new approach for monitoring vegetation types using remote sensing at a larger regional scale, VTI can play an important role in the assessment of vegetation restoration and in the investigation of the spatial distribution and community diversity of vegetation on the Loess Plateau.

  13. Rock magnetic properties of a loess-paleosol couple along an N-S transect in the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Bin

    2001-01-01

    [1]Jiao Jiujiu, Grey hydrogeologic system analysis and time series model, Survey Science and Technology (in Chinese), 1987,(10): 39-43.[2]Li Shuwen, Wang Baolai, Xiao Guoqiang, A compound model of grey and periodic scrape and its application in groundwater prediction, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 246-251.[3]Wang Qingyin, Li Shuwen, Grey distributed parameter model and groundwater analog, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 66-70.[4]Guo Chunqing, Xia Riyuan, Liu Zhenglin, Gray Systematic Theory and Methodological Study of Krast Groundwater Resources Evaluation (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 3-60.[5]Wang Qingyin, Liu Kaidi, The Mathematical Method of Grey Systematic Theory and Its Application (in Chinese), Chengdu: Publishing House of Southwestern China University of Communication, 1990, 23-27.[6]Wang Qingyin, Wu Heqing, The concept of grey number and its property, in Proceedings of NAFIPS98, USA, 1998,45-49.[7]Givoli, D., Doukhovni, I., Finite element programming approach for contact problems with geometrical nonlinearity, Computers and Structures, 1996, (8): 31-41.[8]Li Shuwen, Wang Zhiqiang, Wu Qiang, The superiority of storage-centered finite element method in solving seepage problem, Coal Geology and Exploration (in Chinese), 1999, (5): 46-49.

  14. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    Mayeda, W. R. Walter, L. Malagnini, and W. S. Phillips, Regional Attenuation in Northern California: A Comparison of Five 1D Q Methods, Bull. Seism ...regional phase amplitude tomography, Seism . Res. Lett., 80, p. 360, 2009. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 49 Priestley, K

  15. Changes in grain-size and sedimentation rate of the Neogene Red Clay deposits along the Chinese Loess Plateau and implications for the palaeowind system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Lingjuan; LU Huayu; QIANG Xiaoke

    2005-01-01

    The wind system responsible for transporting dust onto the Chinese Loess Plateau during the late Miocene and Pliocene is still unknown and recent investigations highlight many controversies. This report aims to investigate spatiotemporal changes in grain-size and sedimentation rate of the Neogene Red Clay deposits in north China and to explore palaeoclimatic changes during the late Miocene and Pliocene, in particular the palaeowind system that transported dust. Samples were collected from eight Red Clay sections on the Loess Plateau. Measurement and analysis show that there is a clear southward decrease in the mean grain-size index and in the coarse particle fraction (>20 μm). At Jiaxian site on the northern Loess Plateau, the average mean grain-size is around 20 μm, while at Lantian site in the south, the mean is around 9 μm. The coarse particle fraction >20 μm makes up 24.4% and 5.6%, at the two sites respectively. This distinct diversity of grain-size in the aeolian Red Clay deposit between the north and south indicate that the palaeodust was transported mainly by northerly low-level winds. The grain-size variations in the Red Clay deposits can also be divided into three stages (the lower, the middle and the upper interval): grain-size of the lower stage is significantly coarser than that of the middle stage, but finer than that of the upper stage. As a consequence, the intensity of palaeowind and desiccation of the dust source region during the late Miocene and Pliocene can be divided into three stages: 6.2-5.4 Ma, 5.4-3.5 Ma and 3.5-2.6 Ma. Strength of the palaeowind during the middle stage (5.4-3.5 Ma) is weaker than that of the previous and subsequent stages and the intensity of palaeowind during the latest stage (3.5-2.6 Ma) is stronger than that of the early time (6.2-5.4 Ma). Variations in the sedimentation rate of the Red Clay deposit can also be divided into three stages: the earlier, the middle and the later interval. The sedimentation rate of the

  16. Pollen records of Holocene vegetation and climate changes in the Longzhong Basin of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollen records with an average time resolution of 20200 years from Holocene loess sections at Dingxi,Qin'an,and other localities of Gansu Province reveal a detailed history of vegetation and climate changes in the western Loess Plateau.For most time of the Holocene,the landscape was dominated by grasslands or forest steppes.However,during the middle Holocene(7.5-5.8 ka BP),relatively dense forests developed,and the endemic vegetation flourished,suggesting a much warmer and more humid climate condition than the present.Superimposed upon this general pattern are several dry intervals marked by the episodic expansion of grasslands or forest steppe.Xeric vegetation expanded after 3.8 ka BP,indicating a trend towards dry conditions.

  17. Monte Carlo study of half-magnetization plateau and magnetic phase diagram in pyrochlore antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model

    OpenAIRE

    Motome, Yukitoshi; Penc, Karlo; Shannon, Nic

    2005-01-01

    The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a pyrochlore lattice under external magnetic field is studied by classical Monte Carlo simulation. The model includes bilinear and biquadratic interactions; the latter effectively describes the coupling to lattice distortions. The magnetization process shows a half-magnetization plateau at low temperatures, accompanied with strong suppression of the magnetic susceptibility. Temperature dependence of the plateau behavior is clarified. Finite-temperatur...

  18. Seven million year iron geochemistry record from a thick eolian red clay-loess sequence in Chinese Loess Plateau and the implications for paleomonsoon evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the Tertiary red clay sequence underlying Pleistoceneloess has attracted much attention. The remarkable progress is the recognition that the Tertiary red clay sequence is also wind-blown in origin, thus providing a good opportunity to reconstruct long-term monsoon changes. In contrast to the loess deposits, the magnetic susceptibility and the pedogenic characteristics are almost independent of each other in the red clay, thus challenging the validity of the readily measurable magnetic susceptibility in describing the monsoon history recorded by the red clay. With the objective to address the long-term East Asia summer monsoon evolution, the free to total Fe2O3 ratios were calculated in a continuous eolian red clay-loess sequence at Lingtai, the Chinese Loess Plateau, which has a thickness of 305 m and a basal age of 7.0 Ma. The seven million year Fe2O3 ratio record from the red clay-loess sequence indicates that (ⅰ) variations of the free to total Fe2O3 ratios of the loess can correlate generally with the alternations of the loess and paleosol horizons; (ⅱ) the East Asia summer monsoon was stronger as a whole in Neogene than that in Quaternary; (ⅲ) the strongest East Asia summer monsoon may occur between 4.0 and 4.8 Ma. The relatively small ice volume and high global temperature may be responsible for the strong summer monsoon during the early Pliocene.

  19. Paleoenvironments indicated by the fossil mammalian assemblages from red clay-loess sequence in the Chinese Loess Plateau since 8.0 Ma B.P.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE; Xiangxu; ZHANG; Yunxiang; YUE; Leping

    2006-01-01

    Information from eleven profiles of eolian earthy red silty clay and loess of the middle of the Late Miocene to Holocene age have been studied and correlated. A complete summary profile with projected isotopic ages and fossil-bearing beds has been assembled. The profile is subdivided into 12 stratigraphic units proceeding from the lower (older) to the upper (younger) one. The character of mammalian assemblages contained in each unit was analyzed and the corresponding paleo-climatic environments were deduced. The environmental character of each period and the change from the middle of the Late Miocene at about 8.0 Ma B.P. up to the Holocene progressed from the hot semiarid and semi-moist, warmer-moist, warm-moister of the Late Miocene. To slightly less warm moist, cool-dry, slight-warmer-moister of the Pliocene; later the cool to cold dry periods alternated frequently with the mild semiarid and semi-moist periods of the Quaternary. Vegetation progressed from the grasslands with sparse woods, wooded shrub-grasslands and subtropical forest-grasslands of the Late Miocene age to sparse grasslands and dry grasslands of the Pliocene; and to sparse grasslands, dry grasslands and tundras of the Quaternary. The climate changes in the Neogene were of low-amplitute in a generally warm-humid background. Those of the Quaternary were of higher amplitude with a longer phase. Cool or cold dry and slightly warm semiarid and semi-moist climates alternated on a generally cool-dry background. The tendency since the start of the Quaternary was the change to more northern and western shift in the Loess Plateau, with progressively cooler and dryer conditions. The dramatic uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and the forming and expansion of the Arctic ice sheet might be the main reasons of the more pronounced changes in the Quaternary.

  20. The Transformation of Agricultural Development towards a Sustainable Future from an Evolutionary View on the Chinese Loess Plateau: A Case Study of Fuxian County

    OpenAIRE

    Yanjun Guo; Yansui Liu; Qi Wen; Yurui Li

    2014-01-01

    The Loess Plateau in China receives lots of attention from around the world. The expansion of bad agricultural practices for hundreds of years aggravated the soil erosion on the Loess Plateau, however, and a lot of efforts were and are being made to reduce the serious soil erosion as well as regional poverty. Agricultural development of the Loess Plateau is still confronted with intricate challenges such as food concerns, environment concerns, and regional poverty. The strategy of developmen...

  1. Dependence of the cyclization of branched tetraethers (CBT) on soil moisture in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the adjacent areas: implications for palaeorainfall reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Liu, W.; Zhang, C. L.

    2014-06-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) have been show promising for continental paleotemperature studies in loess-paleosol sequences (LPSs). Thus far, however, little is known about the effect of soil moisture on their distributions on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). In this study, the relationships between environmental variables and the cyclization of bGDGTs (the so called CBT index) were investigated in a comprehensive set of surface soils in the CLP and its adjacent arid/semi-arid areas. We find that CBT correlates best with soil water content (SWC) or mean annual precipitation (MAP) for the total sample set. Particularly for the CLP soils, there is a significant positive relationship between CBT and MAP (CBT = -0.0021 · MAP + 1.7, n = 37, R2 = 0.87; MAP range: 210-680 mm). This indicates that CBT is mainly controlled by soil moisture in the alkalescent soils (pH > 7) in arid/semi-arid regions, where it is not sensitive to soil pH. Therefore, we suggest that CBT can potentially be used as a palaeorainfall proxy on the CLP. According to the preliminary CBT-MAP relationship for modern CLP soils, palaeorainfall history was reconstructed from three LPSs (Yuanbao, Lantian, and Mangshan) with published bGDGT data spanning the past 70 ka. The CBT-derived MAP records of the three sites consistently show precession-driven variations resembling the speleothem δ18O monsoon record, and are also in general accord with the fluctuations of the respective magnetic susceptibility (MS) record, supporting CBT as a reasonable proxy for palaeorainfall reconstruction in LPS studies. Moreover, the comparison of CBT-derived MAP and bGDGT-derived temperature may enable us to further assess the relative timing and magnitude of hydrological and thermal changes on the CLP, independent of chronology.

  2. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  3. Biodiversity and conservation in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (Qinghai-Xizang Plateau) is a unique biogeographic region in the world, where various landscapes, altitudinal belts, alpine ecosystems, and endangered and endemic species have been developed. A total of 26 altitudinal belts, 28 spectra of altitudinal belts, 12,000 species of vascular plant, 5,000 species of epiphytes, 210 species of mammals, and 532 species of birds have been recorded. The plateau is also one of the centers of species formation and differentiation in the world. To protect the biodiversity of the plateau, about 80 nature reserves have been designated, of which 45 are national or provincial, covering about 22% of the plateau area. Most of the nature reserves are distributed in the southeastern plateau. Recently, the Chinese government has initiated the "Natural Forests Protection Project of China,' mainly in the upper reaches of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. "No logging" policies have been made and implemented for these areas.

  4. Comparing the effect of naturally restored forest and grassland on carbon sequestration and its vertical distribution in the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    Full Text Available Vegetation restoration has been conducted in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP since the 1950s, and large areas of farmland have been converted to forest and grassland, which largely results in SOC change. However, there has been little comparative research on SOC sequestration and distribution between secondary forest and restored grassland. Therefore, we selected typical secondary forest (SF-1 and SF-2 and restored grassland (RG-1 and RG-2 sites and determined the SOC storage. Moreover, to illustrate the factors resulting in possible variance in SOC sequestration, we measured the soil δ(13C value. The average SOC content was 6.8, 9.9, 17.9 and 20.4 g kg(-1 at sites SF-1, SF-2, RG-1 and RG-2, respectively. Compared with 0-100 cm depth, the percentage of SOC content in the top 20 cm was 55.1%, 55.3%, 23.1%, and 30.6% at sites SF-1, SF-2, RG-1 and RG-2, suggesting a higher SOC content in shallow layers in secondary forest and in deeper layers in restored grassland. The variation of soil δ(13C values with depth in this study might be attributed to the mixing of new and old carbon and kinetic fractionation during the decomposition of SOM by microbes, whereas the impact of the Suess effect (the decline of (13C atmospheric CO(2 values with the burning of fossil fuel since the Industrial Revolution was minimal. The soil δ(13C value increased sharply in the top 20 cm, which then increased slightly in deeper layers in secondary forest, indicating a main carbon source of surface litter. However the soil δ(13C values exhibited slow increases in the whole profile in the restored grasslands, suggesting that the contribution of roots to soil carbon in deeper layers played an important role. We suggest that naturally restored grassland would be a more effective vegetation type for SOC sequestration due to higher carbon input from roots in the CLP.

  5. Moderate topsoil erosion rates constrain the magnitude of the erosion-induced carbon sink and agricultural productivity losses on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Van Oost, Kristof; Chen, Longqian; Govers, Gerard

    2016-08-01

    Despite a multitude of studies, overall erosion rates as well as the contribution of different erosion processes on Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) remain uncertain, which hampers a correct assessment of the impact of soil erosion on carbon and nutrient cycling as well as on crop productivity. In this paper we used a novel approach, based on field evidence, to reassess erosion rates on the CLP before and after conservation measures were implemented (1950 vs. 2005). We found that current average topsoil erosion rates are 3 to 9 times lower than earlier estimates suggested. Under 2005 conditions, more sediment was produced by non-topsoil erosion (gully erosion (0.23 ± 0.28 Gt yr-1) and landsliding (0.28 ± 0.23 Gt yr-1) combined) than by topsoil erosion (ca. 0.30 ± 0.08 Gt yr-1). Overall, these erosion processes mobilized ca. 4.77 ± 1.96 Tg yr-1 of soil organic carbon (SOC): the latter number sets the maximum magnitude of the erosion-induced carbon sink, which is ca. 4 times lower than one other recent estimate suggests. The programs implemented from the 1950s onwards reduced topsoil erosion from 0.51 ± 0.13 to 0.30 ± 0.08 Gt yr-1 while SOC mobilization was reduced from 7.63 ± 3.52 to 4.77 ± 1.96 Tg C yr-1. Conservation efforts and reservoir construction have disrupted the equilibrium that previously existed between sediment and SOC mobilization on the one hand and sediment and SOC export to the Bohai sea on the other hand: nowadays, most eroded sediments and carbon are stored on land. Despite the fact that average topsoil losses on the CLP are still relatively high, a major increase in agricultural productivity has occurred since 1980. Fertilizer application rates nowadays more than compensate for the nutrient losses by (topsoil) erosion: this was likely not the case before the dramatic rise of fertilizer use that started around 1980. Hence, erosion is currently not a direct threat to agricultural productivity on the CLP but the long-term effects of erosion on

  6. Spatiotemporal variations of Zr/Rb ratio in three last interglacial paleosol profiles across the Chinese Loess Plateau and its implications for climatic interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiBin; LIU LianYou; FENG ZhaoDong

    2008-01-01

    The ratio of Zirconium to Rubidium (Zr/Rb) is suggested to be a better proxy for the East Asian winter monsoon strength than the widely-used grain size distribution. The rationale for the Zr/Rb proxy relies on the following assumptions: (1) Grain size fractionating characteristics during eolian dust transport should be archived in the Zr/Rb ratio records and this assumption is based on the premise that Zr is preferentially enriched in coarser grain size fraction while Rb tend to be enriched in finer grain size fraction; and (2) post-depositional weathering does not change the Zr/Rb ratio due to the immobility of these two elements. To examine these two assumptions, three last interglacial paleosols (S1) from Dingxi, Tianshui and Lantian, along a NW-SE transect across the Chinese Loess Plateau, were geo-chemically investigated. Our results show that the Rb concentration exhibits an increasing trend along the NW-SE transect both in the paleosol (S1) and the measured portions of the loess units (L1 and L2), being supportive to the assumption that Rb is enriched in the fine particles. But we also found that Rb loss did occur to some extent in the three profiles, contradicting to the presumption of Rb immobility during pedogenic processes. The Zr concentration exhibits an expected decreasing trend in the measured portions of the loess units and an unexpected increasing trend in the paleosol along the NW-SE transect. Moreover, the ratios of Zirconium to Hafnium (Zr/Hf) show different variation patterns between interglacial and glacial, implying that Zr-bearing minerals and their resident grain size frac-tions are probably not identical during interglacial and glacial. Thus, the assumption that Zr is enriched in coarse grain size fraction can no longer hold. We conclude that the final Zr/Rb value is not only de-pendent on grain size sorting processes but also on post-depositional alteration and source prove-nance. Under enhanced chemical weathering, especially when

  7. Scale-Up Information for Gas-Phase Ammonia Treatment of Uranium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Uranium is present in the vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau and is of concern for protection of groundwater. The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau identified gas-phase treatment and geochemical manipulation as potentially effective treatment approaches for uranium and technetium in the Hanford Central Plateau vadose zone. Based on laboratory evaluation, use of ammonia vapor was selected as the most promising uranium treatment candidate for further development and field testing. While laboratory tests have shown that ammonia treatment effectively reduces the mobility of uranium, additional information is needed to enable deployment of this technology for remediation. Of importance for field applications are aspects of the technology associated with effective distribution of ammonia to a targeted treatment zone, understanding the fate of injected ammonia and its impact on subsurface conditions, and identifying effective monitoring approaches. In addition, information is needed to select equipment and operational parameters for a field design. As part of development efforts for the ammonia technology for remediation of vadose zone uranium contamination, field scale-up issues were identified and have been addressed through a series of laboratory and modeling efforts. This report presents a conceptual description for field application of the ammonia treatment process, engineering calculations to support treatment design, ammonia transport information, field application monitoring approaches, and a discussion of processes affecting the fate of ammonia in the subsurface. The report compiles this information from previous publications and from recent research and development activities. The intent of this report is to provide technical information about these scale-up elements to support the design and operation of a field test for the ammonia treatment technology.

  8. Chronology of the Holocene loess-paleosol section and its deposition and pedogenesis on the south of Chinese Loess Plateau%黄土高原南部全新世古土壤的沉积序列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾耀锋; 黄春长; 庞奖励; 牛俊杰

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating for polymineral fine-grained loess samples, collected in Laoguantai (LGT) section on the south of the Chinese Loess Plateau,was made by application of single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol. A 'Double-SAR'procedure in which aliquots are subjected to both infrared (IR) and blue stimulations was used,and two sets of equivalent dose (Ds) determinations were produced and assumed to rela tepredominantly to feldspathic and quartz fine grain populations respectively. The OSL ages estimated from IRSL signals are smaller than those estimated from [post-IR] OSL signals due to the anomalous fading of feldspar IR signals, based on fading experiment. The young ages of the samples near ground surface may be originated from the post-depositlonal disturbance by the intensifying humanity's cultivation since 3.0 ka BP in the Guanzhong Basin, south of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Based on OSL dating, as well as field observations and stratlgraphic correlation, we determine the chronology of the LGT Ioess-paleosol sequence. In combination with climate proxy records, It is indicated that aeolian loess deposition and pedogenesis underwent polyphase changes during the Holocene, likely to have been driven by shifts in the East Asian monsoon. This suggests that aeolian loess deposition is episodic and highly variable, with contributions from non-aeolian processes such as alluvial deposition found in the area.

  9. Influence of intra-event-based flood regime on sediment flow behavior from a typical agro-catchment of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le-Tao; Li, Zhan-Bin; Wang, He; Xiao, Jun-Bo

    2016-07-01

    The pluvial erosion process is significantly affected by tempo-spatial patterns of flood flows. However, despite their importance, only a few studies have investigated the sediment flow behavior that is driven by different flood regimes. The study aims to investigate the effect of intra-event-based flood regimes on the dynamics of sediment exports at Tuanshangou catchment, a typical agricultural catchment (unmanaged) in the hilly loess region on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Measurements of 193 flood events and 158 sediment-producing events were collected from Tuanshangou station between 1961 and 1969. The combined methods of hierarchical clustering approach, discriminant analysis and One-Way ANOVA were used to classify the flood events in terms of their event-based flood characteristics, including flood duration, peak discharge, and event flood runoff depth. The 193 flood events were classified into five regimes, and the mean statistical features of each regime significantly differed. Regime A includes flood events with the shortest duration (76 min), minimum flood crest (0.045 m s-1), least runoff depth (0.2 mm), and highest frequency. Regime B includes flood events with a medium duration (274 min), medium flood crest (0.206 m s-1), and minor runoff depth (0.7 mm). Regime C includes flood events with the longest duration (822 min), medium flood crest (0.236 m s-1), and medium runoff depth (1.7 mm). Regime D includes flood events with a medium duration (239 min), large flood crest (4.21 m s-1), and large runoff depth (10 mm). Regime E includes flood events with a medium duration (304 min), maximum flood crest (8.62 m s-1), and largest runoff depth (25.9 mm). The sediment yield by different flood regimes is ranked as follows: Regime E > Regime D > Regime B > Regime C > Regime A. In terms of event-based average and maximum suspended sediment concentration, these regimes are ordered as follows: Regime E > Regime D > Regime C > Regime B > Regime A. Regimes D and E

  10. Dual pathways of calcium entry in spike and plateau phases of luteinizing hormone release from chicken pituitary cells: sequential activation of receptor-operated and voltage-sensitive calcium channels by gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.S.; Wakefield, I.K.; King, J.A.; Mulligan, G.P.; Millar, R.P.

    1988-04-01

    It has previously been shown that, in pituitary gonadotrope cells, the initial rise in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by GnRH is due to a Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. This raises the possibility that the initial transient spike phase of LH release might be fully or partially independent of extracellular Ca2+. We have therefore characterized the extracellular Ca2+ requirements, and the sensitivity to Ca2+ channel blockers, of the spike and plateau phases of secretion separately. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+ the spike and plateau phases were inhibited by 65 +/- 4% and 106 +/- 3%, respectively. Both phases exhibited a similar dependence on concentration of extracellular Ca2+. However, voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel blockers D600 and nifedipine had a negligible effect on the spike phase, while inhibiting the plateau phase by approximately 50%. In contrast, ruthenium red, Gd3+ ions, and Co2+ ions inhibited both spike and plateau phases to a similar extent as removal of extracellular Ca2+. A fraction (35 +/- 4%) of spike phase release was resistant to removal of extracellular Ca2+. This fraction was abolished after calcium depletion of the cells by preincubation with EGTA in the presence of calcium ionophore A23187, indicating that it depends on intracellular Ca2+ stores. Neither absence of extracellular Ca2+, nor the presence of ruthenium red or Gd3+ prevented mobilization of 45Ca2+ from intracellular stores by GnRH. We conclude that mobilization of intracellular stored Ca2+ is insufficient by itself to account for full spike phase LH release.

  11. Interaction between x-irradiated plateau-phase bone marrow stromal cell lines and co-cultivated factor-dependent cell lines leading to leukemogenesis in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naparstek, E.; Anklesaria, P.; FitzGerald, T.J.; Sakakeeny, M.A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1987-03-01

    Plateau-phase mouse clonal bone marrow stromal cell lines D2XRII and C3H cl 11 produce decreasing levels of M-CSF (CSF-1), a specific macrophage progenitor cell humoral regulator, following X-irradiation in vitro. The decrease did not go below 40% of control levels, even after irradiation doses of 50,000 rad (500 Gy). In contrast, a distinct humoral regulator stimulating growth of GM-CSF/IL-3 factor-dependent (FD) hematopoietic progenitor cell lines was detected following radiation to doses above 2000 rad. This humoral factor was not detectable in conditioned medium from irradiated cells, weakly detected using factor-dependent target cell populations in agar overlay, and was prominently detected by liquid co-cultivation of factor-dependent cells with irradiated stromal cell cultures. Subclonal lines of FD cells, derived after co-cultivation revealed karyotypic abnormalities and induced myeloblastic tumors in syngeneic mice. Five-eight weeks co-cultivation was required for induction of factor independence and malignancy and was associated with dense cell to cell contact between FD cells and stromal cells demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Increases in hematopoietic to stromal cell surface area, total number of adherent cells per flask, total non-adherent cell colonies per flask, and cumulative non-adherent cell production were observed after irradiation. The present data may prove very relevant to an understanding of the cell to cell interactions during X-irradiation-induced leukemia.

  12. Improving soil enzyme activities and related quality properties of reclaimed soil by applying weathered coal in opencast-mining areas of the Chinese loess plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Shao, Hongbo [CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China); Li, Weixiang; Bi, Rutian [Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu (China); Bai, Zhongke [Department of Land Science Technology, University of Geosciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-15

    There are many problems for the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China such as poor soil structure and extreme poverty in soil nutrients and so on. For the sake of finding a better way to improve soil quality, the current study was to apply the weathered coal for repairing soil media and investigate the physicochemical properties of the reclaimed soil and the changes in enzyme activities after planting Robinia pseucdoacacia. The results showed that the application of the weathered coal significantly improved the quality of soil aggregates, increased the content of water stable aggregates, and the organic matter, humus, and the cation exchange capacity of topsoil were significantly improved, but it did not have a significant effect on soil pH. Planting R. pseucdoacacia significantly enhanced the activities of soil catalase, urease, and invertase, but the application of the weathered coal inhibited the activity of catalase. Although the application of appropriate weathered coal was able to significantly increase urease activity, the activities of catalase, urease, or invertase had a close link with the soil profile levels and time. This study suggests that applying weathered coals could improve the physicochemical properties and soil enzyme activities of the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China and the optimum applied amount of the weathered coal for reclaimed soil remediation is about 27 000 kg hm{sup -2}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The Transformation of Agricultural Development towards a Sustainable Future from an Evolutionary View on the Chinese Loess Plateau: A Case Study of Fuxian County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Loess Plateau in China receives lots of attention from around the world. The expansion of bad agricultural practices for hundreds of years aggravated the soil erosion on the Loess Plateau, however, and a lot of efforts were and are being made to reduce the serious soil erosion as well as regional poverty. Agricultural development of the Loess Plateau is still confronted with intricate challenges such as food concerns, environment concerns, and regional poverty. The strategy of development towards sustainability offers a possible and important way to face the challenges. This study tried to develop a holistic “variation-selection-replication-retention” model to analyze the transformation of agricultural development from an evolutionary view which is generally integrative. It is indicated that policies should be lively and vibrant organisms full of innovations owning to ever-changing environment in the evolutionary view. Under this analytical framework, one possible path from serious soil erosion region to region with sustainable agriculture could be recognized in the case study of Fuxian County: serious soil erosion regions → regions with poor production conditions → production-optimized regions → regions with developed agriculture → regions with sustainable agriculture. Diversified integrative development is suggested due to regional differences and the possible developing order in Fuxian County. State-subsidized “Grain for Green” policy and diversified land use are necessary for the transformation of serious soil erosion regions which are usually trapped in regional poverty. To the transformation of regions with poor production conditions, a state-subsidized “production optimization” policy and diversified land use deserve to be considered, due to regional poverty in regions with poor production conditions. Agricultural scale operation is priority for the transformation of production-optimized regions towards

  14. New insights into the paleoclimatic interpretation of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization of Mid-Late Pleistocene loess/palaeosols in Central Asia and the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Yan, Maodu; Li, Bingshuai

    2016-11-01

    The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility (χ-T curves) and magnetization (M-T curves) has been used as a routine rock magnetic tool to characterize the magnetic mineralogy and magnetic granulometry of Chinese loess/palaeosols. However, paleoclimatic interpretation of these thermomagnetic analyses remains controversial. In the present study, total organic carbon (TOC), thermomagnetic and low-temperature magnetic experiments on Mid-Late Pleistocene loess/palaeosols in Central Asia and the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) have been conducted. We found that the M (T) cooling curves at room temperature were mostly lower than the corresponding heating curves, whereas for the χ (T) analyses the cooling curves at room temperature were always much higher than the heating curves. Low-temperature magnetic measurements demonstrated that a large amount of superparamagnetic ferrimagnetic particles were produced during the thermal treatment and resulted in the aforementioned differences. This finding further indicated that the use of the M - T curves to estimate the relative content of maghemite in the loess/paleosols from the CLP was problematic. In addition, a positive correlation exists between the TOC and the frequency-dependent susceptibility (χFD) in the CLP, suggesting that stronger pedogenesis would result in the simultaneous increase in the content of both maghemite and organic matter. Consequently, the parameters △χ1 (representing the relative content of pedogenic maghemite), △χ2 ([χph-χ] +△χ1) and χph (related to the organic matter concentration), which can be calculated from the χ - T analyses, can potentially be used as new indicators of pedogenesis and paleoclimate in Central Asia and the CLP.

  15. New insights into the palaeoclimatic interpretation of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization of Mid-Late Pleistocene loess/palaeosols in Central Asia and the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Yan, Maodu; Li, Bingshuai

    2017-02-01

    The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility (χ-T curves) and magnetization (M-T curves) has been used as a routine rock magnetic tool to characterize the magnetic mineralogy and magnetic granulometry of Chinese loess/palaeosols. However, palaeoclimatic interpretation of these thermomagnetic analyses remains controversial. In the present study, total organic carbon (TOC), thermomagnetic and low-temperature magnetic experiments on Mid-Late Pleistocene loess/palaeosols in Central Asia and the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) have been conducted. We found that the M (T) cooling curves at room temperature were mostly lower than the corresponding heating curves, whereas for the χ (T) analyses the cooling curves at room temperature were always much higher than the heating curves. Low-temperature magnetic measurements demonstrated that a large amount of superparamagnetic ferrimagnetic particles were produced during the thermal treatment and resulted in the aforementioned differences. This finding further indicated that the use of the M-T curves to estimate the relative content of maghemite in the loess/palaeosols from the CLP was problematic. In addition, a positive correlation exists between the TOC and the frequency-dependent susceptibility (χFD) in the CLP, suggesting that stronger pedogenesis would result in the simultaneous increase in the content of both maghemite and organic matter. Consequently, the parameters ▵χ1 (representing the relative content of pedogenic maghemite), ▵χ2 ([χph - χ] +▵χ1) and χph (related to the organic matter concentration), which can be calculated from the χ-T analyses, can potentially be used as new indicators of pedogenesis and palaeoclimate in Central Asia and the CLP.

  16. Recent development in liquid chromatography stationary phases for separation of Traditional Chinese Medicine components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongli; Liu, Yanfang; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Jixia; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Chaoran; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-10-25

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is an ancient medical practice which has been used to prevent and cure diseases for thousands of years. TCMs are frequently multi-component systems with mainly unidentified constituents. The study of the chemical compositions of TCMs remains a hotspot of research. Different strategies have been developed to manage the significant complexity of TCMs, in an attempt to determine their constituents. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is still the method of choice for the separation of TCMs, but has many problems related to limited selectivity. Recently, enormous efforts have been concentrated on the development of efficient liquid chromatography (LC) methods for TCMs, based on selective stationary phases. This can improve the resolution and peak capacity considerably. In addition, high-efficiency stationary phases have been applied in the analysis of TCMs since the invention of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). This review describes the advances in LC methods in TCM research from 2010 to date, and focuses on novel stationary phases. Their potential in the separation of TCMs using relevant applications is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 自我职涯管理与职涯高原的关系%The Relationship between Individual Career Management and Career Plateau of Employees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾垂凯

    2012-01-01

    组织结构扁平化导致职涯高原员工逐渐增多,给个体和组织造成了消极影响。本文通过对338名企业员工的问卷调查探讨自我职涯管理与职涯高原的关系。研究结果显示:自我职涯管理中的职业探索与层级高原、内容高原及中心化高原正相关;目标确定与层级高原、关注学习与内容高原、注重关系与中心化高原及内容高原负相关;自我展示虽在简单相关分析中与内容高原及中心化高原负相关,但在回归分析中则相关不显著。%With the flatting development of the organization structure and gradually reduced management levels,promotion becomes more difficult than ever.More and more employees,especially management personnel,are getting into trouble with stagnation of career development.Then,career plateau phenomenon appears.According to the idea of Zeng Chuikai,career plateau is such a phenomena that in a certain phase of individuals career development,the long stay in a position makes the career flow(including vertical flow,horizontal flow,and central flow) difficult to realize,and causes his or her career development stagnation.Career plateau includes three aspects-hierarchal plateau(few possibility to promote in present organization),content plateau(few opportunity to learn new skills), and inclusive plateau(few possibility towards responsibility center).Since career plateau brings lots of adverse influences to both individuals and organizations,its relationship with individual career management now receives more and more attention in the world. To explore the relationship between individual career management and career plateau,in this research we made a questionnaire survey on employees of firms on the Chinese mainland.Out of a samples of 396 employees,338 questionnaires were valid.The questionnaires comprised three parts.Part one included items about the demographic characteristics of the subjects.Part two adopted the Individual Career

  18. Modeling the Physical Multi-Phase Interactions of HNO3 Between Snow and Air on the Antarctic Plateau (Dome C) and coast (Halley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Ga; Frey, Markus M.; King, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions from nitrate (NO3-) photolysis in snow affect the oxidising capacity of the lower troposphere especially in remote regions of the high latitudes with low pollution levels. The porous structure of snowpack allows the exchange of gases with the atmosphere driven by physicochemical processes, and hence, snow can act as both source and sink of atmospheric chemical trace gases. Current models are limited by poor process understanding and often require tuning parameters. Here, two multi-phase physical models were developed from first principles constrained by observed atmospheric nitrate, HNO3, to describe the air-snow interaction of nitrate. Similar to most of the previous approaches, the first model assumes that below a threshold temperature, To, the air-snow grain interface is pure ice and above To, a disordered interface (DI) emerges assumed to be covering the entire grain surface. The second model assumes that Air-Ice interactions dominate over the entire temperature range below melting and that only above the eutectic temperature, liquid is present in the form of micropockets in grooves. The models are validated with available year-round observations of nitrate in snow and air at a cold site on the Antarctica Plateau (Dome C, 75°06'S, 123°33'E, 3233 m a.s.l.) and at a relatively warm site on the Antarctica coast (Halley, 75°35'S, 26°39'E, 35 m a.s.l). The first model agrees reasonably well with observations at Dome C (Cv(RMSE) = 1.34), but performs poorly at Halley (Cv(RMSE) = 89.28) while the second model reproduces with good agreement observations at both sites without any tuning (Cv(RMSE) = 0.84 at both sites). It is therefore suggested that air-snow interactions of nitrate in the winter are determined by non-equilibrium surface adsorption and co-condensation on ice coupled with solid-state diffusion inside the grain. In summer, however, the air-snow exchange of nitrate is mainly driven by solvation into liquid

  19. Chronology and the upper dating limit for loess samples from Luochuan section in the Chinese Loess Plateau using quartz OSL SAR protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, ZhongPing

    2010-01-01

    Luminescence dating of loess older than 100 ka has long been a challenge. It has been recently reported that, using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of fine-grained quartz (4-11 μm) extracted from loess, the range of luminescence dating could be pushed to ˜0.6 Ma with OSL ages being in agreement with independent ages [Watanuki, T., Murray, A.S., Tsukamoto, S., 2005. Quartz and polymineral luminescence dating of Japanese loess over the last 0.6 Ma: comparison with an independent chronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240, 774-789]. The aim of this study is to provide a luminescence chronology (20 samples) for the standard Luochuan loess section, and to further examine the upper limit of quartz OSL dating for Chinese loess. The growth curve does not saturate at 700 Gy, and should allow reliable equivalent dose ( De) determination up to at least 400 Gy. However, when compared with independent chronological control, the De that could be treated as reliable is less than ˜230 Gy (corresponding to ˜70 ka in age for Chinese loess), and the De larger than ˜230 Gy should be underestimated. Ages for samples from the lower part of palaeosol S1 are severely underestimated, with the maximum age of 95 ka for a sample from the bottom of this palaeosol, much younger than the expected age of ˜128 ka. The maximum De obtained for sample L9/M, collected from loess layer L9 which is below the Matuyama-Brunhes (B/M) boundary whose age is ˜780 ka, is only 403 Gy which corresponds to an age of 107 ka. The cause of underestimation is not yet clear. The previous results by Watunuki et al. (2005) on the extension of OSL dating of loess to 0.6 Ma is not confirmed. When evaluating the validity of OSL ages in S1, another possibility is to question the already established chronological frame for Luochuan section, which is based on the hypothesis of continuous dust deposition. The assumption of an erosion hiatus between L2 and S1 could make the OSL ages look reasonable

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in terrestrial net primary productivity on Chinese Loess Plateau and its influential factors%黄土高原植被净初级生产力时空变化及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宝妮; 秦占飞; 王洋; 常庆瑞

    2014-01-01

    为了探明黄土高原地区植被生产力变化的驱动机制,该文基于MODIS传感器获得的MOD17A3数据,分析了黄土高原2000-2010年间植被净初级生产力(net primary productivity, NPP)的时空变化及其主要影响因素,并借助多元统计分析方法对引起 NPP 变化的自然和人为因素进行量化分析。结果表明:黄土高原植被总 NPP 从2000年的119 Tg(以C计)增加到2010年的144 Tg(以C计),年增速4.57 g/(m2·a)(P<0.05)(以C计)。黄土高原约91%的区域NPP呈增加趋势,37%的区域增加趋势显著,主要分布在陕西、青海大部分地区、甘肃南部及宁南山区。整个黄土高原近11 a间NPP变化受自然和人为因素共同影响,其中退耕还林还草累计面积、帕尔默干旱指数(palmer drought severity index, PDSI)、耕地面积和人口数量是影响NPP变化的主要因素。退耕还林还草累计面积占四者总贡献率的43%,PDSI占40%,耕地面积和人口数量分别占13%和4%。对区域而言,由退耕还林还草工程引起的土地利用覆被变化是退耕区(陕北、甘肃东南部等)NPP增加的主要因素,而近年来干旱情况的缓解(PDSI 呈上升趋势)则是青海、内蒙古等地 NPP 增加的主要因素。该研究对于黄土高原各区域生态资源管理,以及生态系统的建设具有一定的指导和借鉴意义。%Monitoring dynamics of vegetation productivity and its influential factors are important for understanding the mechanisms of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. This study investigated the variation in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) and its major influential factors on the Chinese Loess Plateau during 2000-2010. The remotely sensed time-series data MOD17A3 for vegetation collected by a MODIS sensor was analyzed for NPP changes. The climate factors (temperature, precipitation and solar radiation), palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and

  1. 'Reversing' the Flow of the Ancient Chinese Calendrical Subseasonal Phases Jie Qi in Australia: The Construction of a Chinese Medical & Agricultural Lunisolar Calendar (Northern and Southern Hemispheres )( Continued )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rey Tiquia

    2008-01-01

    Jie qi(subseasonal phases or solar qi)eonstitutes the solar component of the ancient Chinese lunisolar calendar.It divides the year into twenty-four suhseasonal phases i.e. li chun (beginning of spring) ,chun fen (spring equinox),etc.From the premodern perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM ),normal climate change(q/hou b/an q/an)moves inharmony with the temporal flow of the qi(qi yun)and is thus beneficial to human health.However,abnonnal,abrupt weatheror climatic changes like those weather features of being too cold or too hot,too windy,too humid,too dry or a combination oftwo or more of these weather/climatic features which occur out of season can lead to 'seasonal diseases' (shi bing)or'diseases brought about by external influences' (wai gan zhi bing)or by the'six excessive climatic qi etiological factors' (liuBut the temporal flow of the subseasonal qi (qi yun) in Australia is the reverse of that of the northern hemisphericalregions of China,United States and Europe.This situation thus leads to a temporal desynchronisation of TCM practice andsouthern hemisphere.Having this calendrical tool, Chinese medicine practitioners in Australia can 'reverse'their clinical ac-tivities in accordance with the natural rhythm of the seasons here.

  2. The Compositions of Six Chinese Ordinary Chondrites and Element Distributions in Their Different Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永亨; ERNSTPERNICKA; 等

    1992-01-01

    Six Chinese ordinary chondrites (four of them have fallen in recent years and the trace element abundances have not yet been reported for the other two) were examined.The contents of 21 elements (Na,Cr,Mn,Sc,Se,Zn,Br,Ni,Fe,Co,Ir,Cu,Ga,As,Au,Sb,Os,W,Re,Pt,and Ru)in the magnetic fractions and 20 elements (Na,K,Ca,Sc,Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Zn,Se,Br,La,Sm,Eu,Yb,Lu,Ir,Au,and As) in the non-magnetic fractions were de-termined by INAA. The results indicate that the 5 H-group chondrites show almost no difference in composition,but they are different from the Zhaodong L-group chondrite in elemental abundance.As a normalized element(relative to CI),the concentrations of Ga in the magnetic fractions can be used to classify ordinary chondrites(H-,L- and LL-group).The bulk composition and modal weight of each component calculated from element concentrations in different phases are in good agreement with the bulk rock analyses presented in the literature.

  3. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...... fixator, both during treatment and at 19 months following injury. In general, the thesis demonstrates that the treatment of tibial plateau fractures are challenging and that some disabilities following these fractures must be expected. Moreover, the need for further research in the area, both with regard...

  4. A wavelet analysis of the relationship between Loess Plateau erosion and sunspots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.; Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau is one of the most rapidly eroding regions in the world. The purpose of this study is to find out to which extent soil erosion on the Loess Plateau is driven by sunspot activity. We analyzed the relation between annual sediment discharge (from 1919 to 2010) from the Loess P

  5. Vapor-phase toxicity of butylbenzyl phthalate to three plant species: white mustard, chinese cabbage, and white clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, J W; Staples, C A; Brown, D; Enste-Diefenbach, R

    2008-08-01

    During the manufacture of products containing butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), low emissions to the air may occur. Due to potential exposure of terrestrial communities to BBP vapors, phytotoxicity tests were conducted using Chinese cabbage, white mustard, and white clover. No significant effects on shoot growth were observed at the higher BBP vapor-phase concentration tested, which measured 5.7 microg/m(3). The overall practicality of vapor-phase testing of chemicals with very low vapor pressures is reviewed. These study results suggest that environmental risk from exposure to BBP vapor is negligible for plants.

  6. Inter-machine comparison of the termination phase and energy conversion in tokamak disruptions with runaway current plateau formation and implications for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Esposito, B.; Riccardo, V.; FTU; DIII-D Teams; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-08-01

    The termination of the current and the loss of runaway electrons following runaway current plateau formation during disruptions have been investigated in the JET, DIII-D and FTU tokamaks. Substantial conversion of magnetic energy into runaway kinetic energy, up to ˜10 times the initial plateau runaway kinetic energy, has been inferred for the slowest current terminations. Both modelling and experiment suggest that, in present devices, the efficiency of conversion into runaway kinetic energy is determined to a great extent by the characteristic runaway loss time, τdiff, and the resistive time of the residual ohmic plasma after the disruption, τres, increasing with the ratio τdiff/τres. It is predicted that, in large future devices such as ITER, the generation of runaways by the avalanche mechanism will play an important role, particularly for slow runaway discharge terminations, increasing substantially the amount of energy deposited by the runaways onto the plasma-facing components by the conversion of magnetic energy of the runaway plasma into runaway kinetic energy. Estimates of the power fluxes on the beryllium plasma-facing components during runaway termination in ITER indicate that for runaway currents of up to 2 MA no melting of the components is expected. For larger runaway currents, minimization of the effects of runaway impact on the first wall requires a reduction in the kinetic energy of the runaway beam before termination and, in addition, high plasma density ne and low ohmic plasma resistance (long τres) to prevent large conversion of magnetic into runaway kinetic energy during slow current terminations.

  7. Plateau-insulator transition in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, M; Diez, E; Caridad, J M [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Lopez-Romero, D [CT-ISOM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Rossella, F; Dionigi, F; Bellani, V [Dipartimento di Fisica ' A Volta' and CNISM, Universita degli studi di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Maude, D K, E-mail: marioam@fis.ucm.e [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2010-05-15

    We investigate the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in a graphene sample with Hall-bar geometry close to the Dirac point at high magnetic fields up to 28 T. We have discovered a plateau-insulator quantum phase transition passing from the last plateau for the integer QHE in graphene to an insulator regime {nu}=-2{yields}{nu}=0. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistance gives a value for the critical exponent associated with the transition equal to {kappa}=0.58{+-}0.03.

  8. Ningwu——An Ancient Pass On The Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Ningwu situated on the Loess Plateau in north of Shanxi Province is one of the three passes along the Great Wall. The other two are the Pian Pass in the west and the Yanmen Pass in the east. In the ancient times, it had been a key military town in the northern Chinese borders.

  9. Solid-phase extraction of esculetin from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine by using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shu-Guo; Li, Li; He, Xi-Wen

    2005-01-07

    A molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction method is used to extract esculetin from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine. Ratio of ethanol and water as washing solution were investigated. Data of accumulative adsorption on molecularly imprinted polymers from the continuous loading experiment suggests that there are two different kinds of recognition sites in molecularly imprinted polymers. By selecting the washing and eluting solution a scheme was designed to separate esculetin and its analogues including esculin, coumarin, 7-methoxylcoumarin and daphnetin. Finally, by applying the revised scheme esculetin was extracted from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine that was purchased from two big drugstores, respectively, with both molecularly imprinted polymers and non-molecularly imprinted polymers.

  10. Radiative plateau inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflation with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  11. 西宁黄土碎屑锆石年龄特征及其对黄土高原黄土物源的指示意义%ZIRCON AGES OF XINING LOESS: IMPLICATION FOR THE PROVENANCE OF THE LOESS ON CHINESE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李高军; 车旭东; 肖国桥; 陈忠

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering the provenance of atmospheric dust is critical to understand the paleo-proxies archived in the eolian deposits on Chinese Loess Plateau.While most of evidences indicate major dust sources from the arid lands to the north and northwest of Chinese Loess Plateau,a recent research based on U-Pb geochronology of zircon renewed the hypothesis that the dust transported by westerly winds from north Tibetan Plateau and the Qaidam Basin might be the dominant eolian sources to Chinese Loess Plateau during glacial times.Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing ages of zircon in Xining loess.Xining ( 36.65°N, 101.74°E) is on the hypothetical pass way of dust transportation from north Tibetan Plateau to Chinese Loess Plateau.Compared with the loess on Chinese Loess Plateau, loess in Xining lacks zircon population with age around 360Ma and < 100Ma.In contrast, the materials eroded from Central Asian Orogenic Belt have large population of zircon aged ca.360Ma and <100Ma.Although the major peaks of the zircon age distribution of Xining loess are very similar to that of the loess on CLP,the materials from north Tibetan Plateau could also be transported northwardly to the Alxa arid lands on the northwest of CLP.We thus conclude that loess on CLP is mainly sourced from the Alxa arid lands where materials are received from both north Tibetan Plateau ( Qilian Mountains) in the south and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (Gobi Altay Mountains) in the north.%物源研究是理解黄土高原风成沉积物中古环境记录的关键一环.众多证据表明,黄土高原西北部的阿拉善高原及其周边广袤干旱地区是黄土高原黄土的主要风尘源区.但是,基于锆石U-Pb同位素地质年代学的证据对此提出了质疑.黄土高原黄土与青藏高原北部物质中的锆石具有相似的年龄分布,预示黄土高原风尘主要以西风搬运的方式来自青藏高原北部,特别是柴达木盆地.本研究通过分析西宁黄土的锆石年

  12. Plateau Indian Ways with Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The indigenous rhetoric of the Plateau Indians continues to exert a discursive influence on student writing in reservation schools today. Plateau students score low on state-mandated tests and on college writing assignments, in large part because the pervasive personalization of Plateau rhetoric runs counter to the depersonalization of academic…

  13. Greening the Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Located on the world’s largest plateau, Tibet Autonomous Region in China’s southwest has an average elevation of 4,000 meters. Tibet’s diverse natural landscapes, including snow-capped mountains, vast pastures and virgin forests, combined with its

  14. Effects of Dense Phase-CO2 Treatments on Microflora, Enzymes and Browning of Chinese Winter Jujube Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese winter jujube juice was treated with Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide (DPCD to inactivate microorganisms, Polyphenoloxidase (PPO activity, Peroxidase (POD activity and control browing. The effect of varying pressures (5 to 30 MPa and different treatment time (0 to 50 min on the amount of natural microorganisms, PPO activity, POD activity and browning degree were measured. After experiment, the inactivation of natural microorganisms, PPO activity and POD activity exposed to DPCD were significantly increased with increasing pressure. Treated jujube juice had lower browning degree than untreated jujube juice. The experimental results showed that the DPCD treatment can be regarded as a good pretreatment means for winter jujube juice processing.

