WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate transparent insulating

  1. Craft-Joule Project: Stagnation proof transparently insulated flat plate solar collector (static)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A; Cadafalch, J; Perez-Segarra, C.D. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The STATIC (STAgnation proof Transparently Insulated flat plate Solar Collector) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The core group of SMEs involved in the project has its main economical activity in the field of solar thermal systems at low temperature level (domestic hot water, solar heating, etc.). Beyond this, a large application potential exists for solar heating at medium temperature level (from 80 to 160 Celsius degrees) : industrial process heat, solar cooling and air conditioning, solar drying , distillation and desalination. Three of the four SME proposers are located in Southern Europe and in the Caribean, where a continuos increase of the demand for air conditioning and cooling has been demonstrated in the last years. The recent development of flat plate solar collectors with honeycomb-type transparent insulation cover has shown that this type of collectors can become a low cost alternative to evacuated tube and high concentrating CPC collectors in the medium temperature range from 80 to 160 Celsius degrees. With the expected reduction of collector cost, that forms 30%-50% of total system cost, a decisive break-through of solar thermal systems using heat in the medium temperature range can be achieved. The feasibility and good performance of these solar collectors has been proved in several prototypes. Nevertheless, up to now no commercial products are available. In order to reach this, the following developments of new concepts are necessary and are being carried out within this project: solution of the problem of overheating: development of collector versions for different working temperatures: optimization of the design with the support of high level numerical simulation. Several prototypes of the new solar collectors are being tested. System tests will also be carried or for two test arrays of optimized collector

  2. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  3. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  4. Light fireproof insulating plate-formed material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, B.A.; Juhl, L.F.

    1981-02-23

    Light fireproof insulating plates were produced by pressure processing of a mixture of rice-husk ashes with pearlite aluminium phosphate and glass wool. The corn size of pearlite is 0-5 mm., of rice-husk ashes 0-5 mm. and the fiber length of fibrous additive is about 25 mm.

  5. Acoustic excitation of containment insulation cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, H.; Rao, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical program has been implemented by NRC-BNL since 1975 at the University of California, Santa Barbara to assess the reliability of the PCRV thermal insulation cover plate and the possible safety problem caused by the failure of this plate. A typical large HTGR PCRV unit [1160 MW(e)] and thermal insulation class A were selected. The upper core cavity is estimated to be the most critical volume where the noise pressure levels are expected to reach 110 to 130 dB (rel. to 2 x 10 -4 dynes/cm 2 ). The noise spectrum in that cavity is a composite of circulator noise, vortex shedding boundary layer turbulence, and flow impingement. Some anticipated safety related problems associated with the thermal insulation failure are examined

  6. A transparent electrochromic metal-insulator switching device with three-terminal transistor geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Onozato, Takaki; Hirono, Misako; Mizuno, Taku; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-05-01

    Proton and hydroxyl ion play an essential role for tuning functionality of oxides because their electronic state can be controlled by modifying oxygen off-stoichiometry and/or protonation. Tungsten trioxide (WO3), a well-known electrochromic (EC) material for smart window, is a wide bandgap insulator, whereas it becomes a metallic conductor HxWO3 by protonation. Although one can utilize electrochromism together with metal-insulator (MI) switching for one device, such EC-MI switching cannot be utilized in current EC devices because of their two-terminal structure with parallel-plate configuration. Here we demonstrate a transparent EC-MI switchable device with three-terminal TFT-type structure using amorphous (a-) WO3 channel layer, which was fabricated on glass substrate at room temperature. We used water-infiltrated nano-porous glass, CAN (calcium aluminate with nano-pores), as a liquid-leakage-free solid gate insulator. At virgin state, the device was fully transparent in the visible-light region. For positive gate voltage, the active channel became dark blue, and electrical resistivity of the a-WO3 layer drastically decreased with protonation. For negative gate voltage, deprotonation occurred and the active channel returned to transparent insulator. Good cycleability of the present transparent EC-MI switching device would have potential for the development of advanced smart windows.

  7. Aerogels: transparent and super-insulating materials; Les aerogels: isolants transparent-super isolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melka, S.; Rigacci, A.; Achard, P.; Bezian, J.J. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06 - Sophia-Antipolis (France); Sallee, H.; Chevalier, B. [Centre des Sciences et Techniques du Batiment, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated the super-insulating properties of silica aerogel in its monolithic or finely divided state. In its monolithic state, this material conciliates excellent thermal insulation performances, a good transmission of visible light and interesting acoustic properties. Also its amazing structural characteristics (lightness, high global porosity, small diameter of pores) are particularly interesting for its use in double glazing windows as transparent insulating spacer. The aim of the work carried out by the Energetic Centre of the Ecole des Mines of Paris is to understand the thermal transfer phenomena in all forms of silica aerogel. In this paper, the main steps of the synthesis process of monolithic silica aerogel is presented with the thermal conductivities obtained. Then, a model is built to describe the thermal transfer mechanisms in finely divided aerogel beds. Finally, the hot wire thermal characterization method is presented and the results obtained on silica aerogels are discussed. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  8. Concentration of solar radiation by white painted transparent plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1982-04-01

    A simple flat-plate solar concentrator is described in this paper. The device is composed of a white painted transparent plate with a photovoltaic cell fixed to an unpainted area on the bottom of the plate. Light scattering off the white material is either lost or directed to the solar cell. Experimental concentrations of up to 1.9 times the incident solar flux have been achieved using white clays. These values are close to those predicted by theory for the experimental parameters investigated. A theory of the device operation is developed. Using this theory suggestions are made for optimizing the concentrator system. For reasonable choices of cell and plate size and reflectivities of 80% concentrations of over 2x are possible. The concentrator has the advantage over other systems in that the concentration is independent of incidence angle and the concentrator is easy to produce. The device needs no tracking system and will concentrate on a cloudy day.

  9. Sound insulation performance of plates with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Kaijun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sound insulation performance of a thin plate with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches. Piezoelectric patches are periodically bonded on the surfaces of the plate in a collocated fashion, and are interconnected via an inductive circuit network. This piezoelectric system is termed as piezo-electromechanical (PEM plate in the paper. Homogenization methods are involved under a sub-wavelength assumption to analytically develop the dynamical equations for the PEM plate. The dispersion relationships and energy densities of the wave modes propagating in the PEM plate are studied; the sub-wavelength assumption is verified for the simulations in this paper. The coincidence frequency of the PEM plate is researched, and results show that the coincidence frequency of the PEM plate will disappear at certain circumstances; mathematical and physical explanations are made for this phenomenon. The disappearance of the coincidence frequency is used to optimize the value of inductance, for the purpose of improving the sound transmission loss of the PEM plate.

  10. On the improvement of mechanical properties of monolithic silica aerogels (for transparent insulating material); Silica aerogel (tomei dannetsu zairyo) kyodo no kaizen ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, K; Igarashi, K; Tanemura, S [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on improvement of the strength of silica aerogel as transparent insulating material. Silica aerogel is a low-density porous material with high heat insulation and transparency. To develop a insulating material with high transparency, monolithic silica aerogel was studied. For direct use of it for windows, its strength improvement was attempted. The aerogel was prepared by supercritical drying (alcohol or CO2) of silica wet gel obtained by hydrolysis and condensation of silicon alkoxide solution. To prepare the aerogel bonded on plate glass for strength improvement, the aerogel was bonded to alkoxide by exposing active silanol radical through F-etching of plate glass surface. However, to obtain the practical large-area bonded aerogel, shrinkage control of the aerogel in supercritical drying was necessary. Addition of Laponite into a silica network for strength improvement by polymer increased the bending strength by 50%. Although some reduction of its transparency was observed because of clouding, its heat insulation was stable. Further strength improvement is necessary for its practical use. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Sound insulation and energy harvesting based on acoustic metamaterial plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouar, Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of artificially designed sub-wavelength acoustic materials, denoted acoustic metamaterials (AMM), has significantly broadened the range of materials responses found in nature. These engineered materials can indeed manipulate sound/vibration in surprising ways, which include vibration/sound insulation, focusing, cloaking, acoustic energy harvesting …. In this work, we report both on the analysis of the airborne sound transmission loss (STL) through a thin metamaterial plate and on the possibility of acoustic energy harvesting. We first provide a theoretical study of the airborne STL and confronted them to the structure-borne dispersion of a metamaterial plate. Second, we propose to investigate the acoustic energy harvesting capability of the plate-type AMM. We have developed semi-analytical and numerical methods to investigate the STL performances of a plate-type AMM with an airborne sound excitation having different incident angles. The AMM is made of silicone rubber stubs squarely arranged in a thin aluminum plate, and the STL is calculated at low-frequency range [100Hz to 3kHz] for an incoming incident sound pressure wave. The obtained analytical and numerical STL present a very good agreement confirming the reliability of developed approaches. A comparison between computed STL and the band structure of the considered AMM shows an excellent agreement and gives a physical understanding of the observed behavior. On another hand, the acoustic energy confinement in AMM with created defects with suitable geometry was investigated. The first results give a general view for assessing the acoustic energy harvesting performances making use of AMM.

  12. Acoustic parameters of sound insulating materials investigation in small reverberation rooms on rubber plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.О. Козлітін

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The new method of sound insulating materials acoustic characteristics investigation in small reverberation rooms was elaborated. The research of sound insulating materials on rubber plates was done. The analysis of obtained results of acoustic parameters of materials being a part of the composite real structures of airplane was carried out.

  13. Transparent thermal insulation for prefabricated school buildings; Einsatz transparenter Waermedaemmung an Schulgebaeuden in praefabrizierter Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Gruppe Solares Bauen; Buchmann, R. [Leipzigprojekt GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Duesterhoeft, A. [Holz- und Leichtmetallbau GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The existing schools in the new federal states built from prefabricated elements need to be modernized in order to reduce their energy demand. Fitting some 300 square metres of transparent thermal insulation to the south side of a house front may lead to a cut in its thermal energy demand by 74 per cent. This energy consumption is by 12 kWh per square metre lower than the one obtained with opaque thermal insulation. The results of the first demonstration project are described. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die in den neuen Bundeslaendern vorhandenen Schulen in vorgefertigter Bauweise sind energetisch sanierungsbeduerftig. Werden im Rahmen einer Sanierung ca. 300qm transparente Waermedaemmung an der suedorientierten Fassade eingesetzt, so kann der Heizwaermebedarf um 74% herabgesetzt werden. Das sind 12 kWh/qm weniger als bei dem vergleichsweisen Einsatz einer opaken Waermedaemmung. Im Folgenden werden die Ergebnisse des ersten Demonstrationsprojekts beschrieben.

  14. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double - Skin Facade building in transparent insulation mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    was carried out in a full scale test facility ‘The Cube’, in order to compile three sets of high quality experimental data for validation purposes. The data sets are available for preheating mode, external air curtain mode and transparent insulation mode. The objective of this article is to provide the reader...... with all information about the experimental data and measurements, necessary to complete an independent empirical validation of any simulation tool. The article includes detailed information about the experimental apparatus, experimental principles and experimental full-scale test facility ‘The Cube...

  15. Transparent thermal insulation for a fabrication hall of LHB, Salzgitter; Transparent gedaemmte Fertigungshalle bei LHB in Salzgitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetzky, A. [Linke-Hofmann-Busch Waggon - Fahrzeug - Maschinen GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Goller, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial workshops in Germany were erected during the 40s and 50s, especially at the beginning of the economic boom. After more than 40 years, these facilities are in need of structural and production-technical modernization. A case in point is the carriage fabrication workshop of the Salzgitter-based company Linke-Hoffmann-Busch. The characteristic features of this type of building are large glazed areas, free uncontrolled ventilation and substantial height. Opportunities for energy-oriented and light-technical modernization are demonstrated at this Salzgitter workshop in exemplary form, the emphasis being on the use of solar energy components and, particularly, transparent thermal insulation. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland gibt es viele Produktionshallen, die in den vierziger und fuenfziger Jahren, insbesondere zu Beginn des wirtschaftlichen Aufschwungs, errichtet wurden. Diese Hallen sind nach ueber vierzig Jahren sowohl aus baulichen als auch produktionstechnischen Gruenden sanierungsbeduerftig. Die Halle 1, Waggonneubau, der Linke-Hofmann-Busch GmbH in Salzgitter ist ein typischer Vertreter dieser Art von Hallen. Sie zeichnen sich durch grosse Verglasungsflaechen, freie unkontrollierte Lueftung und relativ grosse Bauhoehe aus. Exemplarisch werden an dieser Halle Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen und lichttechnischen Sanierung aufgezeigt, wobei der Einsatz von Solarenergiekomponenten und insbesondere der Transparenten Waermedaemmung besondere Beruecksichtigung erfaehrt. (orig.)

  16. Light radiation through a transparent cathode plate with single-walled carbon nanotube field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, E.S.; Goak, J.C.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, S.H.; Han, J.H.; Lee, C.S.; Sok, J.H.; Seo, Y.H.; Park, K.S.; Lee, N.S.

    2010-01-01

    In the conventional carbon nanotube backlight units (CNT-BLUs), light passes through the phosphor-coated anode glass plate, which thus faces closely the thin film transistor (TFT) backplate of a liquid crystal display panel. This configuration makes heat dissipation structurally difficult because light emission and heat generation occur simultaneously at the anode. We propose a novel configuration of a CNT-BLU where the cathode rather than the anode faces the TFT backplate by turning it upside down. In this design, light passes through the transparent cathode glass plate while heating occurs at the anode. We demonstrated a novel design of CNT-BLU by fabricating transparent single-walled CNT field emitters on the cathode and by coating a reflecting metal layer on the anode. This study hopefully provides a clue to solve the anode-heating problem which would be inevitably confronted for high-luminance and large-area CNT-BLUs.

  17. Analysis of the optical and thermal properties of transparent insulating materials containing gas bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qilin; Ye, Hong; Lin, Qizhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent insulating medium containing gas bubbles was proposed. • Radiative transfer and thermal conduction models were constructed. • Bulk transmittance increases first and then decreases with the bubble number. • Effective thermal conductivity decreases with increasing filling ratio. • High filling ratio with large bubbles is preferred for good performance. - Abstract: As a medium of low absorption and low thermal conduction, introducing gas bubbles into semitransparent mediums, such as glass and polycarbonate (PC), may simultaneously improve their light transmission and thermal insulation performances. However, gas bubbles can also enhance light scattering, which is in competition with the effect of the absorption decrease. Moreover, the balance between the visible light transmittance and the effective thermal conductivity should also be considered in the material design. Therefore, a radiative transfer model and the Maxwell–Eucken model for such material were employed to analyze the optical and thermal performances, respectively. The results demonstrate that the transmittance increases when the bubble radius (r) increases with a fixed volume fraction of the gas bubbles (f_v) due to the increased scattering intensity. In addition, the effective thermal conductivity always decreases with increasing f_v. Thus, to achieve both good optical and thermal performances, high f_v with large r is preferred. When f_v=0.5, the transmittance can be kept larger than 50% as long as r ≥ 0.7 mm. To elucidate the application performance, the heat transfer of a freezer adopting the glass or PC with gas bubbles as a cover was analyzed and the energy saving can be nearly 10%.

  18. The influence of finite cavities on the sound insulation of double-plate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2005-06-01

    Lightweight walls are often designed as frameworks of studs with plates on each side--a double-plate structure. The studs constitute boundaries for the cavities, thereby both affecting the sound transmission directly by short-circuiting the plates, and indirectly by disturbing the sound field between the plates. The paper presents a deterministic prediction model for airborne sound insulation including both effects of the studs. A spatial transform technique is used, taking advantage of the periodicity. The acoustic field inside the cavities is expanded by means of cosine-series. The transmission coefficient (angle-dependent and diffuse) and transmission loss are studied. Numerical examples are presented and comparisons with measurement are performed. The result indicates that a reasonably good agreement between theory and measurement can be achieved.

  19. Low-Temperature Fabrication of Robust, Transparent, and Flexible Thin-Film Transistors with a Nanolaminated Insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Park, Junhong; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jeong Woo; Jeon, Yongmin; Shin, Jeong Bin; Nam, Minwoo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2018-05-09

    The lack of reliable, transparent, and flexible electrodes and insulators for applications in thin-film transistors (TFTs) makes it difficult to commercialize transparent, flexible TFTs (TF-TFTs). More specifically, conventional high process temperatures and the brittleness of these elements have been hurdles in developing flexible substrates vulnerable to heat. Here, we propose electrode and insulator fabrication techniques considering process temperature, transmittance, flexibility, and environmental stability. A transparent and flexible indium tin oxide (ITO)/Ag/ITO (IAI) electrode and an Al 2 O 3 /MgO (AM)-laminated insulator were optimized at the low temperature of 70 °C for the fabrication of TF-TFTs on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The optimized IAI electrode with a sheet resistance of 7 Ω/sq exhibited the luminous transmittance of 85.17% and maintained its electrical conductivity after exposure to damp heat conditions because of an environmentally stable ITO capping layer. In addition, the electrical conductivity of IAI was maintained after 10 000 bending cycles with a tensile strain of 3% because of the ductile Ag film. In the metal/insulator/metal structure, the insulating and mechanical properties of the optimized AM-laminated film deposited at 70 °C were significantly improved because of the highly dense nanolaminate system, compared to those of the Al 2 O 3 film deposited at 70 °C. In addition, the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) was used as the active channel for TF-TFTs because of its excellent chemical stability. In the environmental stability test, the ITO, a-IGZO, and AM-laminated films showed the excellent environmental stability. Therefore, our IGZO-based TFT with IAI electrodes and the 70 °C AM-laminated insulator was fabricated to evaluate robustness, transparency, flexibility, and process temperature, resulting in transfer characteristics comparable to those of an IGZO-based TFT with a 150 °C Al 2 O 3

  20. Plate-type metamaterials for extremely broadband low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Guo, Xinwei; Chen, Tianning; Yao, Ge

    2018-01-01

    A novel plate-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) in the low-frequency range ( ≤1000 Hz) is designed, theoretically proven and then experimentally verified. The thin plates with large modulus used in this paper mean that we do not need to apply tension to the plates, which is more applicable to practical engineering, the achievement of noise reduction is better and the installation of plates is more user-friendly than that of the membranes. The effects of different structural parameters of the plates on the sound-proofed performance at low-frequencies were also investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the STL can be modulated effectively and predictably using vibration theory by changing the structural parameters, such as the radius and thickness of the plate. Furthermore, using unit cells of different geometric sizes which are responsible for different frequency regions, the stacked panels with thickness ≤16 mm and weight ≤5 kg/m2 showed high STL below 2000 Hz. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  1. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the view of transparency as a matter of providing openness, insight, and clarity by conceptualizing it as a form of visibility management. We tend to think of transparency as a process of ensuring accountability through the timely and public disclosure of information...

  2. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Albu, Oana Brindusa

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is an increasingly prominent research topic in many scholarly disciplines and offers valuable insights for organizational communication. This entry provides an overview of the historical background and identifies some themes that presently inform the transparency literature. The entry...... then outlines the most important dimensions of the concept of transparency by highlighting two paradigmatic positions underpinning contemporary research in this area: namely, informational approaches that focus on the sharing of information and the perceived quality of that information and social process...... orientations that explore the dynamics of transparency in organizational settings. The entry highlights emergent methodological and conceptual insights concerning transparency as a dynamic and paradoxical social process with performative characteristics – an approach that remains underexplored....

  3. Transparent thermal insulation - new developments in the field of building technology?; Transparente Waermedaemmung - neue Trends in der Gebaeudetechnik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 10 of the anthology about building control transparent thermal insulation is described as a possible new trend in the field of building technology. An answer is given to the question to which extent facades can be applied as technical building equipment. Furthermore the passive use of solar energy is discussed and the measuring results of a test cell building are presented. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 10 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control stellt die transparente Waermedaemmung als moeglichen neuen Trend der Gebaeudetechnik vor. In diesem Zusammenhang wird die Frage aufgeworfen, inwieweit Fassaden als Technische Gebaeudeausruestung eingesetzt und angesehen werden koennen. Ferner werden die passive Solarenergienutzungen angesprochen und Messergebnisse eines Testzellengebaeudes vorgestellt. (BWI)

  4. Tailored plasmon-induced transparency in attenuated total reflection response in a metal-insulator-metal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Kouki; Hirai, Yusuke; Neo, Yoichiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Tomita, Makoto

    2017-12-19

    We demonstrated tailored plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metal (Au)-insulator (SiO 2 )-metal (Ag) (MIM) structure, where the Fano interference between the MIM waveguide mode and the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance mode induced a transparency window in an otherwise opaque wavenumber (k) region. A series of structures with different thicknesses of the Ag layer were prepared and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) response was examined. The height and width of the transparency window, as well as the relevant k-domain dispersion, were controlled by adjusting the Ag layer thickness. To confirm the dependency of PIT on Ag layer thickness, we performed numerical calculations to determine the electric field amplitude inside the layers. The steep k-domain dispersion in the transparency window is capable of creating a lateral beam shift known as the Goos-Hänchen shift, for optical device and sensor applications. We also discuss the Fano interference profiles in a ω - k two-dimensional domain on the basis of Akaike information criteria.

  5. Development of high-performance X-ray transparent crystallization plates for in situ protein crystal screening and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, Ahmed S. M.; Warkentin, Matthew [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States); Apker, Benjamin [MiTeGen LLC, Ithaca, New York (United States); Thorne, Robert E., E-mail: ret6@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States); MiTeGen LLC, Ithaca, New York (United States)

    2011-07-01

    An optically, UV and X-ray transparent crystallization plate suitable for in situ analysis has been developed. The plate uses contact line pinning rather than wells to confine the liquids. X-ray transparent crystallization plates based upon a novel drop-pinning technology provide a flexible, simple and inexpensive approach to protein crystallization and screening. The plates consist of open cells sealed top and bottom by thin optically, UV and X-ray transparent films. The plates do not need wells or depressions to contain liquids. Instead, protein drops and reservoir solution are held in place by rings with micrometre dimensions that are patterned onto the bottom film. These rings strongly pin the liquid contact lines, thereby improving drop shape and position uniformity, and thus crystallization reproducibility, and simplifying automated image analysis of drop contents. The same rings effectively pin solutions containing salts, proteins, cryoprotectants, oils, alcohols and detergents. Strong pinning by rings allows the plates to be rotated without liquid mixing to 90° for X-ray data collection or to be inverted for hanging-drop crystallization. The plates have the standard SBS format and are compatible with standard liquid-handling robots.

  6. An acoustic metamaterial composed of multi-layer membrane-coated perforated plates for low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ding, Jin; Li, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Hui

    2015-04-01

    Insulating against low-frequency sound (below 500 Hz ) remains challenging despite the progress that has been achieved in sound insulation and absorption. In this work, an acoustic metamaterial based on membrane-coated perforated plates is presented for achieving sound insulation in a low-frequency range, even covering the lower audio frequency limit, 20 Hz . Theoretical analysis and finite element simulations demonstrate that this metamaterial can effectively block acoustic waves over a wide low-frequency band regardless of incident angles. Two mechanisms, non-resonance and monopolar resonance, operate in the metamaterial, resulting in a more powerful sound insulation ability than that achieved using periodically arranged multi-layer solid plates.

  7. Seasonal shading of walls with transparent thermal insulation by means of prismatic panes; Saisonale Abschattung von transparent gedaemmten Waenden mit Hilfe von Prismenscheiben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffers, D.; Kneser, P.; Schramm, U. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Abt. Systemtechnik von Solaranlagen

    1998-02-01

    Using prismatic panes, a seasonal shading responsive to the sun`s position can be realized. Thus the solar gains from direct radiation can be closely matched to the annual pattern of the heating requirements of buildings. The panes are suitable for window or facade elements in applications which do not need transparency insulated walls. The direct radiation received on a vertical south-oriented facade is reduced to 10% on clear summer days, while 90% is transmitted on clear winter days. The paper reports on results from computer simulations and experiences from a one year field test. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Prismenscheiben kann eine sonnenstandsabhaengige, saisonale Verschattung realisiert werden. Damit lassen sich solare Gewinne aus direkter Einstrahlung sehr gut an den jaehrlichen Verlauf des Heizenergiebedarfs von Gebaeuden anpassen. Sie eignen sich als nach Sueden weisende Fenster- und Fassadenelemente vorzugsweise in Bereichen, die keinen freien Durchblick benoetigen, insbesondere auch fuer transparent gedaemmte Solarwaende. Die auf die Suedfassade treffende Direktstrahlung wird durch die Prismenscheibe an klaren Wintertagen auf etwa 90%, an klaren Sommertagen auf 10% reduziert. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Ergebnisse von Simulationsrechnungen und die Erfahrungen aus einem einjaehrigen Praxistest. (orig.)

  8. Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Mason, M.

    2015-01-01

    Transparency, as information disclosure, is becoming a widely accepted norm and set of practices in global climate governance. Disclosure of climate-related information is mainly seen as a way to monitor and/or reward various actors’ climate mitigation actions, thereby contributing, at least in

  9. Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  10. Dielectric strength behaviour and mechanical properties of transparent insulation materials suitable to optical monitoring of partial discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothongkam, Chaiyaporn

    2014-01-01

    statistical analysis based on the 2-parameter Weibull distribution function. The investigations revealed that the virgin translucent silicone rubber has a large elastic region with an acceptable plastic deformation and also provides an AC 50 Hz dielectric strength of approximately 24 kV/mm for 0.5 mm thickness. These values enable considering the tested translucent silicone as replacement material for an opaque elastomer that is currently used for a rubber stress cone of HV cable accessories.. Unfortunately, its optical transmittance is poor compared to optically clear transparent silicone rubbers. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of virgin transparent silicone rubbers do not comply with those demanded from push-on stress cones. In particular, their elongation at break is considered too low for that application. However they provide the AC dielectric strength values in either 28 kV/mm or 29 kV/mm for 0.5 mm thickness, which are higher than those of the translucent type. Moreover, it was found that the post-curing process does not provide a positive impact on the ultimate elongation of silicone rubbers. Hence, the elongation at break of virgin transparent silicone rubbers must be improved before they can be used as insulating material for a rubber stress cone. In addition, the influence of mechanical tensile stress on the dielectric strength of the virgin translucent silicone rubber was investigated. The results show that mechanical tensile stress does not negatively influence on dielectric strength of such silicone rubber, so it can be well-operated under combined electrical and mechanical stresses. Beside the improvement of optical PD detection performance in the translucent silicone insulation materials, the influence of fluorescent dye's modification was investigated. The results indicate that the commercially available fluorescent dyes of 0.02 wt. % mixed into the translucent silicone polymer do not negatively influence on the E b value of such silicone

  11. Fabrication of open-top microchannel plate using deep X-ray exposure mask made with silicon on insulator substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimura, T; Etoh, S I; Hattori, R; Kuroki, Y; Chang, S S

    2003-01-01

    We propose a high-aspect-ratio open-top microchannel plate structure. This type of microchannel plate has many advantages in electrophoresis. The plate was fabricated by deep X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation (SR) light and the chemical wet etching process. A deep X-ray exposure mask was fabricated with a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. The patterned Si microstructure was micromachined into a thin Si membrane and a thick Au X-ray absorber was embedded in it by electroplating. A plastic material, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was used for the plate substrate. For reduction of the exposure time and high-aspect-ratio fast wet development, the fabrication condition was optimized with respect to not the exposure dose but to the PMMA mean molecular weight (M.W.) changing after deep X-ray exposure as measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Decrement of the PMMA M.W. and increment of the wet developer temperature accelerated the etching rate. Under optimized fabrication conditions, a microc...

