WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate-like snow dendrites

  1. Synthesis and ultrastructure of plate-like apatite single crystals as a model for tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Zhi; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Aizawa, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an inorganic constituent compound of human bones and teeth, with superior biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Its crystal structure is hexagonal, characterized by a(b)- and c-planes. In vertebrate long bones, HAp crystals have a c-axis orientation, while in tooth enamel, they have an a(b)-axis orientation. Many methods can be used to synthesize c-axis oriented HAp single crystals; however, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a synthesis method for a(b)-axis oriented HAp single crystals. In this study, we successfully synthesized plate-like HAp crystals at the air–liquid interface of a starting solution via an enzyme reaction of urea with urease. Crystal phase analysis and ultrastructure observations were carried out, and the results indicated that the particles were single crystals, with almost the same a(b)-axis orientation as tooth enamel. It is hoped that by utilizing their unique surface charge and atomic arrangement, the resulting particles can be used as a high-performance biomaterial, capable of adsorbing bio-related substances and a model for tooth enamel. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals at air–liquid interface ► Ultrastructural analysis of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals ► Plate-like hydroxyapatite single crystals with a high a(b)-axis orientation ► Plate-like hydroxyapatite single crystals as a model for tooth enamel

  2. Synthesis and ultrastructure of plate-like apatite single crystals as a model for tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Zhi, E-mail: zhuang@meiji.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Yoshimura, Hideyuki, E-mail: hyoshi@isc.meiji.ac.jp [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Aizawa, Mamoru, E-mail: mamorua@isc.meiji.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an inorganic constituent compound of human bones and teeth, with superior biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Its crystal structure is hexagonal, characterized by a(b)- and c-planes. In vertebrate long bones, HAp crystals have a c-axis orientation, while in tooth enamel, they have an a(b)-axis orientation. Many methods can be used to synthesize c-axis oriented HAp single crystals; however, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a synthesis method for a(b)-axis oriented HAp single crystals. In this study, we successfully synthesized plate-like HAp crystals at the air–liquid interface of a starting solution via an enzyme reaction of urea with urease. Crystal phase analysis and ultrastructure observations were carried out, and the results indicated that the particles were single crystals, with almost the same a(b)-axis orientation as tooth enamel. It is hoped that by utilizing their unique surface charge and atomic arrangement, the resulting particles can be used as a high-performance biomaterial, capable of adsorbing bio-related substances and a model for tooth enamel. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals at air–liquid interface ► Ultrastructural analysis of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals ► Plate-like hydroxyapatite single crystals with a high a(b)-axis orientation ► Plate-like hydroxyapatite single crystals as a model for tooth enamel.

  3. Snow Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2018-01-01

    attribute of high altitude mountain destinations. Hitherto, researchers mostly engaged with snowclad landscapes as a backstage; trying to deconstruct the complex symbolism and representational qualities of this elusive substance. Despite snow being a strategically crucial condition for tourism in the Alps......This chapter explores the performative potential of snow for Alpine tourism, by drawing attention to its material and nonrepresentational significance for tourism practices. European imagination has been preoccupied with snow since medieval times and even today, snow features as the sine que non...

  4. Remote defect imaging for plate-like structures based on the scanning laser source technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Maeda, Atsuya; Nakao, Shogo

    2018-04-01

    In defect imaging with a scanning laser source technique, the use of a fixed receiver realizes stable measurements of flexural waves generated by laser at multiple rastering points. This study discussed the defect imaging by remote measurements using a laser Doppler vibrometer as a receiver. Narrow-band burst waves were generated by modulating laser pulse trains of a fiber laser to enhance signal to noise ratio in frequency domain. Averaging three images obtained at three different frequencies suppressed spurious distributions due to resonance. The experimental system equipped with these newly-devised means enabled us to visualize defects and adhesive objects in plate-like structures such as a plate with complex geometries and a branch pipe.

  5. A probabilistic framework for acoustic emission source localization in plate-like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan Niri, E; Salamone, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a probabilistic approach for acoustic emission (AE) source localization in isotropic plate-like structures based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The proposed approach consists of two main stages. During the first stage, time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of Lamb waves are carried out by a continuous wavelet transform (CWT), accounting for systematic errors due to the Heisenberg uncertainty; the second stage uses an EKF to iteratively estimate the AE source location and the wave velocity. The advantages of the proposed algorithm over the traditional methods include the capability of: (1) taking into account uncertainties in TOF measurements and wave velocity and (2) efficiently fusing multi-sensor data to perform AE source localization. The performance of the proposed approach is validated through pencil-lead breaks performed on an aluminum plate at systematic grid locations. The plate was instrumented with an array of four piezoelectric transducers in two different configurations. (paper)

  6. Snow Leopard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adult females (dimorphic); a male on average weighing between. 45–55 kg, while a .... performance of wild prey, eventually leading to a decline in their population. Research .... working towards enhancing knowledge on snow leopard ecology.

  7. Synthesis of Plate-Like Nanoalumina and Its Effect on Gas Permeability of Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadamali Karimi Khozani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable efforts have been made to develop gas impermeable polymer systems. Compared with metal system counterparts they have advantages such as low density and production costs. The most important challenge in development of impermeable polymer systems is to reduce their gas permeability by proper selection of system composition and process conditions. In this work, nanoparticles were initially synthesized using Al (NO33•9H2O and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a structure-directing agent via hydrothermal method and a plate-like structure was characterized by FESEM and EDAX analyses. In the second step, epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites and epoxy-carbon fiber composites containing 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% nanoalumina were prepared. The effect of nanoparticle loading level on permeability of nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide in epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites was investigated. It was observed that the permeability of epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites toward nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide gases reduced 83%, 74%, and 50%, respectively. It was deduced that the permeability reduction was clearly associated with the diameter of gas molecules. Generally speaking, the results showed that the incorporation of plate-like nanoalumina particles significantly reduced the gas permeability. Also, carbon dioxide gas permeability of carbon fiber epoxy composites containing plate-like nanoalumina was investigated to show the effect of ingredients on the gas permeability of the system. The results indicated that carbon dioxide gas permeability of epoxy carbon fiber composite containing 5 wt% of plate-like nanoalumina was totally reduced 84%.

  8. Plate Like Convection with Viscous Strain Weakening and Corresponding Surface Deformation Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, L.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    How plate tectonic surface motions are generated by mantle convection on Earth and possibly other terrestrial type planets has recently become more readily accessible with fully dynamic convection computations. However, it remains debated how plate-like the behavior in such models truly is, and in particular how the well plate boundary dynamics are captured in models which typically exclude the effects of deformation history and memory. Here, we analyze some of the effects of viscous strain weakening on plate behavior and the interactions between interior convection dynamics and surface deformation patterns. We use the finite element code CitcomCU to model convection in a 3D Cartesian model setup. The models are internally heated, with an Arrhenius-type temperature dependent viscosity including plastic yielding and viscous strain weakening (VSW) and healing (VSWH). VSW can mimic first order features of more complex damage mechanisms such as grain-size dependent rheology. Besides plate diagnostic parameters (Plateness, Mobility, and Toroidal: Poloidal ratio) to analyze the tectonic behavior our models, we also explore how "plate boundaries" link to convective patterns. In a first model series, we analyze general surface deformation patterns without VSW. In the early stages, deformation patterns are clearly co-located with up- and downwelling limbs of convection. Along downwellings strain-rates are high and localized, whereas upwellings tend to lead to broad zones of high deformation. At a more advanced stage, however, the plates' interior is highly deformed due to continuous strain accumulation and resurfaced inherited strain. Including only VSW leads to more localized deformation along downwellings. However, at a more advanced stage plate-like convection fails due an overall weakening of the material. This is prevented including strain healing. Deformation pattern at the surface more closely coincide with the internal convection patterns. The average surface

  9. Recent advances in seismic non-destructive testing of concrete plate like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, N.; Kristensen, A.; Jovall, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes recent advances in seismic/acoustic non-destructive testing of concrete containment walls. The presented technique is focused on the characterization of the mean stiffness (seismic velocities) and thickness of the containment wall. The Impact Echo (IE) method is a well-established technique to measure the thickness of concrete plates or to locate defects in concrete plate like structures. The method relies on a good estimate of the mean velocity through the thickness of the plate and a precisely measured thickness resonant frequency. Recently the underlying theory of the IE method has been redefined and improved based on Lamb waves in a free plate. Based on this theory we have developed a new data processing technique where both propagating and standing Lamb waves are analysed in a combined manner using multichannel data. With this approach the mean velocity through the plate thickness is evaluated by using the fundamental mode Lamb wave dispersion curves. The accuracy and detection ability of the measured resonant frequency is improved by utilizing both amplitude and phase information from the multichannel record. The method has been tested on several nuclear power plants in Sweden and Finland and proved to be more robust compared to conventional IE and surface wave measurements

  10. Snow clearance

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2005-01-01

    In reply to the numerous questions received, we should like to inform you of the actions and measures taken in an effort to maintain the movements of vehicles and pedestrians since the heavy snow fall on Sunday 23 January. Our contractor's employees began clearing the snow during the morning of Sunday 23 January on the main CERN sites (Meyrin, Prévessin), but an accident prevented them from continuing. The vehicle in question was repaired by Monday morning when two other vehicles joined it to resume snow clearing; priority was given to access points to the main sites and the LHC sites, as well as to the main roads inside the sites. The salt sprinklers were also brought into action that same day; the very low temperature during the night from Monday to Tuesday prevented the snow from melting and compacted the ice; the continuing cold during the day on Tuesday (-6°C at 10:00 on the Meyrin site) meant that all efforts to remove the ice were doomed to failure. In order to ensure more efficie...

  11. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Patra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  12. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Subir; Ahmed, Hossain; Banerjee, Sourav

    2018-01-18

    Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D) in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  13. Active damage localization for plate-like structures using wireless sensors and a distributed algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Yuan, F G

    2008-01-01

    Wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems have emerged as a promising technology for robust and cost-effective structural monitoring. However, the applications of wireless sensors on active diagnosis for structural health monitoring (SHM) have not been extensively investigated. Due to limited energy sources, battery-powered wireless sensors can only perform limited functions and are expected to operate at a low duty cycle. Conventional designs are not suitable for sensing high frequency signals, e.g. in the ultrasonic frequency range. More importantly, algorithms to detect structural damage with a vast amount of data usually require considerable processing and communication time and result in unaffordable power consumption for wireless sensors. In this study, an energy-efficient wireless sensor for supporting high frequency signals and a distributed damage localization algorithm for plate-like structures are proposed, discussed and validated to supplement recent advances made for active sensing-based SHM. First, the power consumption of a wireless sensor is discussed and identified. Then the design of a wireless sensor for active diagnosis using piezoelectric sensors is introduced. The newly developed wireless sensor utilizes an optimized combination of field programmable gate array (FPGA) and conventional microcontroller to address the tradeoff between power consumption and speed requirement. The proposed damage localization algorithm, based on an energy decay model, enables wireless sensors to be practically used in active diagnosis. The power consumption for data communication can be minimized while the power budget for data processing can still be affordable for a battery-powered wireless sensor. The Levenberg–Marquardt method is employed in a mains-powered sensor node or PC to locate damage. Experimental results and discussion on the improvement of power efficiency are given

  14. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of plate-like and flat panel composite structures used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers acoustic emission (AE) examination or monitoring of panel and plate-like composite structures made entirely of fiber/polymer composites. 1.2 The AE examination detects emission sources and locates the region(s) within the composite structure where the emission originated. When properly developed AE-based criteria for the composite item are in place, the AE data can be used for nondestructive examination (NDE), characterization of proof testing, documentation of quality control or for decisions relative to structural-test termination prior to completion of a planned test. Other NDE methods may be used to provide additional information about located damage regions. For additional information see Appendix X1. 1.3 This practice can be applied to aerospace composite panels and plate-like elements as a part of incoming inspection, during manufacturing, after assembly, continuously (during structural health monitoring) and at periodic intervals during the life of a structure. 1.4 This pra...

  15. Characteristics of Heavy Snowfall and Snow Crystal Habits in the ESSAY (Experiment on Snow Storms At Yeongdong) Campaign in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Yeongdong region in Korea has frequent heavy snowfall in winter, which usually results in societal and economic damages such as collapses of the greenhouse and the temporary building due to heavy snowfall weights and traffic accidents due to snow-slippery road condition. Therefore we have conducted an intensive measurement campaign of `Experiment on Snow Storms At Yeongdong (ESSAY)' using radiosonde soundings, several remote sensors and a digital camera with a magnifier for taking a photograph of snowfall crystals in the region. The analysis period is mainly limited to every winter from 2014 to 2016The typical synoptic situation for the heavy snowfall is Low pressure system passing by the far South of the Korean peninsula along with the Siberian High extending to northern Japan, leading to the northeasterly or easterly flows frequently accompanied by the long-lasting snowfall in the Yeongdong region. The snow crystal habits observed in the ESSAY campaign are mainly dendrite, consisting of about 70% of the entire habits, indicative of relatively warmer East Sea effect. Meanwhile, the rimed habits are frequently captured specifically when two-layered clouds are observed. The homogeneous habit such as dendrite is shown in case of shallow clouds with its thickness below 500 m, whereas various habits are captured such as graupel, dendrites, rimed dendrites, etc in the thicker cloud with its thickness greater than 1.5 km. The association of snow crystal habits with temperature and supersaturation in the cloud will be more discussed.

  16. ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information derived...

  17. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  18. Snow snake performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    A recent study, Three-Dimensional Roughness Elements for Snow Retention (FHWA-WY-06/04F) (Tabler 2006), demonstrated : positive evidence for the effectiveness of Snow Snakes, a new type of snow fence suitable for use within the highway right-of...

  19. Modelling of snow exceedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Sadovský, Zoltán; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-07-01

    Modelling of snow exceedances is of great importance and interest for ecology, civil engineering and general public. We suggest the favorable fit for exceedances related to the exceptional snow loads from Slovakia, assuming that the data is driven by Generalised Pareto Distribution or Generalized Extreme Value Distribution. Further, the statistical dependence between the maximal snow loads and the corresponding altitudes is studied.

  20. Multi-site damage localization in anisotropic plate-like structures using an active guided wave structural health monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, J; Schulte, R T; Fritzen, C-P; Hartmann, B; Nelles, O

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for structural health monitoring using guided waves in plate-like structures has been developed. In contrast to previous approaches, which mainly focused on isotropic or quasi-isotropic plates, the proposed algorithm does not assume any simplifications regarding anisotropic wave propagation. Thus, it can be used to improve the probability of detection. In this paper the mathematical background for damage localization in anisotropic plates will be introduced. This is an extension of the widely known ellipse method. The formalism is based on a distributed sensor network, where each piezoelectric sensor acts in turn as an actuator. The automatic extraction of the onset time of the first waveform in the differential signal in combination with a statistical post-processing via a two-dimensional probability density function and the application of the expectation-maximization algorithm allows a completely automatic localization procedure. Thus, multiple damages can be identified at the same time. The present study uses ultrasonic signals provided by the spectral element method. This simulation approach shows good agreement with experimental measurements. A local linear neural network is used to model the nonlinear dispersion curves. The benefit of using a neural network approach is to increase the angular resolution that results from the sparse sensor network. Furthermore, it can be used to shorten the computational time for the damage localization procedure

  1. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K. L.; Takahara, A. [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J., E-mail: hjsue@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Miyamoto, M. [Kaneka US Materials Research Center, Kaneka America Holdings, Inc., College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.

  2. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  3. A Distributed Snow Evolution Modeling System (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, G. E.; Elder, K.

    2004-12-01

    A spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) has been specifically designed to be applicable over a wide range of snow landscapes, climates, and conditions. To reach this goal, SnowModel is composed of four sub-models: MicroMet defines the meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowMass simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D accounts for snow redistribution by wind. While other distributed snow models exist, SnowModel is unique in that it includes a well-tested blowing-snow sub-model (SnowTran-3D) for application in windy arctic, alpine, and prairie environments where snowdrifts are common. These environments comprise 68% of the seasonally snow-covered Northern Hemisphere land surface. SnowModel also accounts for snow processes occurring in forested environments (e.g., canopy interception related processes). SnowModel is designed to simulate snow-related physical processes occurring at spatial scales of 5-m and greater, and temporal scales of 1-hour and greater. These include: accumulation from precipitation; wind redistribution and sublimation; loading, unloading, and sublimation within forest canopies; snow-density evolution; and snowpack ripening and melt. To enhance its wide applicability, SnowModel includes the physical calculations required to simulate snow evolution within each of the global snow classes defined by Sturm et al. (1995), e.g., tundra, taiga, alpine, prairie, maritime, and ephemeral snow covers. The three, 25-km by 25-km, Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) mesoscale study areas (MSAs: Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears) are used as SnowModel simulation examples to highlight model strengths, weaknesses, and features in forested, semi-forested, alpine, and shrubland environments.

  4. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  5. Dendritic cell vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Paul J; Lyerly, H Kim; Clay, Timothy M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2007-05-01

    Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to stimulate tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in preclinical studies. Consequently, there has been intense interest in developing dendritic cell based cancer vaccines. A variety of methods for generating dendritic cells, loading them with tumor antigens, and administering them to patients have been described. In recent years, a number of early phase clinical trials have been performed and have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of dendritic cell immunotherapies. A number of these trials have generated valuable preliminary data regarding the clinical and immunologic response to DC-based immunotherapy. The emphasis of dendritic cell immunotherapy research is increasingly shifting toward the development of strategies to increase the potency of dendritic cell vaccine preparations.

  6. Snow model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a new snow model and a database which warehouses geometric, weather and traffic : data on New Jersey highways. The complexity of the model development lies in considering variable road : width, different spreading/plowing pattern...

  7. Anoxia in the snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Laura A.

    2018-04-01

    Substantial amounts of denitrification and other anaerobic metabolisms can occur in anoxic microenvironments within marine snow particles, according to model simulations. This microbial activity may have a global impact on nitrogen cycling.

  8. Sentinels for snow science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Grizonnet, M.; Baba, W. M.; Hagolle, O.; Fayad, A.; Mermoz, S.; Kinnard, C.; Fatima, K.; Jarlan, L.; Hanich, L.

    2017-12-01

    Current spaceborne sensors do not allow retrieving the snow water equivalent in mountain regions, "the most important unsolved problem in snow hydrology" (Dozier, 2016). While the NASA is operating an airborne mission to survey the SWE in the western USA, elsewhere, however, snow scientists and water managers do not have access to routine SWE measurements at the scale of a mountain range. In this presentation we suggest that the advent of the Copernicus Earth Observation programme opens new perspectives to address this issue in mountain regions worldwide. The Sentinel-2 mission will provide global-scale multispectral observations at 20 m resolution every 5-days (cloud permitting). The Sentinel-1 mission is already imaging the global land surface with a C-band radar at 10 m resolution every 6 days. These observations are unprecedented in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. However, the nature of the observation (radiometry, wavelength) is in the continuity of previous and ongoing missions. As a result, it is relatively straightforward to re-use algorithms that were developed by the remote sensing community over the last decades. For instance, Sentinel-2 data can be used to derive maps of the snow cover extent from the normalized difference snow index, which was initially proposed for Landsat. In addition, the 5-days repeat cycle allows the application of gap-filling algorithms, which were developed for MODIS based on the temporal dimension. The Sentinel-1 data can be used to detect the wet snow cover and track melting areas as proposed for ERS in the early 1990's. Eventually, we show an example where Sentinel-2-like data improved the simulation of the SWE in the data-scarce region of the High Atlas in Morocco through assimilation in a distributed snowpack model. We encourage snow scientists to embrace Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data to enhance our knowledge on the snow cover dynamics in mountain regions.

  9. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  10. Snow, ice and solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2009-01-01

    The snow-covered ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland reflect most of the incoming solar radiation. The reflectivity, commonly called the albedo, of snow on these ice sheets has been observed to vary in space and time. In this thesis, temporal and spatial changes in snow albedo is found to depend

  11. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  12. RAB-10 Regulates Dendritic Branching by Balancing Dendritic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caitlin A.; Yan, Jing; Howell, Audrey S.; Dong, Xintong; Shen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a large dendritic arbor requires robust growth and the precise delivery of membrane and protein cargoes to specific subcellular regions of the developing dendrite. How the microtubule-based vesicular trafficking and sorting systems are regulated to distribute these dendritic development factors throughout the dendrite is not well understood. Here we identify the small GTPase RAB-10 and the exocyst complex as critical regulators of dendrite morphogenesis and patterning in the C. elegans sensory neuron PVD. In rab-10 mutants, PVD dendritic branches are reduced in the posterior region of the cell but are excessive in the distal anterior region of the cell. We also demonstrate that the dendritic branch distribution within PVD depends on the balance between the molecular motors kinesin-1/UNC-116 and dynein, and we propose that RAB-10 regulates dendrite morphology by balancing the activity of these motors to appropriately distribute branching factors, including the transmembrane receptor DMA-1. PMID:26633194

  13. Snow particles extracted from X-ray computed microtomography imagery and their single-scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tanikawa, Tomonori; Aoki, Teruo; Masuda, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Sizes and shapes of snow particles were determined from X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) images, and their single-scattering properties were calculated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths using a Geometrical Optics Method (GOM). We analyzed seven snow samples including fresh and aged artificial snow and natural snow obtained from field samples. Individual snow particles were numerically extracted, and the shape of each snow particle was defined by applying a rendering method. The size distribution and specific surface area distribution were estimated from the geometrical properties of the snow particles, and an effective particle radius was derived for each snow sample. The GOM calculations at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.242 μm revealed that the realistic snow particles had similar scattering phase functions as those of previously modeled irregular shaped particles. Furthermore, distinct dendritic particles had a characteristic scattering phase function and asymmetry factor. The single-scattering properties of particles of effective radius reff were compared with the size-averaged single-scattering properties. We found that the particles of reff could be used as representative particles for calculating the average single-scattering properties of the snow. Furthermore, the single-scattering properties of the micro-CT particles were compared to those of particle shape models using our current snow retrieval algorithm. For the single-scattering phase function, the results of the micro-CT particles were consistent with those of a conceptual two-shape model. However, the particle size dependence differed for the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor.

  14. Dendritic cell neoplasms: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairouz, Sebastien; Hashash, Jana; Kabbara, Wadih; McHayleh, Wassim; Tabbara, Imad A

    2007-10-01

    Dendritic cell neoplasms are rare tumors that are being recognized with increasing frequency. They were previously classified as lymphomas, sarcomas, or histiocytic neoplasms. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies dendritic cell neoplasms into five groups: Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, Langerhans' cell sarcoma, Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, and Dendritic cell sarcoma, not specified otherwise (Jaffe, World Health Organization classification of tumors 2001; 273-289). Recently, Pileri et al. provided a comprehensive immunohistochemical classification of histiocytic and dendritic cell tumors (Pileri et al., Histopathology 2002;59:161-167). In this article, a concise overview regarding the pathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of follicular dendritic, interdigitating dendritic, and Langerhans' cell tumors is presented.

  15. Introduction to snow rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmollin, Vincent de

    1978-01-01

    The tests described in the thesis are rotating shearing tests, with rotational constant speed ranging between 0.00075 rpm and 0.75 rpm. The results obtained are similar to those observed with compression tests at constant speed, except that shearing tests are carried out with densities nearly constant. So, we show three different domains when the rotation speed increases: 1) viscous (without failure) 2) brittle of first type (cycles of brittle failures) and 3) brittle of second type (only one brittle failure and solid friction). These results show clearly that the fundamental mechanism that rules the mechanisms of snow, is fast metamorphosis of bonds, binding ice grains: this metamorphosis is important when solicitation speeds are low (permanent rate of shearing in viscous domain, regeneration of the failure surfaces in the brittle domain of the first type) and this metamorphosis does not exist when speed increases (only one failure and solid friction in the brittle domain of second type). It is also included an important bibliographic analysis of the snow mechanics, and an experimental and theoretical study about shock wave propagation in natural snow covers. (author) [fr

  16. Snow accretion on overhead wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y. [Meteorological Research Inst. for Technology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tachizaki, S.; Sudo, N. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Miyagi (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Wet snow accretion can cause extensive damage to transmission systems. This paper reviewed some of the difficulties faced by researchers in the study of wet snow accretion on overhead lines in Japan. The study of snow accretion phenomena is complicated by the range of phase changes in water. Snowflakes produced in an upper atmospheric layer with a temperature below freezing do not melt when they go through a lower atmospheric layer with a temperature above freezing, but are in a mixed state of solid and liquid due to the latent heat of melting. The complicated properties of water make studies of snow accretion difficult, as well as the fact that snow changes its physical properties rapidly, due to the effects of ambient temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation. The adhesive forces that cause snow accretion include freezing; bonding through freezing; sintering; condensation and freezing of vapor in the air; mechanical intertwining of snowflakes; capillary action due to liquids; coherent forces between ice particles and water formed through the metamorphosis of snowflakes. In addition to these complexities, differences in laboratory room environments and natural snow environments can also pose difficulties for researchers. Equations describing the relationship between the density of accreted snow and the meteorological parameters involved were presented, as well as empirical equations which suggested that snow accretion efficiency has a dependency on air temperature. An empirical model for estimating snow loads in Japan was outlined, as well as various experiments observing show shedding. Correlations for wet snow accretion included precipitation intensity; duration of precipitation; air temperature; wind speed and wind direction in relation to the overhead line. Issues concerning topography and wet snow accretion were reviewed. It was concluded that studies of snow accretion will benefit by the collection of data in each matrix of the relevant parameters. 12 refs

  17. Modification of dendritic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; del Angel, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    Since 1890 Ramón y Cajal strongly defended the theory that dendrites and their processes and spines had a function of not just nutrient transport to the cell body, but they had an important conductive role in neural impulse transmission. He extensively discussed and supported this theory in the Volume 1 of his extraordinary book Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados. Also, Don Santiago significantly contributed to a detailed description of the various neural components of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex during development. Extensive investigation has been done in the last Century related to the functional role of these complex brain regions, and their association with learning, memory and some limbic functions. Likewise, the organization and expression of neuropsychological qualities such as memory, exploratory behavior and spatial orientation, among others, depend on the integrity and adequate functional activity of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is known that brain serotonin synthesis and release depend directly and proportionally on the availability of its precursor, tryptophan (TRY). By using a chronic TRY restriction model in rats, we studied their place learning ability in correlation with the dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in field CA1 of the hippocampus during postnatal development. We have also reported alterations in the maturation pattern of the ability for spontaneous alternation and task performance evaluating short-term memory, as well as adverse effects on the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 field pyramidal neurons and on the dendritic arborization and the number of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons from the third layer of the prefrontal cortex using the same model of TRY restriction. The findings obtained in these studies employing a modified Golgi method, can be interpreted as a trans-synaptic plastic response due to understimulation of serotoninergic receptors located in the

  18. Antarctic snow and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granberg, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    Global circulation models (GCM) indicate that global warming will be most pronounced at polar regions and high latitudes, causing concern about the stability of the Antarctic ice cap. A project entitled the Seasonal Snow in Antarctica examined the properties of the near surface snow to determine the current conditions that influence snow cover development. The goal was to assess the response of the snow cover in Queen Maud Land (QML) to an increased atmospheric carbon dioxide content. The Antarctic snow cover in QML was examined as part of the FINNARP expeditions in 1999 and 2000 which examined the processes that influence the snow cover. Its energy and mass balance were also assessed by examining the near surface snow strata in shallow (1-2 m) pits and by taking measurements of environmental variables. This made it possible to determine if the glacier is in danger of melting at this northerly location in the Antarctic. The study also made it possible to determine which variables need to change and by how much, for significant melting to occur. It was shown that the Antarctic anticyclone creates particular conditions that protect the snow cover from melting. The anticyclone brings dry air from the stratosphere during most of the year and is exempt from the water vapour feedback. It was concluded that even a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide will not produce major snow melt runoff. 8 refs

  19. Snow and SMOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    In the midst of Vienna's hottest weather spell this year, members of the Agency's headquarters laboratory staff found themselves unpacking a consignment of fresh snow from the Antarctic. It had been sent by air through Los Angeles, not for cooling purposes, but to assist in making more accurate measurements as part of the study of the world's water distribution and movement. The same research also involves SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water) and samples of water from the mid-Pacific will also soon arrive for scientific examination

  20. Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to mention a few. Plus, someone has to shovel the snow, right? Once outdoors, however, take precautions ... re going to get the family outside to shovel the snow? Fine, but take care. Snow shoveling ...

  1. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the

  2. An Optimal Image-Based Method for Identification of Acoustic Emission (AE) Sources in Plate-Like Structures Using a Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative method for identifying the locations of multiple simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) events in plate-like structures from the view of image processing. By using a linear lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensor array to record the AE wave signals, a reverse-time frequency-wavenumber (f-k) migration is employed to produce images displaying the locations of AE sources by back-propagating the AE waves. Lamb wave theory is included in the f-k migration to consider the dispersive property of the AE waves. Since the exact occurrence time of the AE events is usually unknown when recording the AE wave signals, a heuristic artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm combined with an optimal criterion using minimum Shannon entropy is used to find the image with the identified AE source locations and occurrence time that mostly approximate the actual ones. Experimental studies on an aluminum plate with AE events simulated by PZT actuators are performed to validate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed optimal image-based AE source identification method. PMID:29466310

  3. An Optimal Image-Based Method for Identification of Acoustic Emission (AE) Sources in Plate-Like Structures Using a Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-21

    This paper proposes an innovative method for identifying the locations of multiple simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) events in plate-like structures from the view of image processing. By using a linear lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensor array to record the AE wave signals, a reverse-time frequency-wavenumber (f-k) migration is employed to produce images displaying the locations of AE sources by back-propagating the AE waves. Lamb wave theory is included in the f-k migration to consider the dispersive property of the AE waves. Since the exact occurrence time of the AE events is usually unknown when recording the AE wave signals, a heuristic artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm combined with an optimal criterion using minimum Shannon entropy is used to find the image with the identified AE source locations and occurrence time that mostly approximate the actual ones. Experimental studies on an aluminum plate with AE events simulated by PZT actuators are performed to validate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed optimal image-based AE source identification method.

  4. Snow farming: conserving snow over the summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian; Lehning, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Summer storage of snow for tourism has seen an increasing interest in the last years. Covering large snow piles with materials such as sawdust enables more than two-thirds of the initial snow volume to be conserved. We present detailed mass balance measurements of two sawdust-covered snow piles obtained by terrestrial laser scanning during summer 2015. Results indicate that 74 and 63 % of the snow volume remained over the summer for piles in Davos, Switzerland and Martell, Italy. If snow mass is considered instead of volume, the values increase to 83 and 72 %. The difference is attributed to settling and densification of the snow. Additionally, we adapted the one-dimensional, physically based snow cover model SNOWPACK to perform simulations of the sawdust-covered snow piles. Model results and measurements agreed extremely well at the point scale. Moreover, we analysed the contribution of the different terms of the surface energy balance to snow ablation for a pile covered with a 40 cm thick sawdust layer and a pile without insulation. Short-wave radiation was the dominant source of energy for both scenarios, but the moist sawdust caused strong cooling by long-wave emission and negative sensible and latent heat fluxes. This cooling effect reduces the energy available for melt by up to a factor of 12. As a result only 9 % of the net short-wave energy remained available for melt. Finally, sensitivity studies of the parameters thickness of the sawdust layer, air temperature, precipitation and wind speed were performed. We show that sawdust thickness has a tremendous effect on snow loss. Higher air temperatures and wind speeds increase snow ablation but less significantly. No significant effect of additional precipitation could be found as the sawdust remained wet during the entire summer with the measured quantity of rain. Setting precipitation amounts to zero, however, strongly increased melt. Overall, the 40 cm sawdust provides sufficient protection for mid

  5. Unexpected Patterns in Snow and Dirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Albert A. Bartlett published "Thermal patterns in the snow" in this journal. These are patterns produced by heat sources underneath the snow. Bartlett's articles encouraged me to pay attention to patterns in snow and to understanding them. At winter's end the last snow becomes dirty and is heaped into piles. This…

  6. Assimilation of snow cover and snow depth into a snow model to estimate snow water equivalent and snowmelt runoff in a Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, Emmy E.; Wanders, Niko; Saloranta, Tuomo M.; Shea, Joseph M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Immerzeel, W.W.

    2017-01-01

    Snow is an important component of water storage in the Himalayas. Previous snowmelt studies in the Himalayas have predominantly relied on remotely sensed snow cover. However, snow cover data provide no direct information on the actual amount of water stored in a snowpack, i.e., the snow water

  7. Synthesis and silica coating of calcia-doped ceria/plate-like titanate (K0.8Li0.27Ti1.73O4) nanocomposite by seeded polymerization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2007-01-01

    Calcia-doped ceria is of potential interest as an ultraviolet (UV) radiation blocking material in personal care products because of the excellent UV light absorption property and low catalytic ability for the oxidation of organic materials superior to undoped ceria. In order to reduce the oxidation catalytic activity further, calcia-doped ceria was coated with amorphous silica by means of seeded polymerization technique. Generally, nanoparticles of inorganic materials do not provide a good coverage for human skin because of the agglomeration of the particles. The plate-like particles are required to enhance the coverage ability of inorganic materials. This can be accomplished by synthesis of calcia-doped ceria/plate-like potassium lithium titanate (K 0.8 Li 0.27 Ti 1.73 O 4 ) nanocomposite with subsequent silica coating to control catalytic activity of calcia-doped ceria. Calcia-doped ceria/plate-like potassium lithium titanate nanocomposite was prepared by soft chemical method followed by silica coating via seeded polymerization technique. Silica coated calcia-doped ceria/plate-like potassium lithium titanate nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, XPS and FT-IR

  8. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

  9. Assimilation of snow cover and snow depth into a snow model to estimate snow water equivalent and snowmelt runoff in a Himalayan catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Stigter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow is an important component of water storage in the Himalayas. Previous snowmelt studies in the Himalayas have predominantly relied on remotely sensed snow cover. However, snow cover data provide no direct information on the actual amount of water stored in a snowpack, i.e., the snow water equivalent (SWE. Therefore, in this study remotely sensed snow cover was combined with in situ observations and a modified version of the seNorge snow model to estimate (climate sensitivity of SWE and snowmelt runoff in the Langtang catchment in Nepal. Snow cover data from Landsat 8 and the MOD10A2 snow cover product were validated with in situ snow cover observations provided by surface temperature and snow depth measurements resulting in classification accuracies of 85.7 and 83.1 % respectively. Optimal model parameter values were obtained through data assimilation of MOD10A2 snow maps and snow depth measurements using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF. Independent validations of simulated snow depth and snow cover with observations show improvement after data assimilation compared to simulations without data assimilation. The approach of modeling snow depth in a Kalman filter framework allows for data-constrained estimation of snow depth rather than snow cover alone, and this has great potential for future studies in complex terrain, especially in the Himalayas. Climate sensitivity tests with the optimized snow model revealed that snowmelt runoff increases in winter and the early melt season (December to May and decreases during the late melt season (June to September as a result of the earlier onset of snowmelt due to increasing temperature. At high elevation a decrease in SWE due to higher air temperature is (partly compensated by an increase in precipitation, which emphasizes the need for accurate predictions on the changes in the spatial distribution of precipitation along with changes in temperature.

  10. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  11. Unexpected Patterns in Snow and Dirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Albert A. Bartlett published "Thermal patterns in the snow" in this journal. These are patterns produced by heat sources underneath the snow. Bartlett's articles encouraged me to pay attention to patterns in snow and to understanding them. At winter's end the last snow becomes dirty and is heaped into piles. This snow comes from the final clearing of sidewalks and driveways. The patterns observed in these piles defied my intuition. This melting snow develops edges where dirt accumulates, in contrast to ice cubes, which lose sharp edges and become more spherical upon melting. Furthermore, dirt absorbs more radiation than snow and yet doesn't melt and round the sharp edges of snow, where dirt accumulates.

  12. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  13. Performance evaluation of snow and ice plows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Removal of ice and snow from road surfaces is a critical task in the northern tier of the United States, : including Illinois. Highways with high levels of traffic are expected to be cleared of snow and ice quickly : after each snow storm. This is ne...

  14. Velocity distribution in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.

    1997-12-01

    In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.

  15. Photopolarimetric Retrievals of Snow Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  16. Changes in Snow Albedo Resulting from Snow Darkening Caused by Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, J.; Kloster, S.; Bourgeois, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential impact of snow darkening caused by pre-industrial and present-day black carbon (BC) emissions on snow albedo and subsequently climate. To assess this impact, we implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by BC emitted from natural as well as anthropogenic sources into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM). Considerable amounts of BC are emitted e.g. from fires and are transported through the atmosphere for several days before being removed by rain or snow precipitation in snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of BC reduce the snow reflectance significantly, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. We implemented the snow albedo reduction caused by BC contamination and snow aging in the one layer land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at MPI-M. For this we used the single-layer simulator of the SNow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR-Online (Flanner et al., 2007); http://snow.engin.umich.edu) model to derive snow albedo values for BC in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 μm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 μm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 μm). Here, a radius of 50 μm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 μm corresponds to old snow. The deposition rates of BC on snow are prescribed from previous ECHAM6-HAM simulations for two time periods, pre-industrial (1880-1889) and present-day (2000-2009), respectively. We perform a sensitivity study regarding the scavenging of BC by snow melt. To evaluate the newly implemented albedo scheme we will compare the modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed ones. Moreover, we will show the impact of the BC contamination and snow aging on the simulated snow albedo. The

  17. Coding and decoding with dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsi, Athanasia; Kastellakis, George; Psarrou, Maria; Anastasakis, Stelios; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of complex, voltage dependent mechanisms in the dendrites of multiple neuron types, great effort has been devoted in search of a direct link between dendritic properties and specific neuronal functions. Over the last few years, new experimental techniques have allowed the visualization and probing of dendritic anatomy, plasticity and integrative schemes with unprecedented detail. This vast amount of information has caused a paradigm shift in the study of memory, one of the most important pursuits in Neuroscience, and calls for the development of novel theories and models that will unify the available data according to some basic principles. Traditional models of memory considered neural cells as the fundamental processing units in the brain. Recent studies however are proposing new theories in which memory is not only formed by modifying the synaptic connections between neurons, but also by modifications of intrinsic and anatomical dendritic properties as well as fine tuning of the wiring diagram. In this review paper we present previous studies along with recent findings from our group that support a key role of dendrites in information processing, including the encoding and decoding of new memories, both at the single cell and the network level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of ice and snow runway pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest, most remote and most pristine place on Earth. Polar operations depend heavily on air transportation and support for personnel and equipment. It follows that improvement in snow and ice runway design, construction and maintenance will directly benefit polar exploration and research. Current technologies and design methods for snow and ice runways remain largely reliant on work performed in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper reviews the design and construction of polar runways using snow and ice as geomaterials. The inability to change existing snow and ice thickness or temperature creates a challenge for polar runway design and construction, as does the highly complex mechanical behaviour of snow, including the phenomena known as sintering. It is recommended that a modern approach be developed for ice and snow runway design, based on conventional rigid and flexible pavement design principles. This requires the development on an analytical model for the prediction of snow strength, based on snow age, temperature history and density. It is also recommended that the feasibility of constructing a snow runway at the South Pole be revisited, in light of contemporary snow sintering methods. Such a runway would represent a revolutionary advance for the logistical support of Antarctic research efforts. Keywords: Runway, Pavement, Snow, Ice, Antarctic

  19. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  20. Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    role of dendritic cells in pancreatitis. Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells which initiate innate and adaptive immune... Lymphoid -tissue-specific homing of bone- marrow-derived dendritic cells . Blood. 113:6638–6647. http://dx.doi .org/10.1182/blood-2009-02-204321 Dapito...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0313 TITLE: Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. George Miller

  1. An inverse approach for elucidating dendritic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline an inverse approach for investigating dendritic function-structure relationships by optimizing dendritic trees for a-priori chosen computational functions. The inverse approach can be applied in two different ways. First, we can use it as a `hypothesis generator' in which we optimize dendrites for a function of general interest. The optimization yields an artificial dendrite that is subsequently compared to real neurons. This comparison potentially allows us to propose hypotheses about the function of real neurons. In this way, we investigated dendrites that optimally perform input-order detection. Second, we can use it as a `function confirmation' by optimizing dendrites for functions hypothesized to be performed by classes of neurons. If the optimized, artificial, dendrites resemble the dendrites of real neurons the artificial dendrites corroborate the hypothesized function of the real neuron. Moreover, properties of the artificial dendrites can lead to predictions about yet unmeasured properties. In this way, we investigated wide-field motion integration performed by the VS cells of the fly visual system. In outlining the inverse approach and two applications, we also elaborate on the nature of dendritic function. We furthermore discuss the role of optimality in assigning functions to dendrites and point out interesting future directions.

  2. Snow and ice: Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy; McAfee, Stephanie A.; O'Neel, Shad; Sass, Louis; Burgess, Evan; Colt, Steve; Clark, Paul; Hayward, Gregory D.; Colt, Steve; McTeague, Monica L.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and precipitation are key determinants of snowpack levels. Therefore, climate change is likely to affect the role of snow and ice in the landscapes and hydrology of the Chugach National Forest region.Downscaled climate projections developed by Scenarios Network for Alaska and Arctic Planning (SNAP) are useful for examining projected changes in snow at relatively fine resolution using a variable called “snowday fraction (SDF),” the percentage of days with precipitation falling as snow.We summarized SNAP monthly SDF from five different global climate models for the Chugach region by 500 m elevation bands, and compared historical (1971–2000) and future (2030–2059) SDF. We found that:Snow-day fraction and snow-water equivalent (SWE) are projected to decline most in late autumn (October to November) and at lower elevations.Snow-day fraction is projected to decrease 23 percent (averaged across five climate models) from October to March, between sea level and 500 m. Between sea level and 1000 m, SDF is projected to decrease by 17 percent between October and March.Snow-water equivalent is projected to decrease most in autumn (October and November) and at lower elevations (below 1500 m), an average of -26 percent for the 2030–2059 period compared to 1971– 2000. Averaged across the cool season and the entire domain, SWE is projected to decrease at elevations below 1000 m because of increased temperature, but increase at higher elevations because of increased precipitation.Compared to 1971–2000, the percentage of the landscape that is snowdominant in 2030–2059 is projected to decrease, and the percentage in which rain and snow are co-dominant (transient hydrology) is projected to increase from 27 to 37 percent. Most of this change is at lower elevations.Glaciers on the Chugach National Forest are currently losing about 6 km3 of ice per year; half of this loss comes from Columbia Glacier (Berthier et al. 2010).Over the past decade, almost all

  3. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Nitrate photolysis in salty snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Morenz, K.; Shi, Q.; Murphy, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate photolysis from snow can have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity of the local atmosphere, but the factors affecting the release of gas phase products are not well understood. Here, we report the first systematic study of the amounts of NO, NO2, and total nitrogen oxides (NOy) emitted from illuminated snow samples as a function of both nitrate and total salt (NaCl and Instant Ocean) concentration. We show that the release of nitrogen oxides to the gas phase is directly related to the expected nitrate concentration in the brine at the surface of the snow crystals, increasing to a plateau value with increasing nitrate, and generally decreasing with increasing NaCl or Instant Ocean (I.O.). In frozen mixed nitrate (25 mM) - salt (0-500 mM) solutions, there is an increase in gas phase NO2 seen at low added salt amounts: NO2 production is enhanced by 35% at low prefreezing [NaCl] and by 70% at similar prefreezing [I.O.]. Raman microscopy of frozen nitrate-salt solutions shows evidence of stronger nitrate exclusion to the air interface in the presence of I.O. than with added NaCl. The enhancement in nitrogen oxides emission in the presence of salts may prove to be important to the atmospheric oxidative capacity in polar regions.

  5. Everywhere and nowhere: snow and its linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Interest has grown in quantifying higher latitude precipitation change and snow-related ecosystem and economic impacts. There is a high demand for creating and using snow-related datasets, yet available datasets contain limitations, aren't scale appropriate, or lack thorough validation. Much of the uncertainty in snow estimates relates to ongoing snow measurement problems that are chronic and pervasive in windy, Arctic environments. This, coupled with diminishing support for long-term snow field observations, creates formidable hydrologic gaps in snow dominated landscapes. Snow touches most aspects of high latitude landscapes and spans albedo, ecosystems, soils, permafrost, and sea ice. In turn, snow can be impacted by disturbances, landscape change, ecosystem, structure, and later arrival of sea or lake ice. Snow, and its changes touch infrastructure, housing, and transportation. Advances in snow measurements, modeling, and data assimilation are under way, but more attention and a concerted effort is needed in a time of dwindling resources to make required advances during a time of rapid change.

  6. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  7. From the clouds to the ground - snow precipitation patterns vs. snow accumulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Franziska; Besic, Nikola; Mott, Rebecca; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Berne, Alexis; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about snow distribution and snow accumulation patterns is important and valuable for different applications such as the prediction of seasonal water resources or avalanche forecasting. Furthermore, accumulated snow on the ground is an important ground truth for validating meteorological and climatological model predictions of precipitation in high mountains and polar regions. Snow accumulation patterns are determined by many different processes from ice crystal nucleation in clouds to snow redistribution by wind and avalanches. In between, snow precipitation undergoes different dynamical and microphysical processes, such as ice crystal growth, aggregation and riming, which determine the growth of individual particles and thereby influence the intensity and structure of the snowfall event. In alpine terrain the interaction of different processes and the topography (e.g. lifting condensation and low level cloud formation, which may result in a seeder-feeder effect) may lead to orographic enhancement of precipitation. Furthermore, the redistribution of snow particles in the air by wind results in preferential deposition of precipitation. Even though orographic enhancement is addressed in numerous studies, the relative importance of micro-physical and dynamically induced mechanisms on local snowfall amounts and especially snow accumulation patterns is hardly known. To better understand the relative importance of different processes on snow precipitation and accumulation we analyze snowfall and snow accumulation between January and March 2016 in Davos (Switzerland). We compare MeteoSwiss operational weather radar measurements on Weissfluhgipfel to a spatially continuous snow accumulation map derived from airborne digital sensing (ADS) snow height for the area of Dischma valley in the vicinity of the weather radar. Additionally, we include snow height measurements from automatic snow stations close to the weather radar. Large-scale radar snow accumulation

  8. Neutrophils, dendritic cells and Toxoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkers, Eric Y; Butcher, Barbara A; Del Rio, Laura; Bennouna, Soumaya

    2004-03-09

    Toxoplasma gondii rapidly elicits strong Type 1 cytokine-based immunity. The necessity for this response is well illustrated by the example of IFN-gamma and IL-12 gene knockout mice that rapidly succumb to the effects of acute infection. The parasite itself is skilled at sparking complex interactions in the innate immune system that lead to protective immunity. Neutrophils are one of the first cell types to arrive at the site of infection, and the cells release several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to Toxoplasma. Dendritic cells are an important source of IL-12 during infection with T. gondii and other microbial pathogens, and they are also specialized for high-level antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. Tachyzoites express at least two types of molecules that trigger innate immune cell cytokine production. One of these involves Toll-like receptor/MyD88 pathways common to many microbial pathogens. The second pathway is less conventional and involves molecular mimicry between a parasite cyclophilin and host CC chemokine receptor 5-binding ligands. Neutrophils, dendritic cells and Toxoplasma work together to elicit the immune response required for host survival. Cytokine and chemokine cross-talk between parasite-triggered neutrophils and dendritic cells results in recruitment, maturation and activation of the latter. Neutrophil-empowered dendritic cells possess properties expected of highly potent antigen presenting cells that drive T helper 1 generation.

  9. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.

  10. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    OpenAIRE

    Labuzova Olga; Noskova Tatyana; Lysenko Maria; Ovcharenko Elena; Papina Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period...

  11. New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Makarov, Mikhail I; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Ivanov, Viktor B; Akhmetzhanova, Assem A; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Ermak, Anton A; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2009-08-01

    The evolution of plants has yielded a wealth of adaptations for the acquisition of key mineral nutrients. These include the structure, physiology and positioning of root systems. We report the discovery of specialized snow roots as a plant strategy to cope with the very short season for nutrient uptake and growth in alpine snow-beds, i.e. patches in the landscape that remain snow-covered well into the summer. We provide anatomical, chemical and experimental (15)N isotope tracking evidence that the Caucasian snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza forms extensive networks of specialized above-ground roots, which grow against gravity to acquire nitrogen directly from within snow packs. Snow roots capture nitrogen that would otherwise partly run off down-slope over a frozen surface, thereby helping to nourish these alpine ecosystems. Climate warming is changing and will change mountain snow regimes, while large-scale anthropogenic N deposition has increased snow N contents. These global changes are likely to impact on the distribution, abundance and functional significance of snow roots.

  12. Snow Water Equivalent SAR and Radiometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — After nearly four decades of international effort developing remote sensing techniques, measurement of land surface snow remains a significant challenge. Developing...

  13. Surface energy balance of seasonal snow cover for snow-melt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study describes time series analysis of snow-melt, radiation data and energy balance for a seasonal snow cover at Dhundi field station of SASE, which lies in Pir Panjal range of the. N–W Himalaya, for a winter season from 13 January to 12 April 2005. The analysis shows that mean snow surface temperature remains ...