  15. 黄土高原风成沉积物磁化率各向异性研究%ANISOTROPY OF MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EOLIAN SEDIMENTS IN THE CHINESE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 岳乐平; 弓虎军; 张云翔; 李建星

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence in the Northwest China represents a proxy climate index related to the East Asian summer monsoon intensity. In contrast to the loess deposits, the magnetic susceptibility is almost independent of each other in the red clay, thus challenging the validity of the readily measurable magnetic susceptibility in describing the monsoon evolution history recorded by the red clay. Concentration variation of pedogenic magnetite and maghemite produced during pedogenesis is considered as the main reason for variation of magnetic susceptibility of the loess-red clay sediments. However no identical view on formation of magnetite and maghemite via inorganic precipitation or organic process was proved,the latter including the mediation of Fe-reducing bacteria which may be termed a ' Biologically Induced Mineralisation' ( BIM ) process and magnetotactic bacteria process called a ' Biologically Organised Mineralisation ' ( BOM ) process. The organic matter content and morphological characteristics of magnetic mineral in the eolian sediments have great potential for the study of magnetic minerals genesis and variation of magnetic susceptibility. In this paper,the Zhaojiachuan section (35°45'N, 107°49'E) in Xifeng town is selected for this study. This section is located in the centre of Dongzhiyuan which is the largest Yuan in the Chinese Loess Plateau, Gansu Province. The present day mean annual temperature is about 8. 7℃ with a range of -22. 4 ~35. 1℃ ,and the mean annual precipitation is 555mm in this region. The profile contains an upper about 170m alternating loess-paleosol sequence and a lower red clay with a thickness of about 55m. The loess-paleosol sequence is traditionally subdivided into five major stratigraphic units. From the surface downward these are; Holocene Black Loam ( S0 ) , late Pleistocene Malan Loess(L1 ) , Middle Pleistocene Upper Lishi Loess ( S1-L9) and Lower Lishi Loess ( S9 ~ L15

  16. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Tibetan Plateau (Qinghai-Xizang Plateau)is a unique geological-geographical unit on Earth, an ideal region for studies into the formation and evolution of the lithosphere and the dynamic mechanism of the earth crust. The uplifting of the Plateau exerts profound influence upon the evolution and differentiation of the natural environment of the plateau itself, its adjacent regions and the Northern Hemisphere. As a unique natural geographical unit, the Plateau holds a special status in the whole globe due to its special natural environment and ecosystems, which is also in close relation to global environmental change.The significance of the Plateau research should be recognized not only in the fundamental research fields of geo-sciences and biology, but also in its application to resource exploitation, environmental protection and sustainable development of the Plateau region.

  17. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of eight drugs collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 on amylose ramification chiral stationary phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The enantiomers separation of eight pharmaceutical racemates collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 (Ch.P2010, including nitrendipine, felodipine, omeprazole, praziquantel, sulpiride, clenbuterol hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and chlorphenamine maleate, was performed on chiral stationary phase of amylose ramification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on Chiralpak AD-H column and Chiralpak AS-H column with the mobile phase consisted of isopropanol and n-hexane. The detection wavelength and the flow rate were set at 254 nm and 0.7 mL/min, respectively. The effects of proportion of organic additives, alcohol displacer and temperature on the separation were investigated. The results indicated that eight chiral drugs were separated on chiral stationary phase of amylase ramification in normal phase chromatographic system. The chromatographic retention and resolution of enantiomers were adjusted by factors, including the changes of the concentration of alcohol displacer in mobile phase, organic alkaline modifier and column temperature. It was shown that the resolution was improved with reducing concentration of alcohol displacer. When the concentration of organic alkaline modifier was 0.2%, the resolution and the peak shape were fairly good. Most racemates mentioned above had the best resolution at column temperature of 25 °C. The best temperature should be kept unchanged in the process of separation so as to obtain stable separation results.

  18. White ash (Fraxinus americana) health in the Allegheny plateau region, Pennsylvania: Evaluating the relationship between FIA phase 3 crown variables and a categorical rating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Kathleen S. Knight; Jamie M. Himes; Ashley N. Will

    2012-01-01

    Following the detection of white ash (Fraxinus americana) decline in the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) of Pennsylvania, we established an intensified white ash monitoring network throughout the ANF. We rated crowns using both a categorical system as well as Forest Inventory and Analyses (FIA) Phase 3 measures of uncompacted live crown ratio,...

  19. Transformation abrogates an early G1-phase arrest point required for specification of the Chinese hamster DHFR replication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J R; Keezer, S M; Gilbert, D M

    1998-03-16

    The origin decision point (ODP) was originally identified as a distinct point during G1-phase when Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell nuclei experience a transition that is required for specific recognition of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) origin locus by Xenopus egg extracts. Passage of cells through the ODP requires a mitogen-independent protein kinase that is activated prior to restriction point control. Here we show that inhibition of an early G1-phase protein kinase pathway by the addition of 2-aminopurine (2-AP) prior to the ODP arrests CHO cells in G1-phase. Transformation with simian virus 40 (SV40) abrogated this arrest point, resulting in the entry of cultured cells into S-phase in the presence of 2-AP and a disruption of the normal pattern of initiation sites at the DHFR locus. Cells treated with 2-AP after the ODP initiated replication specifically within the DHFR origin locus. Transient exposure of transformed cells to 2-AP during the ODP transition also disrupted origin choice, whereas non-transformed cells arrested in G1-phase and then passed through a delayed ODP after removal of 2-AP from the medium. We conclude that mammalian cells have many potential sites at which they can initiate replication. Normally, events occurring during the early G1-phase ODP transition determine which of these sites will be the preferred initiation site. However, if chromatin is exposed to S-phase-promoting factors prior to this transition, mammalian cells, like Xenopus and Drosophila embryos, can initiate replication without origin specification.

  20. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Knee Joint Dysfunction after Operation on Fracture of Tibial Plateau with Chinese Herbal Fumigating and Washing Combining CPM%中药熏洗联合CPM治疗胫骨平台骨折术后膝关节功能障碍临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宗昌; 李无; 王战朝; 石福明; 孟庆阳

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察中药熏洗联合CPM治疗胫骨平台骨折术后功能障碍的临床疗效。方法:将54例胫骨平台骨折术后膝关节功能障碍的患者随机分为中药熏洗组、CPM组联合组,每组18例。中药熏洗组采用中药熏洗治疗,CPM组采用CPM机治疗,联合组以中药熏洗联合CPM机功能锻炼进行治疗。疗程均为3周。观察3组优良率及HSS评分。结果:联合组膝关节活动度优良率优于中药熏洗组和CPM组(P <0.05),中药熏洗组优于CPM组(P <0.05)。术后6个月随访时,联合组HSS评分及优良率均显著高于中药熏洗组和CPM组(P <0.05),中药熏洗组优于CPM组(P <0.05)。结论:中药熏洗联合CPM能够较好地治疗胫骨平台骨折术后膝关节功能障碍,松解膝关节周围软组织粘连,改善膝关节功能活动,临床效果较好。%Objective:To observe the clinical effect of Chinese herbal fumigating and washing combined with CPM in the treatment of knee joint dysfunction after operation on fracture of tibial plateau. Methods:54 cases of knee joint dysfunction after operation on fracture of tibial plateau fracture were randomly divided into a Chinese herbal fumigating and washing group(CHFWG),a CPM group,and a combined group,18 cases in each.The CHFWG was treated by Chinese herbal fumigating and washing,the CPM group by CPM alone and the combined group by Chinese herbal fumigating and washing combined with CPM.The three groups were treated for 3 weeks.Excellence rate and HSS score of the 3 groups were observed.Results:The excellence rate of the knee joint activity of the combined group was superior to those of the CHFWG and CPM group(P <0.05),and the excellence rate of the CHFWG was better than that of the CPM group(P <0.05). During the follow up after 6 months,the HSS score and excellence rate of the combined group were signiifcantly higher than those of the CHFWG and CPM group(P <0.05),and the CHFWG was better than

  1. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on the incidence of plateau at V˙O2max and associated cardiorespiratory dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan; Scruton, Adrian; Barnes, Richard; Baker, James; Prado, Luciano; Merzbach, Viviane

    2017-09-14

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of menstrual cycle phase on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and associated cardiodynamic responses. A total of 16 active females volunteered of which n = 10 formed the non-oral contraceptive pill group (n-OCP), displaying a regular menstrual cycle of 28·4 ± 2·2 days (age 20·6 ± 1·6 years, height 169·9 ± 6·4 cm, mass 68·7 ± 7·9 kg) and n = 6 formed the oral contraceptive pill group (OCP) (monophasic pill) (age 21·7 years ± 2·16, height 168·1 cm ± 6·8 cm, mass 61·6 ± 6·8 kg). Each completed four incremental exercise tests for determination of V˙O2max, cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate. Each test was completed according to the phases of the menstrual cycle as determined through salivary analysis of 17-β oestrodiol and progesterone. Non-significant differences were observed for V˙O2max across phases and between groups (P>0·05) with additional non-significant differences for Q˙max, HRmax and SVmax between groups. For ∆ V˙O2 during the final 60 s of the V˙O2max trial, significant differences were observed between OCP and n-OCP (Pmenstrual cycle phase but caution should be applied when evaluating maximal oxygen uptake in females who are administered a monophasic oral contraceptive pill. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Unifying Amplitude and Phase Analysis: A Compositional Data Approach to Functional Multivariate Mixed-Effects Modeling of Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipantelis, P Z; Aston, J A D; Müller, H G; Evans, J P

    2015-04-03

    Mandarin Chinese is characterized by being a tonal language; the pitch (or F0) of its utterances carries considerable linguistic information. However, speech samples from different individuals are subject to changes in amplitude and phase, which must be accounted for in any analysis that attempts to provide a linguistically meaningful description of the language. A joint model for amplitude, phase, and duration is presented, which combines elements from functional data analysis, compositional data analysis, and linear mixed effects models. By decomposing functions via a functional principal component analysis, and connecting registration functions to compositional data analysis, a joint multivariate mixed effect model can be formulated, which gives insights into the relationship between the different modes of variation as well as their dependence on linguistic and nonlinguistic covariates. The model is applied to the COSPRO-1 dataset, a comprehensive database of spoken Taiwanese Mandarin, containing approximately 50,000 phonetically diverse sample F0 contours (syllables), and reveals that phonetic information is jointly carried by both amplitude and phase variation. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  3. The Neogene tectonic evolution and climatic change of the Tianshui Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T.; Li, J.; Song, C.; Zhao, Z.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X.; Hui, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Tianshui Basin, located at the conjunction of NE Tibetan Plateau and Chinese Loess Plateau, has received intensive attention recently. Fine-grained Miocene sediment was identified as loess in its north part and this pushes the onset of Asian aridification into 22 Ma. However, our sedimentological, biomarker, pollen, diatom and mammalian fossils evidence propose that these sediments were suggested to be mudflat/distal fan and floodplain deposit instead of eolian deposit. So detailed tectonic background and climate reconstruction may illustrate the controversy and shed light on the tectonic, climate and ecology interactions. Here we report our integrated studies on the tectonic evolution, climate change and paleoecology reconstruction in the Tianshui basin. Based on the magnetostratigraphy and fossil mammal ages, sedimentological and detrital fission-track thermochronologic (DFT) analysis reveals four episodic tectonic uplift events occurred at ~20 Ma, ~14 Ma, ~9.2-7.4 Ma and ~3.6 Ma along the basin and its adjacent mountains. The timing of these activities at Western Qinling have been documented at many segments of the Tibetan Plateau, so most likely they were the remote response to the ongoing India-Asia collision. Pollen, mammalian fossils and biomarker data permit us to illustrate the paleoenvironment in the Tianshui Basin. During the period of ~17-10 Ma, the climate was generally warm-humid revealed by the broad-leaved forest and low Average Chain Length (ACL) values, when the Paltybelodon and Gomphotherium were roaming near an extensive aquatic setting. In addition, the observed Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum and Middle Miocene Climatic Transition events may be a terrestrial response to global climate changes. During the interval of ~10-6 Ma, the climate was relatively arid characterized by the rapid development of steppe and appearance of the Hipparion fauna, consistent with the biomarker proxy. Although the NE Tibetan Plateau experienced a phase of

  4. Food and petroleum resources from the Chinese tallow tree. Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheld, H.W.; Cameron, G.N.; Lester, L.J.; Mason, S.I.

    1983-12-15

    The general data base on the biology of the Chinese tallow tree (sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was expanded and specific data regarding its genetics and ecology were developed. A morphmetric study and a genetic characterization of the tree was made via isozyme electrophoresis as a basis for a crop-improvement program. Both flowers and seeds were analyzed electrophoretically. Observations were begun of the environmental effects of tallow forest and assessment of possible monoculture effects aimed at predicting impact upon the human environment and predicting potential pest and disease problems associated with large-scale cultivation of the tree. Average temperature was slightly higher in a prairie near the tallow forest, but probably was not different enough to adversely effect prairie organisms.

  5. Phase II study ofoxaliplatin combined withS-1 andleucovorin (SOL) forChinese patients withmetastatic colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhiQiangWang; RuiHuaXu; DongShengZhang; NongXu; DeYunLuo; YanHongDeng; FengHuaWang; HuiYanLuo; MiaoZhenQiu; YuHongLi

    2016-01-01

    Background:Fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin are widely used for patients with colorectal cancer. This phase II study was conducted to evaluate the effcacy and safety of the combination of S‑1, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin (SOL) in the treatment of Chinese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods:Eligible patients with untreated mCRC from four hospitals in China received intravenous oxaliplatin (85mg/m2) on day 1, oral S‑1 twice daily (80–120mg per day) on day 1–7, and leucovorin twice daily (50mg per day) simultaneously with S‑1, every 2weeks. Results and discussion:Forty patients were enrolled in our study. In total, 296 cycles of SOL were administered. The overall response rate was 50.0%. At a median follow‑up of 27months, progression‑free survival and overall survival were 7.0months (95% conifdence interval [CI] 6.0–10.6months) and 22.2months (95% CI 15.1–29.3months), respec‑tively. The most common grade 3/4 non‑hematological adverse events were diarrhea (n=8, 20.0%), nausea (n=3, 7.5%), and vomiting (n=3, 7.5%). The most common grade 3/4 hematological toxicities were thrombocytopenia (n=3, 7.5%), neutropenia (n=1, 2.5%), and abnormal alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase levels (n=1, 2.5%). There was one treatment‑related death. Conclusions:The data indicate that the SOL regimen is effective and moderately tolerated in Chinese patients with mCRC. Trial registration: Clinical trial information: ChiCTR‑TNRC‑100000838.

  6. Phase I Trial of Escalating-dose Cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil and Concurrent Radiotherapy in Chinese Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao,Yan-Nan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We defined the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD of chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin (CDDP with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and concurrent chemoradiotherapy for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer. Twenty-one previously untreated patients with primary esophageal cancer were entered into this study. Escalating doses of CDDP with 5-FU were administered in a modified Fibonacci sequence, with concurrent conventional fractionation radiotherapy (CFR of 60 Gy or 50 Gy. The starting doses were CDDP 37.5 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU 500 mg/m2 on days 1-5, respectively. The regimen was repeated 4 times every 28 days. If no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT was observed, the next dose level was applied. The procedures were repeated until DLT appeared. The MTD was declared to be 1 dose level below the level at which DLT appeared. DLT was grade 3 radiation-induced esophagitis at a dose level of CDDP 60 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 60 Gy CFR. MTD was defined as CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. The MTD of CDDP with 5-FU and in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer is CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5FU 700 mg/m2 on days 1-5, repeated 4 times every 28 days, and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. Further evaluation of this regimen in a prospective phase II trial is ongoing.

  7. Phase I trial of escalating-dose cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil and concurrent radiotherapy in Chinese patients with esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Gao, Xian-Shu; Qiao, Xue-Ying; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Kun; Zhao, Yan-Nan; Asaumi, Junichi

    2008-02-01

    We defined the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin (CDDP) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy) for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer. Twenty-one previously untreated patients with primary esophageal cancer were entered into this study. Escalating doses of CDDP with 5-FU were administered in a modified Fibonacci sequence, with concurrent conventional fractionation radiotherapy (CFR) of 60 Gy or 50 Gy. The starting doses were CDDP 37.5 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU 500 mg/m2 on days 1-5, respectively. The regimen was repeated 4 times every 28 days. If no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed, the next dose level was applied. The procedures were repeated until DLT appeared. The MTD was declared to be 1 dose level below the level at which DLT appeared. DLT was grade 3 radiation-induced esophagitis at a dose level of CDDP 60 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 60 Gy CFR. MTD was defined as CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. The MTD of CDDP with 5-FU and in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer is CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5FU 700 mg/m2 on days 1-5, repeated 4 times every 28 days, and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. Further evaluation of this regimen in a prospective phase II trial is ongoing.

  8. Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on intestinal mucosal permeability in early phase of severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; LI Fei; JIA Jian-guo; DIAO Yong-peng; LI Zong-xin; SUN Jia-bang

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine has been used widely for many years in China to treat acute pancreatitis.We have investigated the effects of Dachengqi decoction on intestinal mucosal permeability and outcome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).Methods Forty patients with sustained SAP that required admission to the surgical intensive care unit were enrolled prospectively in the study. All of these patients were divided randomly into the Dachengqi decoction group (n=20) and control group (n=20) on admission. Intestinal permeability was assessed by measuring absorption of two metabolically inert markers, lactulose (L) and mannitol (M), which were administered orally. Serum concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the ratio of lactulose to mannitol in urine (L/M) were detected in all patients.Results Compared with those in the control group, urinary L/M ratio decreased significantly in the Dachengqi decoction group on the 7th day after admission (P=0.001). Also, serum concentrations of LPS were reduced on the 5th and 7th day after admission (P=0.006, P=0.008, respectively). Incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and pancreatic infection was significantly lower in the Dachengqi decoction group compared with those in the control group (P=0.038, P=0.025, respectively).Conclusion Dachengqi decoction may promote the recovery of intestinal mucosal permeability and decrease the incidence of MODS and pancreatic infection in patients with SAP.

  9. Eocene Tibetan Plateau remnants preserved in the Northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, P. A.; van Melle, J.; Guillot, S.; Pêcher, A.; Reiners, P. W.; Nicolescu, S.; Latif, M.

    2009-04-01

    The northwest Himalaya shows strongly contrasting relief, opposing deeply incised mountain ranges characterized by extremely rapid exhumation and some of the highest peaks in the world (i.e., the Karakorum range and Nanga Parbat massif) to high-elevation, low-relief areas such as the 4000-m high Deosai plateau in northern Pakistan and the 5000-m high Tso Morari in Indian Ladakh. The origin and evolution of such plateau regions in the syntaxis of the most active continental collision in the world remain elusive. Here, we report the first low-temperature thermochronology (apatite fission-track, apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He) data from the Deosai plateau and use thermal history modelling to show that it has undergone continuous slow (≤ 200 m/Myr) denudation and has thus remained tectonically stable for the last 35 Myr at least. The inferred history of constant slow denudation of the plateau contradicts the hypothesis that widespread low-relief surfaces in the northwest Himalaya result from efficient, km-scale glacial erosion during Quaternary times; such erosion would have been recorded as a phase of rapid recent denudation that is not observed in the data. Slow continuous denudation since Eocene times, i.e. only 15-20 Myr after the onset of India-Asia collision implies that the Deosai plateau surface developed early in the Himalayan history and limits the phase of orogenic relief growth in the Ladakh-Kohistan arc to the early Paleogene. Although thermochronology data do not directly record surface uplift, the simplest explanation for the inferred constant denudation rates is that the plateau had reached its present-day elevation already during the Eocene, as a later phase of surface uplift would have triggered an erosional response that would have been recorded by the thermochronology data. We use morphological analyses to characterise such plateaux and identify them at the scale of the entire northwest Himalaya and compare our thermochronological data with

  10. Microscopic identification of Chinese medicinal materials based on X-ray phase contrast imaging: from qualitative to quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Liang, Z.; Tan, H.; Ni, L.; Zhao, Z.; Xiao, T.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    Although a variety of methods, ranging from simple morphological examination to physical and chemical analysis, and DNA molecular biology, exist for authenticating Chinese medicinal materials(CMMs), no methods can achieve both the source species identification and quality evaluation of CMMs simultaneously. Furthermore, the methods that are currently available for the identification of CMMs, including both optical and electronic microscopy, usually entail strict requirements for sample preparation or testing environment, such as the slicing of super-thin sections, or processing with specific chemical reagents. These treatments not only damage the CMMs but may also cause some of the original microstructures to be missed. Additionally, they may even yield false results. Owing to the unique penetrating character of X-rays, X-ray phase contrast imaging(XPCI) can be used to realize the inner microstructures of CMMs through nondestructive imaging. With the higher flux and luminance of the third generation of synchrotron radiation facility, XPCI can provides clearer and finer microstructures of CMMs, which are mainly composed of C, H, O, and N elements, with better spatial and density resolutions. For more than ten years, the X-ray imaging group at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics has investigated the microstructures of CMMs by XPCI and they have established and developed a quantitative X-ray phase contrast micro-CT for investigating the characteristic microstructures of CMMs. During this period, a variety of typical CMMs have been investigated, from two-dimensional (2D) radiography to three-dimensional (3D) micro-CT, from qualitative to quantitative. Taken together, these results verify that quantitative X-ray phase contrast micro-CT is a practical tool for the microscopic investigation of CMMs. Additionally, further efforts are being made to find the relationship between the microstructures' quantitative factors and active chemical components. At present

  11. Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rowlinson; B.P. Gompertz; M. Dainotti; R.A.M.J. Wijers; A.J. van der Horst

    2014-01-01

    An intrinsic correlation has been identified between the luminosity and duration of plateaus in the X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; Dainotti et al. 2008), suggesting a central engine origin. The magnetar central engine model predicts an observable plateau phase, with plateau durations an

  12. A phase I study on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of higenamine in healthy Chinese subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng FENG; Ji JIANG; Pei HU; Jian-yan ZHANG; Tao LIU; Qian ZHAO; Bi-lu LI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the pharmacokinetics,pharmacodynamics,and safety of higenamine,an active ingredient of Aconite root,in healthy Chinese volunteers.Methods:Ten subjects received continuous,intravenous infusion of higenamine at gradually escalating doses from 0.5 to 4.0μg.kg-1·min-1,each dose was given for 3 min.Blood and urine samples were collected at designated time points to measure the concentrations of higenamine.Pharmacodynamics was assessed by measuring the subject's heart rate.A nonlinear mixed-effect modeling approach,using the software Phoenix NLME,was used to model the plasma concentration-time profiles and heart rate.Results:Peak concentrations (Cmax) of higenamine ranged from 15.1 to 44.0 ng/mL.The half-life of higenamine was 0.133 h (range,0.107-0.166 h),while the area under concentration-time curve (AUC),extrapolated to infinity,was 5.39 ng·h·mL-1 (range,3.2-6.8ng·h·mL-1).The volume of distribution (V) was 48 L (range,30.8-80.6 L).The total clearance (CL) was 249 L/h (range,199-336L/h).Within 8 h,9.3% (range,4.6%-12.4%) of higenamine was recovered in the urine.The pharmacokinetics of higenamine was successfully described using a two-compartment model with nonlinear clearance.In the pharmacodynamic model,heart rates were related to the plasma drug concentrations using a simple direct effect model with baseline.The E0,Emax,and EC50 were 68 bpm,73bpm and 8.1 μg/L,respectively.Conclusion:Higenamine has desirable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics.The results provide important information for future clinical studies on higenamine.

  13. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  14. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  15. Modeling of two-phase anaerobic process treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Hu, Dongxue; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Ren, Nanqi; Zhu, Haibo

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to implement a mathematical model to simulate two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) process which consisted of an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in series treating traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater. A model was built on the basis of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) while considering complete mixing model for the CSTR, and axial direction discrete model and mixed series connection model for the UASB. The mathematical model was implemented with the simulation software package MATLABTM/Simulinks. System performance, in terms of COD removal, volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and pH fluctuation, was simulated and compared with the measured values. The simulation results indicated that the model built was able to well predict the COD removal rate (-4.8-5.0%) and pH variation (-2.9-1.4%) of the UASB reactor, while failed to simulate the CSTR performance. Comparing to the measured results, the simulated acetic acid concentration of the CSTR effluent was underpredicted with a deviation ratios of 13.8-23.2%, resulting in an underprediction of total VFA and COD concentrations despite good estimation of propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. It is presumed that ethanol present in the raw wastewater was converted into acetic acid during the acidification process, which was not considered by the model. Additionally, due to the underprediction of acetic acid the pH of CSTR effluent was overestimated.

  16. Posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, DuWayne A

    2005-02-01

    To present a case series of patients with posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated by direct fracture exposure and fixation through dual incisions. Retrospective clinical study. Level 1 trauma centers. Eight patients were identified that had posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Two patients had depressed posterolateral tibial plateau fractures with contained defects and did not have direct fracture exposure. One patient died of medical problems leaving 5 patients who underwent direct fracture exposure, reduction, and fixation. Posteromedial followed by posterolateral open reduction and internal fixation of posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. At 6 to 24 months follow-up (mean 13 months), all patients returned to near full activities, each with aching after prolonged standing (8-hour shift). Range of motion averaged 2 degrees to 121 degrees of flexion. Three of 5 returned to manual labor jobs; the others were not employed at the time of injury. Posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have a high association with lateral meniscal pathology and can be associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Reduction of the posterior plateau condyles is easiest with the knee in full extension. Flexion contractures can be a problem, and patients should be encouraged to regain/maintain knee extension. The dual-incision approach to these challenging fractures can result in good to excellent knee function for these patients.

  17. Online solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for the determination of five tannins in traditional Chinese medicine injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Lin, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Shaohua; Wang, Sicen

    2016-03-01

    A rapid analytical method based on online solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry has been established and applied to the determination of tannin compounds that may cause adverse effects in traditional Chinese medicine injections. Different solid-phase extraction sorbents have been compared and the elution buffer was optimized. The performance of the method was verified by evaluation of recovery (≥40%), repeatability (RSD ≤ 6%), linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.993), and limit of quantification (≤0.35 μg/mL). Five tannin compounds, gallic acid, cianidanol, gallocatechin gallate, ellagic acid, and penta-O-galloylglucose, were identified with concentrations ranging from 3.1-37.4 μg/mL in the analyzed traditional Chinese medicine injections.

  18. Excessive afforestation and soil drying on China's Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulei; Yang, Dawen

    2017-04-01

    Afforestation and deforestation are human disturbances to vegetation, which have profound impacts on regional eco-hydrological processes, the water and carbon cycles, and consequently, ecosystem sustainability. Since 1999, large scale revegetation has been carried out across China's Loess Plateau following the "Grain-to-Green Program" implemented by the Chinese government. This revegetation, particularly with forest, has caused negative eco-hydrological consequences, including streamflow decline and soil drying. Here, we have used "ecosystem optimality theory" and satellite observations, to assess the water balance under the climate-defined optimal and actual vegetation cover during 1982-2010 and its responses to future climate change (2011-2050) over the Loess Plateau. Results show that the current vegetation cover (0.48 on average) has already exceeded the climate-defined optimal cover (0.43 on average) in the most recent decade, especially in the middle-to-east Loess Plateau, indicating that it is the widespread over-planting, which is primarily responsible for soil drying in the area. In addition, both the optimal vegetation cover and soil moisture tend to decrease under future climate scenarios. Our findings suggest that further revegetation on the Loess Plateau should be applied with caution. To maintain a sustainable eco-hydrological environment in the region, a revegetation threshold should be urgently set, to limit future planting.

  19. Factor analysis and cluster analysis research on the relationship between the trace elements of flowers of Gentianaceae plants and the traditional Chinese medicine efficacy from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libing

    2017-06-01

    Flowers of Gentianaceae plants have historically been used in treating gastritis, dysuria, pruritus vulvae and detoxification. Gentianaceae plants have medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic arthritis, pneumonia along with cough, chronic gastritis, et al Therefore, the research on the relationship between human health and trace elements of flowers of Gentianaceae plants is of great significance. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational relation development of Gentianaceae plants resources as well as the relationship between the race elements of them and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy.

  20. Effects of proliferation on the decay of thermotolerance in Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E P; Li, G C; Hahn, G M

    1985-09-01

    Development and decay of thermotolerance were observed in Chinese hamster HA-1 cells. The thermotolerance kinetics of exponentially growing and fed plateau-phase cells were compared. Following a 10-min heat exposure at 45 degrees C, cells in both growth states had similar rates of development of tolerance to a subsequent 45-min exposure at 45 degrees C. This thermotolerant state started to decay between 12 and 24 hr after the initial heat exposure. The decay appeared to initiate slightly sooner in the exponentially growing cells when compared to the fed plateau-phase cells. During the decay phase, the rate of thermotolerance decay was similar in the two growth conditions. In other experiments, cells were induced to divide at a slower rate by chronic growth (3 months) in a low concentration of fetal calf serum. Under these low serum conditions cells became more sensitive to heat and the rate of decay of thermotolerance remained the same for exponentially growing cells. Plateau-phase cells were also more sensitive, but thermotolerance decayed more rapidly in these cells. Although dramatic cell cycle perturbations were seen in the exponentially growing cells, these changes appeared not to be related to thermotolerance kinetics.

  1. 国人胫骨平台截骨面与国人膝关节假体的涵盖率分析%Analysis of coverage situation between the Chinese tibial plateau cross section and the domestic knee prosthesis tibial module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑寅峰; 曲铁兵; 郭璇瑛; 潘江; 张博

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To measure Chinese normal proximal tibia sectional line, plane parameters, and sequence coverage between it and a new domestic knee prosthesis tibia assembly (CY - knee) designed by the author, in order to provide data support for tile design of CY - knee. [Methods] Totally 127 normal Chinese (210 knees, including 70 male and 57 female), with average age of 45. 8 years (ranged, 19-81 years) were chosen for this study. The proximal tibia sectional medial -lateral and anterior - posterior lengths under definite osteotomy altitude and retroverted angle were measured by means of CT scan and three - dimensinal reconstruction. Sequence coverage for new tyupe domestic knee prosthesis tibia assembly (CY - knee) was researched through 5mm tolerance range way. [ Results] The average medial - lateral and anterior - posterior lengths of the proximal tibia resected surfaces were 75.00 ±4. 87 and 51. 39 ±4. 06 mm, respectively. The average coverage situation fromthis new domestic knee prosthesis tibial module to tibial cross section in the total knee arthroplasty operation was 89%. [ Conclusion ] The geometry and anatomy of proximal tibia in Chinese people has shown significant difference compared with western people. Compared with the imported knee joint prosthesis, this new domestic knee prosthesis tibial medule has better coverage situation , and is far more suited for TKA in Chinese.%[目的]测量国人正常胫骨近端截面的线面参数,并与作者自主研发的新型国产膝关节假体胫骨组件(CY-knee)进行涵盖率分析,从而为新型国产人工膝关节假体(CY-knee)的设计提供数据支持.[方法]随机选取健康国人志愿者共120人(210膝),其中男性68例(126膝),女性52例(84膝).年龄19~81岁,平均45.8岁.通过CT三维重建测量一定截骨高度、一定后倾角度胫骨近端截面的横径及前后径,并利用5 mm容差范围法与新型国人膝关节假体胫骨组件(CY-knee)进行涵盖率研究.[结果]

  2. Intraoperative study on anthropometry and gender differences of the proximal tibial plateau at the arthroplasty resection surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Yu Jiakuo; Gong Xi; Chen Lianxu; Wang Yongjian; Wang Jian; Wang Haijun

    2014-01-01

    Background The tibial plateau is asymmetric with a larger medial plateau.We observed from clinical practice that the shape of the tibial plateau does not always present a larger medial plateau.Tibial plateau also showed other shapes.The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data of the proximal tibia in a large group of Chinese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and to investigate the morphology of the resected proximal tibial surface and its gender differences.Methods A total of 822 knees (164 males,658 females) from the Chinese population were measured intraoperatively for medial anteroposterior (MAP) and lateral anteroposterior (LAP) dimensions of the resected proximal tibial surface.The difference of MAP and LAP (DML) was also calculated as MAP minus LAP.We then classified the data into three groups based on the DML (<-2,-2 to 2,and >2 mm) to analyze the morphology of the proximal tibia and its distribution between male and female.Results The shape of proximal tibial plateau was of three types:larger medial plateau type,symmetric type,and larger lateral plateau type.There were significant differences between males and females in relation to the shape distribution of the proximal tibial plateau (P <0.05).Most of the proximal tibial plateau was asymmetric,with 517 of 822 (62.9%) tibia having a DML >2 mm and 120 of 822 (14.6%) tibia having a DML<-2 mm.Only 185 of 822 (22.5%) tibia had a DML between-2 and 2 mm.Conclusion The results of this study can be used as a guideline to design tibial components with different DMLs to better match the different anthropometry of the resected tibial surface.

  3. Genetic evidence of paleolithic colonization and neolithic expansion of modern humans on the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuebin; Cui, Chaoying; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Kun; Cao, Xiangyu; Wang, Yi; Ouzhuluobu; Basang; Ciwangsangbu; Bianba; Gonggalanzi; Wu, Tianyi; Chen, Hua; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization remains an unsolved question of human prehistory. To reconstruct the prehistoric colonization and demographic history of modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau, we systematically sampled 6,109 Tibetan individuals from 41 geographic populations across the entire region of the Tibetan Plateau and analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of both paternal (n = 2,354) and maternal (n = 6,109) lineages as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers (n = 50) in Tibetan populations. We found that there have been two distinct, major prehistoric migrations of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau. The first migration was marked by ancient Tibetan genetic signatures dated to approximately 30,000 years ago, indicating that the initial peopling of the Tibetan Plateau by modern humans occurred during the Upper Paleolithic rather than Neolithic. We also found evidences for relatively young (only 7-10 thousand years old) shared Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes between Tibetans and Han Chinese, suggesting a second wave of migration during the early Neolithic. Collectively, the genetic data indicate that Tibetans have been adapted to a high altitude environment since initial colonization of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Upper Paleolithic, before the last glacial maximum, followed by a rapid population expansion that coincided with the establishment of farming and yak pastoralism on the Plateau in the early Neolithic.

  4. [Plasma metabonomic studies on the stable phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients of Fei-qi deficiency syndrome and the Chinese materia medica intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-gang; Li, Ze-geng; Peng, Bo

    2011-12-01

    By using the metabonomics method, to study the plasma metabonomics of the stable phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients of Fei-qi deficiency syndrome (FQDS), and of Chinese materia medica (CMM) intervention, thus exploring possibly existent biomarkers. Forty stable phase COPD patients of FQDS were recruited as Group A. Liuwei Buqi Capsule (LWBQC) was given to them as intervention. A healthy control group (Group B, 37 cases) was set up. The pulmonary function test was performed on patients in Group B and Group A before and after intervention. The plasma metabolites were detected using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Statistical data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). The original spectrum and data of plasma metabonomics were compared between the two groups. The whole spectrum amino acid metabonomics tests were performed in the two groups. Compared with Group B, the pulmonary function significantly decreased before intervention in Group A (P plasma metabonomics, and potential markers could be detected. The intervention of the stable phase COPD patients of FQDS by Chinese medicine could brought positive changes in the metabolic profiling and amino acid metabolism.

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of Late Cenozoic fossil mammals in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A number of fossil mammals have been found in the very thick Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Guide Basin in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Some of these are of great significance in mammal evolution and stratigraphic correlation on and around the Tibetan Plateau and North China. However, the chronology of these mammals is poorly constrained. Dating of the mammals will not only place precise age constraints on the mammals, but also provide much information on the related stratigraphy that records the uplift process of the Tibetan Plateau. Detailed paleomagnetism of the upper part of the Cenozoic stratigraphy at He'erjia and Lajigai north of Guide County has revealed magnetic chrons that can be correlated to Gauss and 3An chrons, determining the section spanning about 3.1-6.5 Ma and the first, second and third layers of fossil mammals at about 5.25, 5.1 and 4.4 Ma, respectively. Ages of the significant genus Gazella kueitensis and the Chinese elephant Anancus sinensis are firstly constrained at about 5.25 MaBP and 4.4 Ma, respectively. The mammalian evolution and the associated increase in coarse sediments and sedimentation rate may suggest that the northeastern Tibetan Plateau was uplifted rapidly at that time, and the eastern Tibetan Plateau with its neighboring regions was not high enough to stop mammal exchange between the northern and southern sides of the Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Integer quantum Hall effect in a triangular-lattice: Disorder effect and scaling behavior of the insulator-plateau transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H. L.; Jiang, C.; Zhai, Z. Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate numerically the integer quantum Hall effect in a three-band triangular-lattice model. The three bands own the Chern number C=2,-1,-1, respectively. The lowest topological flat band carrying Chern number C=2, which leads to the Hall plateau σH = 2 (e2 / h) . This Hall plateau is sensitive to the disorder scattering and is rapidly destroyed by the weak disorder. Further increasing the strength of disorder, the gap of density of states always disappears before the vanishing of the corresponding Hall plateau. The scaling behavior of quantum phase transition between an insulator and a quantum Hall plateau is studied. We find that the insulator-plateau transition becomes sharper with increasing the size of system. Due to the different of edge states, the critical energy Ec1 gradually shifts to the center of Hall plateau while Ec2 is unaffected with increasing the disorder strength.

  7. The Pajarito Plateau: a bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D.

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography is the result of two initially independent projects. As the consulting archaeologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Charlie R. Steen collected entries at the suggestion of the staff of the Environmental Surveillance Group of the Health, Safety, and Environmental Division, HSE-8. The primary purpose was to aid the staff in evaluating cultural resources on LANL lands. In addition to works that related to the archaeology and history of the area, Steen included notations of a few books and articles in other fields such as geology and natural history. It was hoped that they also would be of value to other organizations and to students of past human activities on the Pajarito Plateau.At the same time, the National Park Service (NPS) was planning a major survey of Bandelier National Monument (BNM). As part of this plan, the author was asked to prepare a background document that described research previously carried out in the area, including an annotated bibliography. Although the survey would be limited to the park boundaries, the larger Pajarito Plateau is a more logical study area from physiographic, environmental, and cultural perspectives; hence the focus was on this larger region. Mathien (1986) also included some references to natural resources studies, particularly those initiated by NPS within Bandelier National Monument.Both bibliographies were made available to Colleen Olinger and Beverly Larson of the Health and Environmental Services Group at Los Alamos. They realized that while neither was complete, each included entries missing from the other. Larson suggested the two bibliographies be combined. (At this time, Craig Allen was studying the landscape of the Jemez Mountains [Allen 1984c, 1989]. His investigations included much detailed information on natural resource studies and were added in 1991 and 1992.)To limit the scope of their work, Steen and Mathien had chosen their parameter: the Pajarito Plateau. Geographically, the

  8. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  9. 近50年气候变化对青藏高原牧草生产潜力及物候期的影响*%Impactofclimatechangeonpotentialproductivityandphenologicalphase offorageintheQinghai-TibetPlateauinthepast50years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪雁; 万文玉; 王伟军

    2016-01-01

    roseduringthenearly50-yearperiod,increasingby0.53 ℃•(10a)-1.Precipitationgenerallyincreasedattherateof7.81 mm•(10a)-1, whilesunshinedurationdecreasedby16.94h•(10a)-1.PotentialclimateproductivityofforageintheQinghai-TibetPlateaupresentedanincreasingtrendfrom1965to2013,andspatialchangesoftheproductivity,inturn, increasedfromnorthwesttosoutheast. Then potential climate productivity of forage in the north andsouthintheplateausignificantlyincreasedandtherewaslessvariationintheeastoftheplateau.Furthermore,theregreening,heading and blossoming of forages advanced, while yellowing and withering delayed year after year, which extended theforagesphenologicalphases.Regreeningstageofforagedelayedfromsoutheasttonorthwest,althoughwitheringstageshowednoobviouschange.Underdrierandwarmerconditions,phenologicalperiodsofgrasslandvegetationintheregionbecameclosely related to climate change. Then precipitation and sunshine duration were negatively correlated with phenologicalperiodofthegrasslandvegetation.Temperaturewasthedominantconstraintonphenologicalphasesofgrasslandvegetationinthe study area. The study formed a relevant reference and basis for the protection of grassland ecosystems and enhancingpotentialclimateproductivityinQinghai-TibetPlateau.%基于青藏高原及周边107个气象站点1965—2013年逐月气温、降水及日照时数等气象数据,分析了1965年以来青藏高原区的气候变化趋势,并采用 MODIS 数据、ThornthwaiteMemorial 模型及 GIS 技术分析了近50 a 青藏高原牧草气候生产潜力及其时空变化特征;利用连续22 a 的青藏高原牧草生育期观测数据,探讨了牧草生育期的时空变化特征及气象因子与牧草主要发育期的关系。结果表明:1)近50a 青藏高原平均气温呈上升趋势,升温幅度达0.53

  10. Organic carbon isotope and molecular fossil records of vegetation evolution in central Loess Plateau since 450 kyr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Bin; Wali, Guzalnur; Peterse, Francien; Bird, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Significant uncertainties remain regarding the temporal evolution of natural vegetation during the Quaternary, and drivers of past vegetation change, on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). This study presents analyses of total organic carbon isotopic composition (TOC) and n-alkane ratios (C31/C27) from

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus-16/18AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese females aged 15 to 45 years: a phase I trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Cai Zhu; Chang-Gui Li; Hong-Xing Pan; Yi-Ju Zhang; Dan Bi; Hai-Wen Tang; Sanjoy Datta

    2011-01-01

    Globally,about 70% of cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 or HPV-18 infection. A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies in China showed that HPV was present in 98% of cervical cancer samples. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine Cervarix(R)* has shown a high level of protection against HPV-16/18 infections and associated cervical lesions. This phase I trial (NCT00549900)assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the vaccine in Chinese. Thirty healthy Chinese females, aged 15 to 45 years with a median age of 29.5 years, received three doses of Cervarix(R) in Months 0, 1, and 6. Safety was assessed via recording solicited local and systemic symptoms within 7days and unsolicited symptoms within 30 days after each vaccination. Serious adverse events, new onset of chronic diseases, and other medically significant conditions were recorded throughout this trial. As an exploratory objective, HPV-16/18 antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples collected in Months 0 and 7. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported local symptom. Two subjects reported medically significant adverse events. Both cases were assessed as unrelated to vaccination by the investigator. In Month 7, 100% seroconversion was observed for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 with high geometric mean antibody titers. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine,evaluated for the first time in Chinese females, was generally well tolerated and immunogenic, as previously shown in global studies.

  12. Simultaneous determination of 10 components in traditional Chinese medicine Dachaihu Granule by reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfei Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dachaihu Granule, commonly used for treating cholecystitis, is derived from a famous traditional Chinese formula named Dachaihu Decoction. No analytical method has been reported for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds for quality control in Dachaihu Granule so far. Objective: To develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with diode array detector (DAD for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds (paeoniflorin, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and baicalin in traditional Chinese medicine Dachaihu Granule. Materials and Methods : The samples were separated on a Kromasil C 18 (250 × 4.6 mm,i.d. with 5.0 μm particle sizecolumn with multi-wavelength detection method by a gradient elution using acetonitrile (A and 0.2% acetic acid (B as the mobile phase. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm for paeoniflorin, 254 nm for aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion, 280 nm for naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and baicalin. Results: The developed method provided satisfactory precision and the accuracy of this method was in the range from 94.0% to 103.1%, all of the 10 compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.999 in a detected concentration range. Conclusion: The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneously of these active components in Dachaihu Granule from different production batches.

  13. Observation of the Zero Hall Plateau in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Liguo; Zhao, Dongyang; Jiang, Gaoyuan; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yayu

    2015-09-16

    We report experimental investigations on the quantum phase transition between the two opposite Hall plateaus of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator. We observe a well-defined plateau with zero Hall conductivity over a range of magnetic field around coercivity when the magnetization reverses. The features of the zero Hall plateau are shown to be closely related to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but its temperature evolution exhibits a significant difference from the network model for a conventional quantum Hall plateau transition. We propose that the chiral edge states residing at the magnetic domain boundaries, which are unique to a quantum anomalous Hall insulator, are responsible for the novel features of the zero Hall plateau.