  12. A device for thermally insulating a concrete wall covered with a thermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornille, Yvon; Felten, Paul.

    1973-01-01

    The device is characterized in that it comprises a stack of bricks of parallelepipedic shape of cellular silica, bound to one another and to a metal plate by means of a silica-mortar layer and of anchoring keys welded to the metal plate, at one end thereof, and embedded in at least two juxtaposed bricks, at the other end thereof. This can be used for unsulating the cavity located under the core of a high temperature reactor [fr

  13. Time dependent shear stress and temperature distribution over an insulated flat plate moving at hypersonic speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkiewicz, C. M.; Gupta, R. N.

    1971-01-01

    The laminar two-dimensional flow over a stepwise accelerated flat plate moving with hypersonic speed at zero angle of attack is analysed. The governing equations in the self-similar form are linearized and solved numerically for small times. The solutions obtained are the deviations of the velocity and the temperature profiles from those of steady state. The presented results may be used to find the first order boundary layer induced pressure on the plate.

  14. A Non-Ventilated Solar Façade Concept Based on Selective and Transparent Insulation Material Integration: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Čekon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new solar façade concept based on transparent insulation and a selective absorber is proposed, tested and compared with conventional insulation and a non-selective type of absorber, respectively. The presented study focuses on an experimental non-ventilated solar type of façade exposed to solar radiation both in the laboratory and in outdoor tests. Due to the high solar absorbance level of the façade, high- and low-emissivity contributions were primarily analysed. All of the implemented materials were contrasted from the thermal and optical point of view. An analysis was made of both thermodynamic and steady state procedures affecting the proposed solar façade concept. Experimental full scale tests on real building components were additionally involved during summer monitoring. An indicator of the temperature response generated by solar radiation exposure demonstrates the outdoor performance of the façade is closely related to overheating phenomena. From the thermal point of view, the proposed transparent insulation and selective absorber concept corresponds to the performance of conventional thermal insulation of identical material thickness; however, the non-selective prototype only provides 50% thermal performance. The results of the solar-based experiments show that with a small-scale experimental prototype, approximately no significant difference is measured when compared with a non-selective absorber type. The only difference was achieved at the maximum of 2.5 K, when the lower temperature was obtained in the solar selective concept. At the full-scale outdoor mode, the results indicate a maximum of 3.0 K difference, however the lower temperature achieves a non-selective approach. This solar façade can actively contribute to the thermal performance of building components during periods of heating.

  15. The effect of a HfO2 insulator on the improvement of breakdown voltage in field-plated GaN-based HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua; Wang Chong; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Liu Hong-Xia; Bi Zhi-Wei; Xu Sheng-Rui; Yang Lin-An; Yang Ling; Zhang Kai; Zhang Nai-Qian; Pei Yi; Yang Cui

    2011-01-01

    A GaN/Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 N/AlN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor utilizing a field plate (with a 0.3 μm overhang towards the drain and a 0.2 μm overhang towards the source) over a 165-nm sputtered HfO 2 insulator (HfO 2 -FP-HEMT) is fabricated on a sapphire substrate. Compared with the conventional field-plated HEMT, which has the same geometric structure but uses a 60-nm SiN insulator beneath the field plate (SiN-FP-HEMT), the HfO 2 -FP-HEMT exhibits a significant improvement of the breakdown voltage (up to 181 V) as well as a record field-plate efficiency (up to 276 V/μm). This is because the HfO 2 insulator can further improve the modulation of the field plate on the electric field distribution in the device channel, which is proved by the numerical simulation results. Based on the simulation results, a novel approach named the proportional design is proposed to predict the optimal dielectric thickness beneath the field plate. It can simplify the field-plated HEMT design significantly. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Performance Characterisation of a Hybrid Flat-Plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Power Module in Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Y. A. Oyieke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A flat-plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic and Thermal (VIPV/T system has been thermodynamically simulated and experimentally evaluated to assess the thermal and electrical performance as well as energy conversion efficiencies under a subtropical climate. A simulation model made of specified components is developed in Transient Systems (TRNSYS environment into which numerical energy balance equations are implemented. The influence of vacuum insulation on the system’s electrical and thermal yields has been evaluated using temperatures, current, voltage, and power flows over daily and annual cycles under local meteorological conditions. The results from an experiment conducted under steady-state conditions in Durban, South Africa, are compared with the simulation based on the actual daily weather data. The VIPV/T has shown improved overall and thermal efficiencies of 9.5% and 16.8%, respectively, while electrical efficiency marginally reduced by 0.02% compared to the conventional PV/T. The simulated annual overall efficiency of 29% (i.e., 18% thermal and 11% electrical has been realised, in addition to the solar fraction, overall exergy, and primary energy saving efficiencies of 39%, 29%, and 27%, respectively.

  17. Phase-conjugate interferometer to estimate refractive index and thickness of transparent plane parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana-Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez-Zurita, G.; Vazquez-Castillo, J. F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    A technique to estimate the refractive index and thickness of homogeneous plane parallel dielectric plates is proposed using a phase-conjugate interferometer, in which counting of interference fringes is employed. The light beam impinges a tilted plate before it enters a phase-conjugate interferometer, and a count of the fringes passing through a given reference at the observing plane gives the phase changes as a function of tilting angle. The obtained data is fitted to a mathematical model, which leads to the determination of both refractive index and thickness simultaneously. In this letter, experimental data from two interferometers are also discussed for comparison. One with an externally-pumped phase-conjugate mirror achieved with a BSO photorefractive crystal and another one with conventional mirrors. Results show that the phase sensitivity of the phase-conjugate interferometer is not simply twice the corresponding sensitivity of the conventional version. [Spanish] Se propone una tecnica para medir indices de refraccion y espesores de placas dielectricas plano paralelas homogeneas empleando un interferometro con fase conjugada, en el cual se usa el conteo de franjas. El haz luminoso incide en una placa inclinada bajo inspeccion antes de entrar en un interferometro equipado con un espejo conjugador de fase, y se realiza un conteo de las franjas que pasan por determinada referencia en el plano de observacion, proporcionando los cambios de fase en funcion del angulo de inclinacion. Los datos obtenidos se ajustan a un modelo, el cual conduce a la determinacion, tanto del indice de refraccion como del espesor, simultaneamente. En este trabajo se discuten datos experimentales provenientes de dos interferometros para su comparacion. Uno de ellos tiene un espejo conjugador basado en un cristal BSO fotorrefractivo, mientras que el otro es una variante con espejos convencionales. Se muestra que la sensibilidad de fase del interferometro con conjugador de fase no

  18. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.; Howard, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns high temperature thermal insulation of large vessels, such as the primary vessel of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor. The thermal insulation consists of multilayered thermal insulation modules, and each module comprises a number of metal sheet layers sandwiched between a back and front plate. The layers are linked together by straps and clips to control the thickness of the module. (U.K.)

  19. Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kucharski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available GaN substrates grown by the ammonothermal method are analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation Spectroscopy in order to study the impact of doping (both n- and p-type on their transparency in the near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz spectral range. It is shown that the introduction of dopants causes a decrease in transparency of GaN substrates in a broad spectral range which is attributed to absorption on free carriers (n-type samples or dopant ionization (p-type samples. In the mid-infrared the transparency cut-off, which for a semi-insulating GaN is at ~7 µm due to an absorption on a second harmonic of optical phonons, shifts towards shorter wavelengths due to an absorption on free carriers up to ~1 µm at n ~ 1020 cm−3 doping level. Moreover, a semi-insulating GaN crystal shows good transparency in the 1–10 THz range, while for n-and p-type crystal, the transparency in this spectral region is significantly quenched below 1%. In addition, it is shown that in the visible spectral region n-type GaN substrates with a carrier concentration below 1018 cm−3 are highly transparent with the absorption coefficient below 3 cm−1 at 450 nm, a satisfactory condition for light emitting diodes and laser diodes operating in this spectral range.

  20. Heat and mass transfer on a MHD third grade fluid with partial slip flow past an infinite vertical insulated porous plate in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baoku, I.G.; Olajuwon, B.I.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the flow of a MHD third grade fluid, heat and mass transfer in a porous medium with partial slip flow regime. ► We examine the effects of pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and species concentration distributions. ► The values momentum and thermal boundary layers increase with increasing third grade parameter β. ► The consequences of increasing the permeability parameter m and partial slip parameter λ give rise to fluid velocity. ► The magnetic field parameter H decreases the momentum boundary layer and increases the concentration boundary layer. -- Abstract: The influence of third grade, partial slip and other thermophysical parameters on the steady flow, heat and mass transfer of viscoelastic third grade fluid past an infinite vertical insulated plate subject to suction across the boundary layer has been investigated. The space occupying the fluid is porous. The momentum equation is characterized by a highly nonlinear boundary value problem in which the order of the differential equation exceeds the number of available boundary conditions. An efficient numerical scheme of midpoint technique with Richardson’s extrapolation is employed to solve the governing system of coupled nonlinear equations of momentum, energy and concentration. Numerical calculations were carried out for different values of various interesting non-dimensional quantities in the slip flow regime with heat and mass transfer and were shown with the aid of figures. The values of the wall shear stress, the local rate of heat and mass transfers were obtained and tabulated. The analysis shows that as the fluid becomes more shear thickening, the momentum boundary layer decreases but the thermal boundary layer increases; the magnetic field strength is found to decrease with an increasing temperature distribution when the porous plate is insulated. The consequences of increasing the permeability parameter and Schmidt number decrease both the momentum

  1. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  2. Optimized image processing with modified preprocessing of image data sets of a transparent imaging plate by way of the lateral view of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissberg, S.; Hoeschen, C.; Redlich, U.; Scherlach, C.; Preuss, H.; Kaestner, A.; Doehring, W.; Woischneck, D.; Schuetze, M.; Reichardt, K.; Firsching, R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the diagnostic quality of lateral radiographs of the cervical spine by pre-processing the image data sets produced by a transparent imaging plate with both-side reading and to evaluate any possible impact on minimizing the number of additional radiographs and supplementary investigations. Material and Methods: One hundred lateral digital radiographs of the cervical spine were processed with two different methods: processing of each data set using the system-imminent parameters and using the manual model. The difference between the two types of processing is the level of the latitude value. Hard copies of the processed images were judged by five radiologists and three neurosurgeons. The evaluation applied the image criteria score (ICS) without conventional reference images. Results: In 99% of the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine, all vertebral bodies could be completed delineated using the manual mode, but only 76% of the images processed by the system-imminent parameters showed all vertebral bodies. Thus, the manual mode enabled the evaluation of up to two additional more caudal vertebral bodies. The manual mode processing was significantly better concerning object size and processing artifacts. This optimized image processing and the resultant minimization of supplementary investigations was calculated to correspond to a theoretical dose reduction of about 50%. (orig.) [de

  3. StoThermSolar - possible applications and practical experience with transparent thermal insulation compound systems; StoThermSolar - Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten und praktische Erfahrungen mit transparenten Waermedaemmverbundsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwerger, M. [Sto AG, Stuehlingen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Sto AG has the motto `building conscientiously`. Consciousness of the environment acts as ethic for the firm. About 2000 employees develop, produce and market environmentally suitable product systems for facades, internal walls, ceilings and floors. They extend from paint and plaster, thermal insulation compound systems, concrete repair and acoustic systems to decorative profiles of old glass. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] `Bewusst Bauen` heisst das Leitwort der Sto AG. Umweltbewusstsein als Unternehmensethik. Rund 2000 Mitarbeiter entwickeln, produzieren und vermarkten umweltgerechte Produktsysteme fuer Fassade, Innenwand, Decke und Boden. Von Farben und Putzen, Waermedaemm-Verbundsystemen, Betoninstandsetzungs- oder Akustiksystemen bis zu Deco-Profilen aus Altglas. (orig./HW)

  4. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  5. Stressed state of a cement electrical insulation of a pulsed magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenevskij, V.V.; Sugak, E.B.; Fedorenko, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The stresses arising in cement electrical insulation of a pulsed magnet intended for separation and scanning of beam of secondary particles with 5-10 MeV energy are investigated during its switching. The magnet represents a single-turn construction. During its switching repulsion forces arise in copper buses which affect the core consisting of a set of iron plates. In its turn two cores trying to separate transmit impact load onto cement electrical insulation, the mechanical strength of which determines the construction durability on the whole. For selection of calculation technique the method of photoelasticity is used on models of transparent polymeric materials. Epoxy resin served as material for insulation model, duraluminium for the rest of magnet parts. It is concluded that the calculation technique for the magnet under investigation is a hingeless circular arc

  6. Ultraviolet-light-induced multi-physics behaviors of 0–3 polarized transparent PLZT plates: II. Finite element analysis and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Quantian; Tong, Liyong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel finite element formulation for 0–3 polarized PbLaZrTi (PLZT) plates and a comparison of the predicted and measured bending displacements. The coupled multi-physics fields and Hamilton's principle for piezoelectric (PZT) materials are first extended to PLZT ceramics by including the anomalous photovoltaic and photo-thermal effects. The photo-induced non-uniform electrical field and mechanical strains across the thickness are modeled in the present finite element formulation for 0–3 polarized PLZT plates, and the associated actuator and sensor equations are derived. The transverse displacements of a 0–3 polarized PLZT plate are predicted using the present finite element formulation and compared with the measured data given in part I. A reasonably good correlation is noted for the transverse displacements at the ten measurement points

  7. Heat insulation support device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Koda, Tomokazu; Motojima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Junya.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a plurality of heat insulation legs disposed in a circumferential direction. Each of the heat insulative support legs has a hollow shape, and comprises an outer column and an inner column as support structures having a heat insulative property (heat insulative structure), and a thermal anchor which absorbs compulsory displacement by a thin flat plate (displacement absorber). The outer column, the thermal anchor and the inner column are connected by a support so as to offset the positional change of objects to be supported due to shrinkage when they are shrunk. In addition, the portion between the superconductive coils as the objects to be supported and the inner column is connected by the support. The superconductive thermonuclear device is entirely contained in a heat insulative vacuum vessel, and the heat insulative support legs are disposed on a lower lid of the heat insulative vacuum vessel. With such a constitution, they are strengthened against lateral load and buckling, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of heat intrusion while keeping the compulsory displacement easy to be absorbed. (I.N.)

  8. Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    with the sharing of information and the perceived quality of the information shared. This narrow focus on information and quality, however, overlooks the dynamics of organizational transparency. To provide a more structured conceptualization of organizational transparency, this article unpacks the assumptions......Transparency is an increasingly prominent area of research that offers valuable insights for organizational studies. However, conceptualizations of transparency are rarely subject to critical scrutiny and thus their relevance remains unclear. In most accounts, transparency is associated...... that shape the extant literature, with a focus on three dimensions: conceptualizations, conditions, and consequences. The contribution of the study is twofold: (a) On a conceptual level, we provide a framework that articulates two paradigmatic positions underpinning discussions of transparency, verifiability...

  9. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  10. Optically Transparent Thermally Insulating Silica Aerogels for Solar Thermal Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, A Alperen; Kim, Hannah; Nagarajan, Naveen; Lopez, Mateusz; Kantharaj, Rajath; Alsaati, Albraa; Marconnet, Amy; Lenert, Andrej; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2018-04-18

    Rooftop solar thermal collectors have the potential to meet residential heating demands if deployed efficiently at low solar irradiance (i.e., 1 sun). The efficiency of solar thermal collectors depends on their ability to absorb incoming solar energy and minimize thermal losses. Most techniques utilize a vacuum gap between the solar absorber and the surroundings to eliminate conduction and convection losses, in combination with surface coatings to minimize reradiation losses. Here, we present an alternative approach that operates at atmospheric pressure with simple, black, absorbing surfaces. Silica based aerogels coated on black surfaces have the potential to act as simple and inexpensive solar thermal collectors because of their high transmission to solar radiation and low transmission to thermal radiation. To demonstrate their heat-trapping properties, we fabricated tetramethyl orthosilicate-based silica aerogels. A hydrophilic aerogel with a thickness of 1 cm exhibited a solar-averaged transmission of 76% and thermally averaged transmission of ≈1% (at 100 °C). To minimize unwanted solar absorption by O-H groups, we functionalized the aerogel to be hydrophobic, resulting in a solar-averaged transmission of 88%. To provide a deeper understanding of the link between aerogel properties and overall efficiency, we developed a coupled radiative-conductive heat transfer model and used it to predict solar thermal performance. Instantaneous solar thermal efficiencies approaching 55% at 1 sun and 80 °C were predicted. This study sheds light on the applicability of silica aerogels on black coatings for solar thermal collectors and offers design priorities for next-generation solar thermal aerogels.

  11. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  12. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  13. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  14. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  15. Cellulose Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  16. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  17. Selectively coated high efficiency glazing for solar-thermal flat-plate collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrmann, N.; Reineke-Koch, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar-thermal flat-plate collectors at temperatures above 100 °C or with low solar irradiation, we implement a double glazing with a low-emitting (low-e) coating on the inner pane to improve the insulation of the transparent cover. Since commercially available low-e glazing provides only insufficient solar transmittance for the application in thermal flat-plate collectors we are developing a sputter-deposited low e-coating system based on transparent conductive oxides which provides a high solar transmittance of 85% due to additional antireflective coatings and the use of low-iron glass substrates. Durability tests of the developed coating system show that our low e-coating system is well suitable even at high temperatures, humidity and condensation.

  18. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  19. An Analysis of the Thermal Conductivity of Composite Materials (CPC-30R/Charcoal from Sugarcane Bagasse Using the Hot Insulated Plate Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Salgado-Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of new thermally insulating composite materials from solid residues such as charcoal from sugarcane bagasse (CSB is of great importance because it takes advantage of materials that might otherwise pollute the environment. Therefore, for this study, we obtained composite materials based on a portland cement (CPC-30R matrix and CSB particles with a 4 : 1 water-cement ratio and CSB concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight. The thermal conductivities of these materials were characterized following ASTM guideline C177, their CSB morphological properties were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their compositions were determined using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The results show that the composite materials have reduced thermal conductivities. The metallic oxide percentage composition of the CSB was also determined. It was observed that there was a reduction in thermal conductivity when CSB was used as compared to 100% CPC-30R, and the influence of the CSB concentration on thermal conductivity was measured.

  20. Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yongmin; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-04-17

    Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including transparent conducting panels, broadband metamaterials, and antireflective solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Public Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kep...

  2. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  3. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  4. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  5. Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kucharski; Łukasz Janicki; Marcin Zajac; Monika Welna; Marcin Motyka; Czesław Skierbiszewski; Robert Kudrawiec

    2017-01-01

    GaN substrates grown by the ammonothermal method are analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation Spectroscopy in order to study the impact of doping (both n- and p-type) on their transparency in the near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz spectral range. It is shown that the introduction of dopants causes a decrease in transparency of GaN substrates in a broad spectral range which is attributed to absorption on free carriers (n-type samples) or dopant ionization (p-type samples). In the mid-in...

  6. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.; Birch, W.; Facer, R.I.; Stuart, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors. In the arrangement described the reactor vessel is clad with thermal insulation comprising a layer of insulating blocks spaced from the wall and from each other; each block is rigidly secured to the wall, and the interspaces are substantially closed against convectional flow of liquid by resilient closure members. A membrane covering is provided for the layer of blocks, with venting means to allow liquid from the reactor vessel to penetrate between the covering and the layer of blocks. The membrane covering may comprise a stainless steel sheet ribbed in orthogonal pattern to give flexibility for the accommodation of thermal strain. The insulating blocks may be comprised of stainless steel or cellular or porous material and may be hollow shells containing ceramic material or gas fillings. (U.K.)

  7. Topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Topological Insulators, volume six in the Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Series, describes the recent revolution in condensed matter physics that occurred in our understanding of crystalline solids. The book chronicles the work done worldwide that led to these discoveries and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field. Starting in 2004, theorists began to explore the effect of topology on the physics of band insulators, a field previously considered well understood. However, the inclusion of topology brings key new elements into this old field. Whereas it was

  8. Built-in unit with short-circuit insulation for hermetic cable ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschacher, B.; Gurr, W.; Kusserow, J.; Katzmarek, W.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a built-in unit with short-circuit insulation for hermetic cable ducts, especially for containments of nuclear power reactors. The short-circuit insulation is achieved by an insulation plate made from radiation-resistant insulating materials of high mechanical strength

  9. Studies on the elements of optical and thermal energy transport through large components with transparent thermal insulation and shading; Untersuchungen der Grundlagen des optischen und thermischen Energietransportes bei grossflaechigen Komponenten mit transparenter Waermedaemmung und Verschattung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W. [ed.; Apian-Bennewitz, P.; Kuhn, T.; Dill, F.U.; Wirth, H.; Wittwer, V.

    1997-11-28

    The report describes experimental and theoretical studies aiming at the comprehensive light-technical and energetic characterization of large, transparent construction elements including shading.- The two main measuring devices used for this purpose were a solar calorimeter for determining the total rate of energy passage, and a photogoniometer for measuring the bidirectional reflection and transmission properties of transparent construction elements and solar protection devices. The aims envisaged were to enhance measuring accuracy, create internationally comparable measuring conditions, and to integrate the experimental data into computer tools serving to evaluate construction elements in light-technical and energetic terms. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] In dem vorliegenden Sachbericht werden experimentelle und theoretische Arbeiten beschrieben, die auf eine umfassende lichttechnische und energetische Charakterisierung von grossflaechigen transparenten Bauteilen inklusive Sonnenschutz hinzielen. Die beiden wesentlichen Messvorrichtungen dazu sind ein Solarkalorimeter zur Bestimmung des Gesamtenergiedurchlassgrades und ein Photogoniometer zur Vermessung der bidirektionalen Reflexions- und Transmissionseigenschaften von transparenten Bauteilen und Sonnenschutzvorrichtungen. Ziele waren die Erhoehung der Messgenauigkeit, die Schaffung von international vergleichbaren Messbedingungen und die Integration der experimentellen Daten in Computerwerkzeuge, die der lichttechnischen und energetischen Bewertung von Bauteilen im Gebaeude dienen. (orig./GL)

  10. Aerospace Transparency Research Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    ... (ARRL), located at Wright-Patterson AFB OH, has advanced aerospace transparency technology through the investigative research of numerous optical and visual parameters inherent in aerospace transparencies...

  11. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  12. Radiant Heat Transfer in Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Chmitt, R. J.; Christensen, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    During radiant testing of mullite panels, temperatures in the insulation and support structure exceeded those predicted on the basis of guarded hot plate thermal conductivity tests. Similar results were obtained during arc tunnel tests of mullite specimens. The differences between effective conductivity and guarded hot plate values suggested that radiant transfer through the mullite was occurring. To study the radiant transport, measurements were made of the infrared transmission through various insulating materials and fibers of interest to the shuttle program, using black body sources over the range of 780 to 2000 K. Experimental data were analyzed and scattering coefficients were derived for a variety of materials, fiber diameters, and source temperature.

  13. Transparent Solar Concentrator for Flat Panel Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chang, Fuh-Yu; Young, Hong-Tsu; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chia-Hsiung

    2012-06-01

    A new concept of the transparent solar concentrator for flat panel display is experimentally demonstrated without adversely affecting the visual effects. The solar concentrator is based on a solar light-guide plate with micro prisms, not only increasing the absorption area of solar energy but also enhancing the conversion efficiency. The incident light is guided by the designed solar light-guide plate according to the total internal reflection (TIR), and converted into electrical power by photovoltaic solar cells. The designed transparent solar concentrator was made and measured with high transparency, namely 94.8%. The developed solar energy system for display can store energy and supply the bias voltage to light on two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) successfully.

  14. Simple test for physical stability of cryogenic tank insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossello, D.

    1968-01-01

    Qualitative test determines the ability of insulation liners used on liquid hydrogen tanks to withstand stresses produced by the thermal shocks imparted to the insulation during tank filling and drainage. Test specimens are bonded to metal plates with a low thermal expansion coefficient and are immersed in liquid hydrogen.

  15. High-insulated glass house, Egebjerggaard, Ballerup; Det hoejisolerede glashus. Egebjerggaard, Ballerup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.; Aggerholm, S.

    1999-11-01

    New, super-insulating transparent and translucent glazing offers new perspectives for use of glass in architecture to achieve new facade idioms, spatial and light effects and low energy consumption. The new types of glazing are being tested in practice through the construction of a super-insulated glass house for Ballerup Ejendomsselskab in the district of Egebjerggaard west of Copenhagen. The project is based on SBI Report 220, Super-insulated glass houses (1993), in which use of new, super-insulating transparent and translucent glazing is analysed in relation to architecture, light conditions, indoor climate and energy consumption - for a detached house and a terraced house. (EHS)

  16. Insulating fcc YH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, S. J. van der; Nagengast, D. G.; Gogh, A. T. M. van; Kalkman, J.; Kooij, E. S.; Rector, J. H.; Griessen, R.

