WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate tin products

  1. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on the chemical states of surface layers of corroded tin plates and tin-coated iron plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Akinori; Endo, Kazutoyo; Sano, Hirotoshi

    1980-01-01

    By means of the conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), we studied surface layers of ''tin'' plates and tin-coated iron plates corroded by various acids. Transmission Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were also measured. Metastannic acid was formed, when the ''tin'' plate was corroded by nitric acid solution. In corrosion by phosphoric acid solution, the X-ray diffractometry revealed the formation of tin(IV) pyrophosphate. In corrosion by various organic acid solutions, the formation of oxides was identified by the 119 Sn CEMS, but not by the X-ray diffractometry because of the too thin corrosion layer. In corrosion of tin-coated iron plates, maleic acid, malonic acid, formic acid, and oxalic acid were used. It was determined by CEMS that the corrosion products caused by these acids were tin(IV) oxides, although they could not be identified by the X-ray diffractometry. CEMS also confirmed that the surface of uncorroded tin-coated iron plate was already oxidized by air. Colorimetric determinations of Sn and Fe dissolved from tin-coated iron plates to various acid solutions confirmed that maleic acid had the strongest corrosion effect among the organic acids studied. (author)

  2. Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Carlin, James F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. The major uses of tin today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder. The predominant ore mineral of tin, by far, is cassiterite (SnO2).In 2015, the world’s total estimated mine production of tin was 289,000 metric tons of contained tin. Total world reserves at the end of 2016 were estimated to be 4,700,000 metric tons. China held about 24 percent of the world’s tin reserves and accounted for 38 percent of the world’s 2015 production of tin.The proportion of scrap used in tin production is between 10 and 25 percent. Unlike many metals, tin recycling is relatively efficient, and the fraction of tin in discarded products that get recycled is greater than 50 percent.Only about 20 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as primary hydrothermal hard-rock veins, or lodes. These lodes contain predominantly high-temperature minerals and almost invariably occur in close association with silicic, peraluminous granites. About 80 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as unconsolidated secondary or placer deposits in riverbeds and valleys or on the sea floor. The largest concentration of both onshore and offshore placers is in the extensive tin belt of Southeast Asia, which stretches from China in the north, through Thailand, Burma (also referred to as Myanmar), and Malaysia, to the islands of Indonesia in the south. Furthermore, tin placers are almost always found closely allied to the granites from which they originate. Other countries with significant tin resources are Australia, Bolivia, and Brazil.Most hydrothermal tin deposits belong to what can be thought of as a superclass of porphyry-greisen deposits. The hydrothermal tin deposits are all characterized by a close spatial

  3. New technology of lead-tin plating of superconducting RF resonators for the ANU LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, N.R.; Weisser, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The RF accelerating resonators for the ANU superconducting LINAC have been re-plated with lead-tin and their performance substantially improved. The re-plating was at first derailed by the appearance of dendrites on the surface. This problem was overcome by a new combination of two techniques. Rather than the standard process of chemically stripping the old Pb and hand polishing the Cu substrate the unsatisfactory Pb surface was mechanically polished and then re-plated. This is enormously easier, faster and doesn't put at risk the thin cosmetic electron beam welds or the repaired ones. Reverse pulse plating was then used to re-establish an excellent superconducting surface. Average acceleration fields of 3.5 to 3.9 MV/m have been achieved. The re-plated resonators will double the energy gain of the accelerator significantly extending capability of the facility research. Lead-tin plating provides fast adequate results with modest equipment and at relatively low cost. SUNY re-plated six high-beta SLRs with 2 microns of Pb-Sn using a modern, commercial, methane-sulfonate process (Lea Ronal Solderon MHS-L) and a simple open-air procedure. This proven success motivated ANU to adopt MSA chemistry and to re-plate the first SLR in November 1998 followed by re-plating all twelve SLRs by November 2002. This increased the booster energy gain by almost 100%

  4. Preparation of TiN films by arc ion plating using dc and pulsed biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.D.; Lee, Y.P.; Dong, C.; Lin, G.Q.; Sun, C.; Wen, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    TiN hard coatings were prepared by arc ion plating with both direct current (dc) and pulsed biases. An extensive investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of the substrate temperature on the mechanical properties and the microstructures of films. The results show that the substrate temperature is decreased evidently when a pulsed bias instead of a dc one is employed. At the same time, the microstructures and the properties are also improved. A low-temperature arc ion plating can be realized by using pulsed biases

  5. 77 FR 5767 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2010... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products...

  6. 76 FR 14902 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2009... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products...

  7. Influence of Deposition Conditions on Fatigue Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel with Tin Film Coated by Arc Ion Plating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoshi; Yonekura, Daisuke; Murakami, Ri-Ichi

    The surface properties like roughness etc. strongly influence the fatigue strength of high-tensile steel. To investigate the effect of surface condition and TiN coating on the fatigue strength of high-strength steel, four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out for martensitic stainless steel with TiN film coated using arc ion plating (AIP) method. This study, using samples that had been polished under several size of grind particle, examines the influence of pre-coating treatment on fatigue properties. A 2-µm-thick TiN film was deposited onto the substrate under three kinds of polishing condition. The difference of the hardness originated in the residual stress or thin deformation layer where the difference of the size of grinding particle of the surface polishing. And it leads the transformation of the interface of the substrate and the TiN film and improves fatigue limit.

  8. Deposition of indium tin oxide thin films by cathodic arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.-H.; Wen, J.-C.; Chen, K.-L.; Chen, S.-Y.; Leu, M.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by cathodic arc ion plating (CAIP) using sintered oxide target as the source material. In an oxygen atmosphere of 200 deg. C, ITO films with a lowest resistivity of 2.2x10 -4 Ω-cm were obtained at a deposition rate higher than 450 nm/min. The carrier mobility of ITO shows a maximum at some medium pressures. Although morphologically ITO films with a very fine nanometer-sized structure were observed to possess the lowest resistivity, more detailed analyses based on X-ray diffraction are attempted to gain more insight into the factors that govern electron mobility in this investigation

  9. 77 FR 34938 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of...: Background On August 28, 2000, the Department published the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill...

  10. Investigation on solder joint strength of nickel tin-plated and CRS tabs with PCB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luay Hussain

    2002-01-01

    Failure analysis on easily peels off Nickel and CRS steel tabs from PCB was carried out. Nickel Tin plated tabs, CRS steel tabs and tube were joined to the PCB using reflow/ convection soldering, in an oven. The solder paste composition is Sn36/Pb35/Ag2. Peel test was conducted and it was found that many tabs could be easily peeled off with low force. Porosities which varies from 0.4 mm to < 0.01mm in diameter, developed during soldering process and solidification was noted. It was found, the number, size and position of these porosities inside the solder layer on both parts of the tabs affect the peel strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy study and EDX analysis were carried out. It was found that the low peel strength values were due to the combination of generation and development of porosities during soldering process which act as stress concentrators and the evolution (growth) of eutectic Sn/Pb and Sn/Ni/Cu brittle grainy phase. Large eutectic microstructure with brittle Sn-Ni-Cu grainy phase enhances the failure with low peeling forces. Sample showing no feature of Sn/Ni/Cu grain gave high peeling strength value. Solder reflow, an important process, can result in strength enhancement (if it was controlled for example in a furnace). (Author)

  11. Reformulation of Business Strategies for Increasing Sales of TIN Product Stabilizer at PT Timah Industri

    OpenAIRE

    Sundoyo, Hadi; Hamsal, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    PT. Timah Industri (PT TI) is a subsidiary of PT. Timah (Persero) Tbk which exploit comparative advantage of its parent company as the second largest tin producer in the world. With these advantages PT TI entered the downstream PVC stabilizer tin base. Starting from the difficulty of selling their products and then raised the question in inventory management. PT TI should immediately take strategic steps to save the tin chemical business continues to lose money from time to time. From the res...

  12. Study on the removal of iron impurities in methanesulfonic acid tin plating bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou-li, LIU; Jian-Jun, CHEN; Hong-Liang, PAN

    2018-03-01

    This thesis investigated the the influence of sodium sulfite as reducing agent on the recovery rate of tin ion. The approach is that HZ016 type cation exchange resin was used to adsorb Sn2+ and Fe2+ in electroplated tin solution first. After adsorption, the resin was removed by sulfuric acid, which was added with NaOH to adjust pH value to form precipitation and separate tin. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy spectrum (EDS) method were used to analyze the composition of the precipitates adjusted by pH. The results show that when the mass ratio of resin to bath is 1:2, the adsorption efficiency of resin reaches 98.3% and 97.1% respectively, and the elution efficiency of tin and iron reaches 95.1% and 94% respectively when the mass ratio of resin to eluent sulfuric acid is 1:4. Sodium sulfite was added to increase the efficiency of tin recovery by 8.1%. EDS and XRD atlas showed that after pH regulation, the main composition of the filtration precipitation was the hydroxides of tin.

  13. 76 FR 60001 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff [[Page... on certain tin mill products from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five...

  14. Effect of microstructure of TiN film on properties as bipolar plate coatings in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell prepared by inductively coupled plasma assisted magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo

    2013-01-01

    As potential application in bipolar plate of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, the microstructure, corrosion resistance and the electrical conductivity of titanium nitride (TiN) and Si doped titanium nitride (Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N) films deposited by magnetron sputtering with different bias voltages are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), electrochemical test and four-point probe method, respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM results reveal that the texture and topography of TiN film depend on the bias voltage and incorporation of Si. When the bias voltage is − 20 V and − 30 V, the TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films exhibit a dense (111) plane preferred growth, denser structure and smoother surface topography. The potentiodynamic test results indicate that the TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films have higher chemical inertness and better corrosion resistance. The films can satisfy the requirement of current density for bipolar plate materials. Incorporation of Si element into TiN film makes the passive current density more stable. Four-point probe measurement results show that the resistivity of both TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films reaches minimum when the deposition bias voltage is − 20 V. - Highlights: • Dense TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films are deposited by magnetron sputtering. • Preferred growth orientation of TiN depends on the bias voltage and Si doping. • TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films have excellent corrosion resistance. • Surface conductivity of TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films evolves with bias voltage

  15. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Dalton, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin

  17. Effects of TiN nanoparticles on the microstructure and properties of W–30Cu composites prepared via electroless plating and powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Li-Mei; Luo, Lai-Ma; Zhao, Mei-Ling; Luo, Guang-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Cheng, Ji-Gui; Zan, Xiang; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiN-doped W–Cu composite was successfully prepared by electroless plating and powder metallurgy. • TiN-doped W–Cu significantly affected the microstructure and properties of the composites. • W–Cu composite with 0.25 wt.% TiN possesses the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: W–30Cu/(0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2) wt.% TiN composites were prepared via electroless plating with simplified pretreatment and powder metallurgy. The phase and morphology of W–Cu/TiN composite powders and sintered W–Cu/TiN samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to characterize the microstructure of the sintered W–Cu/TiN samples. The relative density, hardness, electrical conductivity, and compressive strength of the sintered samples were examined. Results showed that W–30Cu composite powders with a uniform structure can be obtained using W powder pretreated with nitric acid, ammonium fluoride, and hydrofluoric acid followed by electroless Cu plating. The addition of TiN nanoparticles significantly affected the microstructure and properties of the W–30Cu composites. A good combination of the compressive strength and hardness of the W–30Cu composite material can be obtained by incorporating the TiN additive at 0.25 wt.%. However, the relative density and electrical conductivity slightly decreased

  18. Structure, properties and applications of TiN coatings produced by sputter ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickerby, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The potential beneficial effects that wear-resistant coatings have on engineering surfaces depends upon their ability to remain adherent with the treated component. This paper concentrates on the process of sputter ion plating, a simple dc glow discharge sputtering system operating in soft vacuum, and relates the properties of titanium nitride coatings to the degree of ion polishing (substrate bias) which is utilised during deposition. Substrate bias was identified as the most important system parameter since it allowed for some stress relaxation within the coating via its influence on porosity levels in the coating microstructure. The influence that this has on coating adhesion is discussed. The internal stress is a combination of intrinsic growth stresses and thermal mismatch stresses with the latter tending to dominate as substrate bias is increased. In addition to substrate bias, the role that titanium interlayers and substrate cleaning play in improving the adhesion of titanium nitride coatings is discussed, and the potential benefits highlighted. In the last part of the paper some applications of titanium nitride coating are described -it will be shown that increase in component life is by no means the only criterion which should be considered when judging the success, or otherwise, of a coated component. (author)

  19. Employment of fluorine doped zinc tin oxide (ZnSnOx:F) coating layer on stainless steel 316 for a bipolar plate for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hun; Byun, Dongjin; Lee, Joong Kee

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Preparation of fluorine doped tin oxide (SnOx:F) and fluorine doped zinc tin oxide (ZnSnOx:F) coating layer on the surface of stainless steel 316 bipolar plate for PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells). → Evaluations of the corrosion resistance and the interfacial contact resistance of the bare, SnOx:F and ZnSnOx:F thin film coated stainless steel 316 bipolar plates. → Evaluation of single cell performance such as cell voltage and power density using bare stainless steel, SnOx:F and ZnSnOx:F film coated bipolar plates. - Abstract: The investigation of the electrochemical characteristics of the fluorine doped tin oxide (SnOx:F) and fluorine doped zinc tin oxide (ZnSnOx:F) was carried out in the simulated PEMFC environment and bare stainless steel 316 was used as a reference. The results showed that the ZnSnOx:F coating enhanced both the corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance (ICR). The corrosion current for ZnSnOx:F was 1.2 μA cm -2 which was much lower than that of bare stainless steel of 50.16 μA cm -2 . The ZnSnOx:F coated film had the smallest corrosion current due to the formation of a tight surface morphology with very few pin-holes. The ZnSnOx:F coated film exhibited the highest values of the cell voltage and power density due to its having the lowest ICR values.

  20. The recovery of tin, and the production of niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride, from a tin slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Tyler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of testwork on the recovery of tin, niobium, and tantalum from a tin slag. The slag, which consisted mainly of amorphous silica, with varying amounts of calcuim, magnesium, manganese, iron, and aluminium, contained an average of 8,8 per cent niobium pentoxide and 6,2 per cent tantalum pentoxide. The metallic tin-ion phase was removed from the crushed slag by magnetic separation. The slag was then leached with hydrochloric acid to remove magnesium, calcium, aluminium, iron, manganese, and the remainder of the tin. Leaching with sodium hydroxide for the removal of silica and phosphorous was followed by a final leach with hydrochloric acid for the removal of sodium. The upgraded concentrate thus obtained was purified by leaching with hydrofluoric acid, solvent extraction of niobium and tantalum into tri-n-butyl phosphate and methyl isobutyl ketone, and selective stripping of niobium with sulphuric acid and tantalum with ammonium floride. Niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride were then precipitated by the addition of ammonium hydroxide and potassium fluoride to the respective strip liquors. The overall recoveries in the upgraded concentrate were 98 per cent for tantalum and 92 per cent for niobium. Dissolutions and recoveries of over 99 per cent were obtained for both tantalum and niobium in the purification steps. The niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride precipitates obtained were of high purity

  1. Corrosion resistance of siloxane–poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, S.R.; Cardoso, H.R.P. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, C.T. [ICET, University Feevale, RS-239, 2755 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Santana, J.A.; Sarmento, V.H.V. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sergipe – UFS, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Muller, I.L. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: celia.malfatti@ufrgs.br [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Siloxane–PMMA film was produced by dip-coating on tin plate substrate. • It was evaluated the influence of (TEOS) addition on siloxane–PMMA hybrid films. • Siloxane–PMMA films without TEOS presented a regular coverage and lowest roughness. • The TEOS addition decrease the corrosion resistance of siloxane–PMMA films. • Siloxane–PMMA without TEOS presented is higher durability in the film wear test. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane–poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol–gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane–PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of ejecta production from sinusoidal tin surfaces under supported and unsupported shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bao; Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wang, Pei; He, AnMin; Wu, HengAn

    2018-04-01

    Micro-ejecta, an instability growth process, occurs at metal/vacuum or metal/gas interface when compressed shock wave releases from the free surface that contains surface defects. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the ejecta production from tin surface shocked by supported and unsupported waves with pressures ranging from 8.5 to 60.8 GPa. It is found that the loading waveforms have little effect on spike velocity while remarkably affect the bubble velocity. The bubble velocity of unsupported shock loading remains nonzero constant value at late time as observed in experiments. Besides, the time evolution of ejected mass in the simulations is compared with the recently developed ejecta source model, indicating the suppressed ejection of unmelted or partial melted materials. Moreover, different reference positions are chosen to characterize the amount of ejecta under different loading waveforms. Compared with supported shock case, the ejected mass of unsupported shock case saturates at lower pressure. Through the analysis on unloading path, we find that the temperature of tin sample increases quickly from tensile stress state to zero pressure state, resulting in the melting of bulk tin under decaying shock. Thus, the unsupported wave loading exhibits a lower threshold pressure causing the solid-liquid phase transition on shock release than the supported shock loading.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of ejecta production from sinusoidal tin surfaces under supported and unsupported shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-ejecta, an instability growth process, occurs at metal/vacuum or metal/gas interface when compressed shock wave releases from the free surface that contains surface defects. We present molecular dynamics (MD simulations to investigate the ejecta production from tin surface shocked by supported and unsupported waves with pressures ranging from 8.5 to 60.8 GPa. It is found that the loading waveforms have little effect on spike velocity while remarkably affect the bubble velocity. The bubble velocity of unsupported shock loading remains nonzero constant value at late time as observed in experiments. Besides, the time evolution of ejected mass in the simulations is compared with the recently developed ejecta source model, indicating the suppressed ejection of unmelted or partial melted materials. Moreover, different reference positions are chosen to characterize the amount of ejecta under different loading waveforms. Compared with supported shock case, the ejected mass of unsupported shock case saturates at lower pressure. Through the analysis on unloading path, we find that the temperature of tin sample increases quickly from tensile stress state to zero pressure state, resulting in the melting of bulk tin under decaying shock. Thus, the unsupported wave loading exhibits a lower threshold pressure causing the solid-liquid phase transition on shock release than the supported shock loading.

  4. The Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Corrosion Products of Archaeological Tin-Bronze Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiara, G.; Grande, C.; Ferrando, S.; Piccardo, P.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, tin-bronze analogues of archaeological objects were investigated in the presence of an aerobic Pseudomonas fluorescens strain in a solution, containing chlorides, sulfates, carbonates and nitrates according to a previous archaeological characterization. Classical fixation protocols were employed in order to verify the attachment capacity of such bacteria. In addition, classical metallurgical analytical techniques were used to detect the effect of bacteria on the formation of uncommon corrosion products in such an environment. Results indicate quite a good attachment capacity of the bacteria to the metallic surface and the formation of the uncommon corrosion products sulfates and sulfides is probably connected to the bacterial metabolism.

  5. Design of an experiment for the production of a foamed tin sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernimont, E.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major experiments in the GAS container is concerned with the experimental production of a foamed metal. A foamed metal is one that contains a significant amount of gas bubbles suspended in its solid volume. Purdue's GAS team proposes to do this with the help of a solid zinc carbonate that gives off carbon dioxide at high temperatures. Because of low energy requirements, the metal used for this experiment is tin. It is hoped that the use of near zero environment will keep the suspended bubbles more uniform than in an Earth based process, hence not depleting the physical strength of the material as greatly as is observed on Earth.

  6. In vitro assessments on bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of TiN coating on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy synthesized by multi-arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Naiming; Huang Xiaobo; Zhang Xiangyu; Fan Ailan; Qin Lin; Tang Bin

    2012-01-01

    TiN coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by multi-arc ion plating (MIP) technique. Surface morphology, cross sectional microstructure, elemental distributions and phase compositions of the obtained coating were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscope (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V and the TiN coating were assessed via in vitro bacterial adhesion tests and corrosion experiments, respectively. The results indicated that continuous and compact coating which was built up by pure TiN with a typical columnar crystal structure has reached a thickness of 1.5 μm. This TiN coating could significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion and enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V substrate.

  7. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  8. Influence of current density on surface morphology and properties of pulse plated tin films from citrate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Das, Siddhartha; Das, Karabi, E-mail: karabi@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Bulk polycrystalline tin films have been processed by pulse electrodeposition technique from a simple solution containing triammonium citrate and stannous chloride. The cathodic investigations have been carried out by galvanostatic methods. As deposited samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis of the deposited films shows microcrystalline grains having β-Sn form. The surface morphology is very rough at lower current density, but becomes smooth at higher current density, and exhibits pyramid type morphology at all the current densities. The effect of current density on microhardness, melting behavior, and electrical resistivity are also reported here.

  9. Biodegradation of Tributyltin (TBT) by Extremophile Bacteria from Atacama Desert and Speciation of Tin By-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Jorge; Riffo, Paula; Santander, Paola; Mansilla, Héctor D; Mondaca, María Angélica; Campos, Víctor; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of tributyltin (TBT) by four tin resistant Gram negative bacteria isolated from extremely contaminated river sediments in the Atacama Desert in Chile was studied. Moraxella osloensis showed the greatest resistance and degradation capability of TBT, producing less toxic by-products, such as dibutyltin (DBT) and inorganic tin. In 7 days, approximately 80 % of TBT degradation was achieved, generating close to 20 % of DBT as degradation product. The degradation rate constant (k) was 0.022 [day(-1)] and TBT half-life (t1/2) in culture was 4.3 days. Debutylation is stated a probable mechanism of TBT degradation.

  10. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  11. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  12. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  13. Conflict minerals in the compute sector: estimating extent of tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold use in ICT products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Colin; Olivetti, Elsa; Miller, Reed; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph

    2015-01-20

    Recent legislation has focused attention on the supply chains of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold (3TG), specifically those originating from the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The unique properties of these so-called “conflict minerals” lead to their use in many products, ranging from medical devices to industrial cutting tools. This paper calculates per product use of 3TG in several information, communication, and technology (ICT) products such as desktops, servers, laptops, smart phones, and tablets. By scaling up individual product estimates to global shipment figures, this work estimates the influence of the ICT sector on 3TG mining in covered countries. The model estimates the upper bound of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold use within ICT products to be 2%, 0.1%, 15%, and 3% of the 2013 market share, respectively. This result is projected into the future (2018) based on the anticipated increase in ICT device production.

  14. PDV-based estimation of high-speed ejecta particles density from shock-loaded tin plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzkowiak, Jean-Eloi; Prudhomme, Gabriel; Mercier, Patrick; Lauriot, Séverine; Dubreuil, Estelle; Berthe, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    A machine-grooved metallic tin surface is explosively driven by a detonator with a shock-induced pressure of 25 GPa. The resulting dynamic fragmentation process called micro-jetting is the creation of high-speed jets of matter moving faster than the bulk metallic surface. The resulting fragmentation into micron-sized metallic particles generates a self-expanding cloud of droplets, whose areal mass, velocity and size distributions are unknown. Lithium-Niobate (LN) piezoelectric pin measured areal mass and Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) was employed to get a time-velocity spectrogram of the cloud. We present both experimental mass and velocity results and relate the integrated areal mass of the cloud to the PDV power spectral density under the assumption of a power law distribution for particle sizes. A model of PDV spectrograms is described, for which speckle fluctuations are averaged out. Finally, we use our model for a Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the cloud's parameters from PDV data. The integrated areal mass deduced from the PDV analysis is in good agreement with piezoelectric results. We underline the relevance of analyzing PDV data and correlating different diagnostics to retrieve the macro-physical properties of ejecta particles.