  14. Monitoring vegetation phenology and their response to climate change on Chinese Loess Plateau based on remote sensing%基于遥感的黄土高原植被物候监测及其对气候变化的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宝妮; 秦占飞; 王洋; 常庆瑞

    2015-01-01

    It is crucial to understand vegetation phenology changes and their relationship with climate change at biome-level when projecting regional ecosystem carbon exchange and climate-biosphere interactions. To further understand the relationship between vegetation growth and climatic factors, in this study, we investigated the variation in vegetation phenology and its linkage with climate change on the Chinese Loess Plateau through analyzing the Land Long Term Data Record (LTDR) NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and concurrent temperature and precipitation during 1982-2011. Firstly, the maximum value composite (MVC) method was used to composite the 10 d LTDR NDVI dataset in order to reduce effects of atmospheric and cloud noise. The Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) method of HANTS software was used to filter points which were still affected by cloud noise after the MVC was used composite and reconstruct the NDVI time series datasets. Secondly, the 30-year average seasonal NDVI curves for the whole study area and each vegetation type were calculated. Pixels with yearly mean values below 0.1 were excluded from the analysis to ensure the inclusion of sparsely vegetated areas in the analysis. The relative change ratio of NDVI was then calculated from the 30-year average NDVI seasonal curves. We then used the maximum and minimum values for relative change ratio of NDVI as the threshold for the onset dates of vegetation green-up (the beginning of growing season, BGS) and dormancy (the end of growing season, EGS). Finally, linear least square regression was employed to estimate the trends of phenology. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the EGS/ BGS and mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation. The results showed that vegetation phenology in the study area generally commenced on Julian day 96-150 for natural vegetation and 72-112 for artificial vegetation. The vegetation dormancy usually began on Julian day 283

  15. Exploration in Newnes Plateau, NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.; McQuade, C. [Pasminco Port Pirie Smelter, NSW (Australia)

    1999-06-01

    Underground coal mining operations in the Western Coalfields of NSW extend into the Newnes Plateau area. The Newnes Plateau area is known for its floral diversity and distinctive topography. A quantitative flora assessment concerning rehabilitation performance of exploration sites was undertaken to refine the environmental component of the exploration process and identify practices that may assist in an improved rate of regeneration within disturbed areas. This article briefly summarises the method and key outcomes of the study, undertaken as part of an Honours Degree program. Surveys of sites showed that plant height was reduced due to vehicle traffic compacting soil, and this also led to a reduced number of plant species and a reduced number of seedlings germinating. Percentage litter cover was found to be positively correlated with the number of species on the sites and the percent plant cover of the regenerating vegetation, shallow surface ripping is recommended to relieve soil compaction. Seeds should be collected from exploration sites prior to disturbance, particularly of species like Banksia and Haken that retain their seed on the plant. Seed should then be dispersed after work has finished. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  16. Analysis of dynamic changes in the proteome of a Bcl-XL overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cell culture during exponential and stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlage, Tyler; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Zang, Li; Janakiraman, Vijay; Hincapie, Marina; Lyubarskaya, Yelena; Weiskopf, Andy; Hancock, William S

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian cell cultures used for biopharmaceutical production undergo various dynamic biological changes over time, including the transition of cells from an exponential growth phase to a stationary phase during cell culture. To better understand the dynamic aspects of cell culture, a quantitative proteomics approach was used to identify dynamic trends in protein expression over the course of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody and overexpressing the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Samples were analyzed using a method incorporating iTRAQ labeling, two-dimensional LC/MS, and linear regression calculations to identify significant dynamic trends in protein abundance. Using this approach, 59 proteins were identified with significant temporal changes in expression. Pathway analysis tools were used to identify a putative network of proteins associated with cell growth and apoptosis. Among the differentially expressed proteins were molecular chaperones and isomerases, such as GRP78 and PDI, and reported cell growth markers MCM2 and MCM5. In addition, two proteins with growth-regulating properties, transglutaminase-2 and clusterin, were identified. These proteins are associated with tumor proliferation and apoptosis and were observed to be expressed at relatively high levels during stationary phase, which was confirmed by western blotting. The proteomic methodology described here provides a dynamic view of protein expression throughout a CHO fed-batch cell culture, which may be useful for further elucidating the biological processes driving mammalian cell culture performance. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. Insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obese Chinese with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Gu, Wei-qiong; Zhang, Yu-wen; Su, Yu-xia; Chi, Zhen-ni; Wang, Wei-qing; Li, Xiao-ying; Ning, Guang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obesity with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l, post-loading hyperglycemia, PLH) in Chinese population. A total of 196 nondiabetic subjects were included in the present study, among them 99 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, subdivided into 32 lean NGT and 67 obese NGT), 74 had obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 23 had obesity with PLH. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed after fasting and at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) was assessed by the Bergman's minimal model method with frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT), insulin secretion was determined by acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg). The disposition index (DI), the product of AIRg and S(I) was used to determine whether AIRg was adequate to compensate for insulin resistance. S(I) was significantly equally lower in three obese subgroups. AIRg was significantly increased in obese NGT as compared with lean NGT controls, and reduced to the same extent in IGT and PLH subjects. There was no significant difference among lean NGT, IGT and PLH subjects. DI value was reduced from obese NGT individuals, IGT and PLH subjects had a similar lower level of DI. In conclusion, our present results demonstrated that the pathophysiological basis of obese subjects with PLH were clearly insulin resistance and defective in first-phase insulin secretion as that in IGT subjects in Chinese population.

  18. A Possible Cause for Different Diurnal Variations of Warm Season Rainfall as Shown in Station Observations and TRMM 3B42 Data over the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Haoming; YUAN Weihua; LI Jian; YU Rucong

    2012-01-01

    In this study,records from a 3-yr intensified observational experiment at eight stations along the hillside of Seqilashan over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau were analyzed and combined with records at 28 routine observation stations in the Chinese National Meteorological Station Network to investigate the influences of station location on the different diurnal rainfall variations between station records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products.The results indicate that the diurnal variation of warm season rainfall is closely related to location of stations.The prevailing nocturnal rainfall peak in observations at routine stations can be largely attributed to the relatively lower location of the stations,which are mostly situated in valleys.The records at Seqilashan stations on hillsides revealed an evident diurnal afternoon peak of warm season rainfall,similar to that indicated by TRMM data.The different diurnal phases between valley and hillside stations are closely related to the orographically induced regional circulations caused by the complex topography over the Tibetan Plateau.The results of this study indicate that the prevailing nocturnal rainfall associated with the relatively lower location of routine observation stations can partially explain the diurnal rainfall variations between observation station records and TRMM data.

  19. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By studying hand- and footprints in Chusang, Meyer et al. (2016) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene without the help of agriculture. However, we think the limited hand- and footprints evidence found in Chusang could indicate no more than prehistoric hunter-gatherers presence on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. In addition, by reviewing all the published archaeological data, we propose that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) when human adapted to the high altitude environment and climate change with different strategies and techniques. Particularly, the prevail of microlithic technology in North China provoked hunter-gatherers' first visit to the NETP in relatively ameliorated last Deglacial period, and the the quick development of millet farming and subsequent mixed barley-wheat farming and sheep herding facilitated farmers and herders permanently settled in Tibetan Plateau, even above 3000 masl, during mid- and late Holocene. References: Chen et al., 2015. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347: 248-250. Meyer et al., 2016

  20. A Catalog of Proteins Expressed in the AG Secreted Fluid during the Mature Phase of the Chinese Mitten Crabs (Eriocheir sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Li, Qing; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Yuanli; Xie, Jing; Yang, Hongdan; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The accessory gland (AG) is an important component of the male reproductive system of arthropods, its secretions enhance fertility, some AG proteins bind to the spermatozoa and affect its function and properties. Here we report the first comprehensive catalog of the AG secreted fluid during the mature phase of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). AG proteins were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Altogether, the mass spectra of 1173 peptides were detected (1067 without decoy and contaminants) which allowed for the identification of 486 different proteins annotated upon the NCBI database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and our transcritptome dataset. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited at the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000700. An extensive description of the AG proteome will help provide the basis for a better understanding of a number of reproductive mechanisms, including potentially spermatophore breakdown, dynamic functional and morphological changes in sperm cells and sperm acrosin enzyme vitality. Thus, the comprehensive catalog of proteins presented here can serve as a valuable reference for future studies of sperm maturation and regulatory mechanisms involved in crustacean reproduction.

  1. Compressive Tectonics around Tibetan Plateau Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhixin; Xu Jiren

    2009-01-01

    Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions, stress field, and other geophysical data were analyzed for study on the crust movement in the Tibetan plateau and its tectonic implications. The results show that numbers of thrust fault and strike-slip fault type earthquakes with strong compressive stress near NNE-SSW direction occurred in the edges around the plateau except the eastern boundary. Some normal faulting type earthquakes concentrate in the Central Tibetan plateau. The strikes of fault planes of thrust and strike-slip faulting earthquakes are almost in the E-W direction based on the analyses of the Wulff stereonet diagrams of fault plane solutions. This implies that the dislocation slip vectors of the thrust and strike-slip faulting type events have quite great components in the N-S direction. The compression motion mainly probably plays the tectonic active regime around the plateau edges. The compressive stress in N-S or NE-SW directions predominates earthquake occurrence in the thrust and strike-slip faulting event region around the plateau. The compressive motion around the Tibetan plateau edge is attributable to the northward motion of the Indian subcontinent plate. The northward motion of the Tibetan plateau shortened in the N-S direction encounters probably strong obstructions at the western and northern margins.

  2. Long-term exhumation history of the Inner Mongolian Plateau constrained by apatite fission track analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Jolivet, Marc; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Jianfeng; Tang, Wenhao

    2016-01-01

    The Inner Mongolian Plateau, along the southeastern flank of the wider Mongolian Plateau, is a vast undulating surface ranging in elevation between 900 and 1500 m above sea level. The peculiar topography of this area is assumed to be closely related to its complex tectono-thermal evolution since Late Paleozoic. The lithospheric structure of the Plateau includes three continental blocks: the Mandula and the Bart Obo blocks form the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in that area, and to the south, the Plateau includes the northern margin of the North China Craton. Apatite fission track (AFT) ages and track length distributions from 13 basement outcrops situated in the main tectonic blocks forming the Inner Mongolian Plateau were determined in order to reconstruct its denudation history. The thermal histories inferred from these data imply multi-phased, differential exhumation/burying processes from the Late Paleozoic to the Early Cretaceous. This complex thermal history is largely related to the Early/Middle Triassic closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, the Jurassic closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean, and the Early Cretaceous orogenic collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk belt. Finally, since Late Cretaceous, no further major tectonic movement occurred and the Inner Mongolian Plateau has been largely peneplained.

  3. Using a Learning Cycle to Deepen Chinese Primary Students' Concept Learning of the "Phases of the Moon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the internal conditions of students' concept learning and builds a learning cycle' based on the "phases of the Moon" (MP) to, deepen students' understanding. The learning cycle of MP developed in this study includes three basic learning links, which are: cognitive conflict, abstraction and generalization, and…

  4. Constructions of new plateaued functions from known ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weiguo; Ding Yong; Zhang Ning; Xiao Guozhen

    2008-01-01

    A number of methods for constructing new plateaued functions from known ones are presented. By properly combining the known plateaued functions it is possible to get highly nonlinear resilient plateaued functions. The order, resiliency and propagation characteristics of the constructed plateaued functions are discussed. We show the new functions could possess the desirable cryptographic property.

  5. Argalis on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The argali are listed by the State as animals subject tosecond-class protection,and no killing is allowed. The international communitylists argali on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as animals that must not be hunted.

  6. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  7. Pyramid Schemes on the Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Devin Gonier; Rgyal yum sgrol ma

    2012-01-01

    The unique features of pyramid schemes and certain underlying causes for their development on the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed. Research was conducted by analyzing 521 surveys, allowing estimation of pyramid scheme activity on the Plateau and an identification of related cultural and social specificities. Firsthand accounts were collected revealing details of personal involvement. Survey data and similarities in the accounts were studied to suggest how involvement in pyramid schemes might be ...

  8. The Estimation of First-Phase Insulin Secretion by Using Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-diann Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. There are two phases of insulin secretion, the first (FPIS and second phase (SPIS. In this study, we built equations to predict FPIS with metabolic syndrome (MetS components and fasting plasma insulin (FPI. Methods. Totally, 186 participants were enrolled. 75% of participants were randomly selected as the study group to build equations. The remaining 25% of participants were selected as the external validation group. All participants received a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, and acute insulin response after the glucose load (AIRg was obtained. The AIRg was considered as FPIS. Results. When MetS components were only used, the following equation was built: log (FPIS = 1.477 − 0.119 × fasting plasma glucose (FPG + 0.079 × body mass index (BMI − 0.523 × high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. After FPI was added, the second equation was formulated: log (FPIS = 1.532 − 0.127 × FPG + 0.059 × BMI - 0.511 × HDL-C + 0.375 × log (FPI, which provided a better accuracy than the first one. Conclusions. Using MetS components, the FPIS could be estimated accurately. After adding FPI into the equation, the predictive power increased further. We hope that these equations could be widely used in daily practice.

  9. Climatic features of atmospheric heat source/sink over theQinghai-Xizang Plateau in 35 years and its relation torainfall in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Ping

    2001-01-01

    [1]Yeh, T. C., Gao, Y. X., The Meteorology of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1979, 2-59.[2]Ji, G. L., Yao, L. C., Yuan, F. M. et al., Characteristics of surface and atmospheric heating fields over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau during the winter in 1982, Science in China, Ser. B, 1986, 29(8): 876-888.[3]Chen. L. X., Reiter, E. R., Feng, Z. Q., The atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan plateau: May-August 1979. Mon.Wea. Rev., 1985, 113(10): 1771-1790.[4]Yanai, M., Li, C., Song, Z. S., Seasonal heating of the Tibetan plateau and its effects on the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 1992, 70(1): 319-350.[5]Zhao, P., Chen, L. X., The climate characteristics of surface turbulent exchange coefficients and surface heat source over the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 2000, 14(1): 13-29.[6]Zhao, P., Chen, L. X., The calculation of solar albedo and radiation balance and the analysis of their climate characteristics over the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 2000, 17(1): 140-156.[7]Fu, C. B., Wang, Q., The definition and detection of the abrupt climatic change, Scientia Atmospheria Sinica (in Chinese),1992. 16 (4): 482-493.

  10. Thermochronological evidence for multi-phase uplifting of the East Kunlun Mountains, northern Tibetan Plateau%东昆仑造山带多期隆升历史的地质热年代学证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宣华; Michael W. MCRIVETTE; 李丽; 尹安; 蒋荣宝; 万景林; 李会军

    2011-01-01

    Multiple phases of Mesozoic and Cenozoic cooling and uplifting events are derived from fission track (FT) dating of zircons and apatites and thermal history modeling of apatite FT ages from several plutons in East Kunlun near Golmud City. Two phases of Mesozoic cooling histories revealed by zircon FT ages are phase I in Jurassic (194.1 -144.4 Ma) and phase II in Early Cretaceous (115.7~100.2 Ma). Three phases of Cenozoic cooling histories revealed by apatite FT ages and thermal history modeling are phase I in early Eocene (~52.9 Ma), phase II in middle Miocene (16.3~10.0 Ma), and phase III in Pliocene (5.1~0.9 Ma), which are considered to be closely related to the activity of Cenozoic East Kunlun thrust system. Cenozoic phase I (~52.9 Ma) cooling is consistent with the short time living of a small foreland basin formed on the north margin of the East Kunlun Mountains. The spatial distribution of apatiteFT ages in Cenozoic phase II (16.3-10.0 Ma) and III (5.1~0.9 Ma) suggests the piggyback thrusting of the East Kunlun thrust system and the forming of piggyback Qaidam Basin as a result of basin-mountain coupling. According to the age comparability of the end of thrusting in Cenozoic phase II and the beginning of the major sinistral strike-slipping of Kunlun Fault, it is inferred that there was a deformational transfer from compressing to shearing at ~10.0 Ma.%对格尔木附近东昆仑山花岗岩类侵入岩体中锆石和磷灰石进行裂变径迹(FT)定年与热历史的模拟,得到了中、新生代东昆仑山多阶段冷却与隆升的构造热历史.锆石FT年龄反映了东昆仑山中生代2期冷却历史,分别为第1期侏罗纪(194.1~144.4Ma)和第2期早白垩世(115.7~100.2Ma)冷却历史.磷灰石FT年龄和热历史模拟给出新生代3期冷却历史,分别为第1期始新世早期(约52.9Ma)、第2期中新世中期(16.3~10.0Ma)和第3期上新世(5.1~0.9Ma)冷却历史.东昆仑山新生代3期冷却历史与逆冲断层系的

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following microwave distillation and headspace solid-phase microextraction for fast analysis of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Deng, Chunhui; Li, Yan; Ye, Hao; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2006-11-10

    In this paper, a novel method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following microwave distillation-headspace solid-phase microextraction (MD-HS-SPME) was developed for the determination of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is dried before being preserved and used, there is too little water to absorb microwave energy and heat the TCM samples. In the work, carbonyl iron powders (CIP) was added and mixed with the dried TCM sample, which was used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of the TCM. At the same time, SPME was used for the extraction and concentration of essential oil after MD. The dry rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea DC was used as the model TCM, and used in the study. The MD-HS-SPME parameters including fiber coating, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added CIP, were studied. To demonstrate the method feasibility, the conventional HS-SPME method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in the TCM. Experimental results show that more compounds were isolated and identified by MD-HS-SPME than those by HS-SPME. Compared to conventional HS-SPME, the advantages of the proposed method are: short extraction time and high extraction efficiency. All experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative tool for fast analysis of essential oils in dry TCMs.

  12. Survey reveals the situation of Chinese caterpillar fungus resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following its investigation of aweto (or Chinese caterpillar fungus) resources carried out from May to July 2007 on the Tibetan(or Qinghai-Tibet) Plateau,the central producing area of this precious ingredient for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)under CAS conducted a further survey from May to July 2008 in the marginal habitats of this fungus.

  13. Holocene aeolian sediments on the NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, G.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Hilgers, A.; Zhao, H.

    2012-04-01

    The semiarid climate of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau supports the formation of different types of aeolian sediments and landforms during the Holocene. Aeolians silts and sands in the catchment of the Donggi Cona in an elevation above 4000m to 4800 m asl reflect variable climate conditions during that time as well as different sediment sources. Based on 51 OSL datings and catchment wide geomorphological mapping a complex pattern of long and short distance sediment transport has been reconstructed. Only few aeolian archives are preserved from the late Pleistocene in this mountain environment indicating cold and dry climate conditions which prevented a continuous accumulation. During the early Holocene a phase of increased aeolian sedimentation of sand at the slopes of the mountains has been reconstructed. The sand originated from a large alluvial fan which was highly active during the Pleistocene. In addition, a thin loess cover is preserved at a few sites in the neighboring mountains ranges. The sedimentation of the loess started around 2000 years later than the sedimentation of the sand at the foot slope. Both archives are related to an increase in precipitation at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau which was related to a strengthening of the Asian Monsoon during that time. The wetter climate conditions favored the development of a vegetation cover which leads to the trapping and fixation of the aeolian sediments. However, with a further strengthening of the Monsoon systems these archives subsequently eroded due to higher run off and accumulated as colluvial and fluvial deposits in the basins. These phase lasted until 6 ka. A second aeolian period started at around 3 ka with the formation new dunes in the basins. This period can be associated with dry and cold climate of the late Holocene supporting the reactivation of the sand in the area. This might be further enhanced by an increased human impact by grazing during the late Holocene and resulting

  14. Autumn Daily Characteristics of Land Surface Heat and Water Exchange over the Loess Plateau Mesa in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Loess Plateau, located in northern China, has a significant impact on the climate and ecosystem evolvement over the East Asian continent. In this paper, the preliminary autumn daily characteristics of land surface energy and water exchange over the Chinese Loess Plateau mesa region are evaluated by using data collected during the Loess Plateau land-atmosphere interaction pilot experiment (LOPEX04), which was conducted from 25 August to 12 September 2004 near Pingliang city, Gansu Province of China. The experiment was carried out in a region with a typical landscape of the Chinese Loess Plateau, known as "loess mesa". The experiment's field land utilizations were cornfield and fallow farmland, with the fallow field later used for rotating winter wheat. The autumn daily characteristics of heat and water exchange evidently differed between the mesa cornfield and fallow, and the imbalance term of the surface energy was large. This is discussed in terms of sampling errors in the flux observations footprint; energy storage terms of soil and vegetation layers; contribution from air advections; and low and high frequency loss of turbulent fluxes and instruments bias. Comparison of energy components between the mesa cornfield and the lowland cornfield did not reveal any obvious difference. Inadequacies of the field observation equipment and experimental design emerged during the study, and some new research topics have emerged from this pilot experiment for future investigation.

  15. A study of cloud microphysics and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau by radar observations and cloud-resolving model simulations: Cloud Microphysics over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenhua [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sui, Chung-Hsiung [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei Taiwan; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hu, Zhiqun [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhong, Lingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China

    2016-11-27

    Cloud microphysical properties and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are unique because of the high terrains, clean atmosphere, and sufficient water vapor. With dual-polarization precipitation radar and cloud radar measurements during the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX-III), the simulated microphysics and precipitation by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) microphysics and other microphysical schemes are investigated through a typical plateau rainfall event on 22 July 2014. Results show that the WRF-CAMS simulation reasonably reproduces the spatial distribution of 24-h accumulated precipitation, but has limitations in simulating time evolution of precipitation rates. The model-calculated polarimetric radar variables have biases as well, suggesting bias in modeled hydrometeor types. The raindrop sizes in convective region are larger than those in stratiform region indicated by the small intercept of raindrop size distribution in the former. The sensitivity experiments show that precipitation processes are sensitive to the changes of warm rain processes in condensation and nucleated droplet size (but less sensitive to evaporation process). Increasing droplet condensation produces the best area-averaged rain rate during weak convection period compared with the observation, suggesting a considerable bias in thermodynamics in the baseline simulation. Increasing the initial cloud droplet size causes the rain rate reduced by half, an opposite effect to that of increasing droplet condensation.

  16. Late Cenozoic pollen records and paleoclimate in the western Qaidam Basin, Northern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Y. F. Miao1, X. M. Fang2*, F. L. Wu2, M. T. Cai2, C. H. Song3, Q. Q. Meng3 1 Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, China 2 Key Laboratory of Continental Collision and Plateau Uplift, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China 3 School of Earth Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China * Corresponding author, E-mail address: fangxm@itpcas.ac.cn (X.M. Fang). Abstract: Cenozoic climate changes in inner Asia provide a basis for understanding linkages between global cooling, the Tibetan Plateau uplift, and possibly the development of the East Asian monsoon. Based on a compilation of palynological results from the western Qaidam Basin, this study reconstructed a 15 million years (Ma) record of changing vegetation and paleoclimates spanning the middle Miocene to present (comprising two series: ~18-5 Ma and ~3.1-0 Ma, respectively). The thermophilic percentages were highest between 18 and 14 Ma, and decreased after 14 Ma, closely corresponding to the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) between 18 and 14 Ma and the following global climatic cooling between 14 and 5 Ma. At the same time, decreases in the xerophytic and coniferous taxa percentages, and the increasing logarithmic ratio of non-arboreal pollen to arboreal pollen (ln (NAP/AP)), reveal the continuous aridification across both the basin and surrounding mountains. Between ~3.1-0 Ma, the percentages of the thermophilic, xerophytic and coniferous pollen as well as the ln (NAP/AP) imply further cooling and drying in this region since 3.1 Ma. We argue that these vegetation and climate patterns during the late Cenozoic western Qaidam Basin are primarily a result of the global cooling, with the Tibetan Plateau uplift and East Asian summer monsoon having contributions of lesser importance.

  17. Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, A; Dainotti, M; O'Brien, P T; Wijers, R A M J; van der Horst, A J

    2014-01-01

    An intrinsic correlation has been identified between the luminosity and duration of plateaus in the X-ray afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs; Dainotti et al. 2008), suggesting a central engine origin. The magnetar central engine model predicts an observable plateau phase, with plateau durations and luminosities being determined by the magnetic fields and spin periods of the newly formed magnetar. This paper analytically shows that the magnetar central engine model can explain, within the 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties, the correlation between plateau luminosity and duration. The observed scatter in the correlation most likely originates in the spread of initial spin periods of the newly formed magnetar and provides an estimate of the maximum spin period of ~35 ms (assuming a constant mass, efficiency and beaming across the GRB sample). Additionally, by combining the observed data and simulations, we show that the magnetar emission is most likely narrowly beamed and has $\\lesssim$20% efficiency in conversion of rot...

  18. 3Ma以来黄土高原朝那黄土-红粘土序列赤铁矿记录及其古气候意义%HEMATITE RECORD OF 3Ma LOESS-RED CLAY SEQUENCES IN THE CENTRAL CHINESE LOESS PLATEAU 3Ma AND ITS PALEOCLIMATIC SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香钰; 方小敏; 杨一博; 昝金波

    2012-01-01

    . The result of the characters of x-T curves, x-T curves of different temperatures, IRM acquisition, hysteresis loops indicate the major magnetic material and magnetic carrier of the characteristic remanent magnetization are magnetite, hematite and maghemite. Zhuanglang red clay is characterized by significantly high concentration of magnetite and maghemite during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum, but considerably lower concentration before and after the MMCO. To the contrary, the content of hematite is lower in the MMCO than the period before and after MMCO. Combined with Day-plot we can know the average grain size of the samples is pseudo single domain( PSD) . According to magnetic parameters such as xld , SIRM , S-ratio curves varitations along with depth, we can conclude that the enhancement of magnetic susceptibility during 16. 5 ~ 13. 8Ma is probably dependent on the ferriomagnetic mineral concentration , the grain size of which are the superparamagnetic ( SP) , single domain ( SD) , pseudo single domain( PSD). This obviously high concentration of magnetite and maghemite during the MMCO may indicate an enhancement of the Asian summer monsoon and pedogenesis in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Through other climate parameters from the continent and ocean we suppose that the summer monsoon and the winter monsoon in East Asia are all strengthened during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum.%土壤和前期研究表明黄土-红粘土序列的赤铁矿含量与环境密切相关,对气候的干湿变化非常敏感,气候越湿热,赤铁矿含量越高.本文研究表明黄土-红粘土样品漫反射光谱一阶导数曲线在555~575nm间的峰面积作为赤铁矿指数可以客观有效地指示赤铁矿含量的高低.通过黄土高原朝那剖面红粘土-黄土序列的系统漫反射光谱分析,建立了3Ma以来黄土高原赤铁矿含量变化记录,揭示赤铁矿含量在约2.5Ma,1.5Ma,0.6Ma和0.15Ma显著阶段性减小,指示了黄土高原阶段性变冷干的演化历史.

  19. Current Progresses in Study of Impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian Summer Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoxiong; MAO Jiangyu; DUAN Anmin; ZHANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The current progresses in the study of impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer climate in the last decade are reviewed. By analyzing evolution of the transitional zone between westerly to the north and easterly to the south (WEB), it is shown that due to the strong heating over the Tibetan Plateau in spring, the overturning in the prevailing wind direction from easterly in winter to westerly in summer occurs firstly over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB), accompanied with vigorous convective precipitation to its east. The area between eastern BOB and western Indo-China Peninsula thus becomes the area with the earliest onset of Asian monsoon, which may be referred as BOB monsoon in short. It is shown that the summertime circulations triggered by the thermal forcing of the Iranian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are embedded in phase with the continental-scale circulation forced by the diabatic heating over the Eurasian Continent. As a result, the East Asian summer monsoon is intensified and the drought climate over the western and central Asian areas is enhanced. Together with perturbations triggered by the Tibetan Plateau,the above scenarios and the associated heating have important influences on the climate patterns over Asia.Furthermore, the characteristics of the Tibetan mode of the summertime South Asian high are compared with those of Iranian mode. Results demonstrate that corresponding to each of the bimodality of the South Asian high, the rainfall anomaly distributions over Asia exhibit different patterns.

  20. 200-kg large explosive detonation facing 50-km thick crust beneath west Qinling, northeastern Tibetan plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiusheng Li; Rui Gao; Haiyan Wang; Jisheng Zhang; Zhanwu Lu; Pengwu Li; Ye Guan; Rizheng He

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to acquire deep seismic reflection profiles on land using the standard oil-industry acquisition pa-rameters. This is especially true over much of Tibetan plateau not only because of severe topography and rapid variation of both velocity and thickness of near-surface layer, but also strong attenuation of seismic wave through the thickest crust of the Earth. Large explosive sources had been successfully detonated in US, but its application in Tibetan plateau rarely has an example of good quality. Presented herein is the data of a 200-kg single shot we recorded in west Qinling, northeastern Ti-betan plateau. The shot gather data with phenomenal signal-to-noise ratios illustrate the energy of the ProP phase. Although the observations are only limited to the northeastern Tibetan plateau and thus cannot comprise an exhaustive study, they nev-ertheless suggest that large explosions may be a useful exploration tool in Tibetan Plateau where standard seismic sources and profiling methods fail to produce adequate data of low crust.

  1. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  2. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  3. Optical Turbulence above the Internal Antarctic Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Hagelin, S; Moigne, P Le; Noilhan, J

    2010-01-01

    The internal antarctic plateau revealed in the last years to be a site with interesting potentialities for the astronomical applications due to the extreme dryness and low temperatures, the typical high altitude of the plateau, the weak level of turbulence in the free atmosphere down to a just few tens of meters from the ground and the thin optical turbulence layer developed at the ground. The main goal of a site testing assessment above the internal antarctic plateau is to characterize the site (optical turbulence and classical meteorological parameters) and to quantify which is the gain we might obtain with respect to equivalent astronomical observations done above mid-latitude sites to support plans for future astronomical facilities. Our group is involved, since a few years, in studies related to the assessment of this site for astronomical applications that include the characterization of the meteorological parameters and optical turbulence provided by general circulation models as well as mesoscale atmo...

  4. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  5. Peopling the Tibetan plateau: insights from archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenderfer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the genome of modern Tibetans have revealed the existence of genes thought to provide an adaptive advantage for life at high elevation. Extrapolating from this discovery, some researchers now argue that a Tibetan-Han split occurred no more than 2750 yr ago. This date is implausible, and in this paper I review the archaeological data from the Tibetan plateau as one means by which to examine the veracity of this assertion. Following a review of the general state of knowledge of Tibetan prehistory, which is unfortunately only at its beginnings, I first examine the data that speak to the initial peopling of the plateau and assess the evidence that traces of their presence can be seen in modern Tibetans today. Although the data are sparse, both archaeology and genetics suggest that the plateau was occupied in the Late Pleistocene, perhaps as early as 30,000 yr ago, and that these early peoples have left a genetic signature in modern Tibetans. I then turn to the evidence for later migrations and focus on the question of the timing of the establishment of permanent settled villages on the plateau. Three areas of the plateau-northeastern Qinghai, extreme eastern Tibet, and the Yarlung Tsangpo valley-have evidence of permanent settlements dating from ca. 6500, 5900, and 3750 yr ago, respectively. These data are not consonant with the 2750 yr ago date for the split and suggest at a minimum that the plateau has been occupied substantially longer and, further, that multiple migrations at different times and from different places have created a complex mosaic of population history. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  6. U-Pb zircon geochronology and phase equilibria modelling of a mafic eclogite from the Sumdo complex of south-east Tibet: Insights into prograde zircon growth and the assembly of the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, O. M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Rayner, N.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.; Palin, R. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Sumdo complex is a Permian-Triassic eclogitic metamorphic belt in south-east Tibet, which marks the location of a suture zone that separates the northern and southern Lhasa terranes. An integrated geochronological and petrological study of a mafic eclogite from the complex has constrained its tectonometamorphic history and provides a case study of zircon growth in eclogite as a product of prograde dissolution-precipitation. In situ U-Pb geochronology indicates that the eclogite contains a single population of zircon with a crystallisation age of 273.6 ± 2.8 Ma. The morphology and chemistry of the zircon grains are consistent with growth by dissolution-precipitation of protolith magmatic zircon. The presence of zircon grains as inclusions in the cores of peak phases indicates that zircon dissolution-precipitation occurred during prograde metamorphism, and calculated pressure and temperature conditions over which mineral inclusions in zircon are stable suggest that the zircon most likely precipitated at 15.5-16.5 kbar and 500-560 °C. Subsequent peak metamorphism is calculated to have reached pressure-temperature conditions of 27 ± 1 kbar and 670 ± 50 °C. Previous studies, which have documented a range of peak metamorphic conditions from high- to ultrahigh-pressure at c. 266-230 Ma, indicate that the Sumdo complex is a composite belt that experienced protracted eclogite exhumation. The results of this study are consistent with this interpretation, and extend the age range of high-pressure metamorphism in the complex to over 40 Myr. Analysis of published pressure-temperature-time data indicates two systematic behaviours within this spread. First, peak metamorphic temperatures declined over time. Second, eclogite exhumation occurred in two discrete intervals: soon after formation, and during the demise of the subduction zone. The latter behaviour serves as a reminder that eclogite exhumation is the exception rather than the rule.

  7. Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: a phase II study from a Chinese center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Qun Huang

    Full Text Available Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC is a difficult clinical challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC because conventional treatment modalities could not produce significant survival benefit, which highlights the acute need for new treatment strategies. Our previous case-control study demonstrated the potential survival advantage of cytoreductive surgery (CRS plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC over CRS alone. This phase II study was to further investigate the efficacy and adverse events of CRS+HIPEC for Chinese patients with CRC PC.A total of 60 consecutive CRC PC patients underwent 63 procedures consisting of CRS+HIPEC and postoperative chemotherapy, all by a designated team focusing on this combined treatment modality. All the clinico-pathological information was systematically integrated into a prospective database. The primary end point was disease-specific overall survival (OS, and the secondary end points were perioperative safety profiles.By the most recent database update, the median follow-up was 29.9 (range 3.5-108.9 months. The peritoneal cancer index (PCI ≤20 was in 47.0% of patients, complete cytoreductive surgery (CC0-1 was performed in 53.0% of patients. The median OS was 16.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.2-19.8 months, and the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 70.5%, 34.2%, 22.0% and 22.0%, respectively. Mortality and grades 3 to 5 morbidity rates in postoperative 30 days were 0.0% and 30.2%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified 3 parameters with significant effects on OS: PCI ≤20, CC0-1 and adjuvant chemotherapy over 6 cycles. On multivariate analysis, however, only CC0-1 and adjuvant chemotherapy ≥6 cycles were found to be independent factors for OS benefit.CRS+HIPEC at a specialized treatment center could improve OS for selected CRC PC patients from China, with acceptable perioperative safety.

  8. The Influence of Low-frequency Oscillation Propagation of the Tibetan Plateau Vortex on Rainstorm Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tiangui; Wang, Chao; La, Jia; Du, Jun; Zhang, Kairong

    2017-04-01

    Based on Tibetan Plateau vortex data, ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the characteristics of Tibetan Plateau vortex and the relationship with Low-Frequency Oscillation (LFO) from 2003 to 2012 were investigated. The heavy rainstorm occurred in Sichuan from June 29th to July 2nd in 2013, caused by the LFO, was studied. Besides, the signal of LFO, energy transmission and those influence to rainstorm were also investigate. The main conclusions are as follows: (1)Most of Tibetan Plateau vortex generate in eastern plateau, located at Tanggula Mountains, Zaduo, Dege, Qumalai and Qaidam. The moving-out Tibetan Plateau vortex mainly generate in Qumalai and most vortex occurrences during April to September. There are three directions of moving-out vortex paths: northeast, southeast and east. The areas which plateau vortex moving into are mainly distributed in Gansu, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Ningxia. (2)The zonal wind at 500hPa in plateau key region has a significant main 10-30d oscillation, with the secondly significant oscillation in 30-50d and the third in 70-90d. The relative vorticity at 500hPa in plateau key region has a significant main 30-50d oscillations, with the secondly significant oscillation in 10-30d. The 30-50d oscillation phase zone with weak westerly oscillation zone of 500hPa, and the 10-30d oscillation positive phase zone with weak oscillation zone of 500hPa are benefit to vortex generation. The 30-50d oscillation of zonal wind at 500hPa provides necessary circulation background for generation of plateau vortex, and positive phase region of 10-30d oscillation of relative vorticity at 500hPa provide necessary dynamic background conditions for it. (3) Comparing with the high frequency oscillation vortex, 10-25d low-frequency vortex is not significant at 500hPa before merging into the basin vortex. However, after merging into the basin vortex, there is a significant relationship between low-frequency vortex and the process of development, weakening and

  9. Phase Ⅰ trial of icotinib, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-ping; XIAO Yi; ZHANG Li; WANG Yin-xiang; TAN Fen-lai; XIA Ying; REN Guan-jun; HU Pei; JIANG Ji; WANG Meng-zhao

    2011-01-01

    Background The preclinical experiments and studies of congener drugs show icotinib, a new epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, can specifically bind to the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR, block the EGFR related signal, thereby inhibit the growth of tumor cell. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety, tolerability and dose-related biologic effects of icotinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese patient population.Methods This was an open-label, phase Ⅰ, dose escalation, safety/tolerability trial of oral icotinib (100 to 400 mg), administered twice per day for 28-continuous-day cycles until disease progression or undue toxiclty.Results Forty patients with stage ⅢB (15%) or Ⅳ (85%) NSCLC were included in the study. They had mainly adenocarcinoma (85%), with a performance status (PS) of 0 (45%) or 1 (55%) and less than half the patients (45%) had histories of smoking and all were pretreated by at least one regimen of chemotherapy. Patients were assigned to three dose levels of 150 mg b.i.d, 200 mg b.i.d, or 125 mg t.i.d. The follow-up periods ranged from 5 to 80 weeks. Adverse events were found in 35% patients, most of which were mild and reversible. The adverse events mainly occurred in the first 4 weeks and included rash (25%), diarrhea, nausea and abdominal distention. One definite interstitial lung disease (ILD) was found in a patient in the dose of 200 mg b.i.d. According to an 8-week assessment, one (2.5%) patient receiving 150 mg gained complete response (CR) that persisted for 44 weeks, seven (17.50%) patients had partial remission (PR), and 18 (45%) patients had stable disease (SD). The objective response including CR+PR was 20%. The median time of progression-free survival for the 40 patients was 20 weeks (range: 12 to 32 weeks). The response was not affected by pathological type, history of smoking, or numbers of previous therapeutic regimens. No relationship between dose

  10. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  11. 心理行为因素对急进高原救灾官兵急性高原反应状况的影响%Study on acute mountain sickness and the psychological factors in the relief force during the initial phase of acute plateau exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高存友; 甘景梨; 赵兰民; 王丽杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解急进高原抗震救灾官兵的急性高原反应状况,并探讨其心理行为相关影响因素,为进一步研究预防措施提供参考依据.方法 整群随机抽取玉树抗震救灾某部162名官兵为研究对象,根据军标GJB1098-9急性高原反应的诊断和处理原则判断官兵的急性高原反应状况,采用一般情况调查表、症状自评量表(SCL-90)和生活事件量表(LES)调查相关因素.结果 救灾官兵急性高原反应的检出率为65.4%,其中轻度17.3%、中度31.5%、重度16.7%.临床表现中以气短、心慌、头昏、口唇发绀和头痛等症状最为多见,在救灾官兵中出现比率分别为83.6%、79.1%、73.1%、61.2%和58.2%.急性高原反应总计分与年龄、婚姻、心理创伤史,LES负性事件,SCL-90总分及其躯体化、强迫、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、食欲睡眠等因子呈显著正相关(r值为0.188~0.619,P<0.01或0.05),与兴趣爱好、社会支持呈显著负相关(r值分别为-0.254,-0.285,P<0.01).多元逐步回归分析显示SCL-90的躯体化因子,兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素进入回归方程.结论 大部分救灾官兵存在明显的急性高原反应,躯体化症状、兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素对官兵的急性高原反应状况影响较大.%Objective To investigate the acute mountain sickness of servicemen during"4.14"Yushu earhquake relief work,and analyze the related factors of the sickness at the initial phase of acute plateau exposure.Methods 162 servicemen were sampled randomly and clusteringly from Yushu relief force during.the inidal phase of acute plateau exposure.According to the"Diagnosis and treatment principles of the acute mountain sickness",the prevalence of the acute mountain sickness was judged among the servicemen.The scales of general status invested score(GSIS),the self-rating symptom scale(SCL-90)and the life event scale(LES)were used to investigate the

  12. Sino-Japanese Teamwork Probes Environment Changes on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the support of a CAS project on Holocene environmental changes and their influences on the ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau, a research group headed by Prof. Zhu Liping from the CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and their Japanese collaborators carried out a field survey in Puma Yumco area on the Tibetan Plateau from September 8 to 20.

  13. 'Reversing' the Flow of the Ancient Chinese Calendrical Subseasonal Phases Jie Qi in Australia: The Construction of a Chinese Medical & Agricultural Lunisolar Calendar (Northern and Southern Hemispheres)(Continued Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rey Tiquia

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 The Cychcal Flow of the Sixty-Gan zhi Temporal Units 'Time for the Chinese is forever flowing without beginningor end' ,noted Thome H.Fang.And 'it is customary for Chineseto use the kan-Chih(gan zhi)to mark the passage of time.

  14. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau

  15. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau in

  16. Ozone Minihole Found over Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Through a comprehensive analysis, researchers from the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) discovered an ozone minihole, a large area with the lowest total ozone column (TOC, see figure), over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from Dec. 14 to 17, 2003.

  17. Construction of plateaued functions satisfying multiple criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weiguo

    2005-01-01

    A class of plateaued functions has been got by using the Maiorana-McFarland construction. A variety of desirable criteria for functions with cryptographic application could be satisfied: balancedness, high nonlinearity, correlation immunity of reasonably high order, strict avalanche criterion, non-existence of non-zero linear structures, good global avalanche characteristics, etc.

  18. Planation Surfaces on the Tibet Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A planation hypothesis is proposed to explain landform evolution of the Tibet Plateau. A denudation threshold (T), the maximum potential denudation rate for a certain type of rock, is introduced to explain the combined effects of lithology and tectonics on landform evolution. If the tectonic uplifting rate (U) is equal to or less than the threshold rate (U ≤ T), the tectonic uplifting and terrain denudation are in dynamic equilibrium, and landforms are in a steady state. The end product should be planation surfaces whether the original landforms are fiat plains or deeply dissected mountains. If U > T, uplift and denudation are not able to reach a dynamic equilibrium state. The plateau surface is mostly underlain by soft rocks, such as the Mesozoic epimetamorphic argillites and Tertiary sedimentary rocks, while the mountain ranges comprise hard rocks, such as granite, gneiss and limestone. In soft rock regions, hills are low with a relative relief of mostly less than 100m and the slopes are gentle at a gradient of <200. In contrast, hills can maintain steep slopes in hard rock regions. The Tibet Plateau has been under an equilibrium condition between tectonic uplifting and denudation except for the mountain ranges. The plateau might have reached the present altitudes before the Quaternary.

  19. Transcriptome characteristics and six alternative expressed genes positively correlated with the phase transition of annual cambial activities in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook, a diploid (2n  = 2x  = 22 gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on previous studies, the four stage-specific cambial tissues of Chinese fir were defined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In total, 20 million sequencing reads (3.6 Gb were obtained using Illumina sequencing from Chinese fir cambium tissue collected at active growth stage, with a mean length of 131 bp and a N50 of 90 bp. SOAPdenovo software was used to assemble 62,895 unigenes. These unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to public protein databases. Expression analysis revealed that the altered expression of six homologous genes (ClWOX1, ClWOX4, ClCLV1-like, ClCLV-like, ClCLE12, and ClPIN1-like correlated positively with changes in cambial activities; moreover, these six genes might be directly involved in cambial function in Chinese fir. Further, the full-length cDNAs and DNAs for ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 were cloned and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a large number of tissue/stage-specific unigene sequences were generated from the active growth stage of Chinese fir cambium. Transcriptome sequencing of Chinese fir not only provides extensive genetic resources for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cambial activities in Chinese fir, but also is expected to be an important foundation for future genetic studies of Chinese fir. This study indicates that ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 could be possible reverse genetic target genes for revealing the molecular mechanisms of cambial activities in

  20. The intracrustal structure beneath the Owyhee Plateau, Oregon, from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T.; Chen, C.; James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Owyhee Plateau straddles southeastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, and northern Nevada, and is an isolated block of older, and less modified, continental lithosphere relative to bordering geologic terranes. Previous seismic studies have characterized the Owyhee Plateau as having thickened crust with low Poisson's ratio and high intracrustal S-wave velocities, and distinct, albeit thin, mantle lithosphere. Significant tectonomagmatic activity, including extension in the northern Great Basin, and intraplate volcanism is present on the margins of the Plateau, but very little volcanism takes place within the Plateau itself. The volcanism is expressed as two prominent age-progressive volcanic tracks, the Snake River Plains-Yellowstone and the High Lava Plains, both of which appear to have originated from near the Owyhee Plateau at approximately 12 Ma. Recent ambient noise tomography and scattered-wave imaging reveal the presence of irregular high velocity layering in the Owyhee mid-crust, but the extent and properties of this feature, and its role in the tectonic evolution of the Owyhee Plateau, remain elusive. In this study, we perform detailed single station Ps receiver function analysis to better constrain the discontinuity structures within the Owyhee crust. We use teleseismic waveform data recorded at 28 High Lava Plains seismic array and 12 USArray Transportable Array broadband stations from 2006 to 2009. Preliminary results show coherent signals of converted phase at ~20 km depth, indicating the presence of a positive velocity discontinuity, which may mark the upper bound of the high velocity layer imaged in previous studies. We consider and examine possible effects of seismic anisotropy on our results and are also conducting synthetic experiments to further constrain the properties of this feature.

  1. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  2. Soil erosion and management on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Loess Plateau is well known to the world for its intense soil erosion. The root cause for river sedimentation of Yellow River (Huanghe) and its resultant "hanging river" in certain section is soil and water loss on the Loess Plateau. The Loess Plateau has a long cultivation history, hence population growth, vegetation degeneration and plugging constitute the chief reason for serious soil and water loss on Loess Plateau. This paper analyses several successful cases and failures in soil conservation, presents practical soil conservation technique and related benefit analysis, and discusses some effective methods adopted in China in soil erosion control, research directions and future perspectives on Loess Plateau.

  3. Structure and multiphased evolution of the Demerara plateau (offshore Suriname, French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Basile, Christophe; Loncke, Lies; Maillard, Agnès; Grall, Céline; Roest, Walter R.; de Clarens, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Offshore Suriname and French Guiana, the Demerara plateau is a continental indentation at the intersection of two oceanic domains : the Jurassic Central Atlantic and the Early Cretaceous Equatorial Atlantic. Its three borders are passive margins. The northern one is a transform margin, the two others are rifted margins, thinned during Trias/Jurassic (westward), and a second time during Early Cretaceous (eastward). The main stratigraphic feature of the Demerara plateau is the major upper Albian angular erosive unconformity, synchronous to the Equatorial Atlantic break-up. We here focus on the sedimentary records observed below the upper Albian discordance, where seismic data show more than 13 km of layered units. The aim of this study is to give new insights about the evolution of the Demerara plateau during Mesozoic times, in order to constrain vertical displacements especially in relation with the transform margin. We use mostly structural interpretation of industrial and academic seismic lines (GUYAPLAC, 2003 and IGUANES, 2013), calibrated by industrial wells down to Berriasian times. It allows us to propose structural maps and regional interpretative cross-sections of the plateau and its three borders. On seismic lines, undated prominent seismic units are characterized by important thickness variations, and weak continuity of intern reflectors. They thicken westward (toward the Central Atlantic ocean). One possible interpretation is to relate these units to trias/jurassic syn-rift sediments deposition associated to a continentward dipping fault. But the complex is formed by a repetition of several layer fans. Hence one alternative interpretation would be that these units were seaward dipping reflectors stacked during Trias/Jurassic rifting, suggesting that the role of magmatism should have been predominant during the first phase of the plateau formation. All the sediments of the plateau, including Aptian sediments, are deformed with numerous structures (strike

  4. Land surface changes enhanced drought over the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian

    2017-04-01

    In order to prevent the severe soil-water erosion over the Loess Plateau (LP), the Chinese Government initiated large scale ecological restoration (ER) in the past half century. The ER had successfully reduced soil erosion however also changed the land surface and altered the regional water-energy balance and consequently the dryness/wetness conditions, which in turn affects the vegetation. Knowledge of the impacts of the ER on dryness/wetness conditions is essential for developing future effective ER measures. For this purpose, a new drought index, the standardized wetness index (SWI), was proposed. The SWI can represent the dryness/wetness brought by solely climate change (denoted as SWIf in this case), and the dryness/wetness brought by the joint effects of climate change and land surface change (SWI_m). A total of 13 main catchments were selected to investigate the effects of ER on dryness/wetness conditions during 1961-2009 over LP. Results showed that the overall increasing parameter n (a parameter of the Budyko formulae) could be well explained by the ER measures (R^2=1) in these catchments. The SWIf and SWIm had similar fluctuating features and exhibited downward trends. However, the SWIm had larger negative trends than the SWI_f, implying that ER actions enhanced the drought conditions over the drying LP in the past decades. Therefore, we suggest that the government should manage and maintain the existing achievements but not further expand revegetation because of unintended consequences on drought vulnerability.