    2001-01-01

    We study the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Mg z Y 1-z switchable mirrors upon hydrogenation. It is found that the alloys disproportionate into essentially pure YH 3-δ and MgH 2 with the crystal structure of YH 3-δ dependent on the Mg concentration z. For 0 3-δ are observed, whereas for z≥0.1 only cubic YH 3-δ is present. Interestingly, cubic YH 3-δ is expanded compared to YH 2 , in disagreement with theoretical predictions. From optical and electrical measurements we conclude that cubic YH 3-δ is a transparent insulator with properties similar to hexagonal YH 3-δ . Our results are inconsistent with calculations predicting fcc YH 3-δ to be metallic, but they are in good agreement with recent GW calculations on both hcp and fcc YH 3 . Finally, we find an increase in the effective band gap of the hydrided Mg z Y 1-z alloys with increasing z. Possibly this is due to quantum confinement effects in the small YH 3 clusters

  17. Transparent thermal insulation systems in industrial buildings. Rational energy use and low-energy buildings. Measured variables (g value, k value, long-term measurements), influence of building design and weather on the function of thermal insulation systems, behaviour in fire, exemplary applications (industrial buildings, school buildings, indoor swimming pools, etc.); Transparente Waermedaemmung im Industriebau. Rationelle Energieverwendung und Niedrigenergie-Gebaeude. Messdaten (g-Wert, k-Wert, Langzeitbeobachtung), Einfluss von Bauweise und Witterung auf die Funktion der TWD, Brandverhalten. Anwendungsbeispiele (Gewerbliche Bauten, Industriehallen, Schulen, Schwimmbaeder, etc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, W. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany); Bertram, H.G. [eds.] [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Projekttraeger Biologie, Energie, Oekologie (BEO)

    1998-07-01

    The increasing concern about an early depletion of available energy resources have led to world-wide considerations about possible energy conservation. Based on this aspect it seemed to be interesting to evaluate the possibilities and limits for the use of transparent thermal insulation in the field of industrial construction at a workshop and to question them in a detailed discussion. The workshop was held at the ''Crew Trainings Center'' (CTC) at the DLR in Cologne, which is an example of a successful application of transparent thermal insulation. The validity of different criteria for individual decisions in terms of construction and the necessity to consider advantages and disadvantages can be explained with this example. Furthermore a proof is given that a successful architectural design can very well be accomplished taking into account the facts in terms of construction physics. (orig.) [German] Zunehmende Besorgnis gegenueber einer vorzeitigen Erschoepfung der verfuegbaren Energieressourcen fuehrt weltweit zu Ueberlegungen hinsichtlich moeglicher Energieeinsparung. Unter diesem Aspekt schien es attraktiv, Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen fuer den Einsatz der Transparenten Waermedaemmung (TWD) im Industriebau im Rahmen eines Workshops auszuloten und in einer eingehenden Diskussion zu hinterfragen. Den aeusseren Rahmen fuer diese Veranstaltung gab das 'Crew Trainings Center' (CTC) beim DLR in Koeln ab, ein fruehes Beispiel einer gelungenen Anwendung der TWD. Die Gueltigkeit unterschiedlicher Kriterien fuer einzelne bauliche Entscheidungen und die Notwendigkeit einer Abwaegung von Vor- und Nachteilen lassen sich an diesem Einzelfall exemplarisch verdeutlichen. Darueber hinaus aber wird hier ein Beleg dafuer geboten, dass ein architektonisch gelungener Wurf die Beruecksichtigung bauphysikalischer Gegebenheiten keineswegs ausschliesst. (orig.)

  18. Transparency and product variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study long run effects of transparency on the consumer side in a differentiated market. Only some consumers know prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and firm entry. This improves welfare and, in most cases, average consumer utility....

  19. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  20. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  1. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  2. Transparency and Product Variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    We study the long run e¤ects of transparency in a circular town model of a differentiated market. The market is not fully transparent on the consumer side: A fraction of consumers are uninformed about prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and entry of firms. This i...

  3. Transparency in Health Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Transparency is an important tool for good governance, helping to expose abusive practices including fraud, patronage, corruption, and other abuses of power. Increasing transparency can also enhance accountability by providing performance management information and exposing policies and procedures to oversight. This U4 Brief discusses the role of transparency in preventing corruption in the health sector.

  4. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    voluntarism. I argue that transparency to factual questions occurs in practical deliberation in ways parallel to transparency in doxastic deliberation. I argue that this should make us reconsider the appeal to transparency in arguments against doxastic voluntarism, and the wider issue of distinguishing...... theoretical from practical rationality....

  5. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour

  6. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  7. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  8. Experiment on thermal insulation and sodium deposition of shield plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, K.; Honda, M.; Shiratori, H.; Ozaki, O.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments on temperature distribution and thermal insulation characteristics was conducted using a reduced scale model of LMFBR shield plug. Observation and measurement of sodium deposition were also conducted on the model after the experiment. The effect of annulus natural convection was clarified for temperature and the thermal insulation characteristics from evaluating the result. Temperature distribution analysis was conducted successfully by combining the general purpose structural analysis program NASTRAN and vertical annulus natural convection analysis program VANAC. Moreover, significant effect was substantiated for the annulus convection barrier to increase the thermal insulation performance, narrow horizontal gap structure to prevent sodium deposition and thermal insulation plates. (author)

  9. The art of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles.

  10. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    2015-01-01

    organizational effectiveness and widened democratic practice. Yet, with its most common operationalization, as information, transparency reinstalls a 'purified' notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy, and (mis)representation. We apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model......The current emphasis on organizational transparency signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, accountability, and participation. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustworthy knowledge about organizations, the transparency pursuit has great potential for enhanced...... of communication and critiquing its obliviousness to the representative nature of transparency-related messages and the attendant complexities of motivation. This critique interrogates the ambiguities and ambivalence of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how the goals of organizational transparency...

  11. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  12. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  13. Thermal insulation layer for the vacuum containers of a thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masana; Yamada, Masao; Kameari, Akihisa; Niikura, Setsuo.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent temperature rise of a thermal insulation layer for a vacuum container of a thermonuclear device higher than allowable value when irradiated by neutron by constructing the layer of a cooling unit in thermal insulation material. Constitution: A metal plate attached with cooling pipes is buried in a thermal insulation material forming a thermal insulation layer to form the layer provided between a vacuum container of a thermonuclear device and a shield. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. VO2-based radiative thermal transistor with a semi-transparent base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'homme, Hugo; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2018-05-01

    We study a radiative thermal transistor analogous to an electronic one made of a VO2 base placed between two silica semi-infinite plates playing the roles of the transistor collector and emitter. The fact that VO2 exhibits an insulator to metal transition is exploited to modulate and/or amplify heat fluxes between the emitter and the collector, by applying a thermal current on the VO2 base. We extend the work of precedent studies considering the case where the base can be semi-transparent so that heat can be exchanged directly between the collector and the emitter. Both near and far field cases are considered leading to 4 typical regimes resulting from the fact that the emitter-base and base-collector separation distances can be larger or smaller than the thermal wavelength for a VO2 layer opaque or semi-transparent. Thermal currents variations with the base temperatures are calculated and analyzed. It is found that the transistor can operate in an amplification mode as already stated in [1] or in a switching mode as seen in [2]. An optimum configuration for the base thickness and separation distance maximizing the thermal transistor modulation factor is found.

  15. Economically optimal thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1978-10-01

    Exemplary calculations to show that exact adherence to the demands of the thermal insulation ordinance does not lead to an optimal solution with regard to economics. This is independent of the mode of financing. Optimal thermal insulation exceeds the values given in the thermal insulation ordinance.

  16. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  17. Transparency views by media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation, various problems surrounding the issues of transparency, such as 'What exactly should be transparent?' 'Is all that we want amounting only to transparency?' 'Is it possible to thoroughly implement transparency', etc., are discussed with due consideration for the viewpoints of the wide range of parties concerned involving areas of politics, administration, enterprises, media, individuals, and so on. First of all, the explanation is focused on how the transparency is recognised, as well as how it is regarded as important, for the public at large and the media. Then, based on the concept that transparency is required for what cannot be justified to be secret, we will contemplate what should be transparent in the areas of politics, administration and enterprises, using the case of nuclear issues as example. Next, the discussion will proceed to the point whether the achievement of transparency itself should be the ultimate goal, in the light of taking into consideration the standpoints of individuals and the receivers of the information, in addition to that of the administration, politics, and enterprises. In closing, we will discuss what the necessary measures will be to materialize the complete transparency on the basis of the discussions made thus far. (author)

  18. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  19. Thermal insulating panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.T.

    1985-09-11

    A panel of thermal insulation material has at least one main portion which comprises a dry particulate insulation material compressed within a porous envelope so that it is rigid or substantially rigid and at least one auxiliary portion which is secured to and extends along at least one of the edges of the main portions. The auxiliary portions comprise a substantially uncompressed dry particulate insulation material contained within an envelope. The insulation material of the auxiliary portion may be the same as or may be different from the insulation material of the main portion. The envelope of the auxiliary portion may be made of a porous or a non-porous material. (author).

  20. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  1. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  2. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  3. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  4. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  5. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  6. Advice on Admissions Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2018

    2018-01-01

    Admissions transparency means that prospective domestic undergraduate students can easily find good quality admissions information that allows them to compare courses and providers and make informed study choices. In October 2016 the Higher Education Standards Panel (HESP) made recommendations to achieve greater transparency in higher education…

  7. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  8. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    and trustworthy knowledge about contemporary organizations, the transparency discourse has significant democratic potential. Yet, its most common operationalization – as information availability – reinstalls a “purified” notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy and misrepresentation. In this paper......The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid......, we apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model of communication and critiquing its ignorance towards the representative nature of current transparency practices. The critique unfolds the ambiguous nature of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how its desire for insight, clarity...

  9. Thermally-insulating layer for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The thermally-insulating layer has been designed both for insulating surfaces within the core of a nuclear reactor and transmitting loads such as the core-weight. Said layer comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles with smaller clearance between the tiles than between the bricks, the latter having a reduced cross-section against the tiles so as to be surrounded by relatively large interconnected ducts forming a continuous chamber behind the tile-layer in order to induce a substantial decreases in the transverse flow of the reactor-core coolant. The core preferably comprises hexagonal columns supported by rhomb-shaped plates, with channels distributed so as to mix the coolant of twelve columns. The plates are separated from support-tiles by means of pillars [fr

  10. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  11. Panels of microporous insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.J.

    1990-08-07

    Microporous thermal insulation materials have a lattice structure in which the average interstitial dimension is less than the mean free path of the molecules of air or other gas in which the material is arranged. This results in a heat flow which is less than that attributable to the molecular heat diffusion of the gas. According to this invention, a method is provided for manufacturing panels of microporous thermal insulation, in particular such panels in which the insulation material is bonded to a substrate. The method comprises the steps of applying a film of polyvinyl acetate emulsion to a non-porous substrate, and compacting powdery microporous thermal insulation material against the film so as to cause the consolidated insulation material to bond to the substrate and form a panel. The polyvinyl acetate may be applied by brushing or spraying, and is preferably allowed to dry prior to compacting the insulation material. 1 fig.

  12. Wall insulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostek, P.T.

    1987-08-11

    In a channel specially designed to fasten semi-rigid mineral fibre insulation to masonry walls, it is known to be constructed from 20 gauge galvanized steel or other suitable material. The channel is designed to have pre-punched holes along its length for fastening of the channel to the drywall screw. The unique feature of the channel is the teeth running along its length which are pressed into the surface of the butted together sections of the insulation providing a strong grip between the two adjacent pieces of insulation. Of prime importance to the success of this system is the recent technological advancements of the mineral fibre itself which allow the teeth of the channel to engage the insulation fully and hold without mechanical support, rather than be repelled or pushed back by the inherent nature of the insulation material. After the insulation is secured to the masonry wall by concrete nail fastening systems, the drywall is screwed to the channel.

  13. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  14. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  15. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  16. A Dictionary for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2001-11-15

    There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

  17. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  18. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  19. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  20. Thermal-performance study of liquid metal fast breeder reactor insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.K.

    1980-09-01

    Three types of metallic thermal insulation were investigated analytically and experimentally: multilayer reflective plates, multilayer honeycomb composite, and multilayer screens. Each type was subjected to evacuated and nonevacuated conditions, where thermal measurements were made to determine thermal-physical characteristics. A variation of the separation distance between adjacent reflective plates of multilayer reflective plates and multilayer screen insulation was also experimentally studied to reveal its significance. One configuration of the multilayer screen insulation was further selected to be examined in sodium and sodium oxide environments. The emissivity of Type 304 stainless steel used in comprising the insulation was measured by employing infrared technology. A comprehensive model was developed to describe the different proposed types of thermal insulation. Various modes of heat transfer inherent in each type of insulation were addressed and their relative importance compared. Provision was also made in the model to allow accurate simulation of possible sodium and sodium oxide contamination of the insulation. The thermal-radiation contribution to heat transfer in the temperature range of interest for LMFBR's was found to be moderate, and the suppression of natural convection within the insulation was vital in preserving its insulating properties. Experimental data were compared with the model and other published results. Moreover, the three proposed test samples were assessed and compared under various conditions as viable LMFBR thermal insulations

  1. Handbook of Thermal Insulation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Wiuppuoror *tIe beamsWiefag ln~ td ~oair ilmstool beams Plate 18. Metal Building Ceilings - A 18b: Fir* hataird rathge may limit the use of foam Insulation...RFCTANGUI.AR SOL TD A = 2(WxL+LxH+HxW) B V = WxLxH H L TRAPEZOID A 2 (A + B) x H A CONE A -n xRxS+ i xR 2 B V =( /3)x R2 x H TRIANGLE A BxH A- 2 CYLI NDER H 2...FABRICATIIG RECTANGULAR HEATING AND COOLING DUCTWORK. FIBERGLAS DUCT BOARD OWENS-CORNING FIBERGLAS CORP GLASS FIBER RIGID BOARD WITH ALUMINUM 4bD FOIL VAPOR

  2. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  3. Translucent insulating building envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1997-01-01

    A new type of translucent insulating material has been tested. This material is made of Celulose-Acetat and have a honey-comb structure. The material has a high solar transmittance and is highly insulating. The material is relatively cheap to produce. Danish Title: Translucent isolerende klimaskærm....

  4. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  5. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  6. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  7. Process for protecting bonded components from plating shorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarte, Lisa A.; Bonde, Wayne L.; Carey, Paul G.; Contolini, Robert J.; McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    A method which protects the region between a component and the substrate onto which the components is bonded using an electrically insulating fillet of photoresist. The fillet protects the regions from subsequent plating with metal and therefore shorting the plated conductors which run down the sides of the component and onto the substrate.

  8. Limits of transparency of transparent conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelaers, Hartwin

    A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is essential for further progress in materials and applications. These materials have a sufficiently large band gap, so that direct optical transitions do not lead to absorption of light within the visible spectrum. Since the presence of free carriers is essential for conductivity and thus for device applications, this introduces the possibility of additional absorption processes. In particular, indirect processes are possible, and these will constitute a fundamental limit of the material. The Drude theory is widely used to describe free-carrier absorption, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. We will present calculations of phonon- and defect-assisted free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We will focus in detail on SnO2, but the methodology is general and we will also compare the results obtained for other TCO materials such as In2O3. These calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. This work was performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle and was supported by ARO and NSF.

  9. Vacuum foil insulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, J.P.; Sabolcik, R.E.; Svedberg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In a multifoil thermal insulation package having a plurality of concentric cylindrical cups, means are provided for reducing heat loss from the penetration region which extends through the cups. At least one cup includes an integral skirt extending from one end of the cup to intersection with the penetration means. Assembly of the insulation package with the skirted cup is facilitated by splitting the cup to allow it to be opened up and fitted around the other cups during assembly. The insulation is for an implantable nuclear powered artificial heart

  10. Spall Strength Measurements in Transparent Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jonathan; Rahmat, Meysam; Petel, Oren

    2017-06-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are seeing more frequent use in transparent armour applications. The role of the microstructure on the performance of these materials under dynamic tensile loading conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, a series of plate impact experiments was conducted in order to evaluate the dynamic response of an epoxy (EPON 828) cured with two differed hardeners. The purpose was to compare the role of these hardeners on the dynamic performance of the resulting transparent epoxy. The material response was resolved with a multi-channel photonic Doppler velocimeter. This system was used to determine the shock Hugoniot and dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the materials. The experimental results are presented in reference to spall theory and are evaluated against results predicted by an analytical model of the impacts. While varying the hardener did not change the shock Hugoniot of the epoxy, it did have an effect on the measured spall strengths.

  11. Supporting Transparency between Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    The paper presents the results of a case study that explores the potentials of weblogs and social bookmarking to support transparency in a university course. In the course, groups of students used weblogs and social bookmarking in their work. The objective of the case was to empower students...... by providing them with tools that would be visible to the other students in the course, thus, making students’ ideas, thoughts and questions visible to the other students in the course. The paper concludes that use of digital media for transparency can support empowerment of students and inspiration among...... students in a course, but that the challenge is to create a balance between personal tools and tools for collaborative group work that are also suitable for transparency between students....

  12. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic voluntar......It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic...

  13. Development of large high-voltage pressure insulators for the Princeton TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] flexible transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, D.T.; Fong, E.; Haughian, J.; Prechter, R.

    1986-10-01

    Specially formulated insulator materials with improved strength and high-voltage properties were developed and used for critical components of the flexible transmission lines to the TFTR neutral beam ion sources. These critical components are plates which support central conductors as they exit the high-voltage power supply and enter the ion source enclosure. Each plate acts both as a high-voltage insulator and as a pressure barrier to the SF 6 insulating gas. The original plate was made of commercial glass-epoxy laminate which limited the plate voltage capacity. The newly developed insulator is made of specially-formulated cycloalphatic Di-epoxide whose isotropic properties exhibit increased arc resistance. It is cast in one piece with skirts which greatly increase the breakdown voltage. This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of the new insulator

  14. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  15. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  16. Charging damage in floating metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, Jan; Wang, Zhichun; De Backer, E.; Coppens, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, charging induced damage (CID) to metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMC) is reported. The damage is caused by the build up of a voltage potential difference between the two plates of the capacitor. A simple logarithmic relation is discovered between the damage by this voltage

  17. Wrapped Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    New NASA vehicles, such as Earth Departure Stage (EDS), Orion, landers, and orbiting fuel depots, need improved cryogenic propellant transfer and storage for long-duration missions. Current cryogen feed line multilayer insulation (MLI) performance is 10 times worse per area than tank MLI insulation. During each launch, cryogenic piping loses approximately 150,000 gallons (equivalent to $300,000) in boil-off during transfer, chill down, and ground hold. Quest Product Development Corp., teaming with Ball Aerospace, developed an innovative advanced insulation system, Wrapped MLI (wMLI), to provide improved thermal insulation for cryogenic feed lines. wMLI is high-performance multilayer insulation designed for cryogenic piping. It uses Quest's innovative discrete-spacer technology to control layer spacing/ density and reduce heat leak. The Phase I project successfully designed, built, and tested a wMLI prototype with a measured heat leak 3.6X lower than spiral-wrapped conventional MLI widely used for piping insulation. A wMLI prototype had a heat leak of 7.3 W/m2, or 27 percent of the heat leak of conventional MLI (26.7 W/m2). The Phase II project is further developing wMLI technology with custom, molded polymer spacers and advancing the product toward commercialization via a rigorous testing program, including developing advanced vacuuminsulated pipe for ground support equipment.

  18. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...... and budget imbalance, also appear to affect the level of transparency...

  19. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  20. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  1. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  2. The Mediated Transparent Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2001-01-01

    in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....

  3. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries

  4. Survey of thermal insulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi

    1983-01-01

    Better thermal insulations have been developed to meet the growing demands of industry, and studies on thermal insulation at both high temperature and low temperature have been widely performed. The purpose of this survey is to summarize data on the performances and characteristics of thermal insulation materials and thermal insulation structures (for instance, gas cooled reactors, space vehicles and LNG storage tanks), and to discuss ravious problems regarding the design of thermal insulation structures of pool-type LMFBRs. (author)

  5. File: nuclear safety and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.; Etchegoyen, A.; Jeandron, C.

    2001-01-01

    Several experiences of nuclear safety and transparency are related in this file. Public information, access to documents, transparency in nuclear regulation are such subjects developed in this debate. (N.C.)

  6. Transparent Armor Cost Benefit Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prokurat Franks, Lisa; Holm, David; Barnak, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...; the increase in demand for transparent gun shields in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and early versions of jerry-rigged shields used in OIF, including Pope glass and Transparent Armored Gun Shields (TAGS...

  7. The acoustically induced response of reactor thermal insulation at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    The response of insulation assemblies to sound is considered, and in particular the behaviour in the lower modes. Experimental confirmation of the theoretical results are reported using simulated insulation assemblies excited in a reverberant sound field. It is shown that response increases with the irregularity of cover plate shape and attachment arrangements, and that large variations in response with spatial position in a cavity are possible. Consideration is also given to the sound radiation from the back face of the coverplate in contact with the insulant. The results are important when extrapolating measurements made on insulation specimens in air to reactor conditions. (author)

  8. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  9. Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation, developed by Ames Research Center, protects the Space Shuttle from the searing heat that engulfs it on reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Initially integrated into the Space Shuttle by Rockwell International, production was transferred to Hi-Temp Insulation Inc. in 1974. Over the years, Hi-Temp has created many new technologies to meet the requirements of the Space Shuttle program. This expertise is also used commercially, including insulation blankets to cover aircrafts parts, fire barrier material to protect aircraft engine cowlings and aircraft rescue fire fighter suits. A Fire Protection Division has also been established, offering the first suit designed exclusively by and for aircraft rescue fire fighters. Hi-Temp is a supplier to the Los Angeles City Fire Department as well as other major U.S. civil and military fire departments.

  10. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  11. Transparency -- Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.

    1994-01-01

    The increasingly popular term transparency has been used throughout the IAEA Safeguards Symposium to mean many things to many people. It has rather little utility as a catch-all term or buzz word. A precise definition of transparency is in order. In this paper, transparency is the provision to the IAEA of additional information for which the IAEA has an identified use and includes any associated increased IAEA access to sue the information. In 1993, the IAEA Board endorsed very specific proposals for provision to the IAEA of additional information on international nuclear transfers. It also made specific decisions on verification in the context of tis earlier confirmation of the very sweeping access rights for special inspections outlined by the director general. Additional information to the IAEA has two potential practical uses. First, it could help identify inconsistencies within the entirety of the information available to the IAEA, including information from inspections. These inconsistencies could be an indication of some violation of safeguards undertakings. Second, a declaration of the Member State could facilitate IAEA interpretation of analyses of other information or facilitate resolution of ambiguities. In these respects, additional information is not different from currently used information. When considering seeking specific additional information, the IAEA must balance the potential contribution of the information and its expected costs

  12. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  13. 76 FR 1180 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Transparency Initiative, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a report entitled ``FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry.'' The...

  14. A decking for erecting an insulating connector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuprikov, A Ye; Lagutin, V I; Sklyarov, A A; Sukhanov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The decking includes a parachute like dome, made of a material impenetrable to air, an air penetrable hood, attachment elements and a branch pipe for supplying the filler. To improve the sealing of the insulating connector upon contact with the walls and the roof of the drift being isolated and to reduce the labor intensity of operations, it is equipped with a housing made in the form of a cylinder from a material impenetrable to water, an advancible vertical upright and a spring loaded panel. The housing is installed between the parachute like dome and the air penetrable hood. The extendible vertical upright is installed on the side of the air penetrable hood and by means of a movable rack mechanism is kinematically linked with the spring loaded panel, installed with the capability of interacting with the air penetrable hood. The spring loaded plate is made in the form of perforated plates which have a telescopic disengagement in the horizontal plane.

  15. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  17. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    the supercritical washing step included in the drying phase. At the same time the production plant have been modified to recycle most of the chemicals involved in the production process. A large number of aerogel glazing prototypes have been made with partly evacuated aerogel in between two layers of low iron...... and anti reflection treated glass panes with an airtight edge seal solution based on multi-layered plastic foil developed for vacuum insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance about 87% and a U...

  18. Insulation Reformulation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Cynthia; Bray, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The current Space Launch System (SLS) internal solid rocket motor insulation, polybenzimidazole acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (PBI-NBR), is a new insulation that replaced asbestos-based insulations found in Space Shuttle heritage solid rocket boosters. PBI-NBR has some outstanding characteristics such as an excellent thermal erosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, and low density. PBI-NBR also has some significant challenges associated with its use: Air entrainment/entrapment during manufacture and lay-up/cure and low mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. This technology development attempted to overcome these challenges by testing various reformulated versions of booster insulation. The results suggest the SLS program should continue to investigate material alternatives for potential block upgrades or use an entirely new, more advanced booster. The experimental design was composed of a logic path that performs iterative formulation and testing in order to maximize the effort. A lab mixing baseline was developed and documented for the Rubber Laboratory in Bldg. 4602/Room 1178.

  19. Beyond insulation and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær

    2016-01-01

    are insulation and isolation strategies to reduce measurable and perceptual noise levels. However, these strategies do not actively support the need to feel like an integral part of the shared hospital environment, which is a key element in creating healing environments, according to the paradigm of Evidence-Based...

  20. Transparent Conductive Ink for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, X. J.; Rolin, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts. Nanotechnology is listed in NASA's Technology Roadmap as a key area to invest for further development.1 This research project focused on using nanotechnology to improve electroluminescent lighting in terms of additive manufacturing and to increase energy efficiency. Specifically, this project's goal was to produce a conductive but transparent printable ink that can be sprayed on any surface for use as one of the electrodes in electroluminescent device design. This innovative work is known as thick film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) technology. TDEL devices are used for "backlighting, illumination, and identification due to their tunable color output, scalability, and efficiency" (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). These devices use a 'front-to-back' printing method, where the substrate is the transparent layer, and the dielectric and phosphor are layered on top. This project is a first step in the process of creating a 3D printable 'back-to-front' electroluminescent device. Back-to-front 3D-printed devices are beneficial because they can be printed onto different substrates and embedded in different surfaces, and the substrate is not required to be transparent, all because the light is emitted from the top surface through the transparent conductor. Advances in this area will help further development of printing TDEL devices on an array of different surfaces. Figure 1 demonstrates the layering of the two electrodes that are aligned in a parallel plate capacitor structure (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). Voltage is applied across the device, and the subsequent electron excitation results in

  1. Self-Healing Wire Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured, reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  2. Integrated Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Integrated multilayer insulation (IMLI) is being developed as an improved alternative to conventional multilayer insulation (MLI), which is more than 50 years old. A typical conventional MLI blanket comprises between 10 and 120 metallized polymer films separated by polyester nets. MLI is the best thermal- insulation material for use in a vacuum, and is the insulation material of choice for spacecraft and cryogenic systems. However, conventional MLI has several disadvantages: It is difficult or impossible to maintain the desired value of gap distance between the film layers (and consequently, it is difficult or impossible to ensure consistent performance), and fabrication and installation are labor-intensive and difficult. The development of IMLI is intended to overcome these disadvantages to some extent and to offer some additional advantages over conventional MLI. The main difference between IMLI and conventional MLI lies in the method of maintaining the gaps between the film layers. In IMLI, the film layers are separated by what its developers call a micro-molded discrete matrix, which can be loosely characterized as consisting of arrays of highly engineered, small, lightweight, polymer (typically, thermoplastic) frames attached to, and placed between, the film layers. The term "micro-molded" refers to both the smallness of the frames and the fact that they are fabricated in a process that forms precise small features, described below, that are essential to attainment of the desired properties. The term "discrete" refers to the nature of the matrix as consisting of separate frames, in contradistinction to a unitary frame spanning entire volume of an insulation blanket.