  15. ATLAS barrel hadron tile calorimeter: spacers plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.M.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Khubua, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we expose the main problems of the mass production of the so-called 'spacer plates' for the ATLAS Barrel Hadron Tile Calorimeter. We describe all practical solutions of these problems. Particularly we present the measurement procedures and calculation schemes we used for the spacers dimensions determination. The results of the calculations are presented

  16. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  17. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murciego, A.; Alvarez-Ayuso, E.; Pellitero, E.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F.; Rubin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As 2 O 5 ). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  18. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Shi, Lei; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide

  19. A review of radiological hazards associated with tin by-product mineral processing industry in the SEATRAD centre member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udompornwirat, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with the tin by-product mineral processing industry has recently become an issue of concern in the SEATRAD Centre member countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The SEATRAD Centre, with the assistance of a United Nations Development Program consultant, carried out an investigation on radioactivity problems at twelve tin by-product mineral processing plants in Malaysia and Thailand. The investigation included a survey of external gamma radiation levels and dust sampling for internal dose estimation as well as characterising the potential sources of radiation exposure in the plants. This paper reviews the nature of the tin by-product mineral processing industry and the general levels of associated radiological hazards. In addition, data provided by the government organisations in the member countries are reviewed. Typical annual effective doses experienced by the industry's workers are estimated on the basis of existing information, and possible measures to reduce exposure are discussed. It is concluded that the estimated median effective dose experienced by the workers is about 18 to 19 mSv per annum. Maximum exposures may exceed 200 mSv per annum. The important exposure pathways are external gamma radiation and internal radiation arising through intake of radioactive dust. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G.K.; Srivastava, D.

    1997-01-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables

  1. Production of multifilamentary Nb3Sn composites incorporating a high tin bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovich, A.; Zeithlin, B.A.; Walker, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The economics and processing methods have been examined for the fabrication of multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn using a high tin bronze reactive matrix. Four conductor configurations utilizing the high tin bronze were compared with a conventional Cu-13 wt % Sn bronze. The most promising of these designs is potentially 40% lower in cost per ampere meter than the conventional composite. Large hydrostatic extrusion facilities, which are required for the high tin processing, are not presently available in this country but can be made by conversion of conventional presses. They exist in Europe. Experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of hydrostatic extrusion, and billet components were successfully prepared using the hydrostatic extrusion technique. We have concluded that the economics, availability of facilities and initial fabrication results are favorable for this type of conductor and that the next stage in this program of scale up to extrusion and drawing of 2'' to 3'' diameter composite billets should be undertaken

  2. Photovoltaic semiconductor materials based on alloys of tin sulfide, and methods of production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Stephan

    2016-06-07

    Photovoltaic thin-film materials comprising crystalline tin sulfide alloys of the general formula Sn.sub.1-x(R).sub.xS, where R is selected from magnesium, calcium and strontium, as well as methods of producing the same, are disclosed.

  3. Kinetics study of Jatropha oil esterification with ethanol in the presence of tin (II) chloride catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Ratrianti, Naomi; Purnamasari, Indah; Budiman, Arief

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha oil is one of the promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jatropha oil is non-edible oil hence utilization of this oil would not compete with the needs of food. However, crude jatropha oil usually has high free fatty acid (FFA) content. Due to this fact, direct alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of crude jatropha oil for biodiesel production cannot be performed. FFA in crude jatropha oil will react with a base catalyst, resulting in soap as by product and hindering methyl ester (biodiesel) production. Therefore, prior to a transesterification reaction, it is crucial to run a pretreatment step of jatropha oil which can lower the FFA content in the oil. In this work, the pretreatment process was conducted through the esterification reaction of FFA contained in crude jatropha oil with ethanol over tin (II) chloride catalyst to reduce the acid value of the feedstock. The feedstock was Indonesia crude jatropha oil containing 12.03% of FFA. The esterification reaction was carried out in a batch reactor with a molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1:60 and total reaction time was 180 minutes. Tin (II) chloride catalyst was varied at 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% wt, whereas the effect of the reaction temperature was studied at 35, 34, 55, and 65 °C. The best reaction conversion was 71.55%, achieved at the following condition: a reaction temperature of 65 °C, catalyst concentration of 10% wt, the reaction time of 180 min, and the molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1:60. Kinetics study was also conducted in this work. It was found that esterification reaction of jatropha oil FFA with ethanol catalyzed by tin(II) chloride fitted the first-order pseudo-homogeneous kinetics model. It was also revealed that the frequency factor (A) and the activation energy (Ea) were 4.3864 × 106 min-1 and 56.2513 kJ/mole, respectively.

  4. Ion exchange chromatography on a new form of tin dioxide for the isolation of strontium radioisotopes from fission products: an application to milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, R.; Valentini, M.T.G.; Maggi, L.

    1990-01-01

    An amorphous, partially-reduced tin dioxide, having properties of an inorganic exchanger, was tested for application to fission product separations. Due to the good sorption of both strontium and barium the application of the exchanger to radiostrontium isolation from fission product mixtures is subjected to important restrictions. An application to 90 Sr determination in milk is proposed. (author)

  5. 46 CFR 57.06-2 - Production test plate interval of testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-2 Production test plate interval of testing. (a) At least one... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production test plate interval of testing. 57.06-2... follows: (1) When the extent of welding on a single vessel exceeds 50 lineal feet of either or both...

  6. 78 FR 4385 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to- length carbon-quality steel plate products (CTL plate... Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products from the Republic of Korea'' dated concurrently with this notice...

  7. Measuring the sustainability of tin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Congren; Tan, Quanyin; Zeng, Xianlai; Zhang, Yuping; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-09-01

    Tin is a component of many items used in daily activities, including solder in consumer electronics, tin can containing food and beverages, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers in construction products, catalysts in industrial processes, etc. China is the largest producer and consumer of refined tin, and more than 60% of this refined tin is applied in the electronics sector as solder. China is the leader in global economic growth; simultaneously, China is also a major producer and consumer of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Thus, future tin supply and demand in China are forecasted, based on the gross domestic product per capita and the average consumption of refined tin in past five years. Current tin reserves and identified resources in China can meet the future two decades of mine production, but import of tin will also be critical for China's future tin consumption. However, there will be a lot of uncertainty for import of tin from other countries. At the same time, virgin mining of geological ores is a process of high energy consumption and destruction of the natural environment. Hence recycling tin from Sn-bearing secondary resources like tailings and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) can not only address the shortage of tin mineral resources, but also save energy and protect the ecological environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Basegmez, Suzan; Beaumont, Willem; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; De Paula Carvalho, W; Çerçi, Salim; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Dogangün, O; Dumanoglu, Isa; d'Enterria, David; Erchov, Y; Eskut, Eda; Figueiredo, D; Girgis, Semiray; Göttlicher, P; Gouskos, Loukas; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Khein, Lev; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Lebeau, Michel; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Muhl, Carsten; Musienko, Yuri; Ochesanu, Silvia; Onengüt, G; Onengut, G Jr; Ozdemir, Kadri; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Polatoz, A; Ripert, Marion; Shileev, K; Sogut, Kenan; Tiflov, B TaliV; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Uzun, Dilber

    2008-01-01

    Light transmission rate performance of $102$ irradiated quartz samples was measured to select the best quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR calorimeter. All the produced quartz plates were originally used in a previous CERN experiment, DELPHI. Three different doses of $^{60}$Co source were used with the collaboration of PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.) to study the transmission rate performance of the quartz samples after irradiation for different incident light, ranging from $250$ to $700$ nm in $5$ nm increasing steps. All samples show different decrease in the rate with wavelength for different doses. Three different steps were followed before irradiation to find out the best way of cleaning the original DELPHI Cu/Cr tracks on the samples. Results of these measurements presented here correspond to the quartz plates that will be used in one hadronic sector of CASTOR calorimeter until end of 2008. For the full calorimeter new quartz plates will be installed. We also present the light transmi...

  9. Effect of ion plating TiN on the oxidation of sputtered NiCrAlY-coated Ti3Al-Nb in air at 850-950 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, F.C.; Zeng, C.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang; Wu, W.

    1998-01-01

    A single sputtered NiCrAlY coating and a complex coating of inner ion-plated TiN and outer sputtered NiCrAlY were prepared on the intermetallic compound Ti 3 Al-Nb. Their oxidation behavior was examined at 850, 900, and 950 C in air by thermal gravimetry combined with XRD, SEM, and EDAX. The results showed that Ti 3 Al-Nb followed approximately parabolic oxidation, forming an outer thin Al 2 O 3 -rich scale and an inner TiO 2 -rich layer doped with Nb at the three temperatures. The TiO 2 -rich layer doped with Nb dominated the oxidation reaction. The single NiCrAlY coating did not follow parabolic oxidation exactly at 850 and 950 C, but oxidized approximately in a parabolic manner, because the instantaneous parabolic constants changed slightly with time. Besides the Al 2 O 3 scale, TiO 2 formed from the coating surface at the coating-substrate interface. The deterioration of the coating accelerated with increasing temperature. The NiCrAlY-TiN coating showed two-stage parabolic oxidation at 850 and 900 C, and an approximate parabolic oxidation at 950 C. The TiN layer was effective as a barrier to inhibit coating-alloy interdiffusion

  10. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  11. Batch production of microchannel plate photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, Henry J.; Wetstein, Matthew; Elagin, Andrey

    2018-03-06

    In-situ methods for the batch fabrication of flat-panel micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors (MCP-PMTs), without transporting either the window or the detector assembly inside a vacuum vessel are provided. The method allows for the synthesis of a reflection-mode photocathode on the entrance to the pores of a first MCP or the synthesis of a transmission-mode photocathode on the vacuum side of a photodetector entrance window.

  12. 75 FR 29976 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-826] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...-quality steel plate products from Italy. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products...

  13. 78 FR 29113 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products... duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from the Republic of Korea...

  14. Reducing the variability of antibiotic production in Streptomyces by cultivation in 24-square deepwell plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenberg, S.; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudhan; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Highly reproducible production values of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin were achieved by cultivation of a heterologous Streptomyces producer strain in commercially available square deepwell plates consisting of 24 wells of 3 ml culture volume each. Between parallel cultivation batches...

  15. HF production in CMS-Resistive Plate Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Guida, R.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Trentadue, R.; Cavallo, N.; Fabozzi, F.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Polese, G.; Sciacca, C.; Belli, G.; Necchi, M.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Anguelov, T.; Genchev, V.; Panev, B.; Piperov, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vankov, P.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of highly reactive compounds in the gas mixture during Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operation at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) is studied. Results from two different types of chambers are discussed: 50 x 50 cm 2 RPC prototypes and two final CMS-RB1 chambers. The RB1 detectors were also connected to a closed loop gas system. Gas composition, possible additional impurities as well as fluoride ions have been monitored in different gamma irradiation conditions both in open and closed loop mode. The chemical composition of the RPC electrode surface has also been analyzed using an electron microscope equipped with an EDS/X-ray

  16. Analysis of the production of U3O8 powder for low enrichment fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, N.L.; Celora, J.; Parodi, C.A.; Ponieman, G.; Kellner, M.; Marajofsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    Description is made of the processes used in the production of U 3 O 8 powder for low enrichment plates for fuel elements for Research Reactors. The analysis of the efficiency of each batch is foccused on the relationship between milling and sieving times and the morphology of the product in each production step. (Author)

  17. Non-destructive evaluation methods to improve quality control in low enrichment MTR fuel plate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, J.M.; Lidington, B.; Hawker, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarises some preliminary non-destructive measurements made recently at the Harwell Laboratory on a prototype low enrichment MTR fuel plate. The measurements were intended to indicate the potential of two different techniques for improving quality control in plate production. Pulse Video Thermography (PVT) is being considered as an alternative to ultrasound transmission measurements for the detection and sizing of lack of thermal bonding between the fuel and the clad layers, either to verify the indications from the established ultrasonic methods before destroying the plate or as a replacement method of inspection. High frequency pulse-echo ultrasonics is being considered for providing maps of clad layer thickness on each side of the plate. The measurements have indicated the potential for both methods, but more work is required, using a test plate containing controlled defects, to establish their capability. (orig.)

  18. 77 FR 21527 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... from the Republic of Korea. The review covers one manufacturer/ exporter. The period of review is...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products (CTL plate) from the Republic...

  19. Progress on a high current density low cost Niobium3Tin conductor scaleable to modern niobium titanium production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Bruce A.; Pyon, Taeyoung; Gregory, Eric; Scanlan, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    A number of configurations of a mono element internal tin conductor (MEIT) were fabricated designed to explore the effect of local ratio, niobium content, and tin content on the overall current density. Critical current densities on four configurations were measured, two to 17T. Current density as a function of filament size was also measured with filaments sizes ranging from 1.8 to 7.1 microns. A Nb60wt%Ta barrier was also explored as a means to reduce the high cost of the Tantalum barrier. The effectiveness of radial copper channels in high Nb conductors is also evaluated. Results are used to suggest designs for more optimized conductors.

  20. Anomalous growth of whisker-like bismuth-tin extrusions from tin-enriched tin-Bi deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, C.-C.; Tsai, Y.-D.; Lin, C.-C.; Lee, G.-L.; Chen, S.-W.; Lee, T.-C.; Wen, T.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This article shows the first finding that the anomalous growth of Bi-Sn extrusions from tin-enriched alloys (Sn-xBi with x between 20 and 10 wt.%) can be induced by post-plating annealing in N 2 between 145 and 260 deg. C for 10 min although metal whiskers were commonly formed on the surface of pure metals or alloys of the enriched component. From SEM observations, very similar to Sn whiskers, Bi-Sn extrusions vary in size, shape, length, and diameter with changing the annealing temperature, which are highly important in regarding the potential for failure of electronic products. Annealing resulting in thermal expansion of Sn grains is believed to squeeze the Bi-Sn alloys with relatively low melting points to form whisker-like extrusions although the exact mechanism is unclear

  1. Kinetics study of levulinic acid production from corncobs by tin tetrachloride as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Wang, Pengbo; Qian, Hongjia; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2018-07-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) is an ideal platform chemical that can be produced through acid-catalyzed dehydration and hydrolysis of hexose sugars obtained from lignocellulosic materials. In this study, SnCl 4 was identified as an efficient catalyst for LA production and the reaction kinetics was investigated in a single water phase under different reaction conditions. The Box-Behnken design response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimized reaction conditions and three individual variables including reaction temperature, duration, and catalyst concentration were evaluated. An appealing LA yield of 76.0% was achieved at 193 °C and 17 min with 82 mM SnCl 4 catalyst. A kinetics model was developed to predict the yields of glucose, HMF, and LA, which are tally with the experimental results. The analysis of the related kinetic parameters and the results of the RSM experiment helped to provide insights into the interplay between various reaction steps with SnCl 4 as catalysts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of soybean oil using calcium supported tin oxides as heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zhao, Liangliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method with different conditions. • The catalysts were efficient in the soybean oil transesterification. • The catalytic activity and stability of the catalyst were investigated. - Abstract: The main objective of this work was to develop an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel by using a stable solid base catalyst. To this purpose, different heterogeneous CaO–SnO 2 catalysts have been prepared by means of impregnation methods. Various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the catalyst characterization. The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, to produce biodiesel, was carried out under batch conditions at refluxed methanol over the CaO–SnO 2 catalysts. The catalytic activity is found to be highly dependent on the Ca/Sn ratio and calcination temperature. The solid catalyst with the Ca/Sn molar ratio of 4:1 and calcined at a temperature of 973 K, performed the best activity, reaching the conversion to methyl esters of 89.3% after 6 h of reaction at methanol reflux temperature (343 K) when a methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and catalyst dosage of 8 wt.% were employed. Further, the solid catalyst is proved to be stable and durable for the transesterification reaction

  3. Determination of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead in canned fruits from the Czech market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Diviš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global production of metal cans is more than 300 billion cans. Benefits of metal packaging consist mainly from the great strenght, excellent barrier properties and good thermal conductivity. The main problem of used metal packaging are the corrosion processes. The corrosion of metal container causes dissolution of tin which is used as a protective layer of the steel shell of the can and other metallic elements used in the manufacture of cans. In this work 31 samples of canned fruit was analysed and the concentration of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead was determined in fruit and in syrup using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed no difference between the concentration of analysed elements in fruit and in syrup. In none of the analyzed samples the permitted maximum concentration of tin 200 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. Maximum concentration of tin was measured in canned grepfruit (59.8 ±1.9 mg.kg-1. The age of cans had no significant effect on the concentration of tin in canned fruit. The concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans with protective layer of lacquer was significantly lower than the concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans without protective layer of lacquer. Concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead in the analysed samples was very low at the natural levels of occurrence of these metals in fruit and it was impossible to determine unequivocally that the measured concentrations of these metals in canned fruit originate from the corrosion of can. The corrosion of the tinplate was studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. By analyzing the SEM pictures and EDS spectra, critical areas of tin plate corrosion were observed. Based on the measured results it can be concluded that the consumption of fresh canned fruit is not a major problem for the inhabitants of the Czech Republic in terms of intake of potentially hazardous metals.

  4. Enhanced Freshwater Production Using Finned-Plate Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perves Bappy Mohammad Jabed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air Gap membrane distillation (AGMD, a special type of energy efficient membrane distillation process, is a technology for producing freshwater from waste water. Having some benefits over other traditional processes, this method has been able to draw attention of researchers working in the field of freshwater production technologies. In this study, a basic AGMD system with flat coolant plate has been modified using a specially designed channelled coolant plate of portable size to observe its effect over the production rate and performance of the system. Attempt has been made to increase the amount of distillate flux by using the “fin effect” of the channelled coolant plate. A finned plate have been used instead of a flat coolant plate and experiments were conducted to compare the effect. Coolant temperature and feed temperature of the system have been varied from 10°C to 25°C and 40°C to 70°C respectively. Comparing the data, around 50% to 58% distillate enhancement has been observed for channelled coolant plate. Also, it was seen that the enhancement was higher for higher feed temperatures and coolant temperatures. With these findings, a better performing AGMD module has been introduced to mitigate the scarcity of freshwater.

  5. Scale-down of vinegar production into microtiter plates using a custom-made lid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlepütz, Tino; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-04-01

    As an important food preservative and condiment, vinegar is widely produced in industry by submerged acetic acid bacteria cultures. Although vinegar production is established on the large scale, up to now suitable microscale cultivation methods, e.g. using microtiter plates, are missing to enable high-throughput cultivation and to optimize fermentation conditions. In order to minimize evaporation losses of ethanol and acetic acid in a 48-well microtiter plate during vinegar production a new custom-made lid was developed. A diffusion model was used to calculate the dimensions of a hole in the lid to guarantee a suitable oxygen supply and level of ventilation. Reference fermentation was conducted in a 9-L bioreactor to enable the calculation of the proper cultivation conditions in the microtiter plate. The minimum dissolved oxygen tensions in the microtiter plate were between 7.5% and 23% of air saturation and in the same range as in the 9-L bioreactor. Evaporation losses of ethanol and acetic acid were less than 5% after 47 h and considerably reduced compared to those of microtiter plate fermentations with a conventional gas-permeable seal. Furthermore, cultivation times in the microtiter plate were with about 40 h as long as in the 9-L bioreactor. In conclusion, microtiter plate cultivations with the new custom-made lid provide a platform for high-throughput studies on vinegar production. Results are comparable to those in the 9-L bioreactor. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the Content of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Tin, Copper and Zinc during the Production Process Flow of Tomato Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the largest contaminants of food products. Once metals are present in vegetables, their concentrations are rarely modified by industrial processing techniques, although in some cases washing may decrease the metal content. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of industrial processing on the content of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, tin, copper and zinc in tomatoes and products resulting on flow technology of tomato broth. For the determination of essential elements and/or potentially toxic was use atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical results for quantitative evaluation the concentrations of the investigated elements on the samples of tomatoes taken from the technological process of the production of tomato broth indicated the presence of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn but with a level of concentration that significantly decreased in the finished product and the absence of metals Hg and As in all investigated samples. Effect of industrial processing on the content of tin in tomato samples analyzed was characterized by fluctuations in the residual content that led to a significant increase in concentration of 0.100 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomatoes - unprocessed to 0.200 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomato broth.

  7. Cement plate slab production with the incorporation of glass wool waste ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathany Angélica dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the characteristics of Civil Construction is its ability to absorb a wide range of wastes to produce new products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of cement plates produced with the addition of ground glass wool waste and in natura, in shredded form. The tensile strength tests in bending and permeability were performed, according to ABNT NBR 15498: 2007 as well as environmental ones according to ABNT NBR 10004: 2004. The plates produced in this study were characterized as being impermeable, with a satisfactory tensile strength in bending and being classified as plates for indoor and outdoor use, and as products that do not offer immediate risk to health and to the environment; however, it should be discarded in landfill.

  8. The Evolution of Plate and Extruded Products with High Strength and Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, D. K.; Rioja, R. J.; Bray, G. H.; Venema, G. B.; Colvin, E. L.

    From the first use of 2017-T74 on the Junkers F13, improvements have been made to plate and extruded products for applications requiring the highest attainable strength and adequate fracture toughness. One such application is the upper wing of large aircraft. The progression of these product improvements achieved through the development of alloys that include 7075-(T6 & T76), 7150-(T6 & T77) and 7055-(T77 & T79) and most recently 7255-(T77 & T79) is reviewed. The most current advancements include aluminum-copper-lithium, alloy 2055 plate and extruded products that can attain strength equivalent to that of 7055-T77 with higher modulus, similar fracture toughness and improved fatigue, fatigue crack growth and corrosion performance. The achievement of these properties is explained in terms of the several alloy design principles. The highly desired and balanced characteristics make these products ideal for upper wing applications.

  9. Waffle Production: Influence of Baking Plate Material on Sticking of Waffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Kalss, Georg; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-01-01

    Background of this study was to understand the factors that contribute to sticking of fresh egg waffles on baking plates. The aim of this study was to investigate the sticking (adhesion) behavior of waffles on 4 different baking plate materials (ductile iron, grey iron, low alloyed steel, and steel with titanium nitrite coating) at different baking parameters (temperature and time) and application of 3 different release agents (different fat compositions). Baking plates from ductile and grey iron showed lower release properties of waffles than the 2 steel baking plates. Baking parameters had to be high enough to allow rapid product crust formation but prevent burning, which again increases sticking behavior. Release agents based on short-chain fatty acids with higher degree of saturation provided better release behavior of waffles than those based on long-chain fatty acids or on emulsifier-acid combinations. Baking plates with increased hardness, good heat storage capacity, and smooth surface seemed to be best suitable. Further research on appropriate coating material might be promising for future. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. 75 FR 4779 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon- quality steel plate products... that the Department conduct an administrative review of its sales and entries of subject merchandise...

  11. Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population.

  12. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of printed circuit board surfaces are covered with tin, therefore tin corrosion under humid conditions and movement of tin ions under the influence of an electric field plays an important role in the corrosion failure development. Tracking tin corrosion products spread on the printed c...