  14. Microtubule nucleation and organization in dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delandre, Caroline; Amikura, Reiko; Moore, Adrian W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendrite branching is an essential process for building complex nervous systems. It determines the number, distribution and integration of inputs into a neuron, and is regulated to create the diverse dendrite arbor branching patterns characteristic of different neuron types. The microtubule cytoskeleton is critical to provide structure and exert force during dendrite branching. It also supports the functional requirements of dendrites, reflected by differential microtubule architectural organization between neuron types, illustrated here for sensory neurons. Both anterograde and retrograde microtubule polymerization occur within growing dendrites, and recent studies indicate that branching is enhanced by anterograde microtubule polymerization events in nascent branches. The polarities of microtubule polymerization events are regulated by the position and orientation of microtubule nucleation events in the dendrite arbor. Golgi outposts are a primary microtubule nucleation center in dendrites and share common nucleation machinery with the centrosome. In addition, pre-existing dendrite microtubules may act as nucleation sites. We discuss how balancing the activities of distinct nucleation machineries within the growing dendrite can alter microtubule polymerization polarity and dendrite branching, and how regulating this balance can generate neuron type-specific morphologies. PMID:27097122

  15. Water losses during technical snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    These days, the production of technical snow can be seen as a prerequisite for winter tourism. Huge amounts of water are used for technical snow production by ski resorts, especially in the beginning of the winter season. The aim is to guarantee an appropriate amount of snow to reliably provide optimal ski runs until the date of season opening in early December. Technical snow is generated by pumping pressurized water through the nozzles of a snow machine and dispersing the resulting spray of small water droplets which freeze during their travel to the ground. Cooling and freezing of the droplets can only happen if energy is emitted to the air mass surrounding the droplets. This heat transfer is happening through convective cooling and though evaporation and sublimation of water droplets and ice particles. This means that also mass is lost from the droplets and added in form of vapor to the air. It is important to note that not all water that is pumped through the snow machine is converted to snow distributed on the ground. Significant amounts of water are lost due to wind drift, sublimation and evaporation while droplets are traveling through the air or to draining of water which is not fully frozen when arriving at the ground. Studies addressing this question are sparse and the quantity of the water losses is still unclear. In order to assess this question in more detail, we obtained several systematic field observations at a test site near Davos, Switzerland. About a dozen of snow making tests had been performed during the last winter seasons. We compare the amount of water measured at the intake of the snow machine with the amount of snow accumulating at the ground during a night of snow production. The snow mass was calculated from highly detailed repeated terrestrial laser scanning measurements in combination with manually gathered snow densities. In addition a meteorological station had been set up in the vicinity observing all relevant meteorological

  16. Snow mechanics and avalanche formation: field experiments on the dynamic response of the snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Jürg; Schneebeli, Martin; Fierz, Charles; Föhn, Paul M. B.

    1995-11-01

    Knowledge about snow mechanics and snow avalanche formation forms the basis of any hazard mitigation measures. The crucial point is the snow stability. The most relevant mechanical properties - the compressive, tensile and shear strength of the individual snow layers within the snow cover - vary substantially in space and time. Among other things the strength of the snow layers depends strongly on the state of stress and the strain rate. The evaluation of the stability of the snow cover is hence a difficult task involving many extrapolations. To gain insight in the release mechanism of slab avalanches triggered by skiers, the skier's impact is measured with a load cell at different depths within the snow cover and for different snow conditions. The study focused on the effects of the dynamic loading and of the damping by snow compaction. In accordance with earlier finite-element (FE) calculations the results show the importance of the depth of the weak layer or interface and the snow conditions, especially the sublayering. In order to directly measure the impact force and to study the snow properties in more detail, a new instrument, called rammrutsch was developed. It combines the properties of the rutschblock with the defined impact properties of the rammsonde. The mechanical properties are determined using (i) the impact energy of the rammrutsch and (ii) the deformations of the snow cover measured with accelerometers and digital image processing of video sequences. The new method is well suited to detect and to measure the mechanical processes and properties of the fracturing layers. The duration of one test is around 10 minutes and the method seems appropriate for determining the spatial variability of the snow cover. A series of experiments in a forest opening showed a clear difference in the snow stability between sites below trees and ones in the free field of the opening.

  17. Experimental and model based investigation of the links between snow bidirectional reflectance and snow microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M.; Flin, F.; Malinka, A.; Brissaud, O.; Hagenmuller, P.; Dufour, A.; Lapalus, P.; Lesaffre, B.; Calonne, N.; Rolland du Roscoat, S.; Ando, E.

    2017-12-01

    Snow optical properties are unique among Earth surface and crucial for a wide range of applications. The bi-directional reflectance, hereafter BRDF, of snow is sensible to snow microstructure. However the complex interplays between different parameters of snow microstructure namely size parameters and shape parameters on reflectance are challenging to disentangle both theoretically and experimentally. An accurate understanding and modelling of snow BRDF is required to correctly process satellite data. BRDF measurements might also provide means of characterizing snow morphology. This study presents one of the very few dataset that combined bi-directional reflectance measurements over 500-2500 nm and X-ray tomography of the snow microstructure for three different snow samples and two snow types. The dataset is used to evaluate the approach from Malinka, 2014 that relates snow optical properties to the chord length distribution in the snow microstructure. For low and medium absorption, the model accurately reproduces the measurements but tends to slightly overestimate the anisotropy of the reflectance. The model indicates that the deviation of the ice chord length distribution from an exponential distribution, that can be understood as a characterization of snow types, does not impact the reflectance for such absorptions. The simulations are also impacted by the uncertainties in the ice refractive index values. At high absorption and high viewing/incident zenith angle, the simulations and the measurements disagree indicating that some of the assumptions made in the model are not met anymore. The study also indicates that crystal habits might play a significant role for the reflectance under such geometries and wavelengths. However quantitative relationship between crystal habits and reflectance alongside with potential optical methodologies to classify snow morphology would require an extended dataset over more snow types. This extended dataset can likely be obtained

  18. Estimation of snow cover distribution in Beas basin, Indian Himalaya ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper, a methodology has been developed for the mapping of snow cover in Beas ... Different snow cover mapping methods using snow indices are compared to find the suitable ... cover are important factors for human activities,.

  19. (NDSI) and Normalised Difference Principal Component Snow Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phila Sibandze

    According to Bonan (2002), snow plays a significant role in influencing heat regimes and local, regional ... sensitive indicator to climate change. In South Africa, snow is .... This image was captured on the earliest cloud free day after a snow fall.

  20. Phase field modeling of dendritic coarsening during isothermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic coarsening in Al-2mol%Si alloy during isothermal solidification at 880K was investigated by phase field modeling. Three coarsening mechanisms operate in the alloy: (a melting of small dendrite arms; (b coalescence of dendrites near the tips leading to the entrapment of liquid droplets; (c smoothing of dendrites. Dendrite melting is found to be dominant in the stage of dendritic growth, whereas coalescence of dendrites and smoothing of dendrites are dominant during isothermal holding. The simulated results provide a better understanding of dendrite coarsening during isothermal solidification.

  1. Thermosolutal convection during dendritic solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.; Felicelli, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for directional solidification of a binary alloy including a dendritic region underlying an all-liquid region. It is assumed initially that there exists a nonconvecting state with planar isotherms and isoconcentrates solidifying at a constant velocity. The stability of this system has been analyzed and nonlinear calculations are performed that show the effect of convection in the solidification process when the system is unstable. Results of calculations for various cases defined by the initial temperature gradient at the dendrite tips and varying strength of the gravitational field are presented for systems involving lead-tin alloys. The results show that the systems are stable for a gravitational constant of 0.0001 g(0) and that convection can be suppressed by appropriate choice of the container's size for higher values of the gravitational constant. It is also concluded that for the lead-tin systems considered, convection in the mushy zone is not significant below the upper 20 percent of the dendritic zone, if al all.

  2. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts.

  3. Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

  4. Prevent Snow from Blocking your Tailpipe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-11

    If it's snowing, make sure your vehicle’s tailpipe is clear of snow before starting the engine to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.  Created: 12/11/2014 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 12/11/2014.

  5. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  6. Sublimation From Snow in Northern Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Sublimation from snow is an often neglected component of water and energy balances. Research under the Mackenzie GEWEX Study has attempted to understand the snow and atmospheric processes controlling sublimation and to estimate the magnitude of sublimation in high latitude catchments. Eddy correlation units were used to measure vertical water vapour fluxes from a high latitude boreal forest, snow-covered tundra and shrub-covered tundra in Wolf Creek Research Basin, near Whitehorse Yukon, Territory Canada. Over Jan-Apr. water vapour fluxes from the forest canopy amounted to 18.3 mm, a significant loss from winter snowfall of 54 mm. Most of this loss occurred when the canopy was snow-covered. The weight of snow measured on a suspended, weighed tree indicates that this flux is dominated by sublimation of intercepted snow. In the melt period (April), water vapour fluxes were uniformly small ranging from 0.21 mm/day on the tundra slope, 0.23 mm/day for the forest and 0.27 mm/day for the shrub-tundra. During the melt period the forest and shrub canopies was snow-free and roots were frozen, so the primary source of water vapour from all sites was the surface snow.

  7. Major ions in spitsbergen snow samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semb, A.; Braekkan, R.; Joranger, E.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical analysis of Spitsbergen snow cores sampled in spring 1983, reveals a spatial pattern consistent with orographic deposition of major anthropogenic pollutants with air movements from southeast towards northwest. The highest concentrations of pollutant species were found at an altitude of 700 metres above sea level, and are higher than for any other recorded snow samples from the Arctic

  8. Comments on Nancy Snow, "Generativity and Flourishing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtekar, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    In her rich and wide-ranging paper, Nancy Snow argues that there is a virtue of generativity--an other-regarding desire to invest one's substance in forms of life and work that will outlive the self (p. 10). By "virtue" Snow means not just a desirable or praiseworthy quality of a person, but more precisely, as Aristotle defined it, a…

  9. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jungdong; Park, Kwangheon; Lee, Bumsik; Kim Yangeun

    1999-01-01

    An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed. The converging/diverging nozzle can control the size of snows from sub-microns to 10 micron size. Using the nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. The removal mechanisms of surface contaminants are mechanical impact, partial dissolving and evaporation process, and viscous flow. A heat supply system is added for the prevention of surface ice layer formation. The cleaning power is slightly dependent on the size of snow. Small snows are the better in viscous flow cleaning, while large snows are slightly better in dissolving and sublimation process. Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. About 40 to 80% of radioactivity was removed. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution. (author)

  10. Regime shift of snow days in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    The number of days with a snow depth above a certain threshold is the key factor for winter tourism in an Alpine country like Switzerland. An investigation of 34 long-term stations between 200 and 1800 m asl (above sea level) going back for at least the last 60 years (1948-2007) shows an unprecedented series of low snow winters in the last 20 years. The signal is uniform despite high regional differences. A shift detection analysis revealed a significant step-like decrease in snow days at the end of the 1980's with no clear trend since then. This abrupt change resulted in a loss of 20% to 60% of the total snow days. The stepwise increase of the mean winter temperature at the end of the 1980's and its close correlation with the snow day anomalies corroborate the sensitivity of the mid-latitude winter to the climate change induced temperature increase.

  11. Past and future of the Austrian snow cover - results from the CC-Snow project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Ragg, Hansjörg; Kleindienst, Hannes; Wilcke, Renate; Gobiet, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This study has the goal to simulate the evolution of the Austrian snow cover from 1971 to 2050 by means of a coupled modelling scheme, and to estimate the effect of climate change on the evolution of the natural snow cover. The model outcomes are interepreted with focus on both the future natural snow conditions, and the effects on winter skiing tourism. Therefore the regional temperature-index snow model SNOWREG is applied, providing snow maps with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is trained by means of assimilating local measurements and observed natural snow cover patterns. Meteorological forcing consists of the output of four realizations of the ENSEMBLES project for the A1B emission scenario. The meteorological variables are downscaled and error corrected with a quantile based empirical-statistical method on a daily time basis. The control simulation is 1971-2000, and the scenario simulation 2021-2050. Spatial interpolation is performed on the basis of parameter-elevation relations. We compare the four different global/regional climate model combinations and their effect on the snow modelling, and we explain the patterns of the resulting snow cover by means of regional climatological characteristics. The provinces Tirol and Styria serve as test regions, being typical examples for the two climatic subregions of Austria. To support the interpretation of the simulation results we apply indicators which enable to define meaningful measures for the comparison of the different periods and regions. Results show that the mean duration of the snow cover will decrease by 15 to 30 days per winter season, mostly in elevations between 2000 and 2500 m. Above 3000 m the higher winter precipitation can compensate this effect, and mean snow cover duration may even slightly increase. We also investigate the local scale by application of the physically based mountain snow model AMUNDSEN. This model is capable of producing 50 m resolution output maps for indicators

  12. Orientations of dendritic growth during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Nyung

    2017-03-01

    Dendrites are crystalline forms which grow far from the limit of stability of the plane front and adopt an orientation which is as close as possible to the heat flux direction. Dendritic growth orientations for cubic metals, bct Sn, and hcp Zn, can be controlled by thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and surface energy. The control factors have been elaborated. Since the dendrite is a single crystal, its properties such as thermal conductivity that influences the heat flux direction, the minimum Young's modulus direction that influences the strain energy minimization, and the minimum surface energy plane that influences the crystal/liquid interface energy minimization have been proved to control the dendritic growth direction. The dendritic growth directions of cubic metals are determined by the minimum Young's modulus direction and/or axis direction of symmetry of the minimum crystal surface energy plane. The dendritic growth direction of bct Sn is determined by its maximum thermal conductivity direction and the minimum surface energy plane normal direction. The primary dendritic growth direction of hcp Zn is determined by its maximum thermal conductivity direction and the minimum surface energy plane normal direction and the secondary dendrite arm direction of hcp Zn is normal to the primary dendritic growth direction.

  13. Improvement of a snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer model: evaluation of impacts of aerosol on seasonal snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Efang; Li, Qian; Sun, Shufen; Chen, Wen; Chen, Shangfeng; Nath, Debashis

    2017-11-01

    The presence of light-absorbing aerosols (LAA) in snow profoundly influence the surface energy balance and water budget. However, most snow-process schemes in land-surface and climate models currently do not take this into consideration. To better represent the snow process and to evaluate the impacts of LAA on snow, this study presents an improved snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer (SAST) model, which includes the impacts of LAA on snow. Specifically, the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model is incorporated into the SAST model with an LAA mass stratigraphy scheme. The new coupled model is validated against in-situ measurements at the Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), Colorado, USA. Results show that the snow albedo and snow depth are better reproduced than those in the original SAST, particularly during the period of snow ablation. Furthermore, the impacts of LAA on snow are estimated in the coupled model through case comparisons of the snowpack, with or without LAA. The LAA particles directly absorb extra solar radiation, which accelerates the growth rate of the snow grain size. Meanwhile, these larger snow particles favor more radiative absorption. The average total radiative forcing of the LAA at the SASP is 47.5 W m-2. This extra radiative absorption enhances the snowmelt rate. As a result, the peak runoff time and "snow all gone" day have shifted 18 and 19.5 days earlier, respectively, which could further impose substantial impacts on the hydrologic cycle and atmospheric processes.

  14. Calculation of new snow densities from sub-daily automated snow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Hartl, Lea; Koch, Roland; Marty, Christoph; Lehning, Michael; Olefs, Marc

    2017-04-01

    In mountain regions there is an increasing demand for high-quality analysis, nowcasting and short-range forecasts of the spatial distribution of snowfall. Operational services, such as for avalanche warning, road maintenance and hydrology, as well as hydropower companies and ski resorts need reliable information on the depth of new snow (HN) and the corresponding water equivalent (HNW). However, the ratio of HNW to HN can vary from 1:3 to 1:30 because of the high variability of new snow density with respect to meteorological conditions. In the past, attempts were made to calculate new snow densities from meteorological parameters mainly using daily values of temperature and wind. Further complex statistical relationships have been used to calculate new snow densities on hourly to sub-hourly time intervals to drive multi-layer snow cover models. However, only a few long-term in-situ measurements of new snow density exist for sub-daily time intervals. Settling processes within the new snow due to loading and metamorphism need to be considered when computing new snow density. As the effect of these processes is more pronounced for long time intervals, a high temporal resolution of measurements is desirable. Within the pluSnow project data of several automatic weather stations with simultaneous measurements of precipitation (pluviometers), snow water equivalent (SWE) using snow pillows and snow depth (HS) measurements using ultrasonic rangers were analysed. New snow densities were calculated for a set of data filtered on the basis of meteorological thresholds. The calculated new snow densities were compared to results from existing new snow density parameterizations. To account for effects of settling of the snow cover, a case study based on a multi-year data set using the snow cover model SNOWPACK at Weissfluhjoch was performed. Measured median values of hourly new snow densities at the different stations range from 54 to 83 kgm-3. This is considerably lower than a 1

  15. Spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow density

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.

    2013-03-01

    Snow density is a fundamental physical property of snowpacks used in many aspects of snow research. As an integral component in the remote sensing of snow water equivalent and parameterisation of snow models, snow density may be used to describe many important features of snowpack behaviour. The present study draws on a significant dataset of snow density and climate observations from the United States, Australia and the former Soviet Union and uses regression-based techniques to identify the dominant climatological drivers for snow densification rates, characterise densification rate variability and estimate spring snow densities from more readily available climate data. Total winter precipitation was shown to be the most prominent driver of snow densification rates, with mean air temperature and melt-refreeze events also found to be locally significant. Densification rate variance is very high at Australian sites, very low throughout the former Soviet Union and between these extremes throughout much of the US. Spring snow densities were estimated using a statistical model with climate variable inputs and best results were achieved when snow types were treated differently. Given the importance of snow density information in many snow-related research disciplines, this work has implications for current methods of converting snow depths to snow water equivalent, the representation of snow dynamics in snow models and remote sensing applications globally. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow density

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.; Westra, Seth; Evans, Jason P.; McCabe, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Snow density is a fundamental physical property of snowpacks used in many aspects of snow research. As an integral component in the remote sensing of snow water equivalent and parameterisation of snow models, snow density may be used to describe many important features of snowpack behaviour. The present study draws on a significant dataset of snow density and climate observations from the United States, Australia and the former Soviet Union and uses regression-based techniques to identify the dominant climatological drivers for snow densification rates, characterise densification rate variability and estimate spring snow densities from more readily available climate data. Total winter precipitation was shown to be the most prominent driver of snow densification rates, with mean air temperature and melt-refreeze events also found to be locally significant. Densification rate variance is very high at Australian sites, very low throughout the former Soviet Union and between these extremes throughout much of the US. Spring snow densities were estimated using a statistical model with climate variable inputs and best results were achieved when snow types were treated differently. Given the importance of snow density information in many snow-related research disciplines, this work has implications for current methods of converting snow depths to snow water equivalent, the representation of snow dynamics in snow models and remote sensing applications globally. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Simulating Snow in Canadian Boreal Environments with CLASS for ESM-SnowMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Bartlett, P. A.; Derksen, C.; Ireson, A. M.; Essery, R.

    2017-12-01

    The ability of land surface schemes to provide realistic simulations of snow cover is necessary for accurate representation of energy and water balances in climate models. Historically, this has been particularly challenging in boreal forests, where poor treatment of both snow masking by forests and vegetation-snow interaction has resulted in biases in simulated albedo and snowpack properties, with subsequent effects on both regional temperatures and the snow albedo feedback in coupled simulations. The SnowMIP (Snow Model Intercomparison Project) series of experiments or `MIPs' was initiated in order to provide assessments of the performance of various snow- and land-surface-models at selected locations, in order to understand the primary factors affecting model performance. Here we present preliminary results of simulations conducted for the third such MIP, ESM-SnowMIP (Earth System Model - Snow Model Intercomparison Project), using the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) at boreal forest sites in central Saskatchewan. We assess the ability of our latest model version (CLASS 3.6.2) to simulate observed snowpack properties (snow water equivalent, density and depth) and above-canopy albedo over 13 winters. We also examine the sensitivity of these simulations to climate forcing at local and regional scales.

  18. Estimating Snow Water Storage in North America Using CLM4, DART, and Snow Radiance Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yonghwan; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zhao, Long; Hoar, Timothy J.; Toure, Ally M.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses continental-scale snow estimates in North America using a recently developed snow radiance assimilation (RA) system. A series of RA experiments with the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter are conducted by assimilating the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) brightness temperature T(sub B) at 18.7- and 36.5-GHz vertical polarization channels. The overall RA performance in estimating snow depth for North America is improved by simultaneously updating the Community Land Model, version 4 (CLM4), snow/soil states and radiative transfer model (RTM) parameters involved in predicting T(sub B) based on their correlations with the prior T(sub B) (i.e., rule-based RA), although degradations are also observed. The RA system exhibits a more mixed performance for snow cover fraction estimates. Compared to the open-loop run (0.171m RMSE), the overall snow depth estimates are improved by 1.6% (0.168m RMSE) in the rule-based RA whereas the default RA (without a rule) results in a degradation of 3.6% (0.177mRMSE). Significant improvement of the snow depth estimates in the rule-based RA as observed for tundra snow class (11.5%, p < 0.05) and bare soil land-cover type (13.5%, p < 0.05). However, the overall improvement is not significant (p = 0.135) because snow estimates are degraded or marginally improved for other snow classes and land covers, especially the taiga snow class and forest land cover (7.1% and 7.3% degradations, respectively). The current RA system needs to be further refined to enhance snow estimates for various snow types and forested regions.

  19. Mac OS X Snow Leopard pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Seiblod, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're new to the Mac or a longtime user, this handy book is the quickest way to get up to speed on Snow Leopard. Packed with concise information in an easy-to-read format, Mac OS X Snow Leopard Pocket Guide covers what you need to know and is an ideal resource for problem-solving on the fly. This book goes right to the heart of Snow Leopard, with details on system preferences, built-in applications, and utilities. You'll also find configuration tips, keyboard shortcuts, guides for troubleshooting, lots of step-by-step instructions, and more. Learn about new features and changes s

  20. An electrostatic charge measurement of blowing snow particles focusing on collision frequency to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2010-12-01

    Blowing snow particles are known to have an electrostatic charge. This charge may be a contributing factor in the formation of snow drifts and snow cornices and changing of the trajectory of blowing snow particles. These formations and phenomena can cause natural disaster such as an avalanche and a visibility deterioration, and obstruct transportation during winter season. Therefore, charging phenomenon of the blowing snow particles is an important issue in terms of not only precise understanding of the particle motion but disaster prevention. The primary factor of charge accumulation to the blowing snow particles is thought to be due to “saltation” of them. The “saltation” is one of movement forms of blowing snow: when the snow particles are transported by the wind, they repeat frictional collisions with the snow surface. In previous studies, charge-to-mass ratios measured in the field were approximately -50 to -10 μC/kg, and in the wind tunnel were approximately -0.8 to -0.1 μC/kg. While there were qualitatively consistent in sign, negative, there were huge gaps quantitatively between them. One reason of those gaps is speculated to be due to differences in fetch. In other words, the difference of the collision frequency of snow particles to the snow surface has caused the gaps. But it is merely a suggestion and that has not been confirmed. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the charge of blowing snow particles focusing on the collision frequency and clarify the relationship between them. Experiments were carried out in the cryogenic wind tunnel of Snow and Ice Research Center (NIED, JAPAN). A Faraday cage and an electrometer were used to measure the charge of snow particles. These experiments were conducted over the hard snow surface condition to prevent the erosion of the snow surface and the generation of new snow particles from the surface. The collision frequency of particle was controlled by changing the wind velocity (4.5 to 7 m/s) under

  1. Distribution of Snow and Maximum Snow Water Equivalent Obtained by LANDSAT Data and Degree Day Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K.; Ochiai, H.; Takeuchi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Maximum snow water equivalence and snowcover distribution are estimated using several LANDSAT data taken in snowmelting season over a four year period. The test site is Okutadami-gawa Basin located in the central position of Tohoku-Kanto-Chubu District. The year to year normalization for snowmelt volume computation on the snow line is conducted by year to year correction of degree days using the snowcover percentage within the test basin obtained from LANDSAT data. The maximum snow water equivalent map in the test basin is generated based on the normalized snowmelt volume on the snow line extracted from four LANDSAT data taken in a different year. The snowcover distribution on an arbitrary day in snowmelting of 1982 is estimated from the maximum snow water equivalent map. The estimated snowcover is compared with the snowcover area extracted from NOAA-AVHRR data taken on the same day. The applicability of the snow estimation using LANDSAT data is discussed.

  2. Recrystallization phenomena of solution grown paraffin dendrites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.F.A.; Hollander, F.; Stasse, O.; van Suchtelen, J.; van Enckevort, W.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin crystals were grown from decane solutions using a micro-Bridgman set up for in-situ observation of the morphology at the growth front. It is shown that for large imposed velocities, dendrites are obtained. After dendritic growth, aging or recrystallization processes set in rather quickly,

  3. Improving snow density estimation for mapping SWE with Lidar snow depth: assessment of uncertainty in modeled density and field sampling strategies in NASA SnowEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, M. S.; Smyth, E.; Small, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial distribution of snow water equivalent (SWE) is not sufficiently monitored with either remotely sensed or ground-based observations for water resources management. Recent applications of airborne Lidar have yielded basin-wide mapping of SWE when combined with a snow density model. However, in the absence of snow density observations, the uncertainty in these SWE maps is dominated by uncertainty in modeled snow density rather than in Lidar measurement of snow depth. Available observations tend to have a bias in physiographic regime (e.g., flat open areas) and are often insufficient in number to support testing of models across a range of conditions. Thus, there is a need for targeted sampling strategies and controlled model experiments to understand where and why different snow density models diverge. This will enable identification of robust model structures that represent dominant processes controlling snow densification, in support of basin-scale estimation of SWE with remotely-sensed snow depth datasets. The NASA SnowEx mission is a unique opportunity to evaluate sampling strategies of snow density and to quantify and reduce uncertainty in modeled snow density. In this presentation, we present initial field data analyses and modeling results over the Colorado SnowEx domain in the 2016-2017 winter campaign. We detail a framework for spatially mapping the uncertainty in snowpack density, as represented across multiple models. Leveraging the modular SUMMA model, we construct a series of physically-based models to assess systematically the importance of specific process representations to snow density estimates. We will show how models and snow pit observations characterize snow density variations with forest cover in the SnowEx domains. Finally, we will use the spatial maps of density uncertainty to evaluate the selected locations of snow pits, thereby assessing the adequacy of the sampling strategy for targeting uncertainty in modeled snow density.

  4. Simulating snow maps for Norway: description and statistical evaluation of the seNorge snow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Saloranta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily maps of snow conditions have been produced in Norway with the seNorge snow model since 2004. The seNorge snow model operates with 1 × 1 km resolution, uses gridded observations of daily temperature and precipitation as its input forcing, and simulates, among others, snow water equivalent (SWE, snow depth (SD, and the snow bulk density (ρ. In this paper the set of equations contained in the seNorge model code is described and a thorough spatiotemporal statistical evaluation of the model performance from 1957–2011 is made using the two major sets of extensive in situ snow measurements that exist for Norway. The evaluation results show that the seNorge model generally overestimates both SWE and ρ, and that the overestimation of SWE increases with elevation throughout the snow season. However, the R2-values for model fit are 0.60 for (log-transformed SWE and 0.45 for ρ, indicating that after removal of the detected systematic model biases (e.g. by recalibrating the model or expressing snow conditions in relative units the model performs rather well. The seNorge model provides a relatively simple, not very data-demanding, yet nonetheless process-based method to construct snow maps of high spatiotemporal resolution. It is an especially well suited alternative for operational snow mapping in regions with rugged topography and large spatiotemporal variability in snow conditions, as is the case in the mountainous Norway.

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of snow cover and snow water equivalent in the last three decades over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinsheng; Ma, Ning

    2018-04-01

    Changes in the extent and amount of snow cover in Eurasia are of great interest because of their vital impacts on the global climate system and regional water resource management. This study investigated the spatial and temporal variability of the snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) of the continental Eurasia using the Northern Hemisphere Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) Weekly SCE data for 1972-2006 and the Global Monthly EASE-Grid SWE data for 1979-2004. The results indicated that, in general, the spatial extent of snow cover significantly decreased during spring and summer, but varied little during autumn and winter over Eurasia in the study period. The date at which snow cover began to disappear in spring has significantly advanced, whereas the timing of snow cover onset in autumn did not vary significantly during 1972-2006. The snow cover persistence period declined significantly in the western Tibetan Plateau as well as partial area of Central Asia and northwestern Russia, but varied little in other parts of Eurasia. "Snow-free breaks" (SFBs) with intermittent snow cover in the cold season were principally observed in the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia, causing a low sensitivity of snow cover persistence period to the timings of snow cover onset and disappearance over the areas with shallow snow. The averaged SFBs were 1-14 weeks during the study period and the maximum intermittence could even reach 25 weeks in certain years. At a seasonal scale, SWE usually peaked in February or March, but fell gradually since April across Eurasia. Both annual mean and annual maximum SWE decreased significantly during 1979-2004 in most parts of Eurasia except for eastern Siberia as well as northwestern and northeastern China. The possible cross-platform inconsistencies between two passive microwave radiometers may cause uncertainties in the detected trends of SWE here, suggesting an urgent need of producing a long-term, more homogeneous SWE

  6. Vertical solidification of dendritic binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Felicelli, S.; Poirier, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    Three numerical techniques are employed to analyze the influence of thermosolutal convection on defect formation in directionally solidified (DS) alloys. The finite-element models are based on the Boussinesq approximation and include the plane-front model and two plane-front models incorporating special dendritic regions. In the second model the dendritic region has a time-independent volume fraction of liquid, and in the last model the dendritic region evolves as local conditions dictate. The finite-element models permit the description of nonlinear thermosolutal convection by treating the dendritic regions as porous media with variable porosities. The models are applied to lead-tin alloys including DS alloys, and severe segregation phenomena such as freckles and channels are found to develop in the DS alloys. The present calculations and the permeability functions selected are shown to predict behavior in the dendritic regions that qualitatively matches that observed experimentally.

  7. Modeling the influence of snow cover temperature and water content on wet-snow avalanche runout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vera Valero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Snow avalanche motion is strongly dependent on the temperature and water content of the snow cover. In this paper we use a snow cover model, driven by measured meteorological data, to set the initial and boundary conditions for wet-snow avalanche calculations. The snow cover model provides estimates of snow height, density, temperature and liquid water content. This information is used to prescribe fracture heights and erosion heights for an avalanche dynamics model. We compare simulated runout distances with observed avalanche deposition fields using a contingency table analysis. Our analysis of the simulations reveals a large variability in predicted runout for tracks with flat terraces and gradual slope transitions to the runout zone. Reliable estimates of avalanche mass (height and density in the release and erosion zones are identified to be more important than an exact specification of temperature and water content. For wet-snow avalanches, this implies that the layers where meltwater accumulates in the release zone must be identified accurately as this defines the height of the fracture slab and therefore the release mass. Advanced thermomechanical models appear to be better suited to simulate wet-snow avalanche inundation areas than existing guideline procedures if and only if accurate snow cover information is available.

  8. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  9. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labuzova Olga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period can be more than 300000 thousand rubles.

  10. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R D; Derksen, C

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)

  11. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  12. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  13. Rand Corporation Mean Monthly Global Snow Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All available monthly snow depth climatologies were integrated by the Rand Corporation, in the early 1980s, into one global (excluding Africa and South America)...

  14. Photochemical degradation of PCBs in snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matykiewiczová, Nina; Klánová, Jana; Klán, Petr

    2007-12-15

    This work represents the first laboratory study known to the authors describing photochemical behavior of persistent organic pollutants in snow at environmentally relevant concentrations. The snow samples were prepared by shock freezing of the corresponding aqueous solutions in liquid nitrogen and were UV-irradiated in a photochemical cold chamber reactor at -25 degrees C, in which simultaneous monitoring of snow-air exchange processeswas also possible. The main photodegradation pathway of two model snow contaminants, PCB-7 and PCB-153 (c approximately 100 ng kg(-1)), was found to be reductive dehalogenation. Possible involvement of the water molecules of snow in this reaction has been excluded by performing the photolyses in D2O snow. Instead, trace amounts of volatile organic compounds have been proposed to be the major source of hydrogen atom in the reduction, and this hypothesis was confirmed by the experiments with deuterated organic cocontaminants, such as d6-ethanol or d8-tetrahydrofuran. It is argued that bimolecular photoreduction of PCBs was more efficient or feasible than any other phototransformations under the experimental conditions used, including the coupling reactions. The photodegradation of PCBs, however, competed with a desorption process responsible for the pollutant loss from the snow samples, especially in case of lower molecular-mass congeners. Organic compounds, apparently largely located or photoproduced on the surface of snow crystals, had a predisposition to be released to the air but, at the same time, to react with other species in the gas phase. It is concluded that physicochemical properties of the contaminants and trace co-contaminants, their location and local concentrations in the matrix, and the wavelength and intensity of radiation are the most important factors in the evaluation of organic contaminants' lifetime in snow. Based on the results, it has been estimated that the average lifetime of PCBs in surface snow, connected

  15. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  16. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    management Snow surveys Transport analysis Winds -- Speed 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...that about 25% of the estimated snow that the wind transports to Summit each winter is deposited and forms drifts, mostly in close proxim- ity to...the structures. This analysis demonstrates that weather data ( wind speed and direction) and a transport analysis can aid in estimating the vol- ume of

  17. Acid Rain and Snow in Kashiwazaki City.

    OpenAIRE

    小野寺, 正幸; 富永, 禎秀; 竹園, 恵; 大金, 一二; Onodera, Masayuki; Tominaga, Yoshihide; Takesono, Satoshi; Oogane, Katsuji

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the actual condition of acid rain and snow and their influence of a winter monsoon in Kashiwazaki city. For 7 months from September in 2001 to March in 2002, the pH value was measured in rain or snow. The minimum of pH value observed was 3.9 for the 7 months. The day which observed pH

  18. Bike2Work: Rolling in the SNOW

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This team is obviously cycling around the year! Unless the association to snow is purely linked to the fact that the team works in Service Management providing support for the ServiceNow, which computer platform is known as SNOW. The team members are from left to right Iban Eguia Moraza, Petar Tonkovic and Africa Santos. David Martin Clavo, the forth member, was absent on the day of the photo.

  19. Estimating Snow Cover from Publicly Available Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman; Camerada, Alessandro; Fraternali, Piero; Tagliasacchi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of estimating snow cover in mountainous regions, that is, the spatial extent of the earth surface covered by snow. We argue that publicly available visual content, in the form of user generated photographs and image feeds from outdoor webcams, can both be leveraged as additional measurement sources, complementing existing ground, satellite and airborne sensor data. To this end, we describe two content acquisition and processing pipelines that are tailored to...

  20. Snow darkening caused by black carbon emitted from fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Jessica; Kloster, Silvia; Bourgeois, Quentin

    2014-05-01

    We implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by black carbon (BC) emitted from forest fires into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM) to estimate its potential climate impact of present day fire occurrence. Considerable amounts of black carbon emitted from fires are transported into snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of black carbon reduce the snow reflectance, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. Therefore, the SNICAR (SNow And Ice Radiation) model (Flanner and Zender (2005)) is implemented in the land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at the MPI-M. The SNICAR model includes amongst other processes a complex calculation of the snow albedo depending on black carbon in snow and snow grain growth depending on water vapor fluxes for a five layer snow scheme. For the implementation of the SNICAR model into the one layer scheme of ECHAM6-JSBACH, we used the SNICAR-online version (http://snow.engin.umich.edu). This single-layer simulator provides the albedo of snow for selectable combinations of impurity content (e.g. black carbon), snow grain size, and incident solar flux characteristics. From this scheme we derived snow albedo values for black carbon in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) and for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 µm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 µm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 µm). Here, a radius of 50 µm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 µm corresponds to old snow. The required snow age is taken from the BATS (Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Dickinson et al. (1986)) snow albedo implementation in ECHAM6-JSBACH. Here, we will present an extended evaluation of the model including a comparison of modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed

  1. Snow as a habitat for microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoham, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    There are three major habitats involving ice and snow, and the microorganisms studied from these habitats are most eukaryotic. Sea ice is inhabited by algae called diatoms, glacial ice has sparse populations of green algai cal desmids, and the temporary and permanent snows in mountainous regions and high latitudes are inhabited mostly by green algal flagellates. The life cycle of green algal flagellates is summarized by discussing the effects of light, temperature, nutrients, and snow melts. Specific examples of optimal conditions and environmental effects for various snow algae are given. It is not likely that the eukaryotic snow algae presented are candidated for life on the planet Mars. Evolutionally, eukaryotic cells as know on Earth may not have had the opportunity to develop on Mars (if life evolved at all on Mars) since eukaryotes did not appear on Earth until almost two billion years after the first prokaryotic organisms. However, the snow/ice ecosystems on Earth present themselves as extreme habitats were there is evidence of prokaryotic life (eubacteria and cyanbacteria) of which literally nothing is known. Any future surveillances of extant and/or extinct life on Mars should include probes (if not landing sites) to investigate sites of concentrations of ice water. The possibility of signs of life in Martian polar regions should not be overlooked.

  2. Snow model design for operational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2017-04-01

    A parsimonious distributed energy balance snow model intended for operational use is evaluated using discharge, snow covered area and grain size; the latter two as observed from the MODIS sensor. The snow model is an improvement of the existing GamSnow model, which is a part of the Enki modelling framework. Core requirements for the new version have been: 1. Reduction of calibration freedom, motivated by previous experience of non-identifiable parameters in the existing version 2. Improvement of process representation based on recent advances in physically based snow modelling 3. Limiting the sensitivity to forcing data which are poorly known over the spatial domain of interest (often in mountainous areas) 4. Preference for observable states, and the ability to improve from updates. The albedo calculation is completely revised, now based on grain size through an emulation of the SNICAR model (Flanner and Zender, 2006; Gardener and Sharp, 2010). The number of calibration parameters in the albedo model is reduced from 6 to 2. The wind function governing turbulent energy fluxes has been reduced from 2 to 1 parameter. Following Raleigh et al (2011), snow surface radiant temperature is split from the top layer thermodynamic temperature, using bias-corrected wet-bulb temperature to model the former. Analyses are ongoing, and the poster will bring evaluation results from 16 years of MODIS observations and more than 25 catchments in southern Norway.

  3. [Was Snow White a transsexual?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A; Mormont, C

    2002-01-01

    modalities in the transsexual dynamics. Nevertheless, one can ask oneself about the possibility of a request based on a desire rather than on a defense, or even on the existence of a defensive process diametrically opposed to the counter-phobic attitude and which, instead of actively provoking the dreaded reality, would privilege its avoidance and the search of passivity. This latter hypothesis has the advantage of being rather easy to explore with the Rorschach because, according to Exner, the predominance of passive compared to active human movement responses (which he terms the Snow White Syndrome) indicates the propensity to escape into passive fantasies and the tendency to avoid the initiative for behaviour or decision-making, if other people can do it in the subject's place (12). Our results largely confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of an opposite mechanism, as a third of subjects (n = 26) presented Snow White Syndrome. According to Exner, these transsexuals are typically characterized by hiding into a world of make believe, avoiding all responsibility, as well as any decision-making. This passivity in our Snow White Syndrome group was all the more remarkable in that, on the whole, it infiltrated into all the movement responses and seemed to define a rigid style of thinking and mental elaboration, in addition to a suggestive content of passivity. However, this condition cannot be associated with a general lack of dynamism or energy. In fact, the treatment of information, which provides data concerning the motivation to treat a stimulus field of the stimulus--whether this concerns the capture (L) of the stimulus or the elaboration (DQ+) of the response--displayed a sufficient amount of motivation. Furthermore, internal resources (EA) were considerable and were brought into play whenever it was necessary to adopt a behaviour or make a decision. Furthermore, based on these Rorschach findings, we note that in transsexuals with Snow White Syndrome, there is a

  4. Understanding snow-transport processes shaping the mountain snow-cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mott

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain snow-cover is normally heterogeneously distributed due to wind and precipitation interacting with the snow cover on various scales. The aim of this study was to investigate snow deposition and wind-induced snow-transport processes on different scales and to analyze some major drift events caused by north-west storms during two consecutive accumulation periods. In particular, we distinguish between the individual processes that cause specific drifts using a physically based model approach. Very high resolution wind fields (5 m were computed with the atmospheric model Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS and used as input for a model of snow-surface processes (Alpine3D to calculate saltation, suspension and preferential deposition of precipitation. Several flow features during north-west storms were identified with input from a high-density network of permanent and mobile weather stations and indirect estimations of wind directions from snow-surface structures, such as snow dunes and sastrugis. We also used Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Scanning measurements to investigate snow-deposition patterns and to validate the model. The model results suggest that the in-slope deposition patterns, particularly two huge cross-slope cornice-like drifts, developed only when the prevailing wind direction was northwesterly and were formed mainly due to snow redistribution processes (saltation-driven. In contrast, more homogeneous deposition patterns on a ridge scale were formed during the same periods mainly due to preferential deposition of precipitation. The numerical analysis showed that snow-transport processes were sensitive to the changing topography due to the smoothing effect of the snow cover.

  5. Evaluation of SNODAS snow depth and snow water equivalent estimates for the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Nanus, Leora; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schmidt, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The National Weather Service's Snow Data Assimilation (SNODAS) program provides daily, gridded estimates of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and related snow parameters at a 1-km2 resolution for the conterminous USA. In this study, SNODAS snow depth and SWE estimates were compared with independent, ground-based snow survey data in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to assess SNODAS accuracy at the 1-km2 scale. Accuracy also was evaluated at the basin scale by comparing SNODAS model output to snowmelt runoff in 31 headwater basins with US Geological Survey stream gauges. Results from the snow surveys indicated that SNODAS performed well in forested areas, explaining 72% of the variance in snow depths and 77% of the variance in SWE. However, SNODAS showed poor agreement with measurements in alpine areas, explaining 16% of the variance in snow depth and 30% of the variance in SWE. At the basin scale, snowmelt runoff was moderately correlated (R2 = 0.52) with SNODAS model estimates. A simple method for adjusting SNODAS SWE estimates in alpine areas was developed that uses relations between prevailing wind direction, terrain, and vegetation to account for wind redistribution of snow in alpine terrain. The adjustments substantially improved agreement between measurements and SNODAS estimates, with the R2 of measured SWE values against SNODAS SWE estimates increasing from 0.42 to 0.63 and the root mean square error decreasing from 12 to 6 cm. Results from this study indicate that SNODAS can provide reliable data for input to moderate-scale to large-scale hydrologic models, which are essential for creating accurate runoff forecasts. Refinement of SNODAS SWE estimates for alpine areas to account for wind redistribution of snow could further improve model performance. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Testing a blowing snow model against distributed snow measurements at Upper Sheep Creek, Idaho, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv Prasad; David G. Tarboton; Glen E. Liston; Charles H. Luce; Mark S. Seyfried

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a physically based snow transport model (SnowTran-3D) was used to simulate snow drifting over a 30 m grid and was compared to detailed snow water equivalence (SWE) surveys on three dates within a small 0.25 km2 subwatershed, Upper Sheep Creek. Two precipitation scenarios and two vegetation scenarios were used to carry out four snow transport model runs in...

  7. Dendritic Actin Cytoskeleton: Structure, Functions, and Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Konietzny

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of neurites. So far, research has been focused on the specific roles of actin in the axon, while it is becoming more and more apparent that in the dendrite, actin is not only confined to dendritic spines, but serves many additional and important functions. In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking.

  8. Snow Monitoring Using Remote Sensing Data: Modification of Normalized Difference Snow Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, G.; Avdan, U.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover is an important part of the Earth`s climate system so its continuous monitoring is necessary to map snow cover in high resolution. Satellite remote sensing can successfully fetch land cover and land cover changes. Although normalized difference snow index NDSI has quite good accuracy, topography shadow, water bodies and clouds can be easily misplaced as snow. Using Landsat TM, +ETM and TIRS/OLI satellite images, the NDSI was modified for more accurate snow mapping. In this paper, elimination of the misplaced water bodies was made using the high reflectance of the snow in the blue band. Afterwards, the modified NDSI (MNDSI) was used for estimating snow cover through the years on the highest mountains in Republic of Macedonia. The results from this study show that the MNDSI accuracy is bigger than the NDSI`s, totally eliminating the misplaced water bodies, and partly the one caused from topography and clouds. Also, it was noticed that the snow cover in the study area has been lowered through the years. For future studies, the MNDSI should be validated on different study areas with different characteristics.

  9. Iron snow in the Martian core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher J.; Pommier, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The decline of Mars' global magnetic field some 3.8-4.1 billion years ago is thought to reflect the demise of the dynamo that operated in its liquid core. The dynamo was probably powered by planetary cooling and so its termination is intimately tied to the thermochemical evolution and present-day physical state of the Martian core. Bottom-up growth of a solid inner core, the crystallization regime for Earth's core, has been found to produce a long-lived dynamo leading to the suggestion that the Martian core remains entirely liquid to this day. Motivated by the experimentally-determined increase in the Fe-S liquidus temperature with decreasing pressure at Martian core conditions, we investigate whether Mars' core could crystallize from the top down. We focus on the "iron snow" regime, where newly-formed solid consists of pure Fe and is therefore heavier than the liquid. We derive global energy and entropy equations that describe the long-timescale thermal and magnetic history of the core from a general theory for two-phase, two-component liquid mixtures, assuming that the snow zone is in phase equilibrium and that all solid falls out of the layer and remelts at each timestep. Formation of snow zones occurs for a wide range of interior and thermal properties and depends critically on the initial sulfur concentration, ξ0. Release of gravitational energy and latent heat during growth of the snow zone do not generate sufficient entropy to restart the dynamo unless the snow zone occupies at least 400 km of the core. Snow zones can be 1.5-2 Gyrs old, though thermal stratification of the uppermost core, not included in our model, likely delays onset. Models that match the available magnetic and geodetic constraints have ξ0 ≈ 10% and snow zones that occupy approximately the top 100 km of the present-day Martian core.

  10. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.-F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sanchez, R.

    2015-05-01

    The seasonal snow in the Pyrenees is critical for hydropower production, crop irrigation and tourism in France, Spain and Andorra. Complementary to in situ observations, satellite remote sensing is useful to monitor the effect of climate on the snow dynamics. The MODIS daily snow products (Terra/MOD10A1 and Aqua/MYD10A1) are widely used to generate snow cover climatologies, yet it is preferable to assess their accuracies prior to their use. Here, we use both in situ snow observations and remote sensing data to evaluate the MODIS snow products in the Pyrenees. First, we compare the MODIS products to in situ snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements. We estimate the values of the SWE and SD best detection thresholds to 40 mm water equivalent (w.e.) and 150 mm, respectively, for both MOD10A1 and MYD10A1. κ coefficients are within 0.74 and 0.92 depending on the product and the variable for these thresholds. However, we also find a seasonal trend in the optimal SWE and SD thresholds, reflecting the hysteresis in the relationship between the depth of the snowpack (or SWE) and its extent within a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85) for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81) for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67). We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the

  11. Monitoring Forsmark. Snow depth, snow water content and ice cover during the winter 2010/2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wass, Eva

    2011-07-01

    Snow depth and ice cover have been measured and observed during the winter 2010/2011. This type of measurements started in the winter 2002/2003 and has been ongoing since then. In addition to these parameters, the water content of the snow was calculated at each measurement occasion from the weight of a snow sample. Measurements and observations were conducted on a regular basis from the beginning of November 2010 until the middle of April 2011. A persistent snow cover was established in the end of November 2010 and remained until the beginning of April 2011 at the station with longest snow cover duration. The period of ice cover was 160 days in Lake Eckarfjaerden, whereas the sea bay at SFR was ice covered for 135 days

  12. Monitoring Forsmark. Snow depth, snow water content and ice cover during the winter 2010/2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Eva (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    Snow depth and ice cover have been measured and observed during the winter 2010/2011. This type of measurements started in the winter 2002/2003 and has been ongoing since then. In addition to these parameters, the water content of the snow was calculated at each measurement occasion from the weight of a snow sample. Measurements and observations were conducted on a regular basis from the beginning of November 2010 until the middle of April 2011. A persistent snow cover was established in the end of November 2010 and remained until the beginning of April 2011 at the station with longest snow cover duration. The period of ice cover was 160 days in Lake Eckarfjaerden, whereas the sea bay at SFR was ice covered for 135 days

  13. Regulation of dendrite growth and maintenance by exocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Yun; Lee, Jiae; Rowland, Kimberly; Wen, Yuhui; Hua, Hope; Carlson, Nicole; Lavania, Shweta; Parrish, Jay Z.; Kim, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Dendrites lengthen by several orders of magnitude during neuronal development, but how membrane is allocated in dendrites to facilitate this growth remains unclear. Here, we report that Ras opposite (Rop), the Drosophila ortholog of the key exocytosis regulator Munc18-1 (also known as STXBP1), is an essential factor mediating dendrite growth. Neurons with depleted Rop function exhibit reduced terminal dendrite outgrowth followed by primary dendrite degeneration, suggestive of differential req...

  14. Modelling snow accumulation and snow melt in a continuous hydrological model for real-time flood forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanzel, Ph; Haberl, U; Nachtnebel, H P

    2008-01-01

    Hydrological models for flood forecasting in Alpine basins need accurate representation of snow accumulation and snow melt processes. A continuous, semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model with snow modelling procedures using only precipitation and temperature as input is presented. Simulation results from an application in an Alpine Danube tributary watershed are shown and evaluated with snow depth measurements and MODIS remote sensing snow cover information. Seasonal variations of runoff due to snow melt were simulated accurately. Evaluation of simulated snow depth and snow covered area showed strengths and limitations of the model and allowed an assessment of input data quality. MODIS snow cover images were found to be valuable sources of information for hydrological modelling in alpine areas, where ground observations are scarce.

  15. Modelling snow accumulation and snow melt in a continuous hydrological model for real-time flood forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanzel, Ph; Haberl, U; Nachtnebel, H P [Institute of Water Management, Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: philipp.stanzel@boku.ac.at

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models for flood forecasting in Alpine basins need accurate representation of snow accumulation and snow melt processes. A continuous, semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model with snow modelling procedures using only precipitation and temperature as input is presented. Simulation results from an application in an Alpine Danube tributary watershed are shown and evaluated with snow depth measurements and MODIS remote sensing snow cover information. Seasonal variations of runoff due to snow melt were simulated accurately. Evaluation of simulated snow depth and snow covered area showed strengths and limitations of the model and allowed an assessment of input data quality. MODIS snow cover images were found to be valuable sources of information for hydrological modelling in alpine areas, where ground observations are scarce.

  16. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  17. Sequence learning in differentially activated dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    . It is proposed that the neural machinery required in such a learning/retrieval mechanism could involve the NMDA receptor, in conjunction with the ability of dendrites to maintain differentially activated regions. In particular, it is suggested that such a parcellation of the dendrite allows the neuron......Differentially activated areas of a dendrite permit the existence of zones with distinct rates of synaptic modification, and such areas can be individually accessed using a reference signal which localizes synaptic plasticity and memory trace retrieval to certain subregions of the dendrite...... to participate in multiple sequences, which can be learned without suffering from the 'wash-out' of synaptic efficacy associated with superimposition of training patterns. This is a biologically plausible solution to the stability-plasticity dilemma of learning in neural networks....