  5. Atmospheric particulate mercury in Lhasa city, Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sillanpää, Mika; Zhang, Guoshuai; Sun, Shiwei; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2016-10-01

    In an effort to understand the biogeochemical cycling and seasonal characteristics of atmospheric Hg, a total of 80 daily sampled total suspended particulates were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of Tibet, from April 2013 to August 2014 for particulate-bound Hg (HgP) analysis. Daily concentrations of atmospheric HgP ranged from 61.2 to 831 pg m-3 with an average of 224 pg m-3, which were unexpectedly comparable to those measured in most of the Chinese metropolises. Both the daily/monthly average HgP concentrations were slightly but not significantly higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season. Together with the fact that there was lack of significant relationship between HgP concentration and most meteorological parameters, no significant and distinct pattern for the seasonal characteristics of atmospheric HgP could be mainly attributed to the almost equal emission strength of two principal anthropogenic Hg sources (i.e., industrial emission sources during the non-monsoon season, and vehicular traffic and religious sources during the monsoon season). Moreover, the HgP dry deposition rate was estimated to be 35.3 μg m-2 yr-1 by using a theoretical model, which was significantly higher than those Hg wet fluxes. The elevated deposition rate implied that dry deposition may play an important role in the biogeochemical Hg cycling over the Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Markagunt Plateau, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet and is capped primarily by Quaternary-age basalt that overlies Eocene-age freshwater limestone of the Claron Formation. Over large parts of the Markagunt Plateau, dissolution of the Claron limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying basalt have produced a terrain characterized by sinkholes as much as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Numerous large springs discharge from the basalt and underlying limestone on the plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest springs in Utah, with a discharge that can exceed 300 cubic feet per second. Discharge from Mammoth Spring is from the Claron Formation; however, recharge to the spring largely takes place by both focused and diffuse infiltration through the basalt that caps the limestone. Results of dye tracing to Mammoth Spring indicate that recharge originates largely southwest of the spring outside of the Mammoth Creek watershed, as well as from losing reaches along Mammoth Creek. Maximum groundwater travel time to the spring from dye-tracer tests during the snowmelt runoff period was about 1 week. Specific conductance and water temperature data from the spring show an inverse relation to discharge during snowmelt runoff and rainfall events, also indicating short groundwater residence times. Results of major-ion analyses for samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau indicate calcium-bicarbonate type water containing low (less than 200 mg/L) dissolved-solids concentrations. Investigations in the Navajo Lake area along the southern margin of the plateau have shown that water losing to sinkholes bifurcates and discharges to both Cascade and Duck Creek Springs, which subsequently flow into the Virgin and Sevier River basins, respectively. Groundwater travel times to these springs, on the basis of dye tracing, were about 8.5 and 53 hours, respectively. Similarly, groundwater travel time from Duck Creek

  7. A Possible Impact of Cooling over the Tibetan Plateau on the Mid-Holocene East Asian Monsoon Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By using a 9-level global atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP9L-AGCM) under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the authors investigated the response of the East Asian monsoon climate to changes both in orbital forcing and the snow and glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau at the mid-Holocene, about 6000 calendar years before the present (6kyr BP). With the Earth's orbital parameters appropriate for the mid-Holocene, the IAP9L-AGCM computed warmer and wetter conditions in boreal summer than for the present day. Under the precondition of continental snow and glacier cover existing over part of the Tibetan Plateau at the mid-Holocene, the authors examined the regional climate response to the Tibetan Plateau cooling. The simulations indicated that climate changes in South Asia and parts of central Asia as well as in East Asia are sensitive to the Tibetan Plateau cooling at the mid-Holocene, showing a significant decrease in precipitation in northern India, northern China and southern Mongolia and an increase in Southeast Asia during boreal summer.The latter seems to correspond to the weakening, southeastward shift of the Asian summer monsoon system resulting from reduced heat contrast between the Eurasian continent and the Pacific and Indian Oceans when a cooling over the Tibetan Plateau was imposed. The simulation results suggest that the snow and glacier environment over the Tibetan Plateau is an important factor for mid-Holocene climate change in the areas highly influenced by the Asian monsoon.

  8. CARBON-OXYGEN ISOTOPE RECORDS OF PEDOGENIC CARBONATE FROM THE EARLY MIOCENE-PLEISTOCENE LOESS-RED CLAY IN THE VICINITY OF THE LIUPANSHAN REGION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EARLY ORIGIN OF C4 PLANTS IN THE CHINESE LOESS PLATEAU%中新世以来六盘山邻区黄土-红粘土成土碳酸盐碳氧同位素记录及其对C4植物早期扩张的指示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 熊尚发; 丁仲礼; 卢海建; 姜文英

    2011-01-01

    sites in the world have revealed that the timing of C4 plants origin and expansion was not globally synchronous, and different proxy records documented different timing features of C4 expansion. The history of C4 plants in Asia is an important component in reconstructing the globally geographical patterns of C4 expansion. Records from South Asia indicate C4 plants expanded abruptly during ca. 8 ~4Ma,and several localities in the Chinese Loess Plateau document a δ13C peak at ca. 6Ma,3Ma and from 1 Ma,respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that during ca. 7 ~ 4Ma,soil carbonate records ( δ13Csc) in the Chinese Loess Plateau display a southern-ward negative trend, indicative of a southern-ward expansion of C4 plants during the Late Miocene and the Early Pliocene. It is remained unclear, however, that if the C4 plants expansion over the Chinese Loess Plateau occurred earlier than during the Late Miocene.Here we report a study based on δ13Csc of loess-red clay sequence from the Baishui and Zhuanglang sections near the Liupanshan region,and the result shows that C4 plants expansion may have initiated as early as at ca. 20Ma with C4 component up to 15% -40% during the Miocene. The Baishui section(35°24'10"N,106°54'43"E) is located in the southeastern part of the Liupanshan region,Central Loess Plateau. This section contains an upper 214m loess-paleosol sequence and a lower 82m red clay deposit. The Zhuanglang section ( 35°13'34"N, 106°4'11"E) lies at the southwestern part of the Liupanshan region,ca.80km to the Baishui section,and consists of 183. 4m red clay deposit. A total 2729 paleomagnetic samples (1026 samples for the Baishui section, 1703 for the Zhuanglang section) were analyzed by using thermal demagnetization at the Laboratory of Piaeomagnetism of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and at Lanzhou University. The specimens that exhibit stable component two vectors (91% for the Baishui section and 83.5% for the

  9. Magnetotelluric sounding results in eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓冰; 孔祥儒; 刘宏兵; 闫永利

    2001-01-01

    The results of Zayu-Qingshuihe MT sounding profile carried out in eastern Tibetan Plateau are presented in this paper. Using 2-D RRI method, the resistivity distribution with depth is obtained along the profile. It is featured by the resistivity zones in the horizontal direction and layers in the vertical direction. The Bangong-Nujiang suture zone and Jinshajiang suture zone are both important electrical conductivity-separating zones in the plateau, and the former is a zone with relatively low resistivity while the latter is an electrical conductivity gradient zone. The highly electrical conductive bodies in the mid and lower crust of northern Qiangtang and Bayan Har Terrain might be caused by regional melting due to shear heating during the process of subduction in tectonic evolution.

  10. Chinese Calligraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  11. The property, age and formation environment of the palaeokarst in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The karst landforms distributed on the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau can be genetically classed with the Tertiary underground karst, which were gradually exhumed to the surface with the uplift of the plateau during Quaternary period. The relative deposits of the Tertiary palaeokarst processes, such as the residuum and speleothem, were discovered recently in the southern and southeastern fringe areas of the plateau, where has geological-currently been disintegrated by the headward erosion processes of the modern river systems. The major chemical components of the clay portion of the residuum consist mainly of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. The clay minerals composition of the clay portion belongs to illite-kaolinite pattern for most of the residuum samples, and kaoliniteillite pattern for a few of the samples. It can be judged from the silicic acid index and the clay minerals composition that the formation of the residuum of the Plateau was in its initial phase.However, such a lower chemical weathering index only reflected the weathering degree in the bottom or lower parts of the lateritic weathering crust. The relatively intensive chemical weathering processes of the surface layers of the lateritic weathering crust could be logically speculated. The surface feature textures of quartz grains in the residuum were formed mainly by the chemical erosion, which revealed a long-term humid-tropical environment when the residuum and the palaeokarst formed.

  12. Ferromagnetic–ferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic correlation and magnetization plateau in spin-1/2 J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiao-Yan [Graduate School, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Dou, Jun-Ya [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: liuguanghua@tjpu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The magnetization process of a spin-1/2 J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric Heisenberg chain is investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. A magnetization phase diagram including three different phases, i.e., a fully polarized (FP) phase, a 1/2 plateau phase, and a spin-fluid (SF) phase, is obtained. All the quantum phase transitions (QPTs) are determined to belong to the second-order category, and the central charge in the critical SF phase equals 1. In addition, a 1/2 plateau phase also exists in the classical J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric Ising chain. The F–F–AF–AF (or AF–AF–F–F) type longitudinal correlation is found to be important and necessary for the appearance of the 1/2 plateau state in both quantum and classical cases. - Highlights: • 1/2 magnetization plateau can be realized in both quantum and classical cases. • 1/2 plateau is characterized by constant magnetization, entanglement and correlation. • Central charge of the spin-fluid phase is determined to be 1. • F–F–AF–AF correlation is important for the appearance of the 1/2 plateau.

  13. The crustal composition of the Falkland Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemt, Claudia; Jokat, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    The Falkland Islands are situated in the South Atlantic Ocean 500 km east of Patagonia, South America. The islands are part of the Falkland Plateau, which stretches eastward for more than 1500 km. A bathymetric high, the Maurice Ewing Bank, terminates the plateau in the east. Until Late Jurassic the Falkland Islands were part of Gondwana and were located adjacent to the east coast of South Africa. While the Falkland Islands and Maurice Ewing Bank are proved to be of continental composition, the nature and structure of the Falkland Plateau's basement in between is debatable. The first crustal model derived from sonobuoy data contradicts an only recently published 3D-gravity model. To enhance the understanding of Gondwana break-up considering timing, geometry and amount of volcanism, further knowledge about the structure and thickness of the crust is inevitable. During the ANT-XXIX/5 Polarstern cruise seismic refraction measurements were conducted using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and Reftek land stations onshore of East Falkland. The OBS were deployed at 78 locations along an approximately 1500 km east-west stretching profile. For the western transect a P-wave velocity model is calculated using 2D-raytracing techniques. The results are presented in combination with potential field data showing the extension of the Falkland Islands basement, the continent-ocean transition zone and the crustal structure of the plateau. On the Falkland Plateau Basin sediment thickness is about 6 km with velocities ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 km/s in the upper part and about 4.7 km/s above basement. The crust is of oceanic composition with an igneous section that is considerably thicker than average oceanic crust (up to 17 km). The velocity structure in the upper crustal part is typical for layer 2 with a velocity gradient ranging from 5.4 km/s to 6.5 km/s and thicknesses between 1.5 km and 4 km. Layer 3 is about 14 km thick with a velocity gradient from 6.6 km/s to 7.6 km/s, which is

  14. Cognitive flexibility during breath alcohol plateau is associated with previous drinking measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-06-01

    Although the biphasic effects of acute alcohol during ascending and descending Breath Alcohol Concentrations (BrACs) are well described, the plateau period between peak and steadily descending BrACs is generally unrecognized and under-studied by researchers. Naturalistic examinations indicate such periods persist for substantial intervals, with a time frame of onset suggesting BrAC plateaus may co-occur with potentially risky behaviors (e.g., driving). The current pilot study examined neurocognitive performance during this period. Participants were healthy, community-residing moderate drinkers (n = 18). In the first phase of the study, the Digit Symbol Substitution and Trail Making Tasks were administered during BrAC plateau (M = 62 mg/dL). BrACs were negatively correlated with Digit Symbol performance but unrelated to other tasks. In contrast, performance on a derived Trail Making measure of set-shifting was positively associated with the maximum alcohol doses consumed in the preceding 6 months. Phase 2 analyses demonstrated that relationships between previous alcohol experience and cognitive performance were absent among individuals receiving placebo beverages. Taken together, these data suggest a relationship worthy of investigation between previous drinking experiences and cognitive flexibility during the plateau phase.

  15. Observations of A Low-Velocity Type II-Plateau Supernova 2013am in M65

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jujia; Mazzali, Paolo A; Bai, Jinming; Zhang, Tianmeng; Bersier, David; Huang, Fang; Fan, Yufeng; Mo, Jun; Wang, Jianguo; Yi, Weimin; Wang, Chuanjun; Xin, Yuxin; Liangchang,; Zhang, Xiliang; Lun, Baoli; Wang, Xueli; He, Shousheng; Walker, Emma S

    2014-01-01

    Optical and ultraviolet observations for the nearby type II-plateau supernova (SN IIP) 2013am in the nearby spiral galaxy M65 are presented in this paper. The early spectra are characterized by relatively narrow P-Cygni features, with ejecta velocities much lower than observed in normal SNe IIP (i.e., $\\sim$2000 km s$^{-1}$ vs. $\\sim$5000 km $^{-1}$ in the middle of the plateau phase). Moreover, prominent \\ion{Ca}{2} absorptions are also detected in SN 2013am at relatively early phases. These spectral features are reminiscent of those seen in the low-velocity and low-luminosity SN IIP 2005cs. However, SN 2013am exhibits different photometric properties, having shorter plateau phases and brighter light-curve tails if compared to SN 2005cs. Adopting $R_{V}$=3.1 and a mean value of total reddening derived from the photometric and spectroscopic methods(i.e., $E(B-V)=0.55\\pm$0.19 mag), we find that SN 2013am may have reached an absolute $V$-band peak magnitude of $-15.83\\pm0.71$ mag and produced a $^{56}$Ni mass o...

  16. Ultra-robust high-field magnetization plateau and supersolidity in bond-frustrated MnCr2S4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, Vladimir; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Prodan, Lilian; Felea, Viorel; Cong, Pham Thanh; Skourski, Yurii; Wang, Zhe; Deisenhofer, Joachim; von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug; Wosnitza, Joahim; Loidl, Alois

    2017-01-01

    Frustrated magnets provide a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, such as spin liquids and spin ice or complex spin molecules. Under an external magnetic field, frustrated magnets can exhibit fractional magnetization plateaus related to definite spin patterns stabilized by field-induced lattice distortions. Magnetization and ultrasound experiments in MnCr2S4 up to 60 T reveal two fascinating features: (i) an extremely robust magnetization plateau with an unusual spin structure and (ii) two intermediate phases, indicating possible realizations of supersolid phases. The magnetization plateau characterizes fully polarized chromium moments, without any contributions from manganese spins. At 40 T, the middle of the plateau, a regime evolves, where sound waves propagate almost without dissipation. The external magnetic field exactly compensates the Cr–Mn exchange field and decouples Mn and Cr sublattices. In analogy to predictions of quantum lattice-gas models, the changes of the spin order of the manganese ions at the phase boundaries of the magnetization plateau are interpreted as transitions to supersolid phases. PMID:28345038

  17. Multidisciplinary scientific program of investigation of the structure and evolution of the Demerara marginal plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Roest, Walter; Graindorge, David; Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Klinghelhoefer, Frauke; Heuret, Arnauld; Pattier, France; Tallobre, Cedric; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Poetisi, Ewald; Loubrieu, Benoît; Iguanes, Dradem, Margats Scientific Parties, Plus

    2017-04-01

    Mercier de Lépinay et al. published in 2016 an updated inventory of transform passive margins in the world. This inventory shows that those margins represent 30% of continental passive margins and a cumulative length of 16% of non-convergent margins. It also highlights the fact that many submarine plateaus prolong transform continental margins, systematically at the junction of oceanic domains of different ages. In the world, we identified twenty of those continental submarine plateaus (Falklands, Voring, Demerara, Tasman, etc). Those marginal plateaus systematically experiment two phases of deformation: a first extensional phase and a second transform phase that allows the individualization of those submarine reliefs appearing on bathymetry as seaward continental-like salients. The understanding of the origin, nature, evolution of those marginal plateaus has many scientific and economic issues. The Demerara marginal plateau located off French Guiana and Surinam belongs to this category of submarine provinces. The French part of this plateau has been the locus of a first investigation in 2003 in the framework of the GUYAPLAC cruise dedicated to support French submissions about extension of the limit of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. This cruise was the starting point of a scientific program dedicated to geological investigations of the Demerara plateau that was sustained by different cruises and collaborations (1) IGUANES (2013) that completed the mapping of this plateau including off Surinam, allowed to better understand the segmentation of the Northern edge of this plateau, and to evidence the combined importance of contourite and mass-wasting processes in the recent sedimentary evolution of this domain, (2) Collaboration with TOTAL (Mercier de Lépinay's PhD thesis) that allowed to better qualify the two main phases of structural evolution of the plateau respectively during Jurassic times for its Western border, Cretaceous times for its

  18. Chemical erosion and hydrologic budget for the Susure karst plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karst plateau of Susure, about 4.5 km2 in surface area, is situated on the Jadovnik eastern offset, western Serbia. The plateau is a morphologic unit higher 15 m to 30 m than the surrounding terrain. The unit consists of crushed and karstified Middle Triassic limestones. Numerous hydrogeological and geomorphologic features of the plateau are attractive for visitors in this economically underdeveloped country. Rocks building up the surrounding terrain are largely peridotites. Surface streams flow neither into nor off the plateau. Atmospheric precipitations discharge to evapotanspiration and filtration underground. More than eighteen constant springs at the limestone/peridotite tectonic contact drain fracture aquifers on the karst plateau border. Measured precipitations and springflows were the input and output data for accounting water budget of an aquifer of Middle Triassic limestones in the Susure plateau.

  19. Cenozoic basin development and its indication of plateau growth in the Xunhua-Guide district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Xunhua, Guide and Tongren Basins are linked with the Laji Mountain and the northern West Qinling thrust belts in the Xunhua-Guide district. Basin depositional stratigraphy consists of the Oligocene Xining Group, the uppermost Oligocene-Pliocene Guide Group and the Lower Pleistocene. They are divided into three basin phases by unconformities. Basin phase 1 is composed of the Xining Group, and Basin phase 2 of the Zharang, Xiadongshan, Herjia and Ganjia Conglomerate Formations in the Guide Group, and Basin phase 3 of the Gonghe Formation and the Lower Pleistocene. Three basin phases all develop lacustrine deposits at their lower parts, and alluvial-braided channel plain depositional systems at upper parts, which constitute a coarsening-upward and progradational sequence. Basin deposition, paleocurrent and provenance analyses represent that large lacustrine basin across the Laji Mountain was developed and sourced from the West Qinling thrust belt during the stage of the Xining Group (Basin phase 1), and point-dispersed alluvial fan-braided channel plain deposition systems were developed beside the thrust and uplifted Laji Mountain and sourced from it, as thrusting migrated northwards during the stage of the Guide Group (Basin phase 2). Evolution of basin-mountain system in the study area significantly indicates the growth process of the distal Tibetan Plateau. The result shows that the Tibetan Plateau expanded to the northern West-Qinling at Oligocene (29―21.4 Ma) by means of northward folded-and-thrust thickening and uplifting and frontal foreland basin filling, and across the study area to North Qilian and Liupan Mountain at the Miocene-Pliocene (20.8―2.6 Ma) by means of two-sided basement-involved-thrust thickening and uplifting and broken foreland basin filling, and the distant end of Tibetan Plateau behaved as regional erosion and intermontane basin aggradational filling during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene (2.6―1.7 Ma).

  20. Property and heat storage performances of Glauber’s salt-based phase change materials for solar greenhouse in Qinghai-Tibet plateau%芒硝基相变材料性能及其在简易温室中升温效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋自鹏; 铁生年

    2016-01-01

    to reduce their phase separation. In order to enhance its thermal conductivity, we chose graphitic material as the heat-removing agent. In this paper, we studied the properties of Glauber salt based phase change energy storage material and it’s performance of heat storage in winter in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region. Firstly, we prepared the Glauber salt based composite PCMs in laboratory, and then their thermal properties were measured by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples were put in an alumina pan and heated from -10 to 40 ℃ at a rate of 1.0 ℃/min in purified nitrogen atmosphere (50 mL/min). The thermal cycling tests were carried out in an oven (Themo SCIENTIFIC HAAKE A 40) by heating and cooling the samples from 10 to 40 ℃ repeatedly. Thermal conductivities were determined by the transient plane source (TPS) method (Hot Disk, TPS 2200). The tested simple solar greenhouse was located in Xining City, Qinghai Province (101°44' E, 36°43' N). It was 3.5 m long and 2.7 m wide. The wall included 5 cm flexible foam (polyurethane) and 20 cm gypsum brick, as well as 0.1 cm iron sheet. The test period was from December 20th, 2015 to February 4th, 2016. The heat insulation sheet of the simple solar greenhouse was rolled up and down at 9:00 am and 5:00 pm on every sunny day, respectively. The temperatures of outdoor, and indoor air and gypsum wall, and solar irradiation were measured continuously at a time interval of 10 min. The data collected on a typical sunny day were used to study the heat-retaining properties in greenhouse with PCMs. When the temperature was higher than PCMs freezing and melting point, the PCMs released heat and froze. This paper explored the property about its undercooling, phase separation, thermal conductivity and phase change cycle. Two simple greenhouses were built, and the change of temperature was analyzed. Results showed that when adding the 4% borax (mass fraction), the supercooling of PCMs almost disappeared

  1. Dynamic contact mechanics on the tibial plateau of the human knee during activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Susannah; Chen, Tony; Hutchinson, Ian D; Choi, Dan; Voigt, Clifford; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A

    2014-06-27

    Despite significant advances in scaffold design, manufacture, and development, it remains unclear what forces these scaffolds must withstand when implanted into the heavily loaded environment of the knee joint. The objective of this study was to fully quantify the dynamic contact mechanics across the tibial plateau of the human knee joint during gait and stair climbing. Our model consisted of a modified Stanmore knee simulator (to apply multi-directional dynamic forces), a two-camera motion capture system (to record joint kinematics), an electronic sensor (to record contact stresses on the tibial plateau), and a suite of post-processing algorithms. During gait, peak contact stresses on the medial plateau occurred in areas of cartilage-cartilage contact; while during stair climb, peak contact stresses were located in the posterior aspect of the plateau, under the meniscus. On the lateral plateau, during gait and in early stair-climb, peak contact stresses occurred under the meniscus, while in late stair-climb, peak contact stresses were experienced in the zone of cartilage-cartilage contact. At 45% of the gait cycle, and 20% and 48% of the stair-climb cycle, peak stresses were simultaneously experienced on both the medial and lateral compartment, suggesting that these phases of loading warrant particular consideration in any simulation intended to evaluate scaffold performance. Our study suggests that in order to design a scaffold capable of restoring 'normal' contact mechanics to the injured knees, the mechanics of the intended site of implantation should be taken into account in any pre-clinical testing regime.

  2. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  3. Observational Facts of Sustained Departure Plateau Vortexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuhua; GAO Wenliang; PENG Jun; XIAO Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    By using the twice-daily atmospheric observation data from 1998 to 2012, station rainfall data, Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM) data, as well as the plateau vortex and shear line year book, charac-teristics of the sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) are analyzed. Some new useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the SDPV activities. The following results are obtained. (1) The active period of SDPVs is from June to August, most in July, unlike that of the unsustained depar-ture plateau vortexes (UDPVs), which have same occurrence frequencies in the three summer months. (2) The SDPVs, generated mainly in the Qumalai neighborhood and situated in a sheared surrounding, move eastward or northeastward, while the UDPVs are mainly led by the upper-level trough, and move eastward or southeastward. (3) The SDPVs influence wide areas of China, even far to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Vietnam. (4) The SDPVs change their intensities and properties on the way to the east. Most of them become stronger and produce downpour or sustained regional rainstorms to the south of Yellow River. (5) The longer the SDPV sustains, the more baroclinity it has. (6) When an SDPV moves into the sea, its central pressure descends and rainfall increases in all probability. (7) An SDPV might spin over the bend of the Yellow River when there exists a tropical cyclone in the East China Sea. It could also move oppositely to a landed tropical low pressure originated from the sea to the east of Taiwan or from the South China Sea.

  4. An overview of the crustal structure of the Tibetan plateau after 35 years of deep seismic soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongjie; Deng, Yangfan; Teng, Jiwen; Wang, Chunyong; Gao, Rui; Chen, Yun; Fan, Weiming

    2011-03-01

    Since the pioneer wide-angle seismic profile along the Yadong-Gulu rift acquired in 1974 by the ex-Institute of Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), several research programs aimed to deep geophysics, performed thanks to the participation of Chinese national and international institutions, have been developed during last 35 years, including 23 wide-angle seismic profiles with total length of about 6000 km. These profiles are unevenly distributed, most of them in eastern Tibet and few profiles in western Tibet. In this paper, we make a summarized presentation of all these wide-angle seismic profiles and provide an overall view of the seismic velocity structure of the crust beneath the broad Tibetan plateau, which is the product of the continuous convergence and collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates since about 50 Ma ago. Different patterns of crustal thickness variation related to the tectonic blocks and along suture zones of the region are displayed. The crust thickness is confirmed to be about 70-75 km under southern Tibet, and 60-65 km under northern, northeastern and southeastern Tibet. The leading edge of the subducted lithosphere reaches the northern margin of the plateau and directly contacts with Tarim Basin. Westward of the 90°E boundary, the Indian crust is moving towards the northern edge of the plateau and collides with Tarim Basin at 80°E while reach the Bangong-Nujiang suture belt at 88°E; eastward of the 90°E boundary, the northern edge of the crust should be at 50-100 km south of Bangong-Nujiang suture. The results supply helpful constrains to understand the mechanism of the continent-continent collision and its consequences in the plateau and neighbouring areas.

  5. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite.

  6. 黄土高原西部红粘土岩石磁学性质及其指示的亚洲内陆中中新世气候变化特征%MID-MIOCENE CLIMATE IN THE ASIAN INTERIOR ,BASED ON THE MINERAL-MAGNETIC RECORD OF THE RED CLAY SEQUENCE ON THE WESTERN CHINESE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 强小科; 敖红; 徐新文; 孙玉芳; 陈艇

    2012-01-01

    对黄土高原西部庄浪红粘土进行详细岩石磁学分析表明,沉积物磁性由磁铁矿和赤铁矿主导,并且含有一定量的磁赤铁矿.中中新世大暖期红粘土中磁铁矿、磁赤铁矿含量显著升高;中中新世大暖期前后红粘土中的磁铁矿含量相对较低,赤铁矿相对含量较高,但并未显示较强的磁赤铁矿信息.磁性矿物的整体粒径表现为以SP,SD和PSD颗粒为主,MD颗粒较少.庄浪红粘土磁化率在16.5 ~ 13.8Ma出现峰值,与当时的夏季风强盛、降水丰富、成壤作用较强造成的亚铁磁性矿物相对含量增加密切相关.在全球气候变暖的中中新世大暖期,综合庄浪岩石磁学特征以及陆地和海洋的其他证据可以推测当时东亚冬、夏季风可能同时增强.%Heqing Basin(26°27' - 26°46'N, 100°08' ~ 100°17'E) is a Late Cenozoic north-south oriented pull-apart basin near the northwestern margin of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The Basin is located at the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and belongs to the terminal of Hengduan Mountains. The local climate is dominated by Indian monsoon. Therefore,the continuous and thick sediments in the basin make it a perfect continental record for evolution of Indian summer monsoon. The Heqing drill core was obtained in the centre of the Heqing Basin. Using the internal lining method, recovery of the HQ drill core (26°33'43. 1"N, 100°10'14. 2"E;2200m) which has an accumulative depth of 665. 83m reaches up to 96. 7%. The lake sediments mainly consist of horizontally laminated greyish-green calcareous clay and silty clay with thin-bedded silt and fine sand layers, except two intervals of sand layers with fine gravels. With the equal interval of 50cm, we obtained 1368 samples from the drill core and chose 108 from different depositional units for detailed rock magnetic measurements. Based on detailed rock magnetic measurements like magnetic susceptibility versus high/low temperature curves

  7. Circulation and its seasonal variability in region around the Kerguelen Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jiuxin(史久新); Le Kentang(乐肯堂); Byung Ho Choi

    2002-01-01

    A coupled ice-ocean isopycnal numerical model of the Southern Ocean is established to study the circulation and its seasonal variability in the region around the Kerguelen Plateau. An analysis of the simulated results shows significant stripe-like structure and non-zonal feature of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in this region. ACC begins to bifurcate and to turn its direction before meeting the plateau. The southernmost branch of ACC is near to the Antarctic coast and displays its strong interaction with the westward Antarctic Slope Current. The northern branch of ACC has a tendency of annual variations while the southern one varies in a semiannual cycle. The variation phases of both branches are coincident with that of the wind stress in this region.

  8. The Manihiki Plateau, Hikurangi Plateau, Wishbone Scarp, and Osbourn Trough: A Review and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henig, A.; Luyendyk, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    The extinct Osbourn Trough spreading system in the southwestern Pacific played a key role in separating the once joined Hikurangi and Manihiki Plateaus in Cretaceous time. Recent studies by Downey et al. [2007] and Taylor [20006] have provided new data and concepts on that history. Studies by Larson et al. [2002] describe Cretaceous histories adjacent and east of the Osbourn system and Eagles et al. [2004] describe a history for the southwest Pacific just after the Osbourn system became extinct. The lack of identifiable magnetic anomalies allows tectonic events during separation of the plateaus and spreading on the Osbourn Trough to occur between about 124.6 and 84 Ma (Chron 34). Satellite gravity maps of the region identify what are interpreted as Cretaceous fracture zone trends. Swath bathymetry data reveal at least four provinces of abyssal hill trends. What is known are the following: Minimum age of the Manihiki High Plateau at 123.4 Ma from DSDP Site 317, the age of seafloor, 115 Ma, from a dredge sample from the southern segment of the West Wishbone Scarp 300 km northeast of the Hikurangi Plateau, the east-west trend and extent of the extinct Osbourn spreading center at latitude 26° S, the trends (NNE-SSW to NE-SW) and extent of portions of the West Wishbone Scarp east of the Hikurangi Plateau, the N-S trend of the East Wishbone Scarp that appears to truncate the West Wishbone Scarp, the NNE- SSW trend and extent of the prominent Manihiki (Eastern) Scarp at the eastern boundary of the Manihiki High Plateau, the NW-SE trend and extent of the Rapuhia Scarp on the northwestern Hikurangi Plateau, and trends in abyssal hills; E-W near the Osbourn Trough and WNW-ESE closer to the plateaus. Differences in abyssal hill morphology suggest one or more changes in spreading rates. The Osbourn Trough began rifting apart a Large Igneous Province formed at 123.5 +/- 1.5 Ma, into the separate Ontong-Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi Plateaus by 121 Ma. After an initial 6 Myr

  9. [Functional difference of malate-aspartate shuttle system in liver between plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui-Juan; Rao, Xin-Feng; Wei, Deng-Bang; Wang, Duo-Wei; Wei, Lian; Sun, Sheng-Zhen

    2012-04-25

    To explore the adaptive mechanisms of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) to the enduring digging activity in the hypoxic environment and of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) to the sprint running activity, the functional differences of malate-aspartate shuttle system (MA) in liver of plateau zokor and plateau pika were studied. The ratio of liver weight to body weight, the parameters of mitochondria in hepatocyte and the contents of lactic acid in serum were measured; the open reading frame of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2), and the partial sequence of aspartate glutamate carrier (AGC) and oxoglutarate malate carrier (OMC) genes were cloned and sequenced; MDH1, MDH2, AGC and OMC mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR; the specific activities of MDH1 and MDH2 in liver of plateau zokor and plateau pika were measured using enzymatic methods. The results showed that, (1) the ratio of liver weight to body weight, the number and the specific surface of mitochondria in hepatocyte of plateau zokor were markedly higher than those of plateau pika (P 0.05); (3) mRNA level and enzymatic activity of MDH1 was significantly lower than those of MDH2 in the pika liver (P 0.05). These results indicate that the plateau zokor obtains ATP in the enduring digging activity by enhancing the function of MA, while plateau pika gets glycogen for their sprint running activity by increasing the process of gluconeogenesis. As a result, plateau pika converts the lactic acid quickly produced in their skeletal muscle by anaerobic glycolysis and reduces dependence on the oxygen.

  10. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Multimodal Brain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Celeste; Maia, Isabel; Cerejo, Antonio; Smielewski, Peter; Paiva, José-Artur; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe multimodal brain monitoring characteristics during plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with head injury, using ICM+ software for continuous recording. Plateau waves consist of an abrupt elevation of ICP above 40 mmHg for 5-20 min. This is a prospective observational study of patients with head injury who were admitted to a neurocritical care unit and who developed plateau waves. We analyzed 59 plateau waves that occurred in 8 of 18 patients (44 %). At the top of plateau waves arterial blood pressure remained almost constant, but cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral oximetry decreased. After plateau waves, patients with a previously better autoregulation status developed hyperemia, demonstrated by an increase in cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. Pressure and oxygen cerebrovascular reactivity indexes (pressure reactivity index and ORxshort) increased significantly during the plateau wave as a sign of disruption of autoregulation. Bedside multimodal brain monitoring is important to characterize increases in ICP and give differential diagnoses of plateau waves, as management of this phenomenon differs from that of regular ICP.

  11. Interpretation of Plateau in High-Harmonic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程太旺; 李晓峰; 敖淑艳; 傅盘铭

    2003-01-01

    The plateau in high-harmonic generation is investigated in the frequency domain. Probability density of an electron in an electromagnetic field is obtained through analysing the quantized-field Volkov state. The plateau of high-harmonic generation reflects the spectral density of the electron at the location of nucleus after abovethreshold ionization.

  12. A phase 3, multicenter, randomized, allopurinol-controlled study assessing the safety and efficacy of oral febuxostat in Chinese gout patients with hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoyong; Liu, Xiangyang; Ming, Jie; Chen, Shenren; Wang, Yangang; Liu, Xiumei; Liu, Hong; Peng, Yongde; Wang, Jianqin; Lin, Jinying; Ji, Haiwang; Liu, Bin; Lu, Ying; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yonghong; Ji, Qiuhe

    2015-07-01

    To compare the efficiency and safety of febuxostat with those of allopurinol in Chinese patients with gout and hyperuricemia. The trial which was conducted at 13 centers in China during 2011-2013 included a 2-week run-in and a 24-week treatment period. A total of 504 eligible participants with gout and with serum urate ≥ 480 μmol/L were randomly assigned 1 : 1 : 1 to febuxostat 40 mg/day, febuxostat 80 mg/day and allopurinol 300 mg/day groups. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of subjects whose last three serum urate levels were gout flare was relatively high in each group during the first 8 weeks and gradually decreased thereafter. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups (P > 0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the three treatment groups. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were liver function test abnormalities. Febuxostat 80 mg/day had superior urate-lowering efficacy to that of febuxostat 40 mg/day or allopurinol 300 mg/day, which was comparable in Chinese gout patients with hyperuricemia. Febuxostat, at a daily dose of 40 or 80 mg, was safe and well tolerated. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. 中国男子跳远运动员起跳不同时相的运动学参数%Study on different kinematic parameters during the take-off phase of Chinese male broad jump athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊明; 周巧玲; 朱咏贤

    2003-01-01

    目的中国优秀男子跳远运动员起跳中不同时相速度变化特征的研究 ,对提高跳远成绩提供理论价值.方法采用现场定点高速摄影、影片分析以及数理统计等方法,通过对 8名优秀男子跳远运动员 A, B两组起跳阶段不同时相身体重心水平速度和垂直速度的变化与着板角、起跳缓冲和蹬伸阶段膝角变化的比较分析.结果成绩较好时,缓冲阶段身体重心水平速度的减小和垂直速度的增加相对较大;蹬伸阶段身体重心水平速度略有回升、垂直速度保持增加的态势,而且,离板瞬间身体重心水平速度和垂直速度都呈现出相对较大的趋势.结论中国优秀男子跳远运动员起跳缓冲阶段身体重心水平速度减小和垂直速度增加之间存在着密切关系.%Aim To study the velocity variations of take-off phase of Chinese male elite broad jump athletes so as to lay a theoretical basis for the improvement of broad jump results.Methods High-speed camera photography and method of film analysis were used to record and analyze the jumping results of 7 male elite Chinese broad jump athletes. The optimal results of these 8 athletes were included in group A,and the worst results in group B.The variations of the body center gravity horizontal velocity and vertical velocity, and the variations of the landing board angle of the jumping foot, buffer and knee angle during the taking off phase were compared and analyzed between A and B groups.Results The decrease of the horizontal velocity and the increase of the vertical velocity were more remarkable in the group A than in the group B during the buffer phase.The Chinese male elite long jumpers tended to incline to a small landing angle when the taking-off foot touched the board coordinated with obvious knee angle variations during the buffer and taking-off phases The horizontal velocity and vertical velocity of the athletes' body center gravity inclined to the tendency of

  14. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  15. Bartonella Species Detected in the Plateau Pikas (Ochotona curzoiae) from Qinghai Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hua Xiang; Yu, Juan; Guo, Peng; Ma, Yong Cheng; Liu, Qi Yong; Jiao, Ming; Ma, Zhong Wen; Ge, Hua; Wang, Chun Xiang; Song, Xiu Ping; Shi, Yan; Li, Dong Mei

    2015-09-01

    Bartonella species can infect a variety of mammalian hosts and cause a broad spectrum of diseases in humans, but there have been no reports of Bartonella infection in Ochotonidae. This is the first study to detect Bartonella in plateau pikas in the Qinghai plateau, providing baseline data for the risk assessment of human Bartonella infection in this area. We obtained 15 Bartonella strains from 79 pikas in Binggou and Maixiu areas of Qinghai with a positive rate of 18.99%. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella citrate synthase (gltA) gene sequences, most strains were closely related to B. taylorii (3/15) and B. grahamii (12/15). The latter is a pathogenic strain in humans. Our results suggest that a corresponding prevention and control strategy should be taken into consideration in the Qinghai province.

  16. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, David W.; Hackett, William R.; Ore, H. Thomas

    1990-11-01

    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56°E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  17. Deep structure of the Iceland plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.R.; Sacks, I.S.

    1979-11-10

    The topography of the sea floor between Iceland and Jan Mayen Island is flat and elevated in relation to most ocean basins. Marine geophysical observations in the area have shown that it was formed by sea floor spreading but have not revealed details of structures more than a few hundred meters beneath the sea floor. We have examined the dispersion of seismic surface waves across the Iceland Plateau and have modeled structures to depths of up to 100 km. We find that the thickness of the crustal component of the lithosphere is much greater than that of normal oceanic structures, perhaps exceeding 20 km. We suggest that the elevation of the region is due to isostatic compensation for this excess of low-density crustal material. The total lithospheric thickness is about 50 km throughout the region, indicating that the lithosphere thickens with age at a rate similar to that found in other young oceans.

  18. Plateau inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Gupta, Gaveshna; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-09-01

    We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU (2) Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  19. Plateau inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Chakravarty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU(2 Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  20. Have Periprosthetic Hip Infection Rates Plateaued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Dean C; Boylan, Matthew R; Naziri, Qais; Paulino, Carl B; Kurtz, Steven M; Mont, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although the number of revision cases is increasing, the prevalence of PJI as an indication for revision surgery, and the variability of this indication among surgeons and hospitals, is unclear. The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System was used to identify 33,582 patients undergoing revision THA between 2000 and 2013. PJI was identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes. Volume was defined using mean number of revision THAs performed annually by each hospital and surgeon. PJI was the indication for 13.0% of all revision THAs. The percentage of revision THAs for PJI increased between years 2000 and 2007 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, P < .001), but decreased between years 2008 and 2013 (OR = 0.96, P = .001). Compared to medium-volume hospitals, the PJI burden at high-volume hospitals decreased during years 2000-2007 (OR = 0.58, P < .001) and 2008-2013 (OR = 0.57, P < .001). Compared to medium-volume surgeons, the PJI burden for high-volume surgeons increased during years 2000-2007 (OR = 1.39, P < .001), but did not differ during years 2008-2013 (P = .618). The burden of PJI as an indication for revision THA may be plateauing. High-volume institutions have seen decreases in the percentage of revisions performed for PJI over the complete study duration. Specific surgeon may be associated with the plateauing in PJI rates as high-volume surgeons in 2008-2013 were no longer found to be at increased risk of PJI as an indication for revision THA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  2. Effects of the soil freeze-thaw process on the regional climate of the Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S., Sr.; Chen, B.; Lu, S.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, D.

    2015-12-01

    Single-point and regional simulation experiments on the Tibet Plateau, both with and without consideration of the soil freeze-thaw process, were set up with CLM3.5 and RegCM4 models. Comparison of the simulated soil temperature and moisture, surface energy flux, and upper-lower atmospheric circulation showed that the regional climate can be influenced by the freeze-thaw process of soil. The results indicate that the freeze-thaw process is a buffer to the seasonal changes in soil and near-surface temperatures and strengthens the energy exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. During the freeze (thaw) process, releasing (absorbing) of phase change energy retards the cooling (heating) effect of air temperature on soil. The soil freeze-thaw process increases (decreases) the surface heat source of the plateau in winter (summer), which increases (decreases) the near-surface temperature in winter (summer). Promoted by atmospheric circulation, the soil freeze-thaw process influences climate at the high and low altitudes of the plateau; this may also contribute to the maintenance of the South Asia High. In the early stages of permafrost degradation, the regional climate effects of freezing and thawing may accelerate the degradation of permafrost.

  3. Mesozoic denudation and cooling events of the Yinshan Mountains, southern Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li-Xia; Han, Bao-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Liu, Bo; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    ABASTRACT The Yinshan Mountains are south boundary of the Mongolian Plateau, occupying the north part of North China Craton. 18 granitoid samples were conducted by apatite fission track method in order to unravel its Mesozoic denudation and cooling history and relationship with the Mongolian Plateau. They obtain Jurassic to Cretaceous AFT ages. 3 main phases of rapid cooling events during Mesozoic are recognized and could probably be caused by denudation. Combined with local geological conditions, denudations are more likely controlled by the local thrust faulting. The Early Jurassic denudation event occurred in the transition area to the Mongolian Plateau. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous denudation events occurred in the interior mountains and are more likely provoked by the distant effect of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny based on their propagation directions. The Late Cretaceous denudation event occurred in the southeastern flank of the mountain. Finally, the activity time of thrust faults are constrained by 130-90 Ma according to the uplift and denudation relationship in the thrust system and their modeling T-t paths. Key words Apatite Fission track; Uplift and denudation; Mesozoic reactivation; Mountain Langshan

  4. Constraining the stepwise migration of the eastern Tibetan Plateau margin by apatite fission track thermochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Granites sampled from Garzê-Litang thrust, Longmen Shan thrust, Garzê and Litang strike-slip faults in the eastern Tibetan Plateau have been analyzed with apatite fission track thermochronological method in this study. The measured fission track apparent ages, combined with the simulated annealing mod- eling of the thermal history, have been used to reconstruct the thermal evolutionary histories of the samples and interpret the active history of the thrusts and faults in these areas. Thermal history mod- eling shows that earlier tectonic cooling occurred in the Garzê-Litang thrust in Miocene (~20―16 Ma) whereas the later cooling occurred mainly in the Longmen Shan thrust since ~5 Ma. Our study sug- gests that the margin of eastern Tibetan Plateau was extended by stages: through strike-slip faults deformations and related thrusts, the upper crust formed the Garzê-Litang margin in the Miocene epoch and then moved to the Longmen Shan margin since ~5 Ma. During this process, the deformations of different phases in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were absorbed by the thrusts within them and conse- quently the tectonic events of long-distance slip and extrusion up to hundreds of kilometers have not been found.

  5. Constraining the stepwise migration of the eastern Tibetan Plateau margin by apatite fission track thermochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI QingZhou; DING Lin; WANG HongWei; YUE YaHui; CAI FuLong

    2007-01-01

    Granites sampled from Garzê-Litang thrust, Longmen Shan thrust, Garzê and Litang strike-slip faults in the eastern Tibetan Plateau have been analyzed with apatite fission track thermochronological method in this study. The measured fission track apparent ages, combined with the simulated annealing modeling of the thermal history, have been used to reconstruct the thermal evolutionary histories of the samples and interpret the active history of the thrusts and faults in these areas. Thermal history modeling shows that earlier tectonic cooling occurred in the Garzê-Litang thrust in Miocene (~20―16 Ma) whereas the later cooling occurred mainly in the Longmen Shan thrust since ~5 Ma. Our study suggests that the margin of eastern Tibetan Plateau was extended by stages: through strike-slip faults deformations and related thrusts, the upper crust formed the Garzê-Litang margin in the Miocene epoch and then moved to the Longmen Shan margin since ~5 Ma. During this process, the deformations of different phases in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were absorbed by the thrusts within them and consequently the tectonic events of long-distance slip and extrusion up to hundreds of kilometers have not been found.

  6. On the inward drift of runaway electrons in plateau regime

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Di

    2016-01-01

    The well observed inward drift of current carrying runaway electrons during runaway plateau regime after disruption is studied by considering the phase space dynamic of runaways in a large aspect ratio toroidal system. We consider the case where the toroidal field is unperturbed and the toroidal symmetry of the system is preserved. The invariance of canonical angular momentum in such system requires runaways to drift horizontally in configuration space for any given change in momentum space. The dynamic of this drift can be obtained by taking the variation of canonical angular momentum. It is then found that runaway electrons will always drift inward as long as they are decelerating. This drift motion is essentially non-linear, since the current is carried by runaways themselves, and any runaway drift relative to the magnetic axis will cause further displacement of the axis itself. A simplified analytical model is constructed to describe such inward drift both in ideal wall case and no wall case, and the runa...