  13. ATLAS Barrel Hadron Calorimeter: general manufacturing concepts for 300000 absorber plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikov, B.A.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Bylinkin, P.M

    1998-01-01

    We summarize a 4-year (1994-1997) experience of design and research efforts which led us to the solution of 2 important tasks of a principal significance for precision assembly of one of major elements of ATLAS, - its Hadron Barrel Tile Calorimeter. These tasks were: - to develop the high tolerances (50-100 microns) technology for about 300000 units of calorimeter nuclear absorber plates mass production, - to choose the best manufacturer(s) able to satisfy shop drawings demands in a reasonable balance with some other significant criteria: production period, price acceptable geography location (transport expenses), available storage area and access ways, reliable quality control etc. For the best absorbers producers our final choice was the TATRA PLANT (Czech Republic) for 1.6 m long plates stamping (40800 units) with Argonne punching die and the MINSK TRACTOR PLANT (Belarus Republic) for smaller size plates stamping (about 240000 units). We exclude noticeable (more than 1% of the day production) tolerances violations by the specially developed QUALITY CONTROL Program

  14. Technical investigation of a pyrophoric event involving corrosion products from HEU ZPPR fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    A pyrophoric event recently occurred which involved corrosion products collected from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel plates used in the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR). This paper summarizes the event and its background, and presents the results of an investigation into its source and mechanism. The investigation focused on characterization of corrosion product samples similar to those involved in the event using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Burning curve TGA tests were performed to measure the ignition temperature and hydride fractions of corrosion products in several different conditions to assess the effects of passivation treatment and long-term storage on chemical reactivity. The hydride fraction and ignition temperature of the corrosion products were found to be strongly dependent on the corrosion extent of the source metal. The results indicate that the energy source for the event was a considerable quantity of uranium hydride present in the corrosion products, but the specific ignition mechanism could not be identified

  15. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  16. Release of fission products from miniature fuel plates at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Three miniature fuel plates were tested at progressively higher temperatures. A U 3 Si plated blistered and released fission gases at 500 0 C. Two U 3 O 8 filled plates blistered and released fission gases at 550 0 C

  17. On the use of lead/tin alloys as target material for the production of spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, F.; Baumann, P.; Brys, T.; Daum, M.; Egorov, A.; Fierlinger, P.; Fuchs, P.; Henneck, R.; Joray, St.; Keil, R.; Kirch, K.; Krutova, R.; Kuehne, G.; Lebedev, V.T.; Obermeier, H.; Orlova, D.N.; Perret, Ch.; Pichlmaier, A.; Richard, Ph.; Serebrov, A.; Thies, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the suitability of lead (Pb)/tin (Sn) alloys with atomic ratios between 4:1 and 12:1 for use as a spallation target material for the PSI spallation ultracold neutron source. The measured corrosion rate with distilled water, R c -5 cm/year, is more than a factor of 80, less than for normal Pb; this corrosion rate is satisfactory. Microscopic investigations of the surface after the exposure to water revealed no visual changes. Small angle neutron scattering showed that the alloy is mechanically stable under thermal cycling. An experimental simulation of a water-cooled spallation neutron target made of Pb/Sn pebbles with a filling factor of 60% was investigated; the pulsed proton beam was simulated using hot and cold water in the target 'cooling' circuit. With realistic operational parameters for the cooling circuit, serious deformation of the PbSn pebbles occurred which finally blocked the cooling circuit. The Pb/Sn alloys solve the corrosion problem but its mechanical properties are inadequate leading to too short a lifetime to be practical in the PSI spallation source

  18. Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanović, Srdjan; Vuković, Dragana; Hola, Veronika; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Djukić, Slobodanka; Cirković, Ivana; Ruzicka, Filip

    2007-08-01

    The details of all steps involved in the quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates are described. The presented protocol incorporates information on assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci, gained both by direct experience as well as by analysis of methods for assaying biofilm production. The obtained results should simplify quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates, and make it more reliable and comparable among different laboratories.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-DENSITY U/AL DISPERSION PLATES FOR MO-99 PRODUCTION USING ATOMIZED URANIUM POWDER

    OpenAIRE

    RYU, HO JIN; KIM, CHANG KYU; SIM, MOONSOO; PARK, JONG MAN; LEE, JONG HYUN

    2013-01-01

    Uranium metal particle dispersion plates have been proposed as targets for Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) production to improve the radioisotope production efficiency of conventional low enriched uranium targets. In this study, uranium powder was produced by centrifugal atomization, and miniature target plates containing uranium particles in an aluminum matrix with uranium densities up to 9 g-U/cm3 were fabricated. Additional heat treatment was applied to convert the uranium particles into UAlx compou...

  20. Transmission line theory for long plasma production by radio frequency discharges between parallel-plate electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to seek for a radio frequency (RF) eigen-mode of waves in producing a plasma between a pair of long dielectric-covered parallel-plate RF electrodes, this paper analyzed all normal modes propagating along the electrodes by solving Maxwell's equations. The result showed that only an odd surface wave mode will produce the plasma in usual experimental conditions, which will become a basic transmission line theory when use of such long electrodes for on-line mass-production of amorphous silicon solar cells

  1. Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.C.; Srajer, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thin-crystal Si (400) Bragg transmission x-ray phase plate has been constructed for the production of 5 to 12 keV circularly polarized x-rays. Using multiple beam diffraction from a GaAs crystal, a direct measurement of the degree of circular polarization as a function of off-Bragg position was made. These measurements indicated nearly complete circular polarization (|P c | ≥ 0.95) and full helicity reversal on opposite sides of the rocking curve

  2. TIN-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Daniel C; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    between proteins and diseases, based on text mining data processed from scientific literature. In the current implementation, TIN-X supports exploration of data for G-protein coupled receptors, kinases, ion channels, and nuclear receptors. TIN-X supports browsing and navigating across proteins......Motivation: The increasing amount of peer-reviewed manuscripts requires the development of specific mining tools to facilitate the visual exploration of evidence linking diseases and proteins. Results: We developed TIN-X, the Target Importance and Novelty eXplorer, to visualize the association...

  3. For production of ceramic plates coating using waste kaolin, granite and marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, J.L.; Morais, C.R.S.; Lima, L.M.R.; Altidis, M.E.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to benefit and characterize waste from kaolin, marble and granite studying their thermal properties and spectroscopic in employment perspective on ceramic production of flooring boards. The residues were benefited through the process of dry grinding mill in greyhounds and passed through sieve 0.074 mm (ABNT No. 200), observing their suitability for the formulation of ceramic pastes. Tests were performed physicochemical characterization (particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) and thermal (differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry). The results showed that these residues showed satisfactory properties for the purpose for which it proposes, and contribute to reducing environmental impacts, allowing the reuse of the production of ceramic plates (author)

  4. Wet-plate culture studies of Penicillium sp. PT95 and Q1 for mass production of sclerotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Jing; An, Cui-Hong; Han, Jian-Rong

    2014-04-01

    Penicillium sp. PT95 and Q1 strains were able to form abundant orange, sand-shaped sclerotia in which carotenoids were accumulated. To determine the potential availability of the wet-plate method for mass production of sclerotia, nine kinds of liquid media were used culture the PT95 and Q1 strains. The results of the wet-plate culture showed that on 25% glycerol nitrate broth medium, the growth of both strains was relatively slow, and no sclerotia were found. Q1 strain cultured on Czapek's yeast extract broth medium could not form sclerotia. On other media, both strains could form sclerotia. For PT95 strain, the highest sclerotial biomass (380 mg plate(-1) ) and carotenoids yield (20.88 µg plate(-1) ) could be obtained on Czapek's yeast extract broth and Georgiou's liquid medium, respectively. For Q1 strain, malt extract broth medium gave the highest sclerotial biomass (340 mg plate(-1) ) and omitting iron Joham's liquid medium gave the highest carotenoids yield (18.29 µg plate(-1) ). The results from this study suggest the potential usage of wet-plate method in the mass production of sclerotia of the PT95 and Q1 strains. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-DENSITY U/AL DISPERSION PLATES FOR MO-99 PRODUCTION USING ATOMIZED URANIUM POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HO JIN RYU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uranium metal particle dispersion plates have been proposed as targets for Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99 production to improve the radioisotope production efficiency of conventional low enriched uranium targets. In this study, uranium powder was produced by centrifugal atomization, and miniature target plates containing uranium particles in an aluminum matrix with uranium densities up to 9 g-U/cm3 were fabricated. Additional heat treatment was applied to convert the uranium particles into UAlx compounds by a chemical reaction of the uranium particles and aluminum matrix. Thus, these target plates can be treated with the same alkaline dissolution process that is used for conventional UAlx dispersion targets, while increasing the uranium density in the target plates

  6. Preliminary study of tin slag concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd Jamil; Mansor, Ishak; Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Azmi, Azhar; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd; Adli Anuar, Abul; Rahim, Abdul Adha Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The study focuses on practices to facilitate tin smelting industry to reduce radioactive waste product (Tin Slag) by diluting its radioactivity to a safe level and turning it to a safer infrastructural building product. In the process the concrete mix which include Portland cement, sand, tin slag, water and plasticizer are used to produce interlocking brick pavements, piles and other infrastructural products. The mixing method follows DOE (UK) standard method of mixing targeted at in selected compressive strength suitable for its function and durability. A batching machine is used in the mixing and six test cubes are produced for the test. The testing equipment used are a compressional machine, ultrasonic measurement and a Geiger Muller counter to evaluate of the concrete mix to find the lowest emission of radiation surface dose without compromising the strength of concrete mix. The result obtained indicated the radioactivity of tin slag in the mixing process has reduced to background level that is 0.5μSv/h while the strength and workability of the concrete has not been severely affected. In conclusion, the concrete mix with tin slag has shown the potential it can be turned into a safe beneficial infrastructural product with good strength.

  7. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  8. Characterization of tin selenides synthesized by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Achimovičová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tin selenides SnSeX (x=1,2 were synthesized from tin and selenium powder precursors by high-energy milling in the planetary ballmill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany. The orthorhombic tin selenide SnSe and the hexagonal tin diselenide SnSe2 phases were formed after4 min and 5 min of milling, respectively. Specific surface area of both selenides increased with increasing time of mechanochemicalsynthesis. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the synthesized products contain agglomerated selenide particlesconsisting of numerous idiomorphic tin selenide crystals, measuring from 2 to more than 100 nm in diameter, which were also documentedby TEM. UV-Vis spectrophotometry confirmed that tin selenide particles do not behave as quantum dots.

  9. Fundamental aspects of molecular plating and production of smooth crack-free Nd targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascon, A.; Reich, T.; Drebert, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz; Duellmann, Ch.E.; GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt; Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz

    2014-01-01

    A general understanding of the molecular plating process was obtained recently, which serves as a first step towards further improvements of the method aiming, for example, at the production of smooth, crack-free targets for nuclear physics applications. Constant current density electrolysis experiments were performed in organic media containing the model electrolyte Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O. The process was investigated by considering influences of the electrolyte concentration (0.11, 0.22, 0.44 mM), the surface roughness of the deposition substrates (a few tens of nm), and the plating solvent (an isopropanol/isobutanol mixture, and N,N-dimethylformamide). The response of the process to changes of these parameters was monitored by recording cell potential curves and by characterizing the obtained deposits with γ-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. By changing the solvent from isopropanol/isobutanol mixtures to N,N-dimethylformamide, we have succeeded in producing smooth, crack-free Nd targets. (author)

  10. Production and characterization of multilayer coatings of Ti/TiN on AISI 316L stainless steel by the PVD technique of cathodic arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forlerer, Elena; Rodriguez, Fernando; Mingolo, Norma

    2006-01-01

    Multilayer coatings were produced from bi-layers (compound layers) of Ti/TiN in a PVD reactor of cathodic arc ion plating. The process was carried out at an Argon gas pressure of 5x10 -3 Torr for the interlayer of Ti and a nitrogen + argon pressure of 2x10 -2 Torr for the deposit of TiN and a Bias voltage of -500V for the Ti layer and -100V for the TiN layer. The arc current held constant at 80 amp. The samples were kept at high temperatures ≥ 300 o C, mounted on a rotating system that held the test piece 15-25 cm from the Ti electrode. Certified composition AISI 316L and AISI 410 stainless steel were used for the substrate. Coatings with one or two compound layers with similar thicknesses were made. The coatings were characterized mechanically by adherence, thickness and microhardness by Vickers indentation with 25g loads. The texture was studied by X-ray diffraction and present phases and residual tensions were determined. The results of the X-ray diffraction show the presence of the mostly TiN phase, with fcc structure in the mono-layer and the bi-layer. Residual tensions are compressive and elevated due to the expansion of the TiN network during the deposition process. Measurements of the bi-layers at different angles showed a relaxing of the tensions close to the surface, which could be due to the effect of the second interlayer of Ti. Preferential orientations associated with the growth process of the layers and the developed microstructure were detected in the TiN (CW)

  11. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3 GeV/c - 12 GeV/c protons on carbon, copper and tin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M.G.; Ellis, Malcolm; Robbins, S.; Soler, F.J.P.; Gossling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Artamonov, A.; Arce, P.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Gruber, P.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pasternak, J.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Campanelli, M.; Morone, M.C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Engel, R.; Meurer, C.; Kato, I.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G.B.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, M.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; De Santo, A.; Pattison, C.; Zuber, K.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Vannucci, F.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Buttar, C.; Hodgson, P.; howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, Stefan; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Santin, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; Tornero, A.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in proton--carbon, proton--copper and proton--tin collisions in the range of pion momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$ is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections at four incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc and 12 \\GeVc).

  12. The influence of production routes on the metal dusting behavior of UNS N06025 plate, strip and tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattendorf, H.; Hermse, C.G.M.; Hannig, W.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally known that the production route influences the sensitivity of a material to metal dusting. In this study the different production states of UNS N06025 are compared as there are: plate deeply ground and 600 grit laboratory ground, strip as-delivered and 600 grit laboratory ground, and

  13. Magma production rate along the Ninetyeast Ridge and its relationship to Indian plate motion and Kerguelen hot spot activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Krishna, K.S.

    production rate along the Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean. The present study suggests that variations in the Indian plate motion and frequent ridge jumps have a major role in controlling the magma production, particularly on long-period cycles (~16 Myr...

  14. Release of fission products from miniature fuel plates at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, John C.

    1983-01-01

    Three miniature fuel plates were tested at progressively higher temperatures. A U 3 Si filled plate blistered and released fission gases at 500 deg. C. Two U 3 O 8 filled plates blistered and released fission gases at 550 deg. C. (author)

  15. Biodiesel production from marine cyanobacteria cultured in plate and tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, B Karpanai; Revathi, M; Piriya, P Sobana; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Prabhu, D Immuanual Gilwax; Vennison, S John

    2013-03-01

    Carbon (neutral) based renewable liquid biofuels are alternative to petroleum derived transport fuels that contribute to global warming and are of a limited availability. Microalgae based biofuels are considered as promising source of energy. Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. were studied for the possibility of biodiesel production in different media such as ASNIII, sea water enrichment medium and BG11. The sea water enrichment medium was found superior in enhancing the growth rate of these microalgae. Nitrogen depletion has less effect in total chlorophyll a content, at the same time the lipid content was increased in both Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. by 1.4 and 1.2 % respectively. Increase in salinity from 0.5-1.0 M also showed an increase in the lipid content to 2.0 and 0.8 % in these strains; but a salinity of 1.5 M has a total inhibitory effect in the growth. The total biomass yield was comparatively higher in tubular LED photobioreactor than the fluorescent flat plated photobioreactor. Lipid extraction was obtained maximum at 60 degrees C in 1:10 sample: solvent ratio. GC-MS analysis of biodiesel showed high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 4.86 %) than saturated fatty acid (SFA; 4.10 %). Biodiesel production was found maximum in Synechococcus sp. than Lyngbya sp. The viscosity of the biodiesel was closely related to conventional diesel. The results strongly suggest that marine microalgae could be used as a renewable energy source for biodiesel production.

  16. The tin mining and heavy mineral processing industry in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Swee Ching

    1994-01-01

    Overview of the tin mining and heavy mineral processing in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia was presented. Amang, a mixture composed of tin ore, sand, ilmenite, monazite, zircon, xenotime, struvite, etc , as a product from tin mining activities was discussed too in this paper

  17. Design of a novel flat-plate photobioreactor system for green algal hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburic, B.; Zemichael, F.W.; Maitland, G.C.; Hellgardt, K. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Some unicellular green algae have the ability to photosynthetically produce molecular hydrogen using sunlight and water. This renewable, carbon-neutral process has the additional benefit of sequestering carbon dioxide during the algal growth phase. The main costs associated with this process result from building and operating a photobioreactor system. The challenge is to design an innovative and cost effective photobioreactor that meets the requirements of algal growth and sustainable hydrogen production. We document the details of a novel 1 litre vertical flat-plate photobioreactor that has been designed to accommodate green algal hydrogen production at the laboratory scale. Coherent, non-heating illumination is provided by a panel of cool white LEDs. The reactor body consists of two compartments constructed from transparent Perspex sheets. The primary compartment holds the algal culture, which is agitated by means of a recirculating gas flow. A secondary compartment is filled with water and used to control the temperature and wavelength of the system. The reactor is fitted with instruments that monitor the pH, pO{sub 2}, temperature and optical density of the culture. A membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system has been developed for hydrogen collection and in situ monitoring. The reactor is fully autoclaveable and the possibility of hydrogen leaks has been minimised. The modular nature of the reactor allows efficient cleaning and maintenance. (orig.)

  18. Production of monodispersed Oil-in Water Emulsion Using Crossflow-Type Silicon Microchannel Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakatsu, Takahiro.; Komori, Hideaki.; Yonemoto, Toshikuni. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Chemical Engineering Department; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi.; Kikuchi, Yuji. [National Food Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    A novel method for continuous productin of monodispersed oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion is developed using acrossflow-type silicaon microchannel plate. On the single crystal silicon plate, a liquid flow path for continuous phase was made, and at each side of th wall of the path an array of regular-sized slits was precisely fabricated. A flat glass plate was tightly attached on the microchannel plate to cover the top of the slits to form the array of microchannels. Regular-sized oil (triolein) droplets were generated by squeezing the oil through the microchannels into the continuous-phase water (0.3 wt% sodium lauryl sulfate solutin) flowing in the liquid path. Oil droplet size is significantly dependent on the microchannel structure, which is identified with the microchannel width, height, and the length of the terrace (a flat area at the microchannel outlet). Three types of microchannel plates having different microchannel structures generate monodispersed emulsions of different average droplet sizes, 16,20, and 48 {mu}m at the watr flow rate of 1.4x10{sup -2}mL{center_dot}min{sup -1}. For the microchannel plate which generates large droplets of 48 {mu}m, increasing the flow rate causes decreasing droplet size. However, for the microchannel plate which generates small droplets of 16 or 20 {mu}m, the size is not affected by the flow rate within the range from 1.4x10{sup -2}to 2.4 mL{center_dot}min{sup -1}. In every case, the droplet size distribution is narrow, and the geometric standard deviation is 1.03 or less. (author)

  19. NMR as a tool for kinetic studies: application to the assessment of organo tin reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, E.; Roulet, T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France); Pianet, I. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 -Talence (France) CNRS, Centre d`Etudes Structurales et d`Analyse des Molecules Organiques; Willem, R. [Brussels University (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-02-01

    There is a growing interest for the research of an answer to the environmental problems related to the industrial use of tetra organo tins. An interesting alternative would be to develop the chemistry of mono organo tins because of their lower toxicity and of the easy removal of ``inorganic`` tin side products. In this work, halogen exchange rates are measured for various mono organo tins with NMR techniques (EXSY spectra and 1 D {sup 119} Sn NMR), and an exchange mechanism is proposed. A correlation between kinetic data and the reactivity of the mono organo tins is then exemplified with radical allylic transfer and palladium catalyzed coupling reactions. (authors) 14 refs.

  20. Iron Documents. Interdisciplinary studies on the technology of late medieval european plate armour production between 1350 and 1500

    OpenAIRE

    Goll, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to find out details on the production of late medieval European plate-armour for the field-use. Therefore, the author first collected thousands of extant objects in a database. With this stock of data he then was able to cluster and to structure the armour parts by various typological and technological aspects. To ease the access to the topic, the author defined an understandable and standardized terminology and typology for the different variations of...

  1. Plate Boundary Observatory Infrastructure and Data Products in Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Barbour, K.; Lee, E.

    2005-12-01

    As one of three major components of NSF's EarthScope program, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) encourages the integration of research and education. Informing various communities about the current work of PBO and the scientific discoveries related to the use of this instrumentation has contributed to the success of PBO during the first two years of the EarthScope project. UNAVCO(PBO), IRIS (USArray), and the EarthScope project office work together to integrate Education and Outreach (E&O) opportunities into a program that is greater than the sum of its parts and yet maintains the identity of each organization. Building and maintaining the PBO website, documenting and archiving activities of PBO, providing short courses for professional development of scientists using EarthScope data, and developing higher level data products with an appropriate educational framework are a few of the activities that provide both challenges and opportunities. The internet, particularly the World Wide Web, has become the primary tool for disseminating information to various audiences. The primary goals of the PBO website are to provide current information on the progress of GPS and Strainmeter facility construction; to provide access to different levels of data products; and to facilitate networking with and among scientists. Challenges for the PBO website include publishing current stories on installation projects while coordinating with field engineers on a regular basis; providing near to real time updates and maintaining quality assurance processes; and defining personnel requirements for a maintaining a dynamic website. Currently, archived photographs, web diaries, and numerous web highlights document PBO's success and provide a visual record of PBO's accomplishments and behind-the-scene activities over the last two years. The community charged PBO with increasing the number of scientists using its data. UNAVCO does this by providing short courses for professional development

  2. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  3. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  4. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study on surface products of thin iron plates exposed to ambient atmosphere as a means of environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Motoyuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    1993-01-01

    Conversion electron and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy were applied to the analysis of thin iron plates exposed to the ambient atmosphere. The degree of corrosion of the iron plates was classified into three categories according to the kind and thickness of rust evaluated by Moessbauer spectra. The severe corrosion took place in seaside and roadside areas. The medium corrosion was observed in urban areas, and the weak corrosion occurred in suburban and mountainous areas. This fact implies that the surface products of iron plates can successfully reflect the ambient atmosphere to which the plates were exposed. (orig.)

  5. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  6. Directly smelted lead-tin alloys: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses evidence related to the genesis and occurrence of mixed lead-tin ore deposit consisting of cassiterite and the secondary minerals formed from galena. These evidences belong to a very long time period ranging from pre-historic to as late as the nineteenth century a.d. This type of mixed ore deposits was smelted to prepare lead-tin alloys. The composition of the alloy depended on the composition of the starting ore mixture. A nineteenth century evidence for the production of directly smelted lead-tin alloys in southern Thailand is discussed. A unique and rather uncommon metallurgical terminology in Sanskrit language— Nāgaja—was introduced in India for the tin recovered from impure lead. This suggests that Indians developed a process for recovering tin from lead-tin alloys, which in all probability was based on the general principle of fire refining. It has been shown that in the context of India the possibility of connection between the word Nāgaja and the directly smelted lead-tin alloys cannot be ruled out.

  7. Study on production mechanism of welding residual stress at the juncture of a pipe penetrating a thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Enomoto, Kunio; Okamoto, Noriaki; Saitoh, Hideyo; Hayashi, Eisaku.

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies welding residual stresses at the intersection of a small diameter pipe penetrating a thick plate. The pipe is welded to the plate, and Tungsten Innert Gas (TIG) cladding is melted on the inner surface of the pipe to protect it from stress corrosion cracking due to long operation in nuclear power plants. Stresses are calculated by heat conduction analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis, and also measured by strain gauges. Welding residual stresses are shown to have no corrosive influence on the inner pipe surface, and the stresses are compressed enough to protect the pipe against stress corrosion cracking on the outer surface. It was also studied to make clear the production mechanism of the residual stresses which were generated by welding processes at the pipe. (author)

  8. NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage http://nepp.nasa.gov/whisker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry

    2000-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage provides general information and GSFC Code 562 experimentation results regarding the well known phenomenon of tin whisker formation from pure tin plated substrates. The objective of this www site is to provide a central repository for information pertaining to this phenomenon and to provide status of the GSFC experiments to understand the behavior of tin whiskers in space environments. The Tin Whisker www site is produced by Code 562. This www site does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in this www site is at the level of that produced by industry and university researchers and is published at international conferences.

  9. The Beginning of the Ship's armour plates production in the Ironwork Vítkovice in the nineties of the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Jindra, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Under the influence of increasing tension in the international relations A. Rothschild and P. Kupelwieser decided to product partly also the war material in Vítkovice. P. Kupelwieser was inspired when visiting Krupp works (1884). After Krym-war in Russia and civil war in USA the production of ship's armour plates in the world has began. In the eighties, the compound plates from Cammel-Sheffield and the casehardening plates from Schneider-Creusot dominated on the market. In the first half of n...

  10. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  11. Production of Copper-Plated Beamline Bellows and Spools for LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Katherine M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Carpenter, Brian C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Ed [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Huque, Naeem A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Peshehonoff, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Arkan, Tug [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lunin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Premo, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is currently constructing a major upgrade to its accelerator, the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II). Several Department of Energy national laboratories, including the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), are participating in this project. The 1.3-GHz cryomodules for this project consist of eight cavities separated by bellows (expansion joints) and spools (tube sections), which are copper plated for RF conduction. JLab is responsible for procurement of these bellows and spools, which are delivered to JLab and FNAL for assembly into cryomodules. Achieving accelerator-grade copper plating is always a challenge and requires careful specification of requirements and application of quality control processes. Due to the demanding technical requirements of this part, JLab implemented procurement strategies to make the process more efficient as well as provide process redundancy. This paper discusses the manufacturing challenges that were encountered and resolved, as well as the strategies that were employed to minimize the impact of any technical issues.