  18. Con-nectin axons and dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Gerard M J

    2006-07-03

    Unlike adherens junctions, synapses are asymmetric connections, usually between axons and dendrites, that rely on various cell adhesion molecules for structural stability and function. Two cell types of adhesion molecules found at adherens junctions, cadherins and nectins, are thought to mediate homophilic interaction between neighboring cells. In this issue, Togashi et al. (see p. 141) demonstrate that the differential localization of two heterophilic interacting nectins mediates the selective attraction of axons and dendrites in cooperation with cadherins.

  19. Dendritic growth forms of borax crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takoo, R.K.; Patel, B.R.; Joshi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of dendritic forms of borax grown from solutions by the film formation method is given. The changing growth morphology is followed as a function of concentration and temperature. The initial, intermediate and final growth morphologies are described and discussed. Influence of evaporation rate and supersaturation on the mechanism of growth is assessed. It is suggested that under all crystallization conditions, borax crystals have dendritic form in the initial stages of growth. (author)

  20. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hanus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.

  1. Deriving Snow Cover Metrics for Alaska from MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS daily snow cover products provide an opportunity for determining snow onset and melt dates across broad geographic regions; however, cloud cover and polar darkness are limiting factors at higher latitudes. This study presents snow onset and melt dates for Alaska, portions of western Canada and the Russian Far East derived from Terra MODIS snow cover daily 500 m grid data (MOD10A1 and evaluates our method for filling data gaps caused by clouds or polar darkness. Pixels classified as cloud or no data were reclassified by: spatial filtering using neighboring pixel values; temporal filtering using pixel values for days before/after cloud cover; and snow-cycle filtering based on a time series assessment of a pixel’s position within snow accumulation, cover or melt periods. During the 2012 snow year, these gap-filling methods reduced cloud pixels from 27.7% to 3.1%. A total of 12 metrics (e.g., date of first and last snow, date of persistent snow cover and periods of intermittence for each pixel were calculated by snow year. A comparison of MODIS-derived snow onset and melt dates with in situ observations from 244 weather stations generally showed an early bias in MODIS-derived dates and an effect of increasing cloudiness exacerbating bias. Our results show that mean regional duration of seasonal snow cover is 179–311 days/year and that snow cover is often intermittent, with 41% of the area experiencing ≥2 snow-covered periods during a snow season. Other regional-scale patterns in the timing of snow onset and melt are evident in the yearly 500 m gridded products publically available at http://static.gina.alaska.edu/NPS_products/MODIS_snow/.

  2. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Scott

    2009-01-01

    You're smart and savvy, but also busy. This comprehensive guide to Apple's Mac OS X 10.6, Snow Leopard, gives you everything you need to know to live a happy, productive Mac life. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard will have you up and connected lickity split. With a minimum of overhead and a maximum of useful information, you'll cover a lot of ground in the time it takes other books to get you plugged in. If this isn't your first experience with Mac OS X, skip right to the "What's New in Snow Leopard" sections. You may also find yourself using this book as a quick refresher course or a way

  3. Snow Precipitation and Snow Cover Climatic Variability for the Period 1971–2009 in the Southwestern Italian Alps: The 2008–2009 Snow Season Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Fratianni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover greatly influences the climate in the Alpine region and is one of the most relevant parameters for the climate change analysis. Nevertheless, snow precipitation variability is a relatively underexplored field of research because of the lack of long-term, continuous and homogeneous time series. After a historical research aiming to recover continuous records, three high quality time series of snow precipitation and snow depth recorded in the southwestern Italian Alps were analyzed. The comparison between the climatological indices over the 30 years reference period 1971–2000 and the decade 2000–2009 outlined a general decrease in the amount of snow precipitation, and a shift in the seasonal distribution of the snow precipitation in the most recent period. In the analysis of the last decade snow seasons characteristics, the attention was focused on the heavy snowfalls that occurred in Piedmont during the 2008–2009 snow season: MODerate resolution Imager Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover products were used to evaluate snow cover extension at different times during the snow season, and the results were set in relation to the temperatures.

  4. Energy expenditure and clearing snow: a comparison of shovel and snow pusher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolander, J; Louhevaara, V; Ahonen, E; Polari, J; Klen, T

    1995-04-01

    In order to assess the energy demands of manual clearing of snow, nine men did snow clearing work for 15 min with a shovel and a snow pusher. The depth of the snowcover was 400-600 mm representing a very heavy snowfall. Heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (R), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the work tasks. HR, VE, R, and RPE were not significantly different between the shovel and snow pusher. HR averaged (+/- SD) 141 +/- 20 b min-1 with the shovel, and 142 +/- 19 beats.min-1 with the snow pusher. VO2 was 2.1 +/- 0.41.min-1 (63 +/- 12%VO2 max) in shovelling and 2.6 +/- 0.51.min-1 (75 +/- 14%VO2max) in snow pushing (p < 0.001). In conclusion manual clearing of snow in conditions representing heavy snowfalls was found to be strenuous physical work, not suitable for persons with cardiac risk factors, but which may serve as a mode of physical training in healthy adults.

  5. Snow and ice blocking of tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia, Leif

    1998-12-31

    Hydroelectric power development in cold regions causes much concern about operational reliability and dam safety. This thesis studies the temperature distribution in tunnels by means of air temperature measurements in six tunnel spillways and five diversion tunnels. The measurements lasted for two consecutive winters. The air through flow tunnel is used as it causes cooling of both rock and water. In open spillway tunnels, frost reaches the entire tunnel. In spillway tunnels with walls, the frost zones reach about 100 m from the downstream end. In mildly-inclined diversion tunnels, a frost free zone is located in the middle of the tunnel and snow and ice problems were only observed in the inlet and outlet. Severe aufeis is accumulation is observed in the frost zones. The heat transfer from rock to air, water and ice is calculated and used in a prediction model for the calculation of aufeis build-up together with local field observation data. The water penetration of snow plugs is also calculated, based on the heat balance. It takes 20 to 50 days for water to enter the blocked tunnel. The empirical values are 30 to 60 days, but only 1 day if the temperature of the snow pack is 0{sup o}C. Sensitivity analyses are carried out for temperature variations in rock, snow, water and ice. Systematic field observation shows that it is important for hydropower companies to know about the effects of snow and ice blocking in an area. A risk analysis of dam safety is presented for a real case. Finally, the thesis proposes solutions which can reduce the snow and ice problems. 79 refs., 63 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Designing, developing and implementing a living snow fence program for New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Living snow fences (LSF) are a form of passive snow control designed to mitigate blowing and drifting snow problems : on roadways. Blowing and drifting snow can increase the cost of highway maintenance and create hazardous driving : conditions when s...

  7. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  8. Merging datasets from NASA SnowEx to better understand how snow falls and moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, J. A.; Marshall, H. P.; Glenn, N. F.

    2017-12-01

    A modelers ability to estimated snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE) for mountain snow depends strongly on their understanding of snowpack spatial distribution and the soundness of the models initial conditions. This work focuses on the application of data science and efficient algorithms to find optimal locations in mountainous terrain to act as initital conditions for machine driven interpolation methods. By using graphs, collections of pairwise relationships between objects, to describe our data we were able to efficiently search, partition, and understand snowpack from the persepetive of this data structure.

  9. Moving sidewalk for snow board gelande; Snow board gerendemuke ugoku hodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This is a moving sidewalk installed on the indoor type artificial snow board gelande at Shigenobu-cho, Ehime prefecture, constructed for the first time in Shikoku. It carries snow boarders in gelande. The main specifications are as follows. Type: 800 type. Sidewalk width: 600mm. Length: 76.0m. Speed: 30m/min. Inclination angle: 13 degrees (inclination type). The features are as follows. (1) The tread is rubber-belt made and skid-resistant if it gets wet. (2) It is equipped with the each-part antifreezer, considering the snow quality and the environment where it is used at low temperature. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Integration of snow management practices into a detailed snow pack model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves; François, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    The management of snow on ski slopes is a key socio-economic and environmental issue in mountain regions. Indeed the winter sports industry has become a very competitive global market although this economy remains particularly sensitive to weather and snow conditions. The understanding and implementation of snow management in detailed snowpack models is a major step towards a more realistic assessment of the evolution of snow conditions in ski resorts concerning past, present and future climate conditions. Here we describe in a detailed manner the integration of snow management processes (grooming, snowmaking) into the snowpack model Crocus (Spandre et al., Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., in press). The effect of the tiller is explicitly taken into account and its effects on snow properties (density, snow microstructure) are simulated in addition to the compaction induced by the weight of the grooming machine. The production of snow in Crocus is carried out with respect to specific rules and current meteorological conditions. Model configurations and results are described in detail through sensitivity tests of the model of all parameters related to snow management processes. In-situ observations were carried out in four resorts in the French Alps during the 2014-2015 winter season considering for each resort natural, groomed only and groomed plus snowmaking conditions. The model provides realistic simulations of the snowpack properties with respect to these observations. The main uncertainty pertains to the efficiency of the snowmaking process. The observed ratio between the mass of machine-made snow on ski slopes and the water mass used for production was found to be lower than was expected from the literature, in every resort. The model now referred to as "Crocus-Resort" has been proven to provide realistic simulations of snow conditions on ski slopes and may be used for further investigations. Spandre, P., S. Morin, M. Lafaysse, Y. Lejeune, H. François and E. George

  11. Estonian Mean Snow Depth and Duration (1891-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the number of days of snow cover in days per year, and three 10-day snow depth means per month in centimeters from stations across Estonia....

  12. Heavy metals in the snow pack of Semey town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Esenzholova, A.Zh.; Toropov, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The data about the maintenance of heavy metals in the snow pack in various zones of Semey and biogeochemical operation factors of snow pack in Semey are presented in this work. Also the correlation connection between elements is calculated.

  13. Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys, dataset DSI-9808, contains routine snow surveys that run throughout the cold season every 10 days (every five...

  14. [Characteristics of chemical pollution of snow cover in Aktobe areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakov, A Zh

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives data on the nature of snow cover pollution in the urbanized areas in relation to the remoteness from the basic sources of ambient air pollution. The total snow content of carcinogens has been estimated.

  15. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION GCPEX SNOW MICROPHYSICS CASE STUDY V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation GCPEX Snow Microphysics Case Study characterizes the 3-D microphysical evolution and distribution of snow in context of the thermodynamic...

  17. SNOW THICKNESS ON AUSTRE GRØNFJORDBREEN, SVALBARD, FROM RADAR MEASUREMENTS AND STANDARD SNOW SURVEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Lavrentiev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Comparison of two methods of measurements of snow cover thickness on the glacier Austre Grønfjordbreen, Svalbard was performed in the spring of 2014. These methods were the radar (500 MHz observations and standard snow surveys. Measurements were conducted in 77 different points on the surface of the glacier. A good correlation (R2 = 0.98 was revealed. In comparison with the data of snow surveys, the radar measurements show a similar but more detailed pattern of the distribution of the snow cover depth. The discrepancy between the depths of snow cover on maps plotted from data of both methods did not exceed 30 cm in most parts of the glacier. The standard error of interpolation of the radar data onto the entire glacier surface amounts, on average, to 18 cm. This corresponds to the error of radar measurements of 18.8% when an average snow depth is about 160 cm and 9.4% at its maximum thickness of 320 cm. The distance between the measurement points at which the spatial covariance of the snow depth disappears falls between 236 and 283 m along the glacier, and between 117 and 165 m across its position. We compared the results of radar measurements of the pulse-delay time of reflections from the base of the snow cover with the data of manual probe measurements at 10 points and direct measurements of snow depth and average density in 12 snow pits. The average speed of radio waves propagation in the snow was determined as Vcr = 23.4±0.2 cm ns−1. This magnitude and the Looyenga and Kovacs formulas allowed estimating the average density of snow cover ρL = 353.1±13.1 kg m−3 and ρK = 337.4±12.9 kg m−3. The difference from average density measured in 12 pits ρav.meas = 387.4±12.9 kg m−3 amounts to −10.8% and −14.8%. In 2014, according to snow and radar measurements, altitudinal gradient of snow accumulation on the glacier Austre Grønfjordbreen was equal to 0.21 m/100 m, which is smaller than the

  18. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Clay, Timothy M; Woo, Christopher Y; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the induction of antigen-specific T-cell responses, and therefore their use for the active immunotherapy of malignancies has been studied with considerable interest. More than a decade has passed since the publication of the first clinical data of DC-based vaccines, and through this and subsequent studies, a number of important developmental insights have been gleaned. These include the ideal source and type of DCs, the discovery of novel antigens and methods of loading DCs, the role of DC maturation, and the most efficient route of immunization. The generation of immune responses against tumor antigens after DC immunization has been demonstrated, and favorable clinical responses have been reported in some patients; however, it is difficult to pool the results as a whole, and thus the body of data remains inconclusive, in part because of varying DC preparation and vaccination protocols, the use of different forms of antigens, and, most importantly, a lack of rigorous criteria for defining clinical responses. As such, the standardization of clinical and immunologic criteria utilized, as well as DC preparations employed, will allow for the comparison of results across multiple clinical studies and is required in order for future trials to measure the true value and role of this treatment modality. In addition, issues regarding the optimal dose and clinical setting for the application of DC vaccines remain to be resolved, and recent clinical studies have been designed to begin to address these questions.

  19. Three-dimensional structural image analysis and mechanics of snow

    OpenAIRE

    Theile, Thiemo

    2011-01-01

    Summary This work deals with the problem of predicting the mechanical behaviour of dry snow based on the geometries and properties of its constituents. This approach is known as homogenisation. The main constituents of dry snow are ice and air. Their geometry, i.e. the microstructure, varies widely depending on the type of snow. The shape of individual, sintered snow grains varies and may take the form of stellar crystals, rounded and facetted grains or depth hoar crystals. ...

  20. [Analysis of influencing factors of snow hyperspectral polarized reflections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-Qiu; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Qian; Ning, Yan-Ling; Zhong, Gui-Xin

    2010-02-01

    Due to the need of snow monitoring and the impact of the global change on the snow, on the basis of the traditional research on snow, starting from the perspective of multi-angle polarized reflectance, we analyzed the influencing factors of snow from the incidence zenith angles, the detection zenith angles, the detection azimuth angles, polarized angles, the density of snow, the degree of pollution, and the background of the undersurface. It was found that these factors affected the spectral reflectance values of the snow, and the effect of some factors on the polarization hyperspectral reflectance observation is more evident than in the vertical observation. Among these influencing factors, the pollution of snow leads to an obvious change in the snow reflectance spectrum curve, while other factors have little effect on the shape of the snow reflectance spectrum curve and mainly impact the reflection ratio of the snow. Snow reflectance polarization information has not only important theoretical significance, but also wide application prospect, and provides new ideas and methods for the quantitative research on snow using the remote sensing technology.

  1. Collaborative Research: Snow Accumulation and Snow Melt in a Mixed Northern Hardwood-Conifer Forest, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains snow depth, Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), and forest cover characteristics for sites at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in northern New...

  2. Assessment and placement of living snow fences to reduce highway maintenance costs and improve safety (living snow fences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Living snow fences (LSF) are designed plantings of trees and/or shrubs and native grasses along highways, roads : and ditches that create a vegetative buffer that traps and controls blowing and drifting snow. These strategically : placed fences have ...

  3. "Snow Soup" Students Take on Animation Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of producing "Snow Soup"--the 2009 Adobe Flash animation produced by the Computer Game Development and Animation seniors of Washington County Technical High School in Hagerstown, Maryland, for libraries in their area. In addition to the Flash product, the students produced two related Game Maker games, a printed…

  4. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  5. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  6. Combining snow depth and innovative skier flow measurements in order to improve snow grooming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, Carlo Maria; Albrecht, Stéphane; Hargoaa, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, ski resort managers have massively improved their snow management practices, in order to adapt their strategies to the inter-annual variability in snow conditions and to the effects of climate change. New real-time informations, such as snow depth measurements carried out on the ski slopes by grooming machines during their daily operations, have become available, allowing high saving, efficiency and optimization gains (reducing for instance the groomer fuel consumption and operation time and the need for machine-made snow production). In order to take a step forward in improving the grooming techniques, it would be necessary to keep into account also the snow erosion by skiers, which depends mostly on the snow surface properties and on the skier attendance. Today, however, most ski resort managers have only a vague idea of the evolution of the skier flows on each slope during the winter season. In this context, we have developed a new sensor (named Skiflux) able to measure the skier attendance using an infrared beam crossing the slopes. Ten Skiflux sensors have been deployed during the 2016/17 winter season at Val Thorens ski area (French Alps), covering a whole sector of the resort. A dedicated software showing the number of skier passages in real time as been developed as well. Combining this new Skiflux dataset with the snow depth measurements from grooming machines (Snowsat System) and the snow and meteorological conditions measured in-situ (Liberty System from Technoalpin), we were able to create a "real-time skiability index" accounting for the quality of the surface snow and its evolution during the day. Moreover, this new framework allowed us to improve the preparation of ski slopes, suggesting new strategies for adapting the grooming working schedule to the snow quality and the skier attendance. In the near future, this work will benefit from the advances made within the H2020 PROSNOW project ("Provision of a prediction system allowing

  7. The Complete Reconfiguration of Dendritic Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneru, Govind; Flanders, Bret

    2014-03-01

    Reconfigurability-by-design is an important strategy in modern materials science, as materials with this capability could potentially be used to confer hydrophobic, lipophobic, or anti-corrosive character to substrates in a regenerative manner. The present work extends the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA) methodology, which is a technique that employs alternating voltages to grow single crystalline metallic nanowires and nano-dendrites from simple salt solutions, to enable the complete dissolution of macroscopic arrays of metallic dendrites following their growth. Our main finding is that structural reconfiguration of dendritic gold is induced by changes in the MHz-level frequencies of voltages that are applied to the dendrites. Cyclic voltammetry and micro-Raman spectroscopy have been used to show that dendritic gold grows and dissolves by the same chemical mechanisms as bulk gold. Hence, the redox chemistry that occurs at the crystal-solution interface is no different than the established electrochemistry of gold. What differs in this process and allows for reconfiguration to occur is the diffusive behavior of the gold chloride molecules in the solution adjacent to the interface. We will present a simple model that captures the physics of this behavior.

  8. Planetesimal formation starts at the snow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drążkowska, J.; Alibert, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The formation stage of planetesimals represents a major gap in our understanding of the planet formation process. Late-stage planet accretion models typically make arbitrary assumptions about planetesimal and pebble distribution, while dust evolution models predict that planetesimal formation is only possible at some orbital distances. Aims: We wish to test the importance of the water snow line in triggering the formation of the first planetesimals during the gas-rich phase of a protoplanetary disk, when cores of giant planets have to form. Methods: We connected prescriptions for gas disk evolution, dust growth and fragmentation, water ice evaporation and recondensation, the transport of both solids and water vapor, and planetesimal formation via streaming instability into a single one-dimensional model for protoplanetary disk evolution. Results: We find that processes taking place around the snow line facilitate planetesimal formation in two ways. First, because the sticking properties between wet and dry aggregates change, a "traffic jam" inside of the snow line slows the fall of solids onto the star. Second, ice evaporation and outward diffusion of water followed by its recondensation increases the abundance of icy pebbles that trigger planetesimal formation via streaming instability just outside of the snow line. Conclusions: Planetesimal formation is hindered by growth barriers and radial drift and thus requires particular conditions to take place. The snow line is a favorable location where planetesimal formation is possible for a wide range of conditions, but not in every protoplanetary disk model, however. This process is particularly promoted in large cool disks with low intrinsic turbulence and an increased initial dust-to-gas ratio. The movie attached to Fig. 3 is only available at http://www.aanda.org

  9. MODIS Snow Cover Recovery Using Variational Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Nguyen, P.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud obscuration is one of the major problems that limit the usages of satellite images in general and in NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global Snow-Covered Area (SCA) products in particular. Among the approaches to resolve the problem, the Variational Interpolation (VI) algorithm method, proposed by Xia et al., 2012, obtains cloud-free dynamic SCA images from MODIS. This method is automatic and robust. However, computational deficiency is a main drawback that degrades applying the method for larger scales (i.e., spatial and temporal scales). To overcome this difficulty, this study introduces an improved version of the original VI. The modified VI algorithm integrates the MINimum RESidual (MINRES) iteration (Paige and Saunders., 1975) to prevent the system from breaking up when applied to much broader scales. An experiment was done to demonstrate the crash-proof ability of the new algorithm in comparison with the original VI method, an ability that is obtained when maintaining the distribution of the weights set after solving the linear system. After that, the new VI algorithm was applied to the whole Contiguous United States (CONUS) over four winter months of 2016 and 2017, and validated using the snow station network (SNOTEL). The resulting cloud free images have high accuracy in capturing the dynamical changes of snow in contrast with the MODIS snow cover maps. Lastly, the algorithm was applied to create a Cloud free images dataset from March 10, 2000 to February 28, 2017, which is able to provide an overview of snow trends over CONUS for nearly two decades. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe would like to acknowledge NASA, NOAA Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) National Weather Service (NWS), Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites (CICS), Army Research Office (ARO), ICIWaRM, and UNESCO for supporting this research.

  10. The Goddard Snow Radiance Assimilation Project: An Integrated Snow Radiance and Snow Physics Modeling Framework for Snow/cold Land Surface Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; Reichle, R.; Choudhury, B.; Peters-Lidard C.; Foster, J.; Hall, D.; Riggs, G.

    2006-01-01

    Microwave-based retrievals of snow parameters from satellite observations have a long heritage and have so far been generated primarily by regression-based empirical "inversion" methods based on snapshots in time. Direct assimilation of microwave radiance into physical land surface models can be used to avoid errors associated with such retrieval/inversion methods, instead utilizing more straightforward forward models and temporal information. This approach has been used for years for atmospheric parameters by the operational weather forecasting community with great success. Recent developments in forward radiative transfer modeling, physical land surface modeling, and land data assimilation are converging to allow the assembly of an integrated framework for snow/cold lands modeling and radiance assimilation. The objective of the Goddard snow radiance assimilation project is to develop such a framework and explore its capabilities. The key elements of this framework include: a forward radiative transfer model (FRTM) for snow, a snowpack physical model, a land surface water/energy cycle model, and a data assimilation scheme. In fact, multiple models are available for each element enabling optimization to match the needs of a particular study. Together these form a modular and flexible framework for self-consistent, physically-based remote sensing and water/energy cycle studies. In this paper we will describe the elements and the integration plan. All modules will operate within the framework of the Land Information System (LIS), a land surface modeling framework with data assimilation capabilities running on a parallel-node computing cluster. Capabilities for assimilation of snow retrieval products are already under development for LIS. We will describe plans to add radiance-based assimilation capabilities. Plans for validation activities using field measurements will also be discussed.

  11. Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčí Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL elevation, snow cover area (SCA and depletion (SCD in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians. Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005 and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005 with resolution 500 m are used.

  12. Estimation of the condition of snow cover in Voronezh according to the chemical analysis of water from melted snow

    OpenAIRE

    Prozhorina Tatyana Ivanovna; Bespalova Elena Vladimirovna; Yakunina Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    Snow cover possesses high sorption ability and represents informative object to identify technogenic pollution of an urban environment. In this article the investigation data of a chemical composition of snow fallen in Voronezh during the winter period of 2014 are given. Relationships between existence of pollutants in snow and the level of technogenic effect are analyzed.

  13. Snowscape Ecology: Linking Snow Properties to Wildlife Movements and Demography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugh, L.; Verbyla, D.; van de Kerk, M.; Mahoney, P.; Sivy, K. J.; Liston, G. E.; Nolin, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Snow enshrouds up to one third of the global land mass annually and exerts a major influence on animals that reside in these "snowscapes," (landscapes covered in snow). Dynamic snowscapes may have especially strong effects in arctic and boreal regions where dry snow persists for much of the year. Changes in temperature and hydrology are transforming northern regions, with profound implications for wildlife that are not well understood. We report initial findings from a NASA ABoVE project examining effects of snow properties on Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli). We used the MODSCAG snow fraction product to map spring snowline elevations and snow-off dates from 2000-2015 throughout the global range of Dall sheep in Alaska and northwestern Canada. We found a negative effect of spring snow cover on Dall sheep recruitment that increased with latitude. Using meteorological data and a daily freeze/thaw status product derived from passive microwave remote sensing from 1983-2012, we found that sheep survival rates increased in years with higher temperatures, less winter precipitation, fewer spring freeze-thaw events, and more winter freeze-thaw events. To examine the effects of snow depth and density on sheep movements, we used location data from GPS-collared sheep and a snowpack evolution model (SnowModel). We found that sheep selected for shallow, fluffy snow at high elevations, but they selected for denser snow as depth increased. Our field measurements identified a critical snow density threshold of 329 (± 18 SE) kg/m3 to support the weight of Dall sheep. Thus, sheep may require areas of shallow, fluffy snow for foraging, while relying on hard-packed snow for winter travel. These findings highlight the importance of multiple snowscape properties on wildlife movements and demography. The integrated study of snow properties and ecological processes, which we call snowscape ecology, will greatly improve global change forecasting.

  14. Water and life from snow: A trillion dollar science question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Matthew; Goldstein, Michael A.; Parr, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Snow provides essential resources/services in the form of water for human use, and climate regulation in the form of enhanced cooling of the Earth. In addition, it supports a thriving winter outdoor recreation industry. To date, the financial evaluation of the importance of snow is incomplete and hence the need for accelerated snow research is not as clear as it could be. With snow cover changing worldwide in several worrisome ways, there is pressing need to determine global, regional, and local rates of snow cover change, and to link these to financial analyses that allow for rational decision making, as risks related to those decisions involve trillions of dollars.

  15. Snow observations in Mount Lebanon (2011-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; Fanise, Pascal; Drapeau, Laurent; Somma, Janine; Fadel, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    We present a unique meteorological and snow observational dataset in Mount Lebanon, a mountainous region with a Mediterranean climate, where snowmelt is an essential water resource. The study region covers the recharge area of three karstic river basins (total area of 1092 km2 and an elevation up to 3088 m). The dataset consists of (1) continuous meteorological and snow height observations, (2) snowpack field measurements, and (3) medium-resolution satellite snow cover data. The continuous meteorological measurements at three automatic weather stations (MZA, 2296 m; LAQ, 1840 m; and CED, 2834 m a.s.l.) include surface air temperature and humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, incoming and reflected shortwave irradiance, and snow height, at 30 min intervals for the snow seasons (November-June) between 2011 and 2016 for MZA and between 2014 and 2016 for CED and LAQ. Precipitation data were filtered and corrected for Geonor undercatch. Observations of snow height (HS), snow water equivalent, and snow density were collected at 30 snow courses located at elevations between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l. during the two snow seasons of 2014-2016 with an average revisit time of 11 days. Daily gap-free snow cover extent (SCA) and snow cover duration (SCD) maps derived from MODIS snow products are provided for the same period (2011-2016). We used the dataset to characterize mean snow height, snow water equivalent (SWE), and density for the first time in Mount Lebanon. Snow seasonal variability was characterized with high HS and SWE variance and a relatively high snow density mean equal to 467 kg m-3. We find that the relationship between snow depth and snow density is specific to the Mediterranean climate. The current model explained 34 % of the variability in the entire dataset (all regions between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l.) and 62 % for high mountain regions (elevation 2200-2900 m a.s.l.). The dataset is suitable for the investigation of snow dynamics and for the forcing

  16. Stress-driven lithium dendrite growth mechanism and dendrite mitigation by electroplating on soft substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zeng, Wei; Hong, Liang; Xu, Wenwen; Yang, Haokai; Wang, Fan; Duan, Huigao; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Hanqing

    2018-03-01

    Problems related to dendrite growth on lithium-metal anodes such as capacity loss and short circuit present major barriers to next-generation high-energy-density batteries. The development of successful lithium dendrite mitigation strategies is impeded by an incomplete understanding of the Li dendrite growth mechanisms, and in particular, Li-plating-induced internal stress in Li metal and its effect on Li growth morphology are not well addressed. Here, we reveal the enabling role of plating residual stress in dendrite formation through depositing Li on soft substrates and a stress-driven dendrite growth model. We show that dendrite growth is mitigated on such soft substrates through surface-wrinkling-induced stress relaxation in the deposited Li film. We demonstrate that this dendrite mitigation mechanism can be utilized synergistically with other existing approaches in the form of three-dimensional soft scaffolds for Li plating, which achieves higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention than that for conventional copper substrates.

  17. Impact of the snow cover scheme on snow distribution and energy budget modeling over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhipeng; Hu, Zeyong; Xie, Zhenghui; Jia, Binghao; Sun, Genhou; Du, Yizhen; Song, Haiqing

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the impact of two snow cover schemes (NY07 and SL12) in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) on the snow distribution and surface energy budget over the Tibetan Plateau. The simulated snow cover fraction (SCF), snow depth, and snow cover days were evaluated against in situ snow depth observations and a satellite-based snow cover product and snow depth dataset. The results show that the SL12 scheme, which considers snow accumulation and snowmelt processes separately, has a higher overall accuracy (81.8%) than the NY07 (75.8%). The newer scheme performs better in the prediction of overall accuracy compared with the NY07; however, SL12 yields a 15.1% underestimation rate while NY07 overestimated the SCF with a 15.2% overestimation rate. Both two schemes capture the distribution of the maximum snow depth well but show large positive biases in the average value through all periods (3.37, 3.15, and 1.48 cm for NY07; 3.91, 3.52, and 1.17 cm for SL12) and overestimate snow cover days compared with the satellite-based product and in situ observations. Higher altitudes show larger root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in the simulations of snow depth and snow cover days during the snow-free period. Moreover, the surface energy flux estimations from the SL12 scheme are generally superior to the simulation from NY07 when evaluated against ground-based observations, in particular for net radiation and sensible heat flux. This study has great implications for further improvement of the subgrid-scale snow variations over the Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Soot in the atmosphere and snow surface of Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.G.; Clarke, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of snow collected near the south pole during January and February 1986 were analyzed for the presence of light-absorbing particles by passing the melted snow through a nuclepore filter. Transmission of light through the filter showed that snow far from the station contains the equivalent of 0.1-0.3 ng of carbon per gram of snow (ng/g). Samples of ambient air were filtered and found to contain about 1-2 ng of carbon per kilogram of air, giving a scavenging ratio of about 150. The snow downwind of the station exhibited a well-defined plume of soot due to the burning of diesel fuel, but even in the center of the plume 1 km downwind, the soot concentration was only 3 ng/g, too small to affect snow albedo significantly. Measurements of snow albedo near large inland stations are therefore probably representative of their surrounding regions

  19. Objective Characterization of Snow Microstructure for Microwave Emission Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Michael; Kim, Edward J.; Molotch, Noah P.; Margulis, Steven A.; Courville, Zoe; Malzler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave (PM) measurements are sensitive to the presence and quantity of snow, a fact that has long been used to monitor snowcover from space. In order to estimate total snow water equivalent (SWE) within PM footprints (on the order of approx 100 sq km), it is prerequisite to understand snow microwave emission at the point scale and how microwave radiation integrates spatially; the former is the topic of this paper. Snow microstructure is one of the fundamental controls on the propagation of microwave radiation through snow. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the prospects for driving the Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks with objective measurements of snow specific surface area to reproduce measured brightness temperatures when forced with objective measurements of snow specific surface area (S). This eliminates the need to treat the grain size as a free-fit parameter.

  20. Apparatus for growing a dendritic web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.S.; Mchugh, J.P.; Piotrowski, P.A.; Skutch, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    A melt system including a susceptor-crucible assembly having improved gradient control when melt replenishment is used during dendritic web growth. The improvement lies in the formation of a thermal barrier in the base of the receptor which is in the form of a vertical slot in the region of the susceptor underlying the crucible at the location of a compartmental separator dividing the crucible into a growth compartment and a melt replenishment compartment. The result achieved is a step change in temperature gradient in the melt thereby providing a more uniform temperature in the growth compartment from which the dendritic web is drawn

  1. Dendrite tungsten liquation in molybdenum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, M.M.; Ageeva, E.N.; Kolotinskij, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made on primary crystallization structure of ingots of Mo-W-B system alloys with electron microscopy were used to establish, that cells and cellular dendrites were the main elements of primary crystallization structure. Method of local X-ray spectral analysis enabled to establish, that intracrystallite liquation at cellular growth developed more intensively, as compared to the case of cellular dendrite formation. Change of boron content in alloys didn't practically affect the degree of development of intracrystallite W liquation in Mo

  2. Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Dajun; Yin, Hang; Zhaxi, Duojie; Jiagong, Zhala; Schaller, George B; Mishra, Charudutt; McCarthy, Thomas M; Wang, Hao; Wu, Lan; Xiao, Lingyun; Basang, Lamao; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhou, Yunyun; Lu, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia, including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China's Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km(2) of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km(2) lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve's core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km(2) ) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve's core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders' attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  4. A probabilistic model for snow avalanche occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, P.; Miescher, A.; Porporato, A.

    2009-04-01

    Avalanche hazard forecasting is an important issue in relation to the protection of urbanized environments, ski resorts and of ski-touring alpinists. A critical point is to predict the conditions that trigger the snow mass instability determining the onset and the size of avalanches. On steep terrains the risk of avalanches is known to be related to preceding consistent snowfall events and to subsequent changes in the local climatic conditions. Regression analysis has shown that avalanche occurrence indeed correlates to the amount of snow fallen in consecutive three snowing days and to the state of the settled snow at the ground. Moreover, since different type of avalanches may occur as a result of the interactions of different factors, the process of snow avalanche formation is inherently complex and with some degree of unpredictability. For this reason, although several models assess the risk of avalanche by accounting for all the involved processes with a great detail, a high margin of uncertainty invariably remains. In this work, we explicitly describe such an unpredictable behaviour with an intrinsic noise affecting the processes leading snow instability. Eventually, this sets the basis for a minimalist stochastic model, which allows us to investigate the avalanche dynamics and its statistical properties. We employ a continuous time process with stochastic jumps (snowfalls), deterministic decay (snowmelt and compaction) and state dependent avalanche occurrence (renewals) as a minimalist model for the determination of avalanche size and related intertime occurrence. The physics leading to avalanches is simplified to the extent where only meteorological data and terrain data are necessary to estimate avalanche danger. We explore the analytical formulation of the process and the properties of the probability density function of the avalanche process variables. We also discuss what is the probabilistic link between avalanche size and preceding snowfall event and

  5. Regulation of dendrite growth and maintenance by exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Lee, Jiae; Rowland, Kimberly; Wen, Yuhui; Hua, Hope; Carlson, Nicole; Lavania, Shweta; Parrish, Jay Z.; Kim, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendrites lengthen by several orders of magnitude during neuronal development, but how membrane is allocated in dendrites to facilitate this growth remains unclear. Here, we report that Ras opposite (Rop), the Drosophila ortholog of the key exocytosis regulator Munc18-1 (also known as STXBP1), is an essential factor mediating dendrite growth. Neurons with depleted Rop function exhibit reduced terminal dendrite outgrowth followed by primary dendrite degeneration, suggestive of differential requirements for exocytosis in the growth and maintenance of different dendritic compartments. Rop promotes dendrite growth together with the exocyst, an octameric protein complex involved in tethering vesicles to the plasma membrane, with Rop–exocyst complexes and exocytosis predominating in primary dendrites over terminal dendrites. By contrast, membrane-associated proteins readily diffuse from primary dendrites into terminals, but not in the reverse direction, suggesting that diffusion, rather than targeted exocytosis, supplies membranous material for terminal dendritic growth, revealing key differences in the distribution of materials to these expanding dendritic compartments. PMID:26483382

  6. Transient potentials in dendritic systems of arbitrary geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, E G; Cowan, J D

    1974-09-01

    A simple graphical calculus is developed that generates analytic solutions for membrane potential transforms at any point on the dendritic tree of neurons with arbitrary dendritic geometries, in response to synaptic "current" inputs. Such solutions permit the computation of transients in neurons with arbitrary geometry and may facilitate analysis of the role of dendrites in such cells.

  7. Effects of multilayer snow scheme on the simulation of snow: Offline Noah and coupled with NCEP CFSv2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subodh Kumar; Sujith, K.; Pokhrel, Samir; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Hazra, Anupam

    2017-03-01

    The Noah version 2.7.1 is a moderately complex land surface model (LSM), with a single layer snowpack, combined with vegetation and underlying soil layer. Many previous studies have pointed out biases in the simulation of snow, which may hinder the skill of a forecasting system coupled with the Noah. In order to improve the simulation of snow by the Noah, a multilayer snow scheme (up to a maximum of six layers) is introduced. As Noah is the land surface component of the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the modified Noah is also coupled with the CFSv2. The offline LSM shows large improvements in the simulation of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow cover area during snow season (October to June). CFSv2 with the modified Noah reveals a dramatic improvements in the simulation of snow depth and 2 m air temperature and moderate improvements in SWE. As suggested in the previous diagnostic and sensitivity study, improvements in the simulation of snow by CFSv2 have lead to the reduction in dry bias over the Indian subcontinent (by a maximum of 2 mm d-1). The multilayer snow scheme shows promising results in the simulation of snow as well as Indian summer monsoon rainfall and hence this development may be the part of the future version of the CFS.

  8. Estimation of Snow Particle Model Suitable for a Complex and Forested Terrain: Lessons from SnowEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Li, W.; Stamnes, K. H.; Poudyal, R.; Fan, Y.; Chen, N.

    2017-12-01

    SnowEx 2017 obtained consistent and coordinated ground and airborne remote sensing measurements over Grand Mesa in Colorado, which feature sufficient forested stands to have a range of density and height (and other forest conditions); a range of snow depth/snow water equivalent (SWE) conditions; sufficiently flat snow-covered terrain of a size comparable to airborne instrument swath widths. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) data from SnowEx are unique and can be used to assess the accuracy of Bidirectional Reflectance-Distribution Functions (BRDFs) calculated by different snow models. These measurements provide multiple angle and multiple wavelength data needed for accurate surface BRDF characterization. Such data cannot easily be obtained by current satellite remote sensors. Compared to ground-based snow field measurements, CAR measurements minimize the effect of self-shading, and are adaptable to a wide variety of field conditions. We plan to use the CAR measurements as the validation data source for our snow modeling effort. By comparing calculated BRDF results from different snow models to CAR measurements, we can determine which model best explains the snow BRDFs, and is therefore most suitable for application to satellite remote sensing of snow parameters and surface energy budget calculations.

  9. Evaluation of snow cover and snow depth on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP plays a significant role in the global climate system and is an important water resource for rivers in the high-elevation region of Asia. At present, passive microwave (PMW remote sensing data are the only efficient way to monitor temporal and spatial variations in snow depth at large scale. However, existing snow depth products show the largest uncertainties across the QTP. In this study, MODIS fractional snow cover product, point, line and intense sampling data are synthesized to evaluate the accuracy of snow cover and snow depth derived from PMW remote sensing data and to analyze the possible causes of uncertainties. The results show that the accuracy of snow cover extents varies spatially and depends on the fraction of snow cover. Based on the assumption that grids with MODIS snow cover fraction > 10 % are regarded as snow cover, the overall accuracy in snow cover is 66.7 %, overestimation error is 56.1 %, underestimation error is 21.1 %, commission error is 27.6 % and omission error is 47.4 %. The commission and overestimation errors of snow cover primarily occur in the northwest and southeast areas with low ground temperature. Omission error primarily occurs in cold desert areas with shallow snow, and underestimation error mainly occurs in glacier and lake areas. With the increase of snow cover fraction, the overestimation error decreases and the omission error increases. A comparison between snow depths measured in field experiments, measured at meteorological stations and estimated across the QTP shows that agreement between observation and retrieval improves with an increasing number of observation points in a PMW grid. The misclassification and errors between observed and retrieved snow depth are associated with the relatively coarse resolution of PMW remote sensing, ground temperature, snow characteristics and topography. To accurately understand the variation in snow

  10. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Françoise; Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  11. The AMSR2 Satellite-based Microwave Snow Algorithm (SMSA) to estimate regional to global snow depth and snow water equivalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. E. J.; Saberi, N.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    With moderate to high spatial resolution (observation approaches yet to be fully scoped and developed, the long-term satellite passive microwave record remains an important tool for cryosphere-climate diagnostics. A new satellite microwave remote sensing approach is described for estimating snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE). The algorithm, called the Satellite-based Microwave Snow Algorithm (SMSA), uses Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - 2 (AMSR2) observations aboard the Global Change Observation Mission - Water mission launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 2012. The approach is unique since it leverages observed brightness temperatures (Tb) with static ancillary data to parameterize a physically-based retrieval without requiring parameter constraints from in situ snow depth observations or historical snow depth climatology. After screening snow from non-snow surface targets (water bodies [including freeze/thaw state], rainfall, high altitude plateau regions [e.g. Tibetan plateau]), moderate and shallow snow depths are estimated by minimizing the difference between Dense Media Radiative Transfer model estimates (Tsang et al., 2000; Picard et al., 2011) and AMSR2 Tb observations to retrieve SWE and SD. Parameterization of the model combines a parsimonious snow grain size and density approach originally developed by Kelly et al. (2003). Evaluation of the SMSA performance is achieved using in situ snow depth data from a variety of standard and experiment data sources. Results presented from winter seasons 2012-13 to 2016-17 illustrate the improved performance of the new approach in comparison with the baseline AMSR2 algorithm estimates and approach the performance of the model assimilation-based approach of GlobSnow. Given the variation in estimation power of SWE by different land surface/climate models and selected satellite-derived passive microwave approaches, SMSA provides SWE estimates that are independent of real or near real

  12. Global warming: Sea ice and snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of differences among global climate simulations under scenarios where atmospheric CO 2 is doubled, all models indicate at least some amplification of greenouse warming at the polar regions. Several decades of recent data on air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover of the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are summarized to illustrate the general compatibility of recent variations in those parameters. Despite a data void over the Arctic Ocean, some noteworthy patterns emerge. Warming dominates in winter and spring, as projected by global climate models, with the warming strongest over subpolar land areas of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Eurasia. A time-longitude summary of Arctic sea ice variations indicates that timescales of most anomalies range from several months to several years. Wintertime maxima of total sea ice extent contain no apparent secular trends. The statistical significance of trends in recent sea ice variations was evaluated by a Monte Carlo procedure, showing a statistically significant negative trend in the summer. Snow cover data over the 20-y period of record show a noticeable decrease of Arctic snow cover in the late 1980s. This is of potential climatic significance since the accompanying decrease of surface albedo leads to a rapid increase of solar heating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Effects of dirty snow in nuclear winter simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelmann, A.M.; Robock, A.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    A large-scale nuclear war would inject smoke into the atmosphere from burning forests, cities, and industries in targeted areas. This smoke could fall out onto snow and ice and would lower cryospheric albedos by as much as 50%. A global energy balance climate model is used to investigate the maximum effect these ''dirty snow'' albedos have on the surface temperature in nuclear winter simulations which span several years. These effects are investigated for different nuclear winter scenarios, snow precipitation rates, latitudinal distributions of smoke, and seasonal timings. We find that dirty snow, in general, would have a small temperature effect at mid- and low latitudes but could have a large temperature effect at polar latitudes, particularly if the soot is able to reappear significantly in later summers. Factors which limit the climatic importance of the dirty snow are (1) the dirty snow albedo is lowest when the atmosphere still contains a large amount of light-absorbing smoke; (2) even with dirty snow, sea ice areas can still increase, which helps maintain colder temperatures through the sea ice thermal inertial feedback; (3) the snow and ice areas affected by the dirty snow albedos are largest when there is little seasonal solar insolation; and (4) the area affected by the dirty snow is relatively small under all circumstances. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  14. Peptides and proteins in dendritic assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baal, van I.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple, simultaneous interactions are often used in biology to enhance the affinity and specificity of binding, an effect referred to as multivalency. This multivalency can be mimicked by anchoring multiple peptides and proteins onto synthetic dendritic scaffolds. The aim of this research was to

  15. Targeting nanoparticles to dendritic cells for immunotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, L.J.; Tacken, P.J.; Rueda, F.; Domingo, J.C.; Albericio, F.; Figdor, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the initiation of adaptive immune responses and are currently exploited in immunotherapy for treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Development of targeted nanodelivery systems carrying vaccine components, including antigens and adjuvants, to DCs in

  16. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  17. Dendritic cells: biology of the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebak, M.J.; Gibbs, S.; Bruynzeel, D.P.; Scheper, R.J.; Rustemeyer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis results from a T-cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response induced by allergens. Skin dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation of allergic skin responses. Following encounter with an allergen, DCs become activated and undergo

  18. Thermosolutal convection and macrosegregation in dendritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, David R.; Heinrich, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model of solidification, that simulates the formation of channel segregates or freckles, is presented. The model simulates the entire solidification process, starting with the initial melt to the solidified cast, and the resulting segregation is predicted. Emphasis is given to the initial transient, when the dendritic zone begins to develop and the conditions for the possible nucleation of channels are established. The mechanisms that lead to the creation and eventual growth or termination of channels are explained in detail and illustrated by several numerical examples. A finite element model is used for the simulations. It uses a single system of equations to deal with the all-liquid region, the dendritic region, and the all-solid region. The dendritic region is treated as an anisotropic porous medium. The algorithm uses the bilinear isoparametric element, with a penalty function approximation and a Petrov-Galerkin formulation. The major task was to develop the solidification model. In addition, other tasks that were performed in conjunction with the modeling of dendritic solidification are briefly described.

  19. Dendritic cells in peripheral tolerance and immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Monika; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells capable of influencing immunity exist as functionally distinct subsets, T cell-tolerizing and T cell-immunizing subsets. The present paper reviews how these subsets of DCs develop, differentiate and function in vivo and in vitro at the cellular and molecular level. In particular...

  20. Dendritic cells modified by vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ayako Wakatsuki; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Zocca, Mai-Britt

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, express nuclear receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD3) and they are one of its main targets. In the presence of VD3, DCs differentiate into a phenotype that resembles semimature DCs, with reduced T cell ...

  1. Snow cover distribution over elevation zones in a mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagoulia, D.; Panagopoulos, Y.

    2009-04-01

    A good understanding of the elevetional distribution of snow cover is necessary to predict the timing and volume of runoff. In a complex mountainous terrain the snow cover distribution within a watershed is highly variable in time and space and is dependent on elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation type, surface roughness, radiation load, and energy exchange at the snow-air interface. Decreases in snowpack due to climate change could disrupt the downstream urban and agricultural water supplies, while increases could lead to seasonal flooding. Solar and longwave radiation are dominant energy inputs driving the ablation process. Turbulent energy exchange at the snow cover surface is important during the snow season. The evaporation of blowing and drifting snow is strongly dependent upon wind speed. Much of the spatial heterogeneity of snow cover is the result of snow redistribution by wind. Elevation is important in determining temperature and precipitation gradients along hillslopes, while the temperature gradients determine where precipitation falls as rain and snow and contribute to variable melt rates within the hillslope. Under these premises, the snow accumulation and ablation (SAA) model of the US National Weather Service (US NWS) was applied to implement the snow cover extent over elevation zones of a mountainous catchment (the Mesochora catchment in Western-Central Greece), taking also into account the indirectly included processes of sublimation, interception, and snow redistribution. The catchment hydrology is controlled by snowfall and snowmelt and the simulated discharge was computed from the soil moisture accounting (SMA) model of the US NWS and compared to the measured discharge. The elevationally distributed snow cover extent presented different patterns with different time of maximization, extinction and return during the year, producing different timing of discharge that is a crucial factor for the control and management of water resources systems.

  2. Small scale variability of snow properties on Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Nander; Leonard, Katherine; Paul, Stephan; Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Proksch, Martin; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Snow on sea ice plays an important role in air-ice-sea interactions, as snow accumulation may for example increase the albedo. Snow is also able to smooth the ice surface, thereby reducing the surface roughness, while at the same time it may generate new roughness elements by interactions with the wind. Snow density is a key property in many processes, for example by influencing the thermal conductivity of the snow layer, radiative transfer inside the snow as well as the effects of aerodynamic forcing on the snowpack. By comparing snow density and grain size from snow pits and snow micro penetrometer (SMP) measurements, highly resolved density and grain size profiles were acquired during two subsequent cruises of the RV Polarstern in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, between June and October 2013. During the first cruise, SMP measurements were done along two approximately 40 m transects with a horizontal resolution of approximately 30 cm. During the second cruise, one transect was made with approximately 7.5 m resolution over a distance of 500 m. Average snow densities are about 300 kg/m3, but the analysis also reveals a high spatial variability in snow density on sea ice in both horizontal and vertical direction, ranging from roughly 180 to 360 kg/m3. This variability is expressed by coherent snow structures over several meters. On the first cruise, the measurements were accompanied by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) on an area of 50x50 m2. The comparison with the TLS data indicates that the spatial variability is exhibiting similar spatial patterns as deviations in surface topology. This suggests a strong influence from surface processes, for example wind, on the temporal development of density or grain size profiles. The fundamental relationship between variations in snow properties, surface roughness and changes therein as investigated in this study is interpreted with respect to large-scale ice movement and the mass balance.

  3. Monitoring Areal Snow Cover Using NASA Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshburger, Brian J.; Blandford, Troy; Moore, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop products and tools to assist in the hydrologic modeling process, including tools to help prepare inputs for hydrologic models and improved methods for the visualization of streamflow forecasts. In addition, this project will facilitate the use of NASA satellite imagery (primarily snow cover imagery) by other federal and state agencies with operational streamflow forecasting responsibilities. A GIS software toolkit for monitoring areal snow cover extent and producing streamflow forecasts is being developed. This toolkit will be packaged as multiple extensions for ArcGIS 9.x and an opensource GIS software package. The toolkit will provide users with a means for ingesting NASA EOS satellite imagery (snow cover analysis), preparing hydrologic model inputs, and visualizing streamflow forecasts. Primary products include a software tool for predicting the presence of snow under clouds in satellite images; a software tool for producing gridded temperature and precipitation forecasts; and a suite of tools for visualizing hydrologic model forecasting results. The toolkit will be an expert system designed for operational users that need to generate accurate streamflow forecasts in a timely manner. The Remote Sensing of Snow Cover Toolbar will ingest snow cover imagery from multiple sources, including the MODIS Operational Snowcover Data and convert them to gridded datasets that can be readily used. Statistical techniques will then be applied to the gridded snow cover data to predict the presence of snow under cloud cover. The toolbar has the ability to ingest both binary and fractional snow cover data. Binary mapping techniques use a set of thresholds to determine whether a pixel contains snow or no snow. Fractional mapping techniques provide information regarding the percentage of each pixel that is covered with snow. After the imagery has been ingested, physiographic data is attached to each cell in the snow cover image. This data

  4. Randomly oriented twin domains in electrodeposited silver dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Evica R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver dendrites were prepared by electrochemical deposition. The structures of Ag dendrites, the type of twins and their distribution were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Z-contrast high angle annular dark field transmission electron microscopy (HAADF, and crystallografically sensitive orientation imaging microscopy (OIM. The results revealed that silver dendrites are characterized by the presence of randomly distributed 180° rotational twin domains. The broad surface of dendrites was of the {111} type. Growth directions of the main dendrite stem and all branches were of type. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172054

  5. Activity-dependent trafficking of lysosomes in dendrites and dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Marisa S; Sancho, Laura; Slepak, Natalia; Boassa, Daniela; Deerinck, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Bloodgood, Brenda L; Patrick, Gentry N

    2017-08-07

    In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. We find that lysosome inhibition alters their mobility and also decreases dendritic spine number. Furthermore, perturbing microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics has an inverse relationship on the distribution and motility of lysosomes in dendrites. We also find trafficking of lysosomes is correlated with synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors. Strikingly, lysosomes traffic to dendritic spines in an activity-dependent manner and can be recruited to individual spines in response to local activation. These data indicate the position of lysosomes is regulated by synaptic activity and thus plays an instructive role in the turnover of synaptic membrane proteins. © 2017 Goo et al.