  7. Temporal and spatial evolution of the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) in the Loess Plateau under climate change from 2001 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuerui; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Xining; Wu, Pute; Pan, Wenxiang; Gao, Xiaodong; Sun, Miao

    2017-10-01

    Loess Plateau has great uncertainty on drought occurrence due to climate change. This paper analyzes the evolution of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) based on the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and regional downscaling model (RegCM4.0). Results indicate that, under RCP2.6 Scenario, the precipitation will increase significantly (5% confidence level) at the rate of 16.40mm/10a. However, the potential evapotranspiration is showing non-significant decreasing trend at the rate of 2.16mm/10a. Moreover, the SPEI will decrease in the south and northernmost area and increase in the central northern area of Loess Plateau. Under RCP8.5 Scenario, the precipitation will increase significantly (5% confidence level) at the rate of 19.12mm/10a. The potential evapotranspiration will non-significantly decrease at the rate of 2.16mm/10a and the SPEI is showing increasing trend almost in the whole Loess Plateau. Generally, Loess Plateau is becoming wetter in the central part under RCP2.6 Scenario and the wet area will be enlarged to almost the whole plateau under RCP8.5 Scenario. Based on the results, the water resources will increase under global warming, which may alleviate the water scarcity issue in the Loess Plateau. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A study of the low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernova 2008bk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisakov, S. M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2017-04-01

    Supernova (SN) 2008bk is a well-observed low-luminosity Type II event visually associated with a low-mass red-supergiant progenitor. To model SN 2008bk, we evolve a 12 M⊙ star from the main sequence until core collapse, when it has a total mass of 9.88 M⊙, a He-core mass of 3.22 M⊙ and a radius of 502 R⊙. We then artificially trigger an explosion that produces 8.29 M⊙ of ejecta with a total energy of 2.5 × 1050 erg and ∼0.009 M⊙ of 56Ni. We model the subsequent evolution of the ejecta with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative transfer. Although somewhat too luminous and energetic, this model reproduces satisfactorily the multiband light curves and multi-epoch spectra of SN 2008bk, confirming the suitability of a low-mass massive star progenitor. As in other low-luminosity SNe II, the structured Hα profile at the end of the plateau phase is probably caused by Ba II 6496.9 Å rather than asphericity. We discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in progenitor radius and mass, as well as chemical mixing. A 15 per cent increase in progenitor radius causes a 15 per cent increase in luminosity and a 0.2 mag V-band brightening of the plateau but leaves its length unaffected. An increase in ejecta mass by 10 per cent lengthens the plateau by ∼10 d. Chemical mixing introduces slight changes to the bolometric light curve, limited to the end of the plateau, but has a large impact on colours and spectra at nebular times.

  9. Genetic Convergence in the Adaptation of Dogs and Humans to the High-Altitude Environment of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Zhai, Weiwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, He-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yan; Gao, Yun; Ge, Ri-Li; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:25091388

  10. Molecular analysis of cultivated naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China using SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifen PAN; Guangbing DENG; Xuguang ZHAI; Hai LONG; Yawei TANG; Xiaolin QIANG; Maoqun YU

    2008-01-01

    Naked barley is widely planted in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and is essential for the daily life of Tibetans in those regions. In this study, the genetic diversity of 64 cultivated naked barley accessions from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China was analyzed using 30 mapped SSRs linked with the important traits of barley improvement. A total of 132 alleles were identified at 22 polymorphic SSR loci, with the number of each locus ranging from 2 to 15, the polymorphism information con-tent (PIC) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.91, and with an average of 0.65. Of the selected SSRs, 13 SSR markers with high PIC value were highly efficient for the genetic analysis of Chinese barley. The accessions were divided into five main groups by cluster analysis and could be differentiated from each other. The genetic diversity in the Tibet accessions was slightly higher than in the Sichuan accessions. It is found that there were specific genes linked with the collecting sites. These results indi-cate the cultivated naked barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China are highly polymorphic and could be considered as an important resource bank for cultivated naked barley breeding in the future.

  11. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  12. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  13. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  14. Conductance fluctuations and disorder induced ν =0 quantum Hall plateau in topological insulator nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xypakis, Emmanouil; Bardarson, Jens H.

    2017-01-01

    Clean topological insulators exposed to a magnetic field develop Landau levels accompanied by a nonzero Hall conductivity for the infinite slab geometry. In this work we consider the case of disordered topological insulator nanowires and find, in contrast, that a zero Hall plateau emerges within a broad energy window close to the Dirac point. We numerically calculate the conductance and its distribution for a statistical ensemble of disordered nanowires, and use the conductance fluctuations to study the dependence of the insulating phase on system parameters, such as the nanowire length, disorder strength, and the magnetic field.

  15. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed.

  16. Phylogeography of regional fauna on the Tibetan Plateau: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan Yang; Hailiang Dong; Fumin Lei

    2009-01-01

    The studies of uplift and glaciations of the Tibetan Plateau are summarized, and a series of recent case studies of the endemic species based on DNA sequences are detailed. In general, these molecular data show that all the organisms originated from Early Pliocene to Late Miocene, and then multi-stages of divergence/speciation occurred within each taxa following their original occupation on the pla-teau, mainly as a result of periodic glacial cycles and geographic isolation. The regional fauna may have undergone several range con-tractions and expansions during the Pleistocene glaciations. However, the population expansion and refugia may vary in space, time, and extent. The regional fauna of the Tibetan Plateau may be combinations of ancient movement from adjacent zoogeographical regions, speciation in situ, and postglacial colonization from adjacent areas. Geomorphic and climatic changes on the plateau definitely have a remarkable influence on the regional and adjacent biogeographic patterns, and the mechanism is very complex.

  17. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  18. A plateau-valley separation method for multifunctional surfaces characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Turned multifunctional surfaces are a new typology of textured surfaces presenting a flat plateau region and deterministically distributed lubricant reservoirs. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical meaning. A new...

  19. Flora investigation kicks off on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coordinated by the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany,a project to investigate the floral germplasm resources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was initiated recently in Kunming,capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  20. Sichuan Basin and beyond: Eastward foreland growth of the Tibetan Plateau from an integration of Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic fission track and (U-Th)/He ages of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, Qinling, and Daba Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Shen, Chuanbo; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Enkelmann, Eva; Jonckheere, Raymond; Wauschkuhn, Bastian; Dong, Yunpeng

    2017-06-01

    Combining 121 new fission track and (U-Th)/He ages with published thermochronologic data, we investigate the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic exhumation/cooling history of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, Qinling, Daba Shan, and Sichuan Basin of east central China. The Qinling orogen shows terminal southwestward foreland growth in the northern Daba Shan thrust belt at 100-90 Ma and in the southern Daba Shan fold belt at 85-70 Ma. The eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau experienced major exhumation phases at 70-40 Ma (exhumation rate 0.05-0.08 mm/yr), 25-15 Ma (≤1 mm/yr in the Pengguan Massif; 0.2 mm/yr in the imbricated western Sichuan Basin), and since 11-10 Ma along the Longmen Shan ( 0.80 mm/yr) and the interior of the eastern Tibetan Plateau (Dadu River gorge, Min Shan; 0.50 mm/yr). The Sichuan Basin records two basin-wide denudation phases, likely a result of the reorganization of the upper Yangtze River drainage system. The first phase commenced at 45 Ma and probably ended before the Miocene; >1 km of rocks were eroded from the central and eastern Sichuan Basin. The second phase commenced at 12 Ma and denudated the central Sichuan Basin, Longmen Shan, and southern Daba Shan; more than 2 km of rocks were eroded after the lower Yangtze River had cut through the Three Gorges and captured the Sichuan Basin drainage. In contrast to the East Qinling, which was weakly effected by late Cenozoic exhumation, the West Qinling and Daba Shan have experienced rapid exhumation/cooling since 15-13 Ma, a result of growth of the Tibetan Plateau beyond the Sichuan Basin.

  1. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  3. Differences in hydrological responses for different vegetation types on a steep slope on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liangxia; Huang, Mingbin; Zhang, Luodan

    2016-06-01

    Extensive vegetation restoration practices have been implemented to control soil erosion on the Loess Plateau, China. However, no strict guidelines are available to determine the most suitable plant species for vegetation restoration within a given area. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes of each component (soil water storage, surface runoff, and actual evapotranspiration) of a water balance model and soil loss over time under eight different vegetation types, and to further determine the optimal vegetation type for soil and water conservation and sustainable ecological restoration on the steep slopes (>25°) on the Loess Plateau. The results indicated that vegetation type substantially affected soil water storage and that the greatest soil water storage in both the shallow (0-2 m) and the deep soil layers (2-5 m) occurred under Bothriochloa ischaemum L. (BOI). Vegetation type also affected surface runoff and soil losses. The most effective vegetation types for reducing soil erosion were BOI and Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), while Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) and Chinese pine + Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were the most ineffective types. Soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration varied considerably among the different vegetation types. A soil water surplus was only found under BOI, while insufficient water replenishment existed under the other seven vegetation types. The higher water consumption rates of the seven vegetation types could result in soil desiccation, which could lead to severe water stresses that would adversely affect plant growth. This study suggested that both vegetation type and its effect on controlling soil erosion should be considered when implementing vegetation restoration and that BOI should be highly recommended for vegetation restoration on the steep slopes of the Loess Plateau. A similar approach to the one used in this study could be applied to other regions of the world confronted

  4. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  5. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  6. AHP 21: Pyramid Schemes on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Gonier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The unique features of pyramid shemes and certain underlying causes for their development on the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed. Research was conducted by analyzing 521 surveys, allowing estimation of pyramid scheme activity on the Plateau and an identification of related cultural and social specificities. Firsthand accounts were collected revealing details of personal involvement. Survey data and similarities in the accounts were studied to suggest how involvement in pyramid schemes might be reduced at both institutional and individual levels.

  7. Evolution of the Ordos Plateau and environmental effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of temporary-spatial distribution, geomorphic position, contact relationship with underlying strata and grain size of red clay, we studied the formation and environmental background of red clay. During late Miocene-Pliocene, the Ordos Block finished the transformation from the basin to the plateau, which had an obvious environmental effect on the topography, indicated by the formation of highland undergoing wind erosion and lowland receiving red clay deposits. The red clay materials were sourced from dusts carried by wind energy and covered on the initial topography. Unlike Quaternary loess dust covering the overall the Loess Plateau, red clay deposited on the highland would be transported to the lowlands by wind and fluvial process. As a result, there was no continuous "Red Clay Plateau" in the Ordos region and red clay was only preserved in former lowlands. However, red clay was discontinuously distributed through the Loess Plateau and to some extent modified the initial topography. The differential uplift in interior plateau is indicated by the uplift of northern Baiyushan, central Ziwuling and southern Weibeibeishan. The Weibeibeishan Depression formed earlier and became the sedimentary center of red clay resulting in the thicker red clay deposits in Chaona, Lingtai and Xunyi. Since Quaternary the aridity in the northern plateau enhanced and accelerated loess accumulation caused the formation of the Loess Plateau. During the late Pleistocene the rapid uplift led to the enhancement of erosion. Especially after the cut-through of Sanme Lake by the Yellow River, the decline of base level caused the falling of ground water level and at the same time the increase of drainage density resulting in the enhancement of evaporation capacity, which enhanced the aridity tendency of aridity in the Loess Plateau region.

  8. Magnetization Plateau of the S = 1/2 Frustrated Heisenberg Chain with Period 3 Parity Invariant Exchange Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, K.; Affleck, I.

    The magnetization plateau of the S = 1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chain with period 3 parity invariant exchange modulation is investigated by the bosonization and numerical exact diagonalization method. The ground state phase diagram at 1/3 of the saturated magnetization is obtained. Among three degenerate \\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow-type plateau states in the uniform chain, two of them (downarrow\\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\uparrow\\cdots\\ and \\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\cdots\\ ) turned out to be robust against the period 3 exchange modulation which favors the bullet-bullet\\uparrowbullet-bullet\\uparrow\\cdots phase up to a critical value of the modulation amplitude (bullet-bullet = singlet dimer) resulting in the Z_2 symmetry broken phase. Another \\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow-type state with \\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\cdots\\ configuration is stabilized for period 3 modulation with opposite sign. The transition between the bullet-bullet\\uparrowbullet-bullet\\uparrow\\cdots\\ -phase and Z_2-broken phase is the Ising transition and that between the \\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\cdots\\ -phase and Z_2 broken phase is the first order transition. The spin configuration in each phase is numerically verified by applying the local symmetry breaking field.

  9. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  10. Nutrient Lossed in Soils on Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLIN; WANGJI-ZENG; 等

    1995-01-01

    The soil nutrient losses due to excessive soil loss on Loess Plateau were studied by means of runoff plots and systematical determination of soil nutrients both in sediments and runoff.The results show that the amounts of nutrient losses depended on the amounts of ersoion sediments.Along with sediment,11-197kg nitrogen/hectare and 9-174kg phosphorus/hectare were lost,accounting for 92.46-99.47 percent of the total amount of nitrogen loss and 99.85-99.99 percent of the total amount of phosphorus loss respectively.The nutrient losses,very small in runoff,were mainly attributed to erosion of a few rainstorms during a year.The nutrient level in sediment was mostly higher than that in the original soil.Planting grass evidently redued the losses of soil nutrients.The N level was lower in runoff than in rainfall so that the N loss from runoff could be made up by rainfall.Fertilizer application to crops raised the nutrient level in runoff.

  11. Solution of the Kirchhoff-Plateau Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusteri, Giulio G.; Lussardi, Luca; Fried, Eliot

    2017-01-01

    The Kirchhoff-Plateau problem concerns the equilibrium shapes of a system in which a flexible filament in the form of a closed loop is spanned by a liquid film, with the filament being modeled as a Kirchhoff rod and the action of the spanning surface being solely due to surface tension. We establish the existence of an equilibrium shape that minimizes the total energy of the system under the physical constraint of noninterpenetration of matter, but allowing for points on the surface of the bounding loop to come into contact. In our treatment, the bounding loop retains a finite cross-sectional thickness and a nonvanishing volume, while the liquid film is represented by a set with finite two-dimensional Hausdorff measure. Moreover, the region where the liquid film touches the surface of the bounding loop is not prescribed a priori. Our mathematical results substantiate the physical relevance of the chosen model. Indeed, no matter how strong is the competition between surface tension and the elastic response of the filament, the system is always able to adjust to achieve a configuration that complies with the physical constraints encountered in experiments.

  12. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  13. Zero temperature non-plateau magnetization and magnetocaloric effect in an Ising-XYZ diamond chain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, J.; Rojas, M.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2016-10-01

    Zero temperature non-plateau magnetization is a peculiar property of a quantum spin chain and it sometimes appears due to different gyromagnetic factors. In this study, we illustrate a quite unusual non-plateau magnetization property driven by XY-anisotropy in an Ising-XYZ diamond chain. Two particles with spin-1/2 are bonded by XYZ coupling and they are responsible for the emergence of non-plateau magnetization. These two quantum operator spins are bonded to two nodal Ising spins and this process is repeated infinitely to yield a diamond chain structure. Due to the non-plateau magnetization property, we focus our discussion on the magnetocaloric effect of this model by presenting the isentropic curves and the Grüneisen parameters, as well as showing the regions where the model exhibits an efficient magnetocaloric effect. Due to the existence of two phases located very close to each other, the strong XY-anisotropy exhibits a particular behavior with a magnetocaloric effect, with a wider interval in the magnetic field, where the magnetocaloric effect is efficient.

  14. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang

    2015-09-02

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998-2013 (0.25 °C decade(-1)), compared with that during 1980-1997 (0.21 °C decade(-1)). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud-radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud-radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau.

  15. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998–2013 (0.25 °C decade−1), compared with that during 1980–1997 (0.21 °C decade−1). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud–radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud–radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:26329678

  16. Flash Evaporation and Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction for the Analysis of the Essential Oils in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Houttuynia Cordata Thunb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Min LIANG; Mei Ling QI; Ruo Nong FU

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the use of flash evaporation, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and steam distillation (SD) as sample concentration and preparation techniques for the analysis of volatile constituents present in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS).Comparison studies were performed. It was found that the results obtained between Headspace solid-phase microextraction HS-SPME and SD techniques were in good agreement. Seventy-nine compounds in Houttuynia cordata Thunb were identified by MS. In flash evaporation, thirty-nine compounds were identified. Discrimination in the response for many constituents studied was not observed, which can be clearly observed in SD and HS-SPME techniques. As a conclusion,HS-SPME is a powerful tool for determining the volatile constitutes present in the Houttuynia cordata.

  17. ILs-based microwave-assisted extraction coupled with aqueous two-phase for the extraction of useful compounds from Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Yuzhi; Liu, Xiaojie; Huang, Songyun; Zeng, Qun

    2012-09-07

    Ionic liquids-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILs-MAE) of medicinal or useful compounds from plants was investigated as an alternative to conventional organic solvent extractions. The extraction and the preconcentration of aqueous two-phase (ATP) systems have been integrated. Various operating parameters were systematically considered by single-factor and L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF(4)]) has been selected to extract Apocynum venetum. The extract was then converted to the top phase by [bmim][BF(4)]/NaH(2)PO(4) system which was suitable for the preconcentration. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of hyperin and isoquercitrin in Apocynum venetum. The optimal experiment approach could provide higher detection limit of hyperin and isoquercitrin which were 3.82 μg L(-1) and 3.00 μg L(-1) in Apocynum venetum. The recoveries of hyperin and isoquercitrin were 97.29% (RSD = 1.02%) and 99.40% (RSD = 1.13%), respectively, from aqueous samples of Apocynum venetum by the proposed method. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILs-MAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the herb before and after extraction were also investigated. The method exhibited potential applicability with other complicated samples.

  18. A Phase II Study of Fotemustine Plus Dacarbazine with Dendritic Cell Vaccines as First-Line Therapy for Chinese Patients with Advanced Acral Lentiginous Melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Si; Zhi-hong Chi; Xiang-qing Yuan; Chuan-liang Cui; Xi-nan Sheng; Jun Guo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate fotemustine plus dacarbazine (DTIC) with dendritic cell (DC) vaccines on patients with advanced acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM). Fotemustine is a cytotoxic alkylating agent with a remarkable antitumor activity as single agent but also in association with (DTIC). DC is the strongest antigen presenting cell which could induce durable clinical responses. Methods: This was a single-center study. Between July 2003 and June 2006, twenty-eight chemotherapy-naive patients of advanced ALM received fotemustine 100 mg/m2, d1, 12, DTIC 400 mg/d d2(6, DC vaccines subcutaneously d7, 9, 13 repeated every 28 days. Ten HLA-A02+24+ patients received vaccines pulsed with melanoma antigen derived peptides, melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells 1 (Mart-1) and S-100. Eighteen patients received DC loaded with allogeneic melanoma lysate. The primary end-point was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary end-points were overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR) and toxicity. Tumor assessment was performed every 8 weeks and evaluated according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). Results: The 15 men and 13 women had a median age of 51 years. 16 patients had stage M1c disease and 11/16 had liver metastasis. Patients received an average of 3.82(1.25 cycles. Follow-up for the 18 surviving patients ranged from 7(41 months with a median of 12 months. Median PFS was 8.5 months (95% CI: 7.86(15.21) with 12 patients remaining progression free. Only 10 patients died. Median OS was 12 months (95% CI: 10.33(18.24). ORR (CR+PR) was 35.7% including 3 complete response (CR) and 7 partial response (PR). Six patients had disease stable. A total of 19 Grade III/IV toxicities were observed including thrombocytopenia (n=8), neutropenia (n=5), fatigue (n=6) and hypersensitivity reaction (n=1). One patient died of Grade IV thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: Fotemustine and dacarbazine plus DC vaccines are safe and tolerable to Chinese ALM patients. The

  19. Aerosol effects on the development of cumulus clouds over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Bei, Naifang; Liu, Hongli; Cao, Junji; Xing, Li; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui

    2017-06-01

    The aerosol-cloud interaction over the Tibetan Plateau has been investigated using a cloud-resolving weather research and forecasting model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme including aerosol effects on cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Two types of cumulus clouds with a similar convective available potential energy, occurring over the Tibetan Plateau (Cu-TP) and North China Plain (Cu-NCP) in August 2014, are simulated to explore the response of convective clouds to aerosols. A set of aerosol profiles is used in the simulations, with the surface aerosol number concentration varying from 20 to 9000 cm-3 and the sulfate mass concentration varying from 0.02 to 9.0 µg cm-3. Increasing aerosol concentrations generally enhances the cloud core updraft and maximum updraft, intensifying convections in Cu-TP and Cu-NCP. However, the core updraft is much stronger in Cu-TP than Cu-NCP, because of the early occurrence of the glaciation process in Cu-TP that is triggered at an elevation above 4000 m. The precipitation increases steadily with aerosol concentrations in Cu-NCP, caused by the suppression of the warm rain but occurrence of efficient mix-phased precipitation due to the reduced cloud droplet size. The precipitation in Cu-TP also increases with aerosol concentrations, but the precipitation enhancement is not substantial compared to that in Cu-NCP with high aerosol concentrations. The aerosol-induced intensification of convections in Cu-TP not only facilitates the precipitation but also transports more ice-phase hydrometeors into the upper troposphere to decrease the precipitation efficiency. Considering the very clean atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau, elevated aerosol concentrations can remarkably enhance convections due to its specific topography, which not only warms the middle troposphere to influence the Asian summer monsoon but also delivers hydrometeors into the upper troposphere to allow more water vapor to travel into the lower stratosphere.

  20. Molecular phylogenetic relationship of snow finch complex (genera Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) from the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanhua; Ericson, Per G P; Lei, Fumin; Gebauer, Axel; Kaiser, Martin; Helbig, Andreas J

    2006-07-01

    The snow finch complex (Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) has its center of distribution on the Tibetan plateau, with six out of seven species in the genera occurring there. Phylogenetic relationships among these six species of three genera have been studied based on DNA sequence data obtained from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear myoglobin gene. The results support monophyly of the snow finch complex group and three major evolutionary lineages are recognized. The first clade consists of ruficollis, blanfordi, and davidiana. These three taxa are sometimes placed in their own genus, Pyrgilauda, and the DNA data supports this. The three taxa nivalis, henrici, and adamsi have traditionally been placed in the genus Montifringilla, and they group together strongly in the present analysis. The results further suggest that nivalis and adamsi are more closely related to each other than are nivalis and henrici, despite that the latter two are often regarded as conspecific. The third distinct lineage within the snow finch complex consists of taczanowskii, which has been placed its own genus, Onychostruthus. This taxon has a basal position in the phylogenetic tree and is sister to all other snow finches. We estimated that taczanowskii split from the other taxa between 2 and 2.5 mya, i.e., about the time for the most recent uplift of the Tibetan plateau, "the Tibet movement", 3.6-1.7 mya. Cladogenesis within the Montifringilla and Pyrgilauda clades seems to be contemporary with the second phase of "Tibet movement" at 2.5 mya and the third phase at 1.7 mya and "Kunhuang movement" in 1.5-0.6 mya. The dramatic climatic and ecological changes following from the uplift of the Tibetan plateau, together with the cyclic contraction and expansion of suitable habitats during the Pleistocene, are probably the most important factors for the cladogenesis in snow finch complex.

  1. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  2. Isolation and Purification of Unstable Iridoid Glucosides from Traditional Chinese Medicine by Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Solid-phase Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cun-man; XIAO Yuan-sheng; XUE Xing-ya; FENG Jia-tao; ZHANG Xiu-li; LIANG Xin-miao

    2011-01-01

    An efficient preparative method was successfully developed for isolation and purification of unstable components from medicinal plant extracts, using a combined method of preparative high performance liquid chro matography(HPLC) and solid-phase extraction(SPE). The aim of this study was to obtain an effective method with high preparative efficiency and importantly to avoid the transformation of unstable compounds. The preparative HPLC system was based on an LC/MS controlled four-channel autopurification system. The SPE method was per formed with a C1s packing material to trap the target compounds and to remove the acidic additive derived from the mobile phase. Using this method, the unstable iridoid glucosides(IGs) as model compounds were successfully iso lated and purified from the extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Six IGs(including one new minor IG) and one nucleo tide compound were simultaneously obtained, each with a purity of >91% as determined by HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UPLC/Q-TOF MS, UV, ID and/or 2D NMR. It was demonstrated that the combination of preparative HPLC with SPE is a versatile tool for preparative purification of unstable compounds from complex natural products.

  3. Isolation and Purification of Unstable Iridoid Glucosides from Traditional Chinese Medicine by Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Solid-phase Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An efficient preparative method was successfully developed for isolation and purification of unstable components from medicinal plant extracts, using a combined method of preparative high performance liquid chro-matography(HPLC) and solid-phase extraction(SPE). The aim of this study was to obtain an effective method with high preparative efficiency and importantly to avoid the transformation of unstable compounds. The preparative HPLC system was based on an LC/MS controlled four-channel autopurification system. The SPE method was performed with a C18 packing material to trap the target compounds and to remove the acidic additive derived from the mobile phase. Using this method, the unstable iridoid glucosides(IGs) as model compounds were successfully isolated and purified from the extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Six IGs(including one new minor IG) and one nucleotide compound were simultaneously obtained, each with a purity of 〉91% as determined by HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UPLC/Q-TOF MS, UV, 1D and/or 2D NMR. It was demonstrated that the combination of preparative HPLC with SPE is a versatile tool for preparative purification of unstable compounds from complex natural products.

  4. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  5. Amplitude of climatic changes in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of ice core and meteorological data from the Qinghai-Tibetan (Q-T) Plateau, this article focuses on the discussion of the problems related to the sensitivity of temporal and spatial changes of the climate in high-altitude regions, particularly in the Q-T Plateau. The features of abrupt climatic changes of the past 100 ka, 2 000 a and recent years indicate that the amplitude of these changes in the Q-T Plateau was obviously larger than that in low-altitude regions. The scope of temperature change above 6 000 m in the Q-T Plateau between glacial and interglacial stages could reach over 10℃, but only about 4℃ in low-elevation regions close to sea level. During the last 2 000 a, the amplitude of temperature changes at Guliya (over 6 000 m a.s.l.) in the Q-T Plateau reached 7℃, in comparison with 2℃ in eastern China at low altitude. In the present age, apparent differences of climatic warming have been observed in the Q-T Plateau, indicating that the warming in high-elevation regions is much higher than that in low-elevation regions. The temperature in over 3 500 m regions of the Q-T Plateau have been increasing at a rate of 0.25×10-1/a in recent 30 years, but almost no change has taken place in the regions below 500 m. Thus, we concluded that high-altitude regions are more sensitive to climatic changes than the low-altitude regions.

  6. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  7. Characterization of the Typical Potent Odorants in Chinese Roasted Sesame-like Flavor Type Liquor by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction-Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis, with Special Emphasis on Sulfur-Containing Odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sha; Chen, Shuang; Qian, Michael; Wang, Chengcheng; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-11

    The aroma profile of Chinese roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor was investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction-aroma extract dilution analysis (HS-SPME-AEDA). Sixty-three odor-active regions were detected by HS-SPME-AEDA with flavor dilution (FD) factors >5, and 58 of these were further identified. Among them, ethyl hexanoate, 2-furfurylthiol, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl pentanoate, and ethyl 4-methylpentanoate appeared with the highest FD factors. In particular, eight sulfur-containing odorants were identified to be potentially important to roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. The concentration of these odor-active compounds was further quantitated by combination of four different quantitative measurements, and 36 odorants had concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), 2-furfurylthiol (OAV 1182), dimethyl trisulfide (OAV 220), β-damascenone (OAV 116), and methional (OAV 99) could be responsible for the unique aroma of roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. An aroma recombination model prepared by mixing 36 aroma compounds with OAVs >1 showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. For the first time, 2-furfurylthiol was determined to be a typical potent odorant in roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor by omission study.

  8. 中医药治疗出血性中风急性期研究现状%Current status of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke at acute phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家艳; 康宁; 黄宏敏

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke at acute phase is a common dangerous critical disease. A lot of researches in traditional Chinese medicine are documented. By reading ancient books and a decade of clinical research in the treat-ment of hemorrhagic stroke at acute phase, we sum up main treatment methods and achievements in this article. Learn-ing and innovation help generate good therapeutic effect and new methods and also improve the quality of scientific re-search. However, there are still some problems such as lack of high-quality research results, which arouse us that more careful design and unified platform in future clinical studies are needed.%出血性中风急性期是临床常见急危重症,相关的中医药研究不断,本文通过查阅古籍,阅读近十年临床研究文献百余篇,将主要治疗方法及成果进行总结。在治疗上,经验传承加理论创新,多有不错的疗效;在研究中,引入了先进的研究方法,提高了科研质量。目前还存在一定问题,如研究结果的循证医学证据质量较低,在将来的临床研究中需要更严谨的设计及规范统一的平台。

  9. Is the Mozambique Ridge related to the Agulhas Plateau Large Igneous Province?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohl, K.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Parsiegla, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Mozambique Ridge (MOZR) and the Agulhas Plateau (AP) are prominent bathymetrically elevated rises off south-eastern Africa connected by a rise of less bathymetric expression. Intuitively, this observation would imply that the plateaus and rises underwent a related crustal formation. Deep crustal ocean-bottom seismometer data and a multichannel seismic reflection profile from the southern MOZR show evidence for its predominantly oceanic crustal origin with excessive volcanic eruption and magmatic accretion phases. The lower two-thirds of the crustal column exhibit P-wave velocities of more than 7.0 km/s, increasing to 7.5-7.6 km/s at the crustal base. These velocities suggest that the lower crust was accreted by large volumes of mantle-derived material to form an over-thickened equivalent of an oceanic layer 3. When comparing the velocity-depth model and the observations of the seismic reflection data with those of the AP, a resemblance can be established which concludes that a greater Southeast African Large Igneous Province (LIP) must have formed between 140 and 95 Ma in phases of highly varying magmatic and volcanic activities. The timing, size and formation history of the Southeast African LIP is almost analog to that of the Kerguelen-Heard Plateau, which provokes speculation about related processes of periodic magma generation at that time.

  10. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  11. Gravitational salt tectonics above a rising basement plateau offshore Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Vendeville, Bruno C.; Besème, Grégoire; Legoux, Gaetan; Déverchère, Jacques; Lymer, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    Seismic data (survey "MARADJA 1", 2003) offshore the Algerian coast have imaged an unexpected deformation pattern of the Messinian salt (Mobile Unit; MU) and its sedimentary overburden (Messinian Upper Unit and Plio-Quaternary) above an actively rising plateau in the subsalt basement. From a geodynamic point of view, the region is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (2003, magnitude 6.8). The rise of this plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers, is associated with that geodynamic setting. The seismic profiles show several subsalt thrusts (Domzig et al. 2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporitic unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little activity during Messinian times, then grew more during Plio-Quaternary times. A few normal faults are also present, but are not accompanied by salt rise. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges (symptomatic with their triangular shape in cross section) formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using two analogue models, one where we assumed that the rise of the plateau started after Messinian times (initially tabular salt across the entire region), the second model assumed that the plateau had already risen partially as the Messininan Mobile Unit was deposited (salt initially thinner above the plateau than in the adjacent regions). In both experiments, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, combined with N-S shortening. Extension was caused by gravity gliding of the salt from

  12. Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from the tectonic–sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geologists agree that the collision of the Indian and Asian plates caused uplift of the Tibet Plateau. However, controversy still exists regarding the modes and mechanisms of the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Geology has recorded this uplift well in the Qaidam Basin. This paper analyzes the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin using sub-surface seismic and drill data. The Cenozoic intensity and history of deformation in the Qaidam Basin have been reconstructed based on the tectonic developments, faults growth index, sedimentary facies variations, and the migration of the depositional depressions. The changes in the sedimentary facies show that lakes in the western Qaidam Basin had gone from inflow to still water deposition to withdrawal. Tectonic movements controlled deposition in various depressions, and the depressions gradually shifted southeastward. In addition, the morphology of the surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin shows that the Cenozoic tectonic movements controlled the evolution of the Basin and divided it into (a the southern fault terrace zone, (b a central Yingxiongling orogenic belt, and (c the northern fold-thrust belt; divided by the XI fault (Youshi fault and Youbei fault, respectively. The field data indicate that the western Qaidam Basin formed in a Cenozoic compressive tectonic environment caused by the India–Asia plate collision. Further, the Basin experienced two phases of intensive tectonic deformation. The first phase occurred during the Middle Eocene–Early Miocene (Xia Ganchaigou Fm. and Shang Ganchaigou Fm., 43.8–22 Ma, and peaked in the Early Oligocene (Upper Xia Ganchaigou Fm., 31.5 Ma. The second phase occurred between the Middle Miocene and the Present (Shang Youshashan Fm. and Qigequan Fm., 14.9–0 Ma, and was stronger than the first phase. The tectonic–sedimentary evolution and the orientation of surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin resulted from the Tibetan

  13. Seismic wave speed structure of the Ontong Java Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covellone, Brian M.; Savage, Brian; Shen, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the result of a significant event in the Earth's geologic history. Limited geophysical and geochemical data, as well as the plateau's relative isolation in the Pacific ocean, have made interpretation of the modern day geologic structure and its 120 Ma formation history difficult. Here we present the highest resolution image to date of the wave speed structure of the OJP region. We use a data set that combines Rayleigh waves extracted from both ambient noise and earthquake waveforms and an iterative finite-frequency tomography methodology. The combination of datasets allow us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and image wave speed structures between 35 km and 300 km into the Earth. We image a region of fast shear wave speeds, greater than 4.75 km/s, that extends to greater than 100 km beneath the plateau. The wave speeds are similar to as observed in cratonic environments and are consistent with a compositional anomaly that resulted from the residuum of eclogite entrainment during the plateau's formation. The combination of our imaged wave speed structure and previous geochemical work suggest that a surfacing plume head entrained eclogite from the deep mantle and accounts for the anomalous buoyancy characteristics of the plateau and observed fast wave speeds.

  14. Spontaneous collapse of the tibial plateau: radiological staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Leon, F.; Zafra, M. [University Hospital ' ' Reina Sofia' ' , Orthopaedic Department, Cordoba (Spain); Montero, R.; Carreto, A. [University Hospital ' ' Reina Sofia' ' , Radiology Department, Cordoba (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a radiological staging system for necrosis of the tibial plateau, similar to those already developed for the hip and the medial femoral condyle. We retrospectively studied the clinical case histories and radiographic findings of 14 patients (15 affected knees) with histologically proven osteonecrosis of the tibial plateau. Stage I was marked by normal radiograph, but increased uptake in bone scan and subchondral areas of abnormal marrow signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as reported in other osteonecrosis sites. Stage II was characterised by cystic and sclerotic changes, and stage III fracture of the medial rim of the medial tibial plateau and tibial plateau collapse were present. Stage IV was marked by joint narrowing. These changes appeared earlier and were more pronounced when there was genu varum/valgum or involvement of the lateral tibial plateau. The radiological evolution of the disease appears to follow a four-stage course over a period of roughly one year from the onset of symptoms. (orig.)

  15. Verçenik Plateau Alternative Tourism and Recreational Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet İSLAMOĞLU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last century working life become easier and result of this increased people free time, after that interest of tourism activities wide spread all over. Plateau tourism or highland places are not first choices of the tourism activities but plateau rec reation will give an application for potential activity place. Turkey have unmatched nature and rich environmental resources will able to give any kind of tourism activities. In that context city of Rize took place in Black Sea region with different capabi lities, one of the source areas that make up tourism and recreational activities. This research intended for Vercenik Plateau take place 60 km away from Camlihemsin district center and will determine potential tourism and recreational application. Research is based on field observation and studies. This information obtained as a result ofthis evaluationbeing associated toliterature data and that information determined which exercise can be done in the field. Vercenik Plateau; with pristine environment and ru ral locations, the fresh water supplies, unique flora for city of Rize has high recreational capacities.As a result of study; Vercenik Plateau has natural features with the great potential of the alternative tourism as it is suitable for areas but not asse ss enough potential tourism and recreational activities without prior review has been observed.

  16. Rapid Loss of Lakes on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S.; Fang, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, S.; Shen, H.; Hu, H.; Tang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and as critical water sources have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multi-temporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combining with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, while in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration.

  17. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  18. Fraturas do planalto tibial Tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Kfuri Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas do planalto tibial são lesões articulares cujos princípios de tratamento envolvem a redução anatômica da superfície articular e a restauração funcional do eixo mecânico do membro inferior. Contribuem para a tomada de decisões no tratamento dessas fraturas o perfil do paciente, as condições do envelope de tecidos moles, a existência de outros traumatismos associados e a infraestrutura disponível para abordagens cirúrgicas. Para as fraturas de alta energia, o tratamento estagiado, seguindo o princípio do controle de danos, tem como prioridade a manutenção do alinhamento do membro enquanto se aguarda a resolução das más condições de tecidos moles. Já nos traumas de baixa energia, desde que os tecidos moles não sejam um fator adverso, o tratamento deve ser realizado em tempo único, com osteossíntese definitiva. Fixação estável e movimento precoce são variáveis diretamente relacionadas com os melhores prognósticos. Desenvolvimentos recentes, como os implantes com estabilidade angular, substitutos ósseos e imagens tridimensionais para controle intraoperatório, deverão contribuir para cirurgias menos invasivas e melhores resultados.Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a single-stage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal f-ixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint

  19. Comparison of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction with Simultaneous Steam Distillation Extraction for the Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in Chinese Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-xia; CHEN Xue-sen; WANG Xin-guo; CI Zhi-juan; LIU Xiao-li; HE Tian-ming; ZHANG Li-jie

    2006-01-01

    Volatile constituents in fully mature fruits of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Xinshiji were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SSDE) and then analyzed using capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 70 components were identified by HSSPME, including 20 esters, 19 hydrocarbons, 5 alcohols, 5 ketones, 4 acids, 4 lactones, 3 aldehydes, and 10 miscellaneous components, with the esters being the dominant constituent. On the basis of the odor unit values, it is believed that the following compounds probably contributed to the fresh apricot odor: hexyl acetate, β-ionone, butyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal,linalool, limonene, γ-decalactone, and hexanal. A total of 49 components were also detected by SSDE, including 13 hydrocarbons, 9 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 9 esters, 4 ketones, 4 lactones, 2 acids, and 1 miscellaneous component, of which the monoterpene alcohols were the dominant constituents. It could be judged from the odor unit values that the following compounds were the major contributors to boiled apricot aroma: β-ionone, linalool, hexyl acetate, γ-dodecalactone, γ-decalactone, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, γ-octalactone, phenylacetaldehyde, butyl acetate, limonene, α-terpineol, and δ-decalactone.The results show that HS-SPME is a simple, rapid, and solvent-free method, which is an alternative to the classical SSDE.

  20. Characteristics of land-atmosphere energy and turbulentfluxes over the plateau steppe in central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The land-atmosphere energy and turbulence exchange is key to understanding land surface processes on the TibetanPlateau (TP). Using observed data for Aug. 4 to Dec. 3, 2012 from the Bujiao observation point (BJ) of the Nagqu PlateauClimate and Environment Station (NPCE-BJ), different characteristics of the energy flux during the Asian summermonsoon (ASM) season and post-monsoon period were analyzed. This study outlines the impact of the ASM on energyfluxes in the central TP. It also demonstrates that the surface energy closure rate during the ASM season is higher than thatof the post-monsoon period. Footprint modeling shows the distribution of data quality assessments (QA) and qualitycontrols (QC) surrounding the observation point. The measured turbulent flux data at the NPCE-BJ site were highly representativeof the target land-use type. The target surface contributed more to the fluxes under unstable conditions thanunder stable conditions. The main wind directions (180° and 210°) with the highest data density showed flux contributionsreaching 100%, even under stable conditions. The lowest flux contributions were found in sectors with low data density,e.g., 90.4% in the 360° sector under stable conditions during the ASM season. Lastly, a surface energy water balance(SEWAB) model was used to gap-fill any absent or corrected turbulence data. The potential simulation error was alsoexplored in this study. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (NSEs) of the observed fluxes with the SEWABmodel runs were 0.78 for sensible heat flux and 0.63 for latent heat flux during the ASM season, but unrealistic values of?0.9 for latent heat flux during the post-monsoon period.

  1. Hypoxia adaptations in the grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Fan, Zhenxin; Han, Eunjung; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Galaverni, Marco; Huang, Jie; Liu, Hong; Silva, Pedro; Li, Peng; Pollinger, John P; Du, Lianming; Zhang, XiuyYue; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K; Zhang, Zhihe

    2014-07-01

    The Tibetan grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) occupies habitats on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a high altitude (>3000 m) environment where low oxygen tension exerts unique selection pressure on individuals to adapt to hypoxic conditions. To identify genes involved in hypoxia adaptation, we generated complete genome sequences of nine Chinese wolves from high and low altitude populations at an average coverage of 25× coverage. We found that, beginning about 55,000 years ago, the highland Tibetan grey wolf suffered a more substantial population decline than lowland wolves. Positively selected hypoxia-related genes in highland wolves are enriched in the HIF signaling pathway (P = 1.57E-6), ATP binding (P = 5.62E-5), and response to an oxygen-containing compound (P≤5.30E-4). Of these positively selected hypoxia-related genes, three genes (EPAS1, ANGPT1, and RYR2) had at least one specific fixed non-synonymous SNP in highland wolves based on the nine genome data. Our re-sequencing studies on a large panel of individuals showed a frequency difference greater than 58% between highland and lowland wolves for these specific fixed non-synonymous SNPs and a high degree of LD surrounding the three genes, which imply strong selection. Past studies have shown that EPAS1 and ANGPT1 are important in the response to hypoxic stress, and RYR2 is involved in heart function. These three genes also exhibited significant signals of natural selection in high altitude human populations, which suggest similar evolutionary constraints on natural selection in wolves and humans of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  2. Reduced Runoff Due to Anthropogenic Intervention in the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhong Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To maintain the sustainable utilization of water resources and reduce soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, the Chinese government has adopted a number of environmental restoration strategies since 1999, including the Grain for Green Project (GFGP and the Natural Forest Conservation Program; these large projects greatly alter the regional water cycle. Detecting runoff changes and quantitatively assessing the contribution of anthropogenic activities (including land use/cover change (LUCC and water diversion and climate change (including potential evaporation and precipitation are imperative for implementing sustainable management strategies. Using observed records from 15 hydrological stations and 85 national meteorological stations from 1980 to 2013, the decomposition method, based on the Budyko hypothesis, is used to quantify the impact of climate variation and anthropogenic interference on annual runoff for the 12 catchments in the Loess Plateau. The results show the following: (1 the observed annual runoff exhibited a negative trend in all 12 catchments (significant in eight catchments with a range of −1.94 to −0.16 mm·year−1 and exhibited a substantial difference before and after 1999; (2 the sensitivity of runoff to vegetation change, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration increased in most catchments after 1999, indicating that great challenges and uncertainties might be introduced to regional water resource availability; and (3 the anthropogenic interference, particularly LUCC caused by forest strategies, has become the main contribution to runoff change. We suggest that more attention should be given to water resource availability and that the hydrologic consequences of revegetation should be taken into account in future management.

  3. Interseismic deformation of the Central Tibetan Plateau measured using InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthwaite, M. C.; Wright, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    using the Gamma software and we correct for the topographic phase contribution using a DEM derived from SRTM data. Coherence is generally good, but degrades close to the mountainous terrain of the Himalaya in the south. By multi-looking to 8 range looks we improve the coherence further. Interferograms are unwrapped using the minimum cost flow technique, and we correct unwrapping errors using the principle of phase closure. Following this, we use a multi-interferogram network approach (Biggs et. al. GJI, 2007) to determine the best fitting quadratic surface which describes the orbital error at each acquisition. We remove this orbital error and construct the velocity rate map. Because the rate map is so long, we can recover tectonic signals at the hundred kilometre scale with this method. However, we are also interested in the longer wavelength signal across the whole plateau. We therefore adjust the rate map using measurements from 9 nearby GPS stations. Our results show the distribution of strain across the broad deforming zone of the Tibetan Plateau during the interseismic period. We use the data to test the models proposed to describe deformation of the Tibetan lithosphere.

  4. Topographic Analyses of the Vestalia Terra plateau, Vesta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Williams, D. A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    The identification of Vestalia Terra, a topographically high region of Vesta bound by steep scarps, is itself a direct result of topographic analysis of the asteroid. However, additional analysis of the topography of the plateau has yielded important scientific discoveries. While most equatorial regions on Vesta display numerous wide and flat-floored troughs, Vestalia Terra does not. There are, however, three long pit crater chains on top of the plateau that are roughly aligned with the equatorial flat-floor troughs. Pit crater chains are a type of feature that have been observed on several planetary bodies and have been described as lines of circular to elliptical depressions which lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows. Individual pits most commonly have a conical shape, sometimes with a flat floor, but in some cases they are elliptical in shape, with the long axis parallel to the chain orientation. Pit craters can in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, but the pits are often bordered by a graben (a down-dropped block bounded by normal faults) even before this coalesence. While pits are generally agreed to have formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity, the exact formation mechanisms hypothesized can vary from planet to planet. However, several researchers have suggested that pit crater chains on small bodies such as Phobos, Eros, Lutetia and Enceladus are formed by the drainage of a loose cover material into subsurface voids formed by dilation of a subsurface normal fault, a method described in extensive detail for pit crater chains on Mars. This formation hypothesis is strengthened by the strong correlation between pit crater chains and fault-bounded graben that has been observed and by the fact that pit chains are often in alignment with a regional fault and fracture system. There are two fundamental controls on the maximum size a pit can attain: the thickness of the overlying regolith and the amount of subsurface accommodation space. The

  5. Intraseasonal variability of winter precipitation over central asia and the western tibetan plateau from 1979 to 2013 and its relationship with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Xiaodong; Dong, Buwen

    2017-09-01

    Winter precipitation over Central Asia and the western Tibetan Plateau (CAWTP) is mainly a result of the interaction between the westerly circulation and the high mountains around the plateau. Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), linear regression and composite analysis were used to analyze winter daily precipitation and other meteorological elements in this region from 1979 to 2013, in order to understand how interactions between the regional circulation and topography affect the intraseasonal variability in precipitation. The SVD analysis shows that the winter daily precipitation variability distribution is characterized by a dipole pattern with opposite signs over the northern Pamir Plateau and over the Karakoram Himalaya, similar to the second mode of EOF analysis. This dipole pattern of precipitation anomaly is associated with local anomalies in both the 700 hPa moisture transport and the 500 hPa geopotential height and is probably caused by oscillations in the regional and large-scale circulations, which can influence the westerly disturbance tracks and water vapor transport. The linear regression shows that the anomalous mid-tropospheric circulation over CAWTP corresponds to an anti-phase variation of the 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies over the southern and northern North Atlantic 10 days earlier (at 95% significance level), that bears a similarity to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The composite analysis reveals that the NAO impacts the downstream regions including CAWTP by controlling south-north two branches of the middle latitude westerly circulation around the Eurasian border. During the positive phases of the NAO, the northern branch of the westerly circulation goes around the northwest Tibetan Plateau, whereas the southern branch encounters the southwest Tibetan Plateau, which leads to reduced precipitation over the northern Pamir Plateau and increased precipitation over the Karakoram Himalaya, and

  6. ANALYSIS OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS OVER TIBETAN PLATEAU IN SUMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-yang; DAI Xiao-yan; WU Jian-ping; LIN Hui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) infrared black-body temperature (Tbb) data from June to August 1998 are used to automatically track the activity of Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) over the Tibetan Plateau in China. Consequently, the features of MCS, such as area, intensity, life cycle, activity region and shape, are obtained. High Resolution Limited Area Analysis and Forecasting System (HLAFS) values provided by China National Meteorological Center are used to study the relationships between the MCS trajectories and their environmental physical field values, based on the distribution and trajectories of MCSs over the Tibetan Plateau. Favorable environmental physical field charts of influencing MCS movement out of the Tibetan Plateau in different UTC (Universal Time Coordinate) are developed by using spatial data mining techniques at levels of 400hPa and 500hPa, respectively.