  12. Rhodium target preparation from homemade chloride plating baths used for the industrial cyclotron production of palladium-L03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, M.; Van den Winkel, P.; Afarideh, H.; Haji-Saeid, M.; Syrafi Nafis, H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid acquisition problems of commercially available western rhodium plating solutions in developing countries, a new plating/recovery cycle for Rh-103 electroplated target material (1 g Rh per target) used for the industrial cyclotron production of Pd-103 was developed. Rhodium chloride plating solutions can be prepared by dissolution of the analytical grade compound or from rhodium recovery solutions obtained after electrosolubilisation of irradiated targets and extraction of palladium. Methods: The technology involves the selective removal of the copper target backing of an irradiated target in concentrated nitric acid using a homemade flow-through stripper. The resulting rhodium fragments are dissolved in a constant-volume (40 ml), homemade graphite centrifugal ac-electrodissolution mini-reactor operating at 90 degree C, 2 A.cm-2 and 1000-rpm rotation speed. The system allows time-controlled 99 % solubilisation of up to 3g rhodium (as fragments, powder or small pieces of wire) in less than 3 hours when 12 N hydrochloric acid is applied. Upon solvent-solvent extraction of the non-carrier added Pd-103 from the resulting HCI solution; the following procedure can be used for the simultaneous preparation of 4 targets showing a surface area of 11.69 cm 2 and a physical thickness of 48 Um. Dissolve an amount of hydrated RhC13 containing 2.8 g of rhodium in 400 ml of water. Alternatively, the filtered (0.45 μm filter) combined recovery solutions containing the same weight of rhodium can be evaporated to near dryness (350 degree C at the start, 150 degree C near the end) and residue taken up (gentle stirring, 50 degree C) in 400 ml of distilled water, After filtration, a stress reducing agent (sulfamic acid) is added and the pH sodium hydroxide. Upon make up to volume (450 ml) adjusted to the optimum value (pH = 2) with and preheating to 40 degree C, the resulting solution is introduced in a cylindrical home-made constant-volume, 4- target plating vessel

  13. Scalable 96-well Plate Based iPSC Culture and Production Using a Robotic Liquid Handling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael K; Gerger, Michael J; Balay, Erin E; O'Connell, Rachel; Hanson, Seth; Daily, Neil J; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2015-05-14

    Continued advancement in pluripotent stem cell culture is closing the gap between bench and bedside for using these cells in regenerative medicine, drug discovery and safety testing. In order to produce stem cell derived biopharmaceutics and cells for tissue engineering and transplantation, a cost-effective cell-manufacturing technology is essential. Maintenance of pluripotency and stable performance of cells in downstream applications (e.g., cell differentiation) over time is paramount to large scale cell production. Yet that can be difficult to achieve especially if cells are cultured manually where the operator can introduce significant variability as well as be prohibitively expensive to scale-up. To enable high-throughput, large-scale stem cell production and remove operator influence novel stem cell culture protocols using a bench-top multi-channel liquid handling robot were developed that require minimal technician involvement or experience. With these protocols human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were cultured in feeder-free conditions directly from a frozen stock and maintained in 96-well plates. Depending on cell line and desired scale-up rate, the operator can easily determine when to passage based on a series of images showing the optimal colony densities for splitting. Then the necessary reagents are prepared to perform a colony split to new plates without a centrifugation step. After 20 passages (~3 months), two iPSC lines maintained stable karyotypes, expressed stem cell markers, and differentiated into cardiomyocytes with high efficiency. The system can perform subsequent high-throughput screening of new differentiation protocols or genetic manipulation designed for 96-well plates. This technology will reduce the labor and technical burden to produce large numbers of identical stem cells for a myriad of applications.

  14. Experimental study on TiN coated racetrack-type ceramic pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiang-Tao; Hong, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    TiN film was coated on the internal surface of a racetrack-type ceramic pipe by three different methods: radio-frequency sputtering, DC sputtering and DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rates of TiN film under different coating methods were compared. The highest deposition rate was 156 nm/h, which was obtained by magnetron sputtering coating. Based on AFM, SEM and XPS test results, the properties of TiN film, such as film roughness and surface morphology, were analyzed. Furthermore, the deposition rates were studied with two different cathode types, Ti wires and Ti plate. According to the SEM test results, the deposition rate of TiN/Ti film was about 800 nm/h with Ti plate cathode by DC magnetron sputtering. Using Ti plate cathode rather than Ti wire cathode can greatly improve the film deposition rate. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11075157)

  15. Production of Fission Product 99Mo using High-Enriched Uranium Plates in Polish Nuclear Research Reactor MARIA: Technology and Neutronic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroszewicz Janusz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of 235U irradiation is to obtain the 99mTc isotope, which is widely used in the domain of medical diagnostics. The decisive factor determining its availability, despite its short lifetime, is a reaction of radioactive decay of 99Mo into 99mTc. One of the possible sources of molybdenum can be achieved in course of the 235U fission reaction. The paper presents activities and the calculation results obtained upon the feasibility study on irradiation of 235U targets for production of 99Mo in the MARIA research reactor. Neutronic calculations and analyses were performed to estimate the fission products activity for uranium plates irradiated in the reactor. Results of dummy targets irradiation as well as irradiation uranium plates have been presented. The new technology obtaining 99Mo is based on irradiation of high-enriched uranium plates in standard reactor fuel channel and calculation of the current fission power generation. Measurements of temperatures and the coolant flow in the molybdenum installation carried out in reactor SAREMA system give online information about the current fission power generated in uranium targets. The corrective factors were taken into account as the heat generation from gamma radiation from neighbouring fuel elements as well as heat exchange between channels and the reactor pool. The factors were determined by calibration measurements conducted with aluminium mock-up of uranium plates. Calculations of fuel channel by means of REBUS code with fine mesh structure and libraries calculated by means of WIMS-ANL code were performed.

  16. Development of a brazing process for the production of water- cooled bipolar plates made of chromium-coated metal foils for PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M; Hoehlich, D; Scharf, I; Lampke, T; Hollaender, U; Maier, H J

    2016-01-01

    Beside lithium batteries, PEM fuel cells are the most promising strategy as a power source to achieve the targets for introducing and increasing the usage of electric vehicles. Due to limited space and weight problems, water cooled, metallic bipolar plates in a fuel cell metal stack are preferred in motor vehicles. These plates are stamped metal sheets with a complex structure, interconnected media-tight. To meet the multiple tasks and requirements in use, complex and expensive combinations of materials are currently in use (carbon fiber composites, graphite, gold-plated nickel, stainless and acid resistant steel). The production of such plates is expensive as it is connected with considerable effort or the usage of precious metals. As an alternative, metalloid nitrides (CrN, VN, W 2 N, etc.) show a high chemical resistance, hardness and a good conductivity. So this material category meets the basic requirements of a top layer. However, the standard methods for their production (PVD, CVD) are expensive and have a slow deposition rate and a lower layer thicknesses. Because of these limitations, a full functionality over the life cycle of a bipolar plate is not guaranteed. The contribution shows the development and quantification of an alternative production process for bipolar plates. The expectation is to get significant advantages from the combination of chromium electrodeposition and thermochemical treatment to form chromium nitrides. Both processes are well researched and suitable for series production. The thermochemical treatment of the chromium layer also enables a process-integrated brazing. (paper)

  17. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of the suitability of tin slag in cementitious materials: Mechanical properties and Leaching behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Wafa' Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha; Cahyadi, Agung

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag, a by-product of tin production has been used in cementitious application. The present investigation focuses on the suitability of tin slag as primary component in cement and as component that substitute some amount of Portland Cement. The tin slags studied were taken from Bangka, Indonesia. The main contents of the tin slag are SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 according to the XRF investigation. The aim of this article was to study the mechanical behaviour (compressive strength), microstructure and leaching behaviour of tin slag blended cement. This study used air-cooled tin slag that had been passed through 400# sieve to replace Portland Cement with ratio 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 by weight. Cement pastes and tin slag blended cement pastes were prepared by using water/cement ratio (W/C) of 0.40 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 3, 7, 14 days The microstructure of the raw tin slag was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The phase composition of each cement paste was investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The aim of the leachability test was to investigate the environmental impacts of tin slag blended cement product in the range 4-8 pH by using static pH-dependent leaching test. The result show that the increase of the tin slag content decreasing the mortar compressive strength at early ages. The use of tin slag in cement provide economic benefits for all related industries.

  19. Review of Supported Pd-Based Membranes Preparation by Electroless Plating for Ultra-Pure Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alique, David; Martinez-Diaz, David; Sanz, Raul; Calles, Jose A

    2018-01-23

    In the last years, hydrogen has been considered as a promising energy vector for the oncoming modification of the current energy sector, mainly based on fossil fuels. Hydrogen can be produced from water with no significant pollutant emissions but in the nearest future its production from different hydrocarbon raw materials by thermochemical processes seems to be more feasible. In any case, a mixture of gaseous compounds containing hydrogen is produced, so a further purification step is needed to purify the hydrogen up to required levels accordingly to the final application, i.e., PEM fuel cells. In this mean, membrane technology is one of the available separation options, providing an efficient solution at reasonable cost. Particularly, dense palladium-based membranes have been proposed as an ideal chance in hydrogen purification due to the nearly complete hydrogen selectivity (ideally 100%), high thermal stability and mechanical resistance. Moreover, these membranes can be used in a membrane reactor, offering the possibility to combine both the chemical reaction for hydrogen production and the purification step in a unique device. There are many papers in the literature regarding the preparation of Pd-based membranes, trying to improve the properties of these materials in terms of permeability, thermal and mechanical resistance, poisoning and cost-efficiency. In this review, the most relevant advances in the preparation of supported Pd-based membranes for hydrogen production in recent years are presented. The work is mainly focused in the incorporation of the hydrogen selective layer (palladium or palladium-based alloy) by the electroless plating, since it is one of the most promising alternatives for a real industrial application of these membranes. The information is organized in different sections including: (i) a general introduction; (ii) raw commercial and modified membrane supports; (iii) metal deposition insights by electroless-plating; (iv) trends in

  20. Study parameters process for production of red glazed ceramic plates with waste of stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.C.; Taguchi, S.P.; Silva, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The volume of fine waste's solid dimension stone industry has required a destination appropriate for them due to environmental and economic issues. The main goal of this work was to study the produce plates of glazed pottery with dimension stone waste. For analyzing the crystal structure, the test was conducted X-ray and X-ray fluorescence to determine the chemical composition of clay and the waste. Particle size was analysed too. Ceramic duo type (120x30x10mm) were sintered at 1280° C for 15 and 60 minutes. Characterized the samples for water absorption. The glaze had a strong anchorage in the ceramic base, but the high melting temperature caused cracks in the ceramic base, increasing the water absorption values. Thus, flux was added, based on the phase diagram Na_2O: CaO: SiO_2, which reduced the melting temperature of the glaze to 980 °C, enabling to produce the ceramic at 1100°C for 30 minutes, more uniform surface and best technological properties. (author)

  1. Digital elevation model production from scanned topographic contour maps via thin plate spline interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soycan, Arzu; Soycan, Metin

    2009-01-01

    GIS (Geographical Information System) is one of the most striking innovation for mapping applications supplied by the developing computer and software technology to users. GIS is a very effective tool which can show visually combination of the geographical and non-geographical data by recording these to allow interpretations and analysis. DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is an inalienable component of the GIS. The existing TM (Topographic Map) can be used as the main data source for generating DEM by amanual digitizing or vectorization process for the contours polylines. The aim of this study is to examine the DEM accuracies, which were obtained by TMs, as depending on the number of sampling points and grid size. For these purposes, the contours of the several 1/1000 scaled scanned topographical maps were vectorized. The different DEMs of relevant area have been created by using several datasets with different numbers of sampling points. We focused on the DEM creation from contour lines using gridding with RBF (Radial Basis Function) interpolation techniques, namely TPS as the surface fitting model. The solution algorithm and a short review of the mathematical model of TPS (Thin Plate Spline) interpolation techniques are given. In the test study, results of the application and the obtained accuracies are drawn and discussed. The initial object of this research is to discuss the requirement of DEM in GIS, urban planning, surveying engineering and the other applications with high accuracy (a few deci meters). (author)

  2. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scalable Production of the Silicon-Tin Yin-Yang Hybrid Structure with Graphene Coating for High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Bin; Zheng, Qinghui; Zhang, Zijiao; Zhu, Guoying; Yu, Qian; Jin, Zhong; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-10

    Alloy anodes possessed of high theoretical capacity show great potential for next-generation advanced lithium-ion battery. Even though huge volume change during lithium insertion and extraction leads to severe problems, such as pulverization and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), various nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanowires, and porous networks can address related challenges to improve electrochemical performance. However, the complex and expensive fabrication process hinders the widespread application of nanostructured alloy anodes, which generate an urgent demand of low-cost and scalable processes to fabricate building blocks with fine controls of size, morphology, and porosity. Here, we demonstrate a scalable and low-cost process to produce a porous yin-yang hybrid composite anode with graphene coating through high energy ball-milling and selective chemical etching. With void space to buffer the expansion, the produced functional electrodes demonstrate stable cycling performance of 910 mAh g -1 over 600 cycles at a rate of 0.5C for Si-graphene "yin" particles and 750 mAh g -1 over 300 cycles at 0.2C for Sn-graphene "yang" particles. Therefore, we open up a new approach to fabricate alloy anode materials at low-cost, low-energy consumption, and large scale. This type of porous silicon or tin composite with graphene coating can also potentially play a significant role in thermoelectrics and optoelectronics applications.

  4. Description of the CNEA U308 powder production plant for low enrichment fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, N.L.; Celora, J.; Parodi, C.A.; Pertossi, F.R.; Marajofsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the 20% enriched U 3 O 8 powder production plant was based on laboratory level experiments. The UF 6 hydrolysis, ADU precipitation, U 3 O 8 conversion processes were used. The equipment, controls and confinement were set not only by the processes but also by safety requirements according to the kind and physical form of the uranium compounds in each stage and criticality considerations. This paper describes the installation, set up and operation of the plant during production. (Author)

  5. Vanadocene reactions with mixed acylates of silicon, germanium and tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Gordetsov, A.S.; Dergunov, Yu.I.

    1981-01-01

    Vanadocene interaction with di-and tri-alkyl (aryl)-derivatives of silicon, tin and germanium is studied. Dibutyltin dibenzoate under mild conditions (20 deg C, toluene) oxidates vanadocene to [CpV(OCOC 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 2 , at that, the splitting off of one Cp group in the form of cyclopentadiene and formation of the products of tin-organic fragment disproportionation (tributyltin benzoate, dibutyltin, metallic tin) take place. Tributyltin benzoate oxidates vanadocene at the mole ratio 2:1 and during prolong heating (120 deg C) in the absence of the solvent, [CpV(OCOC 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 2 and hexabutyldistannate are the products of the reaction. Acetates R 3 SnOCOCH 3 react in the similar way. The reactivity of mono- and diacylates of germanium and silicon decreases in the series of derivatives Sn>Ge>Si [ru

  6. Developing an Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  7. From field to plate: Farmer-to-consumer direct marketing for organic and regional products

    OpenAIRE

    Mellin, Matthias; Spiller, Achim; Zühlsdorf, Anke

    2007-01-01

    The importance of direct marketing for high quality farm products has increased in the last few years. This paper analyses the impact of customer satisfaction and its driving forces for farmer-to-consumer direct marketing and is based on a customer survey in 30 organic and conventional on-farm stores in Germany. The results emphasize the role of the store atmosphere and customer service as the main influencing factors on customer satisfaction.

  8. Thermal Exposure Effects on Properties of Al-Li Alloy Plate Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Douglas; Wagner, John; Babel, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph representation is to evaluate the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties of both production mature and developmental Al-Li alloys. The researchers find for these alloys, the data clearly shows that there is no deficit in mechanical properties at lower exposure temperatures in some cases, and a signficant deficit in mechanical properties at higher exposure temperatures in all cases. Topics considered include: Al-Li alloys composition, key characteristics of Al-Li alloys and thermal exposure matrix.

  9. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  11. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  12. Limiting Size of Fish Fillets at the Center of the Plate Improves the Sustainability of Aquaculture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. Cross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available North American dining customers like to have a singular large piece of protein in the center of the plate. When fish is the protein of choice, the portion size from many species is limited by the overall size of the fish. Therefore, for these species, the means to achieve a singular larger portion of “center of the plate” protein is to grow a larger animal. However, fish become less efficient in converting feed to protein as they age. A second option would be to provide two smaller fillets originating from younger, more efficient fish. Here, the sustainability ramifications of these two protein provisioning strategies (single large or two small fillets are considered for three species of fish produced in aquaculture. Growth data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus produced in ponds, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in raceways, and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria in marine net pens, were modeled to assess the total biomass and overall food conversion ratio for the production of small, medium or large fish. The production of small fish added an additional 50% or more biomass per year for trout, catfish, and sablefish compared to the production of large fish. Feed conversion ratios were also improved by nearly 10% for the smaller compared to larger fish of each species. Thus, even though all of these species tend to be considered aquaculture species of low environmental impact (and hence “green” or sustainable options, the product form requested by retailers and served by chefs can further increase the sustainability of these species.

  13. Electrodeposition of rhenium-tin nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naor-Pomerantz, Adi; Eliaz, Noam; Gileadi, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rhenium-tin nanowires were formed electrochemically, without using a template. → The nanowires consisted of a crystalline-Sn-core/amorphous-Re-shell structure. → The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated. → A mechanism is suggested for the formation of the core/shell structure. → The nanowires may be attractive for a variety of applications. - Abstract: Rhenium (Re) is a refractory metal which exhibits an extraordinary combination of properties. Thus, nanowires and other nanostructures of Re-alloys may possess unique properties resulting from both Re chemistry and the nanometer scale, and become attractive for a variety of applications, such as in catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and microelectronics. Rhenium-tin coatings, consisting of nanowires with a core/shell structure, were electrodeposited on copper substrates under galvanostatic or potentiostatic conditions. The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated, and the chemistry and structure of the coatings were studied by a variety of analytical tools. A Re-content as high as 77 at.% or a Faradaic efficiency as high as 46% were attained. Ranges of Sn-to-Re in the plating bath, applied current density and applied potential, within which the nanowires could be formed, were determined. A mechanism was suggested, according to which Sn nanowires were first grown on top of Sn micro-particles, and then the Sn nanowires reduced the perrhenate chemically, thus forming a core made of crystalline Sn-rich phase, and a shell made of amorphous Re-rich phase. The absence of mutual solubility of Re and Sn may be the driving force for this phase separation.

  14. Study of optical characteristics of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    –gel process. The film was synthesized on a glass (Corning 7059) plate by dip coating method. Here, we used tin (II) chloride as precursor and methanol as solvent. Optical characteristics and physical properties like refractive index, absorption ...

  15. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.T. de

    1998-01-01

    Titanium-nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test

  16. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test

  17. Discovery of the calcium, indium, tin, and platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-four calcium, thirty-eight indium, thirty-eight tin, and thirty-nine platinum isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented. - Highlights: Documentation of the discovery of all calcium, indium, tin and platinum isotopes. → Summary of author, journal, year, place and country of discovery for each isotope. → Brief description of discovery history of each isotope.

  18. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluev, A.V.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Krasnikov, L.V.; Galkin, B.Ya.; Besnosyuk, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of 125 Sb from tin using highly basic, medium-basic, and weakly basic ion-exchangers was studied. The best results were obtained for AN-31 weakly basic anion exchanger. The yield of 125 Sb was 95 -98 % of the initial activity, the yield of tin, 98 ± 0.5% of the initial amount. The separation coefficient is 10 6 -10 7 for one cycle. A procedure based on ion exchange was developed. Extraction procedures of separation of 125 Sb from tin were studied. Isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and di-n-butyl ether were used as extracting agents. The most efficient extracting agent is di-n-butyl ether. Carrier-free radiochemically pure sample of 125 Sb was produced. More than 20 mCi of the target product was recovered. The extraction recovery procedure of 125 Sb has been developed. (author)

  19. Project of Economically Profitable Technological Process of Production of Rotor and Stator Plates of Inductive Position Sensor by Blanking and Roll Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek ČADA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper concerns innovation of production of rotor and stator plates of inductive position sensors which are used at automatization of production processes. Authors analyse possibility of efficiency improvement of production of these devices in joint-stock company TES VSETÍN and suggest concrete solving of new production technology. Composition of production line for blanking and roll bending of rotor and stator plates of inductive position sensor from individual technological devices was suggested: decoiler, straightening device, actuating belt feeder, pneumatic shears with inclined tools, belt conveyer and four cylinders bending rolls. Construction of production line was projected in order to its operation can be secured by one production workman, which controls and chooses operation of CNC programme, takes separate roll bended rotor and stator plates of inductive position sensor from bending rolls and according to required technological procedure he composes them to rotor and stator complexes. Construction of production line was projected so that it is possible to move it by crane without necessity to dismantle and subsequently to put together and adjust the line.

  20. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  1. PH-sensing 96-well microtitre plates for the characterization of acid production by dairy starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gernot T; Goelling, Detlef; Klimant, Ingo; Schneider, Holger; Heinzle, Elmar

    2003-08-01

    A new method for characterization of acid production by dairy starter cultures is presented. Microplates with integrated optical pH sensors are developed. Two fluorophores, a pH-sensitive and a pH-insensitive one are immobilised at the bottom of a polystyrene 96-well microtitre plate. The pH-insensitive fluorophore serves as an internal reference and makes calibration unnecessary. The sensor measures pH accurately in optically well-defined media. Particles and fluorophores contained in the bulk medium disturbed the measurements. Despite these disturbances it was possible to clearly sense differences in inoculum type and in inoculum sizes of cultures of Lactococcus lactis and of Streptococcus thermophilus at 30 and 37 degrees C. Besides a pH-related signal there is information about other changes during milk fermentation. The cultivation results were compared with those from the established CINAC-method. From this comparison it can be concluded that the new method can be used reliably to characterize particularly a large number of strains for screening purposes but also for quality control.

  2. The Moessbauer effect in binary tin chalcogenides of tin 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalli, I.; Fano, V.

    1975-01-01

    The values of the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, Moessbauer coefficient, Debye temperature for the tin chalcogenides SnS. SnSe, SnTe are tabulated for the temperatures 80 and 300 K. Temperature dependences of the Moessbauer coefficient and of the effective Debye temperature for SnS, SnSe and SnTe in a temperature range of 78 to 300 K are presented. (Z.S.)

  3. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  4. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  5. A comparative parametric study of a catalytic plate methane reformer coated with segmented and continuous layers of combustion catalyst for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhwa, Mayur; Parmar, Rajesh D.; Thurgood, Christopher P.

    2017-03-01

    A parametric comparison study is carried out between segmented and conventional continuous layer configurations of the coated combustion-catalyst to investigate their influence on the performance of methane steam reforming (MSR) for hydrogen production in a catalytic plate reactor (CPR). MSR is simulated on one side of a thin plate over a continuous layer of nickel-alumina catalyst by implementing an experimentally validated surface microkinetic model. Required thermal energy for the MSR reaction is supplied by simulating catalytic methane combustion (CMC) on the opposite side of the plate over segmented and continuous layer of a platinum-alumina catalyst by implementing power law rate model. The simulation results of both coating configurations of the combustion-catalyst are compared using the following parameters: (1) co-flow and counter-flow modes between CMC and MSR, (2) gas hourly space velocity and (3) reforming-catalyst thickness. The study explains why CPR designed with the segmented combustion-catalyst and co-flow mode shows superior performance not only in terms of high hydrogen production but also in terms of minimizing the maximum reactor plate temperature and thermal hot-spots. The study shows that the segmented coating requires 7% to 8% less combustion-side feed flow and 70% less combustion-catalyst to produce the required flow of hydrogen (29.80 mol/h) on the reforming-side to feed a 1 kW fuel-cell compared to the conventional continuous coating of the combustion-catalyst.