  6. The Airborne Snow Observatory: fusion of scanning lidar, imaging spectrometer, and physically-based modeling for mapping snow water equivalent and snow albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow cover and its melt dominate regional climate and water resources in many of the world’s mountainous regions. Snowmelt timing and magnitude in mountains tend to be controlled by absorption of solar radiation and snow water equivalent, respectively, and yet both of these are very poorly known ev...

  7. Phospholipid Homeostasis Regulates Dendrite Morphogenesis in Drosophila Sensory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Meltzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in lipid homeostasis have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with dendrite morphogenesis defects. However, the molecular mechanisms of how lipid homeostasis affects dendrite morphogenesis are unclear. We find that easily shocked (eas, which encodes a kinase with a critical role in phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE synthesis, and two other enzymes in this synthesis pathway are required cell autonomously in sensory neurons for dendrite growth and stability. Furthermore, we show that the level of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP activity is important for dendrite development. SREBP activity increases in eas mutants, and decreasing the level of SREBP and its transcriptional targets in eas mutants largely suppresses the dendrite growth defects. Furthermore, reducing Ca2+ influx in neurons of eas mutants ameliorates the dendrite morphogenesis defects. Our study uncovers a role for EAS kinase and reveals the in vivo function of phospholipid homeostasis in dendrite morphogenesis.

  8. Deriving Snow-Cover Depletion Curves for Different Spatial Scales from Remote Sensing and Snow Telemetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, Steven R.; Sexstone, Graham A.; Kashipazha, Amir H.; Lopez-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Jasinski, Michael F.; Kampf, Stephanie K.; Von Thaden, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    During the melting of a snowpack, snow water equivalent (SWE) can be correlated to snow-covered area (SCA) once snow-free areas appear, which is when SCA begins to decrease below 100%. This amount of SWE is called the threshold SWE. Daily SWE data from snow telemetry stations were related to SCA derived from moderate-resolution imaging spectro radiometer images to produce snow-cover depletion curves. The snow depletion curves were created for an 80,000 sq km domain across southern Wyoming and northern Colorado encompassing 54 snow telemetry stations. Eight yearly snow depletion curves were compared, and it is shown that the slope of each is a function of the amount of snow received. Snow-cover depletion curves were also derived for all the individual stations, for which the threshold SWE could be estimated from peak SWE and the topography around each station. A stations peak SWE was much more important than the main topographic variables that included location, elevation, slope, and modelled clear sky solar radiation. The threshold SWE mostly illustrated inter-annual consistency.

  9. Observations of distributed snow depth and snow duration within diverse forest structures in a maritime mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson-Lange, Susan E.; Lutz, James A.; Gersonde, Rolf; Martin, Kael A.; Forsyth, Jenna E.; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-11-01

    Spatially distributed snow depth and snow duration data were collected over two to four snow seasons during water years 2011-2014 in experimental forest plots within the Cedar River Municipal Watershed, 50 km east of Seattle, Washington, USA. These 40 × 40 m forest plots, situated on the western slope of the Cascade Range, include unthinned second-growth coniferous forests, variable density thinned forests, forest gaps in which a 20 m diameter (approximately equivalent to one tree height) gap was cut in the middle of each plot, and old-growth forest. Together, this publicly available data set includes snow depth and density observations from manual snow surveys, distributed snow duration observations from ground temperature sensors and time-lapse cameras, meteorological data collected at two open locations and three forested locations, and forest canopy data from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and hemispherical photographs. These colocated snow, meteorological, and forest data have the potential to improve understanding of forest influences on snow processes, and provide a unique model-testing data set for hydrological analyses in a forested, maritime watershed. We present empirical snow depletion curves within forests to illustrate an application of these data to improve subgrid representation of snow cover in distributed modeling.

  10. A novel linear physical model for remote sensing of snow wetness and snow density using the visible and infrared bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varade, D. M.; Dikshit, O.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling and forecasting of snowmelt runoff are significant for understanding the hydrological processes in the cryosphere which requires timely information regarding snow physical properties such as liquid water content and density of snow in the topmost layer of the snowpack. Both the seasonal runoffs and avalanche forecasting are vastly dependent on the inherent physical characteristics of the snowpack which are conventionally measured by field surveys in difficult terrains at larger impending costs and manpower. With advances in remote sensing technology and the increase in the availability of satellite data, the frequency and extent of these surveys could see a declining trend in future. In this study, we present a novel approach for estimating snow wetness and snow density using visible and infrared bands that are available with most multi-spectral sensors. We define a trapezoidal feature space based on the spectral reflectance in the near infrared band and the Normalized Differenced Snow Index (NDSI), referred to as NIR-NDSI space, where dry snow and wet snow are observed in the left diagonal upper and lower right corners, respectively. The corresponding pixels are extracted by approximating the dry and wet edges which are used to develop a linear physical model to estimate snow wetness. Snow density is then estimated using the modeled snow wetness. Although the proposed approach has used Sentinel-2 data, it can be extended to incorporate data from other multi-spectral sensors. The estimated values for snow wetness and snow density show a high correlation with respect to in-situ measurements. The proposed model opens a new avenue for remote sensing of snow physical properties using multi-spectral data, which were limited in the literature.

  11. Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., Snow Algae: Snow albedo changes, algal-bacterial interrelationships and ultraviolet radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.H.; Duval, B.

    1995-01-01

    In the Tioga Pass area (upper LeeVining Creek watershed) of the Sierra Nevada (California), snow algae were prevalent in the early summers of 1993 and 1994. Significant negative correlations were found between snow water content. However, red snow caused by algal blooms did not decrease mean albedos in representative snowfields. This was due to algal patchiness; mean albedos would not decrease over the whole water catchment basin; and water supplies would not be affected by the presence of algae. Albedo was also reduced by dirt on the snow, and wind-blown dirt may provide a source of allochthonous organic matter for snow bacteria. However, several observations emphasize the importance of an autochthonous source for bacterial nutrition. Bacterial abundances and production rates were higher in red snow containing algae than in noncolored snow. Bacterial production was about two orders-of-magnitude lower than photosynthetic algal production. Bacteria were also sometimes attached to algal cells. In experiments where snow algae were contained in UV-transmitting quartz tubes, ultraviolet radiation inhibited red snow (collected form open, sunlit areas) photosynthesis about 25%, while green snow (collected from forested, shady locations) photosynthesis was inhibited by 85%. Methanol extracts of red snow algae had greater absorbances in blue and UV spectral regions than did algae from green snow. These differences in UV responses and spectra may be due to habitat (sun vs shade) differences, or may be genetic, since different species were found in the two snow types. However, both habitat and genetic mechanisms may be operating together to cause these differences. 53 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  12. A Bayesian spatial assimilation scheme for snow coverage observations in a gridded snow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for assimilating remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA into the snow subroutine of a grid distributed precipitation-runoff model (PRM is presented. The PRM is assumed to simulate the snow state in each grid cell by a snow depletion curve (SDC, which relates that cell's SCA to its snow cover mass balance. The assimilation is based on Bayes' theorem, which requires a joint prior distribution of the SDC variables in all the grid cells. In this paper we propose a spatial model for this prior distribution, and include similarities and dependencies among the grid cells. Used to represent the PRM simulated snow cover state, our joint prior model regards two elevation gradients and a degree-day factor as global variables, rather than describing their effect separately for each cell. This transformation results in smooth normalised surfaces for the two related mass balance variables, supporting a strong inter-cell dependency in their joint prior model. The global features and spatial interdependency in the prior model cause each SCA observation to provide information for many grid cells. The spatial approach similarly facilitates the utilisation of observed discharge. Assimilation of SCA data using the proposed spatial model is evaluated in a 2400 km2 mountainous region in central Norway (61° N, 9° E, based on two Landsat 7 ETM+ images generalized to 1 km2 resolution. An image acquired on 11 May, a week before the peak flood, removes 78% of the variance in the remaining snow storage. Even an image from 4 May, less than a week after the melt onset, reduces this variance by 53%. These results are largely improved compared to a cell-by-cell independent assimilation routine previously reported. Including observed discharge in the updating information improves the 4 May results, but has weak effect on 11 May. Estimated elevation gradients are shown to be sensitive to informational deficits occurring at high altitude, where snowmelt has not started

  13. Validation of MODIS snow cover images over Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parajka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover product over the territory of Austria. The aims are (a to analyse the spatial and temporal variability of the MODIS snow product classes, (b to examine the accuracy of the MODIS snow product against in situ snow depth data, and (c to identify the main factors that may influence the MODIS classification accuracy. We use daily MODIS grid maps (version 4 and daily snow depth measurements at 754 climate stations in the period from February 2000 to December 2005. The results indicate that, on average, clouds obscured 63% of Austria, which may significantly restrict the applicability of the MODIS snow cover images to hydrological modelling. On cloud-free days, however, the classification accuracy is very good with an average of 95%. There is no consistent relationship between the classification errors and dominant land cover type and local topographical variability but there are clear seasonal patterns to the errors. In December and January the errors are around 15% while in summer they are less than 1%. This seasonal pattern is related to the overall percentage of snow cover in Austria, although in spring, when there is a well developed snow pack, errors tend to be smaller than they are in early winter for the same overall percent snow cover. Overestimation and underestimation errors balance during most of the year which indicates little bias. In November and December, however, there appears to exist a tendency for overestimation. Part of the errors may be related to the temporal shift between the in situ snow depth measurements (07:00 a.m. and the MODIS acquisition time (early afternoon. The comparison of daily air temperature maps with MODIS snow cover images indicates that almost all MODIS overestimation errors are caused by the misclassification of cirrus clouds as snow.

  14. Extraordinary blowing snow transport events in East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarchilli, Claudio; Agnoletto, Lucia [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Universita di Siena, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Siena (Italy); Frezzotti, Massimo; Grigioni, Paolo; Silvestri, Lorenzo de [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Dolci, Stefano [CNR, Rome (Italy); Consorzio P.N.R.A. S.C.r.l., Rome (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    In the convergence slope/coastal areas of Antarctica, a large fraction of snow is continuously eroded and exported by wind to the atmosphere and into the ocean. Snow transport observations from instruments and satellite images were acquired at the wind convergence zone of Terra Nova Bay (East Antarctica) throughout 2006 and 2007. Snow transport features are well-distinguished in satellite images and can extend vertically up to 200 m as first-order quantitatively estimated by driftometer sensor FlowCapt trademark. Maximum snow transportation occurs in the fall and winter seasons. Snow transportation (drift/blowing) was recorded for {proportional_to}80% of the time, and 20% of time recorded, the flux is >10{sup -2} kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} with particle density increasing with height. Cumulative snow transportation is {proportional_to}4 orders of magnitude higher than snow precipitation at the site. An increase in wind speed and transportation ({proportional_to}30%) was observed in 2007, which is in agreement with a reduction in observed snow accumulation. Extensive presence of ablation surface (blue ice and wind crust) upwind and downwind of the measurement site suggest that the combine processes of blowing snow sublimation and snow transport remove up to 50% of the precipitation in the coastal and slope convergence area. These phenomena represent a major negative effect on the snow accumulation, and they are not sufficiently taken into account in studies of surface mass balance. The observed wind-driven ablation explains the inconsistency between atmospheric model precipitation and measured snow accumulation value. (orig.)

  15. Small scale variability of snow density on Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, N.; Leonard, K. C.; Paul, S.; Jacobi, H. W.; Proksch, M.; Lehning, M.

    2016-12-01

    Snow on sea ice plays an important role in air-ice-sea interactions. For example, snow may smooth the ice surface when snow drift is occurring, while at the same time it may also generate roughness elements by interactions with the wind. Snow density is a key property in many processes, for example by influencing the thermal conductivity of the snow layer, radiative transfer inside the snow as well as the effects of aerodynamic forcing on the snowpack. We present data from an in-situ measurement campaign in the Weddell Sea during two subsequent cruises of RV Polarstern. By comparing snow density from snow pits and snow micro penetrometer (SMP) measurements, augmented by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) on an area of 50x50 m2, highly resolved density profiles and surface topology were acquired at a horizontal resolution of approximately 30 cm. Average snow densities are about 280 kg/m3, but the analysis also reveals a high spatial variability in snow density on sea ice in both horizontal and vertical direction, ranging from roughly 170 to 360 kg/m3. This variability is expressed by coherent snow structures over several meters, which disappear over larger distances. A comparison with TLS data indicates that the spatial variability is related to deviations in surface topology. This suggests a strong influence from surface processes, for example wind, on the temporal development of density profiles. The fundamental relationship between density variations, surface roughness and changes therein as investigated in this study are interpreted with respect to larger-scale ice-movement and the ice mass balance.

  16. Dendritic excitability modulates dendritic information processing in a purkinje cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, Allan D; Cornelis, Hugo; Santamaria, Fidel

    2010-01-01

    Using an electrophysiological compartmental model of a Purkinje cell we quantified the contribution of individual active dendritic currents to processing of synaptic activity from granule cells. We used mutual information as a measure to quantify the information from the total excitatory input current (I(Glu)) encoded in each dendritic current. In this context, each active current was considered an information channel. Our analyses showed that most of the information was encoded by the calcium (I(CaP)) and calcium activated potassium (I(Kc)) currents. Mutual information between I(Glu) and I(CaP) and I(Kc) was sensitive to different levels of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity that, at the same time, resulted in the same firing rate at the soma. Since dendritic excitability could be a mechanism to regulate information processing in neurons we quantified the changes in mutual information between I(Glu) and all Purkinje cell currents as a function of the density of dendritic Ca (g(CaP)) and Kca (g(Kc)) conductances. We extended our analysis to determine the window of temporal integration of I(Glu) by I(CaP) and I(Kc) as a function of channel density and synaptic activity. The window of information integration has a stronger dependence on increasing values of g(Kc) than on g(CaP), but at high levels of synaptic stimulation information integration is reduced to a few milliseconds. Overall, our results show that different dendritic conductances differentially encode synaptic activity and that dendritic excitability and the level of synaptic activity regulate the flow of information in dendrites.

  17. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  18. Snow reliability in ski resorts considering artificial snowmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, M.; Formayer, H.; Haas, P.

    2009-04-01

    Snow reliability is the key factor to make skiing on slopes possible and to ensure added value in winter tourism. In this context snow reliability is defined by the duration of a snowpack on the ski runs of at least 50 mm snow water equivalent (SWE), within the main season (Dec-Mar). Furthermore the snowpack should form every winter and be existent early enough in season. In our work we investigate the snow reliability of six Austrian ski resorts. Because nearly all Austrian resorts rely on artificial snowmaking it is of big importance to consider man made snow in the snowpack accumulation and ablation in addition to natural snow. For each study region observed weather data including temperature, precipitation and snow height are used. In addition we differentiate up to three elevations on each site (valley, intermediate, mountain top), being aware of the typical local winter inversion height. Time periods suitable for artificial snow production, for several temperature threshold (-6,-4 or -1 degree Celsius) are calculated on an hourly base. Depending on the actual snowpack height, man made snow can be added in the model with different defined capacities, considering different technologies or the usage of additives. To simulate natural snowpack accumulation and ablation we a simple snow model, based on daily precipitation and temperature. This snow model is optimized at each site separately through certain parameterization factors. Based on the local observations and the monthly climate change signals from the climate model REMO-UBA, we generate long term time series of temperature and precipitation, using the weather generator LARS. Thereby we are not only able to simulate the snow reliability under current, but also under future climate conditions. Our results show significant changes in snow reliability, like an increase of days with insufficient snow heights, especially at mid and low altitudes under natural snow conditions. Artificial snowmaking can partly

  19. Effect of snow cover on soil frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožnovský, Jaroslav; Brzezina, Jáchym

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover occurrence affects wintering and lives of organisms because it has a significant effect on soil frost penetration. An analysis of the dependence of soil frost penetration and snow depth between November and March was performed using data from 12 automated climatological stations located in Southern Moravia, with a minimum period of measurement of 5 years since 2001, which belong to the Czech Hydrometeorological institute. The soil temperatures at 5 cm depth fluctuate much less in the presence of snow cover. In contrast, the effect of snow cover on the air temperature at 2 m height is only very small. During clear sky conditions and no snow cover, soil can warm up substantially and the soil temperature range can be even higher than the range of air temperature at 2 m height. The actual height of snow is also important - increased snow depth means lower soil temperature range. However, even just 1 cm snow depth substantially lowers the soil temperature range and it can therefore be clearly seen that snow acts as an insulator and has a major effect on soil frost penetration and soil temperature range.

  20. Evaluating Multispectral Snowpack Reflectivity With Changing Snow Correlation Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Do Hyuk; Barros, Ana P.; Kim, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of multispectral reflectivity to changing snow correlation lengths. Matzler's ice-lamellae radiative transfer model was implemented and tested to evaluate the reflectivity of snow correlation lengths at multiple frequencies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the microwave bands. The model reveals that, in the UV to infrared (IR) frequency range, the reflectivity and correlation length are inversely related, whereas reflectivity increases with snow correlation length in the microwave frequency range. The model further shows that the reflectivity behavior can be mainly attributed to scattering rather than absorption for shallow snowpacks. The largest scattering coefficients and reflectivity occur at very small correlation lengths (approximately 10(exp -5 m) for frequencies higher than the IR band. In the microwave range, the largest scattering coefficients are found at millimeter wavelengths. For validation purposes, the ice-lamella model is coupled with a multilayer snow physics model to characterize the reflectivity response of realistic snow hydrological processes. The evolution of the coupled model simulated reflectivities in both the visible and the microwave bands is consistent with satellite-based reflectivity observations in the same frequencies. The model results are also compared with colocated in situ snow correlation length measurements (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment 2002-2003). The analysis and evaluation of model results indicate that the coupled multifrequency radiative transfer and snow hydrology modeling system can be used as a forward operator in a data-assimilation framework to predict the status of snow physical properties, including snow correlation length.

  1. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  2. Research of Snow-Melt Process on a Heated Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article has shown the results of experimental researches of the snow-melt on a heated platform-near building heat-pump snow-melt platform. The near-building (yard heat pump platforms for snow melt with the area up to 10-15 m2 are a basis of the new ideology of organization of the street cleaning of Moscow from snow in the winter period which supposes the creation in the megalopolis of the «distributed snow-melt system» (DSMS using non-traditional energy sources. The results of natural experimental researches are presented for the estimation of efficiency of application in the climatic conditions of Moscow of heat pumps in the snow-melt systems. The researches were conducted on a model sample of the near-building heat-pump platform which uses the low-potential thermal energy of atmospheric air. The conducted researches have confirmed experimentally in the natural conditions the possibility and efficiency of using of atmospheric air as a source of low-potential thermal energy for evaporation of the snow-melt heat pump systems in the climatic conditions of Moscow. The results of laboratory researches of snow-melt process on a heated horizontal platform are presented. The researches have revealed a considerable dependence of efficiency of the snow-melt process on its piling mode (form-building and the organization of the process of its piling mode (form-building and the organization of the process of its (snow mass heat exchange with the surface of the heated platform. In the process of researches the effect of formation of an «ice dome» under the melting snow mass called by the fact that in case of the thickness of snow loaded on the platform more than 10 cm the water formed from the melting snow while the contact with the heating surface don’t spread on it, but soaks into the snow, wets it due to capillary effect and freezes. The formation of «ice dome» leads to a sharp increase of snow-melt period and decreases the operating

  3. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  4. RAB-10-Dependent Membrane Transport Is Required for Dendrite Arborization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Yadav, Smita; DeVault, Laura; Jan, Yuh Nung; Sherwood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of elaborately branched dendrites is necessary for the proper input and connectivity of many sensory neurons. Previous studies have revealed that dendritic growth relies heavily on ER-to-Golgi transport, Golgi outposts and endocytic recycling. How new membrane and associated cargo is delivered from the secretory and endosomal compartments to sites of active dendritic growth, however, remains unknown. Using a candidate-based genetic screen in C. elegans, we have identified the small GTPase RAB-10 as a key regulator of membrane trafficking during dendrite morphogenesis. Loss of rab-10 severely reduced proximal dendritic arborization in the multi-dendritic PVD neuron. RAB-10 acts cell-autonomously in the PVD neuron and localizes to the Golgi and early endosomes. Loss of function mutations of the exocyst complex components exoc-8 and sec-8, which regulate tethering, docking and fusion of transport vesicles at the plasma membrane, also caused proximal dendritic arborization defects and led to the accumulation of intracellular RAB-10 vesicles. In rab-10 and exoc-8 mutants, the trans-membrane proteins DMA-1 and HPO-30, which promote PVD dendrite stabilization and branching, no longer localized strongly to the proximal dendritic membranes and instead were sequestered within intracellular vesicles. Together these results suggest a crucial role for the Rab10 GTPase and the exocyst complex in controlling membrane transport from the secretory and/or endosomal compartments that is required for dendritic growth. PMID:26394140

  5. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2005-09-01

    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  6. Modeling the isotopic composition of Antarctic snow using backward trajectories: simulation of snow pit records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, M.M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Scheele, M.P.; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative interpretation of isotope records (d18O, dD, and d excess) in ice cores can benefit from a comparison of observed meteorology with associated isotope variability. For this reason we studied four isotope records from snow pits in western Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, covering

  7. Sleeping dendrites: fiber-optic measurements of dendritic calcium activity in freely moving and sleeping animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Seibt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrites are the post-synaptic sites of most excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the brain, making them the main location of cortical information processing and synaptic plasticity. Although current hypotheses suggest a central role for sleep in proper cognitive function and brain plasticity, virtually nothing is known about changes in dendritic activity across the sleep-wake cycle and how waking experience modifies this activity. To start addressing these questions, we developed a method that allows long-term recordings of EEGs/EMG combined with in vivo cortical calcium (Ca2+ activity in freely moving and sleeping rats. We measured Ca2+ activity from populations of dendrites of layer (L 5 pyramidal neurons (n = 13 rats that we compared with Ca2+ activity from populations of neurons in L2/3 (n = 11 rats. L5 and L2/3 neurons were labelled using bolus injection of OGB1-AM or GCaMP6 (1. Ca2+ signals were detected using a fiber-optic system (cannula diameter = 400µm, transmitting the changes in fluorescence to a photodiode. Ca2+ fluctuations could then be correlated with ongoing changes in brain oscillatory activity during 5 major brain states: active wake [AW], quiet wake [QW], NREM, REM and NREM-REM transition (or intermediate state, [IS]. Our Ca2+ recordings show large transients in L5 dendrites and L2/3 neurons that oscillate predominantly at frequencies In summary, we show that this technique is successful in monitoring fluctuations in ongoing dendritic Ca2+ activity during natural brain states and allows, in principle, to combine behavioral measurement with imaging from various brain regions (e.g. deep structures in freely behaving animals. Using this method, we show that Ca2+ transients from populations of L2/3 neurons and L5 dendrites are deferentially regulated across the sleep/wake cycle, with dendritic activity being the highest during the IS sleep. Our correlation analysis suggests that specific sleep EEG activity during NREM and IS

  8. Take control of upgrading to Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Installing a major new version of Mac OS X should be exciting and fun, but without proper guidance you may find it nerve-wracking or even risk losing valuable files. Fortunately, many thousands of people have upgraded Mac OS X calmly and successfully with Joe Kissell's previous best-selling Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's friendly, expert steps-developed over innumerable test installations-help you to avoid trouble, understand what's going on when you install Snow Leopard, and easily recover from problem

  9. SAR Tomography for Terrestrial Snow Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Y.; Xu, X.; Baldi, C.; Bleser, J. W. D.; Yueh, S. H.; Elder, K.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional microwave observation of snowpack includes brightness temperature and backscatter. The single baseline configuration and loss of phase information hinders the retrieval of snow stratigraphy information from microwave observations. In this paper, we are investigating the tomography of polarimetric SAR to measure snow stratigraphy. In the past two years, we have developed a homodyne frequency modulated continuous wave radar (FMCW), operation at three earth exploration satellite bands within the X-band and Ku-band spectrums (centered at 9.6 GHz, 13.5 GHz, and 17.2 GHz) at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The transceiver is mounted to a dual-axis planar scanner (60cm in each direction), which translates the antenna beams across the target area creating a tomographic baseline in two directions. Dual-antenna architecture was implemented to improve the isolation between the transmitter and receiver. This technique offers a 50 dB improvement in signal-to-noise ratio versus conventional single-antenna FMCW radar systems. With current setting, we could have around 30cm vertical resolution. The system was deployed on a ground based tower at the Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF) Headquarters, near Fraser, CO, USA (39.847°N, 105.912°W) from February 1 to April 30, 2017 and run continuously with some gaps for required optional supports. FEF is a 93-km2 research watershed in the heart of the central Rocky Mountains approximately 80-km West of Denver. During the campaign, in situ measurements of snow depth and other snowpack properties were performed every week for comparison with the remotely sensed data. A network of soil moisture sensors, time-lapse cameras, acoustic depth sensors, laser depth sensor and meteorological instruments was installed next to the site to collect in situ measurements of snow, weather, and soil conditions. Preliminary tomographic processing of ground based SAR data of snowpack at X- and Ku- band has revealed the presence of multiple layers within

  10. Translating Chicana Rap: Snow Tha Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Onita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This project examines rap lyrics, interviews, and music videos by Chicana artist Snow Tha Product to show how rap has been culturally translated, performed, and appropriated by females in order to “flip the script,” or subvert the dichotomous model of female sexuality that has been imposed upon them. Weaving insights from three academic fields (cultural translation, Chican@ studies, and hip-hop feminism, this paper also aims to creatively expand the definition of translation by positioning rap music as a performative language in its own right, capable of encoding and translating complex cultural issues related to race, gender, and sexuality.

  11. A Genome-Wide Screen for Dendritically Localized RNAs Identifies Genes Required for Dendrite Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Misra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Localizing messenger RNAs at specific subcellular sites is a conserved mechanism for targeting the synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins to distinct subcellular domains, thereby generating the asymmetric protein distributions necessary for cellular and developmental polarity. However, the full range of transcripts that are asymmetrically distributed in specialized cell types, and the significance of their localization, especially in the nervous system, are not known. We used the EP-MS2 method, which combines EP transposon insertion with the MS2/MCP in vivo fluorescent labeling system, to screen for novel localized transcripts in polarized cells, focusing on the highly branched Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Of a total of 541 lines screened, we identified 55 EP-MS2 insertions producing transcripts that were enriched in neuronal processes, particularly in dendrites. The 47 genes identified by these insertions encode molecularly diverse proteins, and are enriched for genes that function in neuronal development and physiology. RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed roles for many of the candidate genes in dendrite morphogenesis. We propose that the transport of mRNAs encoded by these genes into the dendrites allows their expression to be regulated on a local scale during the dynamic developmental processes of dendrite outgrowth, branching, and/or remodeling.

  12. Evaluating Local Primary Dendrite Arm Spacing Characterization Techniques Using Synthetic Directionally Solidified Dendritic Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Mark A.; Miller, Jonathan D.; Oppedal, Andrew L.; Solanki, Kiran N.

    2015-10-01

    Microstructure characterization continues to play an important bridge to understanding why particular processing routes or parameters affect the properties of materials. This statement certainly holds true in the case of directionally solidified dendritic microstructures, where characterizing the primary dendrite arm spacing is vital to developing the process-structure-property relationships that can lead to the design and optimization of processing routes for defined properties. In this work, four series of simulations were used to examine the capability of a few Voronoi-based techniques to capture local microstructure statistics (primary dendrite arm spacing and coordination number) in controlled (synthetically generated) microstructures. These simulations used both cubic and hexagonal microstructures with varying degrees of disorder (noise) to study the effects of length scale, base microstructure, microstructure variability, and technique parameters on the local PDAS distribution, local coordination number distribution, bulk PDAS, and bulk coordination number. The Voronoi tesselation technique with a polygon-side-length criterion correctly characterized the known synthetic microstructures. By systematically studying the different techniques for quantifying local primary dendrite arm spacings, we have evaluated their capability to capture this important microstructure feature in different dendritic microstructures, which can be an important step for experimentally correlating with both processing and properties in single crystal nickel-based superalloys.

  13. Sensitivity of Dendritic Cells to Microenvironment Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Motta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells capable of either activating the immune response or inducing and maintaining immune tolerance. They do this by integrating stimuli from the environment and changing their functional status as a result of plasticity. The modifications suffered by these cells have consequences in the way the organism may respond. In the present work two opposing situations known to affect dendritic cells are analyzed: tumor growth, leading to a microenvironment that favors the induction of a tolerogenic profile, and organ transplantation, which leads to a proinflammatory profile. Lessons learned from these situations may help to understand the mechanisms of modulation resulting not only from the above circumstances, but also from other pathologies.

  14. Snow loads in a changing climate: new risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Strasser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In January/February 2006, heavy snowfalls in Bavaria (Germany lead to a series of infrastructural damage of catastrophic nature. Since on many collapsed roofs the total snow load was not exceptional, serious engineering deficiencies in roof construction and a sudden rise in the total snow load were considered to be the trigger of the events. An analysis of the then meteorological conditions reveals, that the early winter of 2005/2006 was characterised by an exceptional continuous snow cover, temperatures remained around the freezing point and no significant snowmelt was evident. The frequent freezing/thawing cycles were followed by a general compaction of the snow load. This resulted in a re-distribution and a new concentration of the snow load on specific locations on roofs. With respect to climate change, the question arises as to whether the risks relating to snow loads will increase. The future probability of a continuous snow cover occurrence with frequent freezing/thawing cycles will probably decline due to predicted higher temperatures. However, where temperatures remain low, an increase in winter precipitation will result in increased snow loads. Furthermore, the variability of extremes is predicted to increase. If heavy snowfall events are more frequent, the risk of a trigger event will likely increase. Finally, an attempt will be made here in this paper to outline a concept for an operational warning system for the Bavarian region. This system envisages to predict the development and risk of critical snow loads for a 3-day time period, utilising a combination of climate and snow modelling data and using this together with a snow pillow device (located on roofs and the results of which.

  15. Airborne Surveys of Snow Depth over Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Panzer, B.; Leuschen, C.; Pang, S.; Markus, T.; Holt, B.; Gogineni, S.

    2011-01-01

    During the spring of 2009, an ultrawideband microwave radar was deployed as part of Operation IceBridge to provide the first cross-basin surveys of snow thickness over Arctic sea ice. In this paper, we analyze data from three approx 2000 km transects to examine detection issues, the limitations of the current instrument, and the regional variability of the retrieved snow depth. Snow depth is the vertical distance between the air \\snow and snow-ice interfaces detected in the radar echograms. Under ideal conditions, the per echogram uncertainty in snow depth retrieval is approx 4 - 5 cm. The finite range resolution of the radar (approx 5 cm) and the relative amplitude of backscatter from the two interfaces limit the direct retrieval of snow depths much below approx 8 cm. Well-defined interfaces are observed over only relatively smooth surfaces within the radar footprint of approx 6.5 m. Sampling is thus restricted to undeformed, level ice. In early April, mean snow depths are 28.5 +/- 16.6 cm and 41.0 +/- 22.2 cm over first-year and multiyear sea ice (MYI), respectively. Regionally, snow thickness is thinner and quite uniform over the large expanse of seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea, and gets progressively thicker toward the MYI cover north of Ellesmere Island, Greenland, and the Fram Strait. Snow depth over MYI is comparable to that reported in the climatology by Warren et al. Ongoing improvements to the radar system and the utility of these snow depth measurements are discussed.

  16. Impact of climate change in Switzerland on socioeconomic snow indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucki, Edgar; Marty, Christoph; Fierz, Charles; Weingartner, Rolf; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Snow is a key element for many socioeconomic activities in mountainous regions. Due to the sensitivity of the snow cover to variations of temperature and precipitation, major changes caused by climate change are expected to happen. We analyze the evolution of some key snow indices under future climatic conditions. Ten downscaled and postprocessed climate scenarios from the ENSEMBLES database have been used to feed the physics-based snow model SNOWPACK. The projected snow cover has been calculated for 11 stations representing the diverse climates found in Switzerland. For the first time, such a setup is used to reveal changes in frequently applied snow indices and their implications on various socioeconomic sectors. Toward the end of the twenty-first century, a continuous snow cover is likely only guaranteed at high elevations above 2000 m a.s.l., whereas at mid elevations (1000-1700 m a.s.l.), roughly 50 % of all winters might be characterized by an ephemeral snow cover. Low elevations (below 500 m a.s.l.) are projected to experience only 2 days with snowfall per year and show the strongest relative reductions in mean winter snow depth of around 90 %. The range of the mean relative reductions of the snow indices is dominated by uncertainties from different GCM-RCM projections and amounts to approximately 30 %. Despite these uncertainties, all snow indices show a clear decrease in all scenario periods and the relative reductions increase toward lower elevations. These strong reductions can serve as a basis for policy makers in the fields of tourism, ecology, and hydropower.

  17. Role of Dendritic Cells in Immune Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Cherylyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Specific aims include: (1) Application of the bioreactor to enhance cytokine-regulated proliferation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC); (2) Based on clues from spaceflight: compare the frequency and function of DC in normal donors and immunocompromised cancer patients; and (3) Initiate studies on the efficiency of cytokine therapy and DC-assisted immunotherapy (using bioreactor-expanded DC) in animal models of experimental fungal infections.

  18. Why on the snow? Winter emergence strategies of snow-active Chironomidae (Diptera) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka; Paasivirta, Lauri; Giłka, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    A long-term study of adult non-biting midges (Chironomidae) active in winter on the snow in mountain areas and lowlands in Poland yielded 35 species. The lowland and mountain communities differed significantly in their specific composition. The mountain assemblage was found to be more diverse and abundant, with a substantial contribution from the subfamily Diamesinae, whereas Orthocladiinae predominated in the lowlands. Orthocladius wetterensis Brundin was the most characteristic and superdominant species in the winter-active chironomid communities in both areas. Only a few specimens and species of snow-active chironomids were recorded in late autumn and early winter. The abundance of chironomids peaked in late February in the mountain and lowland areas with an additional peak in the mountain areas in early April. However, this second peak of activity consisted mainly of Orthocladiinae, as Diamesinae emerged earliest in the season. Most snow-active species emerged in mid- and late winter, but their seasonal patterns differed between the 2 regions as a result of the different species composition and the duration of snow cover in these regions. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests yielded positive results between each season and the number of chironomid individuals recorded in the mountain area. A positive correlation between air temperature, rising to +3.5 °C, and the number of specimens recorded on the snow in the mountain community was statistically significant. The winter emergence and mate-searching strategies of chironomids are discussed in the light of global warming, and a brief compilation of most important published data on the phenomena studied is provided. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    The growth of dendrites is governed by the interplay between two simple and familiar processes---the irreversible diffusion of energy, and the reversible work done in the formation of new surface area. To advance our understanding of these processes, NASA sponsored a project that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia is 1994, 1996, and 1997 to record and analyze benchmark data in an apparent-microgravity ``laboratory.'' In this laboratory, energy transfer by gravity driven convection was essentially eliminated and one could test independently, for the first time, both components of dendritic growth theory. The analysis of this data shows that although the diffusion of energy can be properly accounted for, the results from interfacial physics appear to be in disagreement and alternate models should receive increased attention. Unfortunately, currently and for the foreseeable future, there is no access or financial support to develop and conduct additional experiments of this type. However, the benchmark data of 35mm photonegatives, video, and all supporting instrument data are now available at the IDGE Archive at the College of the Holy Cross. This data may still have considerable relevance to researchers working specifically with dendritic growth, and more generally those working in the synthesis, growth & processing of materials, multiscale computational modeling, pattern formation, and systems far from equilibrium.

  20. Early results from NASA's SnowEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Gatebe, Charles; Hall, Dorothy; Misakonis, Amy; Elder, Kelly; Marshall, Hans Peter; Hiemstra, Chris; Brucker, Ludovic; Crawford, Chris; Kang, Do Hyuk; De Marco, Eugenia; Beckley, Matt; Entin, Jared

    2017-04-01

    SnowEx is a multi-year airborne snow campaign with the primary goal of addressing the question: How much water is stored in Earth's terrestrial snow-covered regions? Year 1 (2016-17) focuses on the distribution of snow-water equivalent (SWE) and the snow energy balance in a forested environment. The year 1 primary site is Grand Mesa and the secondary site is the Senator Beck Basin, both in western, Colorado, USA. Ten core sensors on four core aircraft will make observations using a broad suite of airborne sensors including active and passive microwave, and active and passive optical/infrared sensing techniques to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of these potential satellite remote sensing techniques, along with models, to measure snow under a range of forest conditions. SnowEx also includes an extensive range of ground truth measurements—in-situ samples, snow pits, ground based remote sensing measurements, and sophisticated new techniques. A detailed description of the data collected will be given and some early results will be presented. Seasonal snow cover is the largest single component of the cryosphere in areal extent (covering an average of 46M km2 of Earth's surface (31 % of land areas) each year). This seasonal snow has major societal impacts in the areas of water resources, natural hazards (floods and droughts), water security, and weather and climate. The only practical way to estimate the quantity of snow on a consistent global basis is through satellites. Yet, current space-based techniques underestimate storage of snow water equivalent (SWE) by as much as 50%, and model-based estimates can differ greatly vs. estimates based on remotely-sensed observations. At peak coverage, as much as half of snow-covered terrestrial areas involve forested areas, so quantifying the challenge represented by forests is important to plan any future snow mission. Single-sensor approaches may work for certain snow types and certain conditions, but not for others

  1. Molecular identity of dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Andrea; Nusser, Zoltan

    2010-05-14

    Active invasion of the dendritic tree by action potentials (APs) generated in the axon is essential for associative synaptic plasticity and neuronal ensemble formation. In cortical pyramidal cells (PCs), this AP back-propagation is supported by dendritic voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels, whose molecular identity is unknown. Using a highly sensitive electron microscopic immunogold technique, we revealed the presence of the Nav1.6 subunit in hippocampal CA1 PC proximal and distal dendrites. Here, the subunit density is lower by a factor of 35 to 80 than that found in axon initial segments. A gradual decrease in Nav1.6 density along the proximodistal axis of the dendritic tree was also detected without any labeling in dendritic spines. Our results reveal the characteristic subcellular distribution of the Nav1.6 subunit, identifying this molecule as a key substrate enabling dendritic excitability.

  2. Dynamic-stochastic modeling of snow cover formation on the European territory of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Gelfan; V. M. Moreido

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic-stochastic model, which combines a deterministic model of snow cover formation with a stochastic weather generator, has been developed. The deterministic snow model describes temporal change of the snow depth, content of ice and liquid water, snow density, snowmelt, sublimation, re-freezing of melt water, and snow metamorphism. The model has been calibrated and validated against the long-term data of snow measurements over the territory of the European Russia. The model showed good ...

  3. Personality assessment in snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of individual personality is a useful tool in animal husbandry and can be used effectively to improve welfare. This study assessed personality in snow leopards (Uncia uncia) by examining their reactions to six novel objects and comparing them to personality assessments based on a survey completed by zookeepers. The objectives were to determine whether these methods could detect differences in personality, including age and sex differences, and to assess whether the two methods yielded comparable results. Both keeper assessments and novel object tests identified age, sex, and individual differences in snow leopards. Five dimensions of personality were found based on keepers' ratings: Active/Vigilant, Curious/Playful, Calm/Self-Assured, Timid/Anxious, and Friendly to Humans. The dimension Active/Vigilant was significantly positively correlated with the number of visits to the object, time spent locomoting, and time spent in exploratory behaviors. Curious/Playful was significantly positively correlated with the number of visits to the object, time spent locomoting, and time spent in exploratory behaviors. However, other dimensions (Calm/Self-Assured, Friendly to Humans, and Timid/Anxious) did not correlate with novel-object test variables and possible explanations for this are discussed. Thus, some of the traits and behaviors were correlated between assessment methods, showing the novel-object test to be useful in assessing an animal's personality should a keeper be unable to, or to support a keeper's assessment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Snow Data System at NASA JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, R.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Bormann, K.; Brodzik, M. J.; Burgess, A. B.; Rittger, K.; Goodale, C. E.; Joyce, M.; McGibbney, L. J.; Zimdars, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA JPL's Snow Data System has a data-processing pipeline powered by Apache OODT, an open source software tool. The pipeline has been running for several years and has successfully generated a significant amount of cryosphere data, including MODIS-based products such as MODSCAG, MODDRFS and MODICE, with historical and near-real time windows and covering regions such as the Artic, Western US, Alaska, Central Europe, Asia, South America, Australia and New Zealand. The team continues to improve the pipeline, using monitoring tools such as Ganglia to give an overview of operations, and improving fault-tolerance with automated recovery scripts. Several alternative adaptations of the Snow Covered Area and Grain size (SCAG) algorithm are being investigated. These include using VIIRS and Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite data as inputs. Parallel computing techniques are being considered for core SCAG processing, such as using the PyCUDA Python API to utilize multi-core GPU architectures. An experimental version of MODSCAG is also being developed for the Google Earth Engine platform, a cloud-based service.

  5. Kinetic Friction of Sport Fabrics on Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nachbauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After falls, skiers or snowboarders often slide on the slope and may collide with obstacles. Thus, the skier’s friction on snow is an important factor to reduce incidence and severity of impact injuries. The purpose of this study was to measure snow friction of different fabrics of ski garments with respect to roughness, speed, and contact pressure. Three types of fabrics were investigated: a commercially available ski overall, a smooth downhill racing suit, and a dimpled downhill racing suit. Friction was measured for fabrics taped on a short ski using a linear tribometer. The fabrics’ roughness was determined by focus variation microscopy. Friction coefficients were between 0.19 and 0.48. Roughness, friction coefficient, and friction force were highest for the dimpled race suit. The friction force of the fabrics was higher for the higher contact pressure than for the lower one at all speeds. It was concluded that the main friction mechanism for the fabrics was dry friction. Only the fabric with the roughest surface showed friction coefficients, which were high enough to sufficiently decelerate a sliding skier on beginner and intermediate slopes.

  6. [An overview of snow-boarding injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasca, N; Battaglia, H; Simmen, H P; Disler, P; Trentz, O

    1995-01-01

    Snowboarding is increasing dramatically in popularity in Switzerland as well as other countries. Work aimed at improving the design of the boards and of the boots and bindings has also increased rapidly during recent years. Most injured snowboarders are fit young men and boys who describe themselves as beginners and have had a minimal amount of instruction at an officially approved training centre. Appropriate snowboard training has mostly been quite inadequate, and protective devices (e.g. waterproofed support gloves). The anatomical distribution and the types of injuries sustained in snowboarding differ from those in alpine skiing. The wrist (and forearm) and the ankle are the most frequent locations of injuries (23%) as against the knee and thumb in alpine skiing. Sprains and strains were the most frequent types of injuries (46%), followed by fractures (28%) and contusions (13.5%). The snowboard injury rate was higher than in alpine skiing (1.7-8/1000 snowboard days versus 2-4/1000 ski days). Falling forward on the slope was the major mechanism of injury (80%), and torsion the next most frequent (20%). Snowboarding injuries were sustained most often on ice and hardpacked snow, compared with soft powder snow for alpine skiing injuries. Appropriate preseason conditioning, snowboarding lessons from a certified instructor, appropriate selection of rigorously tested equipment and use of protective devices are the main steps that must be taken to prevent injuries.

  7. Energy and dissipated work in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, P.; Buser, O.

    2004-12-01

    Using the results of large scale avalanche experiments at the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test site, the energy balance of several snow avalanches is determined. Avalanches convert approximately one-seventh of their potential energy into kinetic energy. The total potential energy depends strongly on the entrained snowcover, indicating that entrainment processes cannot be ignored when predicting terminal velocities and runout distances. We find energy dissipation rates on the order of 1 GW. Fluidization of the fracture slab can be identified in the experiments as an increase in dissipation rate, thereby explaining the initial and rapid acceleration of avalanches after release. Interestingly, the dissipation rates appear to be constant along the track, although large fluctuations in internal velocity exist. Thus, we can demonstrate within the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that -- in space -- granular snow avalanches are irreversible, dissipative systems that minimize entropy production because they appear to reach a steady-state non-equilibrium. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that fluctuations in velocity depend on the roughness of the flow surface and viscosity of the granular system. We speculate that this property explains the transition from flowing avalanches to powder avalanches.

  8. [Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Ai, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zi-Qi

    2013-02-01

    Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange

  9. Seasonal snow accumulation in the mid-latitude forested catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, Václav; Tesař, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 11 (2014), s. 1562-1569 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02021451 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : snow depth * snow water equivalent * forested catchment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  10. Prevent Snow from Blocking your Tailpipe PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-11

    If it's snowing, make sure your vehicle’s tailpipe is clear of snow before starting the engine to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.  Created: 12/11/2014 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 12/11/2014.

  11. Student Leadership Development within Student Government at Snow College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gordon Ned

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the leadership development process of former student leaders at Snow College. More specifically, the study focused on understanding how, when, and where leadership development took place in their "lived experience" within the student government at Snow College (Van Manen, 1998). Examining the lived…

  12. DISCOVERY OF A TRANSITING PLANET NEAR THE SNOW-LINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent...

  13. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build- up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH. 1. Introduction. Mountainous regions around the globe are storehouses.

  14. Modeling Snow Regime in Cores of Small Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukaré, C. E.; Ricard, Y. R.; Parmentier, E.; Parman, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of present day magnetic field on small planetary bodies such as Ganymede or Mercury challenge our understanding of planetary dynamo. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the origin of magnetic fields. Among the proposed scenarios, one family of models relies on snow regime. Snow regime is supported by experimental studies showing that melting curves can first intersect adiabats in regions where the solidifying phase is not gravitationaly stable. First solids should thus remelt during their ascent or descent. The effect of the snow zone on magnetic field generation remains an open question. Could magnetic field be generated in the snow zone? If not, what is the depth extent of the snow zone? How remelting in the snow zone drive compositional convection in the liquid layer? Several authors have tackled this question with 1D-spherical models. Zhang and Schubert, 2012 model sinking of the dense phase as internally heated convection. However, to our knowledge, there is no study on the convection structure associated with sedimentation and phase change at planetary scale. We extend the numerical model developped in [Boukare et al., 2017] to model snow dynamics in 2D Cartesian geometry. We build a general approach for modeling double diffusive convection coupled with solid-liquid phase change and phase separation. We identify several aspects that may govern the convection structure of the solidifying system: viscosity contrast between the snow zone and the liquid layer, crystal size, rate of melting/solidification and partitioning of light components during phase change.

  15. A comparison of Normalised Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an alternative, thematic cover–types based on remotely sensed data-sets are becoming popular. In this study we hypothesise that the reduced dimensionality using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in concert Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) is valuable for improving the accuracy of snow cover maps.

  16. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snow is a highly reflecting object found naturally on the Earth and its albedo is highly influenced by the amount and type of contamination. In the present study, two major types of contaminants (soil and coal) have been used to understand their effects on snow reflectance in the Himalayan region. These contaminants were ...

  17. Snow Leopard: Ecology and Conservation Issues in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Owing to their secretive nature and inaccessible habitat,little is known about its ecology and distribution. Due toits endangered status and high aesthetic value, the snow leopardis considered as an 'umbrella species' for wildlife conservationin the Indian Himalayas. This article summarizes thecurrent knowledge on snow ...

  18. High Resolution Insights into Snow Distribution Provided by Drone Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, T.; Sirguey, P. J.; Cullen, N. J.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic in time and space, New Zealand's seasonal snow is largely confined to remote alpine areas, complicating ongoing in situ measurement and characterisation. Improved understanding and modeling of the seasonal snowpack requires fine scale resolution of snow distribution and spatial variability. The potential of remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) photogrammetry to resolve spatial and temporal variability of snow depth and water equivalent in a New Zealand alpine catchment is assessed in the Pisa Range, Central Otago. This approach yielded orthophotomosaics and digital surface models (DSM) at 0.05 and 0.15 m spatial resolution, respectively. An autumn reference DSM allowed mapping of winter (02/08/2016) and spring (10/09/2016) snow depth at 0.15 m spatial resolution, via DSM differencing. The consistency and accuracy of the RPAS-derived surface was assessed by comparison of snow-free regions of the spring and autumn DSMs, while accuracy of RPAS retrieved snow depth was assessed with 86 in situ snow probe measurements. Results show a mean vertical residual of 0.024 m between DSMs acquired in autumn and spring. This residual approximated a Laplace distribution, reflecting the influence of large outliers on the small overall bias. Propagation of errors associated with successive DSMs saw snow depth mapped with an accuracy of ± 0.09 m (95% c.l.). Comparing RPAS and in situ snow depth measurements revealed the influence of geo-location uncertainty and interactions between vegetation and the snowpack on snow depth uncertainty and bias. Semi-variogram analysis revealed that the RPAS outperformed systematic in situ measurements in resolving fine scale spatial variability. Despite limitations accompanying RPAS photogrammetry, this study demonstrates a repeatable means of accurately mapping snow depth for an entire, yet relatively small, hydrological basin ( 0.5 km2), at high resolution. Resolving snowpack features associated with re-distribution and preferential

  19. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011–2012 at NEEM, NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between near-surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11‰ °C−1 (R = 0.76 for 2012. The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1–5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near

  20. Variability in snow depth time series in the Adige catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Marcolini

    2017-10-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Stations located above and below 1650 m a.s.l. show different dynamics, with the latter experiencing in the last decades a larger reduction of average snow depth and snow cover duration, than the former. Wavelet analyses show that snow dynamics change with elevation and correlate differently with climatic indices at multiple temporal scales. We also observe that starting from the late 1980s snow cover duration and mean seasonal snow depth are below the average in the study area. We also identify an elevation dependent correlation with the temperature. Moreover, correlation with the Mediterranean Oscillation Index and with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index is identified.