  3. Heat transfer performance of multilayer insulation system under roof slab of pool-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi; Naohara, Nobuyuki; Uotani, Masaki

    1986-01-01

    To cope with thermal expansion of stainless steel plate, about 90 insulation structures are installed under the roof-slab of pool-type LMFBR. The objective of this study is to evaluate from heat transfer experiment and visualized experiment, the effect of distance between each thermal insulation structure on heat transfer characteristics of insulation system under roof-slab. Two types of insulation structures are selected, one is open type and the other is closed type. Distance between each thermal insulation structure and hot surface temperatures are varied as a parameter. Furthermore, heat flux of the roof-slab insulation system of reactor are estimated from the results of heat transfer experiment. (author)

  4. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  5. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  6. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  7. Illusionary Transparency? Oil Revenues, Information Disclosure, and Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori, Jerome Jeffison; Lujala, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    xperience shows that discovery of valuable natural resources can become a curse rather than a blessing, and transparency has been identified as key to better resource governance because it can limit opportunities for corruption and mismanagement. This article shows that information disclosure, in which many governments and donor institutions engage, does not automatically translate into transparency. Ghana has embedded transparency as one of its key principles in oil management. However, fiel...

  8. Performance of the PBX-M passive plate stabilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.

    1994-02-01

    The PBX-M passive plate stabilization system provides significant stabilization of long-wavelength external kink modes, the slowing of vertical instability growth rates, and the amelioration of disruption characteristics. The passive plate stabilization system has allowed the use of LHCD and IBW to induce current density and pressure profile modifications, and m = 1 divertor biasing for modifying edge plasma transport. Improvements in the passive plate system insulators and support structures have provided reliable operation. Impurity influxes with the close-fitting passive plates are low. Solid target boronization is applied routinely to reduce conditioning time and maintain clean conditions

  9. Disk generator with nearly shockless accelerated driver plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Marsh, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The disk generator, shown in this paper, was first conceived as a useful magnetic field source for a class of in situ plasma experiments. Initial current is supplied (from a capacitor bank) to the generator through radial coaxial cables. It enters the top plate, passes through the central post, and exists through the top of the outer cylindrical glide surface, which is insulated from the top plate. The explosive over the top plate is initiated simultaneously over its upper surface at such a time that the top plate starts its downward motion at about peak initial current. Several conditions were required for the experiments under consideration: the top or driver plate should contact the bottom plate nearly parallel to it; the generator interior should be evacuated; microjetting debris (fluff) arising from the driver plate should be held to a minimum; currents developed should be several tens of megamperes, with values of dI/dt exceeding 10 13 A/s

  10. Flexible transparent aerogels as window retrofitting films and optical elements with tunable birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingkun; Frazier, Allister W.; Zhao, Xinpeng; De La Cruz, Joshua A.; Hess, Andrew J.; Yang, Ronggui; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-06-01

    Experimental realization of optically transparent, mechanically robust and flexible aerogels has been a longstanding challenge, which limits their practical applications in energy-saving devices, such as thermally insulating films for enhancing energy efficiency of windows. The poor transparency precluded even hypothetical consideration of the possibility of birefringent aerogels. We develop birefringent and optically isotropic aerogels that combine properties of thermal super-insulation, mechanical robustness and flexibility, and transparency to visible-spectrum light. This unusual combination of physical properties is achieved by combining liquid crystalline self-organization of cellulose nanofibers with polysiloxane cross-linking and control of the nanoscale porosity to form hybrid organic-inorganic mesostructured aerogels. Potential applications of these inexpensive materials range from single pane window retrofitting to smart fabrics.

  11. The transparency trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Ethan

    2014-10-01

    To promote accountability, productivity, and shared learning, many organizations create open work environments and gather reams of data on how individuals spend their time. A few years ago, HBS professor Ethan Bernstein set out to find empirical evidence that such approaches improve organizational performance. What he discovered is that this kind of transparency often has an unintended consequence: It can leave employees feeling vulnerable and exposed. When that happens, they conceal any conduct that deviates from the norm so that they won't have to explain it. Unrehearsed, experimental behaviors sometimes stop altogether. But Bernstein also discovered organizations that had established zones of privacy within open environments by setting four types of boundaries: around teams, between feedback and evaluation, between decision rights and improvement rights, and around periods of experimentation. Moreover, across several studies, the companies that had done all this were the ones that consistently got the most creative, efficient, and thoughtful work from their employees. Bernstein's conclusion? By balancing transparency and privacy, organizations can capture the benefits of both, and encourage just the right amount of "positive deviance" needed to increase innovation and productivity.

  12. Corneal structure and transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Keith M.; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  13. Lattice Transparency of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sieun; Jang, Seunghun; Choi, Won Jin; Kim, Youn Sang; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Jeong-O

    2017-03-08

    Here, we demonstrated the transparency of graphene to the atomic arrangement of a substrate surface, i.e., the "lattice transparency" of graphene, by using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods as a model system. The growth behaviors of ZnO nanocrystals on graphene-coated and uncoated substrates with various crystal structures were investigated. The atomic arrangements of the nucleating ZnO nanocrystals exhibited a close match with those of the respective substrates despite the substrates being bound to the other side of the graphene. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we confirmed the energetic favorability of the nucleating phase following the atomic arrangement of the substrate even with the graphene layer present in between. In addition to transmitting information about the atomic lattice of the substrate, graphene also protected its surface. This dual role enabled the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on a Cu substrate, which otherwise dissolved in the reaction conditions when graphene was absent.

  14. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  15. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  16. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  17. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, P; Selim, F A; Bartošová, I; Slugeň, V

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics. (paper)

  18. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica; De Wolf, Stefaan; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ager, Joel W.; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  19. Metal-insulator transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    1998-10-01

    Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by the correlation effects is categorized as the Mott Insulator. Near the transition point the metallic state shows fluctuations and orderings in the spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. The properties of these metals are frequently quite different from those of ordinary metals, as measured by transport, optical, and magnetic probes. The review first describes theoretical approaches to the unusual metallic states and to the metal-insulator transition. The Fermi-liquid theory treats the correlations that can be adiabatically connected with the noninteracting picture. Strong-coupling models that do not require Fermi-liquid behavior have also been developed. Much work has also been done on the scaling theory of the transition. A central issue for this review is the evaluation of these approaches in simple theoretical systems such as the Hubbard model and t-J models. Another key issue is strong competition among various orderings as in the interplay of spin and orbital fluctuations. Experimentally, the unusual properties of the metallic state near the insulating transition have been most extensively studied in d-electron systems. In particular, there is revived interest in transition-metal oxides, motivated by the epoch-making findings of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. The article reviews the rich phenomena of anomalous metallicity, taking as examples Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ru compounds. The diverse phenomena include strong spin and

  20. Budget transparency in local governments

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Perona, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 This work will study the socio-demographic determinants, political, budgetary and economic, that affect the transparency of local entities. To perform the study, we have chosen the transparency index data for the 110 largest municipalities of Spain, in 2012 has been chosen from the information offered by the website of the organization Transparency International Spain. The results indica...

  1. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  2. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  3. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  4. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  5. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  6. On a non-linear problem posed by the temperature determination in an electrically heated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, R.

    1958-01-01

    Let us consider a flat plate, electrically heated, with one face thermally insulated and the other face isothermal. It is shown that a two-dimensional perturbation of the insulated face has no influence on the temperature of this face. (author) [fr

  7. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  8. Super-insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerold, J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns super-insulation, which also acts as spacing between two pressurized surfaces, where the crossing bars in at least two layers are provided, with interposed foil. The super-insulation is designed so that it can take compression forces and limits thermal radiation and thermal conduction sufficiently, where the total density of heat flow is usually limited to a few watts per m 2 . The solution to the problem is characterized by the fact that the bars per layer are parallel and from layer to layer they are at an angle to each other and the crossover positions of the bars of different layers are at fixed places and so form contact columns. The basic idea is that bars crossing over each other to support compression forces are used so that contact columns are formed, which are compressed to a certain extent by the load. (orig./PW) [de

  9. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  10. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  11. Insulating materials for optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agullo-Lopez, F.

    1990-01-01

    Optoelectronics is an interdisciplinary field. Basic functions of an optoelectronic system include the generator of the optical signal, its transmission and handling and, finally, its detection, storage and display. A large variety of semiconductor and insulating materials are used or are being considered to perform those functions. The authors focus on insulating materials, mostly oxides. For signal generation, tunable solid state lasers, either vibronic or those based oon colour centres are briefly described, and their main operating parameters summarized. Reference is made to some developments on fiber and waveguide lasers. Relevant physical features of the silica fibres used for low-loss, long-band, optical transmission are reviewed, as well as present efforts to further reduce attenuation in the mid-infrared range. Particular attention is paid to photorefractive materials (LiNbO 3 , BGO, BSO, etc.), which are being investigated

  12. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  13. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  14. Pourable Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes search for polyisocyanurate/polyurethane foam insulation with superior characteristics. Discusses chemistry of current formulations. Tests of formulations, of individual ingredients and or alternative new formulations described. Search revealed commercially available formulations exhibiting increased thermal stability at temperatures up to 600 degree C, pours readily before curing, presents good appearance after curing, and remains securely bonded to aluminum at cryogenic temperatures. Total of 42 different formulations investigated, 10 found to meet requirements.

  15. Impact Verification of Aerogel Insulation Paint on Historic Brick Facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganobjak, Michal; Kralova, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the sustainability of existing buildings is being motivated by reduction of their energy demands. It is the above all the building envelope and its refurbishment by substitution or addition of new materials that makes the opportunity for reduction of energy consumption. A special type of refurbishment is conservation of historical buildings. Preservation of historic buildings permits also application of innovative methods and materials in addition to the original materials if their effects are known and the gained experience ensures their beneficial effect. On the market, there are new materials with addition of silica aerogel in various forms of products. They are also potentially useful in conservation of monuments. However, the effects of aerogel application in these cases are not known. For refurbishment is commercially available additional transparent insulation paint - Nansulate Clear Coat which is containing aerogel and can be used for structured surfaces such as bricks. A series of experiments examined the thermo-physical manifestation of an ultra-thin insulation coating of Nansulate Clear Coat containing silica aerogel on a brick facade. The experiments of active and passive thermography have observed effects of application on the small-scale samples of the brick façade of a protected historical building. Through a series of experiments were measured thermal insulation effect and influence on the aesthetic characteristics such as change in colour and gloss. The treated samples were compared to a reference. Results have shown no thermal-insulating manifestation of the recommended three layers of insulation paint. The three layers recommended by the manufacturer did not significantly affect the appearance of the brick facade. Color and gloss were not significantly changed. Experiments showed the absence of thermal insulation effect of Nansulate transparent triple coating. The thermal insulation effect could likely be reached by more layers of

  16. Transparency through the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haginoya, Tohru [Inst. of Nuclear Materials Management, Japan Chapter, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  17. Transparency through the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  18. Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay

    Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.

  19. Transparency and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After having outlined some lessons learnt after the Chernobyl accident, notably the facts that risk assessment and management were not separated, that radioactivity measurements have suffered from a lack of means and of preparedness, and that there has been few information exchanged between the different concerned countries, this document presents the four international conventions which have been negotiated after this accident (they concern the notification, assistance, safety, safety of fuel management and of radioactive wastes). It discusses the lessons learnt in France, the credibility of information and the confidence in authorities, the evolution of transparency and information in France and in the rest of the World, the transposition of the Arhus Convention in the communautary and national law, the innovating European approaches, and the evolutions in France

  20. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  1. Student Perceptions of Teaching Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alecia D.; Hunt, Andrea N.; Powell, Rachel E.; Dollar, Cindy Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the relationship between teaching transparency and active learning through the perspectives of their students. Active learning directly engages students in the learning process while transparency involves the instructor's divulgence of logic regarding course organization and activity choices. After utilizing these teaching…

  2. Transparency as an ethical safeguard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spagnolli, Anna; Frank, Lily E.; Haselager, Pim; Kirsh, David; Ham, Jaap; Spagnolli, Anna; Blankertz, Benjamin; Gamberini, Luciano; Jacucci, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    Transparency seems to represent a solution to many ethic issues generated by systems that collect implicit data from users to model the user themselves based on programmed criteria. However, making such systems transparent -- besides being a major technical challenge - risks raising more issues than

  3. Cryogenic Insulation Standard Data and Methodologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Burton; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Mullenix, Pamela; Fesmire, James; Swanger, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Extending some recent developments in the area of technical consensus standards for cryogenic thermal insulation systems, a preliminary Inter-Laboratory Study of foam insulation materials was performed by NASA Kennedy Space Center and LeTourneau University. The initial focus was ambient pressure cryogenic boil off testing using the Cryostat-400 flat-plate instrument. Completion of a test facility at LETU has enabled direct, comparative testing, using identical cryostat instruments and methods, and the production of standard thermal data sets for a number of materials under sub-ambient conditions. The two sets of measurements were analyzed and indicate there is reasonable agreement between the two laboratories. Based on cryogenic boiloff calorimetry, new equipment and methods for testing thermal insulation systems have been successfully developed. These boiloff instruments (or cryostats) include both flat plate and cylindrical models and are applicable to a wide range of different materials under a wide range of test conditions. Test measurements are generally made at large temperature difference (boundary temperatures of 293 K and 78 K are typical) and include the full vacuum pressure range. Results are generally reported in effective thermal conductivity (ke) and mean heat flux (q) through the insulation system. The new cryostat instruments provide an effective and reliable way to characterize the thermal performance of materials under subambient conditions. Proven in through thousands of tests of hundreds of material systems, they have supported a wide range of aerospace, industry, and research projects. Boiloff testing technology is not just for cryogenic testing but is a cost effective, field-representative methodology to test any material or system for applications at sub-ambient temperatures. This technology, when adequately coupled with a technical standards basis, can provide a cost-effective, field-representative methodology to test any material or system

  4. Reduction of heat insulation upon soaking of the insulation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtliger, J.

    1983-09-01

    Improved thermal protection of hollow masonry by introduction of a core insulation between the inner and outer shell is discussed. The thermal conductivity of insulation materials was determined in dry state and after soaking by water with different volume-related moisture contents. The interpolated thermal conductivity values from three measured values at 10 C average temperature are presented as a function of the pertinent moisture content. Fills of expanded polystyrene, perlite and granulated mineral fibers, insulating boards made of mineral fibers and in situ cellular plastics produced from urea-formaldehyde resin were investigated. Test results show a confirmation of thermal conductivity values for insulating materials in hollow masonry.

  5. Development of electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Tsujimura, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Abe, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of electrical insulation and conduction methods that can be applied for large components have been investigated for future large fusion experimental devices. A thermal spraying method is employed to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been selected as an insulation material, while Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and WC-NiCr have been chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel base plates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the base plate and electrical resistance. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed sufficient frictional properties. The applicability of the spraying method was examined on a 100mm x 1000mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces in fusion experimental devices. (orig.).

  6. Development of electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Tsujimura, S.; Toyoda, M.; Inoue, M.; Abe, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Development of electrical insulation and conduction methods that can be applied for large components have been investigated for future large fusion experimental devices. A thermal spraying method is employed to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components. Al 2 O 3 has been selected as an insulation material, while Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr and WC-NiCr have been chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel base plates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the base plate and electrical resistance. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed sufficient frictional properties. The applicability of the spraying method was examined on a 100mm x 1000mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces in fusion experimental devices. (orig.)

  7. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  8. Phenomenal transparency in achromatic checkerboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, S C

    1999-04-01

    The study explored the luminance relations that determine the occurrence of achromatic transparency in phenomenal surfaces on complex backgrounds. Let the luminances of the left and right parts of a transparent surface on a bipartite background and those of the left and right parts of the bipartite background be p and q and m and n, respectively. Metelli proposed that this surface looks transparent when the rule p q if m > n) is satisfied, and Masin and Fukuda that it looks transparent when the inclusion rule is satisfied, that is, when p epsilon (m, q) or q epsilon (p, n). These rules also apply to achromatic checkerboards formed by one checkerboard enclosed in another checkerboard. This study shows that only the inclusion rule correctly predicted the occurrence of transparency in these checkerboards.

  9. Electrical insulating liquid: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba Kumar Mahanta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.

  10. Polyisocyanurate systems for insulating and sandwich elements; Polyisocyanurat-Systeme fuer Daemm- und Sandwichelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malotki, P. von [Elastogran GmbH, Lemfoerde (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    PUR rigid foam plates are laminated with flexible Al films, paper or glass non-wovens, or may be processed into sandwich elements with metallic top-layers via coil-coating. Dependence of heat insulation efficiency, dimensional stability and fire behavior of the foam on chemical composition and the blowing agents is considered and compared with polyisocyanurate foams. Recipes for the production of PIR heat insulation elements and sandwich elements are given.

  11. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  12. The experiment study of the thermal insulation of the roof-slab of the main vessel of a LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifeng; Wang Zhou; Yang Xianyong

    1995-01-01

    The effects of composition of insulation, i.e., reflective multi-plate thermal insulator, protecting the roof-slab of the vessel of the LMFBR on the heat transfer performance has been studied experimentally for CEFR. A economical form of the thermal insulation is suggested for CEFR. In addition, the scheme without reflective thermal insulator which has only a forced convection cooling system has been studied experimentally and a formula to calculate the average Nusselt number of the flow channel, which is valuable for CEFR design, has been raised

  13. Investigation of the Hygrothermal Performance of Alternative Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rasmussen, Niels T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an account of hygrothermal investigations carried out on some insulation products which are "alternative" to the ones that are traditionally used in Danish constructions. The alternative products are claimed to be friendly both to the environment and to the labour force. The mater......The paper gives an account of hygrothermal investigations carried out on some insulation products which are "alternative" to the ones that are traditionally used in Danish constructions. The alternative products are claimed to be friendly both to the environment and to the labour force...... is determined for the different materials with a guarded hot plate apparatus in which different vapour pressure conditions can be maintained over the specimens. The apparatus and some results are presented.2. Computational analysis of the hygrothermal performance of constructions with alternative insulation...... products.The hygrothermal performance of constructions with alternative insulation products is analysed with a computational model for combined heat and moisture transfer. The analysis concerns both traditional wall and roof constructions with the alternative insulation products, and some alternative...

  14. Magnetically insulated H- diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Bystritskii, V.; Garate, E.; Prohaska, R.; Rostoker, N.

    1993-01-01

    At the Univ. of California, Irvine, the authors have been studying the production of intense H - beams using pulse power techniques for the past 7 years. Previously, current densities of H - ions for various diode designs at UCI have been a few A/cm 2 . Recently, they have developed diodes similar to the coaxial design of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, USSR, where current densities of up to 200 A/cm 2 were reported using nuclear activation of a carbon target. In experiments at UCI employing the coaxial diode, current densities of up to 35 A/cm 2 from a passive polyethylene cathode loaded with TiH 2 have been measured using a pinhole camera and CR-39 track recording plastic. The authors have also been working on a self-insulating, annular diode which can generate a directed beam of H - ions. In the annular diode experiments a plasma opening switch was used to provide a prepulse and a current path which self-insulated the diode. These experiments were done on the machine APEX, a 1 MV, 50 ns, 7 Ω pulseline with a unipolar negative prepulse of ∼ 100 kV and 400 ns duration. Currently, the authors are modifying the pulseline to include an external LC circuit which can generate a bipolar, 150 kV, 1 μs duration prepulse (similar prepulse characteristic as in the Lebedev Institute experiments cited above)

  15. Nuclear deterrence: which environmental transparency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the field of nuclear geopolitics. The author discusses the tensions between the principle of transparency regarding environmental issues on the one hand, and the protection of nuclear deterrence as instrument of power on the other hand. According to the French law, the preservation of nuclear power instruments means the acknowledgement of a legal regime which is specific to national defence requirements in terms of secret and right to information. Thus, the author discusses the constitutional limitations of the environmental transparency obligation for the protection of Nation's fundamental interests. Then, by commenting the Rainbow Warrior affair, the author highlights the exceptional limitations of the transparency requirement regarding nuclear issues

  16. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  17. Insulation structure of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Usami, Saburo; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an insulating structure of a thermonuclear device, in which insulation materials between toroidal coils are not broken even if superconductive toroidal coils are used. Namely, a tokamak type thermonuclear device of an insulating structure type comprises superconductive toroidal coils for confining plasmas arranged in a circular shape directing the center each at a predetermined angle, and the toroidal coils are insulated from each other. The insulation materials are formed by using a biaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics. The contact surface of the toroidal coils and the insulating materials are arranged so that they are contact at a woven surface of the fiber reinforced plastics. Either or both of the contact surfaces of the fiber reinforced plastics and the toroidal coils are coated with a high molecular compound having a low friction coefficient. With such a constitution, since the interlayer shearing strength of the biaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics is about 1/10 of the compression strength, the shearing stress exerted on the insulation material is reduced. Since a static friction coefficient on the contact surface is reduced to provide a structure causing slipping, shearing stress does not exceeds a predetermined limit. As a result, breakage of the insulation materials between the toroidal coils can be prevented. (I.S.)

  18. Plastic Materials for Insulating Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Grossman, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the production and use of polymer materials as thermal insulators. Lists several materials that provide varying degrees of insulation. Describes the production of polymer foam and focuses on the major applications of polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam, and polyisocyanurate foam. (TW)

  19. Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where available and appropriate, EPA will use peer-reviewed information, standardized test methods, consistent data evaluation procedures, and good laboratory practices to ensure transparent, understandable, and reproducible scientific assessments.

  20. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  1. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Yang, P. K.; Lee, C. P.; Tsai, M. L.; Kang, C. F.; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance

  2. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  3. Extremely porous, ultralight, highly heat insulating: Aerogel - light weight aggregate of the future?; Extrem poroes, ultraleicht, hoch waermedaemmend. Aerogel - Leichtzuschlag der Zukunft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenssmantel, Juergen [Ingenieurbuero Gaenssmantel, Ingenieurdienstleistung zum Nachhaltigen Bauen, Dormettingen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The word element 'gel' in the term 'aerogel' is associated with a sticky paste in which air ('aero') is included. In reality, it is a dry modern 'designer material' with improved properties (thermal insulation, sound insulation, transparency, water-repellent). In the Guinness Book of Records, it is listed as the 'best insulator' and the 'lightest solid'. It is a material of which the dreams of developers of insulating materials are made.

  4. Lines that induce phenomenal transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Alba; Roncato, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Three neighbouring opaque surfaces may appear split into two layers, one transparent and one opaque beneath, if an outline contour is drawn that encompasses two of them. The phenomenon was originally observed by Kanizsa [1955 Rivista di Psicologia 69 3-19; 1979 Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Psychology (New York: Praeger)], for the case where an outline contour is drawn to encompass one of the two parts of a bicoloured figure and a portion of a background of lightest (or darkest) luminance. Preliminary observations revealed that the outline contour yields different effects: in addition to the stratification into layers described by Kanizsa, a second split, opposite in depth order, may occur when the outline contour is close in luminance to one of the three surfaces. An initial experiment was designed to investigate what conditions give rise to the two phenomenal transparencies: this led to the conclusion that an outline contour superimposed on an opaque surface causes this surface to emerge as a transparent layer when the luminances of the contour and the surface differ, in absolute value, by no more than 13.2 cd m(-2). We have named this phenomenon 'transparency of the intercepted surface', to distinguish it from the phenomenal transparency arising when the contour and surface are very different in luminance. When such a difference exists, the contour acts as a factor of surface definition and grouping: the portion of the homogeneous surface it bounds emerges as a fourth surface and groups with a nearby surface if there is one close in luminance. The transparency phenomena ('transparency of the contoured surface') perceived in this context conform to the constraints of Metelli's model, as demonstrated by a second experiment, designed to gather 'opacity' ratings of stimuli. The observer judgments conformed to the values predicted by Metelli's formula for perceived degree of transparency, alpha. The role of the outline contour in conveying figural and

  5. Magnetically self-insulated transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B.M.; Smith, I.R.; Brown, J.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic insulation is the only practicable form of insulation for much equipment used in ultrahigh pulsed-power work, including transmission lines and plasma opening switches. It has not however so far been successfully exploited in the transformers that are necessarily involved, and the first proposed design that appeared more than 30 years ago raised apparently insuperable problems. The two novel arrangements for a magnetically insulated transformer described in this paper overcome the problems faced by the earlier designs and also offer considerable scope for development in a number of important areas. Theoretical justification is given for their insulating properties, and this is confirmed by proof-of-principle results obtained from a small-scale experimental prototype in which magnetic insulation was demonstrated at up to 100 kV. (author)

  6. Research on vacuum insulation for cryocables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.

    1974-01-01

    Vacuum insulation, as compared with solid insulation, simplifies the construction of both resistive or superconducting cryogenic cables. The common vacuum space in the cable can furnish thermal insulation between the environment and the cryogenic coolant, provide electrical insulation between conductors, and establish thermal isolation between go- and return-coolant streams. The differences between solid and vacuum high voltage insulation are discussed, and research on the design, materials selection, and testing of vacuum insulated cryogenic cables is described

  7. A Concise Dictionary of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Misun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an essay collection by Marek Bieńczyk, Przeźroczystość [Transparency]. The concept, placed in various context, shows various aspects and is seen in various shades. The author does not put forward a statement, but rather proposes a work to be done: to determine the modality of transparency. The concept initially seems to be mainly epistemological: the cognizant subject would like to make the world transparent, to discover all possible mysteries. Before that, however, the subject must know itself, and here the dream of trans­parency also plays the key role. Lack of epistemological transparency is the main cause of melancholy and its reverse — hysteria. The concept turns out to be important in the domain of love — the loer thinks that (she knows the desired person more better anybody else, that (she has entirely penetrated the subjectivity of the Other. Ultimately, however, the dream of transparency goes down to a slow demise of the subject: as self-discovery progresses, there is less and less of the discoverer. In conclusion of this work, the border of modality of the concept turns out to be horrifyingly obvious. The desire for transparency consequently searches not for knowledge, but for an escape whose name is death.