  7. More evidence of the plateau effect: a social perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Prades, J L; Lopez-Nicolás, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the existence of the plateau effect at the social level. The authors tried to confirm the preliminary conclusion that people may not be willing to trade off any longevity to improve the health state of a large number of people if the health states are mild enough. They tested this assumption using the person-tradeoff technique. They also used a parametric approach and a nonparametric approach to study the relationship between individual and social values. Results show the existence of the plateau effect in the context of resource allocation. Furthermore, with the nonparametric approach, a plateau effect in the middle part of the scale was also observed, suggesting that social preference may not be directly predicted from individual utilities. The authors caution against the possible framing effects that may be present in these kinds of questions.

  8. State of tectonic stress in Shillong Plateau of northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Saikia, Sowrav; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Sharma, Antara; Reddy, C. D.; Kayal, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tectonic stress regime in the Shillong plateau, northeast region of India, is examined by stress tensor inversion. Some 97 reliable fault plane solutions are used for stress inversion by the Michael and Gauss methods. Although an overall NNW-SSE compressional stress is observed in the area, the stress regime varies from western part to eastern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plateau is dominated by NNE-SSW compression and the western part by NNW-SSE compression. The NNW-SSE compression in the western part may be due to the tectonic loading induced by the Himalayan orogeny in the north, and the NNE-SSW compression in the eastern part may be attributed to the influence of oblique convergence of the Indian plate beneath the Indo-Burma ranges. Further, Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) derived stress also indicates a variation from west to east.

  9. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  10. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Desai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process

  11. The impacts of the summer plateau monsoon over the Tibetan Plateau on the rainfall in the Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Huang, Anning; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of the summer plateau monsoon (PM) over the Tibetan Plateau on summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin in northwest China are investigated, based on the observed rainfall data at 34 stations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1961 to 2007. Results showed that the PM is well correlated to the summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin. Process analysis shows that strong PM corresponds to an anomalous cyclone over the Tibetan Plateau in the middle troposphere and an anomalous anticyclone in the upper troposphere over northwest part of Tibetan Plateau. They result in cold air moving from high latitudes into Central Asia over the western part of Tibetan Plateau. The concurrences of the cooling in the middle-upper troposphere over Central Asia leads to an anomalous cyclone over Central Asia at 500 hPa and the anomalous descending motions prevailing over the cooling region. Associated with this anomaly, there are enhanced southerly winds and corresponding ascending motion over the Tarim Basin located in the east of the cooling region. These processes lead to more summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin.

  12. In vitro comparison of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy with and without use of a tibial plateau leveling jig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerbach, Kay Ingo; Boeltzig, Christian Konrad Matthias; Reif, Ullrich; Wieser, Jan Carsten; Keller, Thomas; Grevel, Vera

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of a tibial plateau leveling jig on osteotomy orientation, fragment reduction, and postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA) during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). In vitro experimental study. Large-breed canine cadavers (n=20). TPLO was performed on 40 hindlimbs using 4 methods. Group 1: Jig; dogs in dorsal recumbency with the osteotomy parallel to the distal jig pin. Groups 2-4: No jig; dogs in lateral recumbency with the osteotomy in a vertical orientation (group 2: tibia parallel to the table top; group 3: controlled superimposition of the femoral condyles; group 4: internal rotation of the tibia). Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and osteotomy orientation relative to the tibial plateau were compared. Positive or negative values denoted deviation from parallel relative to the tibial plateau. Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and proximodistal osteotomy orientation were not significantly different between groups. Craniocaudal osteotomy orientation was significantly different (Ptable surface. TPLO without use of a jig reduces surgical trauma, is less time consuming, and reduces cost.

  13. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Desai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process

  14. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L. Hao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less and long (10 h or more sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849 than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181. In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6% were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤8 min than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%. In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤8 min of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia.

  15. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y.L. [Department of Human Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China, Department of Human Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, B.; Jia, F.J.; Li, X.L.; Tang, Y. [Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou (China); Ren, Y.Z. [Zhongshan The Third People' s Hospital, Zhongshan, China, Zhongshan The Third People' s Hospital, Zhongshan (China); Liu, W.H. [Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-02-17

    Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women) of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less) and long (10 h or more) sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR)=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849) than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h) shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181). In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6%) were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤8 min) than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%). In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤8 min) of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia.

  16. Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1997-01-01

    Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2483-2492, 1997. The nucleus ambiguus contains vagal and glossopharyngeal motoneurons and preganglionic neurons involved in respiration, swallowing, vocalization......, and control of heart beat. Here we show that the rostral compact formation's ambiguus neurons, which control the esophageal phase of swallowing, display calcium-dependent plateau potentials in response to tetanic orthodromic stimulation or current injection. Whole cell recordings were made from visualized...... neurons in the rostral nucleus ambiguus using a slice preparation from the newborn mouse. Biocytin-labeling revealed dendritic trees with pronounced rostrocaudal orientations confined to the nucleus ambiguus, a morphological profile matching that of vagal motoneurons projecting to the esophagus. Single...

  17. Climate as the dominant control on C3 and C4 plant abundance in the Loess Plateau: Organic carbon isotope evidence from the last glacial-interglacial loess-soil sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Abundance of C3 and C4 photosynthesis plants can be inferred relatively from stable carbon isotopic composition of organic matter in soils. The samples from five sequences of the last glacial-interglacial loess-soil in the Chinese Loess Plateau have been measured for organic carbon isotopic ratios (? 13Corg). The organic carbon isotope data show that relative abundance (or biomass) of C4 plants was increased ca. 40% for each sampling site from the last glacial maximum (LGM) to Holocene optimum, and increased southeastward on the Loess Plateau during both periods of LGM and Holocene. Statistic analyses on the steady maximumδ 13Corg values of Holocene soils and modern climatic data from the Loess Plateau and Inner Mongolia indicate that the C4 plant abundance increases with increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation. The C4 plant abundance is related much closer with mean April temperature and precipitation than annual. These results lead us to deduce following conclusions. First, temperature is the major factor for control on variations in C4 plant abundance in the Loess Plateau from the last glacial to interglacial. In the absence of favorable temperature condition, both of low moisture and low atmospheric CO2 concentration are insufficient to drive an expansion of the C4 plants in the plateau. Second, ? 13Corg in the loess-paleosol sequences, as a proxy of the relative abundance of C4 plants in the Loess Plateau, could not be used as an indicator of changes in the summer monsoon intensity unless the temperature had changed without great amplitude. Since all C4 plants are grasses, finally, the increase of the C4 plants supports that forest has not been dominant in the ecosystem on the Loess Plateau during Holocene although precipitation and atmospheric CO2 were largely increased relative to those during LGM.

  18. A Younger Dryas plateau icefield in the Monadhliath, Scotland, and implications for regional palaeoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Clare M.; Lukas, Sven; Carr, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    A record of Younger Dryas glaciation in Scotland is well established. However, the role of the Monadhliath, a significant plateau area extending over 840 km2 in central Scotland, has never been investigated systematically. We present the first systematic glacial geomorphological mapping across the whole region, which has led to the identification of hitherto-unrecorded glacial and associated landforms. The spatial distribution of these landforms indicates that the last phase of glaciation in the area was that of a local plateau icefield. In addition, a clear morphostratigraphical signature provides a strong indication that the icefield dates to the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka), which is supported by numerical ages in the southeast of the study area. Based on the geomorphological evidence and 2D glacier surface profile modelling, a 280 km2 icefield is reconstructed. A novel approach is introduced to quantify plateau icefield thickness for equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and palaeoprecipitation calculations, resulting in greater overall data confidence compared to traditional reconstruction methods. The ELA for the whole icefield is calculated to be 714 ± 25 m, whilst the ELAs of individual outlet glaciers range from 560 m in the west to 816 m in the east, demonstrating a significant W-E precipitation gradient across the region during the Younger Dryas. These ELAs compare well with those calculated for Younger Dryas ice masses reconstructed in neighbouring regions and are in good agreement with overall precipitation patterns suggested for Scotland during this time. Whilst the total amount of precipitation calculated from these ELAs is highly dependent on the method used, irrespective of this, the study suggests a more arid Younger Dryas climate in the region compared to the present day.

  19. Atmospheric moisture supersaturation in the near-surface atmosphere at Dome C, Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthon, Christophe; Piard, Luc; Vignon, Etienne; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Casado, Mathieu; Gallée, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Supersaturation often occurs at the top of the troposphere where cirrus clouds form, but is comparatively unusual near the surface where the air is generally warmer and laden with liquid and/or ice condensation nuclei. One exception is the surface of the high Antarctic Plateau. One year of atmospheric moisture measurement at the surface of Dome C on the East Antarctic Plateau is presented. The measurements are obtained using commercial hygrometry sensors modified to allow air sampling without affecting the moisture content, even in the case of supersaturation. Supersaturation is found to be very frequent. Common unadapted hygrometry sensors generally fail to report supersaturation, and most reports of atmospheric moisture on the Antarctic Plateau are thus likely biased low. The measurements are compared with results from two models implementing cold microphysics parameterizations: the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts through its operational analyses, and the Model Atmosphérique Régional. As in the observations, supersaturation is frequent in the models but the statistical distribution differs both between models and observations and between the two models, leaving much room for model improvement. This is unlikely to strongly affect estimations of surface sublimation because supersaturation is more frequent as temperature is lower, and moisture quantities and thus water fluxes are small anyway. Ignoring supersaturation may be a more serious issue when considering water isotopes, a tracer of phase change and temperature, largely used to reconstruct past climates and environments from ice cores. Because observations are easier in the surface atmosphere, longer and more continuous in situ observation series of atmospheric supersaturation can be obtained than higher in the atmosphere to test parameterizations of cold microphysics, such as those used in the formation of high-altitude cirrus clouds in meteorological and climate models.

  20. Prediction of Bulk Density of Soils in the Loess Plateau Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Liu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chencheng

    2013-08-01

    Soil bulk density (BD) is a key soil physical property that may affect the transport of water and solutes and is essential to estimate soil carbon/nutrients reserves. However, BD data are often lacking in soil databases due to the challenge of directly measuring BD, which is considered to be labor intensive, time consuming, and expensive especially for the lower layers of deep soils such as those of the Chinese Loess Plateau region. We determined the factors that were closely correlated with BD at the regional scale and developed a robust pedotransfer function (PTF) for BD by measuring BD and potentially related soil and environmental factors at 748 selected sites across the Loess Plateau of China (620,000 km2) at which we collected undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from two soil layers (0-5 and 20-25 cm). Regional BD values were normally distributed and demonstrated weak spatial variation (CV = 12 %). Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses identified silt content, slope gradient (SG), soil organic carbon content (SOC), clay content, slope aspect (SA), and altitude as the factors that were closely correlated with BD and that explained 25.8, 6.3, 5.8, 1.4, 0.3, and 0.3 % of the BD variation, respectively. Based on these closely correlated variables, a reasonably robust PTF was developed for BD using multiple linear regression, which performed equally with the artificial neural network method in the current study. The inclusion of topographic factors significantly improved the predictive capability of the BD PTF and in which SG was an important input variable that could be used in place of SA and altitude without compromising its capability for predicting BD. Thus, the developed PTF with only four input variables (clay, silt, SOC, SG), including their common transformations and interactive terms, predicted BD with reasonable accuracy and is thus useful for most applications on the Loess Plateau of China. More attention should be

  1. Redox conditions in sediments and during sedimentation in the Ontong Java Plateau, west equatorial Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Bo; LI Tiegang; YU Xinke; CHANG Fengming; NAN Qingyun

    2011-01-01

    Redox-sensitive elements in sediments,such as manganese (Mn),vanadium (V),molybdenum (Mo),and uranium (U),are promising indicators of past redox conditions during sedimentation and early diagenesis.However,in the Ontong Java Plateau,west equatorial Pacific,there are sparse datasets of redox-sensitive elements in sediment cores.Here,we present a 250 ka record of redox sensitive elements from a 460 em gravity core at site WP7 (3°56'S,156°E,water depth 1 800 m),which was recovered from the southwest Ontong Java Plateau during the 1993 cruise of R/V Science Ⅰ of the Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS).Relative to the Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS),authigenic Mn,cobalt (Co),nickel (Ni),Mo,V,U,and cadmium (Cd) were found at constantly low levels except when peaks occurred at several depth intervals.Manganese,Co,Ni,and Mo concentrations were elevated at 25-35 cm due to Mn redox cycling.The core was divided into three distinct sections,the top 0-25 cm being oxic,a suboxic section at 25-35 cm and from 35- 460 cm which was anoxic.Differential authigenic enrichments of Co,Ni,Mo,V,U,and Cd at the same depth intervals were observed indicating that the enrichments happened during sedimentation or diagenesis and suffered no post settlement redox changes.Therefore,no significant changes in redox conditions during sedimentation must have happened.The water at depth on the Ontong Java Plateau during past 250 ka must have been well oxygenated,possibly resulted from the more or less continuous presence of oxygen-rich deep water like the modem Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and Antarctic Circumpolar Water (ACW); while it's slightly less oxygenated in glacial intervals,possibly due to ventilation weakening and/or the surface productivity increase.

  2. Differing estrogen activities in the organic phase of air particulate matter collected during sunny and foggy weather in a Chinese city detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Ying; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Total air suspended particles (PM 100) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in Wuhan, China, were examined for estrogen using a recombinant yeast bioassay. Wuhan, located at the central part of China, is the fourth biggest city in China with 7 million populations. Today, Wuhan has developed into the biggest city and the largest traveling center of central China, becoming one of the important bases of industry, education and research. Wuhan is right at the confluent point of Yangzi River, the third longest river in the world, and its largest distributary Hanjiang, with mountains and more than 100 lakes in downtown area. Therefore, by its unique landscape, Wuhan has formed clear four seasons with relatively long winter and summer and short spring and autumn. Foggy weather usually happen in early spring. The yeast line used in this assay stably expresses human estrogen receptor-alpha. Weak but clear estrogenic activities were detected in the organic phase of crude extracts of air particle materials (APM) in both sunny and foggy weather by 0.19-0.79 μg E2/g PM 100 which were statistically significantly elevated relative to the blank control responding from 20% to 50% of the maximum E2 response, and the estrogenic activity was much higher in foggy weather than in sunny weather. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of APM sampled in foggy days were also determined. The results indicated that the responses of the fractions were obviously higher than the crude extracts. Since there is no other large pollution source nearby, the estrogenic material was most likely from vehicle emissions, house heating sources and oil fumes of house cooking. The GC/MS analysis of the PM 100 collected under foggy weather showed that there were many phenol derivatives, oxy-PAHs and resin acids which have been reported as environmental estrogens. These results of the analysis of estrogenic potency in sunny and foggy weather in a

  3. Progress Toward Demonstrating SAR Monitoring of Chinese Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weigen; Johannessen, Johnny; Alpers, Werner; Yang, Jingsong

    2010-12-01

    "Demonstrating SAR monitoring of Chinese seas" is a project of the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 program. This paper presents the progress of the project. Retrieval algorithms for SAR monitoring of sea surface currents, oceanic internal waves, sea surface winds, oil spills and ships have been advanced. SAR monitoring of Chinese seas in near-real-time is now in demonstration phase.

  4. The Primacy of Abstract Syllables in Chinese Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O'Séaghdha, Pádraig G.; Chen, Train-Min

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that…

  5. Elemental tracers for Chinese source dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小曳; 张光宇; 朱光华; 张德二; 安芷生; 陈拓; 黄湘萍

    1996-01-01

    The mass-particle size distributions of 10 dust-carrying elements in aerosol particles were determined tor 12 sites in desert regions of northern China. The desert dust is proved to he of origin of eolian loess deposited on the Loess Plateau. Their transport to the loess was mainly attributable to the non-dust storm processes under the interglacial climate condition. The impact ot" dust storm on the accumulation of the loess increased in the glacial stage. On the basis of the signatures of 4 dust elements (Al. Fe, Mg and Sc). Chinese dust is believed to have 3 major desert sources (northwestern deserts, northern high dust deserts and northern low dust deserts). With a chemical element balance model, an elemental tracer system is established to proportion the export of China-source dust.

  6. Remote mineral aerosols in Westerlies and their contributions to the Chinese loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小曳; 沈志宝; 张光宇; 陈拓; 柳海燕

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of 28 trace and rare earth elements in the aerosol particle samples were determined for a site at 4800m above the sea level on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The mass of the particulate materials in the mid-troposphere atmosphere over this site is dominated by local dust particles (70%) and remote ones in Westerlies (25%). On the basis of the main dust-derived elements (Al, Fe, Mg and Sc) and corresponding data from the Chinese deserts, an elemental tracer system has been established to proportion the dust input to the loess deposited on the center of the Loess Plateau during the last glacial cyde, which suggests that the contribution of the remote dust in Westerlies is much smaller than that of the Chinese deserts.

  7. Records from Lake Qinghai: Holocene climate history of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau linking to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Z.; Colman, S.; Zhou, W.; Brown, E.; Li, X.; Jull, T.; Wang, S.; Liu, W.; Sun, Y.; Lu, X.; Song, Y.; Chang, H.; Cai, Y.; Xu, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Wu, F.; Han, Y.; Cheng, P.; Ai, L.; Wang, Z.; Qiang, X.; Shen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Liu, X.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Qinghai (99°36'-100°16'E, 36°32'-37°15'N ) of the north eastern margin of Tibet Plateau is the largest inland lake of China. It sits on the transitional zone of Asian monsoon- arid areas, receives influences of Asian monsoons and Westerlies, thus sensitive to global climate changes. Although previous studies had investigated Holocene climate change of Lake Qinghai area, it is rare to see precise Holocene climatic sequences of Lake Qinghai, nor in-depth discussions on controlling factors of Lake Qinghai climate changes. In Year 2005, with support from ICDP, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and National Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earths Continental Crust Corporation (DOSECC) and Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS) took a series of shallows cores from the southern basin of Lake Qinghai. West sub-basin sediments display Holocene lacustrine feature for the upper 5m, while the 5-18m are interbeded sediments of shallow lake, eolian-lacustrine and eolian loess. Chinese and US scientists with support from NSFC, MOST, CAS and NSF analysed 1F core from west sub-basin depocenter of the south basin with multiple physical, chemical, biological approaches. By comparing with modern process observation records, we obtained proxies that respectfully reflect precipitation, temperature and lake salinity changes, etc., reconstructed high resolution time sequences of magnetic susceptibility, colour scale, grain size, Corg, C/N, δ13Corg, carbonate, δ13C and δ18O of carbonate and ostracodes, elements, char-soot,Uk'37 and %C37:4 as well as pollen of the last 13Ka. They indicate the climatic change history of Lake Qinghai since past 13Ka, and agreeable evidences are found from adjacent tree ring and stalagmite records. Comparison of Lake Qinghai Holocene climate change sequence with those from high altitude ice core, stalagmites and ocean

  8. Nebkha development and its relationship to environmental change in the Alaxa Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Xiao, Honglang; Li, Jinchang; Qiang, Mingrui; Su, Zhizu

    2008-11-01

    Extensive nebkha areas develop mainly under the control of aeolian processes, and their sediments record information on regional environmental changes during different periods. Such areas have developed on the dry riverbeds and deserted arable lands of China’s Alaxa Plateau, Taklimakan, and Kumutage deserts. In this paper, we studied nebkhas that had developed in the Heicheng Juyan region to determine their CaCO3 contents, particle size distributions, and creation dates. Extensive human activities have occurred in this region since at least in the late Tang Dynasty (618 907 ad). Although historical records show that most of the region’s rivers dried up around 1372, surface water persisted in some areas until the early Qing Dynasty (1644 1911 ad). After the 1600s, extensive nebkhas began to develop due to drying of the region’s rivers. The early stages of nebkha development were controlled by both the sediment supply and the regional wind regime, whereas late stages were controlled primarily by variations in wind activity. In the Alaxa Plateau, it took about 100 years for arable lands and riverbeds to evolve into gobi deserts, and during this time, several phases occurred with different levels of wind activity. The land degradation processes in this region are mainly controlled by surface water resources, and the impact of human activities such as reclamation on land degradation appear to have been overestimated in previous studies.

  9. Driver of the interannual variations of isotope in ice core from the middle of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lili; Tian, Lide; Cai, Zhongyin; Cui, Jiangpeng; Zhu, Dayun; Chen, Yanhui; Palcsu, László

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the climatic significance of stable isotope in precipitation and ice cores on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is of critical for the paleoclimate rebuilding. However, there is a gap between the seasonal control of precipitation and long-term isotope record from ice core. Here we present a well-dated ice core isotope record from the middle of the TP (mid-TP). Isotope variations in the past decades from this ice core show strong anti-phase relation with Southern Oscillation Index, confirming unequivocally that the large scale atmospheric circulation through the El Nino Southern Oscillation cycle, rather local climate parameters, controls the interannual signal in ice cores from the mid-TP. Results also show that the cloud top height in the northern Indian Ocean is in association with the interannual variations, confirming the same mechanism controlling the precipitation δ18O in southwest Asia and southeast Asia. The study will improve the understanding of the interannual change of Tibetan Plateau ice core isotope signal, and also the hydrological cycle in the southwest Asian region.

  10. Understanding the surface temperature cold bias in CMIP5 AGCMs over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Wu, G. X.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of the Phase-5 Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface air temperatures (Ta) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In addition, half of the models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface temperatures (Ts) over the TP. These cold biases are larger over the western TP. By decomposing the Ts bias using the surface energy budget equation, this study investigates the contributions to the cold surface temperature bias on the Tibetan Plateau from various factors, including the surface albedo-induced bias (SAF), surface cloud radiative forcing (CRF), clear-sky shortwave (SW) radiation, downward clear-sky longwave radiation (DLR), surface sensible heat flux and latent heat flux, and heat storage. The results suggest that SAF and DLR are the main factors causing the cold surface temperature bias. Because SAF and DLR are respectively affected by the snow coverage fraction and water vapor distribution produced by the models, these results then imply that the snow coverage fraction parameterization and water vapor distribution over the TP require further improvements.

  11. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate...

  12. Deformation and incision of the western margin of the Central Andean Plateau, S. Peru and N. Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildgen, T.

    2012-12-01

    The western margin of the Central Andean Plateau in southern Peru and northern Chile hosts a rich geologic and geomorphic record of crustal deformation and river incision that developed during a period of regional plateau uplift. Significant growth of topography likely occurred in the western Central Andes starting at ca. 30 Ma, when the regionally extensive silts and sandstones of the Moquegua and Azapa Group sediments gave way to coarse sandstones and conglomerates. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, 3D thermal modeling, and infilling volcanic flows show that a subsequent major phase of canyon incision started in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon (southern Peru) between 11 and 8 Ma, with ca. 2-km of incision occurring between ca. 11 and 5 Ma. Surface uplift coeval with this incision has been documented in northern Chile, where rotated forearc basin deposits reveal 1 to 2 km of differential uplift between the Coastal Cordillera and the plateau margin that started after 11 to 10 Ma. In contrast with the 11 to 8 Ma onset of incision in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon, the currently 1-km-high coastal/piedmont region appears not to have been affected by incision until after 5 Ma, as documented by the 50-km-wide alluvial and colluvial plain that remained occupied by rivers until at least 5 Ma. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology pointing to a final 1-km of incision in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon after ca. 5 Ma is supported by apatite 4He/3He thermochonometry, which documents the passage of a km-scale knickpoint through the same region between ca. 7 and 4 Ma. Although river incision provides only a minimum time constraint for the start of surface uplift, the broadly coincident start of incision with the rotation of forearc basin deposits in northern Chile implies a close temporal coupling between the start of surface uplift and the onset of incision in Ocoña Canyon. Furthermore, the delayed incision of the coastal/piedmont region until after 5 Ma shows

  13. Prevalence and determinants of hyperlipidemia in moderate altitude areas of the Yunnan-Kweichow plateau in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bingjun; Luo, Tingguang; Huang, Yanfei; Shen, Tianhang; Ma, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hyperlipidemia among the populations living at moderate altitude on the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau in Southwestern China. We randomly recruited 1415 people for this study. These subjects underwent a physical examination and a comprehensive questionnaire regarding their daily habits and diets. Furthermore, blood samples from the participants were collected for assessing the lipid profile. We found that 49.3% of participants (95% CI: 46.7-51.9%) suffered from hyperlipidemia. The prevalence in men was significantly higher than that in women (53.6% vs. 44.7%, pdine out often and consume more animal-based foods and alcohol. In addition, the hyperlipidemic men in our cohort consumed more salted food then their normolipidemic counterparts (pdining out, and BMI were found to be the main determinants of hyperlipidemia in women, whereas a prevalence of salted food was observed to be related to hyperlipidemia in men from the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau subpopulation under study (p<0.05). The average daily energy, and protein and fat intakes of the sampled subjects were also higher than the levels set by the Chinese Recommendation Nutrient Intakes (RNI), while hyperlipidemic subjects had an even higher average daily intake of total fat, cholesterol, and lower dietary fiber compared with the normolipidemic subjects in the study group (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study reveals a higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased BMI and WHR values in men, as well as a slightly higher prevalence of low HDL-C and high LDL-C in women from Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau. The incidence of hyperlipidemia also increased with age, as did the prevalence of an abnormal TC, TG, LDL-C, and WHR in our study cohort. A high BMI, and less healthy living habits and dietary preferences thus play significant roles in the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  14. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  15. Spatial Distribution of Soil Erosion Sensitivity on the Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Dan; ZHONG Xiang-Hao; FAN Jian-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The Tibet Plateau, occupying the main part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and having an average altitude of 4 500 m, has geomorphological features that are unique in the world, with soil erosion being one of the main ecological problems. Thus the main objectives of the present research were to set up an efficient and simple way of evaluating spatial distribution of soil erosion sensitivity in the Tibet Plateau as well as the responses of soil erosion to changes of natural environmental conditions, and to indicate key regions where soil erosion should be preferentially controlled. Based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), the study applied geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a methodological reference framework, from which soil erosion sensitivity could be evaluated. The impact of precipitation, soil, topography and vegetation on soil erosion was divided into classes of extreme sensitivity, high sensitivity, medium sensitivity, low sensitivity and no sensitivity. With the aid of GIS, the resultant map from overlaying various factors showed that soil erosion sensitivity had great discrepancy in different parts of the region. In the southeastern part of the Tibet Plateau there were mainly three classes of sensitivity, namely, extreme, high and medium sensitivity. However, the other two classes, low and no sensitivity, were dominant in the northwestern part.

  16. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  17. SUMMER DIURNAL CYCLE AT DOME C ON THE ANTARTIC PLATEAU

    OpenAIRE

    Barral, H.; E. Vignon; Bazile, E.; Traullé, O; Gallée, H.; Genthon, C.; Brun, C.; F. Couvreux; P. Le Moigne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ice-sheet offers us ”laboratory cases” with endless snow covered, relatively homogeneous, flat or sloped areas with persistent and strong stable stratifications resulting in low level jets. Dome C (75°06 S,123°E) on the East Antarctic Plateau is one of them.

  18. New transhumance in the Mahafaly Plateau region in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    models influence people's capacity to adapt, especially in socio- .... pastoral mobility have mainly been described as climate change adaptation strategies ..... transhumance on the plateau, where most herders can build on a ..... and ecosystem services in southern Madagascar. .... Migration as a contribution to resilience.

  19. Heat Flow for the Minimal Surface with Plateau Boundary Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kung Ching CHANG; Jia Quan LIU

    2003-01-01

    The heat flow for the minimal surface under Plateau boundary condition is defined to be aparabolic variational inequality, and then the existence, uniqueness, regularity, continuous dependenceon the initial data and the asymptotics are studied. It is applied as a deformation of the level sets inthe critical point theory.

  20. Oil/Gas Exploration Prospects for Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhengzhang; Li Yongtie; Ye Hefei

    1997-01-01

    @@ As an important part of the Tethys, Tibet Plateau is prominent in the global geology tectonics. However, due to the limitation of local geographic conditions, the degree of geological study in this region is low, especially in the field of marine Mesozoic petroleum geological study.

  1. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  2. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun

    2014-07-10

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Thermal Stratification in Lake Zige Tangco, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wan-chun; YANG Xiang-dong; YIN Yu; JI Jiang; LI Shi-jie; PU Pei-min

    2005-01-01

    Lake Zige Tangco is an endorheic saline lake in central Tibetan Plateau. Investigations of 1998 and 1999 revealed that is was a typical stratified lake. The characteristics of thermal stratification of the lake have been extensively discussed from 4 aspects, i.e. thermocline, hydrochemistry and dissolved oxygen, stable isotope oxygen, and stability. The thermocline coupled with chemocline was further analyzed.

  4. Structural model of the Balkassar area, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Akhter, Gulraiz; Bibi, Sehrish

    2015-11-01

    Balkassar is an important hydrocarbon producing area of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. Two-dimensional seismic reflection data of the area revealed tectonically controlled, distinct episodes of (1) normal faulting in the basement followed by (2) reverse faulting in the cover sequence. Himalayan orogeny and associated diapirism of the Precambrian Salt Range Formation have produced many salt-cored anticlines in the Potwar Plateau, and one such salt-cored anticline is present in the Balkassar. This anticline has NE-SW-oriented axis, and both the SE and NW limbs are bounded by reverse faults. The basement normal faults indicate Jurassic rifting and splitting of Pangaea. We interpret reverse faults with dip angles of about 60°-75° in the cover sequence, having both hinterland and foreland vergence. Both NW- and SE-dipping faults are present in contrast to the only southward-directed thrusts of previous models. Duplexes and triangle zones, which are common in the northern part of the Potwar Plateau, are not developed in the Balkassar area due to comparatively less crustal shortening in the area. The present interpretation can help in understanding the complex structures in other parts of the Potwar Plateau for hydrocarbons exploration and also in deformed foreland basins worldwide that display similar characteristics but are considered to be dominated by low-angle thrust tectonics.

  5. Violet stimulated luminescence dating of quartz from Luochuan (Chinese loess plateau)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankjærgaard, C.; Guralnik, B.; Buylaert, J.P.; Reimann, T.; Yi, S.W.; Wallinga, J.

    2016-01-01

    Luminescence dating at the Luochuan loess type (China) section is at present limited to ∼0.1 Ma using quartz blue light stimulated luminescence (BLSL), but can be extended back in time to ∼0.5 Ma by resorting to the more developmental post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL)

  6. Chronofunctions of Heilu soil developed from Loess in Luochuan, on the chinese Loess plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil chronofunctions are an alternative for the quantification of soil-forming processes and underlie the modeling of soil genesis. To establish soil chronofunctions of a Heilu soil profile on Loess in Luochuan, selected soil properties and the 14C ages in the Holocene were studied. Linear, logarithmic, and third-order polynomial functions were selected to fit the relationships between soil properties and ages. The results indicated that third-order polynomial function fit best for the relationships between clay (< 0.002 mm, silt (0.002-0.02 mm, sand (0.02-2 mm and soil ages, and a trend of an Ah horizon ocurrence in the profile. The logarithmic function indicated mainly variations of soil organic carbon and pH with time (soil age. The variation in CaCO3 content, Mn/Zr, Fe/Zr, K/Zr, Mg/Zr, Ca/Zr, P/Zr, and Na/Zr ratios with soil age were best described by three-order polynomial functions, in which the trend line showed migration of CaCO3 and some elements.

  7. Distribution of Palygorskite in the Lingtai Profile of Chinese Loess Plateau: Its Paleoclimatic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Qiaoqin; CHEN Tianhu; CHEN Jun; JI Junfeng; XU Huifang; XU Xiaochun

    2008-01-01

    Palygorskite is a typical indicator mineral of the arid and strong evaporation environment.Distribution of palygorskite in loess-red clay sequences may act as an important indicator for reconstruction of the paleoenvironment and paleoclimate. In this paper, field emission scanningelectron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope observations on the redclay-loess-paleosoi of the Renjiapo profile at Lingtai, Gansu Province indicate that palygorskite occurswidely in red clay sequences formed before 3.6 Ma, but no occurrence has been found in eolian sediments since 3.2 Ma. Micromorphological features and microstructure of palygorskite show that it is an autogenic mineral formed during pedogenesis, and transformed from illite-montmorilionite under the pore water action. In the Lingtai profile, the disappearance horizon of palygorskite is consistent with those of increasing magnetic susceptibility, dust flux and depositional rate. The distribution of palygorskite in the profile indicates that the interval of around 3.6 Ma was an important transformation period of the East Asian paleomonsoon, when changes took place in the East Asia paleoclimate pattern, I.e. A high-frequency strong fluctuation alternative evolution of the environment.Therefore, palygorskite is a key indicator mineral of the East Asian paleomonsoon evolution of that time.

  8. Hydrous Na-garnet from Garnet Ridge; products of mantle metasomatism underneath the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Kunihiko; Sato, Yuto; Ogasawara, Yoshihide

    2016-12-01

    This is the first report on amphibole exsolution in pyrope from the Colorado Plateau. Pyrope crystals delivered from mantle depths underneath the Colorado Plateau by kimberlitic volcanism at 30 Ma were collected at Garnet Ridge, northern Arizona. The garnet grains analyzed in this study occur as discrete crystals (without adjacent rock matrix) and are classified into two major groups, Cr-rich pyrope and Cr-poor pyrope. The Cr-poor pyrope group is divided into four subgroups based on exsolved phases: amphibole lamella type, ilmenite lamella type, dense lamellae type, and clinopyroxene/amphibole lamellae type. Exsolved amphibole occurs in amphibole lamella type, dense lamellae type, and clinopyroxene/amphibole lamellae type of Cr-poor pyrope. The amphibole crystals tend to have preferred orientations in their garnet hosts and occur as monomineralic hexagonal or rhombic prisms and tablets, and as multimineralic needles or blades with other exsolved phases. Exsolved amphibole has pargasitic compositions (Na2O up to 1.6 apfu based on 23 oxygen). Garnet host crystals that have undergone amphibole exsolution have low OH contents (2-42 ppmw H2O) compared to garnets that do not have amphibole lamellae (up to 115 ppmw H2O). The low OH contents of garnets hosting amphibole lamellae suggest loss of OH from garnet during amphibole exsolution. Amphibole exsolution from pyrope resulted from breakdown of a precursor "hydrous Na-garnet" composition (Mg,Na+ x)3(Al2 - x, Mgx)2Si3O12 - 2x(OH)2x. Exsolution of amphibole and other phases probably occurred during exhumation to depths shallower than 100 km prior to volcanic eruption.

  9. Holocene climate change in the Central Tibetan Plateau inferred by lacustrine sediment geochemical records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; YanHong

    2007-01-01

    [1]Morrill C,Overpeck J T,Cole J E.A synthesis of abrupt changes in the Asian summer monsoon since the last deglaciation.Holocene,2003,13:465-476[2]Herzschuh U.Palaeo-moisture evolution at the margins of the Asian monsoon during the last 50 ka.Quat Sci Rev,2006,25:163-178[3]Thompson L G,Yao T,Davis M E,et al.Tropical climate instability:the last Glacial cycle from a Qinghai Tibetan ice core.Science,1997,276:1821-1825[4]Fang J.Lake evolution during the past 30000 years in China,and its implication for the environmental change.Quat Res,1991,36:1-24[5]Gasse F,Arnold M,Fontes J C,et al.A 13000-year climate record from wetstern Tibet.Nature,1991,353:742-745[6]Lister G S,Kelts K,Chen K,et al.Lake Qinghai,China:closed-basin lake levels and oxygen isotope record for ostracode since the last Pleistocene.Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol,1991,54:141-162[7]Van Campo E,Gasse F.Pollen-and diatom-inferred climatic and hydrological changes in Sumxi Co Basin (western Tibet) since 13000 yr B.P.Quat Res,1993,39:300-313[8]Fontes J Ch,Melieres F,Gibert E,et al.Stable isotope and radiocarbon balances of two Tibetan lakes (Sumxi Co,Longmu Co) from 13000 yr BP.Quat Sci Rev,1993,12:875-887[9]Gu Z Y,Liu J Q,Yuan B Y,et al.The changes in monsoon influence in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the past 12000 years-geo-chemical evidence from L.Silling Co sediments.Chin Sci Bull (in Chinese),1993,38(1):61-64[10]Sun X J,Du N Q,Chen Y S,et al.Analysis on pollen of lake sediment in Silling Co,Tibet.Acta Bota Sin (in Chinese),1993,35(12):943-950[11]Li Y F,Zhang Q S,Li B Y,et al.Ostracod fauna and environmental changes during the past 17000 years in Western Tibet.Acta Geogr Sin (in Chinese),1994,49(1):46-53[12]Avouac J P,Dobremez J F,Bourjot L.Paleoclimatic interpretation of a topgraphic profile across middle Holocene regressive shorelines of Longmu Co (Western Tibet).Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol,1996,120:93-104[13]Shen C M,Tang L Y.Pollen evidence for monsoon variation in Tibetan Plateau

  10. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  11. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  12. TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURES – SURGICAL MANAGEMENT BY MIPPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Raju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tibial plateau fractures are one of the most common intra-articular fractures. They are the outcome of indirect coronal or direct compressive forces. The incidence of tibial plateau fractures is 1.3% of all fractures. These fractures have varied degree of fracture configuration involving medial, lateral or both tibial plateaus with varied degree of intra-articular depressions and displacements. Due to speedy vehicles and mechanization there has been increase in the number of tibial plateau fractures. Knee joints being one of the major weight bearing joints of human body, these fractures are of big importance. METHODS: We studied 30 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by MIPPO at kempegowda institute of medical sciences from June 2012 to April 2014 with minimum follow up of up to 6months. RESULTS: All the selected patients were evaluated both clinically as well as radiologically. The lab investigations were done and then they were taken up for the surgery. The fractures were classified as per schatzker’s classification and treated accordingly. In the post-op period early range of movements were started and the patients were non weight bearing till 6 weeks. Till 12 weeks partial weight bearing was allowed and full weight bearing was allowed after radiological union of the fracture. CONCLUSION: Tibial plateau fractures when treated with MIPPO give articular anatomical reduction, rigid fixation and early mobolisation of the knee joint. This prevents development of osteoarthritis and includes all the advantages of minimally invasive procedure and so better patient compliance.

  13. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  14. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  15. Palaeogene growth of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau: Detrital fission track and sedimentary analysis of the Lanzhou basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuxi; Deng, Lizheng; Zattin, Massimiliano; Ji, Minxiao; Li, Jijun

    2017-10-01

    The Palaeogene evolution of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau remains elusive, because of the paucity of well-dated long-lasting and continuous sedimentary records. In this work, we present a detailed detrital apatite fission track thermochronology and stratigraphic study in the Lanzhou basin, located on the eastern-most margin of northeastern Tibet, where Eocene to middle Miocene sediments are well preserved. Combining the analysis of sedimentology records and synsedimentary tectonic structures, four regional tectonic phases are deciphered (52-47 Ma, 40-32 Ma, 23-20 Ma and <16 Ma, respectively). These episodes were spaced out by three periods of tectonic stability or quiescence linked to regional relief-reduction. Our apatite fission-track data suggest that far-field stress due to the India-Asia collision had been propagated to this region since early Eocene, and the modern northeastern portion of the Tibetan Plateau has been buildup since then. Thereafter, the growth of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau was dominated by a tectonic activity/inactivity cycle until late Miocene. Thus, the regional growth history appears to have been episodic in nature during the Cenozoic.

  16. Linkage between the second uplifting of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau and the initiation of the Asian monsoon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施雅风; 汤懋苍; 马玉贞

    1999-01-01

    During the period from 25 to 17 Ma BP, when the second plateau uplifting, i.e. the second phase of the Himalaya movement, occurred, the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau reached an altitude high enough to change the situation of the general circulation. Such an effect of the plateau on the atmospheric circulation was accompanied by the warming of the tropical ocean, the enhancement of the cross equatorial current, the enlargement of the marginal sea basins in the cast-southeastern Asia, the westward extending of the Asian continent and the regression of the Paratethys Sea. As a result, the thermal difference was enlarged, and the air currents were enhanced between continents and oceans; finally the Asian monsoon system, mainly the summer monsoon, was initiated. The former planet wind system was then substituted by the monsoon system, and this caused the important environmental changes, such as the large shrinkage of the dry steppe in Central Asia, and the extension of the humid forest zone in East Asia. Those chan

  17. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  18. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  19. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  20. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  1. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the

  2. Studying the viscosity of lower crust of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau according to post-seismic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The viscosity of lower crust of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau on earth should be determined. It has become a predominant problem in quantitative research on geodynamics. Its order of magnitude will have a great influence on the results of quantitative modeling. To obtain the viscosity of lower crust of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, this parameter was calculated by three methods. The first is based on the estimation on the temperature state of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the deep part, and the viscosity of lower crust of northern Plateau was recomputed with strain rate derived from rheology law and GPS observation. Effective viscosity of middle crust in Kunlun region is between 1020 and 1022 Pa·s, and that of lower crust is be- tween 1019 and 1021 Pa·s; the second is based on three kinds of rheological models used to fit the post-seismic deformation recorded by cross-over fault GPS sites set after Ms8.1 Kunlun earthquake in 2001. The viscosity of lower crust obtained by this method is of 1017 Pa·s order of magnitude. However, higher viscosity is required to fit the data of south fault better, and the lower one is required to fit the data of north fault better. The viscosity of lower crust, which was obtained by fitting the cross-over fault post-seismic deformation after Ms7.6 Luhuo earthquake in 1973, is of 1019 Pa·s order of magnitude. Non-linear relationship between effective viscosity and strain rate is ignored in the former research of effective viscosity. This research shows the difference of effective viscosity obtained from laboratory experiment, and shorter and longer time post-seismic deformation after large earthquakes can be explained in phase.

  3. The Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE): A new base for the processes study of atmospheric physics and environment over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, with the most prominent and complicated terrain on the globe and an elevation of more than 4000 m on average above sea leave (msl), is often called the "Third Pole" due to its significance parallel with Antarctica and the Arctic. The exchange of energy, water vapor and some greenhouse gases between land surface and atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding regions play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and some international organizations, a Third Pole Environment (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) is now implementing over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding region. The background of the establishment of the TPEP, the establishing and monitoring plan of long-term scale (5-10 years) of the TPEP will be shown firstly. Then the preliminary observational analysis results, such as the characteristics of land surface heat fluxes, CO2 flux and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning (diurnal variation, inter-monthly variation and vertical variation etc), aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas, the characteristics of atmospheric and soil variables, the structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and the turbulent characteristics have also been shown in this study.

  4. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    increasing trends are most likely caused by increased runoff recharges from melt water and/or precipitation in the surroundings. We also find that the administrative actions such as the Chinese Ecological Protection and Construction Project help to store more groundwater in the Three Rivers Source Region, and suggest that seepages from the Endorheic basin to the west of it are a possible source for GWS increase in this region. In addition, our estimates for GWS changes basically confirm previous results along Afghanistan, Pakistan, north India and Bangladesh, and clearly reflect the excessive use of groundwater. Our results will benefit the water resource management in the study area, and are of particular significance for the ecological restoration in the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. A lake data set for the Tibetan Plateau from the 1960s, 2005, and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wei; Long, Di; Hong, Yang; Ma, Yingzhao; Yuan, Yuan; Xiao, Pengfeng; Duan, Hongtao; Han, Zhongying; Gu, Xingfa

    2016-01-01

    Long-term datasets of number and size of lakes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are among the most critical components for better understanding the interactions among the cryosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere at regional and global scales. Due to the harsh environment and the scarcity of data over the TP, data accumulation and sharing become more valuable for scientists worldwide to make new discoveries in this region. This paper, for the first time, presents a comprehensive and freely available data set of lakes’ status (name, location, shape, area, perimeter, etc.) over the TP region dating back to the 1960s, including three time series, i.e., the 1960s, 2005, and 2014, derived from ground survey (the 1960s) or high-spatial-resolution satellite images from the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) (2005) and China’s newly launched GaoFen-1 (GF-1, which means high-resolution images in Chinese) satellite (2014). The data set could provide scientists with useful information for revealing environmental changes and mechanisms over the TP region. PMID:27328160

  6. Towards sustainable integrated watershed ecosystem management: a case study in Dingxi on the loess plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liding; Yang, Lei; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ziting; Mo, Baoru; Cai, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government initiated a massive conservation program called "Grain-for-Green" in 1999 to reduce soil erosion and improve ecosystem function. Implementing practical sustainable development in the loess plateau still remains problematic, particularly in its eco-fragile areas. Here we discussed an approach for sustainable development at the watershed scale by integrating land use suitability, ecosystem services and public participation in the loess hilly area. We linked land use scenario analysis and economic modeling to compare the outcomes of three scenarios, CLU (Current Land Use), GOLU (Grain-production Oriented Land Use) and PSLU (Potential Sustainable Land Use). The results indicated that compared to PSLU, GOLU may provide a higher economic productivity in the short-term, but not in the long-term. CLU ranked lowest in terms of economic benefits and did not meet the daily needs of the local farmers. To reconcile the land use adjustments with farmers' basic needs, a labor-saving land use strategy is necessary. Since the PSLU scenario assumes that slope cropland should be converted to pastures or orchards, more time may be available for off-farm work and for more public participation in integrated ecosystem management. Financial support to the local farmers for environmental conservation should be modulated in function of their positive contribution to ecosystem management.

  7. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS OVER TIBETAN PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-yang; DAI Xiao-yan; WU Jian-ping; LIN Hui

    2005-01-01

    Disaster weather forecasting is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, the trajectories of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) were automatically tracked over the Chinese Tibetan Plateau using Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) brightness temperature (Tbb) from June to August 1998, and the MCSs are classified according to their movement direction. Based on these, spatial data mining methods are used to study the relationships between MCSs trajectories and their environmental physical field values. Results indicate that at 400hPa level,the trajectories of MCSs moving across the 105°E boundary are less influenced by water vapor flux divergence, vertical wind velocity, relative humidity and K index. In addition, ifthe gravity central longitude locations of MCSs are between 104°E and 105°E, then geopotential height and wind divergence are two main factors in movement causation.On the other hand, at 500hPa level, the trajectories of MCSs in a north-east direction are mainly influenced by K index and water vapor flux divergence when their central locations are less than 104°E. However, the MCSs moving in an east and south-east direction are influenced by a few correlation factors at this level.

  8. Towards Sustainable Integrated Watershed Ecosystem Management: A Case Study in Dingxi on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liding; Yang, Lei; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ziting; Mo, Baoru; Cai, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government initiated a massive conservation program called "Grain-for-Green" in 1999 to reduce soil erosion and improve ecosystem function. Implementing practical sustainable development in the loess plateau still remains problematic, particularly in its eco-fragile areas. Here we discussed an approach for sustainable development at the watershed scale by integrating land use suitability, ecosystem services and public participation in the loess hilly area. We linked land use scenario analysis and economic modeling to compare the outcomes of three scenarios, CLU (Current Land Use), GOLU (Grain-production Oriented Land Use) and PSLU (Potential Sustainable Land Use). The results indicated that compared to PSLU, GOLU may provide a higher economic productivity in the short-term, but not in the long-term. CLU ranked lowest in terms of economic benefits and did not meet the daily needs of the local farmers. To reconcile the land use adjustments with farmers' basic needs, a labor-saving land use strategy is necessary. Since the PSLU scenario assumes that slope cropland should be converted to pastures or orchards, more time may be available for off-farm work and for more public participation in integrated ecosystem management. Financial support to the local farmers for environmental conservation should be modulated in function of their positive contribution to ecosystem management.