  6. The Experiment Production And Examination Of The U3Si2-AI Mini plates For Irradiation Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo; Boybul; Yowono; Susworo; Permana, S.

    1998-01-01

    The fuel plates containing U 3 Si 2 -AI dispersion fuel having respective loading of 3.55; 4.20; and 4.80 g/cm 3 were prepared by dispersing certain amount of U 3 Si 2 powder in the AI powder as matrix. The weight ratio of U 3 Si 2 and AI at different loading was chosen based on the 19.23 cm 3 volume basis fuel core calculation. Each fuel mixture was pressed into a fuel core having dimension of 100.20 x 60.35 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm, which was then cut into mini fuel core having dimension of 16 x 8 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm. The mini plates were prepared by picture and frame technique using AIMg2 as cladding material. The mini plates have been tested for blister, homogeneity, white spots, surface defects and their cladding thickness, revealing that out of 74 mini plates, they are ten (10) mini plates that have to be rejected due to blisters and white spots, thus of 64 mini plates can be further fabricated as samples for irradiation test

  7. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  8. Separation of substandard tin ores by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Konovalov, V.M.; Kamenskij, Yu.V.; Neverov, A.D.; Ogorodnikov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of pure tin ores on X-ray fluorescence separation (XFS) is carried out. The volumes of lump sampling are substantiated; several variants of technical and economical efficiency of XFS application have been calculated. It is shown that at XFS of -400+25 mm classes conditional as to tin content intermediate product with high efficiency factor may be prepared. Separation of -25+10 mm class is unsuitable, as it doesn't allow to increase tin content to conditional, and the process efficiency is low

  9. Production of atmospheric pressure diffuse nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dezheng; Wang Wenchun; Jia Li; Nie Dongxia; Shi Hengchao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional high pulse voltage with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate an atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode configuration. Both double needle and multiple needle electrode configurations nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharges are investigated. It is found that a diffuse discharge plasma with low gas temperature can be obtained, and the plasma volume increases with the increase of the pulse peak voltage, but remains almost constant with the increase of the pulse repetition rate. In addition to showing the potential application on a topographically nonuniform surface treatment of the discharge, the multiple needle-plate electrode configuration with different needle-plate electrode gaps are also employed to generate diffuse discharge plasma.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the By-Pass Flow in a Catalytic Plate Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Numerical and experimental study is performed to evaluate the reactant by-pass flow in a catalytic plate reactor with a coated wire mesh catalyst for steam reforming of methane for hydrogen generation. By-pass of unconverted methane is evaluated under different wire mesh catalyst width to reactor...

  11. The role of collisional tectonics in the metallogeny of the Central Andean tin belt [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk, Michael S. J.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2005-12-01

    The Inner Arc of the Central Andes, broadly corresponding to the Eastern Cordillera, is the location of a rich Tertiary and Triassic Sn-W-(Ag-base metal) metallogenic province, commonly referred to as the Bolivian tin belt. We propose that the Tertiary metallogeny, which generated most of the tin ores, was a direct consequence of discrete "collisions" between the South American plate and the Nazca slab and sub-slab mantle, during the ongoing Andean orogeny. Evidence supporting this proposal include: (1) the coincidence of the tin province and the Inner Arc in a marked "hump" in the Andean orogen, which may represent tectonic indentation; (2) the symmetry of the tin province with respect to the Bolivian orocline, the axis of which corresponds to the direction of highest compression; (3) the relative symmetry of the magmatism and tin mineralization with respect to this axis; (4) the concurrent timing of mineralization and compressional pulses; (5) the similar host rock geochemistry and ore lead isotope data, testifying to a common crustal reservoir; and (6) the striking similarity of the igneous suites, associated with the ore deposits to those from "typical" collisional orogens. A number of studies have called upon a persistent tin anomaly to explain the metallogeny of the region. We propose, instead, that the latter is better explained by periodic compressional interaction between the Farallon/Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continent. This led to the generation of peraluminous magmas, which during fractional crystallization exsolved the fluids responsible for the voluminous Sn-W mineralization.

  12. Preparation of 99mTc- Tin colloid: a freeze-dried kit for liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.; Muramoto, E.; Barbosa, M.R.F. de; Colturato, M.T.; Herrerias, R.

    1988-07-01

    99m Tc-tin-colloid was formulated as a useful agent for liver imaging. The radiochemical purity and stability of the labeled colloid were determined by paper chromatography and 85% methanol solvent, the labelling efficiency was > 95%. The comparative studies of the biological distribution of 99m Tc-tin-colloid and 99 Tc-Sulphur-colloid were made with Wistar rats. The results of organ distribution were similar in both products; > 90% liver uptake. (author) [pt

  13. Study of the temperature distribution on welded thin plates of duplex steel to be used for the external clad of a cask for transportation of radiopharmaceuticals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betini, Evandro G.; Ceoni, Francisco C.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Politano, Rodolfo; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Orlando, Marcos T.D.

    2015-01-01

    The clad material for a proprietary transport device for radiopharmaceutical products is the main focus of the present work. The production of 99 Mo- 99m Tc transport cask requires a receptacle or cask where the UNS S32304 duplex steel sheet has shown that it meets high demands as the required mechanical strength and the spread of impact or shock waves mitigation. This work reports the experimental efforts in recording the thermal distribution on autogenous thin plates of UNS S32304 steel during welding. The UNS S32304 duplex steel is the most probable candidate for the external clad of the containment package for the transport of radioactive substances so it is highly relevant the understanding of all its physical parameters and its behavior under the thermal cycle imposed by a welding process. For the welding of the UNS S32304 autogenous plates the GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process was used with a pure argon arc protection atmosphere in order to simulate a butt joint weld on a thin duplex steel plate without filler metal. The thermal cycles were recorded by means of K-type thermocouples embedded by electrical spot welding near the weld region and connected to a multi-channel data acquisition system. The obtained results validate the reliability of the experimental apparatus for the future complete analysis of the welding experiment and further comparison to numerical analysis. (author)

  14. Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengxiang; Chen Junhong

    2009-01-01

    The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to the wire. The ozone distributions in both types of discharges are compared. For both electrode configurations, the ozone production rate is higher in the negative corona than in the positive corona and it decreases with an increase in relative humidity. More importantly, the detailed ozone distribution in the neighbourhood of the discharge wire, together with the ozone kinetics, reveals the possible difference in the ozone production from the two discharges. With the same operating conditions and sufficiently short flow residence time, the ozone production rate is nearly the same for both electrode configurations. When the flow residence time is longer than the characteristic time for homogeneous ozone destruction, the net ozone production is higher in the wire-cylinder discharge than in the wire-plate discharge due to relatively less ozone destruction.

  15. Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengxiang; Chen, Junhong

    2009-02-01

    The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to the wire. The ozone distributions in both types of discharges are compared. For both electrode configurations, the ozone production rate is higher in the negative corona than in the positive corona and it decreases with an increase in relative humidity. More importantly, the detailed ozone distribution in the neighbourhood of the discharge wire, together with the ozone kinetics, reveals the possible difference in the ozone production from the two discharges. With the same operating conditions and sufficiently short flow residence time, the ozone production rate is nearly the same for both electrode configurations. When the flow residence time is longer than the characteristic time for homogeneous ozone destruction, the net ozone production is higher in the wire-cylinder discharge than in the wire-plate discharge due to relatively less ozone destruction.

  16. Radiodiagnostic complexes employing fluorine-containing tin reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.K.; Kubik, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Radiodiagnostic agents for use in mammalian bodies comprising a radiocomplex which is the reaction product of Tc99m-pertechnetate ion, a diagnostic ligand and a tin (II) reducing agent selected from the group consisting of SnF 2 , MSnF 3 , MSn 2 F 5 and mixtures thereof, wherein M is NH 4 , Na, K, Li, Rb or Cs. Radiocomplex precursor compositions and methods of making the radiocomplex and radiodiagnostic agents are described

  17. A prospective longitudinal study of postnatal dentoalveolar and palatal growth: The anatomical basis for CAD/CAM-assisted production of cleft-lip-palate feeding plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz X; Güll, Florian D; Roth, Maximilian; Ritschl, Lucas M; Rau, Andrea; Gau, Dominik; Gruber, Maximilian; Eblenkamp, Markus; Hilmer, Bettina; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Loeffelbein, Denys J

    2017-10-01

    This study describes the dentoalveolar and palatal growth during the first months of life. Knowledge concerning this development is essential to avoid unwanted events such as mucosal ulcerations or restriction of growth when cleft-lip and palate (CLP) patients are treated. The results involve the generation of CAD/CAM CLP-feeding plates. Intraoral impressions from 32 healthy newborns were taken monthly for 5 months, supplemented by measurements of body weight, length, and occipital-frontal head circumference. The casts were digitalized, and two observers manually selected defined anatomical landmarks on virtual 3-D models. The distances between these landmarks were evaluted. Statistical analysis included an inter-rater agreement analysis and the determination of growth. In total, 213 casts were analyzed, with 65 models excluded because of inaccuracies in impression-taking or cast production. Overall longitudinal growth was 20.3%, whereas transversal growth reached a maximum of 21.1%. Vertical growth was 32.4% at the tuberal level. On the basis of these results, a semiautomated series of feeding plates allowing for monthly expansion could be generated. The acquired data serve as a useful reference for other pediatric and orthofacial investigations and treatments. One such application is the automated, fully virtual manufacture of CLP-feeding plates based on only one impression-taking. Our data reveal when caution is needed to prevent ulceration. The series of plates generated can minimize the time-consuming impression-taking and the production of further plaster models. The method of measurement is suitable for documentary purposes. Clin. Anat. 30:846-854, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Structural studies of supported tin catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Noel; Viveros, Tomás

    1999-11-01

    Tin oxide was supported on aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon oxide, and the resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples and after reduction were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that in the oxide state, tin is present as SnO2 on alumina, magnesia and silica, but on titania tin occupies Ti sites in the structure. After hydrogen treatment at high temperatures, tin is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(2) on alumina and titania; it is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(0) on silica, and is practically not reduced on magnesia. These results reveal the degree of interaction between tin and the different supports studied.

  19. Structural studies of supported tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Noel; Viveros, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Tin oxide was supported on aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon oxide, and the resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples and after reduction were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that in the oxide state, tin is present as SnO 2 on alumina, magnesia and silica, but on titania tin occupies Ti sites in the structure. After hydrogen treatment at high temperatures, tin is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(2) on alumina and titania; it is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(0) on silica, and is practically not reduced on magnesia. These results reveal the degree of interaction between tin and the different supports studied

  20. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO_2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO_2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF_2. The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO_2 is caused by the reformed SnO_2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO_2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li"+/Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF_2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li"+/Li is due to the fact that SnF_2 is formed below the SnO_2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO_2/Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  3. Temperature measurement of tin under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Mabire, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The results of pyrometric measurements performed at the interface of a tin target with a LiF window material are presented for stresses ranging from 38 to 55 GPa. The purpose of the study is to analyze the part of the interface in the temperature measurement by a multi-channel pyrometric device. The results show that the glue used at target/window interface remains transparent under shock. The values of temperature measured at the tin/LiF interface are consistent with the behavior of tin under shock

  4. Tin-antimony oxide oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Frank J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-15

    Tin-antimony oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons have been made by precipitation techniques. The dehydration of the amorphous dried precipitate by calcination at increasingly higher temperatures induces the crystallisation of a rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase and the segregation of antimony oxides which volatilise at elevated temperatures. The rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase contains antimony(V) in the bulk and antimony(III) in the surface. Specific catalytic activity for the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene is associated with materials with large concentrations of antimony(III) in the surface.

  5. Electrochemical dissolution of tin in methanesulphonic acid solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef, R.A.T.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    High-rate electroplating of tin on a moving steel strip is generally carried out in cells with dimensionally stable anodes. To obtain a matt tin deposit a concentrated acidic tin methanesulphonate solution containing a small concentration of sulphuric acid is used. The concentrated tin

  6. Corrosion resistance of a magnetic stainless steel ion-plated with titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, K; Sawase, T; Matsumura, H; Atsuta, M; Baba, K; Hatada, R

    2000-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the corrosion resistance of a titanium nitride (TiN) ion-plated magnetic stainless steel (447J1) for the purpose of applying a magnetic attachment system to implant-supported prostheses made of titanium. The surface hardness of the TiN ion-plated 447J1 alloy with varying TiN thickness was determined prior to the corrosion testing, and 2 micrometers thickness was confirmed to be appropriate. Ions released from the 447J1 alloy, TiN ion-plated 447J1 alloy, and titanium into a 2% lactic acid aqueous solution and 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were determined by means of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Long-term corrosion behaviour was evaluated using a multisweep cyclic voltammetry. The ICP-AES results revealed that the 447J1 alloy released ferric ions into both media, and that the amount of released ions increased when the alloy was coupled with titanium. Although both titanium and the TiN-plated 447J1 alloy released titanium ions into lactic acid solution, ferric and chromium ions were not released from the alloy specimen for all conditions. Cyclic voltamograms indicated that the long-term corrosion resistance of the 447J1 alloy was considerably improved by ion-plating with TiN.

  7. Organic derivatives of tin (II/IV): Investigation of their structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szirtes, L., E-mail: szirtes@iki.kfki.h [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary); Megyeri, J., E-mail: megyeri@iki.kfki.h [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary); Kuzmann, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, CRC of the Hungarian Academy of Science at Eoetvoes University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Beck, A. [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    The structures of tin(II)-oxalate, tin(IV)Na-EDTA and tin(IV)Na{sub 8}-inositol hexaphosphate were investigated using XRD analysis. Samples were identified using the Moessbauer study, thermal analysis and FTIR spectrometry. The Moessbauer study determined two different oxidation states of tin atoms, and consequently two different tin surroundings in the end products. The tin oxalate was found to be orthorhombic with space group Pnma, a=9.2066(3) A, b=9.7590(1) A, c=13.1848(5) A, V=1184.62 A{sup 3} and Z=8. SnNa-EDTA was found to be monoclinic with space group P2{sub 1}/c{sub 1}, a=10.7544(3) A, b=10.1455(3) A, c=16.5130(6) A, {beta}=98.59(2){sup o}, V=1781.50(4) A{sup 3} and Z=4. Sn(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}Na{sub 8}O{sub 24}P{sub 6}) was found to be amorphous.

  8. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  9. ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING ON ABS PLASTIC BY USING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Uraz, Canan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, electroless nickel (EN) plating onacrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) engineering plastic by usingenvironmentally friendly chemicals were studied. Electroless plating is afundamental step in the metal plating on the plastic. This step makes theplastic conductive and makes it possible to a homogeneous and hard platingwithout using any hazardous and unfriendly chemical such as palladium, tin,etc. In the industry there are many distinct chemical materials both catalystsand activ...

  10. Pretreatment of Platinum/Tin Oxide-Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V.; Paulin, Patricia A.; Miller, Irvin M.; Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Wood, George M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of CO to He pretreatment doubles catalytic activity. In sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser, CO and O2 form as decomposition products of CO2 in laser discharge zone. Products must be recombined, because oxygen concentration of more than few tenths of percent causes rapid deterioration of power, ending in unstable operation. Promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide. New development increases activity of catalyst so less needed for recombination process.

  11. For production of ceramic plates coating using waste kaolin, granite and marble; Caracterizacao de residuos de caulim, granito e marmore para uso em massas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, J.L.; Morais, C.R.S.; Lima, L.M.R.; Altidis, M.E.D., E-mail: josyanne27@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective is to benefit and characterize waste from kaolin, marble and granite studying their thermal properties and spectroscopic in employment perspective on ceramic production of flooring boards. The residues were benefited through the process of dry grinding mill in greyhounds and passed through sieve 0.074 mm (ABNT No. 200), observing their suitability for the formulation of ceramic pastes. Tests were performed physicochemical characterization (particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) and thermal (differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry). The results showed that these residues showed satisfactory properties for the purpose for which it proposes, and contribute to reducing environmental impacts, allowing the reuse of the production of ceramic plates (author)

  12. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-01-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II

  13. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  15. Waffle production: influence of batter ingredients on sticking of fresh egg waffles at baking plates-Part I: effect of starch and sugar components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-05-01

    Fresh egg waffles are a sweet convenience product typically baked from eggs, water, sugar, flour, fat, leavening agents, emulsifiers, preservatives, and flavors. In industrial production, waffles are baked continuously in high amounts of up to 200 kg raw material per hour. Therefore, it is important that the waffles do not stick onto the baking plates, which can cause significant product loss and increased costs due to interruption of the baking process, required cleaning procedures, and restarting of the energy-consuming start-up phase. Sticking of waffles is greatly influenced not only by baking plate material, release agent, baking temperature, and time, but also by the batter ingredients. In this study, effects of different starches and sugar components were investigated. Within the selected starches, potato starch demonstrated the highest effects on increasing waffle stability and releasing properties compared to wheat and lupine flour (less than 7% sticking waffles). Rice flour performed worst, with almost 50% of sticking waffles. Most of these waffles were broken during take-off, due to their crumbly texture. Within the sugar components, glycerine was better suitable than sorbitol and crystal sugar was superior compared to powdered sugar. They required less take-off force. It could be demonstrated that waffles with increased stability and texture were those that showed the least number of sticking waffles, thus the main aim of batter ingredients was to improve waffle quality. Waffle quality was influenced by batter parameters, significant correlations could be found, for example, a positive correlation between pH- and L-value, negative correlations between pH- and a-value, or density and aw-value. This resulted in significant correlations with take-off-force, which was correlated with L*- and b*-value (negative) and positive to a*-value. Sticking behavior was strongly associated with b*-value (positive) and to a*-value (negative).

  16. An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.

    2008-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. Also, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB). The rare polycrystalline structure seen in the FIB cross section was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size to determine that the tin plating on the card guides had a bright finish.

  17. Crack propagation behavior of TiN coatings by laser thermal shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngkue; Jeon, Seol; Jeon, Min-seok; Shin, Hyun-Gyoo; Chun, Ho Hwan; Lee, Youn-seoung; Lee, Heesoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crack propagation behavior of TiN coating after laser thermal shock experiment was observed by using FIB and TEM. ► Intercolumnar cracks between TiN columnar grains were predominant cracking mode after laser thermal shock. ► Cracks were propagated from the coating surface to the substrate at low laser pulse energy and cracks were originated at coating-substrate interface at high laser pulse energy. ► The cracks from the interface spread out transversely through the weak region of the columnar grains by repetitive laser shock. - Abstract: The crack propagation behavior of TiN coatings, deposited onto 304 stainless steel substrates by arc ion plating technique, related to a laser thermal shock experiment has been investigated using focused ion beam (FIB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ablated regions of TiN coatings by laser ablation system have been investigated under various conditions of pulse energies and number of laser pulses. The intercolumnar cracks were predominant cracking mode following laser thermal shock tests and the cracks initiated at coating surface and propagated in a direction perpendicular to the substrate under low loads conditions. Over and above those cracks, the cracks originated from coating-substrate interface began to appear with increasing laser pulse energy. The cracks from the interface also spread out transversely through the weak region of the columnar grains by repetitive laser shock.

  18. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  19. Shape-selective Valorization of Biomass-derived Glycolaldehyde using Tin-containing Zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Meier, Sebastian; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan

    2016-01-01

    sugars while hindering consecutive aldol reactions leading to hexose sugars. High yields of tetrose sugars (74 %) with minor amounts of vinyl glycolic acid (VGA), an α-hydroxyacid, are obtained using Sn-MFI with selectivities towards C4 products reaching 97 %. Tin catalysts having large pores or no pore...... structure (Sn-Beta, Sn-MCM-41, Sn-SBA-15, tin chloride) led to lower selectivities for C4 sugars due to formation of hexose sugars. In the case of Sn-Beta, VGA is the main product (30 %), illustrating differences in selectivity of the Sn sites in the different frameworks. Under optimized conditions, GA can...

  20. Laser-produced plasma EUV source using a colloidal microjet target containing tin dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-10-01

    We realized a low-debris laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a colloidal microjet target, which contained low-concentration (6 wt%) tin-dioxide nanoparticles. An Nd:YAG laser was used to produce a plasma at the intensity on the order of 10^11 W/cm^2. The use of low concentration nanoparticles in a microjet target with a diameter of 50 μm regulated the neutral debris emission from a target, which was monitored by a silicon witness plate placed 30 cm apart from the source in a vacuum chamber. No XPS signals of tin and/or oxygen atoms were observed on the plate after ten thousand laser exposures. The low concentration nature of the target was compensated and the conversion efficiency (CE) was improved by introducing double pulses of two Nd:YAG lasers operated at 532 and 1064 nm as a result of controlling the micro-plasma characteristics. The EUV CE reached its maximum of 1.2% at the delay time of approximately 100 ns with the main laser intensiy of 2 x10^11 W/cm^2. The CE value was comparable to that of a tin bulk target, which, however, produced a significant amount of neutral debris.

  1. Effect of cationic/anionic organic surfactants on evaporation induced self assembled tin oxide nanostructured films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun Khun, Kamalpreet; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Tin oxide nanostructures with well defined morphologies have been obtained through an evaporation induced self assembly process. The technique has been employed using an ultrasonic nebulizer for production of aersol and its subsequent deposition onto a heated glass substrate. The precursor used for aersol production was modified by introducing cationic and anionic surfactants namely cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate respectively. The effect of surfactants on the structural, electrical and optical properties of self assembled tin oxide nanostructures were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electroscope microscopy, two probe technique and photoluminiscence studies. The results reveal that high concentration of surfactants in the precursor solution leads to reduction in crystallite size with significant changes in the morphology of tin oxide nanostructures. Photoluminiscence studies of the nanostructures show emissions in the visible region which exhibit marked changes in the intensities upon variation of surfactants in the precursor solutions.

  2. Effect of cationic/anionic organic surfactants on evaporation induced self assembled tin oxide nanostructured films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun Khun, Kamalpreet [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Mahajan, Aman, E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Bedi, R.K. [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Tin oxide nanostructures with well defined morphologies have been obtained through an evaporation induced self assembly process. The technique has been employed using an ultrasonic nebulizer for production of aersol and its subsequent deposition onto a heated glass substrate. The precursor used for aersol production was modified by introducing cationic and anionic surfactants namely cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate respectively. The effect of surfactants on the structural, electrical and optical properties of self assembled tin oxide nanostructures were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electroscope microscopy, two probe technique and photoluminiscence studies. The results reveal that high concentration of surfactants in the precursor solution leads to reduction in crystallite size with significant changes in the morphology of tin oxide nanostructures. Photoluminiscence studies of the nanostructures show emissions in the visible region which exhibit marked changes in the intensities upon variation of surfactants in the precursor solutions.

  3. Advanced optical modeling of TiN metal hard mask for scatterometric critical dimension metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Peter; Urbanowicz, Adam M.; Likhachev, Dmitriy; Hartig, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    The majority of scatterometric production control models assume constant optical properties of the materials and only dimensional parameters are allowed to vary. However, this assumption, especially in case of thin-metal films, negatively impacts model precision and accuracy. In this work we focus on optical modeling of the TiN metal hardmask for scatterometry applications. Since the dielectric function of TiN exhibits thickness dependence, we had to take this fact into account. Moreover, presence of the highly absorbing films influences extracted thicknesses of dielectric layers underneath the metal films. The later phenomenon is often not reflected by goodness of fit. We show that accurate optical modeling of metal is essential to achieve desired scatterometric model quality for automatic process control in microelectronic production. Presented modeling methodology can be applied to other TiN applications such as diffusion barriers and metal gates as well as for other metals used in microelectronic manufacturing for all technology nodes.