  8. Semi-transparent solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Jasieniak, J J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies. (topical review)

  9. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  11. Excitons in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasser, R.; Scharmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates absorption, reflectivity, and intrinsic luminescence spectra of free and/or self-trapped (localized) excitons in alkali halides and rare gas solids. Introduces the concepts underlying the Wannier-Mott and Frenkel exciton models, two extreme pictures of an exciton in crystalline materials. Discusses the theoretical and experimental background; excitons in alkali halides; and excitons in rare gas solids. Shows that the intrinsic optical behavior of wide gap insulators in the range of the fundamental absorption edge is controlled by modified Wannier-Mott excitons. Finds that while that alkali halides only show free and relaxed molecular-like exciton emission, in rare gas crystals luminescence due to free, single and double centered localized excitons is observed. Indicates that the simultaneous existence of free and self-trapped excitons in these solid requires an energy barrier for self-trapping

  12. Interaction between social influence and payoff transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xie, Wenwen; Ye, Maolin

    2014-02-01

    Social influence and payoff transparency interact with each other to influence decision making. Social influence masks payoff transparency, and lacking transparency drives people to seek social influence. Moreover, our survey supports our claim by showing that social influence and payoff transparency correlate with each other (r(53) = -.71). Bentley et al.'s model can be revised to accommodate the covariance.

  13. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Optically transparent semiconducting polymer nanonetwork for flexible and transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kilho; Park, Byoungwook; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Jehan; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Junghwan; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and excellent charge mobility in semiconducting polymers has presented a challenge for the application of these materials in future “flexible” and “transparent” electronics (FTEs). Here, by blending only a small amount (∼15 wt %) of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer (DPP2T) into an inert polystyrene (PS) matrix, we introduce a polymer blend system that demonstrates both high field-effect transistor (FET) mobility and excellent optical transparency that approaches 100%. We discover that in a PS matrix, DPP2T forms a web-like, continuously connected nanonetwork that spreads throughout the thin film and provides highly efficient 2D charge pathways through extended intrachain conjugation. The remarkable physical properties achieved using our approach enable us to develop prototype high-performance FTE devices, including colorless all-polymer FET arrays and fully transparent FET-integrated polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27911774

  15. Lightweight, Thermally Insulating Structural Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard J.; Hickey, Gregory; Wen, Liang-Chi; Layman, William E.; Rainen, Richard A.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight, thermally insulating panels that also serve as structural members developed. Honeycomb-core panel filled with low-thermal-conductivity, opacified silica aerogel preventing convection and minimizes internal radiation. Copper coating on face sheets reduces radiation. Overall thermal conductivities of panels smaller than state-of-art commercial non-structurally-supporting foam and fibrous insulations. On Earth, panels suitable for use in low-air-pressure environments in which lightweight, compact, structurally supporting insulation needed; for example, aboard high-altitude aircraft or in partially evacuated panels in refrigerators.

  16. Reflecting variable opening insulating panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a reflecting variable opening insulating panel assembly, comprising a static panel assembly of reflecting insulation sheets forming a cavity along one side of the panel and a movable panel opening out by sliding from the cavity of the static panel, and a locking device for holding the movable panel in a position extending from the cavity of the static panel. This can apply to a nuclear reactor of which the base might require maintenance and periodical checking and for which it is desirable to have available certain processes for the partial dismantling of the insulation [fr

  17. Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Frederik; Arnold, Karl; Bauer, Werner; Schild, Dieter; Keller, Nico; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Nargang, Tobias M.; Richter, Christiane; Helmer, Dorothea; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2017-04-01

    Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties. However, glasses and especially high-purity glasses such as fused silica glass are notoriously difficult to shape, requiring high-temperature melting and casting processes for macroscopic objects or hazardous chemicals for microscopic features. These drawbacks have made glasses inaccessible to modern manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional printing (3D printing). Using a casting nanocomposite, here we create transparent fused silica glass components using stereolithography 3D printers at resolutions of a few tens of micrometres. The process uses a photocurable silica nanocomposite that is 3D printed and converted to high-quality fused silica glass via heat treatment. The printed fused silica glass is non-porous, with the optical transparency of commercial fused silica glass, and has a smooth surface with a roughness of a few nanometres. By doping with metal salts, coloured glasses can be created. This work widens the choice of materials for 3D printing, enabling the creation of arbitrary macro- and microstructures in fused silica glass for many applications in both industry and academia.

  18. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  19. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Jiu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  20. Highly Sensitive, Transparent, and Durable Pressure Sensors Based on Sea-Urchin Shaped Metal Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Hyungjin; Jeong, Youngjun; Ahn, Yumi; Nam, Geonik; Lee, Youngu

    2016-11-01

    Highly sensitive, transparent, and durable pressure sensors are fabricated using sea-urchin-shaped metal nanoparticles and insulating polyurethane elastomer. The pressure sensors exhibit outstanding sensitivity (2.46 kPa -1 ), superior optical transmittance (84.8% at 550 nm), fast response/relaxation time (30 ms), and excellent operational durability. In addition, the pressure sensors successfully detect minute movements of human muscles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A transparency model and its applications for simulation of reflector arrays and sound transmission (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a new method for simulating the frequency-dependent reflection and transmission of reflector arrays, and the frequency-dependent airborne sound insulation between rooms by means of a room acoustic computer model. The method makes use of a transparency method in the ray...... of the partition, and this is useful for the auralization of sound transmission through different building constructions. The acoustic properties like volume, reverberation time, and the area of the transmitting surfaces are included in the simulation....

  2. Molecular dewetting on insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, S A; Topple, J M; Gruetter, P

    2009-01-01

    Recent attention given to the growth and morphology of organic thin films with regard to organic electronics has led to the observation of dewetting (a transition from layer(s) to islands) of molecular deposits in many of these systems. Dewetting is a much studied phenomenon in the formation of polymer and liquid films, but its observation in thin films of the 'small' molecules typical of organic electronics requires additional consideration of the structure of the interface between the molecular film and the substrate. This review covers some key concepts related to dewetting and molecular film growth. In particular, the origins of different growth modes and the thickness dependent interactions which give rise to dewetting are discussed in terms of surface energies and the disjoining pressure. Characteristics of molecular systems which may lead to these conditions, including the formation of metastable interface structures and commensurate-incommensurate phase transitions, are also discussed. Brief descriptions of some experimental techniques which have been used to study molecular dewetting are given as well. Examples of molecule-on-insulator systems which undergo dewetting are described in some detail, specifically perylene derivatives on alkali halides, C 60 on alkali halides, and the technologically important system of pentacene on SiO 2 . These examples point to some possible predicting factors for the occurrence of dewetting, most importantly the formation of an interface layer which differs from the bulk crystal structure. (topical review)

  3. Molecular dewetting on insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, S A; Topple, J M; Grütter, P

    2009-10-21

    Recent attention given to the growth and morphology of organic thin films with regard to organic electronics has led to the observation of dewetting (a transition from layer(s) to islands) of molecular deposits in many of these systems. Dewetting is a much studied phenomenon in the formation of polymer and liquid films, but its observation in thin films of the 'small' molecules typical of organic electronics requires additional consideration of the structure of the interface between the molecular film and the substrate. This review covers some key concepts related to dewetting and molecular film growth. In particular, the origins of different growth modes and the thickness dependent interactions which give rise to dewetting are discussed in terms of surface energies and the disjoining pressure. Characteristics of molecular systems which may lead to these conditions, including the formation of metastable interface structures and commensurate-incommensurate phase transitions, are also discussed. Brief descriptions of some experimental techniques which have been used to study molecular dewetting are given as well. Examples of molecule-on-insulator systems which undergo dewetting are described in some detail, specifically perylene derivatives on alkali halides, C(60) on alkali halides, and the technologically important system of pentacene on SiO(2). These examples point to some possible predicting factors for the occurrence of dewetting, most importantly the formation of an interface layer which differs from the bulk crystal structure.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  9. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.

    2017-03-14

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 1011 to 1015 cm-2. These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics.

  10. Issues in Canadian board transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparency is considered one of the principles of good corporate governance. But what does it mean – in practice – especially when it comes to Board transparency – i.e. the ability of shareholders to gain knowledge about an organization’s corporate governance practices in order to make an informed assessment of Directors’ individual and collective roles and performance. In a preliminary investigation of Board transparency practices in Canadian listed firms (using data from 2003-2004, it was found that there were wide variations in the nature and quantity of corporate governance practices disclosed. The reasons for these variations are discussed and a number of recommendations for improved disclosure are presented.

  11. Transparency of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    One of the main missions of nuclear regulators is to protect the public, and this cannot be completely achieved without public confidence. The more a regulatory process is transparent, the more such confidence will grow. Despite important cultural differences across countries, a number of common features characterise media and public expectations regarding any activity with an associated risk. A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Their implementation may, however, differ from one country to another depending on national context. (authors)

  12. Optimisation of solar collector foils with transparent thermal insulation. Final report; Optimierung von transparent waermegedaemmten Folien-Speicherkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, M

    1995-02-01

    The report describes storage collector foils which are used as hybrid systems. Contents: State of the art - solar test facility - tests on small test collectors - cost reduction. (HW) [Deutsch] Es wird berichtet ueber Folien-Speicherkollektoren, die als Hybridsysteme zum Einsatz kommen. Inhalt der Arbeit: - Stand der Technik - solare Testanlage - Untersuchungen an kleinen Testkollektoreinheiten - Kostenreduzierung. (HW)

  13. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng; Randel, Jason C.; Peng, Hailin; Cha, Judy J.; Meister, Stefan; Lai, Keji; Chen, Yulin; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Manoharan, Hari C.; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive

  14. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  15. Metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  16. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsuan Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  17. A solution for the Graetz problem in parallel plates, with axial heat conduction in the fluid and in the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biage, M.

    1983-04-01

    A heat transfer problem in parallel plates with infinite with has been solved, with axial heat conduction in the fluid and in the wall, considering steady-state laminar flow for a Newtonian fluid and a fully developed velocity profile. The duct consists of an infinite inicial part, insulated on both plates, an intermediale part of finite length, with a prescribed heat flux in the upper plate and insulated on the botton plate, and by another infinite part also insulated on both plates. The problem has been solved by a numerical combination of the integral equation method and the variational method. Both, the performance of the numerical technique employed and results obtained are analyzed in this work. It is demostrated that the heat conduction in the wall significantly modifies the heat transfer parameters. (Author) [pt

  18. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the...

  19. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  20. Does doxastic transparency support evidentialism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate.......Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate....

  1. Color transparency: Enchantment and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum mechanical approach is used to study high momentum transfer reactions in which a nucleon is knocked out of the nucleus. We show that the nuclear interactions of the wave packet produced in such a process tend to cancel, so that the nuclear medium becomes transparent. The wave packet (ejectile)-nucleon interactions, including the production of nucleon resonances are also discussed. Color transparency effects in the (e,e'p) reaction may be significant at relatively low momentum transfer Q 2 = 3 - 6 (GeV 2 /c) 2 . 17 refs., 3 figs

  2. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.

  3. Avalanches in insulating gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaart, H.F.A.

    1982-01-01

    Avalanches of charged particles in gases are often studied with the ''electrical method'', the measurement of the waveform of the current in the external circuit. In this thesis a substantial improvement of the time resolution of the measuring setup, to be used for the electrical method, is reported. The avalanche is started by an N 2 -laser with a pulse duration of only 0.6 ns. With this laser it is possible to release a high number of primary electrons (some 10 8 ) which makes it possible to obtain sizeable signals, even at low E/p values. With the setup it is possible to analyze current waveforms with a time resolution down to 1.4 ns, determined by both the laser and the measuring system. Furthermore it is possible to distinguish between the current caused by the electrons and the current caused by the ions in the avalanche and to monitor these currents simultaneously. Avalanche currents are measured in N 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , H 2 O, air of varying humidity, SF 6 and SF 6 /N 2 mixtures. Depending on the nature of the gas and the experimental conditions, processes as diffusion, ionization, attachment, detachment, conversion and secondary emission are observed. Values of parameters with which these processes can be described, are derived from an analysis of the current waveforms. For this analysis already published theories and new theories described in this thesis are used. The drift velocity of both the electrons and the ions could be easily determined from measured avalanche currents. Special attention is paid to avalanches in air becasue of the practical importance of air insulation. (Auth.)

  4. Process for manufacturing hollow fused-silica insulator cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Krogh, Michael L.; Davis, Steven C.; Decker, Derek E.; Rosenblum, Ben Z.; Sanders, David M.; Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    A method for building hollow insulator cylinders that can have each end closed off with a high voltage electrode to contain a vacuum. A series of fused-silica round flat plates are fabricated with a large central hole and equal inside and outside diameters. The thickness of each is related to the electron orbit diameter of electrons that escape the material surface, loop, and return back. Electrons in such electron orbits can support avalanche mechanisms that result in surface flashover. For example, the thickness of each of the fused-silica round flat plates is about 0.5 millimeter. In general, the thinner the better. Metal, such as gold, is deposited onto each top and bottom surface of the fused-silica round flat plates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Eutectic metals can also be used with one alloy constituent on the top and the other on the bottom. The CVD, or a separate diffusion step, can be used to defuse the deposited metal deep into each fused-silica round flat plate. The conductive layer may also be applied by ion implantation or gas diffusion into the surface. The resulting structure may then be fused together into an insulator stack. The coated plates are aligned and then stacked, head-to-toe. Such stack is heated and pressed together enough to cause the metal interfaces to fuse, e.g., by welding, brazing or eutectic bonding. Such fusing is preferably complete enough to maintain a vacuum within the inner core of the assembled structure. A hollow cylinder structure results that can be used as a core liner in a dielectric wall accelerator and as a vacuum envelope for a vacuum tube device where the voltage gradients exceed 150 kV/cm.

  5. Bionics in textiles: flexible and translucent thermal insulations for solar thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmaier, Thomas; Linke, Michael; Planck, Heinrich

    2009-05-13

    Solar thermal collectors used at present consist of rigid and heavy materials, which are the reasons for their immobility. Based on the solar function of polar bear fur and skin, new collector systems are in development, which are flexible and mobile. The developed transparent heat insulation material consists of a spacer textile based on translucent polymer fibres coated with transparent silicone rubber. For incident light of the visible spectrum the system is translucent, but impermeable for ultraviolet radiation. Owing to its structure it shows a reduced heat loss by convection. Heat loss by the emission of long-wave radiation can be prevented by a suitable low-emission coating. Suitable treatment of the silicone surface protects it against soiling. In combination with further insulation materials and flow systems, complete flexible solar collector systems are in development.

  6. Why is Transparency Greenland Necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland is facing significant changes in the composition of its economy, and is moving rapidly in the direction of becoming a commodities economy. Studies conducted by Transparency International in other parts of the world suggest that oil exploration and mining are among the areas of economic...

  7. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services.…

  8. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G C [OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  9. Camuflagem e transparência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de A. Silveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio estabelece, a partir da compreensão de ELIADE, analogias entre alguns símbolos universais e os rituais de morte desenvolvidos pela Enfermagem, desnudando a camuflagem ali existente e apontando sua transparência como forma de enriquecer a prática profissional, beneficiando cuidadora(es e sujeitos do cuidado.

  10. Camuflagem e transparência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de A. Silveira

    Full Text Available O ensaio estabelece, a partir da compreensão de ELIADE, analogias entre alguns símbolos universais e os rituais de morte desenvolvidos pela Enfermagem, desnudando a camuflagem ali existente e apontando sua transparência como forma de enriquecer a prática profissional, beneficiando cuidadora(es e sujeitos do cuidado.

  11. Design of transparent conductors and periodic two-dimensional electron gases without doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuwen; Zhang, Lijun; Zunger, Alex; Perkins, John; Materials by Design Team; John D. Perkins Collaboration

    The functionality of transparency plus conductivity plays an important role in renewable energy and information technologies, including applications such as solar cells, touch-screen sensors, and flat panel display. However, materials with such seemingly contraindicated properties are difficult to come by. The traditional strategy for designing bulk transparent conductors (TCs) starts from a wide-gap insulator and finds ways to make it conductive by extensive doping. We propose a different strategy for TC design--starting with a metallic conductor and designing transparency by control of intrinsic interband transitions and intraband plasmonic frequency. We identified specific design principles for prototypical intrinsic TC classes and searched computationally for materials that satisfy them. The electron gases in the 3D intrinsic TCs demonstrate intriguing properties, such as periodic 2D electron gas regions with very high carrier density. We will discuss a more extended search of these functionalities, in parallel with stability and growability calculations

  12. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  13. Legal framework to ensure transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a national and an international trend towards administrative transparency. This trend has not stopped at. the Swiss border. Some cantons of Switzerland have already introduced the transparency principle at the cantonal level. At the federal level, the Swiss Confederation introduced on 1 July 2006 the new Federal 'Freedom of Information Act'. Also the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (I-ISK) falls under this rule. Before introduction of this law on transparency. most of the documents of Swiss federal Administration were treated as confidential. Access rights to official documents were granted only on certain conditions and in special cases. But there is a general interest, that the public should have the possibility to ask to look at the files of the administration. Since years, the administration had no longer been able to hide behind secretiveness. For instance, the introduction of Internet brought a lot of transparency. The administration had to explain what sort of job it is actually doing and how it is doing. Also, the media were and are increasing their research for information. In this context, the new law on transparency ('Freedom of Information Act') is rather an evolution than a revolution. The Freedom of Information Act guarantees the public access to official documents. Most of the documents of the Federal Administration are public. This access can be limited, differentiated or refused in certain cases. That means that the principle of proportionality between private interests and public transparency has to be applied. The real challenge for the authority is the trade off between the public's right to access information and the industrial legitimate efforts to protect industrial and trade secrets. In the nuclear field, the international principle of transparency has also become an important national principle for Switzerland and FISK. The Swiss Nuclear Energy Act says that 'The relevant authorities shall regularly inform the general

  14. Silicon-on-Insulator Lateral-Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor with Built-in Self-anti-ESD Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Power SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator devices have an inherent sandwich structure of MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor gate which is very easy to suffer ESD (Electro-Static Discharge overstress. To solve this reliability problem, studies on design and modification of a built-in self-anti-ESD diode for a preliminarily optimized high voltage SOI LIGBT (Lateral-Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor were carried out on the Silvaco TCAD (Technology-Computer-Aided-Design platform. According to the constrains of the technological process, the new introduction of the N+ doped region into P-well region that form the built-in self-anti-ESD diode should be done together with the doping of source under the same mask. The modifications were done by adjusting the vertical impurity profile in P-well into retrograde distribution and designing a cathode plate with a proper length to cover the forward depletion terminal and make sure that the thickness of the cathode plate is the same as that of the gate plate. The simulation results indicate that the modified device structure is compatible with the original one in process and design, the breakdown voltage margin of the former was expanded properly, and both the transient cathode voltages are clamped low enough very quickly. Therefore, the design and optimization results of the modified device structure of the built-in self-anti-ESD diode for the given SOI LIGBT meet the given requirements.

  15. Electrical insulators for the theta-pinch fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The five major applications for electrical insulators in the Reference Theta Pinch Reactor are as follows: (1) first-wall insulator, (2) blanket intersegment insulator, (3) graphite encapsulating insulator, (4) implosion coil insulator, and (5) compression coil insulator. Insulator design proposals and some preliminary test results are given for each application

  16. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua; Yang, Xu; Gu, Jianqiang; Jiang, Jun; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena

  17. Outside finance, dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies optimal financial contracts and product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. When firms seeking outside finance resort to actively monitored debt in order to commit against opportunistic behaviour, the dominant lender can influence corporate transparency.

  18. Categories and Dimensions of Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    Transparency is a distinctive area of research across disciplines and presents significant importance for organization studies. However, transparency is rarely subject to structured and critical scrutiny and as a result its relevance for organizational analysis is underestimated. In an attempt...... to foreground the value of transparency studies, we offer an overview of the existing research and indicate two paradigmatic positions underpinning the transparency literature, namely what we term non-performative and performative approaches. The main contribution of the paper lies in this ground......, an approach which remains underexplored. Finally, we discuss some avenues for future studies of the organizing properties of transparency: the secrecy-transparency interplay, the power-transparency nexus and the transparency ‘family tree’ (i.e., intersections between multiple forms of disclosure)....

  19. Radiative contribution to the thermal conductivity of fibrous insulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Schmitt, R. J.; Hughes, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    An approach is shown for using a simple two-flux model to interpret infrared transmission data for a variety of reuseable surface insulations materials and to calculate the radiation transmission. A description is given of preliminary experiments on mullite and silica-based materials. The calculated parameters are compared with the measured values of the total thermal conductivity, as determined on guarded hot plate equipment. It is pointed out that for many samples the newly developed four-flux model must be utilized because the scattering properties of the fibers are often dependent on the wavelength of the radiation.

  20. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.

  1. Playing the numbers game: Dealing with transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachidi, S.; Huysman, M.H.; Berends, Hans; van de Weerd, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Our research focus is on unpacking the performativity of transparency in order to explain how digital technologies, formerly perceived as enablers of surveillance and control, afford opaqueness as much as transparency. We develop a sociomaterial perspective on transparency and investigate how

  2. Organizational Transparency as Myth and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2015-01-01

    Transparency has achieved a mythical status in society. Myths are not false accounts or understandings, but deep-seated and definitive descriptions of the world that ontologically ground the ways in which we frame and see the world around us. We explore the mythical nature of transparency from...... of the transparency myth....

  3. Transparency and Oversight in Local Wellness Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger…

  4. Transparency in port-Hamiltonian based telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secchi, C; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    After stability, transparency is the major issue in the design of a telemanipulation system. In this paper we exploit a behavioral approach in order to provide an index for the evaluation of transparency in port-Hamiltonian based teleoperators. Furthermore we provide a transparency analysis of

  5. Transparency in Port-Hamiltonian-Based Telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secchi, Cristian; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, Cesare

    After stability, transparency is the major issue in the design of a telemanipulation system. In this paper, we exploit the behavioral approach in order to provide an index for the evaluation of transparency in port-Hamiltonian-based teleoperators. Furthermore, we provide a transparency analysis of

  6. Pixel masks for screen-door transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Mulder (Jurriaan); F.C.A. Groen; J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRendering objects transparently gives additional insight in complex and overlapping structures. However, traditional techniques for the rendering of transparent objects such as alpha blending are not very well suited for the rendering of multiple transparent objects in dynamic scenes.

  7. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  8. Positron Annihilation in Insulating Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P; Sterne, PA

    2002-01-01

    We describe positron results from a wide range of insulating materials. We have completed positron experiments on a range of zeolite-y samples, KDP crystals, alkali halides and laser damaged SiO 2 . Present theoretical understanding of positron behavior in insulators is incomplete and our combined theoretical and experimental approach is aimed at developing a predictive understanding of positrons and positronium annihilation characteristics in insulators. Results from alkali halides and alkaline-earth halides show that positrons annihilate with only the halide ions, with no apparent contribution from the alkali or alkaline-earth cations. This contradicts the results of our existing theory for metals, which predicts roughly equal annihilation contributions from cation and anion. We also present result obtained using Munich positron microprobe on laser damaged SiO 2 samples

  9. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  10. Fermi surfaces in Kondo insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsu; Hartstein, Máté; Wallace, Gregory J.; Davies, Alexander J.; Ciomaga Hatnean, Monica; Johannes, Michelle D.; Shitsevalova, Natalya; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2018-04-01

    We report magnetic quantum oscillations measured using torque magnetisation in the Kondo insulator YbB12 and discuss the potential origin of the underlying Fermi surface. Observed quantum oscillations as well as complementary quantities such as a finite linear specific heat capacity in YbB12 exhibit similarities with the Kondo insulator SmB6, yet also crucial differences. Small heavy Fermi sections are observed in YbB12 with similarities to the neighbouring heavy fermion semimetallic Fermi surface, in contrast to large light Fermi surface sections in SmB6 which are more similar to the conduction electron Fermi surface. A rich spectrum of theoretical models is suggested to explain the origin across different Kondo insulating families of a bulk Fermi surface potentially from novel itinerant quasiparticles that couple to magnetic fields, yet do not couple to weak DC electric fields.

  11. Topological insulators and topological superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernevig, Andrei B

    2013-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom. The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topolo...

  12. Topological insulators fundamentals and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ortmann, Frank; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    There are only few discoveries and new technologies in physical sciences that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our electronic world. Topological insulators are one of them. The present book for the first time provides a full overview and in-depth knowledge about this hot topic in materials science and condensed matter physics. Techniques such as angle-resolved photoemission spectrometry (ARPES), advanced solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or scanning-tunnel microscopy (STM) together with key principles of topological insulators such as spin-locked electronic

  13. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  14. Thermally optimum spacing of vertical, natural convection cooled, parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Rohsenow, W. M.

    Vertical two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in vertical parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical structure for analyses of such arrays, giving attention to useful relations for heat distribution patterns. The limiting relations for fully-developed laminar flow, in a symmetric isothermal or isoflux channel as well as in a channel with an insulated wall, are derived by use of a straightforward integral formulation.

  15. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  16. P -type transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n -type, such as Sn doped In 2 O 3 , Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO 2 . However, the development of efficient p -type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2 p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2 p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3 d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p -TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p -TCOs, including Cu + -based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr 3+ -based oxides (3 d 3 ) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2 ). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p -type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p -TCOs for transparent p – n junctions will also be briefly discussed. (topical review)

  17. When safety rhymes with transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Marion; Larroque, Damien; Vandermersch, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Transparency and Nuclear Safety Act, which took effect in 2006, requires each operator to document the measures taken to ensure nuclear safety and radiological protection and to list incidents and accidents as well as actions taken to protect the environment. This specifies the nature and limits of radioactive and non-radioactive releases, the quantity of waste to be stored at the facility, actions taken to limit waste volume, and effects on health and the environment, especially on soil and water. (authors)

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  20. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF TRANSPARENT AND TRANSLUCENT ENAMELS ON ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AHMADI MOGHADDAM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and opaque glass enamels for aluminum plates were designed with a minimum or with no heavy atom oxides such as lead and bismuth oxides. The thermal properties of the enamels were studied by DTA and their stability as measured by the difference of glass transition and crystallization onset temperatures was determined. Bending and rapid deformation (impact tests indicated the interfacial adhesion. The enamel/aluminum interfacial qualities were viewed and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. A large amount of NaF and P2O5 in their formulation created opaque enamels. The three methods of melt dipping, pouring, and sintering were used to apply layers of enamels on aluminum plates. The novelty of the pouring and spreading method and its advantages over other methods, were in the use of lower stability and higher melting point enamels, without thermally/mechanically damaging the aluminum. Observations suggested that the interfacial contact and adhesion properties were good, particularly with the transparent or glassy state enamels.