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9

  10. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun

    2013-12-01

    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  11. Optical and ultraviolet observations of a low-velocity type II plateau supernova 2013am in M65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jujia; Bai, Jinming; Fan, Yufeng; Wang, Jianguo; Yi, Weimin; Wang, Chuanjun; Xin, Yuxin; Liangchang; Zhang, Xiliang; Lun, Baoli; Wang, Xueli; He, Shousheng [Yunnan Observatories (YNAO), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China); Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Fang; Mo, Jun [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mazzali, Paolo A.; Bersier, David [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Zhang, Tianmeng [National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Walker, Emma S., E-mail: jujia@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: baijinming@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Optical and ultraviolet observations for the nearby type II plateau supernova (SN IIP) 2013am in the nearby spiral galaxy M65 are presented in this paper. The early spectra are characterized by relatively narrow P-Cygni features, with ejecta velocities much lower than observed in normal SNe IIP (i.e., ∼2000 km s{sup –1} versus ∼5000 km {sup –1} in the middle of the plateau phase). Moreover, prominent Ca II absorptions are also detected in SN 2013am at relatively early phases. These spectral features are reminiscent of those seen in the low-velocity and low-luminosity SN IIP 2005cs. However, SN 2013am exhibits different photometric properties, having shorter plateau phases and brighter light curve tails if compared to SN 2005cs. Adopting R{sub V} = 3.1 and a mean value of total reddening derived from the photometric and spectroscopic methods (i.e., E(B – V) = 0.55 ± 0.19 mag), we find that SN 2013am may have reached an absolute V-band peak magnitude of –15.83 ± 0.71 mag and produced an {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.016{sub −0.006}{sup +0.010} M {sub ☉} in the explosion. These parameters are close to those derived for SN 2008in and SN 2009N, which have been regarded as 'gap-filler' objects linking the faint SNe IIP to the normal ones. This indicates that some low-velocity SNe IIP may not necessarily result from the low-energetic explosions. The low expansion velocities could be due to a lower metallicity of the progenitor stars, a larger envelope mass ejected in the explosion, or the effect of viewing angle where these SNe were observed at an angle away from the polar direction.

  12. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  13. Compositional characteristics of n-alkanes of the glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau and their environmental and climatic significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI QuanLian; WANG NingLian; WU XiaoBo; PU JianChen; HE JianQiao; XIE Jun

    2009-01-01

    State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science,Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,ChinaWe report on the concentration and compositional features of n-alkanes of natural and anthropogenic origins in the snow samples collected from the Qiyi glacier in the Qilian Mountains,the Yuzhufeng glacier in eastern Kunlun Mountains,the Xiaodongkemadi glacier in the Tanggula Mountains,and the concentration (T-HCs) from the northeast to the south over the Tibetan Plateau.The T-HCs in these studied areas were close to those in the Belukha and Sofiyskiy glacier,Russian Alati Mountains and the Dasuopu glacier in the Himalaya but were much higher than those in the Greenland ice sheet,suggesting that the mountain glaciers in the Asian continent may receive a higher loading of n-alkanes than the Greenland ice core.Moreover,the compositional characteristics of n-alkanes indicated that the n-alkanes in the studied areas were probably originated from the plant waxes as well as the fossil-fuel combustion exhaust,whereas the contribution from the lower organisms was small.In addition,the plant wax (C_n(wax)) and anthropogenic (non-C_n(wax)) contributions revealed that fast industrialization may have significant effects on the organic pollutant composition in glacier over the Tibetan Plateau and its circumference environment.Particularly,except for the Yuzhufeng glacier,the ∑nC_(21)~-/∑nC_(22)~+ and (nC_(15) +nC_(17)+nC_(19))/(nC_(27)+nC_(29)+nC_(31)) ratio decreased from the Qiyi glacier to the Gurenhekou glacier over the Tibetan Plateau,while the carbon preference index (CPI) values increased.These results indicate a decrease in terrigenous input while an increase in marine input from the northeast to the south over the Tibetan Plateau.These two ratios can be used as the climatic and environmental change indicators.

  14. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  15. The Standardized Candle Method for Type II Plateau Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares E., Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, José; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the "standardized candle method" using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the plateau can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of σ(AV ) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between plateau luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (RV = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of ~0.4 mag. Allowing RV to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of RV is 1.4 ± 0.1.

  16. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Frequency of human toxocariasis in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Ajayi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa was used to examine sera of 104 children and adults in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria for anti-toxocaral antibodies, out of which 31 (29.8% were reactive. The seropositive rates were 30.4% for adults, 29.6% for children, 34% for females and 25.9% for males. However, the differences were not significant by age and sex. A highly significant association (p 0.05.

  18. Landslide development within the Barlad Plateau of Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion

    2014-05-01

    The Barlad Plateau, extending about 8,230 square kilometers is considered as the most typical unit of the Moldavian Plateau of the Eastern Romania. The Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers are inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone seams. These sedimentary layers that have outcropped as a result of erosion are gently dipping toward S-SE in the form of a monocline. Landslides have been recognized as an important environmental threat in the major subunits of the Barlad Plateau, namely: Central Moldavian Plateau, Falciu Hills and Tutova Rolling Hills. Four main areas of monitoring landslides were explored such as successive aerial photographs of the 1960, 1970, 2005 and 2009 flights, repeated field surveys for a thorough reconnaissance of the study area, classical levelling work and GIS software applications as TNT Mips and Arc GIS. Also, the Caesium-137 technique has been used to get information on documenting sedimentation rates in some small catchments. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by the northern and western looking steep faces of cuestas, by changes of rock composition and by human impact. Also, it showed great pulses in conjunction with the rainfall distribution. For example, half of the Upper Barlad catchment that drains an area of 22,560 ha is covered by landslides. Furthermore, the active landslides amounted 11% of the total (2,317 ha) after the rainy 1968-1973 period and since 1982 under drier conditions they gradually limited to 444.0 ha (2% of the total).

  19. Evaluating first-year pine seedling survival plateau in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar N. Khana; Thomas J. Dean; Scott D. Roberts; Donald L. Grebner

    2016-01-01

    First-year seeding survival has been a continuing problem since the start of commercial pine plantation forestry in the 1950s. First-year survival of bare-root loblolly pine seedlings on intensively prepared sites in Louisiana has maintained a survival plateau between 79 to 89 percent with an average of about 82 percent. The specific objectives of this study were to...

  20. The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

  1. Research on the slope spectrum of the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new concept dealing with digital analysis of loess terrain,slope spectrum,is presented and discussed in this paper,by introducing its characteristic,represen-tation and extracting method from DEMs. Using 48 geomorphological units in dif-ferent parts of the loess as test areas and 5 m-resolution DEMs as original test data,the quantitative depiction and spatial distribution of slope spectrum in China’s Loess Plateau have been studied on the basis of a series of carefully-designed experiments. In addition,initial experiment indicates a strong relationship between the slope spectrum and the loess landform types,displaying a potential importance of the slope spectrum in geomorphological studies. Based on the slope spectrums derived from the 25 m-resolution DEM data in whole loess terrain in northern part of Shaanxi,13 slope spectrum indices were extracted and integrated into a compre-hensive layer with image integration method. Based on that,a series of unsuper-vised classifications was applied in order to make a landform classification in northern Shaanxi Loess Plateau. Experimental results show that the slope spec-trum analysis is an effective method in revealing the macro landform features. A continuous change of slope spectrum from south to north in northern Shaanxi Loess Plateau shows an obvious spatial distribution of different loess landforms. This also proves the great significance of the slope spectrum method in describing the terrain roughness and landform evolution as well as a further understanding on landform genesis and spatial distribution rule of different landforms in the Loess Plateau.

  2. Using field observations and satellite data for the study of energy and water cycle over heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2014-05-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, with the most prominent and complicated terrain on the globe and an elevation of more than 4000 m on average above sea leave (msl), is often called the "Third Pole" due to its significance parallel with Antarctica and the Arctic. The exchange of energy and water vapor between land surface and atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau area play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and some international organizations, a Third Pole Environment (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) is now implementing over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding area. The background of the establishment of the TPEP, the establishing and monitoring plan of long-term scale (5-10 years) of the TPEP will be shown firstly. Then the preliminary observational analysis results, such as the characteristics of land surface heat fluxes,CO2 flux and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning (diurnal variation, inter-monthly variation and vertical variation etc), the characteristics of atmospheric and soil variables, the structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and the turbulent characteristics have also been shown in this study. The study on the regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes and ET are of paramount importance over heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau. The parameterization methods based on satellite data (AVHRR and MODIS) and Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) observations have been proposed and tested for deriving surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and ET over heterogeneous landscape. As cases study, the methods were applied to the whole Tibetan Plateau area. Four scenes of AVHRR data and four scenes of MODIS data were used in this study. To validate the proposed methods, the ground-measured surface reflectance, surface

  3. 间歇期及慢性期痛风中医方药的文献研究%Literature Research of Traditional Chinese Medical Prescriptions of Gout in Intermission and Chronic Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昌; 温成平; 谢志军; 韩春雯; 汪梅姣

    2013-01-01

    目的:探求痛风间歇期及慢性期的方药特点,为中医临床治疗奠定基础.方法:采用计算机检索和人工检索相结合的方法,对1997年1月-2011年6月国内期刊中相关文献进行回顾性总结.结果:检索出符合要求的文献85[1-82]篇,共涉及痛风间歇期、慢性期及慢性关节炎期患者累计4791例,主要中药(前15味)使用频率结果分别是:牛膝(36.11%)、桑寄生(31.48%)、薏苡仁(30.56%)、土茯苓(26.85%)、苍术(25.93%)、白术(25.93%)、白芥子(25.00%)、当归(24.07%)、黄柏(23.15%)、黄芪(22.22%)、防己(22.22%)、草薢(20.37%)、威灵仙(20.37%)、赤芍(18.52%)、秦艽(16.67%).结论:牛膝、桑寄生、苍白术、薏苡仁及黄芪健脾益肾,泄浊祛湿治病之本;当归、牛膝、苍白术、赤芍、黄柏、白芥子及威灵仙活血化瘀通络,燥湿化痰通痹治病之标.%Objective: To provide a basis for clinical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM) by seeking the TCM prescriptions of gout in intermission and chronic phase. Methods: Domestic relevant literatures were summarized retrospectively based on the interaction by computer search and artificial retrieval from January 1997 to June 2011. Results-. Totally 85 literatures were retrieved to meet the requirements, including 4791 cases of intermission, chronic phase and chronic gouty arthritis. The distributions of major TCM prescriptions (the top 15)were achyranthes root(36. 11% ) ,mis-tletoe( 31. 48% ) , coix seed ( 30. 56% ), smilax Glabra ( 26. 85% ), atractylodes ( 25.93% ) , rhizoma atractylodis (25.93%) ,white mustard seed(25.00% ) ,angelica sinensis(24. 07% ) ,cortex phellodendri(23. 15%) ,radix astragali (22.22% ) ,tetrandra root(22.22%) ,yam rhizome(20. 37% ),clematis root(20. 37% ) ,red peony root(18.52%) ,gen-tiana macrophylla ( 16. 67% ). Conclusions :It is the fundamental treatment of gout by invigorating spleen and nourishing kidney therapy for reducing

  4. Late Miocene-Pliocene geomorphological evolution of the Xiaoshuizi peneplain in the Maxian Mountains and its tectonic significance for the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jijun; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Xiaomiao; Peng, Tingjiang; Guo, Benhong; Zhang, Jun; Song, Chunhui; Liu, Jia; Hui, Zhengchuang; Yu, Hao; Ye, Xiyan; Liu, Shanpin; Wang, Xiuxi

    2017-10-01

    As a remnant elevated peneplain, the Tangxian planation surface is widely distributed in North China and the Ordos Plateau. Further into the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Main planation surface can also be traced across this, the highest plateau on the Earth's surface. What the relation is between these two planation surfaces and whether they represent the remnants of a unique planation surface remains open to question. As the intermediate region between the low-altitude North China and the high-altitude TP, the Maxian Mountains and such bilateral basins located in the northeastern TP margin retain a series of well-preserved geomorphic features such as planation surfaces, pediment surface, and the fluvial terraces of the Yellow River. When and how the Xiaoshuizi peneplain was formed are crucial questions to elucidate the geomorphic evolution of the northeastern TP and infer the tectonic history of the TP. Here we present two parallel red clay-loess drill cores from the uplifted Xiaoshuizi bedrock peneplain in the Maxian Mountains, which document both the upper formation age of the planation surface and the evolution of Asian aridification. Based on the integration of high-resolution magnetostratigraphy analysis and Pliocene mammal fossils, we demonstrate that the red clay-loess succession deposited on the Xiaoshuizi peneplain probably began to accumulate at 6.9 Ma, implying that the Xiaoshuizi peneplain had begun to form before this. These results support the hypothesis that the Xiaoshuizi planation surface is equivalent to Tangxian planation surface of North China and Main planation surface of the TP. Furthermore, the onset of red clay sequence may indicate that the Xiaoshuizi peneplain was ultimately destroyed by the intensive tectonic uplift of the northeastern TP before 6.9 Ma. Taking into account the synchronous Late Miocene red clay deposition between the Xiaoshuizi peneplain and central Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), we propose that the onset of interior Asian

  5. Stability of alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huakun; ZHOU Li; ZHAO Xinquan; LIU Wei; LI Yingnian; GU Song; ZHOU Xinmin

    2006-01-01

    The meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is considered to be sensitive to climate change. An understanding of the alpine meadow ecosystem is therefore important for predicting the response of ecosystems to climate change. In this study, we use the coefficients of variation (Cv) and stability (E) obtained from the Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station to characterize the ecosystem stability. The results suggest that the net primary production of the alpine meadow ecosystem was more stable (Cv = 13.18%) than annual precipitation (Cv = 16.55%) and annual mean air temperature (Cv = 28.82%). The net primary production was insensitive to either the precipitation (E = 0.0782) or air temperature (E = 0.1113). In summary, the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau is much stable. Comparison of alpine meadow ecosystem stability with other five natural grassland ecosystems in Israel and southern African indicates that the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the most stable ecosystem. The alpine meadow ecosystem with relatively simple structure has high stability, which indicates that community stability is not only correlated with biodiversity and community complicity but also with environmental stability. An average oscillation cycles of 3―4 years existed in annual precipitation, annual mean air temperature, net primary production and the population size of consumers at the Haibei natural ecosystem. The high stability of the alpine meadow ecosystem may be resulting also from the adaptation of the ecosystem to the alpine environment.

  6. Several characteristics of contemporary climate change in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文琴; 陈隆勋; 周自江

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of contemporary climate change in the Tibetan Plateau have been investigated based on the observational data of monthly mean air temperature, monthly mean maximum and minimum air temperatures, and precipitation amount at 217 stations in the Plateau and its adjacent areas in 1951-1998, in which the temperature data at Lhasa, Lanzhou, Kunming and Chengdu were extended to a period of 1935-1950. The following conclusions can be drawn. (1) The air temperature in the Tibetan Plateau decreased from the 1950s to the 1960s, afterwards it began warming up to the 1990s. The data at the Lhasa Station beginning from 1935 have indicated that the air temperature at the station was the highest in the 1940s, then it became cooling until the 1960s. After the 1960s, it began warming until the 1990s. However, the air temperature at Lhasa in the 1990s still did not reach as high as in the 1940s. (2) Since the 1960s, there has existed a cooling belt below 3000 m altitude above sea level, which is located in ea

  7. Spatial variation of reference crop evapotranspiration on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong YANG; Zhan-yu ZHANG; Xin-yi XIANG

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on meteorological observation data collected at 38 weather stations on the Tibetan Plateau over several decades. Daily reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was calculated with the FAO-56 standard Penman-Monteith formula. A test of normality was performed with Statistica 6.0 software, isotropic and anisotropic semi-variogram analysis was conducted with the GS+ (geostatistics for the environmental sciences) system for Windows 7.0, and the characteristics of spatial variation of daily ET0 were obtained. The following results can be obtained: Daily ETo for different periods on the Tibetan Plateau are distributed normally; Except for daily ETo in the E-W (east-west) direction in the summer, which showed a slight negative correlation with distance change, the Moran's indexes of daily ET0 for different periods in all directions on the Tibetan Plateau within a 100-km distance were positive, demonstrating a positive correlation with distance change; Variograms of daily ET0 in June, the dry season, the wet season, as well as annual average daily ET0 fit well with the Gaussian model; A variogram of daily ET0 in December fit well with the exponential model; Variograms of daily ET0 for the four seasons fit well with the linear with sill model.

  8. Plateau Inflation in $R$-parity Violating MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-01-01

    Inflation with plateau potentials give the best fit to the CMB observables as they predict tensor to scalar ratio stringently bounded by the observations from Planck and BICEP2/Keck. In supergravity models it is possible to obtain plateau potentials for scalar fields in the Einstein frame which can serve as the inflation potential by considering higher dimensional Planck suppressed operators and by the choice of non-canonical K\\"ahler potentials. We construct a plateau inflation model in MSSM where the inflation occurs along a sneutrino-Higgs flat direction. A hidden sector Polonyi field is used for the breaking of supersymmetry at the end of the inflation. The SUSY breaking results in a TeV scale gravitino mass and scalar masses and gives rise to bilinear and triliear couplings of scalars which can be tested at the LHC. The sneutrino inflation field can be observed at the LHC as a TeV scale diphoton resonance like the one reported by CMS and ATLAS.

  9. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  10. River discharge changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Annual mean discharge data of the five large rivers in the exorheic region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1956 to 2000 are analyzed for trends with the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test. The results reveal that though in general no increasing trends exist in the total river discharges, significant regional differences of river discharge exist, reflecting the decreasing trends of discharge in the Yellow River and the Tongtian River (upper Changjiang River), an increasing trend in Yalong River, and inverted change in the Lancang River and Yarlung Zangbo River. Based on analyses of the seasonal discharge, it is found that climatic change had a significant effect on the seasonal variation of river discharge in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In spring (from March to May) the discharge increased significantly, especially in the source area of the Yellow River. Together with the analyses on data of the mean temperature in the Northern Hemisphere and climatic data within the river basins, the relationship between discharges and mean temperature of the Northern Hemisphere is explored, which indicates that there is no increase in the stream discharge in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with global warming. It is probably the increasing evaporation, caused by rising temperature that offsets the hydrological effect of increasing precipitation.

  11. Plateau inflation in R-parity violating MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-12-01

    Inflation with plateau potentials give the best fit to the CMB observables as they predict tensor to scalar ratio stringently bounded by the observations from Planck and BICEP2/Keck. In supergravity models it is possible to obtain plateau potentials for scalar fields in the Einstein frame which can serve as the inflation potential by considering higher dimensional Planck suppressed operators and by the choice of non-canonical Kähler potentials. We construct a plateau inflation model in MSSM where the inflation occurs along a sneutrino-Higgs flat direction. A hidden sector Polonyi field is used for the breaking of supersymmetry after the end of the inflation. The proper choice of superpotential leads to strong stabilization of the Polonyi field, mZ2 ≫m3/22, which is required to solve the cosmological moduli problem. Also, the SUSY breaking results in a TeV scale gravitino mass and scalar masses and gives rise to bilinear and trilinear couplings of scalars which can be tested at the LHC. The sneutrino inflation field can be observed at the LHC as a TeV scale diphoton resonance like the one reported by CMS and ATLAS.

  12. Isotopic characteristics of shoshonitic rocks in eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Petrogenesis and its tectonic implication Isotopic characteristics of shoshonitic rocks in eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Petrogenesis and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yuquan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Ding Chaojian, Wang Zeng, Shentu Baoyong, Nd, Sr isotopic characteristics of main mineralization rock bodies for the Yulong Cu ( Mo ) ore belt in eartern Tibet, Contribution to the Geology of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau (20) (in Chinese), [2]Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1990, 226-230.[2]Zhang Yuquan, Xie Yingwen, Geochronology of Ailaoshan-Jinshajiang alkali-rich intrusive rocks and their Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics, Science in China, Ser. D, 1997, 40 (5): 522.[3]Ma Hongwen, Petrology and Mineralization of Granites in Yulong Porphyry Copper Belt (in Chinese), Tibet, Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1990, 112-119.[4]Zhang Yuquan, Xie Yingwen, Qiu Huaning et al., Shoshonitic series: Sr,Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of ore-bearing porphyry for Yulong copper ore belt in the eastern Tibet, Scientia Geological Sinica (in Chinese), 1998, 33 (3): 359.[5]Dosso, L., Murthy, V. R., A Nd isotopic study of the Kerguelen Island: Inference on riched oceanic mantle sources, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1980, (48): 268.[6]Lameyre, J., Marot, A., Ziminesv et al., Chronological evolution of the Kerguelen Island, syenite-granite ring complex, Nature, 1976, GB(26): 306. [7]Vollmer, R., Norry, M. J., Possible origin of K-rich volcanic rocks from Virunga, East Africa, by metasomatism of continental crustal materical: Pb Nd and Sr isotopic evidences, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1983, (64): 374.[8]Sun, S. S., McDonough, W. F., Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes, in Magmatism in the Ocean Basins, (eds. Saunders, A. D., Norry, M. J.), Geological Society Special Publication, 1989, 42: 313.[9]Hart, S. R., A large-scale isotope anomaly in the southern Hemisphere mantle, Nature, 1984, 309: 753.[10]Zhang Yuquan, Xie Yingwen, Liang Huaying et al., Petrogenesis series and ore-bearing porphyries of the Yulong ccopper ore belt in eastern Tibet, Geochimica

  13. The Relevant Analysis on the Stop Time in Winter and Times of Plateau and the Index in Early Days for Garrisonned Plateau Constructors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhencai; Zhang Xuefeng; Deng Yunqing; Wu Chengkui; Cao Ruiling; Peng Quansheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Study the influence of the stop time in winter, times of plateau on the index in early days for plateau constructors meet; Method: Is it participate in plateau construction of 2002-2004 to choose, enter into the plateau again of 2003-2005 practise clothes finish to mate 326 materials "physical examination in front of the worker", which is passed in Nanshankou Hospital in early days, divided into 3 groups according to the difference of year for the physical examination, examine by leaning towards relevant analytical methods; Result: (1) In the situation of day controlling about the stop time in winter, times of garrison in plateau and blood and oxygen saturation lever ( SaO2 ), the systolic pressure (sBP) is presented and shouldered relevantly winter to control. Present positive correlation with the value of hemoglobin (Hb) ; (2) It is stopped that in case of controlling and is garrisoned in the number of times of plateau in winter day and blood and oxygen saturation lever (SaO2) to present positive correlation. Present and shoulder with the hemoglobin (Hb) relevantly. Conclusion: In order to ensure the health of plateau constructors to the maximum extent, should try one's best to reduce the number of times of returning to the plateau in possible cases. At the same time each one constructs for year and returns to the time that the hinterland concentrates rest should be on above 90 days.

  14. Validation and Application of Reanalysis Temperature Data over the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Han; ZHU Jinhuan; ZHOU Libo; LI Peng; MA Shupo

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has substantial impacts on the weather and climate of the Northern Hemisphere, due in large part to the thermal eff ects of the plateau surface. Surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau is the most important parameter in determining these thermal eff ects. We present a method for verifying widely used reanalysis temperature products from NCEP-R2, ERA-Interim, and JRA-25 over the Tibetan Plateau, with the aim of obtaining a reliable picture of surface temperature and its changes over the plateau. Reanalysis data are validated against the topography elevation, satellite observations, and radiosonde data. ERA-Interim provides the most reliable estimates of Tibetan Plateau surface temperature among these three reanalyses. We therefore use this dataset to study the climatology and trends of surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau. ERA-Interim data indicate a dramatic warming over the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2010, with warming rates of 0.33℃per decade in annual mean temperature, 0.22℃per decade in summer and 0.47℃ per decade in winter mean temperatures. Comparison with the results of previous studies suggests that surface warming over the Tibetan Plateau has accelerated during the past 30 years. This warming is distributed heterogeneously across the Tibetan Plateau, possibly due to topographic eff ects.

  15. Validation and application of reanalysis temperature data over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Han; Zhu, Jinhuan; Zhou, Libo; Li, Peng; Ma, Shupo

    2014-02-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has substantial impacts on the weather and climate of the Northern Hemisphere, due in large part to the thermal effects of the plateau surface. Surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau is the most important parameter in determining these thermal effects. We present a method for verifying widely used reanalysis temperature products from NCEP-R2, ERA-Interim, and JRA-25 over the Tibetan Plateau, with the aim of obtaining a reliable picture of surface temperature and its changes over the plateau. Reanalysis data are validated against the topography elevation, satellite observations, and radiosonde data. ERA-Interim provides the most reliable estimates of Tibetan Plateau surface temperature among these three reanalyses. We therefore use this dataset to study the climatology and trends of surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau. ERA-Interim data indicate a dramatic warming over the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2010, with warming rates of 0.33°C per decade in annual mean temperature, 0.22°C per decade in summer and 0.47°C per decade in winter mean temperatures. Comparison with the results of previous studies suggests that surface warming over the Tibetan Plateau has accelerated during the past 30 years. This warming is distributed heterogeneously across the Tibetan Plateau, possibly due to topographic effects.

  16. Climatology of monsoon precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau from 13-year TRMM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijuan, Bai; Guoping, Li

    2016-10-01

    Based on the 13-year data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite during 2001-2013, the influencing geographical location of the Tibetan Plateau (Plateau) monsoon is determined. It is found that the domain of the Plateau monsoon is bounded by the latitude between 27° N and 37° N and the longitude between 60° E and 103° E. According to the annual relative precipitation, the Plateau monsoon can be divided into three sections: the Plateau winter monsoon (PWM) over Iran and Afghanistan, the Plateau summer monsoon (PSM) over the central Plateau, and the transiting zone of the Plateau monsoon (TPM) over the south, west, and east edges of the Plateau. In PWM and PSM, the monsoon climatology has a shorter rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of less than 800 mm. In TPM, it has a longer rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of more than 1800 mm. PWM experiences a single-peak monthly rainfall with the peak during January to March; PSM usually undergoes a multi-peak pattern with peaks in the warm season; TPM presents a double-peak pattern, with a strong peak in late spring to early summer and a secondary peak in autumn. The Plateau monsoon also characterizes an asymmetrical seasonal advance of the rain belt. In the east of the Plateau, the rain belt migrates in a south-north orientation under the impact of the tropical and subtropical systems' oscillation. In the west of the Plateau, the rain belt advances in an east-west direction, which is mainly controlled by the regional Plateau monsoon.

  17. Tibetan Plateau: Geodynamics and Environmental Evolution--The cooperative projects based upon the memorandum of CAS and DFG%青藏高原:地球动力学与环境演变研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 朱立平; 谈戈

    2006-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a unique role in Earth System Sciences. It represents a key area to understand not only basic geodynamic processes linked with the formation and uplift of mountains and plateaus, but also the interaction between plateau uplift and environmental changes. Over the last 50 million years the formation of the TP has considerably influenced the global climate and monsoon system.Moreover, the TP proves to be extremely sensitive to present-day global change phenomena. Based upon the foundation of the new Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (ITP) by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and through the Memorandum signed by the CAS and DFG (Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft), both CAS and DFG provide opportunities to intensify TP research and to develop coordinated research programs. "The Tibetan Plateau - Geodynamics and Environmental Evolution" consisting of one big projects funded by CAS and five projects funded by DFG that cover the pre- and early-collision history of the TP, the Palaeogene/Neogene uplift and climatic dynamics as well as the Late Quaternary and recent environmental and climatic changes on the TP. The projects are linked through several levels of interactions.

  18. Analysis of the structure of different Tibetan Plateau vortex types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyuan; Liu, Changhai; Fan, Guangzhou; Zhang, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the structure of the Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) is of considerable importance for understanding the generation and development mechanisms of this mesoscale system. However, our understanding of vortex structures and our ability to classify them on a physical basis is limited due to insufficient observations. The highresolution new-generation NCEP-CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) dataset is used in the present paper to investigate the general structural features of various types of mature TPV through classification and composite structure analysis. Results indicate that the dynamic and thermodynamic structures show regional and seasonal dependency, as well as being influenced by attributes of translation, associated precipitation, and the South Asian high (SAH). The common precipitating TPV (type I), frequently occurring in the west-east-oriented zonal region between 33° and 36°N, is a notably low-level baroclinic and asymmetric system. It resides within a large-scale confluent zone and preferentially travels eastward, potentially moving out of the plateau. The heavy rain vortex (type II) corresponds to a deep vortex circulation occurring in midsummer. The low-level baroclinic sub-category (type IIa) is associated with a low-level jet and mainly originates in the area 32°-35°N, 86°-94°E, preferentially moving east of 90°E and even away from the plateau; meanwhile, the nearly upright sub-category (type IIb), which has a cold center at low levels and a warm center at mid-upper levels, is a quasi-stationary and quasi-symmetric system favorably occurring west of 92°E. A western-pattern SAH exists in the upper troposphere for these two sub-categories. The springtime dry vortex in the western plateau (type III) is warm and shallow (approximately 100 hPa deep), and zonal circulation dominates the large-scale environmental flows in the middle and upper troposphere. The precipitating vortex in the southern plateau occurring during July

  19. Agulhas Plateau and Mozambique Ridge: Two LIPS of a Kind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Gohl, K.; Parsiegla, N.

    2008-12-01

    The seaway south of South Africa represents a critical gateway within the global ocean circulation. Here, warm surface and cold deep and bottom water masses meet and lead to a transfer of heat and salt between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. This transfer maintains the global thermohaline circulation. The paths of the oceanic currents are strongly influenced by the seafloor topography observed in this region. Thus, the tectonic evolution of the South African continental margin and the gateway starting in Cretaceous times are of major importance in order to understand the evolution of the current system and the transition from the Greenhouse to the Icehouse world. The gateway itself is characterized by the Agulhas Plateau, which has been postulated to originate in the interaction of the Bouvet Hotspot and a triple junction and thus to fall within the world-wide suite of Large Igneous Provinces [Gohl and Uenzelmann-Neben, 2001; Parsiegla, et al., 2008; Uenzelmann-Neben, et al., 1999]. A similar structure has been identified for the crust of the southern Mozambique Ridge [Gohl, et al., submitted]. This raises the question whether those two LIP events were related, whether their emplacement happened at the same time and how they tie in with other LIP events observed in Late Cretaceous times such as the formation or the Kerguelen LIP. Furthermore, we may speculate on the effect those magmatic events had on the evolution of both oceanic currents and the climate. Similarities as well as differences in crustal structure and evolution and later sedimentary development will be presented for those two structures based on seismic refraction and reflection data. References: Gohl, K. and G. Uenzelmann-Neben (2001), The crustal role of the Agulhas Plateau, southwest Indian Ocean: Evidence from seismic profiling, Geophysical Journal International, 144, 632-646. Gohl, K., et al. (submitted), Is the Mozambique Ridge related to the Agulhas Plateau Large Igneous Province?, Geophysical

  20. Heat flow distribution in Chinese continent and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tao; Zhengkang Shen

    2008-01-01

    Using a compilation of 6980 heat flow measurements, we produce a new heat flow map for the Chinese continent and its adjacent areas. We develop an objective and integrated method to interpolate the heat flow data, taking into account both the uniformity within geological units and coherency of regional heat flow. The geologic units are outlined based on Zhang et al.'s active tectonic block model.Our heat flow model is presented in two formats: a contour map and a heat flow dataset with values on a 1 × 1° grid for the Chinese continent and its adjacent areas, reflecting detailed variations in some regions. Also provided is a resolution map which helps understand the reliability of the heat flow model. Our results reveal that (1) Heat flows in the eastern part of the Chinese continent are relatively higher than those in the western part except that in the Tibetan Plateau area. (2) Heat flows in the Ordos and North China blocks are around 60 mW/m2, and are 50-55 mW/m2 in South China except for the continental marginal sea regions. (3) Heat flow is the lowest in the Jtmggar Basin, only 35-45 mW/m2, and is 45-55 mW/m2 in the Tarim Basin. The results of this study provide an important data-set for studies on thermal and rheological structures of the Chinese continent and its adjacent areas.

  1. Differenfiated nursing of traditional Chinese medicine and functtonal train-ing in stroke patients during re habilitation phase%脑卒中患者康复期的中医辨证护理及功能训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 杨喜忠; 姚菊峰

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION We establish differentiated grouping methods and nursing protocolsaccording to theory of traditional Chinese medicine, andpractice nursing and health education for stroke patients. During treatment,patients comprehend self-regulation, and self health care,and theirconditions were relieved dramatically.

  2. Smart home for urban Chinese elderly living

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to design a new smart home for urban Chinese elderly people in home living environment. This new smart home design has to be integrated all the ICT solutions which based on a literature review was proposed and also with a functional back-end system for data collection, analysis and storage. The literature review phase of this study was to find out the existing problematic issues and solutions for urban Chinese elderly people in home living, upon comparison of ...

  3. Optimizing water and nitrogen inputs for winter wheat cropping system on the Loess Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuPing FU; QuanJiu WANG; XinLei SHEN; Jun FAN

    2014-01-01

    Optimal use of water and fertilizers can enhance winter wheat yield and increase the efficiencies of water and fertilizer usage in dryland agricultural systems. In order to optimize water and nitrogen (N) management for winter wheat, we conducted field experiments from 2006 to 2008 at the Changwu Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences on the Loess Plateau, China. Regression models of wheat yield and evapotranspiration (ET) were established in this study to evaluate the water and fertilizer coupling effects and to determine the optimal coupling domain. The results showed that there was a positive effect of water and N fertilizer on crop yield, and optimal irrigation and N inputs can significantly increase the yield of winter wheat. In the drought year (2006-2007), the maximum yield (Ymax) of winter wheat was 9.211 t/hm2 for the treatment with 324 mm irriga-tion and 310 kg/hm2 N input, and the highest water use efficiency (WUE) of 16.335 kg/(hm2⋅mm) was achieved with 198 mm irrigation and 274 kg/hm2 N input. While in the normal year (2007-2008), the maximum winter wheat yield of 10.715 t/hm2 was achieved by applying 318 mm irrigation and 291 kg/hm2 N, and the highest WUE was 18.69 kg/(hm2⋅mm) with 107 mm irrigation and 256 kg/hm2 N input. Crop yield and ET response to irrigation and N inputs followed a quadratic and a line function, respectively. The optimal coupling domain was determined using the elas-ticity index (EI) and its expression in the water-N dimensions, and was represented by an ellipse, such that the global maximum WUE (WUEmax) and Ymax values corresponded to the left and right end points of the long axis, respectively. Considering the aim to get the greatest profit in practice, the optimal coupling domain was represented by the lower half of the ellipse, with the Ymax and WUEmax on the two end points of the long axis. Overall, we found that the total amount of irrigation for winter wheat should not exceed 324 mm. In

  4. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  5. Plateau iris Íris em platô

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Diniz Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The term plateau iris was first coined in 1958 to describe the iris configuration of a patient. Two years later the concept of plateau iris was published. In 1977, the plateau iris configuration was classically defined as presurgical changes of an eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth, flat iris by conventional biomicroscopy, but displaying an extremely narrow or closed angle on gonioscopic examination. On the other hand, the plateau iris syndrome was defined as an acute glaucoma crisis in one eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth and patent iridotomy on direct examination, presenting angle closure confirmed by gonioscopic examination after mydriasis. In 1992, the anatomic aspects of plateau iris were studied using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Finally, plateau iris has been considered an anatomic variant of iris structure in which the iris periphery angulates sharply forward from its insertion point and then again angulates sharply and centrally backward, along with an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. The clinical treatment of plateau iris syndrome is carried out with topical use of pilocarpine. However, the definitive treatment should be fulfilled by performing an argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.O termo íris em platô foi primeiramente inventado em 1958 para descrever a configuração da íris de um paciente. Dois anos depois o conceito de íris em platô foi publicado. Em 1977, a configuração de íris em platô foi classicamente definida como alterações pré-cirúrgicas de um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal, íris plana pela biomicroscopia convencional, mas mostrando um ângulo extremamente estreito ou fechado pela gonioscopia. Por outro lado, a síndrome de íris em platô foi definida como uma crise de glaucoma agudo em um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal e uma iridectomia patente ao

  6. A Chinese Character Teaching System Using Structure Theory and Morphing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linjia; Liu, Min; Hu, Jiajia; Liang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a Chinese character teaching system by using the Chinese character structure theory and the 2D contour morphing technology. This system, including the offline phase and the online phase, automatically generates animation for the same Chinese character from different writing stages to intuitively show the evolution of shape and topology in the process of Chinese characters teaching. The offline phase builds the component models database for the same script and the components correspondence database for different scripts. Given two or several different scripts of the same Chinese character, the online phase firstly divides the Chinese characters into components by using the process of Chinese character parsing, and then generates the evolution animation by using the process of Chinese character morphing. Finally, two writing stages of Chinese characters, i.e., seal script and clerical script, are used in experiment to show the ability of the system. The result of the user experience study shows that the system can successfully guide students to improve the learning of Chinese characters. And the users agree that the system is interesting and can motivate them to learn. PMID:24978171

  7. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  8. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  9. The system of physico-geographical regions of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑度

    1996-01-01

    The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is a unique physico-geographical region on the earth. As a whole, the spatial differentiation of physico-geographical regions of the plateau is mainly determined by topographic configuration and atmospheric circulation, warm and humid in the southeast, cold and arid in the northwest. The natural landscapes apppear in the following succession: forest → meadow → steppe → desert. The system of physico-geographical regions of the plateau is demarcated on the principle of bio-climate or the principle of three dimension zonality. Based on the thermal conditions, moisture regimes and variation in landform the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is sequentially demarcated. The duration of mean daily temperature above 10℃ is the principal index, the subsidiary criterion is mean temperature of the warmest month, two temperature belts may be divided: plateau subpolar and plateau temperate. Annual aridity is taken as the principal index, subordinated by annual precipitation. Four moisture regional

  10. A mathematical model of soil moisture spatial distribution on the hill slopes of the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU; Bojie

    2001-01-01

    in China, Ser. B, 1995, 38(2): 238-244.[14]Zhu, R. X., Zhou, L. P., Laj, C. et al., The Blake geomagnetic polarity episode recorded in Chinese Loess, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1994, 21(8): 697-700.[15]Kligfield, R., Channel, J. E. T., Widespread remagnetization of Helvetic limestones, J. Geophys. Res., 1981, 86: 1888-1900.[16]Maher, B. A., Thompson, R., Zhou, L. P., Spatial and temporal reconstruction of changes in the Asian paleomonsoon: A new mineral magnetic approach, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1994, 125: 461-471.[17]Liu, X. M., Rolph, T., Bloemendal, J. et al., Quantitative estimates of paleoprecipitation at Xifeng in the Loess Plateau of China, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 1995, 113: 243-248.[18]Thompson, R., Maher, B. A., Age models, sediment fluxes and paleoclimatic reconstructions for the Chinese loess and paleosol sequences, Geophys. J. Int., 1995, 123: 611-622.[19]Liu, T. S., Guo, Z. T., Liu, J. Q. et al., Variations of eastern Asian monsoon over the last 140000 years, Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 1995, 166: 221-229.[20]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., Guiot, J. et al., High frequency pulses of East Asian monsoon climate in the last two glaciations: link with the North Atlatic, Climate Dynamics, 1996, 12: 701-709.[21]Han, J. M., Lü, H. Y., Wu, N. Q. et al., The magnetic susceptibility of modern soils in China and its uses for paleocli-mate reconstruction, Studia Geoph et Geod., 1996, 40: 262-275.[22]Zhu, R. X., History of anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility and its implications: Preliminary results along an E-W transect of the Chinese Loess Plateau, Geophys. Res. Abs., 2000, 2: 226.

  11. Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Safety of the Novel Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Enzyme Inhibitor Darapladib in Healthy Chinese Subjects: An Open Label Phase-1 Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Hu

    Full Text Available Darapladib is a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 inhibitor. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects.Twenty-four subjects received darapladib 160 mg orally, approximately 1 hour after a standard breakfast, as a single dose and once daily for 28 days. Non-compartmental methods were used to determine the single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of darapladib and its metabolite SB-553253. Repeat dose Lp-PLA2 activity and safety were evaluated.Systemic exposure (AUC(0-T, Cmax geometric mean (CVb% of darapladib was higher after multiple-dosing (519 ng.h/mL (33.3%, 34.4 ng/mL (49.9% compared to single-dose administration (153 ng.h/mL (69.0%, 17.9 ng/mL (55.2%. The steady-state accumulation ratio was less than unity (Rs = 0.80, indicating time-dependent pharmacokinetics of darapladib. Darapladib steady-state was reached by Day 14 of once daily dosing. Systemic exposure to SB-553253 was lower than darapladib with median (SB-553253: darapladib ratios for AUC(0-τ of 0.0786 for single dose and 0.0532 for multiple dose administration. On Day 28, pre-dose and maximum inhibition of Lp-PLA2 activity was approximately 70% and 75% relative to the baseline value, respectively and was dependent of darapladib concentration. The most common adverse events (≥ 21% subjects were abnormal faeces, abnormal urine odour, diarrhoea and nasopharyngitis.Darapladib 160 mg single and repeat doses were profiled in healthy Chinese subjects. Single dose systemic exposure to darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects was consistent with that observed previously in Western subjects whereas steady-state systemic exposure was approximately 65% higher in Chinese than Western subjects. The Lp-PLA2 activity and adverse event profile were similar in healthy Chinese and previous reports in Western subjects. Ethnic-specific dose adjustment of darapladib is not considered necessary for the Chinese

  12. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  13. [Thought and method of reproductive toxicity research in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia-Yin; Yan, Yi; Liang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Yu-shi; Li, Chun-ying; Zhao, Yong; Lu, Yu-ting; Cui, Hong-yu; Li, Gui-qin

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive toxicity research takes an important place in traditional Chinese medicine pre-clinical safety evaluation. Modern reproductive toxicity experiment includes drug-related miscarriage, fetal death, teratism, and adverse effects on fertility, genital system, embryonic development and fetus, which is different from contraindicated in pregnancy in traditional Chinese medicine theory. Now the three-phases reproductive toxicity study is the method mainly applied in traditional Chinese medicine reproductive toxicity evaluation. Besides that, alternative methods of whole embryos culture and embryonic stem cell test are also used in traditional Chinese medicine embryo toxicity evaluation. This article reviews research progress and pre-clinical evaluation on reproductive toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Evolutionary events in Lilium (including Nomocharis, Liliaceae) are temporally correlated with orogenies of the Q-T plateau and the Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun-Dong; Harris, A J; Zhou, Song-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The Hengduan Mountains (H-D Mountains) in China flank the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Q-T Plateau) and are a center of great temperate plant diversity. The geological history and complex topography of these mountains may have prompted the in situ evolution of many diverse and narrowly endemic species. Despite the importance of the H-D Mountains to biodiversity, many uncertainties remain regarding the timing and tempo of their uplift. One hypothesis is that the Q-T Plateau underwent a final, rapid phase of uplift 8-7 million years ago (Mya) and that the H-D Mountains orogeny was a separate event occurring 4-3 Mya. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed phylogenetic, biogeographic, divergence time dating, and diversification rate analyses of the horticulturally important genus Lilium, including Nomocharis. The Lilium-Nomocharis complex is distributed throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere but is most diverse within the H-D Mountains and Q-T Plateau. Our matK and ITS phylogenies support previous studies showing that Nomocharis is nested within Lilium. However, we detected incongruence between the two gene trees which may result from hybridization. Dating analyses performed using the ITS dataset showed that the evolution of major lineages within Lilium-Nomocharis may be temporally coincident with Q-T Plateau uplift occurring 8-7 Mya and H-D Mountains uplift approximately 4-3 Mya. Our analyses of diversification times and rates among Lilium-Nomocharis clades are less conclusive. However, these do suggest high extinction rates among H-D Mountains lineages.

  15. Multi-decadal periods of enhanced aeolian activity on the north-eastern Tibet Plateau during the last 2ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, Georg

    2016-10-01

    The north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is regarded as key area for the understanding of the Holocene paleoclimate in central Asia. During the last decade a special emphasis has been placed on multi-decadal to millennial scale climate fluctuations, especially in the context of the recent climate change. However, most reconstructions are based on lake sediments, tree rings and speleothems whereas only little information from terrestrial archives is included. This study presents multi-decadal scale climate fluctuations based on optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from aeolian sediments from three catchment areas. Six phases of enhanced aeolian accumulation during the last 2000 years, each lasting around 80-200 years were identified. The first three phases (1630-1725 CE, 1450-1530 CE and 1250-1350 CE) occurred during the Little Ice Age; the other three (750-950 CE, 390-540 CE, 50-225 CE) during the so-called dark ages cooling. Aeolian processes were strongly reduced during the medieval climate anomaly. A comparison with other proxy records indicates that the formation of aeolian archives on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau during the late Holocene is facilitated by cool and dry climate conditions during times of weaker Asian Summer Monsoon and probably enhanced westerlies. The results show that short term climate fluctuations can be reconstructed from non-continuous and heterogeneous terrestrial archives in a semi-arid environment, provided a sufficient number of OSL ages from aeolian sediments is available.

  16. Continental Dynamics in High Tibetan Plateau: Normal Faulting Type Earthquake Activities and Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jiren; Zhao Zhixin

    2009-01-01

    Various earthquake fault types were analyzed for this study on the crust movement in the high region of the Tibetan plateau by analyzing mechanism solutions and stress fields. The results show that a lot of normal faulting type earthquakes are concentrated in the central High Tibetan plateau. Many of them are nearly perfect normal fault events. The strikes of the fault planes of normal faulting earthquakes are almost in an N-S direction based on the analyses of the Wulff stereonet diagrams of fault plane solutions. It implies that the dislocation slip vectors of the normal faulting type events have quite great components in the E-W direction. The extensions probably are an eastward extensional motion, being mainly a tectonic active regime in the plateau altitudes. The tensional stress in the E-W or NWW-SEE direction predominates earthquake occurrences in the normal event region of the central plateau. The eastward extensional motion in the high Tibetan plateau is attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and the eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the east boundary of the plateau. Extensional motions from the relaxation of the topography and/or gravitational collapse in the high plateau hardly occurred along the N-S direction. The obstruction for the plateau to move eastward is rather weak.

  17. Posterior Slope of the Tibia Plateau in Malaysian Patients Undergoing Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yoga

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior slope of the tibial plateau is an important feature to preserve during knee replacement. The correct slope aids in the amount of flexion and determines if the knee will be loose on flexion. This is a study on the posterior tibial plateau slope based on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 100 consecutive patients who had total knee replacements. The average posterior slope of the tibia plateau was 10.1 degrees. There is a tendency for patients with higher pre-operative posterior tibial plateau slope to have higher post-operative posterior tibial plate slope.

  18. Review of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Based Research on China Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Guo'an; Ge Shanshan; Li Fayuan; Zhou Jieyu

    2005-01-01

    The Loess Plateau is one of the hot research areas for its specific geographical features. In resent years, with the establishment of national multi-scale DEMs and the perfection of DEM based digital terrain analysis methods, new thoughts and methodologies have been constructed for the Loess Plateau research. This paper introduces the characteristics of DEM data, analyses the development stages of DEM applied in the Loess Plateau research, and discusses its further possible research direction. More discussions are focused on slope spectrum and its concept, as well as the significance in the Loess Plateau research.