  4. Waffle production: influence of batter ingredients on sticking of waffles at baking plates-Part II: effect of fat, leavening agent, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-05-01

    Fresh egg waffles are continuously baked in tunnel baking ovens in industrial scale. Waffles that partly or fully stick to the baking plates cause significant product loss and increased costs. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of different recipe ingredients on the sticking behavior of waffles. In this second part, ingredients investigated were different leavening agents (sodium acid pyrophosphate, ammonium bicarbonate, magnesium hydroxide carbonate, or monocalcium phosphate), different fat sources (rapeseed oil, cocos fat, butter, or margarine), and different water sources (tap water 12°dH and distilled water). Within the different types of fats, solid fats with high amount of short-chain fatty acids (cocos fat or butter) decreased the number of sticking waffles compared to liquid oils (rapeseed oil). Regarding leavening agents, magnesium hydroxide carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate were superior to sodium acid pyrophosphate or monocalcium phosphate. Between the two water sources, effects were small.

  5. Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Steve; Wallace, Tony

    2003-12-01

    Tinplate is light gauge, steel sheet or strip, coated on both sides with commercially pure tin and has been used for well over a hundred years as a robust form of food packaging. Altogether, about 25,000 million food cans are produced and filled in Europe per annum, about 20% of these having plain internal (unlacquered) tin-coated steel bodies. Worldwide, the total for food packaging is approximately 80,000 million cans. Tinplate is also extensively used for the production of beverage cans. Europe produces and fills over 15,000 million tinplate beverage cans per annum all of which are internally lacquered. The use of tinplate for food and beverage packaging, will result in some tin dissolving into the food content, particularly when plain uncoated internal surfaces are used. The Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for tin is 14 mg/kg body weight and recommended maximum permissible levels of tin in food are typically 250 mg/kg (200 mg/kg UK) for solid foods and 150 mg/kg for beverages. However, the question arises as to whether evidence exists that such elevated levels of tin in food in any way constitute a risk to human health. This review considers the factors affecting the dissolution of tin, the reported measurements/surveys of actual levels of tin in canned foods and the studies and reports of acute (short term) toxicity relating to the ingestion of elevated levels of tin in food products. Chronic studies are mentioned, but are not covered in detail, since the review is mainly concerned with possible effects from the ingestion of single high doses. From published data, there appears to be a small amount of evidence suggesting that consumption of food or beverages containing tin at concentrations at or below 200 ppm has caused adverse gastrointestinal effects in an unknown but possibly small proportion of those exposed. However, the evidence supporting this assertion is derived from reports of adverse effects which offer data that are limited, incomplete or of

  6. Tin Whisker Growth and Mitigation with a Nanocrysytalline Nickel Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, Szymon

    Tin whiskers are a problem in the electronics industry since the EU banned the use of lead in Pb-Sn solders as part of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). The biggest concern with Sn whiskers is their ability to short-circuit electronics. High reliability applications such as the aerospace, defense, healthcare, and automotive industries are at most risk. This project explores Sn whisker mitigation and prevention with the use of nanocrystalline nickel coating over Sn surfaces. Sn was plated onto a pure Cu substrate using electroplating. A high temperature and high humidity condition, at 85°C and 85% RH, was effective at growing whiskers. A nNi coating was plated over Sn/Cu coupons. After subjecting the nNi/ Sn/Cu samples through 85°C/85% RH testing conditions, no whiskers were observed penetrating the surface. These results make nNi a viable material to use as a coating to prevent the growth of Sn whiskers in electronic assemblies.

  7. Scale-up and large-scale production of Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta) for CO2 mitigation: from an agar plate to 100-m3 industrial photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo; Páramo, Jaime; Silva, Joana; Marques, Ana; Barros, Ana; Maurício, Dinis; Santos, Tamára; Schulze, Peter; Barros, Raúl; Gouveia, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2018-03-23

    Industrial production of novel microalgal isolates is key to improving the current portfolio of available strains that are able to grow in large-scale production systems for different biotechnological applications, including carbon mitigation. In this context, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 was successfully scaled up from an agar plate to 35- and 100-m 3 industrial scale tubular photobioreactors (PBR). Growth was performed semi-continuously for 60 days in the autumn-winter season (17 th October - 14 th December). Optimisation of tubular PBR operations showed that improved productivities were obtained at a culture velocity of 0.65-1.35 m s -1 and a pH set-point for CO 2 injection of 8.0. Highest volumetric (0.08 ± 0.01 g L -1 d -1 ) and areal (20.3 ± 3.2 g m -2 d -1 ) biomass productivities were attained in the 100-m 3 PBR compared to those of the 35-m 3 PBR (0.05 ± 0.02 g L -1 d -1 and 13.5 ± 4.3 g m -2 d -1 , respectively). Lipid contents were similar in both PBRs (9-10% of ash free dry weight). CO 2 sequestration was followed in the 100-m 3 PBR, revealing a mean CO 2 mitigation efficiency of 65% and a biomass to carbon ratio of 1.80. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 is thus a robust candidate for industrial-scale production with promising biomass productivities and photosynthetic efficiencies up to 3.5% of total solar irradiance.

  8. 78 FR 69371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... this investigation are flat-rolled, cold-reduced steel products, regardless of chemistry; whether or... 7210.70.6090, 7212.40.1000, 7212.40.5000, 7219.90.0020, 7219.90.0025, 7219.90.0060, 7219.90.0080, 7220.... Results of the DP Analysis f. Export Price g. Normal Value h. Level of Trade i. Affiliated Party...

  9. Ninety six well microtiter plate as microbioreactors for production of itaconic acid by six Aspergillus terreus strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaconic acid (IA) is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. However, lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as low cost source of sugars for production of IA. Previously, 100 A. terreus strains we...

  10. Quantifying Cutting and Wearing Behaviors of TiN- and CrNCoated AISI 1070 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cakan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN and chromium nitride (CrN are widely used in cutting and forming tools against wear and corrosion. In the present study, hard coating films were deposited onto AISI 1070 steels by a cathodic arc evaporation plating (CAVP technique. These samples were subjected to wear in a conventional lathe for investigating the tribological behaviour of coating structure, and prenitrided subsurface composition was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, line scan analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The wear properties of TiN- and CrNcoated samples were determined using an on-line monitoring system. The results show that TiN-coated samples demonstrate higher wear resistance than CrN-coated samples.

  11. The effects of Ti implantation on corrosion and adhesion of TiN coated stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.; Nagata, S.; Hatada, R.; Daikoku, T.; Hasaka, M.

    1993-06-01

    Thin titanium nitride (TiN) films of 40 and 70 nm in thickness were deposited on austenitic-type 304 stainless steel substrates by a rf ion plating process, and these specimens were irradiated with 70 kV titanium ions at a fluence of 1 × 10 17/cm 2 by use of MEVVA IV metallic ion source at room temperature. After that TiN films of 2 μm were deposited by the same method. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that implanted titanium penetrated into the substrate and interfacial mixing was verified. The adhesion strength was estimated by a scratch test. It was found that ion implantation can enhance the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate. The corrosion resistance of the specimens was evaluated in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid by an electrochemical method. Titanium implantation was extremely effective in suppressing the anodic dissolution of stainless steel.

  12. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin ... elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. .... nal level below 1 V, interfaced to a minicomputer for data.

  13. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Marek [Warszawa, PL; Kostecki, Robert [Lafayette, CA

    2012-07-17

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Production of annular blanks for Mo-99 using natural uranium, LEU uranium, nickel and structural Al-3003 plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, J.R.; Barrera, M.E.; Marin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Tc-99m radioisotope for medical use is the one most used in nuclear medicine worldwide. In Chile the Tc-99m is applied in more than 90% of nuclear medicine studies. In order to supply the whole country with this radioisotope, in 2005-2007 the CCHEN developed its own production of Tc-99m generators from Mo-99 imported from Canada, which are prepared with the activity needed by the Chilean hospitals and clinics. As of 2007 Mo-99 was no longer imported, and since then the Tc-99m is produced only by neutron activation of the Mo. The present challenge is to produce Mo-99 by irradiating blanks that contain enriched uranium foils, with locally produced LEU. The annular blank consists of 2 concentric tubes of A1-3003 structural aluminum that, in an interior annular space, contain a LEU foil, covered on both sides by a nickel foil. This work presents the development of the production technology for annular blanks using natural uranium and U-325 enriched uranium. The structural components are made with A1-3003 aluminum alloy, the foils are 13 grams of uranium measuring 100 x 50 mm and 120-150 μ thick. The blank was assembled using a methodology to control, adapt and assemble the blank's different internal components. A foil of natural uranium and LEU uranium, and a nickel foil are included, used as a barrier for the escape of fission products. During the blank's expansion, for analysis alcohol as lubricant was used, allowing the expander to move smoothly through the inside of the blank. The blank was sealed by TIG welding with a pulsed AC current and a mixture of Ar-5% He gases. Two methods were used for the water tightness test; for high escape levels the temperature was used as a promoter of the ΔP provided by hot water and liquid nitrogen, for low escape levels high vacuum technology was used where the ΔP is provided by a high pressure helium atmosphere. The technology for the production of annular LEU blanks was achieved by applying innovations to technologies

  15. The radiochemical purity of technetium-99m-tin-diethylene-triamino-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, M.; Costerousse, O.; Merlin, L.; Coehn, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The effect on radiochemical purity was studied as a function of the storage period of tin-DTPA solution and of the technetium-complex solution. The quantity of the pertechnetate ions present in the solution is determined by ascending paper chromatography, and an attempt was made to clarify the bond type of technetium by a spectrophotometric method. The tin-DTPA solutions for complexing of the reduced technetium are stable over a period of 8 weeks. The yield of the radiopharmaceutical product is better than 95%. (G.Gy.)

  16. X-ray radiometric separation of low-grade tin ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, N.I.; Neverov, A.D.; Konovalov, V.M.; Mironov, I.I.; Zakharov, S.N.

    1984-10-01

    The investigations on evaluation of X-ray radiometric separation of off-grade tin ores of one of the deposits are carried out. The experiments have been performed at loboratory and pilot-commerical plants. /sup 241/Am has been used as a radiation source. In the course of facility commercial the ore has been separated by means of a device comprising a separator and gate separatin device. The results of X-ray radiometric separation have shown its high productive efficiency. Concentrates with higher tin content at high extraction from ores are obtained.

  17. X-ray radiometric separation of low-grade tin ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Neverov, A.D.; Konovalov, V.M.; Mironov, I.I.; Zakharov, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The investigations on evaluation of X-ray radiometric separation of off-grade tin ores of one of the deposits are carried out. The experiments have been performed at loboratory and pilot-commerical plants. 241 Am has been used as a radiation source. In the course of facility commercial the ore has been separated by means of a device comprising a separator and gate separatin device. The results of X-ray radiometric separation have shown its high productive efficiency. Concentrates with higher tin content at high extraction from ores are obtained

  18. Recovery of Tin and Nitric Acid from Spent Solder Stripping Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ryu, Seong-Hyung; Kim, Tae-young

    2015-01-01

    Spent solder-stripping solutions containing tin, copper, iron, and lead in nitric acid solution, are by-products of the manufacture of printed-circuit boards. The recovery of these metals and the nitric acid, for re-use has economic and environmental benefits. In the spent solder-stripping solution, a systematic method to determine a suitable process for recovery of valuable metals and nitric acid was developed. Initially, more than 90% of the tin was successfully recovered as high-purity SnO 2 by thermal precipitation at 80 ℃ for 3 hours. About 94% of the nitric acid was regenerated effectively from the spent solutions by diffusion dialysis, after which there remained copper, iron, and lead in solution. Leakage of tin through the anion-exchange membrane was the lowest (0.026%), whereas Pb-leakage was highest (4.26%). The concentration of the regenerated nitric acid was about 5.1 N.

  19. The Evaluation of Novel Tin Materials for the Removal of Technetium from Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Technetium-99 (99Tc) is present at several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, including the Hanford, Oak Ridge, Paducah, Portsmouth, and Savannah River sites. Due to its mobility, persistence, and toxicity in the environment, developing means to immobilize and/or remove technetium from the environment is currently a top priority for DOE. However, there are currently very few approaches that effectively manage the risks of technetium to human health and the environment. The objective of this study is to evaluate novel synthetic materials that could enable direct removal of technetium from groundwater. The following report •assesses the viability of existing methodologies for synthesis of tin (II) apatite for in situ formation and remediation of 99Tc within the subsurface environment •discusses the development of alternative methodologies for production of tin (II) apatite •evaluates nanoporous tin phosphate materials for removal of technetium from groundwater.

  20. Co-production of lipids, eicosapentaenoic acid, fucoxanthin, and chrysolaminarin by Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured in a flat-plate photobioreactor under varying nitrogen conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baoyan; Chen, Ailing; Zhang, Wenyuan; Li, Aifen; Zhang, Chengwu

    2017-10-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a polymorphological, ecologically significant, and well-studied model of unicellular microalga. This diatom can accumulate diverse important metabolites. Herein, we cultured P. tricornutum in an internally installed tie-piece flat-plate photobioreactor under 14.5 m mol L-1 (high nitrogen, HN) and 2.9 m mol L-1 (low nitrogen, LN) of KNO3 and assessed its time-resolved changes in biochemical compositions. The results showed that HN was inductive to accumulate high biomass (4.1 g L-1). However, the LN condition could accelerate lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum. The maximum total lipid (TL) content under LN was up to 42.5% of biomass on day 12. Finally, neutral lipids (NLs) were 63.8% and 75.7% of TLs under HN and LN, respectively. The content of EPA ranged from 2.3% to 1.5% of dry weight during the growth period under the two culture conditions. Peak volumetric lipid productivity of 128.4 mg L-1d-1 was achieved in the HN group (on day 9). The highest volumetric productivity values of EPA, chrysolaminarin, and fucoxanthin were obtained in the exponential phase (on day 6) under HN, which were 9.6, 93.6, and 4.7 mg L-1d-1, respectively. In conclusion, extractable amounts of lipids, EPA, fucoxanthin, and chrysolaminarin could be obtained from P. tricornutum by regulating the culture conditions.

  1. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  2. Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, H.; Elich, J.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide coatings obviously depend on a number of production parameters. This dependence has been studied to obtain a more general insight into the relationships between the various coating properties. The coatings have been produced by spray

  3. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown

  4. Sources and historical record of tin and butyl-tin species in a Mediterranean bay (Toulon Bay, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Frédérique; Schäfer, Jörg; Dutruch, Lionel; Garnier, Cédric; Tessier, Erwan; Dang, Duc Huy; Lanceleur, Laurent; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Lenoble, Véronique; Blanc, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Concentrations of inorganic tin (Sn(inorg)), tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) were measured in surface sediments and in two cores from the Toulon Bay, hosting the major French military harbour. Anticipating planned dredging, the aim of the present work is to map and evaluate for the first time the recent and historic contamination of these sediments by inorganic and organic Sn species derived from antifouling paints used for various naval domains including military, trade, tourism and leisure. Tin and butyl-Sn concentrations in the bay varied strongly (4 orders of magnitude), depending on the site, showing maximum values near the shipyards. The concentrations of total Sn (1.3-112 μg g(-1)), TBT (product Sn(inorgBT) is by far the dominant species after 10-12 half-life periods and (c) using recent data to reliably assess former TBT contamination requires the use of a modified butyl-Sn degradation index BDI(mod). Resuspension of extremely contaminated subsurface sediments by the scheduled dredging will probably result in mobilization of important amounts of butyl-Sn species.

  5. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test technique (modified pin-on-ring test) to obtain some clarifications of the mechanism of interfacial failure. Tests were run using PVD-coated rings finished by polishing or grinding to produce different sur...

  6. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  7. Electrochemical reduction of trinitrotoluene on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriants, Irena; Markovsky, Boris; Persky, Rachel; Perelshtein, Ilana; Gedanken, Aharon; Aurbach, Doron; Filanovsky, Boris; Bourenko, Tatiana; Felner, Israel

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we studied the electrochemical process of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) reduction on a new type of electrodes based on a core-shell tin-carbon Sn(C) structure. The Sn(C) composite was prepared from the precursor tetramethyl-tin Sn(CH 3 ) 4 , and the product contained a core of submicron-sized tin particles uniformly enveloped with carbon shells. Cyclic voltammograms of Sn(C) electrodes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions containing TNT show three well-pronounced reduction waves in the potential range of -0.50 to -0.80 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl/Cl - reference electrode) that correspond to the multistep process of TNT reduction. Electrodes containing Sn(C) particles annealed at 800 deg. C under argon develop higher voltammetric currents of TNT reduction (comparing to the as-prepared tin-carbon material) due to stabilization of the carbon shell. It is suggested that the reduction of TNT on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes is an electrochemically irreversible process. A partial oxidation of the TNT reduction products occurred at around -0.20 V. The electrochemical response of TNT reduction shows that it is not controlled by the diffusion of the active species to/from the electrodes but rather by interfacial charge transfer and possible adsorption phenomena. The tin-carbon electrodes demonstrate significantly stable behavior for TNT reduction in NaCl solutions and provide sufficient reproducibility with no surface fouling through prolonged voltammetric cycling. It is presumed that tin nanoparticles, which constitute the core, are electrochemically inactive towards TNT reduction, but Sn or SnO 2 formed on the electrodes during TNT reduction may participate in this reaction as catalysts or carbon-modifying agents. The nitro-groups of TNT can be reduced irreversibly (via two possible paths) by three six-electron transfers, to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene, as follows from mass-spectrometric studies. The tin-carbon electrodes described herein may serve as amperometric sensors

  8. Temperature and pressure determination of the tin melt boundary from a combination of pyrometry, spectral reflectance, and velocity measurements along release paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Lone, Brandon; Asimow, Paul; Fatyanov, Oleg; Hixson, Robert; Stevens, Gerald

    2017-06-01

    Plate impact experiments were conducted on tin samples backed by LiF windows to determine the tin melt curve. Thin copper flyers were used so that a release wave followed the 30-40 GPa shock wave in the tin. The release wave at the tin-LiF interface was about 300 ns long. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In one set, spectral emissivity was measured at six wavelengths using a flashlamp illuminated integrating sphere. In the other set, thermal radiance was measured at two wavelengths. The emissivity and thermal radiance measurements were combined to obtain temperature histories of the tin-LiF interface during the release. PDV was used to obtain stress histories. All measurements were combined to obtain temperature vs. stress release paths. A kink or steepening in the release paths indicate where the releases merge onto the melt boundary, and release paths originating from different shock stresses overlap on the melt boundary. Our temperature-stress release path measurements provide a continuous segment of the tin melt boundary that is in good agreement with some of the published melt curves. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy, and supported by the Site-Directed Research and Development Program. DOE/NV/259463133.

  9. Electrodeposition, characterization and corrosion behaviour of tin-20 wt.% zinc coatings electroplated from a non-cyanide alkaline bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; Mertens, M.L.A.D.; Saurat, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-zinc alloy electroplated coatings are recognized as a potential alternative to toxic cadmium as corrosion resistant deposits because they combine the barrier protection of tin with the cathodic protection afforded by zinc. The coatings containing 20 wt.% zinc, balance tin, offer excellent corrosion protection for steel and do not form gross voluminous white corrosion products like pure zinc or high zinc alloy deposits. In this study, the effects of variables of the process (i.e. cathodic current density, pH and temperature) on deposit composition have been evaluated using a Hull cell to obtain 20 wt.% zinc alloy coatings. The tin-20 wt.% zinc deposits, produced with electroplating optimized conditions, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). On the other hand, the corrosion behaviour of tin-zinc alloy electroplated coatings on steel has been investigated using electrochemical methods in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution and the salt spray test. The performance of the deposits was compared with cadmium and zinc-nickel electrodeposited coatings. The results show that the corrosion resistance of tin-20 wt.% zinc alloy coating is superior to that of cadmium and zinc-12 wt.% nickel coatings. Finally, sliding friction tests were conducted.

  10. The incidence of IgG4-positive plasma cells staining TIN in patients with biopsy-proven tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac, Kathy; Wu, Xiao Juan; Mai, Jun; Howlin, Kenneth; Suranyi, Michael; Yong, Jim; Makris, Angela

    2017-06-01

    IgG4 disease is rare. However, IgG4 tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is the most common renal manifestation. IgG4 disease is usually associated with elevated serum IgG4 levels and other organ involvement, low-density renal lesions on enhanced CT imaging and immune activation. The incidence of IgG4-TIN may be underestimated, as staining for IgG4 is not routine. This study sought to describe the prevalence of previously undiagnosed IgG4-TIN. Due to the complexity of the diagnosis, we only attempt to look at IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN as a potential indication for IgG4 renal disease. A retrospective review of native renal biopsies performed between 2002 and 2012 with a primary diagnosis of TIN was selected. Samples for which interstitial nephritis was secondary to a glomerular disease were excluded. The tissues were stained for IgG4 and scored by two blinded observers. Demographic and follow-up details were collected. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. 82 cases of interstitial nephritis from a total of 1238 renal biopsies (2002-2012) were available after staining for further assessment. 12 samples demonstrated staining consistent with the criteria for IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN, of which 3 had mildly positive staining, 7 moderately positive staining and 2 had markedly positive staining. There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the positive and negative staining groups. A number of cases of IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN were observed histologically that had been previously diagnosed as non-specific chronic TIN. IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN made up 1% of all renal biopsies performed over 10 years and 13% of all biopsies demonstrating TIN not related to glomerular disease. IgG4 staining should be considered routinely in biopsies demonstrating primary TIN. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. A High Current Density Low Cost Niobium 3 Tin Titanium Doped Conductor Utilizing A Novel Internal Tin Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce A Zeitlin

    2005-01-01

    An internal tin conductor has been developed using a Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) with an integral Nb barrier surrounding the Nb filaments. High current densities of 3000 A/mm2+ at 12 T and 1800 A/mm2 at 15 T have been achieved in conductors as small as 0.152 mm with the use of Nb7.5Ta filaments and Ti in the Sn core. In contrast, conductors with pure Nb and Ti in the Sn achieved 2700 A/mm2 at 12 T. Two internal fins, developed and patented on the project, were introduced into the filament array and reduced the effective filament diameter (Deff) by 38%. Additional fins will further reduce Deff The conductor was produced from 152.4 mm diameter billets to produce wire as small as 0.152 mm. The process promises be scaleable to 304 mm diameter billets yielding wire of 0.304 mm diameter. The MEIT process wire was easy to draw with relatively few breaks. The cost of this conductor in large production quantities based on the cost model presented could meet the 1.5 $/kilo amp meter(KAM) target of the HEP community

  12. Comparative evaluation of direct plating and most probable number for enumeration of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Pouillot, Régis; S Burall, Laurel; Strain, Errol A; Van Doren, Jane M; De Jesus, Antonio J; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Hua; Ali, Laila; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Day, James; Sheth, Ishani; Kang, Jihun; Sahu, Surasri; Srinivasan, Devayani; Brown, Eric W; Parish, Mickey; Zink, Donald L; Datta, Atin R; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2017-01-16

    A precise and accurate method for enumeration of low level of Listeria monocytogenes in foods is critical to a variety of studies. In this study, paired comparison of most probable number (MPN) and direct plating enumeration of L. monocytogenes was conducted on a total of 1730 outbreak-associated ice cream samples that were naturally contaminated with low level of L. monocytogenes. MPN was performed on all 1730 samples. Direct plating was performed on all samples using the RAPID'L.mono (RLM) agar (1600 samples) and agar Listeria Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA; 130 samples). Probabilistic analysis with Bayesian inference model was used to compare paired direct plating and MPN estimates of L. monocytogenes in ice cream samples because assumptions implicit in ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression analyses were not met for such a comparison. The probabilistic analysis revealed good agreement between the MPN and direct plating estimates, and this agreement showed that the MPN schemes and direct plating schemes using ALOA or RLM evaluated in the present study were suitable for enumerating low levels of L. monocytogenes in these ice cream samples. The statistical analysis further revealed that OLS linear regression analyses of direct plating and MPN data did introduce bias that incorrectly characterized systematic differences between estimates from the two methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Removal of antibiotics in a parallel-plate thin-film-photocatalytic reactor: Process modeling and evolution of transformation by-products and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkal, Can Burak; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Meriç, Süreyya

    2017-10-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotic has been studied under recycling batch and homogeneous flow conditions in a thin-film coated immobilized system namely parallel-plate (PPL) reactor. Experimentally designed, statistically evaluated with a factorial design (FD) approach with intent to provide a mathematical model takes into account the parameters influencing process performance. Initial antibiotic concentration, UV energy level, irradiated surface area, water matrix (ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater) and time, were defined as model parameters. A full of 2 5 experimental design was consisted of 32 random experiments. PPL reactor test experiments were carried out in order to set boundary levels for hydraulic, volumetric and defined defined process parameters. TTIP based thin-film with polyethylene glycol+TiO 2 additives were fabricated according to pre-described methodology. Antibiotic degradation was monitored by High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis while the degradation products were specified by LC-TOF-MS analysis. Acute toxicity of untreated and treated SMX solutions was tested by standard Daphnia magna method. Based on the obtained mathematical model, the response of the immobilized PC system is described with a polynomial equation. The statistically significant positive effects are initial SMX concentration, process time and the combined effect of both, while combined effect of water matrix and irradiated surface area displays an adverse effect on the rate of antibiotic degradation by photocatalytic oxidation. Process efficiency and the validity of the acquired mathematical model was also verified for levofloxacin and cefaclor antibiotics. Immobilized PC degradation in PPL reactor configuration was found capable of providing reduced effluent toxicity by simultaneous degradation of SMX parent compound and TBPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  16. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-01-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  17. The electric dipole response of neutron rich tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Aumann, Thomas; Rossi, Dominic; Schindler, Fabia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Schrock, Philipp [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the dipole response in medium heavy and heavy neutron rich nuclei reveal valuable information about the isospin dependence of the nuclear equation of state. Therefore an experimental campaign investigating both the electric dipole response via Coulomb excitation and neutron removal along the tin isotope chain ({sup 124-134}Sn) has been carried out at the R3B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) setup at GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) for which the analysis is ongoing. The E1 response was induced via relativistic Coulomb scattering by a lead target in inverse kinematics, and calls for a kinematically complete determination of all reaction products in order to reconstruct the excitation energy by means of the invariant mass method. The goal is to obtain the Coulomb excitation cross section up to the adiabatic cut-off energy, covering the giant dipole resonance (GDR) range.