  1. Functionalized Nano-Film Microchannel Plate: A Single High Aspect Ratio Device for High Resolution, Low Noise Astronomical Imaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to apply proven nano-film technology to enable Microchannel plate (MCP) devices to be manufactured on a range of insulating substrates and...

  2. Transparent conductor based on aluminum nanomesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarkin, B; Mohammed, A S; Stsiapanau, A; Zhuk, S; Satskevich, Y; Smirnov, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a transparent conductor based on Al nanomesh, which was fabricated through Al anodization and etching processes. The Al anodization was performed at low temperature condition to slow down the anodization rate to achieve the well-controlled thickness of an Al nanomesh. By careful controlling of the anodization process, we can fabricate Al nanomesh transparent conductors with different sheet resistance and optical transparency in the visible spectrum range. We shall show that Al nanomesh transparent conductor is a strong contender for a transparent conductor dominated by ITO

  3. Transparency in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with transparency schemes based on sharp cutoff models are discussed. The soft spheres model of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been used to explore the influence of the realistic nuclear density geometry on transparency. An average nuclear transparency and an average reaction transparency are defined and their dependence on target and projectile dimensions and on the hadron-nucleon collision cross section are described. The results are expected to be valid for projectile energies above several hundred MeV/nucleon through the ultrarelativistic regime. For uniform (hard sphere) nuclear profiles, methods for obtaining effective total transparencies are suggested

  4. Propagation Characteristics of Multilayer Hybrid Insulator-Metal-Insulator and Metal-Insulator-Metal Plasmonic Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Talafi Noghani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of symmetrical and asymmetrical multilayer hybrid insulator-metal-insulator (HIMI and metal-insulator-metal (HMIM plasmonic slab waveguides are investigated using the transfer matrix method. Propagation length (Lp and spatial length (Ls are used as two figures of merit to qualitate the plasmonic waveguides. Symmetrical structures are shown to be more performant (having higher Lp and lower Ls, nevertheless it is shown that usage of asymmetrical geometry could compensate for the performance degradation in practically realized HIMI waveguides with different substrate materials. It is found that HMIM slab waveguide could support almost long-range subdiffraction plasmonic modes at dimensions lower than the spatial length of the HIMI slab waveguide.

  5. Electrical insulation for large multiaxis superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.R.; Rinde, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of interturn and interlayer insulation for superconducting magnets is discussed. The magnet problems of the Baseball II device are described. Manufacture of the insulation and radiation damage are mentioned. A planned experimental program is outlined

  6. Emerging Trends in Topological Insulators and Topological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/reso/022/08/0787-0800. Keywords. Superconductor, quantum Hall effect, topological insulator, Majorana fermions. Abstract. Topological insulators are new class of materials which arecharacterized by a bulk band gap like ordinary ...

  7. Exploring Quantitative Framework to Evaluate Nuclear Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jeemin; Yim, Mansung; Park, Hyeon Seok

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a definition of nuclear transparency is elaborated and ways to represent a country's nuclear transparency are examined. For evaluating nuclear transparency, it is necessary to define three elements first; an information seeker who wants to see, an information seek whom an information seeker wants to see, and information related to nuclear materials and activities. The States with high capacity of civilian nuclear power had a tendency to follow IAEA safeguards agreements well. And it means that their levels of the transparency are relatively high. Besides, the data of international assurances is one of the good indicators to confirm States' transparency. The current study explored the use of two measures, IAEA safeguards and voluntary reporting as a way to represent nuclear transparency. Using these measures seemed to agree with the notion that nuclear transparency is important in the success of civilian nuclear power development

  8. Practice Variation in Big-4 Transparency Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girdhar, Sakshi; Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency reports published by the Big-4 public accounting firms in the UK, Germany and Denmark to understand the determinants of their content within the networks of big accounting firms. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws...... on a qualitative research approach, in which the content of transparency reports is analyzed and semi-structured interviews are conducted with key people from the Big-4 firms who are responsible for developing the transparency reports. Findings: The findings show that the content of transparency reports...... is inconsistent and the transparency reporting practice is not uniform within the Big-4 networks. Differences were found in the way in which the transparency reporting practices are coordinated globally by the respective central governing bodies of the Big-4. The content of the transparency reports...

  9. Research on shielding neutron efficiency of some boron-bearing fabric and transparent resin materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Su Jingling; Wang Zheng

    1995-01-01

    The shielding neutron efficiency of boron-bearing materials developed recently is introduced. The thermal neutron shield ratios for two kinds of non-woven cloth with thickness of 58 mg/cm 2 and 153 mg/cm 2 are 51% and 79% respectively. Their mass attenuation coefficient for 0.186, 24.4 and 144 keV neutron are 1.56, 1.29 and 0.9 cm 2 /g respectively. The thermal neutron shield ratio is 85% for the natural boron-bearing transparent resin plate with the thickness of 0.59 g/cm 2 , and 97% for enriched boron or gadolinium bearing resin plate. The shield ratios of all three materials for 24.4 keV neutrons are 38%. The transparence of natural light for enriched boron-bearing resin plates shows no considerable change after they were exposed to thermal neutrons up to 6 Sv. After they were exposed up to 20 Sv, the transparence decreases to 50% but thermal neutron shield ratio does not change. The gadolinium-bearing plate has a very strong thermal neutron-capture gamma radiation and its dose-equivalent is greater than that of incident thermal neutrons

  10. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  11. On effective holographic Mott insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology,Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2016-12-20

    We present a class of holographic models that behave effectively as prototypes of Mott insulators — materials where electron-electron interactions dominate transport phenomena. The main ingredient in the gravity dual is that the gauge-field dynamics contains self-interactions by way of a particular type of non-linear electrodynamics. The electrical response in these models exhibits typical features of Mott-like states: i) the low-temperature DC conductivity is unboundedly low; ii) metal-insulator transitions appear by varying various parameters; iii) for large enough self-interaction strength, the conductivity can even decrease with increasing doping (density of carriers) — which appears as a sharp manifestation of ‘traffic-jam’-like behaviour; iv) the insulating state becomes very unstable towards superconductivity at large enough doping. We exhibit some of the properties of the resulting insulator-superconductor transition, which is sensitive to the momentum dissipation rate in a specific way. These models imply a clear and generic correlation between Mott behaviour and significant effects in the nonlinear electrical response. We compute the nonlinear current-voltage curve in our model and find that indeed at large voltage the conductivity is largely reduced.

  12. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K.E.L.

    2010-01-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and often exhibit poor reliability. Two technical approaches to solving this problem will be investigated. Firstly, inverted ceramics offer solutions for reduced gradients between the electrodes and ground. An inverted design will be presented for 350 kV, with maximum gradients in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Secondly, novel ceramic manufacturing processes will be studied, in order to protect triple junction locations from emission, by applying a coating with a bulk resistivity. The processes for creating this coating will be optimized to provide protection as well as be used to coat a ceramic with an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of an HV standoff ceramic cylinder. Example insulator designs are being computer modelled, and insulator samples are being manufactured and tested

  13. On effective holographic Mott insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    We present a class of holographic models that behave effectively as prototypes of Mott insulators — materials where electron-electron interactions dominate transport phenomena. The main ingredient in the gravity dual is that the gauge-field dynamics contains self-interactions by way of a particular type of non-linear electrodynamics. The electrical response in these models exhibits typical features of Mott-like states: i) the low-temperature DC conductivity is unboundedly low; ii) metal-insulator transitions appear by varying various parameters; iii) for large enough self-interaction strength, the conductivity can even decrease with increasing doping (density of carriers) — which appears as a sharp manifestation of ‘traffic-jam’-like behaviour; iv) the insulating state becomes very unstable towards superconductivity at large enough doping. We exhibit some of the properties of the resulting insulator-superconductor transition, which is sensitive to the momentum dissipation rate in a specific way. These models imply a clear and generic correlation between Mott behaviour and significant effects in the nonlinear electrical response. We compute the nonlinear current-voltage curve in our model and find that indeed at large voltage the conductivity is largely reduced.

  14. Thermal insulation of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovcak, P.; Pec, V.; Pitonak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The claim of the invention concerns thermal insulation of fuel elements heated for measurement of uranium fuel physical properties. For this, layers of aluminium film and of glass fibre are wound onto the inner tube of the element cladding. The space between the inner and the outer tubes is evacuated and the tubes are spaced using spacer wires. (M.S.)

  15. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  16. Optimization design for SST-1 Tokamak insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanbin; Pan Wanjiang

    2012-01-01

    With the help of ANSYS FEA technique, high voltage and cryogenic proper- ties of the SST-1 Tokamak insulators were obtained, and the structure of the insulators was designed and modified by taking into account the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the optimization structure has better high voltage insulating property and cryogenic mechanics property, and also can fulfill the qualification criteria of the SST-1 Tokamak insulators. (authors)

  17. Transparency as an element of public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the modern society, there is increasing demands for greater transparency. It has been discussed with respect to corruption or ethics issues in social science. The need for greater openness and transparency in nuclear regulation is widely recognised as public expectations on regulator grow. It is also related to the digital and information technology that enables disclosures of every activity and information of individual and organisation, characterised by numerous 'small brothers'. Transparency has become a key word in this ubiquitous era. Transparency in regulatory activities needs to be understood in following contexts. First, transparency is one of elements to build public confidence in regulator and eventually to achieve regulatory goal of providing the public with satisfaction at nuclear safety. Transparent bases of competence, independence, ethics and integrity of working process of regulatory body would enhance public confidence. Second, activities transmitting information on nuclear safety and preparedness to be accessed are different types of transparency. Communication is an active method of transparency. With increasing use of web-sites, 'digital transparency' is also discussed as passive one. Transparency in regulatory process may be more important than that of contents. Simply providing more information is of little value and specific information may need to be protected for security reason. Third, transparency should be discussed in international, national and organizational perspectives. It has been demanded through international instruments. for each country, transparency is demanded by residents, public, NGOs, media and other stakeholders. Employees also demand more transparency in operating and regulatory organisations. Whistle-blower may appear unless they are satisfied. Fourth, pursuing transparency may cause undue social cost or adverse effects. Over-transparency may decrease public confidence and the process for transparency may also hinder

  18. An optically transparent and flexible memory with embedded gold nanoparticles in a polymethylsilsesquioxane dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, P.C.; Aw, K.C.; Gao, W.; Razak, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated a simple fabrication route towards an optically transparent and flexible memory device. The device is simple and consists of a metal/insulator/semiconductor structure; namely MIS. The preliminary MIS study with gold nanoparticles embedded between the polymethylsilsesquioxane layers was fabricated on p-Si substrate and the capacitance versus voltage measurements confirmed the charge trapped capability of the fabricated MIS memory device. Subsequently, an optically transparent and flexible MIS memory device made from indium–tin-oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate substrate and pentacene was used to replace the opaque p-Si substrate as the active layer. Current versus voltage (I–V) plot of the transparent and flexible device shows the presence of hysteresis. In an I–V plot, three distinct regions have been identified and the transport mechanisms are explained. The fabricated optically transparent and mechanically flexible MIS memory device can be programmed and erased multiple times, similar to a flash memory. Mechanical characterization to determine the robustness of the flexible memory device was also conducted but failed to establish any relationship in this preliminary work as the effect was random. Hence, more work is needed to understand the reliability of this device, especially when they are subjected to mechanical stress. - Highlights: ► An optically transparent and mechanically flexible memory is presented. ► Electrical characteristics show reprogrammable memory similar to flash memory. ► Transport mechanisms are proposed and explained. ► Mechanical bending tests are conducted

  19. An optically transparent and flexible memory with embedded gold nanoparticles in a polymethylsilsesquioxane dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, P.C. [Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland (New Zealand); Aw, K.C., E-mail: k.aw@auckland.ac.nz [Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland (New Zealand); Gao, W. [Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland (New Zealand); Razak, K.A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains (Malaysia); NanoBiotechnology Research and Innovation, INFORMM, Universiti Sains (Malaysia)

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrated a simple fabrication route towards an optically transparent and flexible memory device. The device is simple and consists of a metal/insulator/semiconductor structure; namely MIS. The preliminary MIS study with gold nanoparticles embedded between the polymethylsilsesquioxane layers was fabricated on p-Si substrate and the capacitance versus voltage measurements confirmed the charge trapped capability of the fabricated MIS memory device. Subsequently, an optically transparent and flexible MIS memory device made from indium–tin-oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate substrate and pentacene was used to replace the opaque p-Si substrate as the active layer. Current versus voltage (I–V) plot of the transparent and flexible device shows the presence of hysteresis. In an I–V plot, three distinct regions have been identified and the transport mechanisms are explained. The fabricated optically transparent and mechanically flexible MIS memory device can be programmed and erased multiple times, similar to a flash memory. Mechanical characterization to determine the robustness of the flexible memory device was also conducted but failed to establish any relationship in this preliminary work as the effect was random. Hence, more work is needed to understand the reliability of this device, especially when they are subjected to mechanical stress. - Highlights: ► An optically transparent and mechanically flexible memory is presented. ► Electrical characteristics show reprogrammable memory similar to flash memory. ► Transport mechanisms are proposed and explained. ► Mechanical bending tests are conducted.

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  4. Three-dimensionally embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) films in photosensitive glass: a transparent and conductive platform for microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, S.; Sugioka, K.; Midorikawa, K.; Koroesi, L.; Dekany, I.

    2011-01-01

    A new method for embedding transparent and conductive two- and three-dimensional microstructures in glass is presented. We show that the internal surface of hollow structures fabricated by femtosecond-laser direct writing inside the photosensitive glass can be coated by indium tin oxide (Sn-doped In 2 O 3 , ITO) using a sol-gel process. The idea of combining two transparent materials with different electrical properties, i.e., insulating and conductive, is very promising and hence it opens new prospects in manufacturing cutting edge microdevices, such as lab-on-a-chips (LOCs) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). (orig.)

  5. The main building of the 'Societe generale de surveillance (SGS)'. Transparency and modernity.; Le siege de la SGS. Transparence et modernite.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A.

    2000-07-01

    The construction of the new building that will shelter the direction of the 'Societe generale de surveillance' in Geneva (Switzerland) is presented. It is mainly based on two priorities: transparency and minimum environmental impact. The building, realised with a metallic structure, possesses totally transparent facades composed of a double thermally insulating exterior pane and a simple movable interior pane. In order to respect the urban environment where the building sits, the engineers had to avoid any combustion heater and cooling towers on the roof. Considering the lake proximity, a reversible heat pump has been chosen as a source of energy for the air-conditioning system, the lake water being the cold source. Two large tanks containing hot water and ice contribute to reduce the temperature fluctuations and limit the temperature of the heated water returned to the lake when working in cooling mode.

  6. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  7. Insulator applications in a Tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.

    1986-06-01

    Insulators, among which insulators ceramics, have great potential applications in fusion reactors. They will be used for all plasma-facing components as protection and, magnetic fusion devices being subject to large electrical currents flowing in any parts of the device, for their electrical insulating properties

  8. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  9. Bipolar resistive switching in metal-insulator-semiconductor nanostructures based on silicon nitride and silicon oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryazhkina, M. N.; Tikhov, S. V.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Belov, A. I.; Korolev, D. S.; Antonov, I. N.; Karzanov, V. V.; Gorshkov, O. N.; Tetelbaum, D. I.; Karakolis, P.; Dimitrakis, P.

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar resistive switching in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor-like structures with an inert Au top electrode and a Si3N4 insulator nanolayer (6 nm thick) has been observed. The effect of a highly doped n +-Si substrate and a SiO2 interlayer (2 nm) is revealed in the changes in the semiconductor space charge region and small-signal parameters of parallel and serial equivalent circuit models measured in the high- and low-resistive capacitor states, as well as under laser illumination. The increase in conductivity of the semiconductor capacitor plate significantly reduces the charging and discharging times of capacitor-like structures.

  10. Magnetic insulation in triplate and coaxial vacuum transmission lines. Report PIFR-1009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Capua, M.; Pellinen, D.G.

    1980-08-01

    An experimental investigation was made of magnetically insulated transmission lines for use in an electron beam fusion accelerator. The magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines would transfer the power pulses from many modules to a single diode region or multiple diodes to generate currents on the order of 100 MA. This approach may allow present limits on power flow through dielectric vacuum interfaces to be overcome. We have investigated symmetric parallel plate (triplate) transmission lines with a wave impedance of 24 Ω and a spacing of 1.9 cm, and coaxial transmission lines (coax) with a wave impedance of 42 Ω and a spacing of 2.9 cm

  11. Measurements of the Secondary Electron Emission of Some Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhko, Y.; Hilleret, N.

    2013-01-01

    Charging up the surface of an insulator after beam impact can lead either to reverse sign of field between the surface and collector of electrons for case of thick sample or appearance of very high internal field for thin films. Both situations discard correct measurements of secondary electron emission (SEE) and can be avoided via reducing the beam dose. The single pulse method with pulse duration of order of tens microseconds has been used. The beam pulsing was carried out by means of an analog switch introduced in deflection plate circuit which toggles its output between "beam on" and "beam off" voltages depending on level of a digital pulse. The error in measuring the beam current for insulators with high value of SEE was significantly reduced due to the use for this purpose a titanium sample having low value of the SEE with DC method applied. Results obtained for some not coated insulators show considerable increase of the SEE after baking out at 3500C what could be explained by the change of work functi...

  12. Transparency as Ideal and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    New Public Management (NPM) ideas and practices have significantly reshaped labour market policy. This article takes a closer look at some of the implications of NPM practices and “audit culture” at local Public Employment Service (PES) authorities in Sweden. Based on interviews with staff...... of government” that make transparent and “legible” desirable traits in the individual. Such classificatory schemes, we argue, are integral parts of the operational procedures of NPM. Moreover, the analysis shows that the categories through which the individual moves are plastic and pliable in relation...... to political predicates and labour market fluctuations. In this process, employability and disability become floating categories...

  13. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  14. Current-induced switching in a magnetic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Quindeau, Andy; Pai, Chi-Feng; Mann, Maxwell; Caretta, Lucas; Tang, Astera S.; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-03-01

    The spin Hall effect in heavy metals converts charge current into pure spin current, which can be injected into an adjacent ferromagnet to exert a torque. This spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been widely used to manipulate the magnetization in metallic ferromagnets. In the case of magnetic insulators (MIs), although charge currents cannot flow, spin currents can propagate, but current-induced control of the magnetization in a MI has so far remained elusive. Here we demonstrate spin-current-induced switching of a perpendicularly magnetized thulium iron garnet film driven by charge current in a Pt overlayer. We estimate a relatively large spin-mixing conductance and damping-like SOT through spin Hall magnetoresistance and harmonic Hall measurements, respectively, indicating considerable spin transparency at the Pt/MI interface. We show that spin currents injected across this interface lead to deterministic magnetization reversal at low current densities, paving the road towards ultralow-dissipation spintronic devices based on MIs.

  15. Insulation design of cryogenic bushing for superconducting electric power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J.Y., E-mail: koojy@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y.J.; Shin, W.J.; Kim, Y.H. [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.W. [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.H., E-mail: k720lsh@kins.re.kr [Expert Group Electric and Control Department, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. ► We focused on the comparative study of breakdown characteristics of different electrode materials. ► Puncture and creepage breakdown characteristics were analyzed based on the withstand voltage. ► We obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing. ► We obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic environment. -- Abstract: Recently, the superconductivity projects to develop commercial superconducting devices for extra high voltage transmission lines have been undergoing in many countries. One of the critical components to be developed for high voltage superconducting devices, including superconducting transformers, cables, and fault current limiters, is a high voltage bushing, to supply high current to devices without insulating difficulties, that is designed for cryogenic environments. Unfortunately, suitable bushings for HTS equipment were not fully developed for some cryogenic insulation issues. Such high voltage bushings would need to provide electrical insulation capabilities from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. First, the dielectric strength of three kinds of metals has been measured with uniform and non-uniform electrodes by withstand voltage of impulse and AC breakdown test in LN{sub 2}. Second, puncture breakdown voltage of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) plates has been analyzed with non-uniform electrodes. Finally, creepage discharge voltages were measured according to the configuration of non-uniform and uniform electrode on the FRP plate. From the test results, we obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic

  16. Improving the Performance of a Semitransparent BIPV by Using High-Reflectivity Heat Insulation Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Mei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, standard semitransparent photovoltaic (PV modules can largely replace architectural glass installed in the windows, skylights, and facade of a building. Their main features are power generation and transparency, as well as possessing a heat insulating effect. Through heat insulation solar glass (HISG encapsulation technology, this study improved the structure of a typical semitransparent PV module and explored the use of three types of high-reflectivity heat insulation films to form the HISG building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV systems. Subsequently, the authors analyzed the influence of HISG structures on the optical, thermal, and power generation performance of the original semitransparent PV module and the degree to which enhanced performance is possible. The experimental results indicated that the heat insulation performance and power generation of HISGs were both improved. Selecting an appropriate heat insulation film so that a larger amount of reflective solar radiation is absorbed by the back side of the HISG can yield greater enhancement of power generation. The numerical results conducted in this study also indicated that HISG BIPV system not only provides the passive energy needed for power loading in a building, but also decreases the energy consumption of the HVAC system in subtropical and temperate regions.

  17. Dielectric and Insulating Technology 2005 : Reviews & Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Tatsuki

    This article reports the state-of-art of TC-DEI ( Technical Committee of Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation of IEEJ) activites. The activiteis are basically based on the activites of 8-10 investigation committees under TC-DEI. Recent activites were categorized into three functions in this article and remarkable activity or trend for each category is mentioned as was done in the article of 2003. Thoese are activities on asset management (AI application and insulation diagnosis), activities on new insulating and functional materials (Nano composite) and activities on new insulation technology for power tansmission (high Tc superconducting cable insulation).

  18. Dielectric and Insulating Technology 2006 : Review & Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Tatsuki

    This article reports the state-of-art of TC-DEI ( Technical Committee of Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation of IEEJ) activites. The activiteis are basically based on the activites of 8-10 investigation committees under TC-DEI. Recent activites were categorized into three functions in this article and remarkable activity or trend for each category is mentioned as was seen in the articles of 2005. Those are activities on asset management (AI application and insulation diagnosis), activities on new insulating and functional materials (Nano composite) and activities on new insulation technology for power tansmission (high Tc superconducting cable insulation).

  19. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  20. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  1. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  2. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  3. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  4. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  5. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  6. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... narrative transparency. Central to narrative transparency is an emphasis on stake-holder dialogue and an invitation to stake-holders to play the role of auditor. This article illustrates how alternative marketing organisations engage in rhetorical tactics central to a narrative approach, to communicate...... transparency to their stakeholders. These rhetorical tactics include persona, allegory, consumer sovereignty and enlightenment. Community supported agriculture programmes from across the United States are the context for this study. Findings enrich discussions about best practices for transparency...

  7. Quantum fluctuations in insulating ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It has been proposed that in a ferroelectric insulator, an applied magnetic field may couple the transverse phonon modes and produce left and right circularly polarized phonon modes which are no longer degenerate. We quantize the theory and examine the effects of quantal fluctuations. In particular, we show that the zero point fluctuations result in a large diamagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility. - Abstract: It has been proposed that in a ferroelectric insulator, an applied magnetic field may couple the transverse phonon modes and produce left and right circularly polarized phonon modes which are no longer degenerate. We quantize the theory and examine the effects of quantal fluctuations. In particular, we show that the zero-point fluctuations result in a large diamagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility.

  8. Multilayer Insulation Ascent Venting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, R. W.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Johnson, W. L.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal and venting transient experienced by tank-applied multilayer insulation (MLI) in the Earth-to-orbit environment is very dynamic and not well characterized. This new predictive code is a first principles-based engineering model which tracks the time history of the mass and temperature (internal energy) of the gas in each MLI layer. A continuum-based model is used for early portions of the trajectory while a kinetic theory-based model is used for the later portions of the trajectory, and the models are blended based on a reference mean free path. This new capability should improve understanding of the Earth-to-orbit transient and enable better insulation system designs for in-space cryogenic propellant systems.

  9. Chiral topological insulator of magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a magnon realization of 3D topological insulator in the AIII (chiral symmetry) topological class. The topological magnon gap opens due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. The existence of the topological invariant is established by calculating the bulk winding number of the system. Within our model, the surface magnon Dirac cone is protected by the sublattice chiral symmetry. By analyzing the magnon surface modes, we confirm that the backscattering is prohibited. By weakly breaking the chiral symmetry, we observe the magnon Hall response on the surface due to opening of the gap. Finally, we show that by changing certain parameters, the system can be tuned between the chiral topological insulator, three-dimensional magnon anomalous Hall, and Weyl magnon phases.

  10. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  11. Insulation assembly for electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Frederick W.; Titmuss, David F.; Parish, Harold; Campbell, John D.

    2013-10-15

    An insulation assembly is provided that includes a generally annularly-shaped main body and at least two spaced-apart fingers extending radially inwards from the main body. The spaced-apart fingers define a gap between the fingers. A slot liner may be inserted within the gap. The main body may include a plurality of circumferentially distributed segments. Each one of the plurality of segments may be operatively connected to another of the plurality of segments to form the continuous main body. The slot liner may be formed as a single extruded piece defining a plurality of cavities. A plurality of conductors (extendable from the stator assembly) may be axially inserted within a respective one of the plurality of cavities. The insulation assembly electrically isolates the conductors in the electric motor from the stator stack and from other conductors.

  12. Privacy-Preserving Transparency-Enhancing Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Pulls, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Transparency is a key principle in democratic societies. For example, the public sector is in part kept honest and fair with the help of transparency through different freedom of information (FOI) legislations. In the last decades, while FOI legislations have been adopted by more and more countries worldwide, we have entered the information age enabled by the rapid development of information technology. This has led to the need for technological solutions that enhance transparency, for exampl...

  13. Towards Transparency in Finance and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Tara Vishwanath; Daniel Kaufmann

    2003-01-01

    The study of transparency is increasingly a more topical, broadly relevant, but also more under-researched enterprise. The Asian financial crisis has highlighted not only the welfare consequences of financial sector transparency, sparking a series of yet unresolved debates, but has also linked this relatively narrow problem to the broader context of transparency in governance. Its significance has broadened geographically as well as across different sectors. It has been observed that curtailm...

  14. The Multi-Faceted Concept of Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Transparency has become a catchword and in the economic-political debate is often seen as a universal remedy for all sorts of problems. In this paper, we analyze and discuss the meaning and use of the concept of transparency in economic research. We look for common denominators across different areas where the concept is used, and find that transparency in essence is about reductions in information asymmetries, and therefore entails the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver. Tra...