  1. On the impact of snow cover on daytime pollution dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Hildebrand, P.; Rogers, F. A.; Cramer, J.; Schanot, A.

    A preliminary evaluation of the impact of snow cover on daytime pollutant dispersion conditions is made by using conceptual, scaling, and observational analyses. For uniform snow cover and synoptically unperturbed sunny conditions, observations indicate a considerate suppression of the surface sensible heat flux, the turbulence, and the development of the daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) when compared to snow-free conditions. However, under conditions of non-uniform snow cover, as in urban areas, or associated with vegetated areas or bare ground patches, a milder effect on pollutant dispersion conditions would be expected. Observed concentrations of atmospheric particles within the ABL, and surface pollutant concentrations in urban areas, reflect the impact of snow cover on the modification of ABL characteristics.

  2. Snow cover and temperature relationships in North America and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.; Owe, M.; Rango, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this study the snow cover extent during the autumn months in both North America and Eurasia has been related to the ensuing winter temperature as measured at several locations near the center of each continent. The relationship between autumn snow cover and the ensuing winter temperatures was found to be much better for Eurasia than for North America. For Eurasia the average snow cover extent during the autumn explained as much as 52 percent of the variance in the winter (December-February) temperatures compared to only 12 percent for North America. However, when the average winter snow cover was correlated with the average winter temperature it was found that the relationship was better for North America than for Eurasia. As much as 46 percent of the variance in the winter temperature was explained by the winter snow cover in North America compared to only 12 percent in Eurasia.

  3. Combining low-cost GPS receivers with upGPR to derive continuously liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent in Alpine snow covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Schmid, Lino; Prasch, Monika; Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    The temporal evolution of Alpine snowpacks is important for assessing water supply, hydropower generation, flood predictions and avalanche forecasts. Especially in high mountain regions with an extremely varying topography, it is until now often difficult to derive continuous and non-destructive information on snow parameters. Since autumn 2012, we are running a new low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) snow measurement experiment at the high alpine study site Weissfluhjoch (2450 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland. The globally and freely broadcasted GPS L1-band (1.57542 GHz) was continuously recorded with GPS antennas, which are installed at the ground surface underneath the snowpack. GPS raw data, containing carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) as well as elevation and azimuth angle information for each time step of 1 s, was stored and analyzed for all 32 GPS satellites. Since the dielectric permittivity of an overlying wet snowpack influences microwave radiation, the bulk volumetric liquid water content as well as daily melt-freeze cycles can be derived non-destructively from GPS signal strength losses and external snow height information. This liquid water content information is qualitatively in good accordance with meteorological and snow-hydrological data and quantitatively highly agrees with continuous data derived from an upward-looking ground-penetrating radar (upGPR) working in a similar frequency range. As a promising novelty, we combined the GPS signal strength data with upGPR travel-time information of active impulse radar rays to the snow surface and back from underneath the snow cover. This combination allows determining liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent from beneath the snow cover without using any other external information. The snow parameters derived by combining upGPR and GPS data are in good agreement with conventional sensors as e.g. laser distance gauges or snow pillows. As the GPS sensors are cheap, they can easily

  4. Resilience to Changing Snow Depth in a Shrubland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Snowfall is the dominant hydrologic input for high elevations and latitudes of the arid- and semi-arid western United States. Sierra Nevada snowpack provides numerous important services for California, but is vulnerable to anthropogenic forcing of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. GCM and RCM scenarios envision reduced snowpack and earlier melt under a warmer climate, but how will these changes affect soil and plant water relations and ecosystem processes? And, how resilient will this ecosystem be to short- and long-term forcing of snow depth and melt timing? To address these questions, our experiments utilize large- scale, long-term roadside snow fences to manipulate snow depth and melt timing in eastern California, USA. Interannual snow depth averages 1344 mm with a CV of 48% (April 1, 1928-2008). Snow fences altered snow melt timing by up to 18 days in high-snowfall years, and affected short-term soil moisture pulses less in low- than medium- or high-snowfall years. Sublimation in this arid location accounted for about 2 mol m- 2 of water loss from the snowpack in 2005. Plant water potential increased after the ENSO winter of 2005 and stayed relatively constant for the following three years, even after the low snowfall of winter 2007. Over the long-term, changes in snow depth and melt timing have impacted cover or biomass of Achnatherum thurberianum, Elymus elemoides, and Purshia tridentata. Growth of adult conifers (Pinus jeffreyi and Pi. contorta) was not equally sensitive to snow depth. Thus, complex interactions between snow depth, soil water inputs, physiological processes, and population patterns help drive the resilience of this ecosystem to changes in snow depth and melt timing.

  5. SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.

  6. Sensitivity of Alpine Snow and Streamflow Regimes to Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Marks, D. G.; Bernhardt, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the sensitivity of hydrological processes to climate change in alpine areas with snow dominated regimes is of paramount importance as alpine basins show both high runoff efficiency associated with the melt of the seasonal snowpack and great sensitivity of snow processes to temperature change. In this study, meteorological data measured in a selection of alpine headwaters basins including Reynolds Mountain East, Idaho, USA, Wolf Creek, Yukon in Canada, and Zugspitze Mountain, Germany with climates ranging from arctic to continental temperate were used to study the snow and streamflow sensitivity to climate change. All research sites have detailed multi-decadal meteorological and snow measurements. The Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM) was used to create a model representing a typical alpine headwater basin discretized into hydrological response units with physically based representations of snow redistribution by wind, complex terrain snowmelt energetics and runoff processes in alpine tundra. The sensitivity of snow hydrology to climate change was investigated by changing air temperature and precipitation using weather generating methods based on the change factors obtained from different climate model projections for future and current periods. The basin mean and spatial variability of peak snow water equivalent, sublimation loss, duration of snow season, snowmelt rates, streamflow peak, and basin discharge were assessed under varying climate scenarios and the most sensitive hydrological mechanisms to the changes in the different alpine climates were detected. The results show that snow hydrology in colder alpine climates is more resilient to warming than that in warmer climates, but that compensatory factors to warming such as reduced blowing snow sublimation loss and reduced melt rate should also be assessed when considering climate change impacts on alpine hydrology.

  7. Assessing the controls of the snow energy balance and water available for runoff in a rain-an-snow environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam B. Mazurkiewicz; David G. Callery; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2008-01-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA» has quantified...

  8. Improving snow water equivalent simulations in an alpine basin using blended gage precipitation and snow pillow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M.; Safeeq, M.; Conklin, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack is a critical freshwater reservoir that sustains ecosystem, natural habitat, hydropower, agriculture, and urban water supply in many areas around the world. Accurate estimation of basin scale snow water equivalent (SWE), through both measurement and modeling, has been significantly recognized to improve regional water resource management. Recent advances in remote data acquisition techniques have improved snow measurements but our ability to model snowpack evolution is largely hampered by poor knowledge of inherently variable high-elevation precipitation patterns. For a variety of reasons, majority of the precipitation gages are located in low and mid-elevation range and function as drivers for basin scale hydrologic modeling. Here, we blend observed gage precipitation from low and mid-elevation with point observations of SWE from high-elevation snow pillow into a physically based snow evolution model (SnowModel) to better represent the basin-scale precipitation field and improve snow simulations. To do this, we constructed two scenarios that differed in only precipitation. In WTH scenario, we forced the SnowModel using spatially distributed gage precipitation data. In WTH+SP scenario, the model was forced with spatially distributed precipitation data derived from gage precipitation along with observed precipitation from snow pillows. Since snow pillows do not directly measure precipitation, we uses positive change in SWE as a proxy for precipitation. The SnowModel was implemented at daily time step and 100 m resolution for the Kings River Basin, USA over 2000-2014. Our results show an improvement in snow simulation under WTH+SP as compared to WTH scenario, which can be attributed to better representation in high-elevation precipitation patterns under WTH+SP. The average Nash Sutcliffe efficiency over all snow pillow and course sites was substantially higher for WTH+SP (0.77) than for WTH scenario (0.47). The maximum difference in observed and simulated

  9. Daily gridded datasets of snow depth and snow water equivalent for the Iberian Peninsula from 1980 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-González, Esteban; López-Moreno, J. Ignacio; Gascoin, Simon; García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Revuelto, Jesús; Ceballos, Antonio; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María; Essery, Richard

    2018-02-01

    We present snow observations and a validated daily gridded snowpack dataset that was simulated from downscaled reanalysis of data for the Iberian Peninsula. The Iberian Peninsula has long-lasting seasonal snowpacks in its different mountain ranges, and winter snowfall occurs in most of its area. However, there are only limited direct observations of snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE), making it difficult to analyze snow dynamics and the spatiotemporal patterns of snowfall. We used meteorological data from downscaled reanalyses as input of a physically based snow energy balance model to simulate SWE and SD over the Iberian Peninsula from 1980 to 2014. More specifically, the ERA-Interim reanalysis was downscaled to 10 km × 10 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF outputs were used directly, or as input to other submodels, to obtain data needed to drive the Factorial Snow Model (FSM). We used lapse rate coefficients and hygrobarometric adjustments to simulate snow series at 100 m elevations bands for each 10 km × 10 km grid cell in the Iberian Peninsula. The snow series were validated using data from MODIS satellite sensor and ground observations. The overall simulated snow series accurately reproduced the interannual variability of snowpack and the spatial variability of snow accumulation and melting, even in very complex topographic terrains. Thus, the presented dataset may be useful for many applications, including land management, hydrometeorological studies, phenology of flora and fauna, winter tourism, and risk management. The data presented here are freely available for download from Zenodo (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.854618). This paper fully describes the work flow, data validation, uncertainty assessment, and possible applications and limitations of the database.

  10. Parameterizations for narrowband and broadband albedo of pure snow and snow containing mineral dust and black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cheng; Brandt, Richard E.; Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-06-01

    The reduction of snow spectral albedo by black carbon (BC) and mineral dust, both alone and in combination, is computed using radiative transfer modeling. Broadband albedo is shown for mass fractions covering the full range from pure snow to pure BC and pure dust, and for snow grain radii from 5 µm to 2500 µm, to cover the range of possible grain sizes on planetary surfaces. Parameterizations are developed for opaque homogeneous snowpacks for three broad bands used in general circulation models and several narrower bands. They are functions of snow grain radius and the mass fraction of BC and/or dust and are valid up to BC content of 10 ppm, needed for highly polluted snow. A change of solar zenith angle can be mimicked by changing grain radius. A given mass fraction of BC causes greater albedo reduction in coarse-grained snow; BC and grain radius can be combined into a single variable to compute the reduction of albedo relative to pure snow. The albedo reduction by BC is less if the snow contains dust, a common situation on mountain glaciers and in agricultural and grazing lands. Measured absorption spectra of mineral dust are critically reviewed as a basis for specifying dust properties for modeling. The effect of dust on snow albedo at visible wavelengths can be represented by an "equivalent BC" amount, scaled down by a factor of about 200. Dust has little effect on the near-IR albedo because the near-IR albedo of pure dust is similar to that of pure snow.

  11. Data Fusion of Gridded Snow Products Enhanced with Terrain Covariates and a Simple Snow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Hsieh, W. W.; Cannon, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic planning requires accurate estimates of regional snow water equivalent (SWE), particularly areas with hydrologic regimes dominated by spring melt. While numerous gridded data products provide such estimates, accurate representations are particularly challenging under conditions of mountainous terrain, heavy forest cover and large snow accumulations, contexts which in many ways define the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. One promising avenue of improving SWE estimates is a data fusion approach which combines field observations with gridded SWE products and relevant covariates. A base artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed using three of the best performing gridded SWE products over BC (ERA-Interim/Land, MERRA and GLDAS-2) and simple location and time covariates. This base ANN was then enhanced to include terrain covariates (slope, aspect and Terrain Roughness Index, TRI) as well as a simple 1-layer energy balance snow model driven by gridded bias-corrected ANUSPLIN temperature and precipitation values. The ANN enhanced with all aforementioned covariates performed better than the base ANN, but most of the skill improvement was attributable to the snow model with very little contribution from the terrain covariates. The enhanced ANN improved station mean absolute error (MAE) by an average of 53% relative to the composing gridded products over the province. Interannual peak SWE correlation coefficient was found to be 0.78, an improvement of 0.05 to 0.18 over the composing products. This nonlinear approach outperformed a comparable multiple linear regression (MLR) model by 22% in MAE and 0.04 in interannual correlation. The enhanced ANN has also been shown to estimate better than the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model calibrated and run for four BC watersheds, improving MAE by 22% and correlation by 0.05. The performance improvements of the enhanced ANN are statistically significant at the 5% level across the province and

  12. Rainwater propagation through snowpack during rain-on-snow sprinkling experiments under different snow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Juras

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of rainwater propagation and runoff generation during rain-on-snow (ROS events are still insufficiently known. Understanding storage and transport of liquid water in natural snowpacks is crucial, especially for forecasting of natural hazards such as floods and wet snow avalanches. In this study, propagation of rainwater through snow was investigated by sprinkling experiments with deuterium-enriched water and applying an alternative hydrograph separation technique on samples collected from the snowpack runoff. This allowed us to quantify the contribution of rainwater, snowmelt and initial liquid water released from the snowpack. Four field experiments were carried out during winter 2015 in the vicinity of Davos, Switzerland. Blocks of natural snow were isolated from the surrounding snowpack to inhibit lateral exchange of water and were exposed to artificial rainfall using deuterium-enriched water. The experiments were composed of four 30 min periods of sprinkling, separated by three 30 min breaks. The snowpack runoff was continuously gauged and sampled periodically for the deuterium signature. At the onset of each experiment antecedent liquid water was first pushed out by the sprinkling water. Hydrographs showed four pronounced peaks corresponding to the four sprinkling bursts. The contribution of rainwater to snowpack runoff consistently increased over the course of the experiment but never exceeded 86 %. An experiment conducted on a non-ripe snowpack suggested the development of preferential flow paths that allowed rainwater to efficiently propagate through the snowpack limiting the time for mass exchange processes to take effect. In contrast, experiments conducted on ripe isothermal snowpack showed a slower response behaviour and resulted in a total runoff volume which consisted of less than 50 % of the rain input.

  13. Aerial view of CERN under the snow

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    In this photograph taken in the winter of 1963, CERN still looks quite bare under its mantle of snow. The Proton Synchrotron (PS), resembling a bicycle wheel in shape, had been in operation since the summer of 1959. A proposal had just been made for the site of CERN's second large project, the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR): France was to house the world's first proton-proton collider. In September 1965, the French authorities signed an agreement making more than 40 hectares of land available for the extension of the CERN site established in Switzerland into French territory. The ISR project received final approval from the CERN Council in December 1965. The civil engineering work on the French part began in November 196

  14. Frost seen on Snow White Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this shadow-enhanced false color image of the 'Snow White' trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's digging area. The image was taken on Sol 144, or the 144th day of the mission, Oct. 20, 2008. Temperatures measured on Sol 151, the last day weather data were received, showed overnight lows of minus128 Fahrenheit (minus 89 Celsius) and day time highs in the minus 50 F (minus 46 C) range. The last communication from the spacecraft came on Nov. 2, 2008. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. CTLA-4 blockade during dendritic cell based booster vaccination influences dendritic cell survival and CTL expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders E; Ronchese, Franca

    2007-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells and critical for the priming of CD8+ T cells. Therefore the use of these cells as adjuvant cells has been tested in a large number of experimental and clinical vaccination studies, in particular cancer vaccine studies. A number of protocols...

  16. Nanofibrous nonwovens based on dendritic-linear-dendritic poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikionis, Stefanos; Ioannou, Efstathia; Andren, Oliver C.J.

    2017-01-01

    unsuccessful. Nevertheless, when these DLD hybrids were blended with an array of different biodegradable polymers as entanglement enhancers, nanofibrous nonwovens were successfully prepared by electrospinning. The pseudogeneration degree of the DLDs, the nature of the co-electrospun polymer and the solvent...... nanofibers. Such dendritic nanofibrous scaffolds can be promising materials for biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, multifunctionality, and advanced structural architecture....

  17. Brightness temperature simulation of snow cover based on snow grain size evolution using in situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lili; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Kai; Zheng, Xingming; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Snow depth parameter inversion from passive microwave remote sensing is of great significance to hydrological process and climate systems. The Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) model is a commonly used snow emission model. Snow grain size (SGS) is one of the important input parameters, but SGS is difficult to obtain in broad areas. The time series of SGS are first evolved by an SGS evolution model (Jordan 91) using in situ data. A good linear relationship between the effective SGS in HUT and the evolution SGS was found. Then brightness temperature simulations are performed based on the effective SGS and evolution SGS. The results showed that the biases of the simulated brightness temperatures based on the effective SGS and evolution SGS were -6.5 and -3.6 K, respectively, for 18.7 GHz and -4.2 and -4.0 K for 36.5 GHz. Furthermore, the model is performed in six pixels with different land use/cover type in other areas. The results showed that the simulated brightness temperatures based on the evolution SGS were consistent with those from the satellite. Consequently, evolution SGS appears to be a simple method to obtain an appropriate SGS for the HUT model.

  18. Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrotscher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s Reazione Nera led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as

  19. Dendritic cells during Epstein Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eMunz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV causes persistent infection in more than 90% of the human adult population and is associated with 2% of all tumors in humans. This -herpesvirus infects primarily human B and epithelial cells, but has been reported to be sensed by dendritic cells (DCs during primary infection. These activated DCs are thought to contribute to innate restriction of EBV infection and initiate EBV specific adaptive immune responses via cross-priming. The respective evidence and their potential importance for EBV specific vaccine development will be discussed in this review.

  20. Gliadin fragments promote migration of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chládková, Barbara; Kamanová, Jana; Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Cinová, Jana; Šebo, Peter; Tučková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2011), 938-948 ISSN 1582-1838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA AV ČR IAA500200801; GA AV ČR IAA500200914 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : celiac disease * gliadin * dendritic cell Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2011

  1. UAS applications in high alpine, snow-covered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Y.; Stoffel, A.; Ginzler, C.

    2017-12-01

    Access to snow-covered, alpine terrain is often difficult and dangerous. Hence parameters such as snow depth or snow avalanche release and deposition zones are hard to map in situ with adequate spatial and temporal resolution and with spatial continuous coverage. These parameters are currently operationally measured at automated weather stations and by observer networks. However such isolated point measurements are not able to capture the information spatial continuous and to describe the high spatial variability present in complex mountain topography. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have the potential to fill this gap by frequently covering selected high alpine areas with high spatial resolution down to ground resolutions of even few millimeters. At the WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF we test different photogrammetric UAS with visual and near infrared bands. During the last three years we were able to gather experience in more than 100 flight missions in extreme terrain. By processing the imagery applying state-of-the-art structure from motion (SfM) software, we were able to accurately document several avalanche events and to photogrammetrically map snow depth with accuracies from 1 to 20 cm (dependent on the flight height above ground) compare to manual snow probe measurements. This was even possible on homogenous snow surfaces with very little texture. A key issue in alpine terrain is flight planning. We need to cover regions at high elevations with large altitude differences (up to 1 km) with high wind speeds (up to 20 m/s) and cold temperatures (down to - 25°C). Only a few UAS are able to cope with these environmental conditions. We will give an overview on our applications of UAS in high alpine terrain that demonstrate the big potential of such systems to acquire frequent, accurate and high spatial resolution geodata in high alpine, snow covered terrain that could be essential to answer longstanding questions in avalanche and snow hydrology

  2. Use of machine learning techniques for modeling of snow depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ayzel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow exerts significant regulating effect on the land hydrological cycle since it controls intensity of heat and water exchange between the soil-vegetative cover and the atmosphere. Estimating of a spring flood runoff or a rain-flood on mountainous rivers requires understanding of the snow cover dynamics on a watershed. In our work, solving a problem of the snow cover depth modeling is based on both available databases of hydro-meteorological observations and easily accessible scientific software that allows complete reproduction of investigation results and further development of this theme by scientific community. In this research we used the daily observational data on the snow cover and surface meteorological parameters, obtained at three stations situated in different geographical regions: Col de Porte (France, Sodankyla (Finland, and Snoquamie Pass (USA.Statistical modeling of the snow cover depth is based on a complex of freely distributed the present-day machine learning models: Decision Trees, Adaptive Boosting, Gradient Boosting. It is demonstrated that use of combination of modern machine learning methods with available meteorological data provides the good accuracy of the snow cover modeling. The best results of snow cover depth modeling for every investigated site were obtained by the ensemble method of gradient boosting above decision trees – this model reproduces well both, the periods of snow cover accumulation and its melting. The purposeful character of learning process for models of the gradient boosting type, their ensemble character, and use of combined redundancy of a test sample in learning procedure makes this type of models a good and sustainable research tool. The results obtained can be used for estimating the snow cover characteristics for river basins where hydro-meteorological information is absent or insufficient.

  3. A Particle Batch Smoother Approach to Snow Water Equivalent Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Steven A.; Girotto, Manuela; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a newly proposed data assimilation method for historical snow water equivalent SWE estimation using remotely sensed fractional snow-covered area fSCA. The newly proposed approach consists of a particle batch smoother (PBS), which is compared to a previously applied Kalman-based ensemble batch smoother (EnBS) approach. The methods were applied over the 27-yr Landsat 5 record at snow pillow and snow course in situ verification sites in the American River basin in the Sierra Nevada (United States). This basin is more densely vegetated and thus more challenging for SWE estimation than the previous applications of the EnBS. Both data assimilation methods provided significant improvement over the prior (modeling only) estimates, with both able to significantly reduce prior SWE biases. The prior RMSE values at the snow pillow and snow course sites were reduced by 68%-82% and 60%-68%, respectively, when applying the data assimilation methods. This result is encouraging for a basin like the American where the moderate to high forest cover will necessarily obscure more of the snow-covered ground surface than in previously examined, less-vegetated basins. The PBS generally outperformed the EnBS: for snow pillows the PBSRMSE was approx.54%of that seen in the EnBS, while for snow courses the PBSRMSE was approx.79%of the EnBS. Sensitivity tests show relative insensitivity for both the PBS and EnBS results to ensemble size and fSCA measurement error, but a higher sensitivity for the EnBS to the mean prior precipitation input, especially in the case where significant prior biases exist.

  4. PERSPECTIVE: Snow matters in the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeau, John

    2010-03-01

    Antarctica is not quite as chemically pristine as might sometimes be thought (Jones et al 2008). For example, as elsewhere, reduced sulfur species such as dimethylsulfide (DMS) are emitted from biogenic marine sources at the poles (Read et al 2008). Somewhat less well known is that inland (as opposed to coastal) field campaigns have also detected, within the Antarctic boundary layer (ABL), emissions containing unexpectedly high levels of diverse, oxidizing chemicals such as NOx, nitrate ions, formaldehyde, ozone and hydrogen peroxide (Honrath et al 1999, Hutterli et al 2004, Sumner and Shepson 1999). And then there are the halogen-containing compounds (Simpson et al 2007). The transformation of DMS to sulfate aerosols capable of acting as cloud condensation nuclei often proceeds via one main oxidized product of DMS, namely methanesulfonic acid (MSA). Two specific reactions have been well studied to date in this regard, namely DMS plus either OH or NO3 radicals. Corresponding reactions with halogen radicals, which also contribute to the oxidizing capacity of our atmosphere, have generally been considered to be of less importance. The reason for this view is that even though the reactivity of bromine- and iodine-containing radicals is much greater than that of OH, the halogens were thought to be relatively scarce in the polar atmosphere. However both BrO (and IO) have been detected in the Antarctic CHABLIS campaign, as discussed in depth in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics special issue of 2008, see Jones et al (2008). It was subsequently shown that calculated MSA production from the DMS/BrO reaction may be about an order of magnitude greater than when the OH radical was the oxidizing reactant. The recent analytical measurements by Antony et al (2010) of MSA, Br and NO3 found in snow along the Ingrid Christensen Coast of East Antarctica are important in the above field context. Hence it would appear that the concentrations of these ions in ice-cap sites are up

  5. Barriers in the brain : resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, Max; Kusters, Remy; Wierenga, Corette J; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50-400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and

  6. Dendrites Enable a Robust Mechanism for Neuronal Stimulus Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazé, Romain D; Jarvis, Sarah; Foust, Amanda J; Schultz, Simon R

    2017-09-01

    Hearing, vision, touch: underlying all of these senses is stimulus selectivity, a robust information processing operation in which cortical neurons respond more to some stimuli than to others. Previous models assume that these neurons receive the highest weighted input from an ensemble encoding the preferred stimulus, but dendrites enable other possibilities. Nonlinear dendritic processing can produce stimulus selectivity based on the spatial distribution of synapses, even if the total preferred stimulus weight does not exceed that of nonpreferred stimuli. Using a multi-subunit nonlinear model, we demonstrate that stimulus selectivity can arise from the spatial distribution of synapses. We propose this as a general mechanism for information processing by neurons possessing dendritic trees. Moreover, we show that this implementation of stimulus selectivity increases the neuron's robustness to synaptic and dendritic failure. Importantly, our model can maintain stimulus selectivity for a larger range of loss of synapses or dendrites than an equivalent linear model. We then use a layer 2/3 biophysical neuron model to show that our implementation is consistent with two recent experimental observations: (1) one can observe a mixture of selectivities in dendrites that can differ from the somatic selectivity, and (2) hyperpolarization can broaden somatic tuning without affecting dendritic tuning. Our model predicts that an initially nonselective neuron can become selective when depolarized. In addition to motivating new experiments, the model's increased robustness to synapses and dendrites loss provides a starting point for fault-resistant neuromorphic chip development.

  7. Modelling dendritic ecological networks in space: An integrated network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin E. Peterson; Jay M. Ver Hoef; Dan J. Isaak; Jeffrey A. Falke; Marie-Josee Fortin; Chris E. Jordan; Kristina McNyset; Pascal Monestiez; Aaron S. Ruesch; Aritra Sengupta; Nicholas Som; E. Ashley Steel; David M. Theobald; Christian E. Torgersen; Seth J. Wenger

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) are a unique form of ecological networks that exhibit a dendritic network topology (e.g. stream and cave networks or plant architecture). DENs have a dual spatial representation; as points within the network and as points in geographical space. Consequently, some analytical methods used to quantify relationships in other types of...

  8. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Hui; Li, Ming-Xing; Xu, Chang; Chen, Hui-Bin; An, Shu-Cheng; Ma, Xin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS), chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), have ...

  9. Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, John

    2009-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. Mac OS® X Snow Leopard Server for Dummies. Learn to::;. Set up and configure a Mac network with Snow Leopard Server;. Administer, secure, and troubleshoot the network;. Incorporate a Mac subnet into a Windows Active Directory® domain;. Take advantage of Unix® power and security. John Rizzo. Want to set up and administer a network even if you don't have an IT department? Read on!. Like everything Mac, Snow Leopard Server was designed to be easy to set up and use. Still, there are so many options and features that this book will save you heaps of time and effort. It wa

  10. Snow chemistry of high altitude glaciers in the French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    MAUPETIT, FRANÇOIS; DELMAS, ROBERT J.

    2011-01-01

    Snow samples were collected as snowcores in the accumulation zone of four high altitude glaciers (2980–3540 m.a.s.l.) from each of the 4 highest mountain areas of the French Alps, during 3 consecutive years: 1989, 1990 and 1991. Sampling was performed in spring (∼ May), before the onset of late spring–summer percolation. The accumulated snow therefore reflects winter and spring conditions. A complementary sampling of fresh-snow was performed on an event basis, on one of the studied glaciers, ...

  11. Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

  12. Dynamics of actual aggregation of petroleum products in snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begunova, L. A.; Kuznetsova, O. V.; Begunov, D. A.; Kuznetsova, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents issues of snow cover pollution by petroleum products. Petroleum products content was determined using the fluorimetric method of analysis. The samples of snow were selected on the territory of Angarsk and Irkutsk cities. According to the obtained data, the content of petroleum products in the analyzed samples exceeds the background value up to 6 times. Analysis of the reference data for similar research confirms need for creation of an environmental monitoring centralized system to monitor atmospheric precipitation and, particularly, snow cover.

  13. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  14. Immune monitoring using mRNA-transfected dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Troels Holz; Svane, Inge Marie; Met, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells are known to be the most potent antigen presenting cell in the immune system and are used as cellular adjuvants in therapeutic anticancer vaccines using various tumor-associated antigens or their derivatives. One way of loading antigen into the dendritic cells is by m......RNA electroporation, ensuring presentation of antigen through major histocompatibility complex I and potentially activating T cells, enabling them to kill the tumor cells. Despite extensive research in the field, only one dendritic cell-based vaccine has been approved. There is therefore a great need to elucidate...... and understand the immunological impact of dendritic cell vaccination in order to improve clinical benefit. In this chapter, we describe a method for performing immune monitoring using peripheral blood mononuclear cells and autologous dendritic cells transfected with tumor-associated antigen-encoding mRNA....

  15. Blowing snow detection from ground-based ceilometers : Application to East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Schween, Jan H.; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Blowing snow impacts Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance by snow redistribution and sublimation. However, numerical models poorly represent blowing snow processes, while direct observations are limited in space and time. Satellite retrieval of blowing snow is hindered by clouds and only the

  16. Responsive linear-dendritic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Eva; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-06-01

    The combination of dendritic and linear polymeric structures in the same macromolecule opens up new possibilities for the design of block copolymers and for applications of functional polymers that have self-assembly properties. There are three main strategies for the synthesis of linear-dendritic block copolymers (LDBCs) and, in particular, the emergence of click chemistry has made the coupling of preformed blocks one of the most efficient ways of obtaining libraries of LDBCs. In these materials, the periphery of the dendron can be precisely functionalised to obtain functional LDBCs with self-assembly properties of interest in different technological areas. The incorporation of stimuli-responsive moieties gives rise to smart materials that are generally processed as self-assemblies of amphiphilic LDBCs with a morphology that can be controlled by an external stimulus. Particular emphasis is placed on light-responsive LDBCs. Furthermore, a brief review of the biomedical or materials science applications of LDBCs is presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Measurement of snow interception and canopy effects on snow accumulation and melt in a mountainous maritime climate, Oregon, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Pascal; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Bolton, Susan M.

    2002-11-01

    The results of a 3 year field study to observe the processes controlling snow interception by forest canopies and under canopy snow accumulation and ablation in mountain maritime climates are reported. The field study was further intended to provide data to develop and test models of forest canopy effects on beneath-canopy snowpack accumulation and melt and the plot and stand scales. Weighing lysimeters, cut-tree experiments, and manual snow surveys were deployed at a site in the Umpqua National Forest, Oregon (elevation 1200 m). A unique design for a weighing lysimeter was employed that allowed continuous measurements of snowpack evolution beneath a forest canopy to be taken at a scale unaffected by variability in canopy throughfall. Continuous observations of snowpack evolution in large clearings were made coincidentally with the canopy measurements. Large differences in snow accumulation and ablation were observed at sites beneath the forest canopy and in large clearings. These differences were not well described by simple relationships between the sites. Over the study period, approximately 60% of snowfall was intercepted by the canopy (up to a maximum of about 40 mm water equivalent). Instantaneous sublimation rates exceeded 0.5 mm per hour for short periods. However, apparent average sublimation from the intercepted snow was less than 1 mm per day and totaled approximately 100 mm per winter season. Approximately 72 and 28% of the remaining intercepted snow was removed as meltwater drip and large snow masses, respectively. Observed differences in snow interception rate and maximum snow interception capacity between Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), white fir (Abies concolor), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) were minimal.

  18. Application of snow models to snow removal operations on the Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Klasner, Frederick L.

    2000-01-01

    Snow removal, and the attendant avalanche risk for road crews, is a major issue on mountain highways worldwide. The Going-to-the-Sun Road is the only road that crosses Glacier National Park, Montana. This 80-km highway ascends over 1200m along the wall of a glaciated basin and crosses the continental divide. The annual opening of the road is critical to the regional economy and there is public pressure to open the road as early as possible. Despite the 67-year history of snow removal activities, few stat on snow conditions at upper elevations were available to guide annual planning for the raod opening. We examined statistical relationships between the opening date and nearby SNOTEL data on snow water equivalence (WE) for 30 years. Early spring SWE (first Monday in April) accounted for only 33% of the variance in road opening dates. Because avalanche spotters, used to warn heavy equipment operators of danger, are ineffective during spring storms or low-visibility conditions, we incorporated the percentage of days with precipitation during plowing as a proxy for visibility. This improved the model's predictive power to 69%/ A mountain snow simulator (MTSNOW) was used to calculate the depth and density of snow at various points along the road and field data were collected for comparison. MTSNOW underestimated the observed snow conditions, in part because it does not yet account for wind redistribution of snow. The severe topography of the upper reaches of the road are subjected to extensive wind redistribution of snow as evidence by the formation of "The Big Drift" on the lee side of Logan Pass.

  19. Analysis of the snow-atmosphere energy balance during wet-snow instabilities and implications for avalanche prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mitterer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wet-snow avalanches are notoriously difficult to predict; their formation mechanism is poorly understood since in situ measurements representing the thermal and mechanical evolution are difficult to perform. Instead, air temperature is commonly used as a predictor variable for days with high wet-snow avalanche danger – often with limited success. As melt water is a major driver of wet-snow instability and snow melt depends on the energy input into the snow cover, we computed the energy balance for predicting periods with high wet-snow avalanche activity. The energy balance was partly measured and partly modelled for virtual slopes at different elevations for the aspects south and north using the 1-D snow cover model SNOWPACK. We used measured meteorological variables and computed energy balance and its components to compare wet-snow avalanche days to non-avalanche days for four consecutive winter seasons in the surroundings of Davos, Switzerland. Air temperature, the net shortwave radiation and the energy input integrated over 3 or 5 days showed best results in discriminating event from non-event days. Multivariate statistics, however, revealed that for better predicting avalanche days, information on the cold content of the snowpack is necessary. Wet-snow avalanche activity was closely related to periods when large parts of the snowpack reached an isothermal state (0 °C and energy input exceeded a maximum value of 200 kJ m−2 in one day, or the 3-day sum of positive energy input was larger than 1.2 MJ m−2. Prediction accuracy with measured meteorological variables was as good as with computed energy balance parameters, but simulated energy balance variables accounted better for different aspects, slopes and elevations than meteorological data.

  20. Analyzing dendritic growth in a population of immature neurons in the adult dentate gyrus using laminar quantification of disjointed dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira eRosenzweig

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, new granule neurons are continuously produced throughout adult life. A prerequisite for the successful synaptic integration of these neurons is the sprouting and extension of dendrites into the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Thus, studies aimed at investigating the developmental stages of adult neurogenesis often use dendritic growth as an important indicator of neuronal health and maturity. Based on the known topography of the dentate gyrus, characterized by distinct laminar arrangement of granule neurons and their extensions, we have developed a new method for analysis of dendritic growth in immature adult-born granule neurons. The method is comprised of laminar quantification of cell bodies, primary, secondary and tertiary dendrites separately and independently from each other. In contrast to most existing methods, laminar quantification of dendrites does not require the use of exogenous markers and does not involve arbitrary selection of individual neurons. The new method relies on immonuhistochemical detection of endogenous markers such as doublecortin to perform a comprehensive analysis of a sub-population of immature neurons. Disjointed, orphan dendrites that often appear in the thin histological sections are taken into account. Using several experimental groups of rats and mice, we demonstrate here the suitable techniques for quantifying neurons and dendrites, and explain how the ratios between the quantified values can be used in a comparative analysis to indicate variations in dendritic growth and complexity.

  1. Snow noise disturbance in Antarctic radio communications and development of mobile antenna for snow vehicle in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Fukushima

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio operators of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE have encountered critical radio noise disturbances caused by blizzards during oversnow travel. This noise appears to be caused by corona discharge at the edges of the vertical whip antenna. This paper describes several examples of snow noise experienced in Antarctica by JARE, the mechanism of generation of the noise, and a method of reducing the intensity of the noise. It also describes a High Effeciency Transmission Line Antenna which is small enough to mount on a snow vehicle and reduces the intensity of the snow noise.

  2. Loss of Dendritic Complexity Precedes Neurodegeneration in a Mouse Model with Disrupted Mitochondrial Distribution in Mature Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo López-Doménech

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Correct mitochondrial distribution is critical for satisfying local energy demands and calcium buffering requirements and supporting key cellular processes. The mitochondrially targeted proteins Miro1 and Miro2 are important components of the mitochondrial transport machinery, but their specific roles in neuronal development, maintenance, and survival remain poorly understood. Using mouse knockout strategies, we demonstrate that Miro1, as opposed to Miro2, is the primary regulator of mitochondrial transport in both axons and dendrites. Miro1 deletion leads to depletion of mitochondria from distal dendrites but not axons, accompanied by a marked reduction in dendritic complexity. Disrupting postnatal mitochondrial distribution in vivo by deleting Miro1 in mature neurons causes a progressive loss of distal dendrites and compromises neuronal survival. Thus, the local availability of mitochondrial mass is critical for generating and sustaining dendritic arbors, and disruption of mitochondrial distribution in mature neurons is associated with neurodegeneration.

  3. High fidelity remote sensing of snow properties from MODIS and the Airborne Snow Observatory: Snowflakes to Terabytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, T.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Bryant, A. C.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Rittger, K. E.; Seidel, F. C.; Zimdars, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the cryosphere to climate forcings largely determines Earth's climate sensitivity. However, our understanding of the strength of the simulated snow albedo feedback varies by a factor of three in the GCMs used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, mainly caused by uncertainties in snow extent and the albedo of snow-covered areas from imprecise remote sensing retrievals. Additionally, the Western US and other regions of the globe depend predominantly on snowmelt for their water supply to agriculture, industry and cities, hydroelectric power, and recreation, against rising demand from increasing population. In the mountains of the Upper Colorado River Basin, dust radiative forcing in snow shortens snow cover duration by 3-7 weeks. Extended to the entire upper basin, the 5-fold increase in dust load since the late-1800s results in a 3-week earlier peak runoff and a 5% annual loss of total runoff. The remotely sensed dynamics of snow cover duration and melt however have not been factored into hydrological modeling, operational forecasting, and policymaking. To address these deficiencies in our understanding of snow properties, we have developed and validated a suite of MODIS snow products that provide accurate fractional snow covered area and radiative forcing of dust and carbonaceous aerosols in snow. The MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) algorithms, developed and transferred from imaging spectroscopy techniques, leverage the complete MODIS surface reflectance spectrum. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. We have created the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete

  4. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  5. Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... regions may be strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations in ... accurate snow mapping and modelling of snowmelt/runoff are ... regional climate and hydrology, earth surface processes, and rural livelihoods .... from clouds.

  6. J-SEx : The Jollie Snow Experiment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, T.; Singh, S.; Kees, L.; Webster, C.; Clark, M.; Hendrikx, J.; Woods, R.

    2012-04-01

    Intensive snow observations have been collected in a steep alpine catchment (the Jollie Valley) in the Southern Alps of New Zealand for four years at the time of maximum snow storage. The campaign, called the Jollie Snow Experiment (J-SEx), was undertaken to improve understanding of snow variability in a steep alpine landscape. Observation methods included manual depth-probing at hundreds of locations with associated snowpit-digging, and surface and air-borne ground penetrating radar. In addition, repeat (daily) oblique photography was carried out on a subcatchment for two of the years. Analysis of the observations, in conjunction with similar observations from around the world has enabled direction to be given for selecting optimal modelling scales, and an indication of what processes need to be resolved at the different scales. For instance, if models are to operate at sub-100 m horizontal scales, they need to resolve drifting, sloughing and avalanching processes. Binary regression tree methods have been applied to identify terrain variables which explain the observed snow mass variability. This has enabled an assessment of total catchment snow storage to be established for each year. This assessment showed that the controlling variables change from year to year, so that no single terrain-based interpolation method may be generally applied. The change in the terrain relationships each year has been taken as an indication that the different frequencies of snowfall-related climate types from one year to the next affects which terrain characteristics have the greatest impact on snow variability. Assessment of terrain effects at the slope scale indicates that slope angle has the potential to be a strong influence on snow variability in that steep slopes do not build up large accumulations, and that low-angled regions below steep areas become areas of large snow build-up. This "slope" effect is clearly evident from the repeat photography, with the last areas to melt

  7. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  8. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  9. Allegheny County Snow Route Centerlines (2017-2018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows snow route responsibilities of Allegheny County-owned roads.Category: TransportationOrganization: Allegheny CountyDepartment: Geographic...

  10. Snowfall and Snow Depth for Canada 1943-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...

  11. Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates in the Lesotho ... and trimmed MODIS SNOMAP image using the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst tool. ... and hydrology, earth surface processes, and rural livelihoods in the Lesotho ...

  12. SnowEx17 Cloud Absorption Radiometer BRDF V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for two locations in Colorado, USA: Grand Mesa, a snow-covered,...

  13. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Meusinger, Carl; Erbland, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate (15N, 17O, and 18O) provide...... additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters....... The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ 15N, δ 18O, and Δ 17O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of 15ε = (- 15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation...

  14. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...

  15. [Research on hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring snow contamination concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu-guang; Liu, Dian-wei; Zhang, Bai; Du, Jia; Lei, Xiao-chun; Zeng, Li-hong; Wang, Yuan-dong; Song, Kai-shan

    2011-05-01

    Contaminants in the snow can be used to reflect regional and global environmental pollution caused by human activities. However, so far, the research on space-time monitoring of snow contamination concentration for a wide range or areas difficult for human to reach is very scarce. In the present paper, based on the simulated atmospheric deposition experiments, the spectroscopy technique method was applied to analyze the effect of different contamination concentration on the snow reflectance spectra. Then an evaluation of snow contamination concentration (SCC) retrieval methods was conducted using characteristic index method (SDI), principal component analysis (PCA), BP neural network and RBF neural network method, and the estimate effects of four methods were compared. The results showed that the neural network model combined with hyperspectral remote sensing data could estimate the SCC well.

  16. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the...

  17. Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Flanner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Boreal spring climate is uniquely susceptible to solar warming mechanisms because it has expansive snow cover and receives relatively strong insolation. Carbonaceous particles can influence snow coverage by warming the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar energy (dimming, and reducing snow reflectance after deposition (darkening. We apply a range of models and observations to explore impacts of these processes on springtime climate, drawing several conclusions: 1 Nearly all atmospheric particles (those with visible-band single-scatter albedo less than 0.999, including all mixtures of black carbon (BC and organic matter (OM, increase net solar heating of the atmosphere-snow column. 2 Darkening caused by small concentrations of particles within snow exceeds the loss of absorbed energy from concurrent dimming, thus increasing solar heating of snowpack as well (positive net surface forcing. Over global snow, we estimate 6-fold greater surface forcing from darkening than dimming, caused by BC+OM. 3 Equilibrium climate experiments suggest that fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of BC+OM induce 95% as much springtime snow cover loss over Eurasia as anthropogenic carbon dioxide, a consequence of strong snow-albedo feedback and large BC+OM emissions from Asia. 4 Of 22 climate models contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 21 underpredict the rapid warming (0.64°C decade−1 observed over springtime Eurasia since 1979. Darkening from natural and anthropogenic sources of BC and mineral dust exerts 3-fold greater forcing on springtime snow over Eurasia (3.9 W m−2 than North America (1.2 W m−2. Inclusion of this forcing significantly improves simulated continental warming trends, but does not reconcile the low bias in rate of Eurasian spring snow cover decline exhibited by all models, likely because BC deposition trends are negative or near-neutral over much of Eurasia. Improved Eurasian

  18. Spectral reflectance of solar light from dirty snow: a simple theoretical model and its validation

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kokhanovsky

    2013-01-01

    A simple analytical equation for the snow albedo as the function of snow grain size, soot concentration, and soot mass absorption coefficient is presented. This simple equation can be used in climate models to assess the influence of snow pollution on snow albedo. It is shown that the squared logarithm of the albedo (in the visible) is directly proportional to the soot concentration. A new method of the determination of the soot mass absorption coefficient in snow is proposed. The equations d...

  19. Prediction of Backscatter and Emissivity of Snow at Millimeter Wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    AD-AI16 9A MASSACHUISETTS IMST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LAB OF-ETC F/6 17/9 PREDICTION OF BACKSCATTER AND EMISSIVITY OF SNOW AT MILLETER --ETC(U...emitting media such as snow. The emissivity in the Ray- leigh- Jeans approximation is then the microwave brightness tempera- ture T divided by an effective...resistivity, and thermal tempera- ture. Jean et al. (Reference 125) compared a theoretical expression for the total apparent temperature of a smooth surface

  20. SWANN: The Snow Water Artificial Neural Network Modelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt from mountain forests is important for water supply and ecosystem health. Along Arizona's Mogollon Rim, snowmelt contributes to rivers and streams that provide a significant water supply for hydro-electric power generation, agriculture, and human consumption in central Arizona. In this project, we are building a snow monitoring system for the Salt River Project (SRP), which supplies water and power to millions of customers in the Phoenix metropolitan area. We are using process-based hydrological models and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to generate information about both snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow cover. The snow-cover data is generated with ANNs that are applied to Landsat and MODIS satellite reflectance data. The SWE data is generated using a combination of gridded SWE estimates generated by process-based snow models and ANNs that account for variations in topography, forest cover, and solar radiation. The models are trained and evaluated with snow data from SNOTEL stations as well as from aerial LiDAR and field data that we collected this past winter in northern Arizona, as well as with similar data from other sites in the Southwest US. These snow data are produced in near-real time, and we have built a prototype decision support tool to deliver them to SRP. This tool is designed to provide daily-to annual operational monitoring of spatial and temporal changes in SWE and snow cover conditions over the entire Salt River Watershed (covering 17,000 km2), and features advanced web mapping capabilities and watershed analytics displayed as graphical data.

  1. Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    is minimized distribution of low strength areas (also called “ holidays ”). Holidays are actually areas of pulverized snow that are missed or inade...quately processed. Though holidays usually occur sporadically, any single flaw may extend through the entire thickness of an unelevated road. The...Pegasus Road and the LDB pad. A few additional sites were chosen for comparison (Williams Field, virgin snow, etc.). Williams Field Road densities

  2. Inorganic carbon addition stimulates snow algae primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Havig, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Earth has experienced glacial/interglacial oscillations throughout its history. Today over 15 million square kilometers (5.8 million square miles) of Earth's land surface is covered in ice including glaciers, ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, most of which are retreating as a consequence of increased atmospheric CO2. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often red due to blooms of photoautotrophic algae. Recent evidence suggests the red pigmentation, secondary carotenoids produced in part to thrive under high irradiation, lowers albedo and accelerates melt. However, there are relatively few studies that report the productivity of snow algae communities and the parameters that constrain their growth on snow and ice surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that snow algae primary productivity can be stimulated by the addition of inorganic carbon. We found an increase in light-dependent carbon assimilation in snow algae microcosms amended with increasing amounts of inorganic carbon. Our snow algae communities were dominated by typical cosmopolitan snow algae species recovered from Alpine and Arctic environments. The climate feedbacks necessary to enter and exit glacial/interglacial oscillations are poorly understood. Evidence and models agree that global Snowball events are accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO2 with increasing CO2 necessary for entering periods of interglacial time. Our results demonstrate a positive feedback between increased CO2 and snow algal productivity and presumably growth. With the recent call for bio-albedo effects to be considered in climate models, our results underscore the need for robust climate models to include feedbacks between supraglacial primary productivity, albedo, and atmospheric CO2.

  3. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory Falling Snow Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick Jackson, G.; Kulie, M.; Milani, L.; Munchak, S. J.; Wood, N.; Levizzani, V.

    2017-12-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding and linking the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. This work focuses on comparing the first stable falling snow retrieval products (released May 2017) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory (GPM-CO), which was launched February 2014, and carries both an active dual frequency (Ku- and Ka-band) precipitation radar (DPR) and a passive microwave radiometer (GPM Microwave Imager-GMI). Five separate GPM-CO falling snow retrieval algorithm products are analyzed including those from DPR Matched (Ka+Ku) Scan, DPR Normal Scan (Ku), DPR High Sensitivity Scan (Ka), combined DPR+GMI, and GMI. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new, the different on-orbit instruments don't capture all snow rates equally, and retrieval algorithms differ. Thus a detailed comparison among the GPM-CO products elucidates advantages and disadvantages of the retrievals. GPM and CloudSat global snowfall evaluation exercises are natural investigative pathways to explore, but caution must be undertaken when analyzing these datasets for comparative purposes. This work includes outlining the challenges associated with comparing GPM-CO to CloudSat satellite snow estimates due to the different sampling, algorithms, and instrument capabilities. We will highlight some factors and assumptions that can be altered or statistically normalized and applied in an effort to make comparisons between GPM and CloudSat global satellite falling snow products as equitable as possible.

  4. The effects of changes in snow depth on winter recreation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Pavel; Rožnovský, J.; Štěpánek, Petr; Farda, Aleš; Brzezina, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), s. 44-54 ISSN 1804-2821 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : new snow * total snow depth * climate change * climate models * winter recreations Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Towards Improved Snow Water Equivalent Estimation via GRACE Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Bart; Reichle, Rofl; Rodell, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave (e.g. AMSR-E) and visible spectrum (e.g. MODIS) measurements of snow states have been used in conjunction with land surface models to better characterize snow pack states, most notably snow water equivalent (SWE). However, both types of measurements have limitations. AMSR-E, for example, suffers a loss of information in deep/wet snow packs. Similarly, MODIS suffers a loss of temporal correlation information beyond the initial accumulation and final ablation phases of the snow season. Gravimetric measurements, on the other hand, do not suffer from these limitations. In this study, gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission are used in a land surface model data assimilation (DA) framework to better characterize SWE in the Mackenzie River basin located in northern Canada. Comparisons are made against independent, ground-based SWE observations, state-of-the-art modeled SWE estimates, and independent, ground-based river discharge observations. Preliminary results suggest improved SWE estimates, including improved timing of the subsequent ablation and runoff of the snow pack. Additionally, use of the DA procedure can add vertical and horizontal resolution to the coarse-scale GRACE measurements as well as effectively downscale the measurements in time. Such findings offer the potential for better understanding of the hydrologic cycle in snow-dominated basins located in remote regions of the globe where ground-based observation collection if difficult, if not impossible. This information could ultimately lead to improved freshwater resource management in communities dependent on snow melt as well as a reduction in the uncertainty of river discharge into the Arctic Ocean.