  19. FINAL FRONTIER AT HANFORD TACKLING THE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2008-03-04

    The large land area in the center of the vast Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State is known as 'the plateau'--aptly named because its surface elevations are 250-300 feet above the groundwater table. By contrast, areas on the 585-square mile Site that border the Columbia River sit just 30-80 feet above the water table. The Central Plateau, which covers an ellipse of approximately 70 square miles, contains Hanford's radiochemical reprocessing areas--the 200 East and 200 West Areas--and includes the most highly radioactive waste and contaminated facilities on the Site. Five 'canyons' where chemical processes were used to separate out plutonium (Pu), 884 identified soil waste sites (including approximately 50 miles of solid waste burial trenches), more than 900 structures, and all of Hanford's liquid waste storage tanks reside in the Central Plateau. (Notes: Canyons is a nickname given by Hanford workers to the chemical reprocessing facilities. The 177, underground waste tanks at Hanford comprise a separate work scope and are not under Fluor's management). Fluor Hanford, a DOE prime cleanup contractor at the Site for the past 12 years, has moved aggressively to investigate Central Plateau waste sites in the last few years, digging more than 500 boreholes, test pits, direct soil 'pushes' or drive points; logging geophysical data sets; and performing electrical-resistivity scans (a non-intrusive technique that maps patterns of sub-surface soil conductivity). The goal is to identify areas of contamination areas in soil and solid waste sites, so that cost-effective and appropriate decisions on remediation can be made. In 2007, Fluor developed a new work plan for DOE that added 238 soil waste-site characterization activities in the Central Plateau during fiscal years (FYs) 2007-2010. This number represents a 50 percent increase over similar work previously done in central Hanford. Work Plans are

  20. Re-evaluating the 1940s CO2 plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Barichivich, Jonathan; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Pongratz, Julia; Viovy, Nicolas; Trudinger, Cathy M.

    2016-09-01

    The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 plateau). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940-1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s plateau. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the plateau period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 plateau epoch of 1940-1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr-1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr-1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940-1942 El Niño on the

  1. Multi-phase induced inflation in theories with non-minimal coupling to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the induced inflation with two flat regions: one Starobinsky-like plateau in strong coupling regime and one shorter plateau around the saddle point of the Einstein frame potential. This multi-phase inflationary scenario can be used to solve problems of classical cosmology as well as the problem of initial conditions for inflation. The inflation at the saddle-point plateau is consistent with the data and can have arbitrarily low scale. The results can be useful in the context of the Higgs-Axion relaxation and in a certain limit they are equivalent to the α-attractors.

  2. DYNAMICS OF BRÂGLEZ RIVERBED (SOMEŞAN PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ARGHIUŞ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of Brâglez Riverbed (Someşan Plateau. The main left tributaries of Someş along Surduc – Jibou sector (Brâglez, Almaş and Agrij, are characterized by the presence of obvious processes of lateral and vertical erosion at the level of the riverbeds. The field observations, as well as the position of these rivers and their catchment areas in the neighborhood of the lower Someş subsidence area, would easily be grounds for explaining the riverbed processes as caused by an unstable fluvial base level. More precisely, this base level would be moving downwards under the influence of subsidence movements of Tisa Plain or even because of the subsidence affecting Guruslău Basin. Starting from these more or less speculative deductions, this paper aims at checking and confirming the above-mentioned explanations or finding other causes for the dynamics of riverbed processes. In this sense, we analysed a correlation between the drainage in the catchment area and at the level of the riverbeds, on one hand, and the riverbed geomorphological processes, on the other hand. Brâglez River (in western Someşan Plateau will be considered as a study case, as it provides an accelerated dynamics of riverbed processes. This situation will be compared with the one in the eastern part of the same plateau, where rivers like Borşa, Luna or Lujerdiu do not present obvious riverbed processes despite the similar climatic and geological conditions.

  3. Late Cretaceous tectonic framework of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhan; Barosh, Patrick J.; Ye, Peisheng; Hu, Daogong

    2015-12-01

    New research, coupled with previous data, reveals the Late Cretaceous paleo-geography, and related paleo-tectonic movement of the Tibetan Plateau. A vast ocean, the Neo-Tethys Ocean, perhaps as wide as ∼7000 km, existed between the Indian and Eurasian Continental Plates in the early Late Cretaceous. In addition, a Himalaya Marginal Sea lay along the border of the Indian Plate and other marginal seas were present to the north in both the southern Lhasa and southwestern Tarim Blocks. Northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Oceanic Plate along the Yalung-Zangbu Suture closed most of the ocean and led to intensive thrusting, tight folding, magmatic plutonism and volcanic eruptions in the central plateau to the north. A magmatic arc up to 500 km wide formed across the southern margin of the continental plate in central Tibet and its varying granitic composition appears to reflect the depth to the subducted plate and define its geometry. A series of large, chiefly north-dipping thrust systems also developed across central Tibet. These include thrusts along the Yalung-Zangbu and Bangong-Nujiang Sutures, the North Gangdese and North Lhasa Thrusts in the Lhasa Block, the Qiangtang and North Tangula Thrusts in the Qiangtang block, the Hoh-Xil and Bayan Har Thrusts in the Hoh-Xil Block, as well as the sinistral-slip South Kunlun and Altyn Tagh Faults in northern Tibet. Uplifts formed above the hanging walls of the major thrusts and their eroded debris formed thick red-beds in basins below them. The central Tibetan Plateau maintained a low elevation and coastal vegetation was dominant during the Late Cretaceous.

  4. Resistivity plateau and extreme magnetoresistance in LaSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, F. F.; Gibson, Q. D.; Kushwaha, S. K.; Haldolaarachchige, N.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-03-01

    Time reversal symmetry (TRS) protects the metallic surface modes of topological insulators (TIs). The transport signature of such surface states is a plateau that arrests the exponential divergence of the insulating bulk with decreasing temperature. This universal behaviour is observed in all TI candidates ranging from Bi2Te2Se to SmB6. Recently, extreme magnetoresistance (XMR) has been reported in several topological semimetals which exhibit TI universal resistivity behaviour only when breaking time reversal symmetry, a regime where TIs theoretically cease to exist. Among these materials, TaAs and NbP are nominated as Weyl semimetals owing to their lack of inversion symmetry, Cd3As2 is known as a Dirac semimetal owing to its linear band crossing at the Fermi level, and WTe2 is termed a resonant compensated semimetal owing to its perfect electron-hole symmetry. Here we introduce LaSb, a simple rock-salt structure material that lacks broken inversion symmetry, perfect linear band crossing, and perfect electron-hole symmetry yet exhibits all the exotic field-induced behaviours of these more complex semimetals. It shows a field-induced universal TI resistivity with a plateau at roughly 15 K, ultrahigh mobility of carriers in the plateau region, quantum oscillations with the angle dependence of a two-dimensional Fermi surface, and XMR of about one million percent at 9 T. Owing to its structural simplicity, LaSb represents an ideal model system to formulate a theoretical understanding of the exotic consequences of breaking time reversal symmetry in topological semimetals.

  5. Geodynamical basis for crustal deformation under the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1985-01-01

    Plate tectonics and satellite-derived gravity data are used to examine crustal deformation under the Tibetan Plateau. A spherical harmonic analysis is given for the global plate boundary system, and the crustal stresses in Tibet are calculated from satellite gravity data. A superimposed stress system is constructed. The stress patterns reveal that the cold downwelling mantle convection flow beneath southern Tibet pulls the Indian plate down but applies a bending moment on the end of the plate to uplift and support the mass of the Himalayas.

  6. An outcome of surgical management of the tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Ravindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advance in mechanization and acceleration of travel has been accompanied by an increase in number and severity of fractures and those of the tibial plateau are not an exception. As it is one of the major weight bearing joints of the body, fractures around it will be of at most importance. Aims: (1 To restore articular congruity and limb alignment by open reduction and rigid internal fixation. (2 To enable early knee motion and improve quadriceps and hamstring power. (3 To study the role of surgical treatment and functional outcome in tibial plateau fractures and its complications. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out, 32 cases of the tibial plateau fractures, which were admitted from August 2010 to April 2012 at Department of Orthopedics of our Hospital. Materials and Methods: 32 patients underwent surgical treatment for tibial plateau fractures. Fractures were classified according to the Schatzker′s system. The indications for surgery were defined as the presence of displacement, depression and instability being more than 4 mm, 10 mm and 10 degrees. The mean follow-up was 12 months. The selected patients were evaluated and were taken up for surgery. The indicated fractures were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, external fixator, open reduction and internal fixation with buttress plate with or without bone grafting. The range of motion was started soon after surgery. The patients were advised nonweight bearing up to 6-8 weeks. Total weight bearing deferred until 12 weeks or complete union of fracture. Statistical Analysis: All parameters before and after the treatment were expressed in mean ± standard deviation and analyzed by the Student′s t-test using SPSS version 16. Results: The knee range of motion was excellent to very good and weight bearing after complete union was satisfactory. Malunion in two cases, knee stiffness in three

  7. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  8. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  9. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  10. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  11. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  12. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  13. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  14. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  15. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  16. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  17. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  18. Magnetic entropy change plateau in a geometrically frustrated layered system: FeCrAs-like iron-pnictide structure as a magnetocaloric prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, J. M.; Vargas, P.; Garcia, C.; Ross, C. A.

    2013-06-01

    Monte Carlo modeling suggests that the magnetothermal features of the Fe2P-structured FeCrAs-like compound offer a promising route for the design of magnetocaloric materials. The prototype structure is modeled as antiferromagnetically coupled layered Heisenberg systems mimicking the distorted Kagome/triangular stacked architecture of FeCrAs iron-pnictide. The magnetic entropy change ΔSm(T) presents a plateau-like behavior which can be tailored by tuning either the JCr-Fe/JCr-Cr exchange energy ratio or the magnetic field. The plateau is defined by cooperative spin ordering within a ferrimagnetic region which exists between two critical temperatures separating at the lower bound ({T}_{{c}}^{a}) a canted antiferromagnetic phase and at the upper bound ({T}_{{c}}^{d}) the thermally disordered phase. The refrigerant capacity and adiabatic change of temperature are A(H)({T}_{{c}}^{d}-{T}_{{c}}^{a}) and A(H)Tp/Cm respectively, with {T}_{{c}}^{a}\\lt {T}_{{p}}\\lt {T}_{{c}}^{d}, A(H) an increasing positive function of the field defining the height of the plateau and Cm the magnetic specific heat, whose critical behavior is related to the {T}_{{c}}^{a,d} values.

  19. Mental disorders and health care seeking in Bandiagara: a community survey in the Dogon Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, M G; Coppo, P; Carpiniello, B; Mounkuoro, P P

    1997-05-01

    A two-level community study was carried out among the Peul and Dogon populations of the Bandiagara plateau (Mali). For the purpose of the study the Questionnaire pour le depistage en santé mentale (QDSM), a 23-item screening questionnaire derived from the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), was adapted and validated; internal consistency and accuracy were evaluated. In the first phase of the study, 466 subjects randomly selected on a residential basis were evaluated by means of the QDSM. In the second phase all subjects who were "positive" at the screening, as well as a sample who were "negative", were examined by means of a semistructured interview. When necessary, clinical and laboratory investigations were performed. The estimated prevalence of psychiatric cases was 6.4%. A significant risk was associated with age and education. Somatic diseases frequently associated with psychiatric disorders were genitourinary tract disorders, tuberculosis and disabling cardiopathies. The main factor determining the seeking of medical help either through traditional of conventional health systems was the presence of a somatic disorder. The presence of a true minor psychiatric disorder, however, was often associated with divining practices.

  20. Drinking water quality in the alpine pastures of the eastern Tibetan plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Sillanpää

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for water quality research on the Tibetan plateau has arisen after the rangeland was allocated and leased as pasture grounds to individual nomadic families in the 1990s. These policies changed the access to water sources. The imposed fencing of the pasture tenures makes the situation even more delicate. Nomadic families are now obliged to use only water sources existing on their own site. The restrictions have caused the urge to use all available water, which resulted in increasing water quality and quantity problems. In the past, natural water sources were in common use. During the Collective era, machine-dug wells near the collective settlements facilitated the procurement of drinking water. Based on recent investigations in Dzoge county (Sichuan province, the nomadic families of some regions considered the availability of adequate drinking water for humans and animals as their biggest problem. For this study, eight water samples were collected from the Dzoge county area. All samples were from different kinds of sources, but all in continuous use by humans and animals. The samples were analyzed for typical potable water quality factors (hygienic and technique-aesthetic. The results show that the Chinese national guideline values were exceeded for NO4-N and PO4-P in most open sampling locations. Those parameters do not spoil the water by themselves, but together with suspended solids and organic materials produce a great environment for bacteria like E. coli and fecal streptococci to grow. The result analysis and pictures seen from the location reveal that bacterial growth may be the biggest problem in water quality. Even primitive protection around the water source (i.e. concrete rings, wooden barriers around edges, covers seem to have a great impact on water quality.

  1. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "grain for green" project in Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Fu, B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The "Grain for Green" project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the "Grain for Green" project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau, and it is

  2. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruiying; Fu, Bojie; Liu, Guohua; Liu, Shuguang

    2011-12-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The "Grain for Green" project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the "Grain for Green" project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau, and it is

  3. Lake overspill and onset of fluvial incision in the Iranian Plateau: Insights from the Mianeh Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Ghasem; Ballato, Paolo; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-07-01

    Orogenic plateaus represent a prime example of the interplay between surface processes, climate, and tectonics. This kind of an interplay is thought to be responsible for the formation, preservation, and, ultimately, the destruction of a typical elevated, low-internal relief plateau landscape. Here, we document the timing of intermontane basin filling associated with the formation of a low-relief plateau morphology, followed by basin opening and plateau-flank incision in the northwestern Iranian Plateau of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Our new U-Pb zircon ages from intercalated volcanic ashes in exposed plateau basin-fill sediments from the most external plateau basin (Mianeh Basin) document that the basin was internally drained at least between ∼7 and 4 Ma, and that from ∼5 to 4 Ma it was characterized by an ∼2-km-high and ∼0.5-km-deep lake (Mianeh paleolake), most likely as a result of wetter climatic conditions. At the same time, the eastern margin of the Mianeh Basin (and, therefore, of the Iranian Plateau) experienced limited tectonic activity, as documented by onlapping sediments and smoothed topography. The combination of high lake level and subdued topography at the plateau margin led to lake overspill, which resulted in the cutting of an ∼1-km-deep bedrock gorge (Amardos) by the Qezel-Owzan River (QOR) beginning at ∼4 Ma. This was associated with the incision of the plateau landscape and the establishment of fluvial connectivity with the Caspian Sea. Overall, our study emphasizes the interplay between surface and tectonic processes in forming, maintaining, and destroying orogenic plateau morphology, the transitional nature of orogenic plateau landscapes on timescales of 106 yr, and, finally, the role played by overspilling in integrating endorheic basins.

  4. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  5. Different sub-monsoon signals in stable oxygen isotope in daily precipitation to the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxin Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a stable oxygen isotope (δ18O record in daily precipitation from two sites located to the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau (TP: Yushu on the eastern TP and Xi'an on the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau. It attempts to reveal the unique features associated with variations in atmospheric circulation patterns over inland China. For δ18O in daily precipitation at both stations, temperature effect is significant (p < 0.01 only during non-monsoon, while amount effect is significant only during monsoon. This suggests the coexistence of local recycling with large-scale atmospheric circulation on regional precipitation, which is further verified by the significant correlation of relative humidity with δ18O at both stations during monsoon season. The similarity of δ18O in regions under the supposedly same atmospheric circulation streams is tested for Yushu with that at Lhasa, Lulang and Delingha, demonstrating the lag days of δ18O depletion at Yushu with that at Lulang as varying from 15 to 25 d. This confirms the Bay of Bengal monsoon dominance over Yushu. Daily δ18O at Xi'an is compared with contemporary data at Changsha and Guangzhou, featuring a close correlation with the East Asian summer monsoon evolution processes over eastern China, and reflecting the Meiyu-Baiu front influence during July. Back-trajectory analysis in October–November at Xi'an identified the combined effect of cooling of the atmospheric column by the colder air from the west and the lifting of the warmer air from the east, which coexists with local water vapour source. Interactions of the three result in condensation at lower temperatures that is coupled with the long-distance transport of 2/3 of the available water vapour, thus leading to extremely low δ18O values in the post-monsoon precipitation.

  6. Stable isotopic (O, H) evidence for hydration of the central Colorado Plateau lithospheric mantle by slab-derived fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, E. W.; Barnes, J.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado Plateau is a tectonically stable, relatively undeformed Proterozoic lithospheric province in the North America Cordillera. Although the stability of the Colorado Plateau suggests that it is rheologically strong, evidence from xenoliths show that the lithospheric mantle is extensively hydrated (e.g., presence of hydrous minerals, 'high' water contents in nominally anhydrous minerals), and therefore weakened. In addition, LREE enrichments in clinopyroxene (cpx) imply that the lithospheric mantle has been metasomatized ([1],[2]). Here we analyze mineral separates from spinel and garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Navajo Volcanic Field (NVF), located in the center of the Plateau, for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. These compositions are compared to those of xenoliths at the margins of the Plateau: spinel peridotites from the Grand Canyon Volcanic Field (GCVF) in the west and Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field (ZBVF) in the east. NVF xenoliths are significantly more hydrous than the xenoliths on the margins of the Colorado Plateau based on modal abundances of hydrous minerals and structural water in olivine (e.g. [3]). All hydrous phases have high δD values (antigorite = -71 to -46‰ (n = 6 xenoliths); chlorite = -49 to -31‰ (n=3); amphibole = -47‰ (n=1)) compared to normal mantle (~-80‰), suggesting the addition of a fluid that is enriched in D compared to typical mantle. δ18O values for the same hydrous minerals range from 6.0 to 6.6‰ (n=6). δ18O values of olivine from NVF spinel peridotites have a narrow range, 5.0 to 5.4‰ (n = 4), near mantle olivine values (~5.2‰). Olivines from spinel peridotites from the GCVF and ZBVF also have mantle-like δ18O values (5.1 to 5.2‰ (n=3) and 5.1 to 5.4‰ (n=7), respectively). However, olivines and orthopyroxenes (opx) from NVF garnet peridotites have a slightly larger range and some record 18O enrichment (olivine = 5.1 to 5.6‰ (n = 3); opx = 5.9‰ (n=1)). The high δ18O values of

  7. Primary study on pattern of general circulation of atmos-phere before uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in eastern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Xinsheng

    2001-01-01

    [1]Manabe, S., Terpstra, T. B., The effects of mountains on the general circulation of the atmosphere as identified by numeri-cal experiments, J. Atmos. Sci., 1974(31): 1-42.[2]Ruddiman, W. F., Kutzbach, J. E., Forcing of Late Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere climate by plateau uplift in Southern Asia and the American West, J. of Geophysical Research, 1989, 94(D15): 18409-18427.[3]Wang Hongzhen, Atla of the Paleogeography of China, Beijing: China Map Press, 1985.[4]Editorial Board of "Natural Geography of China" of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Natural Geography of China, Pa-leogeography, Part one, Beijing: Science Press, 1984.[5]Editorial Board of "Natural Geography of China" of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Natural Geography of China, Cli-mate, Beijing: Science Press, 1984.[6]Jiang Xinsheng, Chen Leyao, Li Yuwen, Cretaceous-Tertiary deserts in southwestern China and desert sedimentology, Sedimentary Facies and Palaeogeography, 1992, (5): 1-66.[7]Jiang Xinsheng, Li Yuwen, Fu Qingping, Temporal and spatial distribution of Cretaceous deserts in middle and eastern China and its climatic significance, Proc. 30th International Geological Congress, 1997, 8: 73-80.[8]Jiang Xinsheng, Li Yuwen, Sapto-temporal distribution of the Cretaceous deserts in central and eastern China and its cli-matic significance, Sedimentary Facies and Palaeogeography, 1996, 16(2): 42-51.[9]Cooke, R., Warren, A., Goudie, A., Desert Geomorphology, Landon: UCL Press, 1993.[10]Zhang Linyuan, The formation process of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and stage division of Cenozoic climate evolution in China, in The study on the formation, evolution, environmental change and ecosystem of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Beijing: Science Press, 1995, 267-281.[11]Liu Dongsheng, Zhang Xinshi, Yuan Baoying, The compact of the uplifting of the Plateau to the surrounding regions, in The Formation, Evolution and Development of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Guangzhou: Guangdong

  8. The uplift history of the Arabian Plateau as inferred from geomorphologic analysis of its northwestern edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Oded; Zilberman, Ezra; Feinstein, Shimon; Calvo, Ran; Gvirtzman, Zohar

    2016-03-01

    The Arabian Plateau (AP) is an Oligocene sub-horizontal regional planation surface, extending throughout the western half of the Arabian Peninsula. Its present elevation of about 1 km required a prominent uplift since the Late Eocene. In order to reconstruct the uplift history, we documented abundant abrasive and fluvial terraces that were left along and across the raised Judea Mountains (JM), which comprised the NW edge of the AP. Using the ages of those terraces and the differences in height between them, we found that the JM was uplifted in three major phases: a few hundred meters during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, ~ 500 m during the Early Miocene-early Middle Miocene, and ~ 350 m during the Late Pliocene. The two earliest uplift phases predate the formation of the Dead-Sea Transform (DST), which today separates the JM from the AP, meaning that these two phases affected the continuous rigid lithosphere extending southeastwards to the AP interiors. Moreover, restoration of the paleogeography predating the lateral offset along the DST eliminates the main height differences across it and suggests that the DST does not play a major role in the vertical position of its bordering plates, but rather forms a relatively narrow deformation strip within the AP. Those two early phases of uplift can be corroborated by previous thermochronology studies, which exhibit similar ages around the Red Sea but may reflect the uplift age of the entire region. The present sub-horizontal morphology of the AP is in contrast to the presumed original northeastward drainage and may suggest a subsequent long-wave moderate tilting to the SW. Three possible mechanisms were suggested for the uplift of the AP: a long wavelength flexure of the Arabian plate during early stages of the uplift, and lithospheric thinning or dynamic topography during later stages of the uplift.

  9. [Assessment indicators of soil quality in hilly Loess plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingxiang; Liu, Guobin; Zhao, Yunge

    2005-10-01

    By the methods of sensitivity analysis, main component analsis and discriminant analysis, this paper screened the sensitive indicators from 32 soil attributes to assess the productivity and erosion-resistance ability of the soils in hilly Loess Plateau. The results showed that soil available phosphorus content, anti-scouring ability, infiltration coefficient, labile organic carbon content, organic matter content and urease activity were the most sensitive indicators for soil quality assessment and the main targets for soil quality management and improvement, while soil biological indicators were with high and medium sensitivity. Five soil quality factors were summed up from 29 soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, i. e., organic matter, texture, phosphorus, porosity and microstructure. Except the factor porosity, the other four factors were significantly different between different land use types. Eight indicators including soil organic matter content, infiltration coefficient, anti-scouring ability, CEC, invertase activity, mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates, available phosphorus, and MWD of microaggregate were identified as the assessment indicators of the soil quality in hilly Loess Plateau, with the organic matter content, infiltration coefficient and anti-scouring ability as the key indicators.

  10. Unilatelaral iris plateau syndrome after the use of ecstasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground. Courmon street name for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is ecstasy. This widely abused 'recreational' drug causes both an increased release of monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonine and dopamine, and an increased reuptake inhibition of serotonin. As a consequence, mydriasis and increased intraocular pressure (IOP in predisposed patients occur. We present herein a rare case of acute increased IOP after use of ecstasy. Case report. A female patient, aged 38 years, visited doctor complaing of a decreased vision acuity and severe pain in the left eye and in the left part of the head. The initial treatment was urgent antiglaucomatous therapy followed by withdrawal of subjective problems of the patient and improvement of objective finding. History taking procedure reveled that just before the onset of the pain the patient had used ecstasy and had had similar 'experience' 6 years ago after cocaine snorting. She had not been to a doctor although she had experienced sporadic migrenous pain. Previous medical records excavation of revealed optic disk (cup-to-dise C/D=06, Bjerum arcuate scotoma and iris plateau with narrow chamber angle (Scheie II- III so the diagnosis was a rare unilateral iris plateau syndrome of the left eye. Although the patient was given some pieces of information about the dangerous and possible deadly consequences of psychoactive substance abuse, she has not continue the treatment. Conclusion. Ecstasy abuse might cause a complete loss of vision, thus medicametous and surgical treatment are obligatory.

  11. Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari

    2017-06-01

    This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2 σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted 2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC 14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.

  12. Snow surface microbiome on the High Antarctic Plateau (DOME C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Michaud

    Full Text Available The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system and one of the major habitable ecosystems of Earth's biosphere. These permanently frozen environments harbor diverse, viable and metabolically active microbial populations that represent almost all the major phylogenetic groups. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity in the surface snow surrounding the Concordia Research Station on the High Antarctic Plateau through a polyphasic approach, including direct prokaryotic quantification by flow cytometry and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH, and phylogenetic identification by 16S RNA gene clone library sequencing and 454 16S amplicon pyrosequencing. Although the microbial abundance was low (<10(3 cells/ml of snowmelt, concordant results were obtained with the different techniques. The microbial community was mainly composed of members of the Alpha-proteobacteria class (e.g. Kiloniellaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, which is one of the most well-represented bacterial groups in marine habitats, Bacteroidetes (e.g. Cryomorphaceae and Flavobacteriaceae and Cyanobacteria. Based on our results, polar microorganisms could not only be considered as deposited airborne particles, but as an active component of the snowpack ecology of the High Antarctic Plateau.

  13. Crustal kinematics of the Colorado Plateau from GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. A.; Broermann, J.; Bennett, R. A.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from new continuous and campaign GPS networks spanning the state of Arizona and the southern portion of Utah. The 33 station continuous GPS network, funded by the NSF EarthScope Program, supplements a sparse distribution of continuous GPS stations that comprise the NSF EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory network. The campaign network originally established by the National Geodetic survey in the mid-1990's, has been reoccupied two or more times over the past five years with support from the Arizona Geological Survey. The data from the continuous GPS stations are analyzed independently with the GIPSY and GAMIT software. The new horizontal velocity data set provides an improved image of deformation in the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Northern and Southern Basin and Ranges Provinces. Preliminary modeling of the crustal kinematics reveals that only a very limited part of the region can be modeled as a rigid-body rotation. Most of the area is part of a broad zone of diffuse east-west directed extension from the Rio Grande Rift in the East to the Mojave Desert in the west. Only near the transition from the northern Colorado Plateau to the northern Basin and Range Province is the extension more localized. Besides a discussion of the regional kinematics, we will also discuss the affect the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake had on the geodetic data in the southern Basin and Range.

  14. Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted ~2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC ~14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.

  15. Plateau 'pop-up' in the great 1897 Assam earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R; England, P

    2001-04-12

    The great Assam earthquake of 12 June 1897 reduced to rubble all masonry buildings within a region of northeastern India roughly the size of England, and was felt over an area exceeding that of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Hitherto it was believed that rupture occurred on a north-dipping Himalayan thrust fault propagating south of Bhutan. But here we show that the northern edge of the Shillong plateau rose violently by at least 11 m during the Assam earthquake, and that this was due to the rupture of a buried reverse fault approximately 110 km in length and dipping steeply away from the Himalaya. The stress drop implied by the rupture geometry and the prodigious fault slip of 18 +/- 7 m explains epicentral accelerations observed to exceed 1g vertically and surface velocities exceeding 3 m s-1 (ref. 1). This quantitative observation of active deformation of a 'pop-up' structure confirms that faults bounding such structures can penetrate the whole crust. Plateau uplift in the past 2-5 million years has caused the Indian plate to contract locally by 4 +/- 2 mm yr-1, reducing seismic risk in Bhutan but increasing the risk in northern Bangladesh.

  16. Hydrodynamical models of Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Bersten, Melina C; Hamuy, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We present bolometric light curves of Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) obtained using a newly developed, one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code with flux-limited radiation diffusion. Using our code we calculate the bolometric light curve and photospheric velocities of SN1999em obtaining a remarkably good agreement with observations despite the simplifications used in our calculation. The physical parameters used in our calculation are E=1.25 foe, M= 19 M_\\odot, R= 800 R_\\odot and M_{Ni}=0.056 M_\\odot. We find that an extensive mixing of 56Ni is needed in order to reproduce a plateau as flat as that shown by the observations. We also study the possibility to fit the observations with lower values of the initial mass consistently with upper limits that have been inferred from pre-supernova imaging of SN1999em in connection with stellar evolution models. We cannot find a set of physical parameters that reproduce well the observations for models with pre-supernova mass of \\leq 12 M_\\odot, although mode...

  17. Radiographic predictors of compartment syndrome in tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziran, Bruce H; Becher, Stephen John

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the relationship of radiographic features of tibial plateau fractures to the development of compartment syndrome. We hypothesized that the direction and degree of initial displacement of the femur on the tibia, and the amount of tibial widening (TW), were correlated with the development of compartment syndrome. Retrospective case-control study. Single level 1 trauma center. Retrospective evaluation of 158 patients with 162 plateau fractures. Grouping with and without compartment syndrome. The following data were obtained: age, sex, Schatzker and OTA/AO classification, open/closed status, TW, and femoral displacement (FD). A univariate statistical and a logistical regression analysis were performed to determine significance. The overall rate of compartment syndrome was 11%. Univariate analysis found both the TW and FD to be significant with respect to development of compartment syndrome (P compartment syndrome. Logistic regression found FD and Schatzker grade to be significant. Our study is the first to identify easily obtained radiographic parameters that correlate to the occurrence compartment syndrome. There may also be a relationship between TW and FD, as noted by regression result. This study helps to assess which patients with a fracture are at higher risk for developing a compartment syndrome. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Satellite Observed Environmental Changes over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Tseng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We use satellite observed and model atmospheric variables, including land surface temperature, snowfall, snow extent, precipitation, and water vapor contents to study the feasibility of quantifying anthropogenic climate change over high elevation areas such as the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Five types of satellite data and outputs from Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCMs are used to study these climate change indicators: (1 AIRS/AMSU/HSB atmospheric sounding system onboard the Aqua platform, 2003 ~ 2009, (2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS onboard Terra, 2001 ~ 2009, (3 The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM precipitation measurements, 1999 ~ 2009, (4 the ERA-interim (ECMWF Interim Reanalysis, 1989 ~ 2009, and (5 the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project (JRA-25 AGCM data, 1979 ~ 2009. We find that biases exist between temperature observations and model data 0.29 ~ _ AIRS and JRA-25, respectively. The trends for each of the atmospheric variables at best have a qualitative agreement, presumably because the data spans of satellite observations are too short (7 ~ 10 years. The temperature trends for 4000 ~ 5000 m over the Plateau are estimated to be 0.01 ~ _ yr-1, qualitatively agreeing with the published rate of _ decade-1 over the last three decades using in situ data.

  19. Old-field plant succession on the Pajarito Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tierney, G. [Tierney (Gail), Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation.

  20. Stick-slip advance of the Kohat Plateau in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyabala, S. P.; Yang, Zhaohui; Bilham, Roger

    2012-02-01

    Throughout most of the Himalaya, slip of the Indian Plate is restrained by friction on the interface between the plate and the overlying wedge of Himalayan rocks. Every few hundred years, this interface--or décollement--ruptures in one or more Mw >=8 earthquakes. In contrast, in the westernmost Himalaya, the Indian Plate slips aseismically beneath wide plateaux fronting the Kohistan Mountains. The plateaux are underlain by viscous décollements that are unable to sustain large earthquakes. Potwar, the widest of these plateaux is underlain by viscous salt, which currently permits it to slide at rates of about 3mmyr-1 (refs , ), much slower than its 2 Myr average. This deceleration has been attributed to recently increased friction through the loss of salt from its décollement. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar and seismic data to assess movement of the Kohat Plateau--the narrowest and thickest plateau. We find that in 1992 an 80 km2 patch of the décollement ruptured in a rare Mw 6.0 earthquake, suggesting that parts of the décollement are locally grounded. We conclude that this hybrid seismic and aseismic behaviour represents an evolution of the mode of slip of the plateaux from steady creep towards increasingly widespread seismic rupture.

  1. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  2. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  3. Aeolian dust supply from the Yellow River floodplain as recorded in the loess-palaeosol sequences from the Mangshan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuan; Prins, Maarten A.; Beets, Christiaan J.; Kaakinen, Anu; Lahaye, Yann; Troelstra, Simon; Dijkstra, Noortje; Wang, Bin; van Elsas, Roel; Zheng, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    In central China, the Mangshan loess plateau is located along the southern bank of the lower reach of the Yellow River, well outside the main body of Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). It contains thick and exceptionally fast accumulated loess-paleosol sequences that provide high-resolution records of Quaternary environmental and climate change. The grain-size distributions, accumulation rates and magnetic susceptibility in the upper part (above the paleosol layer S2) of the Mangshan loess sequence shifted remarkably from its lower part, which likely indicate a change of source for Mangshan dust above S2. Unlike the loess deposits in the CLP, which have been derived from the broad area of northern China, the proximal Yellow River floodplain is considered to have served as a main source for the upper part of Mangshan loess sequence. However, so far, no final diagnostic evidence has been shown on the provenance variation of the Mangshan dust. In this study, we present multiple proxy data and zircon U-Pb ages on the Mangshan loess-paleosol sequences to investigate the dust supply for Mangshan loess. Our results show that the paleosol and loess units in the lower part of the profile (S3-S5, L3-L6) are relative thin and fine-grained and whereas the paleosol (S0-S2) and loess layers (L1 and L2) in the upper part of the sequence are significantly thicker and coarser-grained. The zircon U-Pb age distributions of Mangshan sequence show two predominant age populations: 200-350 Ma and 350-550 Ma. In the lower part of the sequence, the 350-550 Ma age population is more prominent. This is comparable with the zircon age pattern of the sediments in the lower reach of Yellow River, indicating that Yellow River sediments form a major supply for the Mangshan loess deposits at least since 650 ka BP. However, a significant increase of the 200-350 Ma age population is found in the upper part of the Mangshan sequence, likely suggesting an increased contribution of the debris from the regional

  4. Characteristics of the Surface Turbulent Flux and the Components of Radiation Balance over the Grasslands in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Xiao, Z.; Wei, J.

    2016-12-01

    Characteristics of the Surface Turbulent Flux and the Components of Radiation Balance over the Grasslands in the Southeastern Tibetan PlateauHongyi Li 1, Ziniu Xiao 2 and Junhong Wei31 China Meteorological Administration Training Centre, Beijing, China2 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China 3Theory of Atmospheric Dynamics and Climate, Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Campus Riedberg, GermanyAbstract:Based on the field observation data over the grasslands in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and the observational datasets in Nyingchi weather station for the period from May 20 to July 9, 2013, the variation characteristics of the basic meteorological elements in Nyingchi weather station, the surface turbulent fluxes and the components of radiation balance over the grasslands, as well as their relationships, are analyzed in this paper. The results show that in Nyingchi weather station, the daily variations of relative humidity and average total cloud cover are consistent with that of precipitation, but that those of daily average air temperature, daily average ground temperature, daily average wind speed and daily sunshine duration have an opposite change to that of precipitation. During the observation period, latent heat exchange is greater than sensible heat exchange, and latent heat flux is significantly higher when there is rainfall, but sensible heat flux and soil heat flux are lower. The daily variation of the total solar radiation (DR) is synchronous with that of sensible heat flux, and the daily variations of reflective solar radiation (UR), long wave radiation by earth (ULR), net radiation (Rn) and surface albedo are consistent with DR, but that of the long wave radiation by atmosphere (DLR) has an opposite change. The diurnal variations of sensible heat flux, latent

  5. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and provenance of the Carboniferous-Permian glaciomarine pebbly slates in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Zhu, D.; Zhao, Z.; Chung, S.; Li, C.; Sui, Q.; Fu, X.; Mo, X.

    2011-12-01

    from different terranes of the Tibetan Plateau. Such difference may have been associated primarily with the different paleogeographical positions of the Lhasa Terrane that was adjacent to northern Australia and of the Qiangtang and Tethyan Himalaya terranes that were situated in the northern margin of the Indian continent, respectively. [Financially supported by the National Key Project for Basic Research of China (2011CB403102), the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (41073013 and 40830317), and the Programme of the China Geological Survey (1212011121260 and 1212011121066)]. Zhu, D.C., et al., 2011a. Geology 39, 727-730. Zhu, D.C., et al., 2011b. Acta Petrologica Sinica 27, 1917-1930.

  6. [Effect of conservation tillage on weeds in a rotation system on the Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-xin; Lu, Jiao-yun; Yang, Hui-min

    2015-04-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the influences of no-tillage, stubble retention and crop type on weed density, species composition and community feature in a rotation system (winter wheat-common vetch-maize) established 12 years ago on the Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu. This study showed that the weed species composition, density and community feature varied with the change of crop phases. No-tillage practice increased the weed density at maize phase, while rotation with common vetch decreased the density in the no-tillage field. Stubble retention reduced the weed density under maize phase and the lowest density was observed in the no-tillage plus stubble retention field. No-tillage practice significantly increased the weed species diversity under winter wheat phase and decreased the diversity under common vetch phase. At maize phase, a greater species diversity index was observed in the no-tillage field. These results suggested that no-tillage practice and stubble retention possibly suppress specific weeds with the presence of some crops and crop rotation is a vital way to controlling weeds in a farming system.

  7. Determining geometric links between glaciers and lakes on the Tibetan plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan Hien, V.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan plateau and surrounding mountain ranges contain the largest amount of ice outside the polar region. The Tibetan plateau also contains more than one thousand lakes and is the origin of a large part of the water resources of South and East Asia, the most densely populated regions on earth.

  8. Pollen-based reconstructions of Holocene vegetation and climatic change of Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐领余; 李春海; 于革; 沈才明

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of Holocene pollen records from the Tibetan Plateau shows the history of vegetation and climatic changes during the Holocene. Palynological evidences from 24 cores/sections have been compiled and show that the vegetation shifted from subalpine/alpine conifer forest to subalpine/alpine evergreen sclerophyllous forest in the southeastern part of the plateau; from alpine steppe to alpine desert in the central, western and northern part; and from alpine meadow to alpine steppe in the eastern and southern plateau regions during the Holocene. These records show that increases in precipitation began about 9 ka from the southeast, and a wide ranging level of increased humidity developed over the entire of the plateau around 8-7 ka, followed by aridity from 6 ka and a continuous drying over the plateau after 4-3 ka. The changes in Holocene climates of the plateau can be interpreted qualitatively as a response to orbital forcing and its secondary effects on the Indian Monsoon which expanded northwards during the early Holocene and retreated from the plateau since the midHolocene. Also, there is teleconnection between the Tibetan Plateau and North Atlantic.

  9. Rising process of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟大赉; 丁林

    1996-01-01

    The rising of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau has character of multistage (45-38 Ma, 25-17 Ma, 13-8 Ma, 3 Ma-present), inhomogeneity and hetero-speed. The whole uprising of the plateau and local rapid rising in its periphery since Late Pliocene is a synthetical result of at least two or more mechanisms.

  10. Environmental significance of mineral weathering and pedogenesis of loess on the southernmost Loess Plateau, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, C.; Zhao, W.; Liu, F.; Tan, W.F.; Koopal, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Soils derived from the Loess Plateau of China are regionally important and expression of the soil properties along the soil profile may be directly related to climate changes. The objective of this research was to analyze the clay mineral transformation of loess from the southernmost Loess Plateau,

  11. Imprint of a dissolved cobalt basaltic source on the Kerguelen Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bown, J.; Boye, M.; Laan, P.; Bowie, A.R.; Park, Y.H.; Jeandel, C.; Nelson, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Processes of cobalt (Co) entrainment from shelf sediments over the Kerguelen Plateau were studied during the KEOPS (Kerguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study) in order to explain the exceptionally high dissolved cobalt concentrations that have been measured in the surface waters above the Kerguelen Pla

  12. Plateau of α-function and c-minimal homoclinic orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; CUI Xiaojun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the construction of the plateau of the α-function in a hyperbolic and positive definite Lagrangian system, and link the boundries of the α-function's plateau with the distribution of c-minimal homoclinic orbits to Aubry sets.

  13. Arthroscopically assisted osteosynthesis of tibial plateau fractures in patients older than 55 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, WH; Oskam, J; Vierhout, PAM

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the end results of arthroscopically assisted osteosynthesis of tibial plateau fractures in patients older than 55 years of age. Type of Study: Case series. Methods: Over a 5-year period, 201 consecutive patients presented with tibial plateau fracture; 131 of these patients were

  14. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A.W. Andersen, Steven; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2016-01-01

    To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved.......To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved....

  15. Facilitation of plateau potentials in turtle motoneurones by a pathway dependent on calcium and calmodulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Mejia-Gervacio, S; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    or trifluoperazine reduced the amplitude of depolarization-induced plateau potentials. Inactivation of calmodulin also inhibited facilitation of plateau potentials by activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors or muscarinic receptors. 3. In low-sodium medium and in the presence of tetraethylammonium...

  16. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  17. The role of the Hikurangi Plateau in the dynamics of the Hikurangi Subduction Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Ailleres, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The collision of the Hikurangi Plateau with the Hikurangi Subduction Zone coincides with a change from extension to shortening in the overriding Australian Plate. The 15km thick oceanic Hikurangi Plateau is juxtaposed with Chatham Rise at the southern edge of the subduction margin, possibly extending an unknown distance beneath the Chatham Rise. We explore the influence of the Hikurangi Plateau and its size on subduction dynamics using a series of 3D visco-elastic Underworld models with free slip boundary conditions. The models rely on negative slab buoyancy to drive subduction, with the buoyant oceanic plateau altering the dynamics. The models are benchmarked against New Zealand GPS velocities, paleomagnetic rotations, and fault zones. Both the overriding and subducting plates have undergone significant rotation since 23Ma with ~90° clockwise rotation of the overriding plate relative to the subducting plate. Distinctive fault zones have also been created with the Marlborough Fault Zone facilitating escape tectonics around the Chatham Rise; the North Island Dextral Fault Belt allowing lateral movement between the fore and back-arcs; extension in Taupo Volcanic Zone assisting back-arc extension; and active N-S extension in the Chatham Rise adjacent to the Hikurangi Plateau. In a model without an oceanic plateau, the subduction zone undergoes roll-back along its entire margin. Extension occurs along the overriding plate adjacent to subduction, with shortening limited to the collision of the Chatham Rise. Rotation rates adjacent to the Chatham Rise are extremely high, and decrease rapidly northward and there is no rotation of the subducting plate. When an oceanic plateau is included in the model, shortening occurs at the southern margin of the subduction zone as subduction shallows with the entry of the bouyant plateau. Rotation starts in the subducting plate as the plateau enters the subduction zone. This rotation is attributed to a decrease in slab pull southward

  18. Two distinct intraseasonal modes of summer rainfall variation over the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; He, H.; Bao, Q.; Wang, B.; Mao, R.; Gong, D.

    2014-12-01

    During summer, the weather disturbances over the eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) can initiate development of severe weather system downstream, causing flooding in East Asia. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on the intraseasonal variability of summer rainfall in terms of periodicity, genesis process and propagation pathway, due to data paucity over the EPT. In this study, we detected two dominant peaks, centered on 10 (8-12) days and 19 (14-24) days using daily rainfall data over the ETP during the period of 1992-2007. Composite analysis revealed that the two modes with different periodicity were predominantly produced by the non-stationary wave trains in the upper troposphere, which traveled along different pathways. For the 19-day mode, the wave train featured a southeastward migration, originating in the Barents Sea and traveling via the East European Plain, the Ural Mountains, Lake Balkhash and Lake Baikal, the Mongolian Plateau, and then continued southward to the ETP and South Asia. In contrast, the 10-day wave train propagated eastward along the westerly jet, extending from the eastern North Atlantic via the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas towards the ETP, East Asia and Southeast China. These two transient wave trains took place on different large-scale background circulations: a meridional pattern with a "Giant Ural Mountain Ridge" for the 19-day mode and a zonal pattern with "Western Siberian Trough" for the 10-day mode. In terms of simultaneous downstream linkage, the ETP rainfall anomaly was in-phase with the rainfall anomaly over the Yangtze River Basin for the 19-day mode but out-of-phase with the 10-day mode. The major processes generating the local wet spells for the two modes were found to be commonly linked to topographic lift and mid-tropospheric latent heat release, but the moisture sources are somewhat different. The evolution of the intraseasonal variability over the ETP described here may provide a useful guidance for 2-3 week

  19. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...

  20. Sandy Desertification Status and its Driving Mechanism in North Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yuxiang

    2004-01-01

    As the main body of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, North Tibet Plateau is one of three major sandy desertification regions in China and also a representative sandy desertification zone of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Accordingly, it is an important region for the study of recent sandy desertification processes and formation mechanism. From such aspects as desertified land types, areas and distributions etc., this paper analyses in detail the sandy desertification status on North Tibet Plateau,and qualitatively and quantitatively deals with the main factors that affect recent sandy desertification processes and the driving mechanism. Research results show that North Tibet Plateau is an important sandy desertification region in China characterized with large desertified land areas, diversified types,high severity, extensive distributions and serious damages. Sandy desertification occurrence and development resulted from combined effects of natural factors, anthropogenic factors, natural processes and man-made processes, of which climatic change is the main driving force.

  1. Phase Transformation Dynamics in Porous Battery Electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Porous electrodes composed of multiphase active materials are widely used in Li-ion batteries, but their dynamics are poorly understood. Two-phase models are largely empirical, and no models exist for three or more phases. Using a modified porous electrode theory based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we show that experimental phase behavior can be accurately predicted from free energy models, without artificially placing phase boundaries or fitting the open circuit voltage. First, we simulate lithium intercalation in porous iron phosphate, a popular two-phase cathode, and show that the zero-current voltage gap, sloping voltage plateau and under-estimated exchange currents all result from size-dependent nucleation and mosaic instability. Next, we simulate porous graphite, the standard anode with three stable phases, and reproduce experimentally observed fronts of color-changing phase transformations. These results provide a framework for physics-based design and control for electrochemical systems with comp...

  2. High prevalence of false-positive plateau phenomena during VO2max testing in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Fernando G; Wong, Del P; Noakes, Timothy D

    2014-09-01

    It is believed that a plateau in oxygen consumption (VO2) at the end of an incremental exercise test identifies the upper limits of cardiovascular capacity. We investigated how different criteria influence the frequency with which the "plateau phenomenon" is detected and the prevalence at which "false" plateau phenomena occurs during sub-maximal exercise. Cross-sectional. Six different criteria with 3 different sampling intervals each were used to identify the "plateau phenomenon" from a single data set comprising 63 incremental exercise tests along with secondary criteria based on target heart rate (HR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). A single criterion from the original 18 (HALF) was also used to detect the incidence of any plateau phenomena during each test. The plateau phenomenon was detected in 16-82% of the tests depending on the criteria used, mostly as a result of the different sampling intervals. HALF identified 103 "plateau phenomena" but 73 (70.9%) of these occurred during sub-maximal exercise and so were "false". "False" plateaus were