  15. Liquidity and Transparency in Bank Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lev Ratnovski

    2013-01-01

    Banks may be unable to refinance short-term liabilities in case of solvency concerns. To manage this risk, banks can accumulate a buffer of liquid assets, or strengthen transparency to communicate solvency. While a liquidity buffer provides complete insurance against small shocks, transparency covers also large shocks but imperfectly. Due to leverage, an unregulated bank may choose insufficient liquidity buffers and transparency. The regulatory response is constained: while liquidity buffers ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving Options Memorial Giving Brochures & Envelopes ... to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of ... Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $50 $100 $250 $500 Other Other Ways ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... 800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close ... your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ...

  11. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  15. Secondary electron emission from insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, K.; Ono, S.; Ishigaki, F.

    1978-01-01

    The high yield of secondary electron emission from insulators due to electron bombardment may be the result of an increase of the depth of escape. The free-electron scattering theory is applied to the high energy of primary beams, but cannot be applied to the low energy of secondary escaping beams because of the large energy gap of the insulators. The plasmon loss with the valence electron is considered when the secondary electrons escape. Based on the energy retardation power formula of the penetration and energy loss of an electron probe into solid targets, secondary electron emissions from insulators are calculated from the assumptions that the distribution of the secondary electrons due to both incident and back-scattered electrons within the target is isotropic and that it follows the absorption law of the Lenard type. The universal yield-energy curve of the secondary electron emission, which is deduced as a function of three parameters such as ionisation potential, valence electron and the back-scattered coefficient in addition to the free-electron density effect, is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  16. 3 CFR - Transparency and Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy... public. Government should be participatory. Public engagement enhances the Government's effectiveness and...

  17. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  18. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  19. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Caramel, uranium oxide fuel plates for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussy, Pierre; Delafosse, Jacques; Lestiboudois, Guy; Cerles, J.-M.; Schwartz, J.-P.

    1979-01-01

    The fuel is composed of thin plates assembled parallel to each other to form bundles or assemblies. Each plate is composed of a pavement of uranium oxide pellets, insulated from each other by a zircaloy cladding. The 235 U enrichment does not exceed 8%. The range of uses for this fuel extends from electric power generating reactors to irradiation reactors for research work. A parametric study in test loops has made it possible to determine the operating limits of this thick fuel, without bursting. The resulting diagram gives the permissible power densities, with and without cycling for specific burn-ups beyond 50,000 MWd/t. The thinnest plates were also irradiated in total in the form of advance assemblies irradiated in the core of the OSIRIS pile prior to its transformation. This transformation and the operation of this reactor with a core of 'Caramel' elements is the main trial experiment of this fuel [fr

  1. Detection of wall thinning of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation using Pulsed Eddy Current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Duckgun; Kishore, M. B.; Lee, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The test sample is a ferromagnetic carbon steel pipe having different thickness, covered with a 10 cm plastic insulation laminated by 0.4 mm Al plate to simulate the pipelines in NPPs. The PEC Probe used for the wall thinning detection consists of an excitation coil and a Hall sensor. The excitation coils in the probe is driven by a rectangular bipolar current pulse and the Hall-sensor will detects the resultant field. The Hall sensor output is considered as PEC signal. Results shows that the PEC system can detect wall thinning in an insulated pipeline of the NPPs. Local wall thinning in pipelines affects the structural integrity of industries like nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the present study a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology to detect the wall thing of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation is developed

  2. Effects of insulation on potted superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, A.F.; DeKamp, J.C.; Magsig, C.T.; Nolen, J.A.; McInturff, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Test coils using identical wire but with either Formvar or Polyesterimid insulation were fabricated to determine the effects of insulation on training behavior. It was found that the type of insulation did not affect the training behavior. While considerable attention has been paid to epoxy formulations used for superconducting coils, little study has been devoted to the effects of the wire insulation on training behavior. If the insulation does not bind well with the epoxy, the wires will not be held securely in place, and training will be required to make the coil operate at its design limit. In fact, the coil may never reach its design current, showing considerable degredation. Conversely, if the epoxy-insulation reaction is to soften or weaken the insulation, then shorts and/or training may result. The authors have undertaken a study of the effects of the insulation on potted coils wet wound with Stycast 2850 FT epoxy. The wire was insulated with one of two insulting varnishes: Formvar (a polyvinyl formal resin) or Polyesterimid (a phenolic resin). Formvar is the standard insulation in the United States while Polyesterimid the European standard

  3. Insulator-insulator and insulator-conductor transitions in the phase diagram of aluminium trichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Ruberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a classical computer-simulation study of the phase diagram of AlCl3 in the pressure-temperature (p, T plane, showing (i that melting from a layered crystal structure occurs into a molecular liquid at low (p, T and into a dissociated ionic liquid at high (p, T, and (ii that a broad transition from a molecular insulator to an ionic conductor takes place in the liquid state.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL MATERIALS EMBEDDED INTO COMPOSITES UPON THE THERMAL INSULATING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa-Maria BRENCI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a research performed in order to design and manufacture composites that embed in their structure ecological raw materials, such as wood chips and hemp hurds. The thermal conductivity was determined for a temperature difference (ΔT of 200 C between the cold plate and warm plate and the measurements were done in eight points. The results showed that the best insulating composite material was obtained for the structure containing equal shares of wood chips and chopped hemp

  5. Experience in concreting of foundation plate for turbine plant at the Krimea NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorkin, L.I.; Glaznev, M.N.; Khojna, Eh.K.; Yanishevskij, I.V.; Orlovskij, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of a concrete mixture and methods of concreting when constructing the foundation plate for the Crimea NPP turbo-unit are described. The nomogram developed for operative determination of the heat insulation thickness of the poured concrete is presented

  6. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr. [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  7. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards

  8. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jr, Thomas G [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  9. Radiation-shielding transparent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumeki, Asao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To obtain radiation-shielding transparent material having a high resistivity to the radioactive rays or light irradiation which is greater at least by two digits as compared with lead glass. Constitution : The shielding material is composed of a saturated aqueous solution zinc iodide. Zinc iodide (specific gravity of 4.2) is dissolved by 430 g into 100 cc of water at a temperature of 20 0 C and forms a heavy liquid with a specific gravity of 2.80. The radiation length of the heavy liquid is 3.8 cm which is 1.5 times as large as lead glass. The light transmission is greater than 95% in average. Furthermore, by adding hypophosphorous acid as a reducing agent to the aqueous solution of the lead iodide, the material is stabilized against the irradiation of light or radioactive rays and causes no discoloration for a long time. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Transparency and public value : Analyzing the transparency practices and value creation of public utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, S.C.; Meijer, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent transparency is a condition for the creation of public value. Transparency is usually narrowly defined as a tool for external stakeholders to monitor the internal workings of an organization, but public value management positions transparency as a broader

  11. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  12. Analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xianping; Wei, Zhongchao; Liu, Yuebo; Zhong, Nianfa; Tan, Xiaopei; Shi, Songsong; Liu, Hongzhan; Liang, Ruisheng

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated the analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator. A reasonable analysis of the transmission feature based on the temporal coupled-mode theory is given and shows good agreement with the Finit-Difference Time-Domain simulation. The transparency window can be easily tuned by changing the geometrical parameters and the insulator filled in the resonator. The transmission of the resonator system is close to 80% and the full width at half maximum is less than 46 nm. The sensitivity of the structure is about 812 nm/RIU. These characteristics make the new system with potential to apply for optical storage, ultrafast plasmonic switch and slow-light devices.

  13. Active Enhancement of Slow Light Based on Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Gain Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Yang, Junbo; He, Xin; Han, Yunxin; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Xu, Siyu

    2018-06-03

    As a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) has drawn more attention due to its potential of realizing on-chip sensing, slow light and nonlinear effect enhancement. However, the performance of a plasmonic system is always limited by the metal ohmic loss. Here, we numerically report a PIT system with gain materials based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide. The corresponding phenomenon can be theoretically analyzed by coupled mode theory (CMT). After filling gain material into a disk cavity, the system intrinsic loss can be compensated by external pump beam, and the PIT can be greatly fueled to achieve a dramatic enhancement of slow light performance. Finally, a double-channel enhanced slow light is introduced by adding a second gain disk cavity. This work paves way for a potential new high-performance slow light device, which can have significant applications for high-compact plasmonic circuits and optical communication.

  14. Transparent, high mobility InGaZnO thin films deposited by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, Arun; Gollakota, Praveen; Wellenius, Patrick; Dhawan, Anuj; Muth, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaZnO, thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. The carrier concentration was found to vary by several orders of magnitude from insulating to 10 19 carriers/cm 3 depending on the oxygen partial pressure during deposition. Hall mobilities as high as 16 cm 2 /V s were observed. This is approximately an order of magnitude higher than the mobility of amorphous silicon and indicates that InGaO 3 (ZnO) x with x ≤ 5 may be suitable for transparent, thin film transistor applications. Post-deposition annealing was found to strongly influence the carrier concentration while annealing effects on the electron mobility was less influential

  15. Analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xianping; Wei, Zhongchao, E-mail: wzc@scnu.edu.cn; Liu, Yuebo; Zhong, Nianfa; Tan, Xiaopei; Shi, Songsong; Liu, Hongzhan; Liang, Ruisheng

    2016-01-08

    We have demonstrated the analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator. A reasonable analysis of the transmission feature based on the temporal coupled-mode theory is given and shows good agreement with the Finit-Difference Time-Domain simulation. The transparency window can be easily tuned by changing the geometrical parameters and the insulator filled in the resonator. The transmission of the resonator system is close to 80% and the full width at half maximum is less than 46 nm. The sensitivity of the structure is about 812 nm/RIU. These characteristics make the new system with potential to apply for optical storage, ultrafast plasmonic switch and slow-light devices.

  16. Development of a high power electron beam welding gun with replaceable high voltage feed-through insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, T.K; Mascarenhas, M.; Kandaswamy, E., E-mail: tanmay@barc.gov.in [Power Beam Equipment Design Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Ceramic to metal sealed feed-through insulators are commonly used in electron beam welding gun. The above feed-through insulators are susceptible to failure, as the brazing joints in them are not always very strong. Failure in one of these feed-through could render the complete gun unusable. This problem has already been faced in BARC, which led to the development of the electron gun with replaceable feed through insulators. A 24 kW Electron Beam Welding (EBW) gun with indigenous designed replaceable insulators is fabricated in BARC. Emphasis during the design of the gun had been to reduce the use of imported components to zero. This paper describes the design and fabrication of this gun and reports various simulations and tests performed. Beam trajectory of the gun is numerically computed and presented. Weld passes were carried out on stainless steel plates show satisfactory penetrations. (author)

  17. Thermal Simulation of Switching Pulses in an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Power Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    executed with SolidWorks Flow Simulation , a computational fluid-dynamics code. The graph in Fig. 2 shows the timing and amplitudes of power pulses...defined a convective flow of air perpendicular to the bottom surface of the mounting plate, with a velocity of 10 ft/s. The thermal simulations were...Thermal Simulation of Switching Pulses in an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Power Module by Gregory K Ovrebo ARL-TR-7210

  18. Femtosecond laser damage threshold and nonlinear characterization in bulk transparent SiC materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesAutels, G. Logan; Finet, Marc; Ristich, Scott; Whitaker, Matt; Brewer, Chris; Juhl, Shane; Walker, Mark; Powers, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Semi-insulating and conducting SiC crystalline transparent substrates were studied after being processed by femtosecond (fs) laser radiation (780 nm at 160 fs). Z-scan and damage threshold experiments were performed on both SiC bulk materials to determine each sample's nonlinear and threshold parameters. 'Damage' in this text refers to an index of refraction modification as observed visually under an optical microscope. In addition, a study was performed to understand the damage threshold as a function of numerical aperture. Presented here for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, are the damage threshold, nonlinear index of refraction, and nonlinear absorption measured values

  19. Transparent face recognition in the home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, G.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The BASIS project is about the secure application of transparent biometrics in the home environment. Due to transparency and home-setting requirements there is variance in appearance of the subject. An other problem which needs attention is the extraction of features. The quality of the extracted

  20. Transparency | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transparency means openness. It allows Canadians to hold the government accountable through the proactive release of information on government activities, programs, policies, and services in formats that are easy to find, access, and use. Transparency is the key element in the Government of Canada's Commitment to ...

  1. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    .... Therefore, a published budget that does not include significant cash or non-cash resources, including... transparency is a critical element of effective public financial management, helps build market confidence, and sets the stage for economic sustainability. Transparency also provides a window into government budgets...

  2. Substantive Transparency Requirements in International Investment Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Jens Hillebrand

    2017-01-01

    Few concepts in public governance evoke a more positive sentiment than transparency. Whether ultimately grounded in expediency or morality, transparency has emerged out of its municipal origins and been received at the international plane. This article examines the current state of evolution of the

  3. Transparency and Its Determinants at Colombian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Parra, Jesús Mauricio; López-Pérez, María Victoria; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, one of the demands upon public institutions, among which we find universities, has been for transparency and improvement of accountability. In this context, Colombian universities are introducing different methods of management and governance aimed at addressing the demands of society generally in relation to transparency and…

  4. 18 CFR 358.7 - Transparency rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transparency rule. 358.7 Section 358.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transparency rule. (a) Contemporaneous disclosure. (1) If a transmission provider discloses non-public...

  5. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  6. Transparency in netchains : evaluation and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Schepers, H.E.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper was written for KLICT to evaluate the focus area Transparency in Netchains. It revisits the definitions and research agenda in the review paper with which the focal area started (Hofstede 2002). The definition of transparency has turned out to serve its purpose. The research has

  7. Can transparency be measured - a look ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorle, A.

    2007-01-01

    The simple answer to this question is no. But if you define the expression and decide transparency actually is, the answer might be different. Transparency means different things in different places. In one country transparency meant almost total access to anything that a government authority has in its possession. In another country transparency is more strict access to certain decisions, decisions makers or documents written with the sole purpose of informing the public. What variables could be found in the word transparent, what is a transparent regulator? In this short presentation we will deal with some important settings or fundamental prerequisites for a regulator calling itself transparent. Perhaps we should look at them in order of importance. Some days it is difficult to do all at once. As a final point, if we as regulators wish to call ourselves transparent in a future with diminishing national borders, fast electronic communication and increasing world wide media impact, what does the world require from us as regulators? (author)

  8. Organizational Transparency in the Internet Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    as a panacea to concerns about privacy, organizational conduct and accountability, this paper explores the boundary work that goes into doing and promising transparency Using insights from the literature on transparency, ´sociologies of translations' and process approaches to organization, this paper captures...

  9. Failure of composite plates under static biaxial planar loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waas, Anthony M.; Khamseh, Amir R.

    1992-01-01

    The project involved detailed investigations into the failure mechanisms in composite plates as a function of hole size (holes centrally located in the plates) under static loading. There were two phases to the project, the first dealing with uniaxial loads along the fiber direction, and the second dealing with coplanar biaxial loading. Results for the uniaxial tests have been reported and published previously, thus this report will place emphasis on the second phase of the project, namely the biaxial tests. The composite plates used in the biaxial loading experiments, as well as the uniaxial, were composed of a single ply unidirectional graphite/epoxy prepreg sandwiched between two layers of transparent thermoplastic. This setup enabled us to examine the failure initiation and propagation modes nondestructively, during the test. Currently, similar tests and analysis of results are in progress for graphite/epoxy cruciform shaped flat laminates. The results obtained from these tests will be available at a later time.

  10. Insulation Progress since the Mid-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerhaus, K. D.

    Storage vessel and cryostat design for modern cryogenic systems has become rather routine as the result of the wide use of and application of cryogenic fluids. Such vessels for these fluids range in size from 1 L flasks used in the laboratory for liquid nitrogen to the more than 200,000 m3 double-walled tanks used for temporary storage of liquefied natural gas before being transported overseas to their final destination. These storage vessels for cryogenic fluids range in type from low-performance containers insulated with rigid foam or fibrous insulation to high-performance containers insulated with evacuated multilayer insulations. The overriding factors in the type of container selected normally are of economics and safety. This paper will consider various insulation concepts used in such cryogenic storage systems and will review the progress that has been made over the past 50 years in these insulation systems.

  11. Handleable shapes of thermal insulation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J. T.

    1989-01-17

    Handleable and machineable shapes of thermal insulation material are made by compacting finely divided thermal insulation material into the cells of a reinforcing honeycomb insulation material into the cells of a reinforcing honeycomb structure. The finely divided thermal insulation material may be, for example, silica aerogel, pyrogenic silica, carbon black, silica gel, volatilised silica, calcium silicate, vermiculate or perlite, or finely divided metal oxides such as alumina or titania. The finely divided thermal insulation material may include an infra-red opacifier and/or reinforcing fibres. The reinforcing honeycomb structure may be made from, for example, metals such as aluminium foil, inorganic materials such as ceramics, organic materials such as plastics materials, woven fabrics or paper. A rigidiser may be employed. The shapes of thermal insulation material are substantially rigid and may be machines, for example by mechanical or laser cutting devices, or may be formed, for example by rolling, into curved or other shaped materials. 12 figs.

  12. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  13. ASRM case insulation design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew S.; Tam, William F. S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the achievements made on the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case insulation design and development program. The ASRM case insulation system described herein protects the metal case and joints from direct radiation and hot gas impingement. Critical failure of solid rocket systems is often traceable to failure of the insulation design. The wide ranging accomplishments included the development of a nonasbestos insulation material for ASRM that replaced the existing Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) along with a performance gain of 300 pounds, and improved reliability of all the insulation joint designs, i.e., segmented case joint, case-to-nozzle and case-to-igniter joint. The insulation process development program included the internal stripwinding process. This process advancement allowed Aerojet to match to exceed the capability of other propulsion companies.

  14. Transparency, price-dependent demand and product variety

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yiquan; Wenzel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This paper revisits the relationship between transparency on the consumer side and product variety as analyzed in Schultz (2009). We identify two welfare effects of transparency. More transparency decreases price-cost margins which is beneficial forwelfare. On the other hand, more transparency reduces variety which can be positive or negative for welfare. Overall, more transparency is always welfareimproving.

  15. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  16. A study of selenium nanoparticles as charge storage element for flexible semi-transparent memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Sattam; Nama Manjunatha, Krishna; Paul, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Flexible Semi-Transparent electronic memory would be useful in coming years for integrated flexible transparent electronic devices. However, attaining such flexibility and semi-transparency leads to the boundaries in material composition. Thus, impeding processing speed and device performance. In this work, we present the use of inorganic stable selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) as a storage element and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) as an insulating layer in two terminal non-volatile physically flexible and semi-transparent capacitive memory devices (2T-NMDs). Furthermore, a-C:H films can be deposited at very low temperature (industrial technique called Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) which is available in many existing fabrication labs. Self-assembled Se-NPs has several unique features including deposition at room temperature by simple vacuum thermal evaporation process without the need for further optimisation. This facilitates the fabrication of memory on a flexible substrate. Moreover, the memory behaviour of the Se-NPs was found to be more distinct than those of the semiconductor and metal nanostructures due to higher work function compared to the commonly used semiconductor and metal species. The memory behaviour was observed from the hysteresis of current-voltage (I-V) measurements while the two distinguishable electrical conductivity states (;0; and "1") were studied by current-time (I-t) measurements.

  17. Polyester Apparel Cutting Waste as Insulation Material

    OpenAIRE

    Trajković, Dušan; Jordeva, Sonja; Tomovska, Elena; Zafirova, Koleta

    2017-01-01

    Polyester waste is the dominant component of the clothing industry waste stream, yet its recycling in this industry is rarely addressed. This paper proposes using polyester cutting waste as an insulation blanket for roofing and buildings’ internal walls in order to reduce environmental pollution. The designed textile structures used waste cuttings from different polyester fabrics without opening the fabric to fibre. Thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, fire resistance and biodegradation o...

  18. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  19. The impact of records management system in transparency of public administrations: Transparency by design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustí Cerrillo Martínez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Records management system has a great impact in the improvement of transparency in public administration. Transparency by design refers to the inclusion of transparency duties stated by legislation in force in the records’ life cycle in a way that it guarantees citizens effective access to public information. In this paper, the changes that public administrations have to propel in their records management systems to improve public transparency and to make easy access to information are analysed. In particular, as a case study, provisions made by Law 19/2014, of December 29, on Transparency, Access to Public Information and Good Governance of Catalonia are explored.

  20. Radiation-resistant plastic insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, B.J.; Parkinson, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    A high molecular weight organic composition useful as an electric insulator in radiation fields is provided and comprises normally a solid polymer of an organic compound having a specific resistance greater than 10 19 ohm-cm and containing phenyl groups and 1 to 7.5 weight percent of a high molecular weight organic phosphite. In one embodiment the composition comprises normally solid polystyrene having 7.5 weight percent tris-β-chloroethyl phosphite as an additive; the composition exhibited an increase in the post-irradiation resistivity of over an order of magnitude over the post-irradiation resistivity of pure polystyrene. (Patent Office Record)

  1. Processing of insulators and semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Nathaniel R.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Duty, Chad Edward; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio

    2015-06-16

    A method is disclosed for processing an insulator material or a semiconductor material. The method includes pulsing a plasma lamp onto the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a large area region of the material. The method may further include pulsing a laser onto a selected region of the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a selected region of the material.

  2. Characterization of Microporous Insulation, Microsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Microsil microporous insulation has been characterized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use in structural and thermal applications in the DPP-1 design. Qualitative test results have provided mechanical behavioral characteristics for DPP-1 design studies and focused on the material behavioral response to being crushed, cyclically loaded, and subjected to vibration for a confined material with an interference fit or a radial gap. Quantitative test results have provided data to support the DPP-1 FEA model analysis and verification and were used to determine mechanical property values for the material under a compression load. The test results are documented within this report.

  3. Method of manufacturing a thermally insulating body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.

    1988-10-11

    A method of manufacturing a microporous thermally insulating body comprises mixing together a finely divided microporous insulating material such as silica aerogel or pyrogenic silica and a solid ammonia-generating compound in particulate form, and compressing the mixture to form a thermally insulating body. The ammonia-generating compound is dispersed evenly throughout the insulating material and may comprise, for example, ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate or urea. Preferably, the ammonia-generating compound comprises a mixture of about one third by weight of ammonium carbonate and about two thirds by weight of ammonium bicarbonate together with a small proportion of magnesium oxide. Experiments are described which illustrate the manufacturing process. 6 tabs.

  4. Dielectric and Insulating Technology 2004 : Review & Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Tatsuki

    This article reports the state-of-art of DEIS activites. DEIS activiteis are basically based on the activites of 8-10 investigation committees’ under DEIS committee. Recent DEIS activites are categlized into three functions in this article and remarkable activity or trend of each category is mentioned. Those are activities on insulation diagnosis (AI application and asset management), activities on new insulation technology for power tansmission (high Tc super conducting cable insulation and all solid sinulated substation), and activities on new insulating materials (Nanocomposite).

  5. Process insulation. Isolation thermique des equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    A manual is presented to assist managers and operating personnel to recognize industrial energy management opportunities, and provides mathematical equations, general information on proven techniques and technology, and examples. It deals with process insulation, focusing on the insulation of mechanical systems such as piping, process vessels, equipment, and ductwork. The manual describes the effects of insulation materials; commonly encountered types of insulation, coverings and protective finishes as well as common applications; energy management opportunities, divided into housekeeping, low cost, and retrofit; and includes worked examples of each. Includes glossary. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Low Permeability Polyimide Insulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resodyn Technologies proposes a new technology that enables the application of polyimide based cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability. This effort...

  7. Competition for transparency as a carrier of competition. Transparency needs in the European wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Hanneke de; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses different transparency aspects regarding European wholesale electricity markets and discusses transparency issues to be solved. In Europe, currently some progress has been made with respect to market transparency but transparency issues related to transmission, system operation and regulation have received little attention so far. Transmission system operators (TSOs) and regulatory authorities need certain market information in order to secure efficient competition. However, TSOs and regulatory authorities need to communicate themselves in order to facilitate competition and decrease uncertainty among market participants. Furthermore, considering ongoing market integration both TSOs and regulatory authorities must exchange information amongst themselves in order to facilitate coordination and monitoring activities. The effect of a higher level of transparency on effective competition is depended on two categories of transparency aspects: aspects that are related to transparency in the sense of open and adequate communication (perspicuity) and aspects that are related to the easiness to understand (clarity). Transparency includes both aspects. Pursuing overall harmonization of the European transparency level is important to fully profit from a higher level of (international) harmonization. Effective harmonization requires harmonization on all communication aspects. For Europe, with its many immature markets, the dilemma remains whether it is preferable to have less transparency with a high level of harmonization or to have a higher level of transparency but a lower level of harmonization. (Author)

  8. Thermal Analysis Of Cover Plate Of Galvanizing Bath Tub At Bridge amp Roof Co. I Ltd. By Shape Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Jana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This project is aimed for thermally analyzing stress and strain on cover plate of galvanizing bath tub at Bridge amp Roof co. I Ltd in order to maintain 450C in bath tub. Along with analysis part cover plate shape was modified due to its continuous use amp prevailing conditions at the workshop. The cover plate consist of insulating materials compacted to retain the heat in the bath tub. The thermal convection of air is less than thermal resistance of insulating materials used thus heat loss is negligible. Thermal convection air 0.0579 w m k Thermal Resistance Insulator 7.046 w m k. Thermal analysis report show at 450C. Deformation is effecting end portion 2-3 mm. Stress amp Strain at that portion is also low 0.1-0.3 Mpa. Heat transfer of air is more than insulating materials. Thus Heat transfer rate of Insulating materials being low they dont conduct heat from the bath tub to the atmosphere. So temperature of the bath tub is maintained. QA 1806.25 W Heat transfer rate of Air by convection QI 270.43 W Heat transfer rate of Insulation materials

  9. Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yongqiang; Shen, Yang; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jiafu; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-04-01

    Naturally occurring water is a promising candidate for achieving broadband absorption. In this work, by virtue of the optically transparent character of the water, the water-based metamaterial absorbers (MAs) are proposed to achieve the broadband absorption at microwave frequencies and optical transparence simultaneously. For this purpose, the transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are chosen as the constitutive materials. The water is encapsulated between the ITO backed plate and PMMA, serving as the microwave loss as well as optically transparent material. Numerical simulations show that the broadband absorption with the efficiency over 90% in the frequency band of 6.4-30 GHz and highly optical transparency of about 85% in the visible region can be achieved and have been well demonstrated experimentally. Additionally, the proposed water-based MA displays a wide-angle absorption performance for both TE and TM waves and is also robust to the variations of the structure parameters, which is much desired in a practical application.