  6. Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Meinander

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of snow for climate studies is based on its physical properties, such as high surface reflectivity. Surface ultraviolet (UV albedo is an essential parameter for various applications based on radiative transfer modeling. Here, new continuous measurements of the local UV albedo of natural Arctic snow were made at Sodankylä (67°22'N, 26°39'E, 179 m a.s.l. during the spring of 2007. The data were logged at 1-min intervals. The accumulation of snow was up to 68 cm. The surface layer thickness varied from 0.5 to 35 cm with the snow grain size between 0.2 and 2.5 mm. The midday erythemally weighted UV albedo ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 in the accumulation period, and from 0.5 to 0.7 during melting. During the snow melt period, under cases of an almost clear sky and variable cloudiness, an unexpected diurnal decrease of 0.05 in albedo soon after midday, and recovery thereafter, was detected. This diurnal decrease in albedo was found to be asymmetric with respect to solar midday, thus indicating a change in the properties of the snow. Independent UV albedo results with two different types of instruments confirm these findings. The measured temperature of the snow surface was below 0°C on the following mornings. Hence, the reversible diurnal change, evident for ~1–2 h, could be explained by the daily metamorphosis of the surface of the snowpack, in which the temperature of the surface increases, melting some of the snow to liquid water, after which the surface freezes again.

  7. Modeling snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Storck, Pascal; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2009-05-01

    The effects of forest canopies on snow accumulation and ablation processes can be very important for the hydrology of midlatitude and high-latitude areas. A mass and energy balance model for snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments was developed utilizing extensive measurements of snow interception and release in a maritime mountainous site in Oregon. The model was evaluated using 2 years of weighing lysimeter data and was able to reproduce the snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution throughout winters both beneath the canopy and in the nearby clearing, with correlations to observations ranging from 0.81 to 0.99. Additionally, the model was evaluated using measurements from a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) field site in Canada to test the robustness of the canopy snow interception algorithm in a much different climate. Simulated SWE was relatively close to the observations for the forested sites, with discrepancies evident in some cases. Although the model formulation appeared robust for both types of climates, sensitivity to parameters such as snow roughness length and maximum interception capacity suggested the magnitude of improvements of SWE simulations that might be achieved by calibration.

  8. Color Image of Snow White Trenches and Scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 31st Martian day of the mission, or Sol 31 (June 26, 2008), after the May 25, 2008 landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left), 'Snow White 2' (right), and within the Snow White 2 trench, the smaller scraping area called 'Snow White 3.' The Snow White 3 scraped area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep. The dug and scraped areas are within the diggiing site called 'Wonderland.' The Snow White trenches and scraping prove that scientists can take surface soil samples, subsurface soil samples, and icy samples all from one unit. Scientists want to test samples to determine if some ice in the soil may have been liquid in the past during warmer climate cycles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

  9. A Method for Snow Reanalysis: The Sierra Nevada (USA) Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Manuela; Margulis, Steven; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a state-of-the art methodology for constructing snow water equivalent (SWE) reanalysis. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model and snow depletion curve model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and snow cover area for a given set of (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the satellite observed depletion of the fractional snow cover time series. This method was applied over the Sierra Nevada (USA) based on the assimilation of remotely sensed fractional snow covered area data from the Landsat 5-8 record (1985-2016). The verified dataset (based on a comparison with over 9000 station years of in situ data) exhibited mean and root-mean-square errors less than 3 and 13 cm, respectively, and correlation greater than 0.95 compared with in situ SWE observations. The method (fully Bayesian), resolution (daily, 90-meter), temporal extent (31 years), and accuracy provide a unique dataset for investigating snow processes. This presentation illustrates how the reanalysis dataset was used to provide a basic accounting of the stored snowpack water in the Sierra Nevada over the last 31 years and ultimately improve real-time streamflow predictions.

  10. Mathematical foundations of the dendritic growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta, José A; Castro, Jorge; Negredo, Pilar; Avendaño, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    At present two growth models describe successfully the distribution of size and topological complexity in populations of dendritic trees with considerable accuracy and simplicity, the BE model (Van Pelt et al. in J. Comp. Neurol. 387:325-340, 1997) and the S model (Van Pelt and Verwer in Bull. Math. Biol. 48:197-211, 1986). This paper discusses the mathematical basis of these models and analyzes quantitatively the relationship between the BE model and the S model assumed in the literature by developing a new explicit equation describing the BES model (a dendritic growth model integrating the features of both preceding models; Van Pelt et al. in J. Comp. Neurol. 387:325-340, 1997). In numerous studies it is implicitly presupposed that the S model is conditionally linked to the BE model (Granato and Van Pelt in Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 142:223-227, 2003; Uylings and Van Pelt in Network 13:397-414, 2002; Van Pelt, Dityatev and Uylings in J. Comp. Neurol. 387:325-340, 1997; Van Pelt and Schierwagen in Math. Biosci. 188:147-155, 2004; Van Pelt and Uylings in Network. 13:261-281, 2002; Van Pelt, Van Ooyen and Uylings in Modeling Dendritic Geometry and the Development of Nerve Connections, pp 179, 2000). In this paper we prove the non-exactness of this assumption, quantify involved errors and determine the conditions under which the BE and S models can be separately used instead of the BES model, which is more exact but considerably more difficult to apply. This study leads to a novel expression describing the BE model in an analytical closed form, much more efficient than the traditional iterative equation (Van Pelt et al. in J. Comp. Neurol. 387:325-340, 1997) in many neuronal classes. Finally we propose a new algorithm in order to obtain the values of the parameters of the BE model when this growth model is matched to experimental data, and discuss its advantages and improvements over the more commonly used procedures.

  11. Dendritic cells in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Tran, Dinh; Killingsworth, Murray C; Buckland, Michael; Lord, Reginald V N

    2009-01-01

    Like other premalignant conditions that develop in the presence of chronic inflammation, the development and progression of Barrett's esophagus is associated with the development of an immune response, but how this immune response is regulated is poorly understood. A comprehensive literature search failed to find any report of the presence of dendritic cells in Barrett's intestinal metaplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma and this prompted our study. We used immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy to examine whether dendritic cells are present in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD83, a specific marker for dendritic cells, was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of Barrett's intestinal metaplasia (IM, n = 12), dysplasia (n = 11) and adenocarcinoma (n = 14). CD83+ cells were identified in the lamina propria surrounding intestinal type glands in Barrett's IM, dysplasia, and cancer tissues. Computerized quantitative analysis showed that the numbers of dendritic cells were significantly higher in cancer tissues. Double immunostaining with CD83, CD20, and CD3, and electron microscopy demonstrated that dendritic cells are present in Barrett's esophagus and form clusters with T cells and B cells directly within the lamina propria. These findings demonstrate that dendritic cells are present in Barrett's tissues, with a significant increase in density in adenocarcinoma compared to benign Barrett's esophagus. Dendritic cells may have a role in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy treatment of Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma.

  12. Statistical Physics of Neural Systems with Nonadditive Dendritic Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Breuer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How neurons process their inputs crucially determines the dynamics of biological and artificial neural networks. In such neural and neural-like systems, synaptic input is typically considered to be merely transmitted linearly or sublinearly by the dendritic compartments. Yet, single-neuron experiments report pronounced supralinear dendritic summation of sufficiently synchronous and spatially close-by inputs. Here, we provide a statistical physics approach to study the impact of such nonadditive dendritic processing on single-neuron responses and the performance of associative-memory tasks in artificial neural networks. First, we compute the effect of random input to a neuron incorporating nonlinear dendrites. This approach is independent of the details of the neuronal dynamics. Second, we use those results to study the impact of dendritic nonlinearities on the network dynamics in a paradigmatic model for associative memory, both numerically and analytically. We find that dendritic nonlinearities maintain network convergence and increase the robustness of memory performance against noise. Interestingly, an intermediate number of dendritic branches is optimal for memory functionality.

  13. Adolescent cocaine exposure simplifies orbitofrontal cortical dendritic arbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M DePoy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and amphetamine remodel dendritic spines within discrete cortico-limbic brain structures including the orbitofrontal cortex (oPFC. Whether dendrite structure is similarly affected, and whether pre-existing cellular characteristics influence behavioral vulnerabilities to drugs of abuse, remain unclear. Animal models provide an ideal venue to address these issues because neurobehavioral phenotypes can be defined both before, and following, drug exposure. We exposed mice to cocaine from postnatal days 31-35, corresponding to early adolescence, using a dosing protocol that causes impairments in an instrumental reversal task in adulthood. We then imaged and reconstructed excitatory neurons in deep-layer oPFC. Prior cocaine exposure shortened and simplified arbors, particularly in the basal region. Next, we imaged and reconstructed orbital neurons in a developmental-genetic model of cocaine vulnerability – the p190rhogap+/- mouse. p190RhoGAP is an actin cytoskeleton regulatory protein that stabilizes dendrites and dendritic spines, and p190rhogap+/- mice develop rapid and robust locomotor activation in response to cocaine. Despite this, oPFC dendritic arbors were intact in drug-naïve p190rhogap+/- mice. Together, these findings provide evidence that adolescent cocaine exposure has long-term effects on dendrite structure in the oPFC, and they suggest that cocaine-induced modifications in dendrite structure may contribute to the behavioral effects of cocaine more so than pre-existing structural abnormalities in this cell population.

  14. Modelling the snowmelt and the snow water equivalent by creating a simplified energy balance conceptual snow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboust, Philippe; Thirel, Guillaume; Le Moine, Nicolas; Ribstein, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    A better knowledge of the accumulated snow on the watersheds will help flood forecasting centres and hydro-power companies to predict the amount of water released during spring snowmelt. Since precipitations gauges are sparse at high elevations and integrative measurements of the snow accumulated on watershed surface are hard to obtain, using snow models is an adequate way to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) on watersheds. In addition to short term prediction, simulating accurately SWE with snow models should have many advantages. Validating the snow module on both SWE and snowmelt should give a more reliable model for climate change studies or regionalization for ungauged watersheds. The aim of this study is to create a new snow module, which has a structure that allows the use of measured snow data for calibration or assimilation. Energy balance modelling seems to be the logical choice for designing a model in which internal variables, such as SWE, could be compared to observations. Physical models are complex, needing high computational resources and many different types of inputs that are not widely measured at meteorological stations. At the opposite, simple conceptual degree-day models offer to simulate snowmelt using only temperature and precipitation as inputs with fast computing. Its major drawback is to be empirical, i.e. not taking into account all of the processes of the energy balance, which makes this kind of model more difficult to use when willing to compare SWE to observed measurements. In order to reach our objectives, we created a snow model structured by a simplified energy balance where each of the processes is empirically parameterized in order to be calculated using only temperature, precipitation and cloud cover variables. This model's structure is similar to the one created by M.T. Walter (2005), where parameterizations from the literature were used to compute all of the processes of the energy balance. The conductive fluxes into the

  15. Dendritic Polyglycerol Sulfate for Therapy and Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rades

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS has originally been investigated as an anticoagulant to potentially substitute for the natural glycosaminoglycan heparin. Compared to unfractionated heparin, dPGS possesses lower anticoagulant activity but a much higher anticomplementary effect. Since coagulation, complement activation, and inflammation are often present in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, dPGS polymers with both anticoagulant and anticomplementary activities represent promising candidates for the development of polymeric drugs of nanosized architecture. In this review, we describe the nanomedical applications of dPGS based on its anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the application of dPGS as a carrier molecule for diagnostic molecules and therapeutic drugs is reviewed, based on the ability to target tumors and localize in tumor cells. Finally, the application of dPGS for inhibition of virus infections is described.

  16. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenxian, E-mail: wl240@uowmail.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Solar Energy Technologies, School of Computing, Engineering, and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Penrith NSW 2751 (Australia); Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Tian, Dongliang [Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and the Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ∼4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  17. Towards deep learning with segregated dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerguiev, Jordan; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Richards, Blake A

    2017-12-05

    Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments. Thanks to this segregation, neurons in different layers of the network can coordinate synaptic weight updates. As a result, the network learns to categorize images better than a single layer network. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm takes advantage of multilayer architectures to identify useful higher-order representations-the hallmark of deep learning. This work demonstrates that deep learning can be achieved using segregated dendritic compartments, which may help to explain the morphology of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

  18. Harnessing dendritic cells in inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-Ching; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-02-01

    The skin immune system harbors a complex network of dendritic cells (DCs). Recent studies highlight a diverse functional specialization of skin DC subsets. In addition to generating cellular and humoral immunity against pathogens, skin DCs are involved in tolerogenic mechanisms to ensure the maintenance of immune homeostasis, as well as in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in the skin when excessive immune responses are initiated and unrestrained. Harnessing DCs by directly targeting DC-derived molecules or selectively modulate DC subsets is a convincing strategy to tackle inflammatory skin diseases. In this review we discuss recent advances underlining the functional specialization of skin DCs and discuss the potential implication for future DC-based therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: edith.janssen@cchmc.org [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2011-04-26

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  20. Efficient estimation of diffusion during dendritic solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, K. S.; Poirier, D. R.; Laxmanan, V.

    1989-01-01

    A very efficient finite difference method has been developed to estimate the solute redistribution during solidification with diffusion in the solid. This method is validated by comparing the computed results with the results of an analytical solution derived by Kobayashi (1988) for the assumptions of a constant diffusion coefficient, a constant equilibrium partition ratio, and a parabolic rate of the advancement of the solid/liquid interface. The flexibility of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the dendritic solidification of a Pb-15 wt pct Sn alloy, for which the equilibrium partition ratio and diffusion coefficient vary substantially during solidification. The fraction eutectic at the end of solidification is also obtained by estimating the fraction solid, in greater resolution, where the concentration of solute in the interdendritic liquid reaches the eutectic composition of the alloy.

  1. Induction of RNA interference in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mu; Qian, Hua; Ichim, Thomas E; Ge, Wei-Wen; Popov, Igor A; Rycerz, Katarzyna; Neu, John; White, David; Zhong, Robert; Min, Wei-Ping

    2004-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) reside at the center of the immunological universe, possessing the ability both to stimulate and inhibit various types of responses. Tolerogenic/regulatory DC with therapeutic properties can be generated through various means of manipulations in vitro and in vivo. Here we describe several attractive strategies for manipulation of DC using the novel technique of RNA interference (RNAi). Additionally, we overview some of our data regarding yet undescribed characteristics of RNAi in DC such as specific transfection strategies, persistence of gene silencing, and multi-gene silencing. The advantages of using RNAi for DC genetic manipulation gives rise to the promise of generating tailor-made DC that can be used effectively to treat a variety of immunologically mediated diseases.

  2. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue; Tian, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ∼4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  3. Location matters: the endoplasmic reticulum and protein trafficking in dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons are highly polarized, but the trafficking mechanisms that operate in these cells and the topological organization of their secretory organelles are still poorly understood. Particularly incipient is our knowledge of the role of the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum. Here we review the current understanding of the endoplasmic reticulum in neurons, its structure, composition, dendritic distribution and dynamics. We also focus on the trafficking of proteins through the dendritic endoplasmic reticulum, emphasizing the relevance of transport, retention, assembly of multi-subunit protein complexes and export. We additionally discuss the roles of the dendritic endoplasmic reticulum in synaptic plasticity.

  4. Photoinduced electron transfer between the dendritic zinc phthalocyanines and anthraquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuizhi; Wen, Junri; Liu, Jiangsheng; Chen, Zhenzhen; Pan, Sujuan; Huang, Zheng; Peng, Yiru

    2015-03-01

    The intermolecular electron transfer between the novel dendritic zinc (II) phthalocyanines (G1-DPcB and G2-DPcB) and anthraquinone (AQ) was studied by steady-state fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopic methods. The effect of dendron generation on intermolecular electron transfer was investigated. The results showed that the fluorescence emission of these dendritic phthalocyanines could be greatly quenched by AQ upon excitation at 610 nm. The Stern- Volmer constant (KSV) of electron transfer was decreased with increasing the dendron generations. Our study suggested that these novel dendritic phthalocyanines were effective new electron donors and transmission complexes and could be used as a potential artifical photosysthesis system.

  5. Dendritic cells in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, S; Fearnley, D B; Gunningham, S; Spearing, R L; Patton, W N; Hart, D N

    1999-06-01

    Blood dendritic cells (DC) differentiate in vitro via two separate pathways: either directly from blood DC precursors (DCp) or from CD14+ monocytes. In chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) abnormal bone marrow precursors contribute to blood monocyte development but DC development has not been studied previously. Monocytes comprised 60% of blood MNC in 15 CMML patients studied, compared with 20% in 16 age-matched controls. The increase in blood monocytes was accompanied by a reciprocal decrease in mean blood DC percentage (from 0.42% of MNC in normal individuals to 0.16% of MNC in CMML patients). Absolute blood DC numbers showed a minimal (non-significant) reduction from 9.8 x 10(6)/l in normal individuals to 7.5 x 10(6)/l in CMML patients. The CD14(low) WCD16+ monocyte subpopulation was not found in CMML patients. After culture in GM-CSF/IL-4, CMML CD14+ monocytes acquired the phenotype of immature monocyte derived DC (Mo-DC) with similar yields to normal blood Mo-DC generation. Addition of TNF-alpha or LPS induced both normal and CMML Mo-DC to express prominent dendritic processes, the CMRF44+ and CD83+ antigens and high levels of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86. Treatment either with TNF-alpha or LPS increased the allostimulatory activity of normal Mo-DC, but had little effect on the allostimulatory activity of CMML Mo-DC, perhaps reflecting the underlying neoplastic changes in monocyte precursors. We conclude that the blood DC numbers are relatively unaffected in CMML, suggesting discrete regulation of monocyte and DC production.

  6. Factors Controlling Black Carbon Deposition in Snow in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L.; Li, Q.; He, C.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) concentration in snow in the Arctic to BC emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging efficiency using a 3D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by meteorological field GEOS-5. With all improvements, simulated median BC concentration in snow agrees with observation (19.2 ng g-1) within 10%, down from -40% in the default GEOS-Chem. When the previously missed gas flaring emissions (mainly located in Russia) are included, the total BC emission in the Arctic increases by 70%. The simulated BC in snow increases by 1-7 ng g-1, with the largest improvement in Russia. The discrepancy of median BC in snow in the whole Arctic reduces from -40% to -20%. In addition, recent measurements of BC dry deposition velocity suggest that the constant deposition velocity of 0.03 cm s-1 over snow and ice used in the GEOS-Chem is too low. So we apply resistance-in-series method to calculate the dry deposition velocity over snow and ice and the resulted dry deposition velocity ranges from 0.03 to 0.24 cm s-1. However, the simulated total BC deposition flux in the Arctic and BC in snow does not change, because the increased dry deposition flux has been compensated by decreased wet deposition flux. However, the fraction of dry deposition to total deposition increases from 16% to 25%. This may affect the mixing of BC and snow particles and further affect the radative forcing of BC deposited in snow. Finally, we reduced the scavenging efficiency of BC in mixed-phase clouds to account for the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process based on recent observations. The simulated BC concentration in snow increases by 10-100%, with the largest increase in Greenland (100%), Tromsø (50%), Alaska (40%), and Canadian Arctic (30%). Annual BC loading in the Arctic increases from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2 and the lifetime of BC increases from 9.2 to 16.3 days. This indicates that BC simulation in the Arctic is really sensitive to

  7. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Kinetic Isotope Effect During Snow Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Depaolo, D. J.; Kang, Q.; Zhang, D.

    2007-12-01

    The isotopic composition of precipitation, especially that of snow, plays a special role in the global hydrological cycle and in reconstruction of past climates using polar ice cores. The fractionation of the major water isotope species (HHO, HDO, HHO-18) during ice crystal formation is critical to understanding the global distribution of isotopes in precipitation. Ice crystal growth in clouds is traditionally treated with a spherically-symmetric steady state diffusion model, with semi-empirical modifications added to account for ventilation and for complex crystal morphology. Although it is known that crystal growth rate, which depends largely on the degree of vapor over- saturation, determines crystal morphology, there are no quantitative models that relate morphology to the vapor saturation factor. Since kinetic (vapor phase diffusion-controlled) isotopic fractionation also depends on growth rate, there should be direct relationships between vapor saturation, crystal morphology, and crystal isotopic composition. We use a 2D lattice Boltzmann model to simulate diffusion-controlled ice crystal growth from vapor- oversaturated air. In the model, crystals grow solely according to the diffusive fluxes just above the crystal surfaces, and hence crystal morphology arises from the initial and boundary conditions in the model and does not need to be specified a priori. Crystal growth patterns can be varied between random growth and deterministic growth (along the maximum concentration gradient for example). The input parameters needed are the isotope- dependent vapor deposition rate constant (k) and the water vapor diffusivity in air (D). The values of both k and D can be computed from kinetic theory, and there are also experimentally determined values of D. The deduced values of k are uncertain to the extent that the condensation coefficient for ice is uncertain. The ratio D/k is a length (order 1 micron) that determines the minimum scale of dendritic growth features

  8. Dendritic Kv3.3 potassium channels in cerebellar purkinje cells regulate generation and spatial dynamics of dendritic Ca2+ spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagha, Edward; Manita, Satoshi; Ross, William N; Rudy, Bernardo

    2010-06-01

    Purkinje cell dendrites are excitable structures with intrinsic and synaptic conductances contributing to the generation and propagation of electrical activity. Voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv3.3 is expressed in the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells. However, the functional relevance of this dendritic distribution is not understood. Moreover, mutations in Kv3.3 cause movement disorders in mice and cerebellar atrophy and ataxia in humans, emphasizing the importance of understanding the role of these channels. In this study, we explore functional implications of this dendritic channel expression and compare Purkinje cell dendritic excitability in wild-type and Kv3.3 knockout mice. We demonstrate enhanced excitability of Purkinje cell dendrites in Kv3.3 knockout mice, despite normal resting membrane properties. Combined data from local application pharmacology, voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents, and assessment of dendritic Ca(2+) spike threshold in Purkinje cells suggest a role for Kv3.3 channels in opposing Ca(2+) spike initiation. To study the physiological relevance of altered dendritic excitability, we measured [Ca(2+)](i) changes throughout the dendritic tree in response to climbing fiber activation. Ca(2+) signals were specifically enhanced in distal dendrites of Kv3.3 knockout Purkinje cells, suggesting a role for dendritic Kv3.3 channels in regulating propagation of electrical activity and Ca(2+) influx in distal dendrites. These findings characterize unique roles of Kv3.3 channels in dendrites, with implications for synaptic integration, plasticity, and human disease.

  9. Merging a Terrain-Based Parameter and Snow Particle Counter Data for the Assessment of Snow Redistribution in the Col du Lac Blanc Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Peter; Prokop, Alexander; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Vionnet, Vincent; Guyomarc'h, Gilbert; Heiser, Micha; Nishimura, Kouichi

    2015-04-01

    Wind and the associated snow drift are dominating factors determining the snow distribution and accumulation in alpine areas, resulting in a high spatial variability of snow depth that is difficult to evaluate and quantify. The terrain-based parameter Sx characterizes the degree of shelter or exposure of a grid point provided by the upwind terrain, without the computational complexity of numerical wind field models. The parameter has shown to qualitatively predict snow redistribution with good reproduction of spatial patterns. It does not, however, provide a quantitative estimate of changes in snow depths. The objective of our research was to introduce a new parameter to quantify changes in snow depths in our research area, the Col du Lac Blanc in the French Alps. The area is at an elevation of 2700 m and particularly suited for our study due to its consistently bi-modal wind directions. Our work focused on two pronounced, approximately 10 m high terrain breaks, and we worked with 1 m resolution digital snow surface models (DSM). The DSM and measured changes in snow depths were obtained with high-accuracy terrestrial laser scan (TLS) measurements. First we calculated the terrain-based parameter Sx on a digital snow surface model and correlated Sx with measured changes in snow-depths (Δ SH). Results showed that Δ SH can be approximated by Δ SHestimated = α * Sx, where α is a newly introduced parameter. The parameter α has shown to be linked to the amount of snow deposited influenced by blowing snow flux. At the Col du Lac Blanc test side, blowing snow flux is recorded with snow particle counters (SPC). Snow flux is the number of drifting snow particles per time and area. Hence, the SPC provide data about the duration and intensity of drifting snow events, two important factors not accounted for by the terrain parameter Sx. We analyse how the SPC snow flux data can be used to estimate the magnitude of the new variable parameter α . To simulate the development

  10. Snow and Ice Crust Changes over Northern Eurasia since 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Groisman, P. Y.; Razuvaev, V.; Radionov, V.

    2009-12-01

    When temperature of snow cover reaches zero Celsius first time since its establishment, snowmelt starts. In many parts of the world this process can be lengthy. The initial amount of heat that “arrives” to the snowpack might be insufficient for complete snowmelt, during the colder nights re-freeze of the melted snow may occur (thus creating the ice crust layers), and a new cold front (or the departure of the warm front that initiated melt) can decrease temperatures below the freezing point again and stop the snowmelt completely. It well can be that first such snowmelt occurs in winter (thaw day) and for several months thereafter snowpack stays on the ground. However, even the first such melt initiates a process of snow metamorphosis on its surface changing snow albedo and generating snow crust as well as on its bottom generating ice crust. Once emerged, the crusts will not disappear until the complete snowmelt. Furthermore, these crusts have numerous pathways of impact on the wild birds and animals in the Arctic environment as well as on domesticated reindeers. In extreme cases, the crusts may kill some wild species and prevent reindeers’ migration and feeding. Ongoing warming in high latitudes created situations when in the western half of Eurasian continent days with thaw became more frequent. Keeping in mind potential detrimental impacts of winter thaws and associated with them snow/ice crust development, it is worthwhile to study directly what are the major features of snow and ice crust over Eurasia and what is their dynamics. For the purpose of this study, we employed the national snow survey data set archived at the Russian Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. The dataset has routine snow surveys run throughout the cold season each decade (during the intense snowmelt, each 5 days) at all meteorological stations of the former USSR, thereafter, in Russia since 1966. Prior to 1966 snow surveys are also available but the methodology of

  11. SMRT: A new, modular snow microwave radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Ghislain; Sandells, Melody; Löwe, Henning; Dumont, Marie; Essery, Richard; Floury, Nicolas; Kontu, Anna; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Maslanka, William; Mätzler, Christian; Morin, Samuel; Wiesmann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Forward models of radiative transfer processes are needed to interpret remote sensing data and derive measurements of snow properties such as snow mass. A key requirement and challenge for microwave emission and scattering models is an accurate description of the snow microstructure. The snow microwave radiative transfer model (SMRT) was designed to cater for potential future active and/or passive satellite missions and developed to improve understanding of how to parameterize snow microstructure. SMRT is implemented in Python and is modular to allow easy intercomparison of different theoretical approaches. Separate modules are included for the snow microstructure model, electromagnetic module, radiative transfer solver, substrate, interface reflectivities, atmosphere and permittivities. An object-oriented approach is used with carefully specified exchanges between modules to allow future extensibility i.e. without constraining the parameter list requirements. This presentation illustrates the capabilities of SMRT. At present, five different snow microstructure models have been implemented, and direct insertion of the autocorrelation function from microtomography data is also foreseen with SMRT. Three electromagnetic modules are currently available. While DMRT-QCA and Rayleigh models need specific microstructure models, the Improved Born Approximation may be used with any microstructure representation. A discrete ordinates approach with stream connection is used to solve the radiative transfer equations, although future inclusion of 6-flux and 2-flux solvers are envisioned. Wrappers have been included to allow existing microwave emission models (MEMLS, HUT, DMRT-QMS) to be run with the same inputs and minimal extra code (2 lines). Comparisons between theoretical approaches will be shown, and evaluation against field experiments in the frequency range 5-150 GHz. SMRT is simple and elegant to use whilst providing a framework for future development within the

  12. Canadian snow and sea ice: historical trends and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Derksen, Chris; Howell, Stephen; Laliberté, Fred; Thackeray, Chad; Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel; Vionnet, Vincent; Kushner, Paul J.; Brown, Ross

    2018-04-01

    The Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network is a climate research network focused on developing and applying state of the art observational data to advance dynamical prediction, projections, and understanding of seasonal snow cover and sea ice in Canada and the circumpolar Arctic. Here, we present an assessment from the CanSISE Network on trends in the historical record of snow cover (fraction, water equivalent) and sea ice (area, concentration, type, and thickness) across Canada. We also assess projected changes in snow cover and sea ice likely to occur by mid-century, as simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) suite of Earth system models. The historical datasets show that the fraction of Canadian land and marine areas covered by snow and ice is decreasing over time, with seasonal and regional variability in the trends consistent with regional differences in surface temperature trends. In particular, summer sea ice cover has decreased significantly across nearly all Canadian marine regions, and the rate of multi-year ice loss in the Beaufort Sea and Canadian Arctic Archipelago has nearly doubled over the last 8 years. The multi-model consensus over the 2020-2050 period shows reductions in fall and spring snow cover fraction and sea ice concentration of 5-10 % per decade (or 15-30 % in total), with similar reductions in winter sea ice concentration in both Hudson Bay and eastern Canadian waters. Peak pre-melt terrestrial snow water equivalent reductions of up to 10 % per decade (30 % in total) are projected across southern Canada.

  13. Snow in a very steep rock face: accumulation and redistribution during and after a snowfall event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gabriel Sommer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning was used to measure snow thickness changes (perpendicular to the surface in a rock face. The aim was to investigate the accumulation and redistribution of snow in extremely steep terrain (>60°. The north-east face of the Chlein Schiahorn in the region of Davos in eastern Switzerland was scanned before and several times after a snowfall event. A summer scan without snow was acquired to calculate the total snow thickness. An improved postprocessing procedure is introduced. The data quality could be increased by using snow thickness instead of snow depth (measured vertically and by consistently applying Multi Station Adjustment to improve the registration.More snow was deposited in the flatter, smoother areas of the rock face. The spatial variability of the snow thickness change was high. The spatial patterns of the total snow thickness were similar to those of the snow thickness change. The correlation coefficient between them was 0.86. The fresh snow was partly redistributed from extremely steep to flatter terrain, presumably mostly through avalanching. The redistribution started during the snowfall and ended several days later. Snow was able to accumulate permanently at every slope angle. The amount of snow in extremely steep terrain was limited but not negligible. Areas steeper than 60° received 15% of the snowfall and contained 10% of the total amount of snow.

  14. Next Generation Snow Cover Mapping: Can Future Hyperspectral Satellite Spectrometer Systems Improve Subpixel Snow-covered Area and Grain Size in the Sierra Nevada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Calvin, W. M.; Harpold, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain snow storage is the dominant source of water for humans and ecosystems in western North America. Consequently, the spatial distribution of snow-covered area is fundamental to both hydrological, ecological, and climate models. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected along the entire Sierra Nevada mountain range extending from north of Lake Tahoe to south of Mt. Whitney during the 2015 and 2016 snow-covered season. The AVIRIS dataset used in this experiment consists of 224 contiguous spectral channels with wavelengths ranging 400-2500 nanometers at a 15-meter spatial pixel size. Data from the Sierras were acquired on four days: 2/24/15 during a very low snow year, 3/24/16 near maximum snow accumulation, and 5/12/16 and 5/18/16 during snow ablation and snow loss. Building on previous retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area algorithms that take into account varying grain size we present a model that analyzes multiple endmembers of varying snow grain size, vegetation, rock, and soil in segmented regions along the Sierra Nevada to determine snow-cover spatial extent, snow sub-pixel fraction, and approximate grain size. In addition, varying simulated models of the data will compare and contrast the retrieval of current snow products such as MODIS Snow-Covered Area and Grain Size (MODSCAG) and the Airborne Space Observatory (ASO). Specifically, does lower spatial resolution (MODIS), broader resolution bandwidth (MODIS), and limited spectral resolution (ASO) affect snow-cover area and grain size approximations? The implications of our findings will help refine snow mapping products for planned hyperspectral satellite spectrometer systems such as EnMAP (slated to launch in 2019), HISUI (planned for inclusion on the International Space Station in 2018), and HyspIRI (currently under consideration).

  15. Facile fabrication of dendritic silver structures and their surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have high sensitivity to surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy response. ... of interfaces and molecularly thin-films. SERS is a ... face plasmon polaritons, while the second is attributed ... 2.2 Fabrication and characterization of dendritic.

  16. Simulation of dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-wu Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow has a significant impact on the microstructure evolution of alloys during solidification. Based on the previous work relating simulation of the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with hcp (hexagonal close-packed structure, an extension was made to the formerly established CA (cellular automaton model with the purpose of studying the effect of fluid flow on the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys. The modified projection method was used to solve the transport equations of flow field. By coupling the flow field with the solute field, simulation results of equiaxed and columnar dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow were achieved. The simulated results were quantitatively compared with those without fluid flow. Moreover, a comparison was also made between the present work and previous works conducted by others. It can be concluded that a deep understanding of the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow can be obtained by applying the present numerical model.

  17. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2006-01-01

    CD163 and CD91 are scavenging receptors with highly increased expression during the differentiation of monocytes into the anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. In addition, CD91 is expressed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), where the receptor is suggested to be important...... for internalization of CD91-targeted antigens to be presented on the dendritic cell surface for T-cell stimulation. Despite their overlap in functionality, the expression of CD91 and CD163 has never been compared and the expression of CD163 in the monocyte-dendritic cell lineage is not yet characterized. CD163...... expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...

  18. Breast Cancer Vaccines Based on Dendritic Cells and the Chemokines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mule, James

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to establish a new modality for the treatment of breast cancer that employs the combination of chemokine gene-modified fibroblasts with breast tumor-pulsed dendritic cells (DC...

  19. CD56 marks human dendritic cell subsets with cytotoxic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roothans, D.; Smits, E.; Lion, E.; Tel, J.; Anguille, S.

    2013-01-01

    Human plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), when appropriately stimulated, can express the archetypal natural killer (NK)-cell surface marker CD56. In addition to classical DC functions, CD56(+) DCs are endowed with an unconventional cytotoxic capacity.

  20. Supramolecular Dendriphores: Anionic Organometallic Phosphors Embedded in Polycationic Dendritic Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonald, A.R.; Mores, D.; de Mello-Donega, C.; van Walree, C.A.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Meijerink, A.; van Klink, G.P.M.; van Koten, G.

    2009-01-01

    Heteroleptic iridium(III) organometallic complexes have been functionalized with sulfate tethers. These systems have been thoroughly characterized spectroscopically. Subsequently these iridium(III) complexes were reacted with polyionic dendritic materials yielding iridium(III) organometallic

  1. Supramolecular effects in dendritic systems containing photoactive groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANLUCA CAMILLO AZZELLINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article are described dendritic structures containing photoactive groups at the surface or in the core. The observed supramolecular effects can be attributed to the nature of the photoactive group and their location in the dendritic architecture. The peripheric azobenzene groups in these dendrimeric compounds can be regarded as single residues that retain the spectroscopic and photochemical properties of free azobenzene moiety. The E and Z forms of higher generation dendrimer, functionalized with azobenzene groups, show different host ability towards eosin dye, suggesting the possibility of using such dendrimer in photocontrolled host-guest systems. The photophysical properties of many dendritic-bipyridine ruthenium complexes have been investigated. Particularly in aerated medium more intense emission and a longer excited-state lifetime are observed as compared to the parent unsubstituted bipyridine ruthenium complexes. These differences can be attributed to a shielding effect towards dioxygen quenching originated by the dendritic branches.

  2. Breast Cancer Vaccines Based on Dendritic Cells and the Chemokines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mule, James

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to establish a new modality for the treatment of breast cancer that employs the combination of chemokine gene modified fibroblasts with breast tumor pulsed dendritic cells (DC...

  3. Molecule Matters-Dendritic Architecture-A Clever Route to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 1. Molecule Matters - Dendritic Architecture - A Clever Route to Monodispersed Macromolecules. N Jayaraman. Feature Article Volume 12 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 60-66 ...

  4. Improving snow cover mapping in forests through the use of a canopy reflectance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.G.; Hall, D.K.; Riggs, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    MODIS, the moderate resolution imaging spectro radiometer, will be launched in 1998 as part of the first earth observing system (EOS) platform. Global maps of land surface properties, including snow cover, will be created from MODIS imagery. The MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm that will be used to produce daily maps of global snow cover extent at 500 m resolution is currently under development. With the exception of cloud cover, the largest limitation to producing a global daily snow cover product using MODIS is the presence of a forest canopy. A Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) time-series of the southern Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study area in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, was used to evaluate the performance of the current MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm in varying forest types. A snow reflectance model was used in conjunction with a canopy reflectance model (GeoSAIL) to model the reflectance of a snow-covered forest stand. Using these coupled models, the effects of varying forest type, canopy density, snow grain size and solar illumination geometry on the performance of the MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm were investigated. Using both the TM images and the reflectance models, two changes to the current MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm are proposed that will improve the algorithm's classification accuracy in forested areas. The improvements include using the normalized difference snow index and normalized difference vegetation index in combination to discriminate better between snow-covered and snow-free forests. A minimum albedo threshold of 10% in the visible wavelengths is also proposed. This will prevent dense forests with very low visible albedos from being classified incorrectly as snow. These two changes increase the amount of snow mapped in forests on snow-covered TM scenes, and decrease the area incorrectly identified as snow on non-snow-covered TM scenes. (author)

  5. Dendritic biomimicry: microenvironmental hydrogen-bonding effects on tryptophan fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, S; Müller, L; Smith, D K

    2001-03-02

    Two series of dendritically modified tryptophan derivatives have been synthesised and their emission spectra measured in a range of different solvents. This paper presents the syntheses of these novel dendritic structures and discusses their emission spectra in terms of both solvent and dendritic effects. In the first series of dendrimers, the NH group of the indole ring is available for hydrogen bonding, whilst in the second series, the indole NH group has been converted to NMe. Direct comparison of the emission wavelengths of analogous NH and NMe derivatives indicates the importance of the Kamlet-Taft solvent beta3 parameter, which reflects the ability of the solvent to accept a hydrogen bond from the NH group, an effect not possible for the NMe series of dendrimers. For the NH dendrimers, the attachment of a dendritic shell to the tryptophan subunit leads to a red shift in emission wavelength. This dendritic effect only operates in non-hydrogen-bonding solvents. For the NMe dendrimers, however, the attachment of a dendritic shell has no effect on the emission spectra of the indole ring. This proves the importance of hydrogen bonding between the branched shell and the indole NH group in causing the dendritic effect. This is the first time a dendritic effect has been unambiguously assigned to individual hydrogen-bonding interactions and indicates that such intramolecular interactions are important in dendrimers, just as they are in proteins. Furthermore, this paper sheds light on the use of tryptophan residues as a probe of the microenvironment within proteins--in particular, it stresses the importance of hydrogen bonds formed by the indole NH group.

  6. Snow multivariable data assimilation for hydrological predictions in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Gaia; Campo, Lorenzo; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Castelli, Fabio; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Stevenin, Hervé; Ratto, Sara Maria

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal presence of snow on alpine catchments strongly impacts both surface energy balance and water resource. Thus, the knowledge of the snowpack dynamics is of critical importance for several applications, such as water resource management, floods prediction and hydroelectric power production. Several independent data sources provide information about snowpack state: ground-based measurements, satellite data and physical models. Although all these data types are reliable, each of them is affected by specific flaws and errors (respectively dependency on local conditions, sensor biases and limitations, initialization and poor quality forcing data). Moreover, there are physical factors that make an exhaustive reconstruction of snow dynamics complicated: snow intermittence in space and time, stratification and slow phenomena like metamorphism processes, uncertainty in snowfall evaluation, wind transportation, etc. Data Assimilation (DA) techniques provide an objective methodology to combine observational and modeled information to obtain the most likely estimate of snowpack state. Indeed, by combining all the available sources of information, the implementation of DA schemes can quantify and reduce the uncertainties of the estimations. This study presents SMASH (Snow Multidata Assimilation System for Hydrology), a multi-layer snow dynamic model, strengthened by a robust multivariable data assimilation algorithm. The model is physically based on mass and energy balances and can be used to reproduce the main physical processes occurring within the snowpack: accumulation, density dynamics, melting, sublimation, radiative balance, heat and mass exchanges. The model is driven by observed forcing meteorological data (air temperature, wind velocity, relative air humidity, precipitation and incident solar radiation) to provide a complete estimate of snowpack state. The implementation of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) scheme enables to assimilate simultaneously ground

  7. Drones application on snow and ice surveys in alpine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Leonardo; Bonetti, Luigi; Fioletti, Matteo; Peretti, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    First results from Climate change are now clear in Europe, and in Italy in particular, with the natural disasters that damaged irreparably the territory and the habitat due to extreme meteorological events. The Directive 2007/60/EC highlight that an "effective natural hazards prevention and mitigation that requires coordination between Member States above all on natural hazards prevention" is necessary. A climate change adaptation strategy is identified on the basis of the guidelines of the European Community program 2007-2013. Following the directives provided in the financial instrument for civil protection "Union Civil Protection Mechanism" under Decision No. 1313/2013 / EU of the European Parliament and Council, a cross-cutting approach that takes into account a large number of implementation tools of EU policies is proposed as climate change adaptation strategy. In last 7 years a network of trans-Alpine area's authorities was created between Italy and Switzerland to define an adaptive strategy on climate change effects on natural enviroment based on non structural remedies. The Interreg IT - CH STRADA Project (STRategie di ADAttamento al cambiamento climatico) was born to join all the non structural remedies to climate change effects caused by snow and avalanches, on mountain sources, extreme hydrological events and to manage all transnational hydrological resources, involving all stakeholders from Italy and Switzerland. The STRADA project involved all civil protection authorities and all research centers in charge of snow, hydrology end civil protection. The Snow - meteorological center of the Regional Agency for Environment Protection (CNM of ARPA Lombardia) and the Civil Protection of Lombardy Region created a research team to develop tools for avalanche prediction and to observe and predict snow cover on Alpine area. With this aim a lot of aerial photo using Drone as been performed in unusual landscape. Results of all surveys were really interesting on a

  8. The seasonal cycle of snow cover, sea ice and surface albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines satellite data used to construct mean snow cover caps for the Northern Hemisphere. The zonally averaged snow cover from these maps is used to calculate the seasonal cycle of zonally averaged surface albedo. The effects of meltwater on the surface, solar zenith angle, and cloudiness are parameterized and included in the calculations of snow and ice albedo. The data allows a calculation of surface albedo for any land or ocean 10 deg latitude band as a function of surface temperature ice and snow cover; the correct determination of the ice boundary is more important than the snow boundary for accurately simulating the ice and snow albedo feedback.

  9. Spectral reflectance of solar light from dirty snow: a simple theoretical model and its validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kokhanovsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple analytical equation for the snow albedo as the function of snow grain size, soot concentration, and soot mass absorption coefficient is presented. This simple equation can be used in climate models to assess the influence of snow pollution on snow albedo. It is shown that the squared logarithm of the albedo (in the visible is directly proportional to the soot concentration. A new method of the determination of the soot mass absorption coefficient in snow is proposed. The equations derived are applied to a dusty snow layer as well.

  10. Food, energy, and water in an era of disappearing snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Li, S.; Xiao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain snowpack stores a significant quantity of water in the western US, accumulating during the wet season and melting during the dry summers and supplying more than 65% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, energy production (both hydropower and thermal), and municipal and industrial uses. The importance of snow to western agriculture is demonstrated by the fact that most snow monitoring is performed by the US Department of Agriculture. In a paper published in 2005, we showed that roughly 70% of monitoring sites showed decreasing trends through 2002. Now, with 14 additional years of data, over 90% of snow monitoring sites with long records across the western US show declines through 2016, of which 33% are significant (vs 5% expected by chance) and 2% are significant and positive (vs 5% expected by chance). Declining trends are observed across all months, states, and climates, but are largest in spring, in the Pacific states, and in locations with mild winter climate. We corroborate and extend these observations using a gridded hydrology model, which also allows a robust estimate of total western snowpack and its decline. Averaged across the western US, the decline in total April 1 snow water equivalent since mid-century is roughly 15-30% or 25-50 km3, comparable in volume to the West's largest man-made reservoir, Lake Mead. In the absence of rapid reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, these losses will accelerate; snow losses on this scale demonstrate the necessity of rethinking water storage, policy, and usage.

  11. Granulation of snow: From tumbler experiments to discrete element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkogler, Walter; Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Sovilla, Betty; Lehning, Michael

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that snow avalanches exhibit granulation phenomena, i.e., the formation of large and apparently stable snow granules during the flow. The size distribution of the granules has an influence on flow behavior which, in turn, affects runout distances and avalanche velocities. The underlying mechanisms of granule formation are notoriously difficult to investigate within large-scale field experiments, due to limitations in the scope for measuring temperatures, velocities, and size distributions. To address this issue we present experiments with a concrete tumbler, which provide an appropriate means to investigate granule formation of snow. In a set of experiments at constant rotation velocity with varying temperatures and water content, we demonstrate that temperature has a major impact on the formation of granules. The experiments showed that granules only formed when the snow temperature exceeded -1∘C. No evolution in the granule size was observed at colder temperatures. Depending on the conditions, different granulation regimes are obtained, which are qualitatively classified according to their persistence and size distribution. The potential of granulation of snow in a tumbler is further demonstrated by showing that generic features of the experiments can be reproduced by cohesive discrete element simulations. The proposed discrete element model mimics the competition between cohesive forces, which promote aggregation, and impact forces, which induce fragmentation, and supports the interpretation of the granule regime classification obtained from the tumbler experiments. Generalizations, implications for flow dynamics, and experimental and model limitations as well as suggestions for future work are discussed.

  12. Role of Marine Snows in Microplastic Fate and Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Adam; Lyons, Brett P; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2018-06-01

    Microplastics contaminate global oceans and are accumulating in sediments at levels thought sufficient to leave a permanent layer in the fossil record. Despite this, the processes that vertically transport buoyant polymers from surface waters to the benthos are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that laboratory generated marine snows can transport microplastics of different shapes, sizes, and polymers away from the water surface and enhance their bioavailability to benthic organisms. Sinking rates of all tested microplastics increased when incorporated into snows, with large changes observed for the buoyant polymer polyethylene with an increase in sinking rate of 818 m day -1 and for denser polyamide fragments of 916 m day -1 . Incorporation into snows increased microplastic bioavailability for mussels, where uptake increased from zero to 340 microplastics individual -1 for free microplastics to up to 1.6 × 10 5 microplastics individual -1 when incorporated into snows. We therefore propose that marine snow formation and fate has the potential to play a key role in the biogeochemical processing of microplastic pollution.

  13. First Gridded Spatial Field Reconstructions of Snow from Tree Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, B. L.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Pederson, G. T.; Alder, J. R.; Hostetler, S. W.; Gray, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Western North America's mountain snowpacks provide critical water resources for human populations and ecosystems. Warmer temperatures and changing precipitation patterns will increasingly alter the quantity, extent, and persistence of snow in coming decades. A comprehensive understanding of the causes and range of long-term variability in this system is required for forecasting future anomalies, but snowpack observations are limited and sparse. While individual tree ring-based annual snowpack reconstructions have been developed for specific regions and mountain ranges, we present here the first collection of spatially-explicit gridded field reconstructions of seasonal snowpack within the American Rocky Mountains. Capitalizing on a new western North American snow-sensitive network of over 700 tree-ring chronologies, as well as recent advances in PRISM-based snow modeling, our gridded reconstructions offer a full space-time characterization of snow and associated water resource fluctuations over several centuries. The quality of reconstructions is evaluated against existing observations, proxy-records, and an independently-developed first-order monthly snow model.

  14. Snow and Ice Products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Klein, Andrew G.

    2003-01-01

    Snow and sea ice products, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, flown on the Terra and Aqua satellites, are or will be available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The algorithms that produce the products are automated, thus providing a consistent global data set that is suitable for climate studies. The suite of MODIS snow products begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map that is then projected onto a sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to daily and 8-day composite climate-modeling grid (CMG) products at 0.05 resolution. A daily snow albedo product will be available in early 2003 as a beta test product. The sequence of sea ice products begins with a swath product at 1-km resolution that provides sea ice extent and ice-surface temperature (IST). The sea ice swath products are then mapped onto the Lambert azimuthal equal area or EASE-Grid projection to create a daily and 8-day composite sea ice tile product, also at 1 -km resolution. Climate-Modeling Grid (CMG) sea ice products in the EASE-Grid projection at 4-km resolution are planned for early 2003.