  18. Preparation of sup(99m)Tc-bleomycin with electrogenerated tin(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlar, B; Marsel, J; Tasic, D [Ljubljana Univ. (Yugoslavia); Erjavec, M [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1978-01-01

    Some parameters influencing the efficiency of labelling bleomycin (BLM) with sup(99m)Tc using tin electrodes for electrolytic production of tin(II) ions were investigated. The results showed clearly the superiority of tin electrodes for labelling BLM with sup(99m)Tc in comparison with Zn electrodes. The alteration of the primary properties of BLM is negligible. The optimal procedure for the labelling of BLM is as follows. Into a vessel (15-20 cm/sup 3/) containing the corresponding amount of BLM in saline, and the desired amount of sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ eluate in 0.9% NaCl, 0.5 ml 0.5 M HCl is added and diluted with saline to 10 ml. The electrolysis is performed using tin electrodes with a current density of about 6 mA/cm/sup 2/ for 10 to 20 s with stirring, which is prolonged after electrolysis for a few minutes. After filtration through a 0.22 ..mu..m Millipore filter, the labelled compound can be used for clinical applications. For analytical control of labelled BLM, gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 with UV and radioactivity detection can be recommended. From the results obtained, it has been concluded that gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 can give applicable information about the quality of this radiopharmaceutical.

  19. Preparation of textural lamellar tin deposits via electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoyu; Pan, Xiaona; Wu, Libin; Li, Ruinan; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar tin deposits were prepared by galvanostatical electroplating from the aqueous acidic-sulfate bath, with gelatin and benzalacetone dissolved in ethanol (ABA+EtOH) as additive, and their morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Cathodic polarization curves revealed that the absorbability of ABA+EtOH on the cathode surface was higher than that of gelatin. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated preferred orientations of tin growth led to the formation of lamellar structure and distortion of tin lattice. The growth mechanism of lamellar tin was also discussed.

  20. Atomic dynamics of tin nanoparticles embedded into porous glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshin, P. P.; Zemlyanov, M. G., E-mail: zeml@isssph.kiae.ru; Panova, G. Kh.; Shikov, A. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Naberezhnov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Sergueev, I.; Crichton, W. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France); Chumakov, A. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Rueffer, R. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France)

    2012-03-15

    The method of resonant nuclear inelastic absorption of synchrotron radiation has been used to study the phonon spectrum for tin nanoparticles (with a natural isotope mixture) embedded into a porous glassy (silica) matrix with an average pore diameter of 7 nm in comparison to the analogous spectrum of bulk tin enriched with {sup 119}Sn isotope. Differences between the spectra have been observed, which are related to both the dimensional effects and specific structural features of the porous glass-tin nanocomposite. Peculiarities in the dynamics of tin atoms embedded into nanopores of glass are interpreted in terms of a qualitative model of the nanocomposite structure.

  1. Atomic dynamics of tin nanoparticles embedded into porous glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshin, P. P.; Zemlyanov, M. G.; Panova, G. Kh.; Shikov, A. A.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Naberezhnov, A. A.; Sergueev, I.; Crichton, W.; Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R.

    2012-01-01

    The method of resonant nuclear inelastic absorption of synchrotron radiation has been used to study the phonon spectrum for tin nanoparticles (with a natural isotope mixture) embedded into a porous glassy (silica) matrix with an average pore diameter of 7 nm in comparison to the analogous spectrum of bulk tin enriched with 119 Sn isotope. Differences between the spectra have been observed, which are related to both the dimensional effects and specific structural features of the porous glass-tin nanocomposite. Peculiarities in the dynamics of tin atoms embedded into nanopores of glass are interpreted in terms of a qualitative model of the nanocomposite structure.

  2. Nanosized TiN-SBR hybrid coating of stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Masanobu; Myung, Seung-Taek; Asaishi, Ryo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    In attempt to improve interfacial electrical conductivity of stainless steel for bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, TiN nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the surface of stainless steel with elastic styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) particles. From transmission electron microscopic observation, it was found that the TiN nanoparticles (ca. 50 nm) surrounded the spherical SBR particles (ca. 300-600 nm), forming agglomerates. They were well adhered on the surface of the type 310S stainless steel. With help of elasticity of SBR, the agglomerates were well fitted into the interfacial gap between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and stainless steel bipolar plate, and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR), simultaneously, was successfully reduced. A single cell using the TiN nanoparticles-coated bipolar plates, consequently, showed comparable cell performance with the graphite employing cell at a current density of 0.5 A cm -2 (12.5 A). Inexpensive TiN nanoparticle-coated type 310S stainless steel bipolar plates would become a possible alternate for the expensive graphite bipolar plates as use in fuel cell applications

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  8. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  9. MAGIC NUCLEI: Tin-100 turns up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the same way as the Periodic Table of chemical elements reflects the successive filling of orbital electron shells, in nuclear physics the socalled 'magic' numbers correspond to closed shells of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126,... neutrons and/or protons. More tightly bound than other nuclei, these are the nuclear analogues of the inert gases. 'Doubly magic' nuclei have closed shells of both neutrons and protons. Examples in nature are helium-4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons), oxygen-16 (8 and 8), calcium-40 (20 and 20) and calcium-48 (20 and 28). Radioactive tin-132 (50+82) has been widely studied

  10. Moessbauer effect in superconducting organosol of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, I.Ya.; Zhelibo, E.P.; Kushnir, B.G.; Nishchenko, M.M.; Pan, V.M.; Popov, A.G.; Khvorov, M.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Kolloidnoj Khimii i Khimii Vody)

    1977-01-01

    Structure of disperse particles (approximately 1 μm) of tin organosols have been investigated by means of the Moessbauer effect. A considerable amount of oxides (up to 20%) in amorphous (SnO 2 ) or in metastable crystalline (SnO) states has been discovered. The observed properties of the Moessbauer spectrum of organosols are compared with measurements of their critical temperature. The effect of impurities and of other structural defects on the dynamic and superconducting properties of organosols is observed. Temperature broadening of lines and temperature variation of the Moessbauer effect value for the particle of different dimensions are in a qualitative agreement with the theory of the granular Moessbauer absorbers

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Tin-containing Silicates for Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren

    at optimized conditions. The effect of alkali was found to transcend to a variety of sugars, solvents and other stannosilicates such as Sn-MCM-41 or Sn-Beta prepared by a post-synthesis methodology. The latter makes it possible to use industrially relevant tin-containing catalysts to achieved high yields......The transition to renewable carbon sources such as biomass will require entirely new catalytic processes and result in completely new products. An entire industry is built up around the chemicals that are available from fossil resources but will be unfeasible to prepare from other carbon sources....... This dissertation describes the preparation and use of several important stannosilicate materials, known to transform carbohydrates into different valuable products. Several aspects of the tin-containing catalysts are investigated and discussed and new insight into the conversion of sugars is provided. The catalyst...

  12. Safety and efficacy of nano lamellar TiN coatings on nitinol atrial septal defect occluders in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi xiong; Fu, Bu fang; Zhang, De yuan; Zhang, Zhi wei; Cheng, Yan; Sheng, Li yuan; Lai, Chen; Xi, Ting fei

    2013-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion devices made of nickel–titanium (NiTi) have a major shortcoming in that they release nickel into the body. We modified NiTi occluders using Arc Ion Plating technology. Nano lamellar titanium–nitrogen (TiN) coatings were formed on the surfaces of the occluders. The safety and efficacy of the modified NiTi occluders were evaluated in animal model. The results showed that 38 out of 39 rams (97%) survived at the end of the experiment. Fibrous capsules formed on the surfaces of the devices. Gradual endothelialization took place through the attachment of endothelial progenitor cells from the blood and the migration of endothelial cells from adjacent endocardium. The neo-endocardium formed more quickly in the coated group than in the uncoated group, as indicated by the evaluation of the six month study group. After TiN coating, there was no significant difference in endothelial cell cycle. TiN coating significantly reduced the release of nickel in both in vivo and in vitro indicating an improved biocompatibility of the nitinol ASD occluders. Superior and modified ASD occluders may provide a good choice for people with nickel allergies after sFDA registration, which is expected in one to two years. - Highlights: ► The nano lamella TiN coating did not change the shape-memory behavior and flexibility of the nitinol occluder. ► Nano lamella TiN coating modifications significantly reduced nickel release from nitinol ASD occluder. ► The new ASD occluder was found to be superior to nitinol ASD occluder with respect to both safety and efficacy

  13. Safety and efficacy of nano lamellar TiN coatings on nitinol atrial septal defect occluders in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhi xiong, E-mail: Top5460@163.com [Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fu, Bu fang, E-mail: fubnicpbp@163.com [National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing (China); Zhang, De yuan, E-mail: Deyuanzhangcn@yahoo.com.cn [Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Zhi wei, E-mail: Zhzhx65@163.com [Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangzhou (China); Cheng, Yan, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing (China); Sheng, Li yuan, E-mail: lysheng@yeah.net [Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Lai, Chen, E-mail: laichen1110@163.com [Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Xi, Ting fei, E-mail: Xitingfie@pku.edu.cn [Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion devices made of nickel–titanium (NiTi) have a major shortcoming in that they release nickel into the body. We modified NiTi occluders using Arc Ion Plating technology. Nano lamellar titanium–nitrogen (TiN) coatings were formed on the surfaces of the occluders. The safety and efficacy of the modified NiTi occluders were evaluated in animal model. The results showed that 38 out of 39 rams (97%) survived at the end of the experiment. Fibrous capsules formed on the surfaces of the devices. Gradual endothelialization took place through the attachment of endothelial progenitor cells from the blood and the migration of endothelial cells from adjacent endocardium. The neo-endocardium formed more quickly in the coated group than in the uncoated group, as indicated by the evaluation of the six month study group. After TiN coating, there was no significant difference in endothelial cell cycle. TiN coating significantly reduced the release of nickel in both in vivo and in vitro indicating an improved biocompatibility of the nitinol ASD occluders. Superior and modified ASD occluders may provide a good choice for people with nickel allergies after sFDA registration, which is expected in one to two years. - Highlights: ► The nano lamella TiN coating did not change the shape-memory behavior and flexibility of the nitinol occluder. ► Nano lamella TiN coating modifications significantly reduced nickel release from nitinol ASD occluder. ► The new ASD occluder was found to be superior to nitinol ASD occluder with respect to both safety and efficacy.

  14. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  15. Heavy gauge plates for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviet, A.; Roux, J.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The production of energy from nuclear sources leads to the building of very large vessels working under pressure at elevated temperatures, requiring very thick steel plate (from 50 mm to 300 mm). The plates necessary for the production of these vessels have to be as large as possible in order to reduce the length of welds on the vessels. Those two requirements lead to the manufacture of heavy products from 10 to 80 tons unit weight. These products are special, because their fabrication requires very big facilities and also extremely high quality of the steel. The main points are: high cleanliness; properties as homogeneous as possible. The tests carried out on industrially produced plates (especially on a plate of 200 mm thick show the level of quality that can be reached [fr

  16. Les peintures marines antisalissures à base de polymères organostanniques Antifouling Marine Paints Containing Organo-Tin Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawans F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le dépôt des salissures marines sur les ouvrages immergés est influencé par plusieurs facteurs et il entraîne des conséquences néfastes, en particulier pour la maintenance des supports de plates-formes de production du pétrole en mer et pour la consommation d'énergie requise pour la propulsion des navires. Divers moyens de lutte antisalissure ont été envisagés parmi lesquels les peintures marines antisalissures occupent une place de choix. Ces peintures contiennent, en général, un composé métallique toxique envers les organismes marins d'origine animale ou végétale et différents mécanismes d'action ont été proposés. Les dérivés organostanniques sont des agents biocides très efficaces et lorsqu'ils sont liés chimiquement sur un polymère, en particulier sous forme de greffons, on obtient un contrôle amélioré de leur lixiviation dans la phase aqueuse et par conséquent la durée de vie du revêtement antisalissure est prolongée. La synthèse de polymères comportant un cation organostannique toxique peut être effectuée, soit par la polymérisation ou la copolymérisation de monomères insaturés organostanniques, soit par la réaction chimique de composés organostanniques avec un substrat polymère comportant des groupes fonctionnels appropriés. Les avantages et les inconvénients de diverses formulations de peintures à base de dérivés organostanniques sont discutés. Marine fouling deposits on submerged structures are influenced by several factors and bring about harmful consequences, especially with regard to offshore oil-production platform structures and for the energy consumption required for ship propulsion. Various antifouling methods have been considered, including antifouling marine coatings in particular. Such paints generally contain a metallic compound which is toxic with regard to marine organisms of animal or vegetable origin, and various action mechanisms have been proposed. Organo-tin

  17. Surface wear of TiN coated nickel tool during the injection moulding of polymer micro Fresnel lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Limited tool life of nickel mould inserts represents an issue for the mass-production of polymer optics with complex micro three-dimensional geometries by injection moulding. TiN coating was applied to a nickel insert for the injection moulding of polycarbonate micro Fresnel lenses. Surface wear...

  18. Development of low enriched uranium target plates by thermo-mechanical processing of UAl2–Al matrix for production of 99Mo in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Kanwar Liaqat; Khan, Akhlaque Ahmad; Mushtaq, Ahmad; Imtiaz, Farhan; Ziai, Maratab Ali; Gulzar, Amir; Farooq, Muhammad; Hussain, Nazar; Ahmed, Nisar; Pervez, Shahid; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Uranium aluminide predominated with UAl 2 phase was prepared by arc-melting procedures and comminuted to required particle size. UAl 2 and Al powders were blended and compacted to achieve LEU fuel density of 2.17 g/cm 3 . The picture-frame technique was used to clad the dispersions (UAl 2 –Al) with aluminum. A few target plates were fabricated by thermo-mechanical processing (hot rolling and annealing) of UAl 2 –Al matrix contained in roll billet of Al. The fabricated plates were characterized by destructive and some of non-destructive testing techniques and then annealed to achieve required phase of uranium aluminide for proper dissolution in basic media

  19. 雷达T/R组件壳体镀银自动生产线设计%Study on Automatic Silver-Plating Production Line for Radar T/R Module Shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋夏; 胡江华; 叶敏; 何川金

    2011-01-01

    Design an automatic silver-plating production line to stabilize processing parameter, increase productivity effect,insure product quality and upgrade working condition, based on the silver-plating problem of active phased array radar T/R module shells. Then, the general planning, structural design, control system and programming of this automatic production line were specified, and at last, the deficiency and improvement of the line was proposed.%针对有源相控阵雷达T/R组件壳体的镀银要求,设计直线挂镀式镀银自动生产线来稳定工艺参数,提高生产效率,保证产品质量和改善劳动条件,并对自动生产线的总体方案、结构设计、控制系统以及程序设计进行了详细介绍,最后对生产线的不足和改进方案进行了说明.

  20. Tin and tin-titanium as catalyst components for reversible hydrogen storage of sodium aluminium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Jia Fu; Shik Chi Tsang [University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom). Surface and Catalysis Research Centre, School of Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the effects of adding tin and/or titanium dopant to sodium aluminium hydride for both dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation reactions during their reversible storage of molecular hydrogen. Temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) measurements show that the dehydrogenation kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4} are significantly enhanced upon doping the material with 2 mol% of tributyltin hydride, Sn(Bu)3H but the tin catalyst dopant is shown to be inferior than titanium. On the other hand, in this preliminary work, a significant synergetic catalytic effect is clearly revealed in material co-doped with both titanium and tin catalysts which shows the highest reversible rates of dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation (after their hydrogen depletion). The re-hydrogenation rates of depleted Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} evaluated at both 9.5 and 140 bars hydrogen are also found to be favourable compared to the Ti/NaAlH{sub 4}, which clearly suggest the importance of the catalyst choice. Basing on these results some mechanistic insights for the catalytic reversible dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation processes of Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} are therefore made. 31 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Aspects of radiation safety in the tin mining and processing industries in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, M S

    1987-04-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Malaysian nuclear regulatory authorities with the following objectives: to examine the individual steps in the mining, beneficiation, by-product treatment and smelting of tin-bearing minerals so as to highlight possible radiation safety effects and radiological environmental impacts; to make preliminary measurements on operations which are representative of the various steps in the processing of these minerals so as to determine the type and extent of future radiological survey programs; to examine the need for specific measurement techniques with a view to determining future training requirements. A representative operation of each of the steps in the tin mining and processing industry was visited, measurements were made and samples were collected to assess both the in-plant safety and offsite environmental effects of the operation. The results of measurements of gamma dose-rates, radon daughters-in-air, thoron daughters-in-air and radioactive respirable dusts are presented.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of tin(IV) antimonate and study of its ion-exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, N.; Abdel-Halim, S.H.; El-Shahat, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate with different Sb/Sn molar ratios has been prepared. The characterization of the product materials was carried out using X-ray diffraction pattern, thermal analysis and infrared spectra. The saturation capacities of sodium and cesium were found to increase with Sb/Sn molar ratios. The K d values on thermal treatment of tin(IV) antimonate, as a cation exchanger, have been measured for some heavy metal ions in the temperature range of 50-400 deg C. The maximum adsorption of 10 -4 M of the metal ions studied was obtained at 400 deg C. The selectivity sequence was Eu 3+ > Co 2+ > Sr 2+ > Cs + for the sample heated up to 400 deg C. No adsorption was observed on the sample heated at 700 deg C because of the formation of SnO 2 and Sb 6 O 13 . (author) 9 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Determination of possible radiation hazards associated with tin mining industry in West Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.

    1979-04-01

    A study was made in Malaysia under an IAEA research contract on the possible radiation hazards associated with tin mining industry in Malaysia. The study comprised of the measurement of external radiation levels in various mines, gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of various samples from mines, and measurements of radon and radon daughters concentrations. For radon daughters modified Tsivoglou and Kusnetz methods were used. The study showed that there is, in general, no radiation hazard associated with the tin mining industry in West Malaysia. However, the only likely source that might pose some external radiation hazard is the amang upgrading plant which invariably concentrates either or both 232 Th and 238 U in the final products of the upgrading process. A quantitative and thorough investigation of radiation levels in the amang upgrading industry is necessary to determine the degree of hazard. No significant radon or radon daughters concentrations were noted in the underground mines

  4. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  7. Depósito de TiN sobre herramientas de corte para uso industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auger, M. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available TiN coatings on stainless steel blades for glass fibre cutting have been investigated in this work. The aim was to improve their mechanical properties and increase the tool time life, decreasing in this way the production stops. Reactive magnetron sputtering has been the deposition technique. TiN films chemical composition has been determined by AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and XANES (X-Ray Spectroscopy Near the Absorption Edge, and it has been correlated to the gas mixture composition in the vacuum chamber. Crystalline structure has been determined by X-Ray Diffraction, and the films morphology has been observed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The hardness coating has been extracted from nanoindentation measurements, giving a 21.54±1.04 GPa hardness value, typical for TiN in the literature. Factory proofs for coated cutting blades show a 67% lifetime increase.

    En este trabajo se han estudiado láminas de TiN crecidas sobre cuchillas de acero inoxidable empleadas en el corte de fibra de vidrio, para mejorar sus propiedades mecánicas y aumentar el tiempo de vida de la herramienta, reduciendo de este modo las paradas de producción. La técnica de depósito utilizada ha sido la de sputtering magnetrón reactivo. La composición química de las capas de TiN ha sido determinada mediante medidas de Espectroscopía Auger, RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy y XANES (X-Ray Spectroscopy Near the Absorption Edge y se ha relacionado con la composición de la mezcla gaseosa presente en la cámara de reacción. La estructura cristalina se ha determinado mediante Difracción de Rayos X, y mediante la técnica de SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy se ha observado la morfología de las capas. La dureza del recubrimiento se ha calculado a partir de medidas de nanoindentación, obteniéndose un valor de 21.54±1.04 GPa, típico en la literatura para el TiN. Los resultados de la prueba en f

  8. Anomalous skin-effect in tin cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Klundert, L.J.M.; Gijsbertse, E.A.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1972-01-01

    The susceptibilities of three Sn-cylinders have been measured at a temperature slightly below Tc and in an external magnetic field just below Hc(T). The results are compared with calculations for a flat plate. From this the d.c. conductivity, the mean free path and the reflectivity-factor, have been

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  13. Electrodeposition of white copper-tin alloys from alkaline cyanide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwadaria, H.S.; Zainal Arifin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Electrodeposition of white copper-tin alloys (including with mir alloys) has been done onto planar mild steel substrates from alkaline cyanide solutions at 65 degree C. The chemical composition of the coating is influenced by plating bath composition and current density. White mir alloy can be produced from the test solution containing 10 g/l CuCN 2 ,45 g/l Na 2 SnO 3 , 25 g/l NaCN, and 12 g/l NaOH at current density about 5 mA/cm?2. The local compositions of the coating cross section were analyzed using EDX installed in a FESEM operated at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The phases formed during co-deposition process were identified using XRD at 25 mA current and 35 kV voltage. (Author)

  14. Electrodeposition, characterization and corrosion investigations of galvanic tin-zinc layers from pyrophosphate baths

    OpenAIRE

    STOPIC MILENA D.; FRIEDRICH BERND G.

    2016-01-01

    Tin-zinc alloy deposits are recognized as a potential alternative to toxic cadmium as corrosion resistant coatings. Tin-zinc alloy layers offer outstanding corrosion protection for steel by combining the barrier protection of tin with the galvanic protection of zinc. Tin-zinc coatings have been used on the chassis of electrical and electronic apparatus and on critical automotive parts such as fuel and brake line components. In this study, tin-zinc alloy deposits were successfully prepared fro...

  15. Tin electrodeposition from sulfate solution containing a benzimidazolone derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said BAKKALI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin electrodeposition in an acidic medium in the presence of N,N’-1,3-bis-[N-3-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranose-6-yl-2-oxobenzimidazol-1-yl]-2-tetradecyloxypropane as an additive was investigated in this work. The adequate current density and the appropriate additive concentration were determined by gravimetric measurements. Chronopotentiometric curves showed that the presence of the additive caused an increase in the overpotential of tin reduction. The investigations by cyclic voltammetry technique revealed that, in the presence and in absence of the additive, there were two peaks, one in the cathodic side attributed to the reduction of Sn2+ and the other one in the anodic side assigned to the oxidation of tin previously formed during the cathodic scan. The surface morphology of the tin deposits was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD.