  10. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  11. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  12. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  13. Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks Guest Feature Editors Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors Submission deadline: 15 June 2007 Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems. Scope of Submission The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics related to the interworking between core and edge networks. The core network

  14. Transparency in Global Environmental Governance: A Coming of Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article draws on the contributions to this special issue to consider the implications of a transparency turn in global environmental and sustainability governance. Three interrelated aspects are addressed: why transparency now? How is transparency being institutionalized? And what

  15. 76 FR 7522 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Enhancing Contract Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... transparency while retaining the protection of information that should be considered in the contracting process... the need for transparency in Government contracting information and believe these recommendations... Regulation; Enhancing Contract Transparency AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services...

  16. Design consideration of high voltage Ga2O3 vertical Schottky barrier diode with field plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.-H.; Cho, C.-H.; Cha, H.-Y.

    2018-06-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) based vertical Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were designed for high voltage switching applications. Since p-type Ga2O3 epitaxy growth or p-type ion implantation technique has not been developed yet, a field plate structure was employed in this study to maximize the breakdown voltage by suppressing the electric field at the anode edge. TCAD simulation was used for the physical analysis of Ga2O3 SBDs from which it was found that careful attention must be paid to the insulator under the field plate. Due to the extremely high breakdown field property of Ga2O3, an insulator with both high permittivity and high breakdown field must be used for the field plate formation.

  17. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  18. Thermal insulation properties of walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.

  19. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2010-01-13

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi2Se5 nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi 2Se5 nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [1120] direction with a rectangular cross-section and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with ∼ 1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitais to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. An Ultra-Efficient Nonlinear Platform: AlGaAs-On-Insulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta

    The combination of nonlinear and integrated photonics enables applications including optical signal processing, multi-wavelength lasers, metrology, spectroscopy, and quantum information science. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) has emerged as a promising platform [1, 2] due to its high material...... nonlinearity and its compatibility with the CMOS industry. However, silicon suffers two-photon absorption (TPA) in the telecommunication wavelength band around 1.55 µm, which hampers its applications. Different platforms have been proposed to avoid TPA in the telecom wavelength range such as Si3N4 and Hydex [3...... a nonlinear index (n2) on the order of 10−17 W/m2 and a high refractive index (n ≈3.3), a large transparency window (from near- to mid-infrared), and the ability to engineer the material bandgap to mitigate TPA [5]. In this presentation, we introduce AlGaAson-insulator (AlGaAsOI) platform which combines both...

  1. Stresses in Circular Plates with Rigid Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  8. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  9. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  10. Optimal Degrees of Transparency in Monetary Policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    According to most academics and policymakers, transparency in monetary policymaking is desirable. I examine this proposition in a small theoretical model emphasizing forward-looking private sector behavior. Transparency makes it easier for price setters to infer the central bank's future policy...... intentions, thereby making current inflation more responsive to policy actions. This induces the central bank to pay more attention to inflation rather than output gap stabilization. Then, transparency may be disadvantageous. It may actually be a policy-distorting straitjacket if the central bank enjoys low...

  11. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  12. Double optomechanical transparency with direct mechanical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ling-Chao; Shi Rao; Xu Jun; Hu Xiang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We present a mechanism for double transparency in an optomechanical system. This mechanism is based on the coupling of a moving cavity mirror to a second mechanical oscillator. Due to the purely mechanical coupling and the radiation pressure, three pathways are established for excitations of the probe photons into the cavity photons. Destructive interference occurs at two different frequencies, leading to double transparency to the probe field. It is the coupling strength between the mechanical oscillators that determines the locations of the transparency windows. Moreover, the normal splitting appears for the generated Stokes field and the four-wave mixing process is inhibited on resonance. (paper)

  13. Consumer poaching, brand switching, and price transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses price transparency on the consumer side in markets with behavioral price discrimination which feature welfare reducing brand switching. When long-term contracts are not available, an increase in transparency intensifies competition, lowers prices and profits, reduces brand...... switching and benefits consumers and welfare. With long-term contracts, an increase in transparency reduces the use of long-term contracts, leading to more brand switching and a welfare loss. Otherwise, the results are the same as without long-term contracts....

  14. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  15. Topological Insulators and Superconductors for Innovative Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 20120321 - 20150320 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Topological insulators and superconductors for innovative...locking, which hold promise for various innovative devices. Similarly, topological superconductors are associated with exotic surface states, which...298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Final Report Title: Topological Insulators and Superconductors for Innovative Devices

  16. Thermal insulation of high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornille, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Operating conditions of HTR thermal insulation are given and heat insulators currently developed are described (fibers kept in position by metallic structures). For future applications and higher temperatures, research is directed towards solutions using ceramics or associating fibers and ceramics [fr

  17. Quantitative analysis of thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the development of simulation tools for mapping of insulation properties of thermal insulation coatings based on selected functional filler materials. A mathematical model, which includes the underlying physics (i.e. thermal conductivity of a heterogeneous two-component coating...

  18. Study of thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D; Sundaram, S; Nath, G K; Sethuram, N P; Chandrasekharan, T; Varadarajan, T G [Heavy Water Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents experimental determination of the apparent thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation for a cryogenic system. The variation of thermal conductivity with residual gas pressure is studied and the optimum vacuum for good insulating performance is determined. Evaporation loss technique for heat-inleak determination is employed. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Insulation systems for superconducting transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    the electrical insulation is placed outside both the superconducting tube and the cryostat. The superconducting tube is cooled by liquid nitrogen which is pumped through the hollow part of the tube.2) The cryogenic dielectric design, where the electrical insulation is placed inside the cryostat and thus is kept...

  20. Study of thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, D.; Sundaram, S.; Nath, G.K.; Sethuram, N.P.; Chandrasekharan, T.; Varadarajan, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental determination of the apparent thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation for a cryogenic system. The variation of thermal conductivity with residual gas pressure is studied and the optimum vacuum for good insulating performance is determined. Evaporation loss technique for heat-inleak determination is employed. (author)

  1. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-19

    A method is described for welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads. 7 figs.

  2. Aharonov–Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Hailin; Lai, Keji; Kong, Desheng; Meister, Stefan; Chen, Yulin; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport

  3. Mouse-resistant insulated covers keep pipes from freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    Fabric wellhead covers and insulated blankets are commonly used at well sites in the Wyoming coalbed methane field to keep surface pipes from freezing. These materials are often chewed up by mice who build nests close to the warm pipes. The mice attract rattlesnakes, a potentially serious problem for the workmen who check the wells daily. Kennon Products of Sheridan, Wyoming solved this problem by making a flexible covering material that has a coating of hardened guard plates that prevents mice from chewing through it. More than a hundred of Kennon's mouse-resistant wellhead covers have been used successfully in the gas fields for over a year. They can be installed in less than 30 minutes and cost only a fraction of what a fiberglass hut costs to purchase and install. Huts are being discouraged for use on federal lands because they alter the nesting patterns of eagles, who perch upon them to hunt rodents. Huts also trap methane gas, which is a potential safety hazard. Kennon's mouse-resistant wellhead covers are lower than the fiberglass huts and blend into the landscape. The company is working on camouflage colours to make wellheads less noticeable. In the future, the company plans to insulate water pipes. 1 fig.

  4. Conductivity in insulators due to implantation of conducting species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Kalish, R.

    1993-01-01

    Control of the surface conductivity of insulators can be accomplished by high dose ion implantation of conductive species. The use of C + as the implant species is particularly interesting because C can either form electrically insulating sp 3 bonds or electrically conducting sp 2 bonds. In the present work, fused quartz plates have been irradiated with 100 keV C + ions to doses up to 1 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature and at 200 deg C. The ion beam induced conductivity was monitored in-situ and was found to increase by up to 8 orders to magnitude for the ion dose range studied. Xe implantations over a similar range did not induce any changes in the conductivity showing that the increase in conductivity is caused by the presence of the C in the fused quartz matrix and not by damage. The dependence of the conductivity on implantation temperature and on post implantation annealing sheds light on the clustering of the C implants. The temperature dependence of the conductivity for the highest doses employed (1 x 10 17 C + /cm 2 ) can be described very well by lnσ α T. This is considered to be a peculiar dependence which does not comply with any of the standard models for conduction. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  5. Acoustic impact on the laminated plates placed between barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Gazizullin, R. K.; Fedotenkov, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of previously derived equations, analytical solutions are established on the forced vibrations of two-layer and three-layers rectangular plates hinged in an opening of absolutely rigid walls during the transmission of monoharmonic sound waves. It is assumed that the partition wall is situated between two absolutely rigid barriers, one of them by harmonic oscillation with a given displacements amplitude on the plate forms the incident sound wave, and the other is stationary and has a coating of deformable energy absorbing material with high damping properties. The behavior of acoustic environments in the spaces between the deformable plate and the barriers described by classical wave equation based on the ideal compressible fluid model. To describe the process of dynamic deformation of the energy absorbing coating of fixed barrier, two-dimensional equations of motion based on the use of models transversely soft layer are derived with a linear approximation of the displacement field in the thickness direction of the coating and taking into account the damping properties of the material and the hysteresis model for it. The influence of the physical and mechanical properties of the concerned mechanical system and the frequency of the incident sound wave on the parameters of its insulation properties of the plate, as well as on the parameters of the stress-strain state of the plate has been analyzed.

  6. Modeling of Dynamic Responses in Building Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antonyová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research a measurement systemwas developedfor monitoring humidity and temperature in the cavity between the wall and the insulating material in the building envelope. This new technology does not disturb the insulating material during testing. The measurement system can also be applied to insulation fixed ten or twenty years earlier and sufficiently reveals the quality of the insulation. A mathematical model is proposed to characterize the dynamic responses in the cavity between the wall and the building insulation as influenced by weather conditions.These dynamic responses are manifested as a delay of both humidity and temperature changes in the cavity when compared with the changes in the ambient surrounding of the building. The process is then modeled through numerical methods and statistical analysis of the experimental data obtained using the new system of measurement.

  7. Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...

  8. Foam insulated transfer line test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1994-06-01

    Miles of underground insulated piping will be installed at the Hanford site to transfer liquid waste. Significant cost savings may be realized by using pre-fabricated polyurethane foam insulated piping. Measurements were made on sections of insulated pipe to determine the insulation's resistance to axial expansion of the pipe, the force required to compress the foam in the leg of an expansion loop and the time required for heat up and cool down of a buried piping loop. These measurements demonstrated that the peak axial force increases with the amount of adhesion between the encasement pipe and the insulation. The compressive strength of the foam is too great to accommodate the thermal growth of long straight pipe sections into the expansion loops. Mathematical models of the piping system's thermal behavior can be refined by data from the heated piping loop

  9. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  10. Luminescence from metals and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, O.H.

    1985-01-01

    The term luminescence is normally applied to light emission that is not explainable by the mechanisms discussed by the other speakers in this meeting. Specifically, it is not transition radiation, surface plasmon radiation, or bremsstrahlung. One normally thinks of luminescence as arising from one-electron transitions within a medium. This talk consists of an overview of luminescence from condensed matter under irradiation by either energetic particles or photons. The author begins with organic molecules, where luminescence is best understood, and then discusses inorganic insulators and metals. Finally, the dependence of yield upon projectile species and velocity is discussed, and predictions are made concerning the relative effectiveness of electrons, protons, and hydrogen atoms in exciting luminescence

  11. Transparent soil for imaging the rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Downie

    Full Text Available Understanding of soil processes is essential for addressing the global issues of food security, disease transmission and climate change. However, techniques for observing soil biology are lacking. We present a heterogeneous, porous, transparent substrate for in situ 3D imaging of living plants and root-associated microorganisms using particles of the transparent polymer, Nafion, and a solution with matching optical properties. Minerals and fluorescent dyes were adsorbed onto the Nafion particles for nutrient supply and imaging of pore size and geometry. Plant growth in transparent soil was similar to that in soil. We imaged colonization of lettuce roots by the human bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 showing micro-colony development. Micro-colonies may contribute to bacterial survival in soil. Transparent soil has applications in root biology, crop genetics and soil microbiology.

  12. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.

  14. Transparent Oxide Semiconductors for Emerging Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Transparent oxide electronics have emerged as promising materials to shape the future of electronics. While several n-type oxides have been already studied and demonstrated feasibility to be used as active materials in thin film transistors, high

  15. Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian Women Parliamentarians and Young Female University Students. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are ...

  16. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihua; Yang Xu; Gu Jianqiang; Jiang Jun; Tian Zhen; Han Jiaguang; Zhang Weili; Yue Weisheng; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. (paper)

  17. On transparent potentials: a Born approximation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, C.

    1980-01-01

    In the frame of the scattering inverse problem at fixed energy, a class of potentials transparent in Born approximation is obtained. All these potentials are spherically symmetric and are oscillating functions of the reduced radial variable. Amongst them, the Born approximation of the transparent potential of the Newton-Sabatier method is found. In the same class, quasi-transparent potentials are exhibited. Very general features of potentials transparent in Born approximation are then stated. And bounds are given for the exact scattering amplitudes corresponding to most of the potentials previously exhibited. These bounds, obtained at fixed energy, and for large values of the angular momentum, are found to be independent on the energy

  18. Transparency of atom-sized superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van-der-Post, N.; Peters, E.T.; Van Ruitenbeek, J.M.; Yanson, I.K.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the transparency of atom-size superconducting tunnel junctions by comparing experimental values of the normal resistance and Subgap Structure with the theoretical predictions for these phenomena by Landauer's formula and Multiple Andreev Reflection, respectively

  19. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe in this paper a transparent conducting film (TCF). ... conducting carbon nanotube film which is crack-resistant for solar cell applications. ... CA 90095, USA; Nanocomp Technologies, Inc, 162 Pembroke Road, Concord, NH 03301 ...

  20. Electrical resistivity study of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesegang, J.; Senn, B.C.; Holcombe, S.R.; Pigram, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Conventional methods of electrical resistivity measurement of dielectric materials involve the application of electrodes to a sample whereby a potential is applied and a current through the material is measured. Although great care and ingenuity has often been applied to this technique, the recorded values of electrical resistivity (p), especially for insulator materials, show great disparity. In earlier work by the authors, a method for determining surface charge decay [Q(t)], using a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement interfaced to a personal computer, was adapted to allow the relatively straightforward measurement of electrical resistivity in the surface region of charged insulator materials. This method was used to develop an ionic charge transport theory, based on Mott-Gurney diffusion to allow a greater understanding into charge transport behaviour. This theory was extended using numerical analysis to produce a two dimensional (2-D) computational model to allow the direct comparison between experimental and theoretical charge decay data. The work also provided a means for the accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) and the layer of thickness of surface charge (Δz) on the sample. The work outlined here involves an extension of the theoretical approach previously taken, using a computational model based more closely on the 3-D experimental set-up, to reinforce the level of confidence in the results achieved for the simpler 2-D treatment. Initially, a 3-D rectangular box arrangement similar to the experimental set-up was modelled and a theoretical and experimental comparison of voltage decay results made. This model was then transferred into cylindrical coordinates to allow it to be almost identical to the experiment and again a comparison made. In addition, theoretical analysis of the coupled non-linear partial differential equations governing the charge dissipation process has led to a simplification involving directly, the

  1. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  2. Transparency in nursing leadership: a chosen ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-01-01

    The concept of transparency has been viewed as an essential leadership attribute or element in healthcare organizational structures and processes. While viewed as something that is desired and valued, there is a lack of nursing disciplinary literature that defines the concept and its possible meanings. This column provides a beginning definition of transparency from the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective and launches a discussion with potential ethical implications for leadership in nursing practice and education.

  3. Transparent wood for functional and structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yang, Xuan; Berglund, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Optically transparent wood combines mechanical performance with optical functionalities is an emerging candidate for applications in smart buildings and structural optics and photonics. The present review summarizes transparent wood preparation methods, optical and mechanical performance, and functionalization routes, and discusses potential applications. The various challenges are discussed for the purpose of improved performance, scaled-up production and realization of advanced applications. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  4. Transparent Hydrophobic Coating by Sol Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Sofian Alias

    2016-01-01

    Transparent hydrophobic coating of inorganic based tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared by sol gel method by varying fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) content which works as hydrophobic agent. Surface contact angle, transmittance degree and surface morphology were characterized for each sample. All samples show good transparency which was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity obtained increases with FAS content indicates that FAS is best candidate to induce hydrophobicity for inorganic coating. (author)

  5. Silicon carbide transparent chips for compact atomic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, L.; Ammar, M.; Morvan, E.; Sarazin, N.; Pocholle, J.-P.; Reichel, J.; Guerlin, C.; Schwartz, S.

    2017-11-01

    Atom chips [1] are an efficient tool for trapping, cooling and manipulating cold atoms, which could open the way to a new generation of compact atomic sensors addressing space applications. This is in particular due to the fact that they can achieve strong magnetic field gradients near the chip surface, hence strong atomic confinement at moderate electrical power. However, this advantage usually comes at the price of reducing the optical access to the atoms, which are confined very close to the chip surface. We will report at the conference experimental investigations showing how these limits could be pushed farther by using an atom chip made of a gold microcircuit deposited on a single-crystal Silicon Carbide (SiC) substrate [2]. With a band gap energy value of about 3.2 eV at room temperature, the latter material is transparent at 780nm, potentially restoring quasi full optical access to the atoms. Moreover, it combines a very high electrical resistivity with a very high thermal conductivity, making it a good candidate for supporting wires with large currents without the need of any additional electrical insulation layer [3].

  6. Transparency in Canadian public drug advisory committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Transparency in health care resource allocation decisions is a criterion of a fair process. We used qualitative methods to explore transparency across 11 Canadian drug advisory committees. We developed seven criteria to assess transparency (disclosure of members' names, disclosure of membership selection criteria, disclosure of conflict of interest guidelines and members' conflicts, public posting of decisions not to fund drugs, public posting of rationales for decisions, stakeholder input, and presence of an appeals mechanism) and two sub-criteria for when rationales were posted (direct website link and readability). We interviewed a purposeful sample of key informants who were conversant in English and a current or past member of either a committee or a stakeholder group. We analyzed data using a thematic approach. Interviewing continued until saturation was reached. We examined documents from 10 committees and conducted 27 interviews. The median number of criteria addressed by committees was 2 (range 0-6). Major interview themes included addressing: (1) accessibility issues, including stakeholders' degree of access to the decision making process and appeal mechanisms; (2) communication issues, including improving internal and external communication and public access to information; and (3) confidentiality issues, including the use of proprietary evidence. Most committees have some mechanisms to address transparency but none had a fully transparent process. The most important ways to improve transparency include creating formal appeal mechanisms, improving communication, and establishing consistent rules about the use of, and public access to, proprietary evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromagnetically induced transparency with matched pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the last several years there have been studies and experiments showing how, by applying an additional laser beam, optically-thick transitions may be rendered nearly transparent to probing radiation. This transparency results from a quantum interference, very much like a Fano interference, which is established by the additional laser. This talk describes the difference between the quantum interference as exhibited by an independent atom and by an optically-thick ensemble of atoms. We find that an ensemble of atoms establishes transparency through a strong nonlinear interaction which, for a lambda system, tends to generate a matching temporal envelope on the complementary transition. For a ladder system, phase conjugate pulses are generated and, after a characteristic distance, establish transparency. The transparency of an optically-thick medium is therefore not a Beer's law superposition of the independent atom response. To transmit a pulse through an otherwise opaque media, the front edge of the complementary pulse should lead, in the manner of open-quotes counter-intuitiveclose quotes adiabatic transfer, the front edge of the pulse which is to be rendered transparent. Thereafter the pulses should be matched or, for a ladder system, phase-conjugately matched

  8. Lutetium oxide-based transparent ceramic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Zachary; Cherepy, Nerine; Kuntz, Joshua; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-19

    In one embodiment, a transparent ceramic of sintered nanoparticles includes gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with europium having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YEu.sub.YO.sub.3, where X is any value within a range from about 0.05 to about 0.45 and Y is any value within a range from about 0.01 to about 0.2, and where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm. In another embodiment, a transparent ceramic scintillator of sintered nanoparticles, includes a body of sintered nanoparticles including gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with a rare earth activator (RE) having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YRE.sub.YO.sub.3, where RE is selected from the group consisting of: Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy, where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm.

  9. Lighting system for the lower core plate of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuillet, P.; Bonin, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The invention proposes a grazing lighting system for the lower core plate, creating an excellent contrast and offering a good estimation of the relief; it can stay at the same place during the whole or at least the greater part of the core refueling operation. This lighting system is proposed for a reactor of which the lower core plate has fuel assembly centering elements. It has a sealed vessel with a transparent side wall containing several lights independently controlled and each one illuminating a sector of its wall. The vessel has a bottom aimed at resting on the lower plate and provided with centering and holding means acting with several of the said centering means through the plate, and/or apertures for coolant through the plate, and an upper container provided with gripping and handling elements and sealed conduits for electrical cables feeding the lights [fr

  10. A Co-Precursor Approach Coupled with a Supercritical Modification Method for Constructing Highly Transparent and Superhydrophobic Polymethylsilsesquioxane Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chaoshuai; Li, Junning; Sun, Chencheng; Yang, Hailong; Xia, Tao; Hu, Zijun; Zhang, Yue

    2018-03-30

    Polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) aerogels obtained from methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) are well-known high-performance porous materials. Highly transparent and hydrophobic PMSQ aerogel would play an important role in transparent vacuum insulation panels. Herein, the co-precursor approach and supercritical modification method were developed to prepare the PMSQ aerogels with high transparency and superhydrophobicity. Firstly, benefiting from the introduction of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) in the precursor, the pore structure became more uniform and the particle size was decreased. As the TMOS content increased, the light transmittance increased gradually from 54.0% to 81.2%, whereas the contact angle of water droplet decreased from 141° to 99.9°, ascribed to the increase of hydroxyl groups on the skeleton surface. Hence, the supercritical modification method utilizing hexamethyldisilazane was also introduced to enhance the hydrophobic methyl groups on the aerogel's surface. As a result, the obtained aerogels revealed superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 155°. Meanwhile, the developed surface modification method did not lead to any significant changes in the pore structure resulting in the superhydrophobic aerogel with a high transparency of 77.2%. The proposed co-precursor approach and supercritical modification method provide a new horizon in the fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic PMSQ aerogels.

  11. Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, J.; Bolnick, D.I.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Mazur, M.M.; Mori, S.; Nakano, T.; Peichel, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not??only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution," [9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of background reduced Fresnel phase zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamari, Yohei; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    In study of hot and dense plasma, a high spatial resolution (a few microns) x-ray imaging is very important to observe these plasmas. The Fresnel phase zone plate (FPZP) consists of alternately material and transparent circular annuli placed concentrically, which image x rays using diffraction x rays from all annuli. FPZP have imaged 4.7-4.77 keV x rays with 2.2 μm spatial resolution. However FPZP has a problem that background level is comparable to signal level. In subtraction of background, the error of 10% is caused. For the accurate background subtraction, we designed new FPZP, which consist of three β layers of a transparent zone and two material zones. The new design FPZP parameters (thickness of material zones, each zone width) have been optimized, and in that optimum design signal-to-background ratio is 4 times better than conventional two layers FPZP

  13. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  14. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  15. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  17. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  18. Labeling and advertising of home insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    This staff report, prepared by the F.T.C.'s Bureau of Consumer Protection for Commission review, includes recommendations as to the final form of a trade regulation rule relating to the labeling and advertising of home insulation. Because of marketing abuses which accompanied the rising demand for home insulation, there has been broad support for a rule requiring information disclosures to help purchasers of home insulation to make an informed decision. The Commission, to provide such rule as quickly as possible, undertook its rulemaking proceeding under its new expedited rulemaking procedure. The rule was proposed on November 18, 1977, and, following a two-month period for written comments, four weeks of hearings were held in Washington, D.C. in February 1978. The record, contributed to by a variety of interests, shows that consumers do not know how to shop for home insulation. The staff-recommended rule, among other things, would require that insulation be tested and R-values (a measure of insulation's ability to retain heat) disclosed on labels and in advertising. To facilitate comparison shopping, the industry would also be required to furnish consumers with fact sheets describing, on a product-to-product basis, factors that can reduce the R-value of insulation.

  19. Slab edge insulating form system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brain E [Corral de Tierra, CA; Barsun, Stephan K [Davis, CA; Bourne, Richard C [Davis, CA; Hoeschele, Marc A [Davis, CA; Springer, David A [Winters, CA

    2009-10-06

    A method of forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising constructing a foundation frame, the frame comprising an insulating form having an opening, inserting a pocket former into the opening; placing concrete inside the foundation frame; and removing the pocket former after the placed concrete has set, wherein the concrete forms a pocket in the placed concrete that is accessible through the opening. The method may further comprise sealing the opening by placing a sealing plug or sealing material in the opening. A system for forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising a plurality of interconnected insulating forms, the insulating forms having a rigid outer member protecting and encasing an insulating material, and at least one gripping lip extending outwardly from the outer member to provide a pest barrier. At least one insulating form has an opening into which a removable pocket former is inserted. The system may also provide a tension anchor positioned in the pocket former and a tendon connected to the tension anchor.

  20. Electrical insulator requirements for mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condit, R.H.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The requirements for mirror fusion electrical insulators are discussed. Insulators will be required at the neutral beam injectors, injector power supplies, direct converters, and superconducting magnets. Insulators placed at the neutral beam injectors will receive the greatest radiation exposure, 10 14 to 10 16 neutrons/m 2 .s and 0.3 to 3 Gy/s (10 5 to 10 6 R/h) of gamma rays, with shielding. Direct converter insulators may receive the highest temperature (up to 1300 0 K), but low voltage holding requirements. Insulators made from organic materials (e.g., plastics) for the magnet coils may be satisfactory. Immediate conductivity increases of all insulators result from gamma irradiation. With an upper limit to gamma flux exposures of 300 Gy/s in a minimally shielded region, the conductivity could reach 10 -6 S/m. Damage from neutron irradiation may not be serious during several years' exposure. Surface changes in ceramics at the neutral beam injector may be serious. The interior of the injector will contain atomic hydrogen, and sputtering may transfer material away from or onto the ceramic insulators. Unknown and potentially damaging interactions between irradiation, electric fields, temperature gradients, cycling of temperature, surface and joint reactions, sputtering, polarization, and electrotransport in the dielectrics are of concern. Materials research to deal with these problems is needed