  15. The unfolded protein response is required for dendrite morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xing; Howell, Audrey S; Dong, Xintong; Taylor, Caitlin A; Cooper, Roshni C; Zhang, Jianqi; Zou, Wei; Sherwood, David R; Shen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Precise patterning of dendritic fields is essential for the formation and function of neuronal circuits. During development, dendrites acquire their morphology by exuberant branching. How neurons cope with the increased load of protein production required for this rapid growth is poorly understood. Here we show that the physiological unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced in the highly branched Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neuron PVD during dendrite morphogenesis. Perturbation of the IRE1 arm of the UPR pathway causes loss of dendritic branches, a phenotype that can be rescued by overexpression of the ER chaperone HSP-4 (a homolog of mammalian BiP/ grp78). Surprisingly, a single transmembrane leucine-rich repeat protein, DMA-1, plays a major role in the induction of the UPR and the dendritic phenotype in the UPR mutants. These findings reveal a significant role for the physiological UPR in the maintenance of ER homeostasis during morphogenesis of large dendritic arbors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06963.001 PMID:26052671

  16. Long-term analyses of snow dynamics within the french Alps on the 1900-2100 period. Analyses of historical snow water equivalent observations, modelisations and projections of a hundred of snow courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, T.; Joel, G.; Gottardi, F.; Nemoz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this communication is to present analyses of climate variability and change on snow water equivalent (SWE) observations, reconstructions (1900-2016) and scenarii (2020-2100) of a hundred of snow courses dissiminated within the french Alps. This issue became particularly important since a decade, in regions where snow variability had a large impact on water resources availability, poor snow conditions in ski resorts and artificial snow production. As a water resources manager in french mountainuous regions, EDF (french hydropower company) has developed and managed a hydrometeorological network since 1950. A recent data rescue research allowed to digitize long term SWE manual measurments of a hundred of snow courses within the french Alps. EDF have been operating an automatic SWE sensors network, complementary to the snow course network. Based on numerous SWE observations time-series and snow accumulation and melt model (Garavaglia et al., 2017), continuous daily historical SWE time-series have been reconstructed within the 1950-2016 period. These reconstructions have been extented to 1900 using 20 CR reanalyses (ANATEM method, Kuentz et al., 2015) and up to 2100 using GIEC Climate Change scenarii. Considering various mountainous areas within the french Alps, this communication focuses on : (1) long term (1900-2016) analyses of variability and trend of total precipitation, air temperature, snow water equivalent, snow line altitude, snow season length , (2) long term variability of hydrological regime of snow dominated watersheds and (3) future trends (2020 -2100) using GIEC Climate Change scenarii. Comparing historical period (1950-1984) to recent period (1984-2016), quantitative results within a region in the north Alps (Maurienne) shows an increase of air temperature by 1.2 °C, an increase of snow line height by 200m, a reduction of SWE by 200 mm/year and a reduction of snow season length by 15 days. These analyses will be extended from north to south

  17. Dendritic cells recognize tumor-specific glycosylation of carcinoembryonic antigen on colorectal cancer cells through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.; Aarnoudse, Corlien A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a pivotal role in the induction of antitumor immune responses. Immature dendritic cells are located intratumorally within colorectal cancer and intimately interact with tumor cells, whereas mature dendritic cells are present peripheral to the tumor. The majority of colorectal

  18. Equine dendritic cells generated with horse serum have enhanced functionality in comparison to dendritic cells generated with fetal bovine serum

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Anja; Everett, Helen; Hamza, Eman; Garbani, Mattia; Gerber, Vinzenz; Marti, Eliane; Steinbach, Falko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells are professional antigen-presenting cells that play an essential role in the initiation and modulation of T cell responses. They have been studied widely for their potential clinical applications, but for clinical use to be successful, alternatives to xenogeneic substances like fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture need to be found. Protocols for the generation of dendritic cells ex vivo from monocytes are well established for several species, including hor...

  19. Snow sublimation in mountain environments and its sensitivity to forest disturbance and climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexstone, Graham A.; Clow, David W.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.; Knowles, John F.; Penn, Colin A.

    2018-01-01

    Snow sublimation is an important component of the snow mass balance, but the spatial and temporal variability of this process is not well understood in mountain environments. This study combines a process‐based snow model (SnowModel) with eddy covariance (EC) measurements to investigate (1) the spatio‐temporal variability of simulated snow sublimation with respect to station observations, (2) the contribution of snow sublimation to the ablation of the snowpack, and (3) the sensitivity and response of snow sublimation to bark beetle‐induced forest mortality and climate warming across the north‐central Colorado Rocky Mountains. EC‐based observations of snow sublimation compared well with simulated snow sublimation at stations dominated by surface and canopy sublimation, but blowing snow sublimation in alpine areas was not well captured by the EC instrumentation. Water balance calculations provided an important validation of simulated sublimation at the watershed scale. Simulated snow sublimation across the study area was equivalent to 28% of winter precipitation on average, and the highest relative snow sublimation fluxes occurred during the lowest snow years. Snow sublimation from forested areas accounted for the majority of sublimation fluxes, highlighting the importance of canopy and sub‐canopy surface sublimation in this region. Simulations incorporating the effects of tree mortality due to bark‐beetle disturbance resulted in a 4% reduction in snow sublimation from forested areas. Snow sublimation rates corresponding to climate warming simulations remained unchanged or slightly increased, but total sublimation losses decreased by up to 6% because of a reduction in snow covered area and duration.

  20. COSMO-SkyMed Image Investigation of Snow Features in Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Paloscia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, X band images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK on alpine environment have been analyzed for investigating snow characteristics and their effect on backscattering variations. Preliminary results confirmed the capability of simultaneous optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images (Landsat-8 and CSK in separating snow/no-snow areas and in detecting wet snow. The sensitivity of backscattering to snow depth has not always been confirmed, depending on snow characteristics related to the season. A model based on Dense Media Radiative Transfer theory (DMRT-QMS was applied for simulating the backscattering response on the X band from snow cover in different conditions of grain size, snow density and depth. By using DMRT-QMS and snow in-situ data collected on Cordevole basin in Italian Alps, the effect of grain size and snow density, beside snow depth and snow water equivalent, was pointed out, showing that the snow features affect the backscatter in different and sometimes opposite ways. Experimental values of backscattering were correctly simulated by using this model and selected intervals of ground parameters. The relationship between simulated and measured backscattering for the entire dataset shows slope >0.9, determination coefficient, R2 = 0.77, and root mean square error, RMSE = 1.1 dB, with p-value <0.05.

  1. Observational evidence of changes in global snow and ice cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sources of observational data on recent variations in the seasonal extent of snow cover and sea ice, of the terminal position and volume of alpine glaciers, and of ground temperature profiles in areas of permafrost are briefly reviewed. Recent evidence of changes in these variables is then examined. The extent of seasonal snow cover in the Northern hemisphere and of sea ice in both hemispheres has fluctuated irregularly over the last 15-20 years with a range of about 10-15% in each case. There is no clear evidence of any recent trends, despite general global warming. In contrast, most glaciers retreated and thinned from before the turn of the century until the 1960s and alaskan permafrost temperatures have risen 2-4 C per century. Recently, glacier advances have been noted, perhaps in response to increased accumulation. Problems of linking climate forcing and snow/ice responses are discussed

  2. Estimating water equivalent snow depth from related meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyaert, L.T.; LeDuc, S.K.; Strommen, N.D.; Nicodemus, M.L.; Guttman, N.B.

    1980-05-01

    Engineering design must take into consideration natural loads and stresses caused by meteorological elements, such as, wind, snow, precipitation and temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship of water equivalent snow depth measurements to meteorological variables. Several predictor models were evaluated for use in estimating water equivalent values. These models include linear regression, principal component regression, and non-linear regression models. Linear, non-linear and Scandanavian models are used to generate annual water equivalent estimates for approximately 1100 cooperative data stations where predictor variables are available, but which have no water equivalent measurements. These estimates are used to develop probability estimates of snow load for each station. Map analyses for 3 probability levels are presented

  3. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  4. Estimation of Snow Parameters from Dual-Wavelength Airborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert; Iguchi, Toshio; Detwiler, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of snow characteristics from airborne radar measurements would complement In-situ measurements. While In-situ data provide more detailed information than radar, they are limited in their space-time sampling. In the absence of significant cloud water contents, dual-wavelength radar data can be used to estimate 2 parameters of a drop size distribution if the snow density is assumed. To estimate, rather than assume, a snow density is difficult, however, and represents a major limitation in the radar retrieval. There are a number of ways that this problem can be investigated: direct comparisons with in-situ measurements, examination of the large scale characteristics of the retrievals and their comparison to cloud model outputs, use of LDR measurements, and comparisons to the theoretical results of Passarelli(1978) and others. In this paper we address the first approach and, in part, the second.

  5. Quasi-steady temperature gradient metamorphism in idealized, dry snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christon, M.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for heat and mass transport in microscale ice lattices of dry snow is formulated consistent with conservation laws and solid-vapor interface constraints. A finite element model that employs continuous mesh deformation is developed, and calculation of the effective diffusion rates in snow, metamorphosing under a temperature gradient, is performed. Results of the research provide basic insight into the movement of heat and water vapor in seasonal snowcovers. Agreement between the numerical results and measured data of effective thermal conductivity is excellent. The enhancement to the water vapor diffusion rate in snow is bracketed in the range of 1.05--2.0 times that of water vapor in dry air

  6. Operational satellites and the global monitoring of snow and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John E.

    1991-01-01

    The altitudinal dependence of the global warming projected by global climate models is at least partially attributable to the albedo-temperature feedback involving snow and ice, which must be regarded as key variables in the monitoring for global change. Statistical analyses of data from IR and microwave sensors monitoring the areal coverage and extent of sea ice have led to mixed conclusions about recent trends of hemisphere sea ice coverage. Seasonal snow cover has been mapped for over 20 years by NOAA/NESDIS on the basis of imagery from a variety of satellite sensors. Multichannel passive microwave data show some promise for the routine monitoring of snow depth over unforested land areas.

  7. The Impact Of Snow Melt On Surface Runoff Of Sava River In Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.; Vidmar, A.; Kobold, M.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Snow remains on the ground until it melts or sublimates. Spring snow melt is a major source of water supply to areas in temperate zones near mountains that catch and hold winter snow, especially those with a prolonged dry summer. In such places, water equivalent is of great interest to water managers wishing to predict spring runoff and the water supply of cities downstream. In temperate zone like in Slovenia the snow melts in the spring and contributes certain amount of water to surface flow. This amount of water can be great and can cause serious floods in case of fast snow melt. For this reason we tried to determine the influence of snow melt on the largest river basin in Slovenia - Sava River basin, on surface runoff. We would like to find out if snow melt in Slovenian Alps can cause spring floods and how serious it can be. First of all we studied the caracteristics of Sava River basin - geology, hydrology, clima, relief and snow conditions in details for each subbasin. Furtermore we focused on snow and described the snow phenomenom in Slovenia, detailed on Sava River basin. We collected all available data on snow - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Snow water equivalent is a much more useful measurement to hydrologists than snow depth, as the density of cool freshly fallen snow widely varies. New snow commonly has a density of between 5% and 15% of water. But unfortunately there is not a lot of available data of SWE available for Slovenia. Later on we compared the data of snow depth and river runoff for some of the 40 winter seasons. Finally we analyzed the use of satellite images for Slovenia to determine the snow cover for hydrology reason. We concluded that snow melt in Slovenia does not have a greater influence on Sava River flow. The snow cover in Alps can melt fast due to higher temperatures but the water distributes

  8. Deciphering dendritic cell heterogenity in immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël eChopin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are specialized antigen presenting cells that are exquisitely adapted to sense pathogens and induce the development of adaptive immune responses. They form a complex network of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Within this network, individual DC subsets display highly specific roles in local immunosurveillance, migration and antigen presentation. This division of labor amongst DCs offers great potential to tune the immune response by harnessing subset-specific attributes of DCs in the clinical setting. Until recently, our understanding of DC subsets has been limited and paralleled by poor clinical translation and efficacy. We have now begun to unravel how different DC subsets develop within a complex multilayered system. These finding open up exciting possibilities for targeted manipulation of DC subsets. Furthermore, ground-breaking developments overcoming a major translational obstacle – identification of similar DC populations in mouse and man – now set the stage for significant advances in the field. Here we explore the determinants that underpin cellular and transcriptional heterogeneity within the DC network, how these influence DC distribution and localization at steady-state, and the capacity of DCs to present antigens via direct or cross-presentation during pathogen infection.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of axon and dendrite growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim F Trakhtenberg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroregenerative therapies for central nervous system (CNS injury, neurodegenerative disease, or stroke require axons of damaged neurons to grow and reinnervate their targets. However, mature mammalian CNS neurons do not regenerate their axons, limiting recovery in these diseases (Yiu and He, 2006. CNS’ regenerative failure may be attributable to the development of an inhibitory CNS environment by glial-associated inhibitory molecules (Yiu and He, 2006, and by various cell-autonomous factors (Sun and He, 2010. Intrinsic axon growth ability also declines developmentally (Li et al., 1995; Goldberg et al., 2002; Bouslama-Oueghlani et al., 2003; Blackmore and Letourneau, 2006 and is dependent on transcription (Moore et al., 2009. Although neurons’ intrinsic capacity for axon growth may depend in part on the panoply of expressed transcription factors (Moore and Goldberg, 2011, epigenetic factors such as the accessibility of DNA and organization of chromatin are required for downstream genes to be transcribed. Thus a potential approach to overcoming regenerative failure focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms regulating regenerative gene expression in the CNS. Here we review molecular mechanisms regulating the epigenetic state of DNA through chromatin modifications, their implications for regulating axon and dendrite growth, and important new directions for this field of study.

  10. Isolation of Human Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized leukocytes with antigen-processing and antigen-presenting functions. DCs can be divided into distinct subsets by anatomical location, phenotype and function. In human, the two most accessible tissues to study leukocytes are peripheral blood and skin. DCs are rare in human peripheral blood (skin covering an average total surface area of 1.8 m(2) has approximately tenfold more DCs than the average 5 L of total blood volume (Wang et al., J Invest Dermatol 134:965-974, 2014). DCs migrate spontaneously from skin explants cultured ex vivo, which provide an easy method of cell isolation (Larsen et al., J Exp Med 172:1483-1493, 1990; Lenz et al., J Clin Invest 92:2587-2596, 1993; Nestle et al., J Immunol 151:6535-6545, 1993). These factors led to the extensive use of skin DCs as the "prototype" migratory DCs in human studies. In this chapter, we detail the protocols to isolate DCs and resident macrophages from human skin. We also provide a multiparameter flow cytometry gating strategy to identify human skin DCs and to distinguish them from macrophages.

  11. Crosstalk between T lymphocytes and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivroz, Claire; Chemin, Karine; Tourret, Marie; Bohineust, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique property of inducing priming and differentiation of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into helper and cytotoxic effectors. Their efficiency is due to their unique ability to process antigen, express costimulatory molecules, secrete cytokines, and migrate to tissues or lymphoid organs to prime T cells. DCs also play an important role in T-cell peripheral tolerance. There is ample evidence that the DC ability to present antigens is regulated by CD4+ helper T cells. Indeed, interactions between surface receptors and ligands expressed respectively by T cells and DCs, as well as T-cell-derived cytokines modify DC functions. This T-cell-induced modification of DCs has been called "education" or "licensing." This intimate crosstalk between DCs and T lymphocytes is key in establishing appropriate adaptive immune responses. It requires cognate interactions between T lymphocytes and DCs, which are organized in time and space by structures called immunological synapses. Here we discuss the particular aspects of immunological synapses formed between T cells and DCs and the role these organized interactions have in T-cell-DC crosstalk.

  12. Dendritic Cells—Importance in Allergy—

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuya Aiba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the role of dendritic cells (DC in the pathogenesis of allergic contact hypersensitivity (ACH and atopic disorders, such as asthma and atopic eczema. In ACH patients, DC recognize the invasion of simple chemicals such as haptens, and trigger antigen-specific T cell responses leading to the characteristic histological and clinical changes such as spongiosis and papulovesicular eruptions. During atopic disorders, it is well known that the Th2-deviated immune response plays a crucial role in their pathogenesis. DC provide T cells with antigen and costimulatory signals (signals 1 and 2, respectively, as well as with a polarizing signal (signal 3. When studying ACH, it is important to understand how simple chemicals induce the activation of DC and their migration to the draining lymph nodes where they supply signals 1 and 2 to naïve T cells. The mechanisms by which DC induce the Th2-deviated immune response, namely via the Th2-deviated signal 3, are central topics in the pathogenesis of atopic disorders.

  13. The role of dendritic cells in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    Though present in low numbers, dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as major players in the control of cancer by adaptive immunity. The roles of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and Th1 helper CD4+ T-cells are well-documented in murine models of cancer and associated with a profound prognostic impact when...... infiltrating human tumors, but less information is known about how these T-cells gain access to the tumor or how they are primed to become tumor-specific. Here, we highlight recent findings that demonstrate a vital role of CD103+ DCs, which have been shown to be experts in cross-priming and the induction...... of anti-tumor immunity. We also focus on two different mediators that impair the function of tumor-associated DCs: prostaglandin E2 and β-catenin. Both of these mediators seem to be important for the exclusion of T-cells in the tumor microenvironment and may represent key pathways to target in optimized...

  14. Snow and Rain Modify Neighbourhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Hirsch, Jana A; Melendez, Robert; Winters, Meghan; Sims Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen; Furst, Sarah; McKay, Heather

    2017-06-01

    The literature has documented a positive relationship between walkable built environments and outdoor mobility in older adults. Yet, surprisingly absent is any consideration of how weather conditions modify the impact of neighbourhood walkability. Using archived weather data linked to survey data collected from a sample of older adults in Vancouver, Canada, we found that car-dependent neighbourhoods (featuring longer block lengths, fewer intersections, and greater distance to amenities) became inaccessible in snow. Even older adults who lived in very walkable neighbourhoods walked to 25 per cent fewer destinations in snow. It is crucial to consider the impact of weather in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and older adult mobility.

  15. Ultratrace analysis for organolead compounds in Greenland snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobinski, R.; Szpunar-Lobinska, J.; Adams, F.C.

    1994-01-01

    The degradation products of tetraalkyllead compounds used as antiknock additives are unique indicators of automotive environmental pollution by lead. Recent dramatic improvements in species-specific ultrasensitive analytical procedures enabled the identification and quantification of organolead compounds in ancient Greenland snow which is considered as the archives of northern hemispheric pollution records. Organolead species determined in fresh and ancient polar snow demonstrate unambiguously the global range of petrol-related pollution not only with ionic Pb 2+ but also with more toxic metalloorganic compounds. (authors). 9 refs., 5 figs

  16. Quantifying forest mortality with the remote sensing of snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily Hewitt

    Greenhouse gas emissions have altered global climate significantly, increasing the frequency of drought, fire, and pest-related mortality in forests across the western United States, with increasing area affected each year. Associated changes in forests are of great concern for the public, land managers, and the broader scientific community. These increased stresses have resulted in a widespread, spatially heterogeneous decline of forest canopies, which in turn exerts strong controls on the accumulation and melt of the snowpack, and changes forest-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, and energy. Most satellite-based retrievals of summer-season forest data are insufficient to quantify canopy, as opposed to the combination of canopy and undergrowth, since the signals of the two types of vegetation greenness have proven persistently difficult to distinguish. To overcome this issue, this research develops a method to quantify forest canopy cover using winter-season fractional snow covered area (FSCA) data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm. In areas where the ground surface and undergrowth are completely snow-covered, a pixel comprises only forest canopy and snow. Following a snowfall event, FSCA initially rises, as snow is intercepted in the canopy, and then falls, as snow unloads. A select set of local minima in a winter F SCA timeseries form a threshold where canopy is snow-free, but forest understory is snow-covered. This serves as a spatially-explicit measurement of forest canopy, and viewable gap fraction (VGF) on a yearly basis. Using this method, we determine that MODIS-observed VGF is significantly correlated with an independent product of yearly crown mortality derived from spectral analysis of Landsat imagery at 25 high-mortality sites in northern Colorado. (r =0.96 +/-0.03, p =0.03). Additionally, we determine the lag timing between green-stage tree mortality and

  17. Reconstructed North American, Eurasian, and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent, 1915-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series of monthly snow cover extent (SCE) for North America, Eurasia, and the Northern Hemisphere from 1915 to 1997, based on snow cover...

  18. Measurements of Air and Snow Photochemical Species at WAIS Divide, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains atmospheric mixing ratios of nitric oxide, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide, and concentrations in surface snow and in snow pits...

  19. Artificial-intelligence-based optimization of the management of snow removal assets and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques were used to develop an intelligent : snow removal asset management system (SRAMS). The system has been evaluated through a case study examining : snow removal from the ...

  20. A Snow Density Dataset for Improving Surface Boundary Conditions in Greenland Ice Sheet Firn Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fausto, Robert; E. Box, Jason; Vandecrux, Baptiste Robert Marcel

    2018-01-01

    The surface snow density of glaciers and ice sheets is of fundamental importance in converting volume to mass in both altimetry and surface mass balance studies, yet it is often poorly constrained. Site-specific surface snow densities are typically derived from empirical relations based...... on temperature and wind speed. These parameterizations commonly calculate the average density of the top meter of snow, thereby systematically overestimating snow density at the actual surface. Therefore, constraining surface snow density to the top 0.1 m can improve boundary conditions in high-resolution firn......-evolution modeling. We have compiled an extensive dataset of 200 point measurements of surface snow density from firn cores and snow pits on the Greenland ice sheet. We find that surface snow density within 0.1 m of the surface has an average value of 315 kg m−3 with a standard deviation of 44 kg m−3, and has...

  1. Improving the Terrain-Based Parameter for the Assessment of Snow Redistribution in the Col du Lac Blanc Area and Comparisons with TLS Snow Depth Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Peter; Prokop, Alexander; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Nishimura, Kouichi; Vionnet, Vincent; Guyomarc'h, Gilbert

    2014-05-01

    Wind and the associated snow drift are dominating factors determining the snow distribution and accumulation in alpine areas, resulting in a high spatial variability of snow depth that is difficult to evaluate and quantify. The terrain-based parameter Sx characterizes the degree of shelter or exposure of a grid point provided by the upwind terrain, without the computational complexity of numerical wind field models. The parameter has shown to qualitatively predict snow redistribution with good reproduction of spatial patterns, but has failed to quantitatively describe the snow redistribution, and correlations with measured snow heights were poor. The objective of our research was to a) identify the sources of poor correlations between predicted and measured snow re-distribution and b) improve the parameters ability to qualitatively and quantitatively describe snow redistribution in our research area, the Col du Lac Blanc in the French Alps. The area is at an elevation of 2700 m and particularly suited for our study due to its constant wind direction and the availability of data from a meteorological station. Our work focused on areas with terrain edges of approximately 10 m height, and we worked with 1-2 m resolution digital terrain and snow surface data. We first compared the results of the terrain-based parameter calculations to measured snow-depths, obtained by high-accuracy terrestrial laser scan measurements. The results were similar to previous studies: The parameter was able to reproduce observed patterns in snow distribution, but regression analyses showed poor correlations between terrain-based parameter and measured snow-depths. We demonstrate how the correlations between measured and calculated snow heights improve if the parameter is calculated based on a snow surface model instead of a digital terrain model. We show how changing the parameter's search distance and how raster re-sampling and raster smoothing improve the results. To improve the parameter

  2. Identification of mineral dust layers in high alpine snow packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilinger, Marion; Kau, Daniela; Schauer, Gerhard; Kasper-Giebl, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Deserts serve as a major source for aerosols in the atmosphere with mineral dust as a main contributor to primary aerosol mass. Especially the Sahara, the largest desert in the world, contributes roughly half of the primarily emitted aerosol mass found in the atmosphere [1]. The eroded Saharan dust is episodically transported over thousands of kilometers with synoptic wind patterns towards Europe [2] and reaches Austria about 20 to 30 days per year. Once the Saharan dust is removed from the atmosphere via dry or wet deposition processes, the chemical composition of the precipitation or the affected environment is significantly changed. Saharan dust serves on the one hand as high ionic input leading to an increase of ionic species such as calcium, magnesium or sulfate. On the other hand Saharan dust provides a high alkaline input neutralizing acidic components and causing the pH to increase [3]. Based on these changes in the ion composition, the pH and cross plots of the ion and conductivity balance [4] we tried to develop a method to identify Saharan dust layers in high alpine snow packs. We investigated seasonal snow packs of two high alpine sampling sites situated on the surrounding glaciers of the meteorological Sonnblick observatory serving as a global GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) station located in the National Park Hohe Tauern in the Austrian Alps. Samples with 10 cm resolution representing the whole winter accumulation period were taken just prior to the start of snow melt at the end of April 2016. In both snow packs two layers with clearly different chemical behavior were observed. In comparison with the aerosol data from the Sonnblick observatory, these layers could be clearly identified as Saharan dust layers. Identified Saharan dust layers in the snow pack allow calculations of the ecological impact of deposited ions, with and without Saharan dust, during snow melt. Furthermore the chemical characteristics for the identification of Saharan dust layers

  3. Application of radar polarimetry techniques for retrieval snow and rain characteristics in remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of snow cover has significant impacts on the both global and regional climate and water balance on earth. The accurate estimation of snow cover area can be used for forecasting runoff due to snow melt and output of hydroelectric power. With development of remote sensing techniques at different scopes in earth science, enormous algorithms for retrieval hydrometeor parameters have been developed. Some of these algorithms are used to provide snow cover map such as NLR with AVHRR/MODIS sensor for Norway, Finnish with AVHRR sensor for Finland and NASA with MODIS sensor for global maps. Monitoring snow cover at different parts of spectral electromagnetic is detectable (visible, near and thermal infrared, passive and active microwave. Recently, specific capabilities of active microwave remote sensing such as snow extent map, snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE, snow state (wet/dry and discrimination between rain and snow region were given a strong impetus for using this technology in snow monitoring, hydrology, climatology, avalanche research and etc. This paper evaluates the potentials and feasibility of polarimetric ground microwave measurements of snow in active remote sensing field. We will consider the behavior co- and cross-polarized backscattering coefficients of snowpack response with polarimetric scatterometer in Ku and L band at the different incident angles. Then we will show how to retrieve snow cover depth, snow permittivity and density parameters at the local scale with ground-based SAR (GB-SAR. Finally, for the sake of remarkable significant the transition region between rain and snow; the variables role of horizontal reflectivity (ZHH and differential reflectivity (ZDR in delineation boundary between snow and rain and some others important variables at polarimetric weather radar are presented.

  4. Variability in snow cover phenology in China from 1952 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    C. Q. Ke; X. C. Li; H. Xie; X. Liu; C. Kou

    2015-01-01

    Daily snow observation data from 672 stations, particularly the 352 stations with over ten annual mean snow cover days (SCD), during 1952–2010 in China, are used in this study. We first examine spatiotemporal variations and trends of SCD, snow cover onset date (SCOD), and snow cover end date (SCED). We then investigate SCD relationships with number of days with temperature below 0 °C (TBZD), mean air temperature (MAT), and Arctic Oscillation (AO) index, the ...

  5. Impacts of Synoptic Weather Patterns on Snow Albedo at Sites in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, A. C.; Albert, M. R.; Lazarcik, J.; Dibb, J. E.; Amante, J.; Price, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Winter snow in the northeastern United States has changed over the last several decades, resulting in shallower snow packs, fewer days of snow cover and increasing precipitation falling as rain in the winter. In addition to these changes which cause reductions in surface albedo, increasing winter temperatures also lead to more rapid snow grain growth, resulting in decreased snow reflectivity. We present in-situ measurements and analyses to test the sensitivity of seasonal snow albedo to varying weather conditions at sites in New England. In particular, we investigate the impact of temperature on snow albedo through melt and grain growth, the impact of precipitation event frequency on albedo through snow "freshening," and the impact of storm path on snow structure and snow albedo. Over three winter seasons between 2013 and 2015, in-situ snow characterization measurements were made at three non-forested sites across New Hampshire. These near-daily measurements include spectrally resolved albedo, snow optical grain size determined through contact spectroscopy, snow depth, snow density and local meteorological parameters. Combining this information with storm tracks derived from HYSPLIT modeling, we quantify the current sensitivity of northeastern US snow albedo to temperature as well as precipitation type, frequency and path. Our analysis shows that southerly winter storms result in snow with a significantly lower albedo than storms which come from across the continental US or the Atlantic Ocean. Interannual variability in temperature and statewide spatial variability in snowfall rates at our sites show the relative importance of snowfall amount and temperatures in albedo evolution over the course of the winter.

  6. Improving Snow Modeling by Assimilating Observational Data Collected by Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, R. L.; Hill, D. F.; Arendt, A. A.; Wikstrom Jones, K.; Wolken, G. J.; Setiawan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling seasonal snow pack in alpine environments includes a multiplicity of challenges caused by a lack of spatially extensive and temporally continuous observational datasets. This is partially due to the difficulty of collecting measurements in harsh, remote environments where extreme gradients in topography exist, accompanied by large model domains and inclement weather. Engaging snow enthusiasts, snow professionals, and community members to participate in the process of data collection may address some of these challenges. In this study, we use SnowModel to estimate seasonal snow water equivalence (SWE) in the Thompson Pass region of Alaska while incorporating snow depth measurements collected by citizen scientists. We develop a modeling approach to assimilate hundreds of snow depth measurements from participants in the Community Snow Observations (CSO) project (www.communitysnowobs.org). The CSO project includes a mobile application where participants record and submit geo-located snow depth measurements while working and recreating in the study area. These snow depth measurements are randomly located within the model grid at irregular time intervals over the span of four months in the 2017 water year. This snow depth observation dataset is converted into a SWE dataset by employing an empirically-based, bulk density and SWE estimation method. We then assimilate this data using SnowAssim, a sub-model within SnowModel, to constrain the SWE output by the observed data. Multiple model runs are designed to represent an array of output scenarios during the assimilation process. An effort to present model output uncertainties is included, as well as quantification of the pre- and post-assimilation divergence in modeled SWE. Early results reveal pre-assimilation SWE estimations are consistently greater than the post-assimilation estimations, and the magnitude of divergence increases throughout the snow pack evolution period. This research has implications beyond the

  7. The chemical composition of the snow in urban environment in the Far North

    OpenAIRE

    Saltan N.V.; Shlapak E.P.; Zhirov V.K.; Gontar O.B.; Svyatkovskaya E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents experimental data of the chemical composition of snow cover of squares and streets in the polar cities. It has been revealed that the natural ratio of cations and anions is modified in the snow. Comparative assessment of the levels of concentration of metals in the snow showed higher values in squares than on the streets. It has been shown that the main share in the pollution of snow by heavy metals belongs to the dust of anthropogenic origin

  8. Wet Snow Mapping in Southern Ontario with Sentinel-1A Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Kelly, R. E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Wet snow is defined as snow with liquid water present in an ice-water mix. It is can be an indicator for the onset of the snowmelt period. Knowledge about the extent of wet snow area can be of great importance for the monitoring of seasonal snowmelt runoff with climate-induced changes in snowmelt duration having implications for operational hydrological and ecological applications. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing has been used to observe seasonal snow under all-weather conditions. Active microwave observations of snow at C-band are sensitive to wet snow due to the high dielectric contrast with non-wet snow surfaces and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is now openly available to identify and map the wet snow areas globally at relatively fine spatial resolutions ( 100m). In this study, a semi-automated workflow is developed from the change detection method of Nagler et al. (2016) using multi-temporal Sentinel-1A (S1A) dual-polarization observations of Southern Ontario. Weather station data and visible-infrared satellite observations are used to refine the wet snow area estimates. Wet snow information from National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) is used to compare with the S1A estimates. A time series of wet snow maps shows the variations in backscatter from wet snow on a pixel basis. Different land cover types in Southern Ontario are assessed with respect to their impacts on wet snow estimates. While forests and complex land surfaces can impact the ability to map wet snow, the approach taken is robust and illustrates the strong sensitivity of the approach to wet snow backscattering characteristics. The results indicate the feasibility of the change detection method on non-mountainous large areas and address the usefulness of Sentinel-1A data for wet snow mapping.

  9. An evaluation of the hydrologic relevance of lateral flow in snow at hillslope and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Eiriksson; Michael Whitson; Charles H. Luce; Hans Peter Marshall; John Bradford; Shawn G. Benner; Thomas Black; Hank Hetrick; James P. McNamara

    2013-01-01

    Lateral downslope flow in snow during snowmelt and rain-on-snow (ROS) events is a well-known phenomenon, yet its relevance to water redistribution at hillslope and catchment scales is not well understood. We used dye tracers, geophysical methods, and hydrometric measurements to describe the snow properties that promote lateral flow, assess the relative velocities of...

  10. Estimating snow depth of alpine snowpack via airborne multifrequency passive microwave radiance observations: Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R. S.; Durand, M. T.; Li, D.; Baldo, E.; Margulis, S. A.; Dumont, M.; Morin, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a newly-proposed snow depth retrieval approach for mountainous deep snow using airborne multifrequency passive microwave (PM) radiance observation. In contrast to previous snow depth estimations using satellite PM radiance assimilation, the newly-proposed method utilized single flight observation and deployed the snow hydrologic models. This method is promising since the satellite-based retrieval methods have difficulties to estimate snow depth due to their coarse resolution and computational effort. Indeed, this approach consists of particle filter using combinations of multiple PM frequencies and multi-layer snow physical model (i.e., Crocus) to resolve melt-refreeze crusts. The method was performed over NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) area in Colorado during 2002 and 2003. Results showed that there was a significant improvement over the prior snow depth estimates and the capability to reduce the prior snow depth biases. When applying our snow depth retrieval algorithm using a combination of four PM frequencies (10.7,18.7, 37.0 and 89.0 GHz), the RMSE values were reduced by 48 % at the snow depth transects sites where forest density was less than 5% despite deep snow conditions. This method displayed a sensitivity to different combinations of frequencies, model stratigraphy (i.e. different number of layering scheme for snow physical model) and estimation methods (particle filter and Kalman filter). The prior RMSE values at the forest-covered areas were reduced by 37 - 42 % even in the presence of forest cover.

  11. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the cooperative snow survey and water supply forecast program, NRCS: (a) Establishes, maintains, and operates manual...

  12. Influence of Western Tibetan Plateau Summer Snow Cover on East Asian Summer Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng; Huang, Gang; Liu, Ge; Zhu, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    The influence of boreal winter-spring eastern Tibetan Plateau snow anomalies on the East Asian summer rainfall variability has been the focus of previous studies. The present study documents the impacts of boreal summer western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies on summer rainfall over East Asia. Analysis shows that more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau induces anomalous cooling in the overlying atmospheric column. The induced atmospheric circulation changes are different corresponding to more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau. The atmospheric circulation changes accompanying the western Plateau snow cover anomalies are more obvious over the midlatitude Asia, whereas those corresponding to the southern Plateau snow cover anomalies are more prominent over the tropics. As such, the western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies influence the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation through different pathways. Nevertheless, the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation anomalies induced by the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies tend to display similar distribution so that they are more pronounced when the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies work in coherence. Analysis indicates that the summer snow cover anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau may be related to late spring snow anomalies due to the persistence. The late spring snow anomalies are related to an obvious wave train originating from the western North Atlantic that may be partly associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Evaporative loss from soil, native vegetation, and snow as affected by hexadecanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry W. Anderson; Allan J. West; Robert R. Ziemer; Franklin R. Adams

    1963-01-01

    Abstract - Only in a bulldozed brush field and with heavy applications of hexadecanol under snow did significant reductions in evapotranspiration occur with application of hexadecanol to natural stands. Marked reductions in evaporation from snow occurred when hexadecanol emulsion was applied to the snow surface. More than two-thirds of the precipitation in the United...

  14. Chemical elements contamination of snow cover in region of coal production 'Karazhyra'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlampieva, E.P.; Panin, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of space distribution of chemical elements in hardphase and water-soluble falls of snow cover in region of coal deposit 'Karazhyra' are investigated. The maximal, minimal and background areas of elements accumulation in the snow of this region and distribution of their cumulative rates are determined. The main pollutants of snow cover unto background level are revealed.

  15. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Location-dependent excitatory synaptic interactions in pyramidal neuron dendrites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia F Behabadi

    Full Text Available Neocortical pyramidal neurons (PNs receive thousands of excitatory synaptic contacts on their basal dendrites. Some act as classical driver inputs while others are thought to modulate PN responses based on sensory or behavioral context, but the biophysical mechanisms that mediate classical-contextual interactions in these dendrites remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that if two excitatory pathways bias their synaptic projections towards proximal vs. distal ends of the basal branches, the very different local spike thresholds and attenuation factors for inputs near and far from the soma might provide the basis for a classical-contextual functional asymmetry. Supporting this possibility, we found both in compartmental models and electrophysiological recordings in brain slices that the responses of basal dendrites to spatially separated inputs are indeed strongly asymmetric. Distal excitation lowers the local spike threshold for more proximal inputs, while having little effect on peak responses at the soma. In contrast, proximal excitation lowers the threshold, but also substantially increases the gain of distally-driven responses. Our findings support the view that PN basal dendrites possess significant analog computing capabilities, and suggest that the diverse forms of nonlinear response modulation seen in the neocortex, including uni-modal, cross-modal, and attentional effects, could depend in part on pathway-specific biases in the spatial distribution of excitatory synaptic contacts onto PN basal dendritic arbors.

  17. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-01-27

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate 'weak links' where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  18. Noise tolerant dendritic lattice associative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Gerhard X.; Schmalz, Mark S.; Hayden, Eric; Tucker, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Linear classifiers based on computation over the real numbers R (e.g., with operations of addition and multiplication) denoted by (R, +, x), have been represented extensively in the literature of pattern recognition. However, a different approach to pattern classification involves the use of addition, maximum, and minimum operations over the reals in the algebra (R, +, maximum, minimum) These pattern classifiers, based on lattice algebra, have been shown to exhibit superior information storage capacity, fast training and short convergence times, high pattern classification accuracy, and low computational cost. Such attributes are not always found, for example, in classical neural nets based on the linear inner product. In a special type of lattice associative memory (LAM), called a dendritic LAM or DLAM, it is possible to achieve noise-tolerant pattern classification by varying the design of noise or error acceptance bounds. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the computation of noise-tolerant lattice associative memories (LAMs) under a variety of input constraints. Of particular interest are the classification of nonergodic data in noise regimes with time-varying statistics. DLAMs, which are a specialization of LAMs derived from concepts of biological neural networks, have successfully been applied to pattern classification from hyperspectral remote sensing data, as well as spatial object recognition from digital imagery. The authors' recent research in the development of DLAMs is overviewed, with experimental results that show utility for a wide variety of pattern classification applications. Performance results are presented in terms of measured computational cost, noise tolerance, classification accuracy, and throughput for a variety of input data and noise levels.

  19. Obtaining sub-daily new snow density from automated measurements in high mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Hartl, Lea; Koch, Roland; Marty, Christoph; Olefs, Marc

    2018-05-01

    The density of new snow is operationally monitored by meteorological or hydrological services at daily time intervals, or occasionally measured in local field studies. However, meteorological conditions and thus settling of the freshly deposited snow rapidly alter the new snow density until measurement. Physically based snow models and nowcasting applications make use of hourly weather data to determine the water equivalent of the snowfall and snow depth. In previous studies, a number of empirical parameterizations were developed to approximate the new snow density by meteorological parameters. These parameterizations are largely based on new snow measurements derived from local in situ measurements. In this study a data set of automated snow measurements at four stations located in the European Alps is analysed for several winter seasons. Hourly new snow densities are calculated from the height of new snow and the water equivalent of snowfall. Considering the settling of the new snow and the old snowpack, the average hourly new snow density is 68 kg m-3, with a standard deviation of 9 kg m-3. Seven existing parameterizations for estimating new snow densities were tested against these data, and most calculations overestimate the hourly automated measurements. Two of the tested parameterizations were capable of simulating low new snow densities observed at sheltered inner-alpine stations. The observed variability in new snow density from the automated measurements could not be described with satisfactory statistical significance by any of the investigated parameterizations. Applying simple linear regressions between new snow density and wet bulb temperature based on the measurements' data resulted in significant relationships (r2 > 0.5 and p ≤ 0.05) for single periods at individual stations only. Higher new snow density was calculated for the highest elevated and most wind-exposed station location. Whereas snow measurements using ultrasonic devices and snow

  20. Monitoring and evaluation of seasonal snow cover in Kashmir valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    89 to 2007–08) climatic conditions prevailed in both ranges of Kashmir valley. Region-wise ... effective use of snowmelt runoff models (Rango and Martinec ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. 118, No. ... of cloud cover can affect delineation of snow cover,.

  1. SNOW LINES AS PROBES OF TURBULENT DIFFUSION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Sharp chemical discontinuities can occur in protoplanetary disks, particularly at ''snow lines'' where a gas-phase species freezes out to form ice grains. Such sharp discontinuities will diffuse out due to the turbulence suspected to drive angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We demonstrate that the concentration gradient—in the vicinity of the snow line—of a species present outside a snow line but destroyed inside is strongly sensitive to the level of turbulent diffusion (provided the chemical and transport timescales are decoupled) and provides a direct measurement of the radial ''Schmidt number'' (the ratio of the angular momentum transport to radial turbulent diffusion). Taking as an example the tracer species N 2 H + , which is expected to be destroyed inside the CO snow line (as recently observed in TW Hya) we show that ALMA observations possess significant angular resolution to constrain the Schmidt number. Since different turbulent driving mechanisms predict different Schmidt numbers, a direct measurement of the Schmidt number in accretion disks would allow inferences to be made about the nature of the turbulence

  2. Face Value: Towards Robust Estimates of Snow Leopard Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine S Alexander

    Full Text Available When densities of large carnivores fall below certain thresholds, dramatic ecological effects can follow, leading to oversimplified ecosystems. Understanding the population status of such species remains a major challenge as they occur in low densities and their ranges are wide. This paper describes the use of non-invasive data collection techniques combined with recent spatial capture-recapture methods to estimate the density of snow leopards Panthera uncia. It also investigates the influence of environmental and human activity indicators on their spatial distribution. A total of 60 camera traps were systematically set up during a three-month period over a 480 km2 study area in Qilianshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province, China. We recorded 76 separate snow leopard captures over 2,906 trap-days, representing an average capture success of 2.62 captures/100 trap-days. We identified a total number of 20 unique individuals from photographs and estimated snow leopard density at 3.31 (SE = 1.01 individuals per 100 km2. Results of our simulation exercise indicate that our estimates from the Spatial Capture Recapture models were not optimal to respect to bias and precision (RMSEs for density parameters less or equal to 0.87. Our results underline the critical challenge in achieving sufficient sample sizes of snow leopard captures and recaptures. Possible performance improvements are discussed, principally by optimising effective camera capture and photographic data quality.

  3. No Snow? No Problem! Ski Statutes Still Provide Legal Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Melanie E.; Young, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    In August 2012, Barbara Fakhouri visited Ober Gatlinburg, a ski resort located in eastern Tennessee to vacation with her family. Ms. Fakhouri used a wheelchair to ambulate. Despite the absence of snow on the ground, the resort operated year-round with many amenities such as an amusement park, restaurant, lounge, and shopping center to captivate…

  4. Snow measurement Using P-Band Signals of Opportunity Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Xu, X.; Elder, K.

    2017-12-01

    Snow water storage in land is a critical parameter of the water cycle. In this study, we develop methods for estimating reflectance from bistatic scattering of digital communication Signals of Opportunity (SoOp) across the available microwave spectrum from VHF to Ka band and show results from proof-of-concept experiments at the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado to acquire measurements to relate the SoOp phase and reflectivity to a snow-covered soil surface. The forward modeling of this scenario will be presented and multiple sensitivities were conducted. Available SoOp receiver data along with a network of in situ sensor measurements collected since January 2016 will be used to validate theoretical modeling results. In the winter season of 2016 and 2017, we conducted a field experiment using VHF/UHF-band illuminating sources to detect SWE and surface reflectivity. The amplitude of the reflectivity showed sensitivity to the wetness of snow pack and ground reflectivity while the phase showed sensitivity to SWE. This use of this concept can be helpful to measure the snow water storage in land globally.

  5. Effects of snow on fisher and marten distributions in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan Albrecht; C. Heusser; M. Schwartz; J. Sauder; R. Vinkey

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that deep snow may limit fisher (Martes pennanti) distribution, and that fisher populations may in turn limit marten (Martes americana) distribution. We tested these hypotheses in the Northern Rocky Mountains of Idaho, a region which differs from previous study areas in its climate and relative fisher and marten abundance, but in which very...

  6. Influence of surface roughness on the reflective properties of snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the influence of 3D effect on snow reflection function (SRF) and albedo is studied in the framework of the stochastic radiative transfer theory. In particular, the corresponding equations for the averaged intensity of reflected light are solved for the ensemble of realizations of the stochastic field κ(r), describing the distribution of 3D elements on the flat semi-infinite snow layer (SISL). The reflection from the underlying SISL is modeled using the solution of the 1D radiative transfer equation. The corresponding look-up tables were compiled beforehand and used in the simulation process. In accordance with the previous studies, it was found that the albedo of snow layer is reduced (in particular, in the infrared region), if 3D effects are taken into account. There is no such a reduction, if light absorption in snow is absent. The 3D effects may increase or decrease SRF depending on the sastrugi fraction and illumination/observation conditions.

  7. Copepods use chemical trails to find sinking marine snow aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Koski, Marja; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Copepods are major consumers of sinking marine particles and hence reduce the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. Their high abundance on marine snow suggests that they can detect sinking particles remotely. By means of laboratory observations, we show that the copepod Temora longicornis ca...

  8. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  9. Snow avalanche hazard of the Krkonose National Park, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahůt, Jan; Klimeš, Jan; Balek, Jan; Hájek, P.; Červená, L.; Lysák, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 86-90 ISSN 1744-5647 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20132015115 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : snow avalanches * hazard * inventory * hazard mitigation * Krkonoše Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  10. Photochemical chlorine and bromine activation from artificial saline snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Wren

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The activation of reactive halogen species – particularly Cl2 – from sea ice and snow surfaces is not well understood. In this study, we used a photochemical snow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to investigate the production of Br2, BrCl and Cl2 from NaCl/NaBr-doped artificial snow samples. At temperatures above the NaCl-water eutectic, illumination of samples (λ > 310 nm in the presence of gas phase O3 led to the accelerated release of Br2, BrCl and the release of Cl2 in a process that was significantly enhanced by acidity, high surface area and additional gas phase Br2. Cl2 production was only observed when both light and ozone were present. The total halogen release depended on [ozone] and pre-freezing [NaCl]. Our observations support a "halogen explosion" mechanism occurring within the snowpack, which is initiated by heterogeneous oxidation and propagated by Br2 or BrCl photolysis and by recycling of HOBr and HOCl into the snowpack. Our study implicates this important role of active chemistry occurring within the interstitial air of aged (i.e. acidic snow for halogen activation at polar sunrise.

  11. Chemical compositions of snow from Mt. Yulong, southeastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∗Corresponding author. e-mail: shichang.kang@itpcas.ac.cn. The snow and ice ... 6.8 µeq L−1, attributed to dominant contribution from biomass burning emissions. Ion balance (ΔC) ... Three main factors, accounting for more than 80% of the.

  12. Aerosol optical depth retrieval over snow using AATSR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Hoyningen-Huene, W. von; Istomina, L.; Leeuw, G. de; Burrows, J.P.; Guang, J.; Jing, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol observations over the Arctic are important because of the effects of aerosols on Arctic climate, such as their direct and indirect effects on the Earth's radiation balance and on snow albedo. Although information on aerosol properties is available from ground-based measurements, passive

  13. Simulating the Dependence of Aspen on Redistributed Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Winstral, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    In mountainous regions across the western USA, the distribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) is often directly related to heterogeneous soil moisture subsidies resulting from redistributed snow. With decades of climate and precipitation data across elevational and precipitation gradients, the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southwest Idaho provides a unique opportunity to study the relationship between aspen and redistributed snow. Within the RCEW, the total amount of precipitation has not changed in the past 50 years, but there are sharp declines in the percentage of the precipitation falling as snow. As shifts in the distribution of available moisture continue, future trends in aspen net primary productivity (NPP) remain uncertain. In order to assess the importance of snowdrift subsidies, NPP of three aspen stands was simulated at sites spanning elevational and precipitation gradients using the biogeochemical process model BIOME-BGC. At the aspen site experiencing the driest climate and lowest amount of precipitation from snow, approximately 400 mm of total precipitation was measured from November to March of 2008. However, peak measured snow water equivalent (SWE) held in drifts directly upslope of this stand was approximately 2100 mm, 5 times more moisture than the uniform winter precipitation layer initially assumed by BIOME-BGC. BIOME-BGC simulations in dry years forced by adjusted precipitation data resulted in NPP values approximately 30% higher than simulations assuming a uniform precipitation layer. Using BIOME-BGC and climate data from 1985-2011, the relationship between simulated NPP and measured basal area increments (BAI) improved after accounting for redistributed snow, indicating increased simulation representation. In addition to improved simulation capabilities, soil moisture data, diurnal branch water potential, and stomatal conductance observations at each site detail the use of soil moisture in the rooting zone and the onset

  14. SnopViz, an interactive snow profile visualization tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Charles; Egger, Thomas; gerber, Matthias; Bavay, Mathias; Techel, Frank

    2016-04-01

    SnopViz is a visualization tool for both simulation outputs of the snow-cover model SNOWPACK and observed snow profiles. It has been designed to fulfil the needs of operational services (Swiss Avalanche Warning Service, Avalanche Canada) as well as offer the flexibility required to satisfy the specific needs of researchers. This JavaScript application runs on any modern browser and does not require an active Internet connection. The open source code is available for download from models.slf.ch where examples can also be run. Both the SnopViz library and the SnopViz User Interface will become a full replacement of the current research visualization tool SN_GUI for SNOWPACK. The SnopViz library is a stand-alone application that parses the provided input files, for example, a single snow profile (CAAML file format) or multiple snow profiles as output by SNOWPACK (PRO file format). A plugin architecture allows for handling JSON objects (JavaScript Object Notation) as well and plugins for other file formats may be added easily. The outputs are provided either as vector graphics (SVG) or JSON objects. The SnopViz User Interface (UI) is a browser based stand-alone interface. It runs in every modern browser, including IE, and allows user interaction with the graphs. SVG, the XML based standard for vector graphics, was chosen because of its easy interaction with JS and a good software support (Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape) to manipulate graphs outside SnopViz for publication purposes. SnopViz provides new visualization for SNOWPACK timeline output as well as time series input and output. The actual output format for SNOWPACK timelines was retained while time series are read from SMET files, a file format used in conjunction with the open source data handling code MeteoIO. Finally, SnopViz is able to render single snow profiles, either observed or modelled, that are provided as CAAML-file. This file format (caaml.org/Schemas/V5.0/Profiles/SnowProfileIACS) is an international

  15. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lyapustin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS, Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φ<40°, the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the

  16. Analysis of Snow Bidirectional Reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Redemann, J.; Kahn, R.; Brandt, R.; Russell, P.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1 degree angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles phi less than 40 degrees), the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within 0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution

  17. Relating black carbon content to reduction of snow albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, R. E.; Warren, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    In remote snow of the Northern Hemisphere, the levels of soot pollution are in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range, where the effect on albedo is at the level of a few percent. A reduction of albedo by 1-2% is significant for climate but is difficult to detect experimentally, because snow albedo depends on several other variables. In our work to quantify the climatic effect of black carbon (BC) in snow, we therefore do not directly measure the albedo reduction. Instead, we use a two-step procedure: (1) We collect snow samples, melt and filter them, and analyze the filters spectrophotometrically for BC concentration. (2) We use the BC amount from the filter measurement, together with snow grain size, in a radiative transfer model to compute the albedo reduction. Our radiative transfer model uses the discrete ordinates algorithm DISORT 2.0. We have chosen a representative BC size distribution and optical constants, and have incorporated those of mineral dust as well. While a given mass of BC causes over an order of magnitude more snow albedo reduction compared to dust, a snowpack containing dust mutes the albedo-reducing effect of BC. Because the computed reduction of snow albedo is model-based, it requires experimental verification. We doubt that direct measurement of albedo-reduction will be feasible in nature, because of the vertical variation of both snow grain size and soot content, and because the natural soot content is small. We conclude that what is needed is an artificial snowpack, with uniform grain size and large uniform soot content (ppm not ppb), to produce a large signal on albedo. We have chosen to pursue this experiment outdoors rather than in the laboratory, for the following reasons: (1) The snowpack in the field of view is uniformly illuminated if the source of radiation is the Sun. (2) Visible radiation penetrates into the snow, so photons emerge horizontally distant from where they entered. In the limited width of a laboratory snowpack, radiation

  18. Coupling the snow thermodynamic model SNOWPACK with the microwave emission model of layered snowpacks for subarctic and arctic snow water equivalent retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Derksen, C.; Montpetit, B.; Dupont, F.; GoïTa, K.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite-passive microwave remote sensing has been extensively used to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) in northern regions. Although passive microwave sensors operate independent of solar illumination and the lower frequencies are independent of atmospheric conditions, the coarse spatial resolution introduces uncertainties to SWE retrievals due to the surface heterogeneity within individual pixels. In this article, we investigate the coupling of a thermodynamic multilayered snow model with a passive microwave emission model. Results show that the snow model itself provides poor SWE simulations when compared to field measurements from two major field campaigns. Coupling the snow and microwave emission models with successive iterations to correct the influence of snow grain size and density significantly improves SWE simulations. This method was further validated using an additional independent data set, which also showed significant improvement using the two-step iteration method compared to standalone simulations with the snow model.

  19. Application of the MODIS “snow cover” product for identification of the snow cover pattern in Gis-Baikal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Istomina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Validation of remote sensing data MODIS «snow cover» in the period from September to May 2000/01, 2007/08, 2008/09 is realized on the base of weather stations data. Good repeatability of weather stations data and snow cover data is shown (more than 80% when snow depth is exceeds 2 cm. The minimum accuracy is in May and October for the variety of snowfall winters. Remote sensing data give possibility to extend the dot information of hydrometeorological stations network on the spatial snow distribution to the mountainous area of Predbajkalje where ground-based observations are absent. According to remote sensing earlier appearance and later melting of snow in mountain areas were identified. The plains and basins areas are characterized by later appearance and earlier melting of snow.

  20. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow Depth on Antarctic Sea Ice: An Inter-Comparison of Two Empirical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a key role for sea ice physical processes and complicates retrieval of sea ice thickness using altimetry. Current methods of snow depth retrieval are based on satellite microwave radiometry, which perform best for dry, homogeneous snow packs on level sea ice. We introduce an alternative approach based on in-situ measurements of total (sea ice plus snow freeboard and snow depth, which we use to compute snow depth on sea ice from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat total freeboard observations. We compare ICESat snow depth for early winter and spring of the years 2004 through 2006 with the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E snow depth product. We find ICESat snow depths agree more closely with ship-based visual and air-borne snow radar observations than AMSR-E snow depths. We obtain average modal and mean ICESat snow depths, which exceed AMSR-E snow depths by 5–10 cm in winter and 10–15 cm in spring. We observe an increase in ICESat snow depth from winter to spring for most Antarctic regions in accordance with ground-based observations, in contrast to AMSR-E snow depths, which we find to stay constant or to decrease. We suggest satellite laser altimetry as an alternative method to derive snow depth on Antarctic sea ice, which is independent of snow physical properties.

  1. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  2. User Oriented Climatic Information for Planning a Snow Removal Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stewart J.

    1981-12-01

    Many activities associated with the transportation sector are weather sensitive. This study is concerned with highway maintenance activities, specifically snow removal, and the budgeting of same by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT). During the 1978-79 winter, IDOT's snow removal budget was exhausted by the end of January, thereby necessitating the procurement of emergency funds. The following year, the Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) was asked to provide specialized climatic design information that could be used to assist IDOT in its budget planning for snow removal.Snow removal is often accomplished by spreading road salt over snow- and ice-covered roads, thus improving traction and reducing the risk of vehicles skidding along slippery surfaces. This study demonstrates the computation of `salt days,' a user-oriented climatic variable that indicates the number of days when road salt is required. This variable is defined using certain temperature and snowfall criteria. Results of a pilot study indicate that it is possible to provide statistical outlooks for salt days two months in advance, using correlation analysis. The analysis for several Illinois stations indicates that at various intervals in the data records, November and December temperatures are significantly correlated with February salt days if short periods of record (5-20 years) are used.IDOT originally requested a `2- to 3-month projection.' However, it became clear that only projections of 12 months or longer could benefit annual budget preparation. Confusion existed between the user and the supplier of climatic information regarding the user's needs, and the applicability of the supplier's `climate products' to the user's budget planning procedure. This demonstrates the need for a prolonged effort by the supplier to fully acquaint the user with the various forms of climatic information available. This gap in communication must be overcome so that applied climatology can be integrated

  3. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  4. Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we present Antarctic snow accumulation variability at the regional scale over the past 1000 years. A total of 79 ice core snow accumulation records were gathered and assigned to seven geographical regions, separating the high-accumulation coastal zones below 2000 m of elevation from the dry central Antarctic Plateau. The regional composites of annual snow accumulation were evaluated against modelled surface mass balance (SMB from RACMO2.3p2 and precipitation from ERA-Interim reanalysis. With the exception of the Weddell Sea coast, the low-elevation composites capture the regional precipitation and SMB variability as defined by the models. The central Antarctic sites lack coherency and either do not represent regional precipitation or indicate the model inability to capture relevant precipitation processes in the cold, dry central plateau. Our results show that SMB for the total Antarctic Ice Sheet (including ice shelves has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt decade−1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ∼ 0.02 mm decade−1 since 1800 and ∼ 0.04 mm decade−1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula (∼ 75 % where the annual average SMB during the most recent decade (2001–2010 is 123 ± 44 Gt yr−1 higher than the annual average during the first decade of the 19th century. Only four ice core records cover the full 1000 years, and they suggest a decrease in snow accumulation during this period. However, our study emphasizes the importance of low-elevation coastal zones, which have been under-represented in previous investigations of temporal snow accumulation.

  5. Characteristics of snow cover duration across the northeast United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Daniel J.; Luff, Barbara L.

    1997-11-01

    The presence or absence of a snow cover affects a myriad of environmental and societal systems through its modification of the surface radiation balance and its ultimate impact on near-surface air temperatures. Daily snow cover data were collected for a network of 91 stations covering the northeast USA from Maine, south through to West Virginia. The snow cover data along with ancillary temperature, snowfall and precipitation data were used to investigate the characteristics of snow cover duration in this region and the effects of the snow cover on boundary layer climate variables for the snow cover seasons 1948-1949 through to 1987-1988.Results indicate that snow cover duration is variable in both space and time. The duration of a snow cover of 2.5 cm or greater varies from greater than 100 days in northern New England to less than 20 days across areas of Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia. Temporally, snow cover duration for the region as a whole was very short from the late 1940s through to the mid-1950s. From the late 1950s to the end of the period snow cover duration has varied around a consistent mean value. No long-term trends in snow cover duration are apparent in the record for the northeast USA.Principal components analysis and clustering techniques were utilized to isolate spatially coherent regions in which snow cover duration has varied similarly over the period of record. This analysis resulted in the identification of four snow-cover-duration regions across the northeast USA: including (i) the West Virginia area, (ii) the mid-Atlantic from southern New England through to western Pennsylvania, (iii) western and central New York and (iv) northern New England. Snow cover duration is shown to be highly associated with snowfall and temperature but not strongly related to total liquid precipitation. The intra-annual variability of snow cover duration is also investigated for each region.

  6. The spectral and chemical measurement of pollutants on snow near South Pole, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K. A.; Kaspari, S. D.; Skiles, S. M.; Kreutz, K.; Handley, M. J.

    2017-06-01

    Remote sensing of light-absorbing particles (LAPs), or dark colored impurities, such as black carbon (BC) and dust on snow, is a key remaining challenge in cryospheric surface characterization and application to snow, ice, and climate models. We present a quantitative data set of in situ snow reflectance, measured and modeled albedo, and BC and trace element concentrations from clean to heavily fossil fuel emission contaminated snow near South Pole, Antarctica. Over 380 snow reflectance spectra (350-2500 nm) and 28 surface snow samples were collected at seven distinct sites in the austral summer season of 2014-2015. Snow samples were analyzed for BC concentration via a single particle soot photometer and for trace element concentration via an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Snow impurity concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 7000 part per billion (ppb) BC, 9.5 to 1200 ppb sulfur, 0.19 to 660 ppb iron, 0.013 to 1.9 ppb chromium, 0.13 to 120 ppb copper, 0.63 to 6.3 ppb zinc, 0.45 to 82 parts per trillion (ppt) arsenic, 0.0028 to 6.1 ppb cadmium, 0.062 to 22 ppb barium, and 0.0044 to 6.2 ppb lead. Broadband visible to shortwave infrared albedo ranged from 0.85 in pristine snow to 0.62 in contaminated snow. LAP radiative forcing, the enhanced surface absorption due to BC and trace elements, spanned from snow to 70 W m-2 for snow with high BC and trace element content. Measured snow reflectance differed from modeled snow albedo due to specific impurity-dependent absorption features, which we recommend be further studied and improved in snow albedo models.

  7. Orchestration of transplantation tolerance by regulatory dendritic cell therapy or in-situ targeting of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Adrian E; Thomson, Angus W

    2014-08-01

    Extensive research in murine transplant models over the past two decades has convincingly demonstrated the ability of regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs) to promote long-term allograft survival. We review important considerations regarding the source of therapeutic DCregs (donor or recipient) and their mode of action, in-situ targeting of DCregs, and optimal therapeutic regimens to promote DCreg function. Recent studies have defined protocols and mechanisms whereby ex-vivo-generated DCregs of donor or recipient origin subvert allogeneic T-cell responses and promote long-term organ transplant survival. Particular interest has focused on how donor antigen is acquired, processed and presented by autologous dendritic cells, on the stability of DCregs, and on in-situ targeting of dendritic cells to promote their tolerogenic function. New evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of DCregs in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate organ transplant model and production of clinical grade DCregs support early evaluation of DCreg therapy in human graft recipients. We discuss strategies currently used to promote dendritic cell tolerogenicity, including DCreg therapy and in-situ targeting of dendritic cells, with a view to improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and identification of the most promising strategies for therapeutic application.

  8. Dendritic protein synthesis in the normal and diseased brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, Sharon A.; Bassell, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic activity is a spatially-limited process that requires a precise, yet dynamic, complement of proteins within the synaptic micro-domain. The maintenance and regulation of these synaptic proteins is regulated, in part, by local mRNA translation in dendrites. Protein synthesis within the postsynaptic compartment allows neurons tight spatial and temporal control of synaptic protein expression, which is critical for proper functioning of synapses and neural circuits. In this review, we discuss the identity of proteins synthesized within dendrites, the receptor-mediated mechanisms regulating their synthesis, and the possible roles for these locally synthesized proteins. We also explore how our current understanding of dendritic protein synthesis in the hippocampus can be applied to new brain regions and to understanding the pathological mechanisms underlying varied neurological diseases. PMID:23262237

  9. A Model of Dendritic Cell Therapy for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami eRadunskaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are a promising immunotherapy tool for boosting an individual's antigen specific immune response to cancer. We develop a mathematical model using differential and delay-differential equations to describe the interactions between dendritic cells, effector-immune cells and tumor cells. We account for the trafficking of immune cells between lymph, blood, and tumor compartments. Our model reflects experimental results both for dendritic-cell trafficking and for immune suppression of tumor growth in mice. In addition, in silico experiments suggest more effective immunotherapy treatment protocols can be achieved by modifying dose location and schedule. A sensitivity analysis of the model reveals which patient-specific parameters have the greatest impact on treatment efficacy.

  10. Immunity and Tolerance Induced by Intestinal Mucosal Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Aliberti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells present in the digestive tract are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, commensal flora, and invading pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, these cells have high tolerogenic potential, triggering differentiation of regulatory T cells to protect the host from unwanted proinflammatory immune responses to innocuous antigens or commensals. On the other hand, these cells must discriminate between commensal flora and invading pathogens and mount powerful immune response against pathogens. A potential result of unbalanced tolerogenic versus proinflammatory responses mediated by dendritic cells is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, food allergies, and celiac disease. Herein, we review the dendritic cell population involved in mediating tolerance and immunity in mucosal surfaces, the progress in unveiling their development in vivo, and factors that can influence their functions.

  11. A Novel Forward Genetic Screen for Identifying Mutations Affecting Larval Neuronal Dendrite Development in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Paul Mark B.; Swick, Lance L.; Andersen, Ryan; Blalock, Zachary; Brenman, Jay E.

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate dendrites are information-processing compartments that can be found on both central and peripheral neurons. Elucidating the molecular underpinnings of information processing in the nervous system ultimately requires an understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate dendrite formation and maintenance. Despite the importance of dendrite development, few forward genetic approaches have been used to analyze the latest stages of dendrite development, including the ...

  12. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  13. High-resolution LIDAR and ground observations of snow cover in a complex forested terrain in the Sierra Nevada - implications for optical remote sensing of seasonal snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Harpold, A.; Hill, R.; McGwire, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a key component of the hydrologic regime in many regions of the world, especially those in temperate latitudes with mountainous terrain and dry summers. Such regions support large human populations which depend on the mountain snowpack for their water supplies. It is thus important to quantify snow cover accurately and continuously in these regions. Optical remote-sensing methods are able to detect snow and leverage space-borne spectroradiometers with global coverage such as MODIS to produce global snow cover maps. However, snow is harder to detect accurately in mountainous forested terrain, where topography influences retrieval algorithms, and importantly - forest canopies complicate radiative transfer and obfuscate the snow. Current satellite snow cover algorithms assume that fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) under the canopy is the same as the fSCA in the visible portion of the pixel. In-situ observations and first principles considerations indicate otherwise, therefore there is a need for improvement of the under-canopy correction of snow cover. Here, we leverage multiple LIDAR overflights and in-situ observations with a distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor (DTS) to quantify snow cover under canopy as opposed to gap areas at the Sagehen Experimental Forest in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Snow-off LIDAR overflights from 2014 are used to create a baseline high-resolution digital elevation model and classify pixels at 1 m resolution as canopy-covered or gap. Low canopy pixels are excluded from the analysis. Snow-on LIDAR overflights conducted by the Airborne Snow Observatory in 2016 are then used to classify all pixels as snow-covered or not and quantify fSCA under canopies vs. in gap areas over the Sagehen watershed. DTS observations are classified as snow-covered or not based on diel temperature fluctuations and used as validation for the LIDAR observations. LIDAR- and DTS-derived fSCA is also compared with

  14. Quantifying small-scale spatio-temporal variability of snow stratigraphy in forests based on high-resolution snow penetrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, M.; Hagenmuller, P.; Bebi, P.; Jenkins, M. J.; Giunta, A. D.; Schneebeli, M.

    2017-12-01

    Snow stratigraphy, the characteristic layering within a seasonal snowpack, has important implications for snow remote sensing, hydrology and avalanches. Forests modify snowpack properties through interception, wind speed reduction, and changes to the energy balance. The lack of snowpack observations in forests limits our ability to understand the evolution of snow stratigraphy and its spatio-temporal variability as a function of forest structure and to observe snowpack response to changes in forest cover. We examined the snowpack under canopies of a spruce forest in the central Rocky Mountains, USA, using the SnowMicroPen (SMP), a high resolution digital penetrometer. Weekly-repeated penetration force measurements were recorded along 10 m transects every 0.3 m in winter 2015 and bi-weekly along 20 m transects every 0.5 m in 2016 in three study plots beneath canopies of undisturbed, bark beetle-disturbed and harvested forest stands, and an open meadow. To disentangle information about layer hardness and depth variabilities, and to quantitatively compare the different SMP profiles, we applied a matching algorithm to our dataset, which combines several profiles by automatically adjusting their layer thicknesses. We linked spatial and temporal variabilities of penetration force and depth, and thus snow stratigraphy to forest and meteorological conditions. Throughout the season, snow stratigraphy was more heterogeneous in undisturbed but also beneath bark beetle-disturbed forests. In contrast, and despite remaining small diameter trees and woody debris, snow stratigraphy was rather homogenous at the harvested plot. As expected, layering at the non-forested plot varied only slightly over the small spatial extent sampled. At the open and harvested plots, persistent crusts and ice lenses were clearly present in the snowpack, while such hard layers barely occurred beneath undisturbed and disturbed canopies. Due to settling, hardness significantly increased with depth at

  15. Ensemble-based assimilation of fractional snow-covered area satellite retrievals to estimate the snow distribution at Arctic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalstad, Kristoffer; Westermann, Sebastian; Vikhamar Schuler, Thomas; Boike, Julia; Bertino, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    With its high albedo, low thermal conductivity and large water storing capacity, snow strongly modulates the surface energy and water balance, which makes it a critical factor in mid- to high-latitude and mountain environments. However, estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) is challenging in remote-sensing applications already at medium spatial resolutions of 1 km. We present an ensemble-based data assimilation framework that estimates the peak subgrid SWE distribution (SSD) at the 1 km scale by assimilating fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) satellite retrievals in a simple snow model forced by downscaled reanalysis data. The basic idea is to relate the timing of the snow cover depletion (accessible from satellite products) to the peak SSD. Peak subgrid SWE is assumed to be lognormally distributed, which can be translated to a modeled time series of fSCA through the snow model. Assimilation of satellite-derived fSCA facilitates the estimation of the peak SSD, while taking into account uncertainties in both the model and the assimilated data sets. As an extension to previous studies, our method makes use of the novel (to snow data assimilation) ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation (ES-MDA) scheme combined with analytical Gaussian anamorphosis to assimilate time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sentinel-2 fSCA retrievals. The scheme is applied to Arctic sites near Ny-Ålesund (79° N, Svalbard, Norway) where field measurements of fSCA and SWE distributions are available. The method is able to successfully recover accurate estimates of peak SSD on most of the occasions considered. Through the ES-MDA assimilation, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) for the fSCA, peak mean SWE and peak subgrid coefficient of variation is improved by around 75, 60 and 20 %, respectively, when compared to the prior, yielding RMSEs of 0.01, 0.09 m water equivalent (w.e.) and 0.13, respectively. The ES-MDA either outperforms or at least

  16. Ensemble-based assimilation of fractional snow-covered area satellite retrievals to estimate the snow distribution at Arctic sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aalstad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With its high albedo, low thermal conductivity and large water storing capacity, snow strongly modulates the surface energy and water balance, which makes it a critical factor in mid- to high-latitude and mountain environments. However, estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE is challenging in remote-sensing applications already at medium spatial resolutions of 1 km. We present an ensemble-based data assimilation framework that estimates the peak subgrid SWE distribution (SSD at the 1 km scale by assimilating fractional snow-covered area (fSCA satellite retrievals in a simple snow model forced by downscaled reanalysis data. The basic idea is to relate the timing of the snow cover depletion (accessible from satellite products to the peak SSD. Peak subgrid SWE is assumed to be lognormally distributed, which can be translated to a modeled time series of fSCA through the snow model. Assimilation of satellite-derived fSCA facilitates the estimation of the peak SSD, while taking into account uncertainties in both the model and the assimilated data sets. As an extension to previous studies, our method makes use of the novel (to snow data assimilation ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation (ES-MDA scheme combined with analytical Gaussian anamorphosis to assimilate time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Sentinel-2 fSCA retrievals. The scheme is applied to Arctic sites near Ny-Ålesund (79° N, Svalbard, Norway where field measurements of fSCA and SWE distributions are available. The method is able to successfully recover accurate estimates of peak SSD on most of the occasions considered. Through the ES-MDA assimilation, the root-mean-square error (RMSE for the fSCA, peak mean SWE and peak subgrid coefficient of variation is improved by around 75, 60 and 20 %, respectively, when compared to the prior, yielding RMSEs of 0.01, 0.09 m water equivalent (w.e. and 0.13, respectively. The ES-MDA either

  17. Involvement of dendritic cells in allograft rejection new implications of dendritic cell-endothelial cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, C L; Schareck, W D; Kofler, S; Weis, M

    2007-04-01

    For almost half a century immunologists have tried to tear down the MHC barrier, which separates two unrelated individuals during transplantation. Latest experimental data suggest that a breakthrough in vitro is imminent. Dendritic cells (DCs), which activate naïve allo-reactive T-cells (TCs), play a central role in the establishment of allo-antigen-specific immunity. Allograft solid organ rejection is initiated at the foreign endothelial cell (EC) layer, which forms an immunogenic barrier for migrating DCs. Thus, DC/EC interactions might play a crucial role in antigen-specific allograft rejection. Organ rejection is mediated by host allo-reactive TCs, which are activated by donor DCs (direct activation) or host DCs (indirect activation). Direct allo-antigen presentation by regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) can play an instructive role towards tolerance induction. Several groups established that, DCregs, if transplanted beforehand, enter host thymus, spleen, or bone marrow where they might eventually establish allo-antigen-specific tolerance. A fundamental aspect of DC function is migration throughout the entire organism. After solid organ transplantation, host DCs bind to ECs, invade allograft tissues, and finally transmigrate into lymphoid vessels and secondary lymphoid organs, where they present allo-antigens to naïve host TCs. Recent data suggest that in vitro manipulated DCregs may mediate allo-transplantation tolerance induction. However, the fundamental mechanisms on how such DCregs cause host TCs in the periphery towards tolerance remain unclear. One very promising experimental concept is the simultaneous manipulation of DC direct and indirect TC activation/suppression, towards donor antigen-specific allo-transplantation tolerance. The allo-antigen-specific long-term tolerance induction mediated by DCreg pre-transplantation (with simultaneous short-term immunosuppression) has become reproducible in the laboratory animal setting. Despite the shortcomings

  18. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  19. Neuron array with plastic synapses and programmable dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Shubha; Wunderlich, Richard; Hasler, Jennifer; George, Suma

    2013-10-01

    We describe a novel neuromorphic chip architecture that models neurons for efficient computation. Traditional architectures of neuron array chips consist of large scale systems that are interfaced with AER for implementing intra- or inter-chip connectivity. We present a chip that uses AER for inter-chip communication but uses fast, reconfigurable FPGA-style routing with local memory for intra-chip connectivity. We model neurons with biologically realistic channel models, synapses and dendrites. This chip is suitable for small-scale network simulations and can also be used for sequence detection, utilizing directional selectivity properties of dendrites, ultimately for use in word recognition.

  20. Electrical and Structural Characterization of Web Dendrite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, G. H.; Koliwad, K.; Dumas, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetime distributions in silicon web dendrites are measured. Emphasis is placed on measuring areal homogeneity of lifetime, show its dependency on structural defects, and its unique change during hot processing. The internal gettering action of defect layers present in web crystals and their relation to minority carrier lifetime distributions is discussed. Minority carrier lifetime maps of web dendrites obtained before and after high temperature heat treatment are compared to similar maps obtained from 100 mm diameter Czochralski silicon wafers. Such maps indicate similar or superior areal homogeneity of minority carrier lifetime in webs.

  1. Modelling dendritic ecological networks in space: anintegrated network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Isaak, Dan J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Jordon, Chris E.; McNyset, Kristina; Monestiez, Pascal; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Sengupta, Aritra; Som, Nicholas; Steel, E. Ashley; Theobald, David M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Wenger, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) are a unique form of ecological networks that exhibit a dendritic network topology (e.g. stream and cave networks or plant architecture). DENs have a dual spatial representation; as points within the network and as points in geographical space. Consequently, some analytical methods used to quantify relationships in other types of ecological networks, or in 2-D space, may be inadequate for studying the influence of structure and connectivity on ecological processes within DENs. We propose a conceptual taxonomy of network analysis methods that account for DEN characteristics to varying degrees and provide a synthesis of the different approaches within

  2. Clinical application of dendritic cells in cancer vaccination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Inge Marie; Soot, Mette Line; Buus, Søren

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade use of dendritic cells (DC) has moved from murine and in vitro studies to clinical trials as adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy. Here they function as delivery vehicles for exogenous tumor antigens, promoting an efficient antigen presentation. The development of protocols...... for large-scale generation of dendritic cells for clinical applications has made possible phase I/II studies designed to analyze the toxicity, feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In clinical trials, DC-based vaccination of patients with advanced cancer has in many cases led to immunity...

  3. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Dendritic_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Dendritic_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Dendritic_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Dendritic_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. When Models and Observations Collide: Journeying towards an Integrated Snow Depth Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, M.; Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Markus, T.; Kurtz, N. T.; Kwok, R.; Perovich, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of snow depth is essential for assessing changes in sea ice mass balance due to snow's insulating and reflective properties. In remote sensing applications, the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrievals from altimetry crucially depends on snow depth. Despite the need for snow depth data, we currently lack continuous observations that capture the basin-scale snow depth distribution and its seasonal evolution. Recent in situ and remote sensing observations are sparse in space and time, and contain uncertainties, caveats, and/or biases that often require careful interpretation. Likewise, using model output for remote sensing applications is limited due to uncertainties in atmospheric forcing and different treatments of snow processes. Here, we summarize our efforts in bringing observational and model data together to develop an approach for an integrated snow depth product. We start with a snow budget model and incrementally incorporate snow processes to determine the effects on snow depth and to assess model sensitivity. We discuss lessons learned in model-observation integration and ideas for potential improvements to the treatment of snow in models.

  8. Snow Extent Variability in Lesotho Derived from MODIS Data (2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wunderle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Lesotho, snow cover is not only highly relevant to the climate system, but also affects socio-economic factors such as water storage for irrigation or hydro-electricity. However, while sound knowledge of annual and inter-annual snow dynamics is strongly required by local stakeholders, in-situ snow information remains limited. In this study, satellite data are used to generate a time series of snow cover and to provide the missing information on a national scale. A snow retrieval method, which is based on MODIS data and considers the concept of a normalized difference snow index (NDSI, has been implemented. Monitoring gaps due to cloud cover are filled by temporal and spatial post-processing. The comparison is based on the use of clear sky reference images from Landsat-TM and ENVISAT-MERIS. While the snow product is considered to be of good quality (mean accuracy: 68%, a slight bias towards snow underestimation is observed. Based on the daily product, a consistent time series of snow cover for Lesotho from 2000–2014 was generated for the first time. Analysis of the time series showed that the high annual variability of snow coverage and the short duration of single snow events require daily monitoring with a gap-filling procedure.

  9. Role of Snow Deposition of Perfluoroalkylated Substances at Coastal Livingston Island (Maritime Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Paulo; Zhang, Yifeng; Martin, Jonathan W; Pizarro, Mariana; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous in the environment, including remote polar regions. To evaluate the role of snow deposition as an input of PFAS to Maritime Antarctica, fresh snow deposition, surface snow, streams from melted snow, coastal seawater, and plankton samples were collected over a three-month period (December 2014-February 2015) at Livingston Island. Local sources of PFASs were significant for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and C7-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in snow but limited to the transited areas of the research station. The concentrations of 14 ionizable PFAS (∑PFAS) in freshly deposited snow (760-3600 pg L -1 ) were 1 order of magnitude higher than those in background surface snow (82-430 pg L -1 ). ∑PFAS ranged from 94 to 420 pg L -1 in seawater and from 3.1 to 16 ng g dw -1 in plankton. Ratios of individual PFAS concentrations in freshly deposited snow relative to surface snow (C SD /C Snow ), snowmelt (C SD /C SM ), and seawater (C SD /C SW ) were close to 1 (from 0.44 to 1.4) for all perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) isomers, suggesting that snowfall does not contribute significantly to PFOS in seawater. Conversely, these ratios for PFCAs ranged from 1 to 33 and were positively correlated with the number of carbons in the PFCA alkylated chain. These trends suggest that snow deposition, scavenging sea-salt aerosol bound PFAS, plays a role as a significant input of PFCAs to the Maritime Antarctica.

  10. Regional pattern of snow characteristics around Antarctic Lake Vostok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, Diana; Ekaykin, Alexey; Popov, Sergey; Shibaev, Yuriy; Kozachek, Anna; Lipenkov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Since 1998 Russian Antarctic Expedition has organized several scientific traverses in the region of subglacial Lake Vostok mainly devoted to the radar echo and seismic sounding of the glacier and water (the results have been published elsewhere). Along with the geophysical studies, a number of glaciological investigations have been carried out: snow pit digging, installation of accumulation stakes, snow sampling to study the stable water isotope content. Here we for the first time present a synthesis of these works and demonstrate a series of maps that characterize the snow density, isotope content and accumulation rate the studied region. A general tendency of the snow accumulation rate and isotope content is a significant increase from south (south-west) to north (north-east) from 35 to 23 mm w.e. per year and from -53,3 ‰ to -57,3 ‰ for delta oxygen-18 respectively, which likely reflects the continental-scale pattern, i.e., increase from inland to the coast. Deuterium excess varies from 11,7 ‰ to 16,3 ‰ is negatively correlated with the isotope content, which is typical for central Antarctica. The snow density demonstrate different pattern: higher values offshore the lake (up to 0,356 g/cm^3), and lower values within the lake's shoreline (lower limit is 0,328 g/cm^3). We suggest that this is related to the katabatic wind activity: very flat nearly horizontal surface of the glacier above the lake is not favorable for the strong winds, which leads to lower surface snow density. Superimposed on the main trend is the regional pattern, namely, curved contour lines in the middle part of the lake. We suggest that it may be related to the local anomalies of the snow drift by wind. Indeed, on the satellite images of the lake one can easily see a snowdrift stretching from the lake's western shore downwind in the middle part of the lake. The isolines of delta oxygen-18 and deuterium excess become perpendicular to each other in the north part of the lake which also

  11. Endolithic Microbial Life in Extreme Cold Climate: Snow Is Required, but Perhaps Less Is More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and lichens living under sandstone surfaces in the McMurdo Dry Valleys require snow for moisture. Snow accumulated beyond a thin layer, however, is counterproductive, interfering with rock insolation, snow melting, and photosynthetic access to light. With this in mind, the facts that rock slope and direction control colonization, and that climate change results in regional extinctions, can be explained. Vertical cliffs, which lack snow cover and are perpetually dry, are devoid of organisms. Boulder tops and edges can trap snow, but gravity and wind prevent excessive buildup. There, the organisms flourish. In places where snow-thinning cannot occur and snow drifts collect, rocks may contain living or dead communities. In light of these observations, the possibility of finding extraterrestrial endolithic communities on Mars cannot be eliminated.

  12. [Measurement and estimation methods and research progress of snow evaporation in forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Dong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measurement and estimation of snow evaporation (sublimation) in forests is one of the important issues to the understanding of snow surface energy and water balance, and it is also an essential part of regional hydrological and climate models. This paper summarized the measurement and estimation methods of snow evaporation in forests, and made a comprehensive applicability evaluation, including mass-balance methods (snow water equivalent method, comparative measurements of snowfall and through-snowfall, snow evaporation pan, lysimeter, weighing of cut tree, weighing interception on crown, and gamma-ray attenuation technique) and micrometeorological methods (Bowen-ratio energy-balance method, Penman combination equation, aerodynamics method, surface temperature technique and eddy covariance method). Also this paper reviewed the progress of snow evaporation in different forests and its influencal factors. At last, combining the deficiency of past research, an outlook for snow evaporation rearch in forests was presented, hoping to provide a reference for related research in the future.

  13. Spectral Profiler Probe for In Situ Snow Grain Size and Composition Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Molotch, Noah P.; Painter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An ultimate goal of the climate change, snow science, and hydrology communities is to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) from satellite measurements. Seasonal SWE is highly sensitive to climate change and provides fresh water for much of the world population. Snowmelt from mountainous regions represents the dominant water source for 60 million people in the United States and over one billion people globally. Determination of snow grain sizes comprising mountain snowpack is critical for predicting snow meltwater runoff, understanding physical properties and radiation balance, and providing necessary input for interpreting satellite measurements. Both microwave emission and radar backscatter from the snow are dominated by the snow grain size stratigraphy. As a result, retrieval algorithms for measuring snow water equivalents from orbiting satellites is largely hindered by inadequate knowledge of grain size.

  14. Simulation of snow distribution and melt under cloudy conditions in an Alpine watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-Y. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An energy balance method and remote-sensing data were used to simulate snow distribution and melt in an alpine watershed in northwestern China within a complete snow accumulation-melt period. The spatial energy budgets were simulated using meteorological observations and a digital elevation model of the watershed. A linear interpolation method was used to estimate the daily snow cover area under cloudy conditions, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. Hourly snow distribution and melt, snow cover extent and daily discharge were included in the simulated results. The root mean square error between the measured snow-water equivalent samplings and the simulated results is 3.2 cm. The Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency statistic (NSE between the measured and simulated discharges is 0.673, and the volume difference (Dv is 3.9 %. Using the method introduced in this article, modelling spatial snow distribution and melt runoff will become relatively convenient.

  15. Influence of beech and spruce sub-montane forests on snow cover in Poľana Biosphere Reserve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šatala, T.; Tesař, Miroslav; Hanzelová, M.; Bartík, M.; Šípek, Václav; Škvarenina, J.; Minďáš, J.; Waldhauserová, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 8 (2017), s. 854-861 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05665S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : snow water equivalent * snow depth * snow accumulation * snow melting Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  16. Impact of Grain Shape and Multiple Black Carbon Internal Mixing on Snow Albedo: Parameterization and Radiative Effect Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cenlin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Takano, Yoshi; Yang, Ping; Qi, Ling; Chen, Fei

    2018-01-01

    We quantify the effects of grain shape and multiple black carbon (BC)-snow internal mixing on snow albedo by explicitly resolving shape and mixing structures. Nonspherical snow grains tend to have higher albedos than spheres with the same effective sizes, while the albedo difference due to shape effects increases with grain size, with up to 0.013 and 0.055 for effective radii of 1,000 μm at visible and near-infrared bands, respectively. BC-snow internal mixing reduces snow albedo at wavelengths external mixing, internal mixing enhances snow albedo reduction by a factor of 1.2-2.0 at visible wavelengths depending on BC concentration and snow shape. The opposite effects on albedo reductions due to snow grain nonsphericity and BC-snow internal mixing point toward a careful investigation of these two factors simultaneously in climate modeling. We further develop parameterizations for snow albedo and its reduction by accounting for grain shape and BC-snow internal/external mixing. Combining the parameterizations with BC-in-snow measurements in China, North America, and the Arctic, we estimate that nonspherical snow grains reduce BC-induced albedo radiative effects by up to 50% compared with spherical grains. Moreover, BC-snow internal mixing enhances the albedo effects by up to 30% (130%) for spherical (nonspherical) grains relative to external mixing. The overall uncertainty induced by snow shape and BC-snow mixing state is about 21-32%.

  17. Changing Arctic snow cover: A review of recent developments and assessment of future needs for observations, modelling, and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Pedersen, Stine Højlund; Brucker, Ludovic; Anisimov, Oleg; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Brown, Ross D.; Ehrich, Dorothee; Essery, Richard L. H.; Heilig, Achim; Ingvander, Susanne; Johansson, Cecilia; Johansson, Margareta; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Inga, Niila; Luojus, Kari; Macelloni, Giovanni; Mariash, Heather|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41327697X; Mclennan, Donald; Rosqvist, Gunhild Ninis; Sato, Atsushi; Savela, Hannele; Schneebeli, Martin; Sokolov, Aleksandr; Sokratov, Sergey A.; Terzago, Silvia; Vikhamar-schuler, Dagrun; Williamson, Scott; Qiu, Yubao; Callaghan, Terry V.

    2016-01-01

    Snow is a critically important and rapidly changing feature of the Arctic. However, snow-cover and snowpack conditions change through time pose challenges for measuring and prediction of snow. Plausible scenarios of how Arctic snow cover will respond to changing Arctic climate are important for

  18. Experimental measurement and modeling of snow accumulation and snowmelt in a mountain microcatchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Michal; Krajčí, Pavel; Hlavčo, Jozef; Kostka, Zdeněk; Holko, Ladislav

    2016-04-01

    Fieldwork is a very useful source of data in all geosciences. This naturally applies also to the snow hydrology. Snow accumulation and snowmelt are spatially very heterogeneous especially in non-forested, mountain environments. Direct field measurements provide the most accurate information about it. Quantification and understanding of processes, that cause these spatial differences are crucial in prediction and modelling of runoff volumes in spring snowmelt period. This study presents possibilities of detailed measurement and modeling of snow cover characteristics in a mountain experimental microcatchment located in northern part of Slovakia in Western Tatra mountains. Catchment area is 0.059 km2 and mean altitude is 1500 m a.s.l. Measurement network consists of 27 snow poles, 3 small snow lysimeters, discharge measurement device and standard automatic weather station. Snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE) were measured twice a month near the snow poles. These measurements were used to estimate spatial differences in accumulation of SWE. Snowmelt outflow was measured by small snow lysimeters. Measurements were performed in winter 2014/2015. Snow water equivalent variability was very high in such a small area. Differences between particular measuring points reached 600 mm in time of maximum SWE. The results indicated good performance of a snow lysimeter in case of snowmelt timing identification. Increase of snowmelt measured by the snow lysimeter had the same timing as increase in discharge at catchment's outlet and the same timing as the increase in air temperature above the freezing point. Measured data were afterwards used in distributed rainfall-runoff model MIKE-SHE. Several methods were used for spatial distribution of precipitation and snow water equivalent. The model was able to simulate snow water equivalent and snowmelt timing in daily step reasonably well. Simulated discharges were slightly overestimated in later spring.

  19. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a function of both regional, or global, climatic changes, as well as fluctuations in the albedo resulting from variations in the Snow Covered Area (SCA. These impacts are crucial to human activities, especially to those living in middle-latitude areas such as Liaoning Province. Thus, SCA monitoring is currently an important tool in studies of global climate change, particularly because satellite remote sensing data provide timely and efficient snow cover information for large areas. In this study, MODIS L1B data, MODIS Daily Snow Products (MOD10A1 and MODIS 8-day Snow Products (MOD10A2 were used to monitor the SCA of Liaoning Province over the winter months of November–April, 2006–2008. The effects of cloud masking and forest masking on the snow monitoring results were also assessed. The results show that the SCA percentage derived from MODIS L1B data is relatively consistent, but slightly higher than that obtained from MODIS Snow Products. In situ data from 25 snow stations were used to assess the accuracy of snow cover monitoring from the SCA compared to the results from MODIS Snow Products. The studies found that the SCA results were more reliable than MODIS Snow Products in the study area.

  20. Analyses of newly digitised and reconstructed snow series over the last 100+ years in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, S. C.; Wüthrich, C.; Croci-Maspoli, M.; Appenzeller, C.

    2010-09-01

    Snow is an important socio-economic factor in the Swiss Alpine region (tourism, hydro-electricity, drinking water) and responsible for considerable natural hazards such as avalanches. In addition, high-quality long-term snow series can be used as an excellent indicator of climate change. The objectives of this study are threefold. First, suitable long-term snow series from different altitudes and regions in Switzerland have been selected, missing data digitized and the entire series quality checked. Second, the long-term snow series have been used for trend analyses over a time period >100 years. Third, snow depth series have been reconstructed using daily new snow, temperature and precipitation as input variables. This made it possible to analyse snow depth related variables such as days with snow pack. Results show that the snow cover is varying substantially on seasonal and decadal time scales. The analyses of the decadal new snow trends during the last 100 years shows unprecedented low new snow sums in the winter seasons (DJF) of the 1990s. The 100 year trend of days with snow pack reveals a significant decrease for stations below 800 m asl in the winter season (DJF) and for stations around 1800 m asl in spring (MAM). Similar results were found for seasonal new snow sums. The results of the trend analyses are also discussed with respect to temperature and precipitation trends. Finally we will also shortly discuss how especially "precious" snow measurements have been identified and incorporated in a National Basic Climatological Network (NBCN) as well as in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).

  1. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) from 2011 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Rico, Ibai; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i) continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS), (ii) detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology) for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season) and (iii) time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA). The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface), and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277) is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological or ecological perspective in which snow dynamics play a

  2. Constraining snowmelt in a temperature-index model using simulated snow densities

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.; Evans, Jason P.; McCabe, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Current snowmelt parameterisation schemes are largely untested in warmer maritime snowfields, where physical snow properties can differ substantially from the more common colder snow environments. Physical properties such as snow density influence the thermal properties of snow layers and are likely to be important for snowmelt rates. Existing methods for incorporating physical snow properties into temperature-index models (TIMs) require frequent snow density observations. These observations are often unavailable in less monitored snow environments. In this study, previous techniques for end-of-season snow density estimation (Bormann et al., 2013) were enhanced and used as a basis for generating daily snow density data from climate inputs. When evaluated against 2970 observations, the snow density model outperforms a regionalised density-time curve reducing biases from -0.027gcm-3 to -0.004gcm-3 (7%). The simulated daily densities were used at 13 sites in the warmer maritime snowfields of Australia to parameterise snowmelt estimation. With absolute snow water equivalent (SWE) errors between 100 and 136mm, the snow model performance was generally lower in the study region than that reported for colder snow environments, which may be attributed to high annual variability. Model performance was strongly dependent on both calibration and the adjustment for precipitation undercatch errors, which influenced model calibration parameters by 150-200%. Comparison of the density-based snowmelt algorithm against a typical temperature-index model revealed only minor differences between the two snowmelt schemes for estimation of SWE. However, when the model was evaluated against snow depths, the new scheme reduced errors by up to 50%, largely due to improved SWE to depth conversions. While this study demonstrates the use of simulated snow density in snowmelt parameterisation, the snow density model may also be of broad interest for snow depth to SWE conversion. Overall, the

  3. Constraining snowmelt in a temperature-index model using simulated snow densities

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.

    2014-09-01

    Current snowmelt parameterisation schemes are largely untested in warmer maritime snowfields, where physical snow properties can differ substantially from the more common colder snow environments. Physical properties such as snow density influence the thermal properties of snow layers and are likely to be important for snowmelt rates. Existing methods for incorporating physical snow properties into temperature-index models (TIMs) require frequent snow density observations. These observations are often unavailable in less monitored snow environments. In this study, previous techniques for end-of-season snow density estimation (Bormann et al., 2013) were enhanced and used as a basis for generating daily snow density data from climate inputs. When evaluated against 2970 observations, the snow density model outperforms a regionalised density-time curve reducing biases from -0.027gcm-3 to -0.004gcm-3 (7%). The simulated daily densities were used at 13 sites in the warmer maritime snowfields of Australia to parameterise snowmelt estimation. With absolute snow water equivalent (SWE) errors between 100 and 136mm, the snow model performance was generally lower in the study region than that reported for colder snow environments, which may be attributed to high annual variability. Model performance was strongly dependent on both calibration and the adjustment for precipitation undercatch errors, which influenced model calibration parameters by 150-200%. Comparison of the density-based snowmelt algorithm against a typical temperature-index model revealed only minor differences between the two snowmelt schemes for estimation of SWE. However, when the model was evaluated against snow depths, the new scheme reduced errors by up to 50%, largely due to improved SWE to depth conversions. While this study demonstrates the use of simulated snow density in snowmelt parameterisation, the snow density model may also be of broad interest for snow depth to SWE conversion. Overall, the

  4. Prevalence of Pure Versus Mixed Snow Cover Pixels across Spatial Resolutions in Alpine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Selkowitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of snow-covered area (SCA can be binary (indicating the presence/absence of snow cover at each pixel or fractional (indicating the fraction of each pixel covered by snow. Fractional SCA mapping provides more information than binary SCA, but is more difficult to implement and may not be feasible with all types of remote sensing data. The utility of fractional SCA mapping relative to binary SCA mapping varies with the intended application as well as by spatial resolution, temporal resolution and period of interest, and climate. We quantified the frequency of occurrence of partially snow-covered (mixed pixels at spatial resolutions between 1 m and 500 m over five dates at two study areas in the western U.S., using 0.5 m binary SCA maps derived from high spatial resolution imagery aggregated to fractional SCA at coarser spatial resolutions. In addition, we used in situ monitoring to estimate the frequency of partially snow-covered conditions for the period September 2013–August 2014 at 10 60-m grid cell footprints at two study areas with continental snow climates. Results from the image analysis indicate that at 40 m, slightly above the nominal spatial resolution of Landsat, mixed pixels accounted for 25%–93% of total pixels, while at 500 m, the nominal spatial resolution of MODIS bands used for snow cover mapping, mixed pixels accounted for 67%–100% of total pixels. Mixed pixels occurred more commonly at the continental snow climate site than at the maritime snow climate site. The in situ data indicate that some snow cover was present between 186 and 303 days, and partial snow cover conditions occurred on 10%–98% of days with snow cover. Four sites remained partially snow-free throughout most of the winter and spring, while six sites were entirely snow covered throughout most or all of the winter and spring. Within 60 m grid cells, the late spring/summer transition from snow-covered to snow-free conditions lasted 17–56 days

  5. Twenty-four year record of Northern Hemisphere snow cover derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.; Brodzik, Mary Jo

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. It is now possible to monitor the global fluctuation of snow cover over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a smiliar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible statellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as on into the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the negative spectral gradient driving the passive microwave algorithm

  6. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  7. Modulation of cytokine production profiles in splenic dendritic cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the role of splenic dendritic cells in immune response to Toxoplasma gondii infection in SAG1 (P30+) transgenic mice by investigating the kinetics of intracellular cytokines expression of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) using flow cytometry, and compared the results to those of ...

  8. The effects of renal transplantation on circulating dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); L.M.B. Vaessen (Leonard); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Schoordijk-Verschoor (Wenda); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); C.C. Baan (Carla); W. Weimar (Willem)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of immunosuppressive agents on T cell function have been well characterized but virtually nothing is known about the effects of renal transplantation on human dendritic cells (DCs). With the use of flow cytometry, we studied the kinetics of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs in

  9. Circulating dendritic cells in pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) represent one of the most extensively studied topics in immunology, because of their central role in the induction and regulation of adaptive immunity, and because of their therapeutic potential for manipulating immune responses. Objectives: To evaluate circulating DC levels in pediatric ...

  10. Unimpaired dendritic cell functions in MVP/LRP knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, MH; Groot, de J.; Zon, van A; Franzel-Luiten, E; Schoester, M.; Scheffer, G.L.; Sonneveld, P.; Scheper, R.J.; Wiemer, EA

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) act as mobile sentinels of the immune system. By stimulating T lymphocytes, DCs are pivotal for the initiation of both T- and B-cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults) were found to be involved in the development and/or function of human

  11. Dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrids and immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cathelin, Dominique; Nicolas, Alexandra; Bouchot, André

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells currently being used as a cellular adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy strategies. Unfortunately, DC-based vaccines have not demonstrated spectacular clinical results. DC loading with tumor antigens and DC differentiation and activation...

  12. Search for a solute-drag effect in dendritic solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckler, K.; Herlach, D.M.; Aziz, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the results of an indirect experimental test for the solute-drag effect in alloy solidification by fitting the data of Eckler et.al. for Ni-B dendrite tip velocities vs undercooling to models in several ways. The unknown equilibrium partition coefficient, k e , was varied as a fitting parameter. When they combine the dendrite growth model of Boettinger et al. with the Continuous Growth Model (CGM) of Aziz and Kaplan with solute drag, they cannot fit the data for any value of k e . When they combine dendrite growth theory with the CGM without solute drag, they obtain a reasonable fit to the data for k e = 4 x 10 -6 . When they combine dendrite growth theory with a new partial-solute-drag interpolation between the with-solute-drag and the without-solute-drag versions of the CGM, they obtain a still better fit to the data for k e = 2.8 x 10 - 4. This result points out the possibility of partial solute-drag during solidification and the importance of an independent determination of k e in order to distinguish between models

  13. Genetically engineered dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2001), s. 475-478 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526 Keywords : dendritic cell s * tumour vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.330, year: 2001

  14. Tumor-Mediated Suppression of Dendritic Cell Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akporiaye, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    .... One of these factors is Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta). TGF-beta is produced in large quantities by different types of cancer including breast cancer and inhibits the actions of several immune cells including dendritic cells (DC...

  15. Genetically modified dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2001), s. 153-155 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526 Keywords : dendritic cell s * cancer vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  16. Fractal analysis of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride dendrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Julin, Peng; Xudong, Fan.

    1990-01-01

    The fractal scaling characteristics of the surface profile of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride dendritic structures have been obtained using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are in remarkable agreement with the modified diffusion-limited aggregation model. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs

  17. Utilizing dendritic scaffold for feasible formation of naphthalene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the effect of dendritic scaffolds on the feasibility of naphthalene excimer formation has not been reported in the literature. Here, we report synthesis and photophysical study of naphthalene functionalized zero and first genera- tion PAMAM dendrimers in order to understand the mechanism of excimer formation in the system.

  18. Cryotherapy in Dendritic Keratitis. | Mpyet | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of cryotherapy in the treatment of Dendritic Keratitis where antiviral agents are not available. The result show some improvement in visual acuity while one patient has a drop in vision. The extent of corneal scarring appears to depend on the duration of the disease and extent of stroma ...

  19. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS, have been used to recapitulate depression-like behaviors in rodents and study the underlying mechanisms. In comparison with CRS, CUMS overcomes the stress habituation and has been widely used to model depression-like behaviors. CSDS is one of the most frequently used models for depression, but it is limited to the study of male mice. Generally, chronic stress causes dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the neurons of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Meanwhile, neurons of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens exhibit an increase in spine density. These alterations induced by chronic stress are often accompanied by depression-like behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the chronic stress-induced remodeling of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens and also discusses the putative underlying mechanisms.

  20. Identification of human tissue cross-presenting dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haniffa, Muzlifah; Collin, Matthew; Ginhoux, Florent

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous group of functionally specialized antigen-presenting cells. We recently characterized the human tissue cross-presenting DCs and aligned the human and mouse DC subsets. Our findings will facilitate the translation of murine DC studies to the human setting and aid the design of DC-based vaccine strategies for infection and cancer immunotherapy.