  16. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows

  17. Diffuse scattering in metallic tin polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Piccolboni, Giuseppe; Krisch, Michael; Refson, Keith; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexandre; Rumiantsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The lattice dynamics of the metallic tin β and γ polymorphs has been studied by a combination of diffuse scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and density functional perturbation theory. The non-symmorphic space group of the β -tin structure results in unusual asymmetry of thermal diffuse scattering. Strong resemblance of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in β and γ-tin were observed, reflecting the structural relationship between the two phases and revealing the qualitative similarity of the underlying electronic potential. The strong influence of the electron subsystem on inter-ionic interactions creates anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. All observed features are described in great detail by the density functional perturbation theory for both β - and γ-tin at arbitrary momentum transfers. The combined approach delivers thus a complete picture of the lattice dynamics in harmonic description. (paper)

  18. Characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via oxidation from metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzi, R.C.; Dedavid, B.A.; Pires, M.J.R.; Streicher, M.

    2014-01-01

    The tin oxide (SnO_2) is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. This oxide nanostructures show higher activation efficiency due to its larger effective surface. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the tin oxide in different conditions, via oxidation of pure tin with nitric acid. Results obtained from the characterization of SnO_2 powder by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Particle size by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the conditions were suitable for the synthesis to obtain manometric tin oxide granules with crystalline structure of rutile. (author)

  19. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    This method may be extended to the synthesis of other metal nitrides. ... direct current magnetron sputtering17, and mechanical mill- ... recent years, autoclaved synthesis of TiN nanomaterials from ... 3.2 XPS Characterization of the Samples.

  20. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  1. Applications of ion plating in metals fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.T.; Thompson, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Use of ion plating at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to solve problems encountered in metals fabrication and processing are discussed. Three typical areas are covered. The first is the use of strike coats on various substrates for subsequent electrodeposition. The second area in which ion plating is shown to contribute to a process is in cold welding or room temperature bonding of metals. The third application involves plating U to promote safe handling, fission-product retention, and corrosion protection in nuclear reactors

  2. Nondestructive diagnosis of multilayer electronic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, A.N.; Savin, D.O.; Yas'ko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of non-destructive tomographic investigation into multilayer printed plates using x radiation are described. Mathematic problem setting is given, experimental facility and methods for source data ecquisition are described. A special attention is paid to the consideration of the main factors differing the actual problem setting from the idealized one. Methods for accounting and correction of these factors are described. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated using the actual problems of reducing separate layers of multilayer printed plate metallization. The method developed is useful when exersizing control over multilayer printed plate production

  3. Plasma analysis of different TiN PVD processes at various process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, G.N.; Schlichtherle, S.; Pulker, H.K.; Meyer, M.; Jehn, H.; Balzer, M.; Misiano, C.; Silipo, V.

    2002-01-01

    TiN coatings of some microns in thickness were deposited by different reactive plasma deposition technologies (Magnetron Sputtering Magnetically Assisted, Arc Source Ion Plating, Sputter Ion Plating Plasma Assisted) on various metal parts. The experiments were carried out in specially designed plants under variable vacuum and plasma conditions. The plasma properties of the different processes were investigated by mass spectrometry and the energy distribution of process relevant particles was additionally determined. The aim of this work was to find proper processes and conditions for a reliable low cost deposition of hard coatings at relatively high gas pressures. It was found that the magnetically forced and medium frequency pulsed biased dc magnetron sputter deposition variants, operating in the 10 -3 mbar gas pressure range, showed a relatively large amount of single and double charged positive ions with kinetic energies up to 55 and 95 eV, as consequence of the applied modifications. Cathodic arc deposition, in the same gas pressure range of 10 - 3 mbar, showed a very high number of such ions with energies up to more than 100 eV, depending on the value of the applied arc current. However, at constant distance between source and substrate the higher gas pressure increases also the number of energy reducing collisions of the coating-material vapour-species with the gas molecules. The arc source process, even when performed at high gas pressures of about 10 -1 mbar, showed a remarkable amount of ions with energies up to 75 eV resulting in high performance TiN films of quite proper 3D homogeneity. The arc source technique is able to increase film thickness uniformity up to 3 times with respect to the traditional coatings if the samples are mounted in a way that they do not influence each other. (nevyjel)

  4. Rare earth elements leaching from Tin slag using Acid Chloride after Alkaline fusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia Trinopiawan; Budi Yuli Ani; June Mellawati; Mohammad Zaki Mubarok

    2016-01-01

    Tin slag, a waste product from tin smelting process, has a potency to be utilized further by extracting the valuable metals inside, such as rare earth elements(REE). The objective of this study is to determine the optimum leaching condition of REE from tin slag after alkali fusion. Silica structure in slag is causing the direct leaching uneffectively. Therefore, pre-treatment step using alkali fusion is required to break the structure of silica and to increase the porosity of slag. Fusion is conducted in 2 hours at 700°C, with ratio of natrium hydroxide (NaOH) : slag = 2 : 1. Later, frit which is leached by water then leached by chloride acid to dissolve REE. As much as 87,5% of REE is dissolved at 2 M on chloride acid (HCl) concentration, in 40°C temperature, -325 mesh particle size, 15 g/100 ml of S/L, 150 rpm of agitation speed, and 5 minutes of leaching time. (author)

  5. Recovery and Purification of Tin from Tailings from the Penouta Sn–Ta–Nb Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Antonio López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentrate obtained from mining tailings containing mainly cassiterite and columbotantalite was reduced for the production of tin metal. The compounds CaCO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3, and borax were used as fluxes in the pyrometallurgical reduction smelting process, and graphite was employed as the reducing agent. The greatest recovery of Sn (>95% was obtained when using CaCO3 as the flux; the purity of Sn was 96%. A slag equivalent to 25% of the mass of the initial concentrate was produced during the recovery of the Sn. This contained 45% Nb2O5 and Ta2O5, adding extra value to the mine tailings. The tin metal ingot was purified by electrorefining involving a tin and H2SO4 electrolyte solution and a 101.9 A/m2 current applied for 148 h. Under these conditions, 90 wt % of the Sn in the ingot was recovered at a purity of 99.97%.

  6. Gas Sensors Based on Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized from a Mini-Arc Plasma Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganhua Lu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized gas sensors or electronic noses to rapidly detect and differentiate trace amount of chemical agents are extremely attractive. In this paper, we report on the fabrication and characterization of a functional tin oxide nanoparticle gas sensor. Tin oxide nanoparticles are first synthesized using a convenient and low-cost mini-arc plasma source. The nanoparticle size distribution is measured online using a scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (SEMS. The product nanoparticles are analyzed ex-situ by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for morphology and defects, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy for elemental composition, electron diffraction for crystal structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS for surface composition. Nonagglomerated rutile tin oxide (SnO2 nanoparticles as small as a few nm have been produced. Larger particles bear a core-shell structure with a metallic core and an oxide shell. The nanoparticles are then assembled onto an e-beam lithographically patterned interdigitated electrode using electrostatic force to fabricate the gas sensor. The nanoparticle sensor exhibits a fast response and a good sensitivity when exposed to 100 ppm ethanol vapor in air.

  7. Indium Tin Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells: Toward Commercial Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-01-01

    Polymer solar cell (PSC) is the latest of all photovoltaic technologies which currently lies at the brink of commercialization. The impetus for its rapid progress in the last decade has come from low-cost high throughput production possibility which in turn relies on the use of low-cost materials...... and vacuum-free manufacture. Indium tin oxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor, imposes the majority of the cost of production of PSCs, limits flexibility, and is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning industry due to indium scarcity and the resulting large price fluctuations. As such...

  8. Inert gas handling in ion plating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, A.R.; Burden, M.St.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the best methods for production and monitoring of the inert gas environment for ion plating systems are reported. Work carried out on Pirani gauges and high pressure ion gauges for the measurement of pressures in the ion plating region (1 - 50mtorr) and the use of furnaces for cleaning argon is outlined. A schematic of a gas handling system is shown and discussed. (UK)

  9. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  10. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  11. Studies in group IV organometallic chemistry XXX. Synthesis of compounds containing tin---titanium and tin---zirconium bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.M.J.C.; Verbeek, F.; Noltes, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Starting from the tetrakis(diethylamino) derivatives of titanium and zirconium and pheyltin hydrides six intermetalic compounds contianing up to nine tin and titanium(or zirconium) atoms have been obtained by hydrostannolysis type reactions.

  12. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.-C.; Lee, S.-C.; Dai, S.-B.; Tien, S.-L.; Chang, C.-C.; Fu, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 deg. C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications

  13. Manufacturing of glass from tin mining tailings in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arancibia, J. r. H.; Alfonso, P.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Martinez, S.; Parcerisa, D.; Canet, C.; Romero, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tailings from mining activities in Bolivia represent an environmental problem. In the vicinity of the tin mines of Llallagua, Potosi department, there are large dumps and tailings. We present a study of the use of these wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of glass. This procedure aims to contribute to environmental remediation of mining areas through the vitrification, a process which offers an alternative for stabilization of hazardous waste. In addition, the marketing of the obtained product would provide an additional income to the mining areas. For this study three samples of mining waste, with grain size between sand and silt, were used. The chemical composition of these raw materials, determined by X-ray fluorescence, is granitic, with high contents of heavy metals. On the basis of its composition, glass were made from silica glass by adding CaCO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 . The thermal cycle has been determined from TDA. Tg values of glass range from 626 degree centigrade to 709 degree centigrade. Leaching tests of the obtained glasses confirm their capacity to retain heavy metals. (Author)

  14. Search for technetium in natural tin metallurgical residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C.W.

    1996-07-01

    Possible instability of baryons inside the nuclei might result in accumulation of rare isotopes in natural ores. In this respect, isotopes of technetium have certain advantages that can be useful in the search for technetium in nonradioactive ores by chemical methods. In this paper, we review the history of technetium research and discuss a new approach to the search for natural technetium associated with tin ores which appears to offer a rare possibility of discovering a smelting operation by-product such as flue dust, in which the volatile technetium heptoxide (Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}), like rhenium heptoxide (Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}), would be expected to concentrate. Our concept of a search for technetium in these materials would be based on the assumption that traces of rhenium could occur in the ore and could be traced most easily by neutron activation of small samples. Such a procedure would confirm that an enrichment from the ore to the flue dust actually occurs with the rhenium and therefore should occur with technetium. Furthermore, this occurrence should identify the best location to search for technetium.

  15. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: fco.aurelio@inbox.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  16. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-González, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colás, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 °C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn 3 particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. ► The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. ► It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  17. Liquid tin limiter for FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertkov, A., E-mail: avertkov@yandex.ru [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M.L.; Iafrati, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, Frascati, Rome, Italy, (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • First steady state operating liquid tin limiter TLL is under study on FTU tokamak. • The cooling system with water spray coolant for TLL has been developed and tested. • High corrosion resistance of W and Mo in molten Sn confirmed up to 1000 °C. • Wetting process with Sn has been developed for Mo and W. - Abstract: The liquid Sn in a matrix of Capillary Porous System (CPS) has a high potential as plasma facing material in steady state operating fusion reactor owing to its physicochemical properties. However, up to now it has no experimental confirmation in tokamak conditions. First steady state operating limiter based on the CPS with liquid Sn installed on FTU tokamak and its experimental study is in progress. Several aspects of the design, structural materials and operation parameters of limiter based on tungsten CPS with liquid Sn are considered. Results of investigation of corrosion resistance of Mo and W in Sn and their wetting process are presented. The heat removal for limiter steady state operation is provided by evaporation of flowing gaswater spray. The effectiveness of such heat removal system is confirmed in modelling tests with power flux up to 5 MW/m2.

  18. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  19. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  20. Food intake survey of kindergarten children in Korea: Part 2 increased dietary intake of tin possibly associated with canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Eul-Sang; Ko, Yang-Sook; Jung, Kweon; Kim, Jung-Hun; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Moon, Chan-Seok; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intake of tin (Sn) may be increased in some children in kindergartens in Korea. The present study was intended to examine this possibility and clarify the extent of the elevation. 24-hour food duplicate and spot urine samples were collected in 2003-2004 from 108 4-6-year-old children (boys and girls combined) in 4 kindergartens (1 in Seoul and 3 in Jeju Island), as reported in a previous publication. These samples were employed in the present analyses to examine tin levels in the diet (including beverages) (Sn-D). A portion of the samples were wet-ashed, and the liquid samples were analyzed for Sn by the ICP-MS method. For statistical evaluation, χ (2) method and Smirnov's test for extreme value were used. Sn-D in the 108 cases distributed as extremely biased, and could be divided into two groups, i.e., those with 10 μg/day (for 10%). Sn-D in the former group was distributed quasi-normally with an AM (median) of 2.9 (2.5) μg/day. The maximum in the latter group was 3012 μg/day. No correlation was detected between Sn-D and Sn in urine (Sn-U). Comparison of the findings with published articles strongly suggested that the high Sn-D was due to consumption of foods (including beverages) preserved in tin-plated cans. No positive confirmation was however possible due to insufficient information on food records. About 10% of children surveyed had elevated Sn-D (up to 3 mg/day). It was quite possible that high Sn-D was associated with tin-canned food intake.

  1. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive complex from the giant Yanbei tin deposit, South China: Implication for multiple magma sources, tin mineralization, and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Lai, Pan-Chen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The giant Yanbei tin ore deposit is the largest porphyry-type tin deposit in South China. The orebodies are hosted by the granite porphyry in the central part of the Yanbei volcanic basin in southern Jiangxi Province. The Yanbei volcanic-intrusive complex mainly consists of dacitic-rhyolitic volcanic rocks, granite, granite porphyry and diabase dikes. In previous papers, the granite porphyry was considered as subvolcanic rocks, which came from the same single magma chamber with the volcanic rocks. In this study, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, as well as whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of different magmatic units in the Yanbei complex are reported. Geochronologic results show that various magmatic units have different formation ages. The dacite yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 143 ± 1 Ma, and the granite porphyry has the emplacement age of 138 ± 1 Ma. Diabase dikes which represented the final stage of magmatism, yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 128 ± 1 Ma. Distinctive whole rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions suggest that these magmatic units were derived from different magma sources. The volcanic rocks were mainly derived from the partial melting of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks without additions of mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry has an A-type geochemical affinity, and was derived from remelting of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crustal source with involvement of a subordinate mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry is also a typical stanniferous granite with high F (4070-6090 ppm) and Sn (7-39 ppm) contents. It underwent strongly crystal fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar, and accessory minerals (like apatite, Fe-Ti oxides), which may contribute to the tin mineralization. The diabase was derived by partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle which had been metasomatised by slab-derived fluids. The change of magmatic sources reflected an increasing extensional tectonic environment, perhaps induced by slab

  2. Tin( ii ) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin( ii ) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-10-21

    Tin(ii) ketoacidoximates of the type [HONCRCOO]Sn (R = Me 1, CHPh 2) and (MeONCMeCOO)Sn] NH·2HO 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH (R = H, Me) with tin(ii) chloride dihydrate SnCl·2HO. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HONC(Me)COO]Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO in ambient atmosphere.

  3. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving Options Memorial Giving Brochures & Envelopes ... to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of ... Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $50 $100 $250 $500 Other Other Ways ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close ... your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ...

  19. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  3. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  4. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly...

  6. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  7. Selective Recovery of Mushistonite from Gravity Tailings of Copper–Tin Minerals in Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Sun; Yuehua Hu; Wei Sun; Zhiyong Gao; Mengjie Tian

    2017-01-01

    Tajikistan has abundant copper–tin resources. In this study, mineralogical analysis of copper–tin ores from the Mushiston deposit of Tajikistan indicates that tin mainly occurred in mushistonite, cassiterite, and stannite, while copper mainly occurred in mushistonite, malachite, azurite, and stannite. The total grades of tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) were 0.65% and 0.66%, respectively, and the dissemination size of copper–tin minerals ranged from 4 μm to over 200 μm. Coarse particles of copper–tin...

  8. Rapid synthesis of tin oxide nanostructures by microwave-assisted thermal oxidation for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadungdhitidhada, S.; Ruankham, P.; Gardchareon, A.; Wongratanaphisan, D.; Choopun, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present work nanostructures of tin oxides were synthesized by a microwave-assisted thermal oxidation. Tin precursor powder was loaded into a cylindrical quartz tube and further radiated in a microwave oven. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and x-ray diffractometer. The results showed that two different morphologies of SnO2 microwires (MWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained in one minute of microwave radiation under atmospheric ambient. A few tens of the SnO2 MWs with the length of 10-50 µm were found. Some parts of the MWs were decorated with the SnO2 NPs. However, most of the products were SnO2 NPs with the diameter ranging from 30-200 nm. Preparation under loosely closed system lead to mixed phase SnO-SnO2 NPs with diameter of 30-200 nm. The single-phase of SnO2 could be obtained by mixing the Sn precursor powders with CuO2. The products were mostly found to be SnO2 nanowires (NWs) and MWs. The diameter of SnO2 NWs was less than 50 nm. The SnO2 NPs, MWs, and NWs were in the cassiterite rutile structure phase. The SnO NPs was in the tetragonal structure phase. The growth direction of the SnO2 NWs was observed in (1 1 0) and (2 2 1) direction. The ethanol sensor performance of these tin oxide nanostructures showed that the SnO-SnO2 NPs exhibited extremely high sensitivity. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  9. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence of tin oxide nanoribbons and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.A., E-mail: duraia_physics@yahoo.co [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansorov, Z.A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmolden, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-11-15

    In this work we report the successful formation of tin oxide nanowires and tin oxide nanoribbons with high yield and by using simple cheap method. We also report the formation of curved nanoribbon, wedge-like tin oxide nanowires and star-like nanowires. The growth mechanism of these structures has been studied. Scanning electron microscope was used in the analysis and the EDX analysis showed that our samples is purely Sn and O with ratio 1:2. X-ray analysis was also used in the characterization of the tin oxide nanowire and showed the high crystallinity of our nanowires. The mechanism of the growth of our1D nanostructures is closely related to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence PL measurements for the tin oxide nanowires indicated that there are three stable emission peaks centered at wavelengths 630, 565 and 395 nm. The nature of the transition may be attributed to nanocrystals inside the nanobelts or to Sn or O vacancies occurring during the growth which can induce trapped states in the band gap.

  11. Kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium bimetallic electrocatalyst in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Rezwan, E-mail: mrmche@yahoo.co [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Masud, Jahangir [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Ohsaka, Takeo, E-mail: ohsaka@echem.titech.ac.j [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    In the present article, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium (Sn-Pd) bimetallic electrocatalyst-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode (Sn-Pd/GC electrode) in acidic media is addressed. Hydrodynamic voltammetric measurements were employed with a view to evaluating various kinetic parameters of the ORR at the Sn-Pd/GC electrode. The obtained results obviously demonstrated that the Sn-Pd bimetallic electrocatalyt substantially promoted the activity of the GC electrode and drove the ORR through an exclusive one-step four-electron pathway forming H{sub 2}O as the final product.

  12. Kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium bimetallic electrocatalyst in acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Rezwan; Masud, Jahangir; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    In the present article, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium (Sn-Pd) bimetallic electrocatalyst-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode (Sn-Pd/GC electrode) in acidic media is addressed. Hydrodynamic voltammetric measurements were employed with a view to evaluating various kinetic parameters of the ORR at the Sn-Pd/GC electrode. The obtained results obviously demonstrated that the Sn-Pd bimetallic electrocatalyt substantially promoted the activity of the GC electrode and drove the ORR through an exclusive one-step four-electron pathway forming H 2 O as the final product.

  13. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner, Manuel; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containin...

  14. Decadal GPS Time Series and Velocity Fields Spanning the North American Continent and Beyond: New Data Products, Cyberinfrastructure and Case Studies from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Other Regional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. A.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Szeliga, W. M.; Floyd, M.; Puskas, C. M.; King, R. W.; Boler, F. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility, operated by UNAVCO, provides a diverse suite of geodetic data, derived products and cyberinfrastructure services to support community Earth science research and education. GPS data and products including decadal station position time series and velocities are provided for 2000+ continuous GPS stations from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and other networks distributed throughout the high Arctic, North America, and Caribbean regions. The position time series contain a multitude of signals in addition to the secular motions, including coseismic and postseismic displacements, interseismic strain accumulation, and transient signals associated with hydrologic and other processes. We present our latest velocity field solutions, new time series offset estimate products, and new time series examples associated with various phenomena. Position time series, and the signals they contain, are inherently dependent upon analysis parameters such as network scaling and reference frame realization. The estimation of scale changes for example, a common practice, has large impacts on vertical motion estimates. GAGE/PBO velocities and time series are currently provided in IGS (IGb08) and North America (NAM08, IGb08 rotated to a fixed North America Plate) reference frames. We are reprocessing all data (1996 to present) as part of the transition from IGb08 to IGS14 that began in 2017. New NAM14 and IGS14 data products are discussed. GAGE/PBO GPS data products are currently generated using onsite computing clusters. As part of an NSF funded EarthCube Building Blocks project called "Deploying MultiFacility Cyberinfrastructure in Commercial and Private Cloud-based Systems (GeoSciCloud)", we are investigating performance, cost, and efficiency differences between local computing resources and cloud based resources. Test environments include a commercial cloud provider (Amazon/AWS), NSF cloud-like infrastructures within

  15. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  16. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique; To, An; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Talbot, Prue

    2015-01-01

    Background Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC) fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components. Methods Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol. Conclusions Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality. PMID:26406602

  17. Single-Stroke Synthesis of Tin Sulphide/Oxide Nanocomposites Within Engineering Thermoplastic and Their Humidity Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Dattatraya; Adhyapak, Parag; Mulik, Uttamrao; Jadkar, Sandesh; Vutova, Katia; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    SnS nanostructured materials have attracted enormous interest due to their important properties and potential application in low cost solar energy conversion systems and optical devices. From the perspective of SnS based device fabrication, we offer single-stroke in-situ technique for the generation of Sn based sulphide and oxide nanostructures inside the polymer network via polymer-inorganic solid state reaction route. In this method, polyphenylene sulphide (PPS)-an engineering thermoplastic-acts as chalcogen source as well as stabilizing matrix for the resultant nano products. Typical solid state reaction was accomplished by simply heating the physical admixtures of the tin salts (viz. tin acetate/tin chloride) with PPS at the crystalline melting temperature (285 °C) of PPS in inert atmosphere. The synthesized products were characterized by using various physicochemical characterization techniques. The prima facie observations suggest the concurrent formation of nanocrystalline SnS with extraneous oxide phase. The TEM analysis revealed formation of nanosized particles of assorted morphological features with polydispersity confined to 5 to 50 nm. However, agglomerated particles of nano to submicron size were also observed. The humidity sensing characterization of these nanocomposites was also performed. The resistivity response with the level of humidity (20 to 85% RH) was compared for these nanocomposites. The linear response was obtained for both the products. Nevertheless, the nanocomposite product obtained from acetate precursor showed higher sensitivity towards the humidity than that of one prepared from chloride precursor.

  18. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates as a h......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well......-plates as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture......, cake collapse and reconstitution time. Results: Samples freeze-dried in well-plates had an acceptable visual cake appearance. Solid form analysis by high throughput X-ray powder diffraction indicated comparable polymorphic outcome independent of the container. The expected increase in moisture level...

  19. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  20. Cyclic voltammetric study of tin hexacyanoferrate for aqueous battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Gromadskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid composite containing 65 mass % of tin hexacyanoferrate mixed with 35 mass % of carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and its electrochemical behavior as a negative electrode in alkali metal-ion batteries has been studied in 1 mol L-1 aqueous solution of sodium sulfate. The specific capacity of pure tin hexacyanoferrate is 58 mAh g-1, whereas the specific capacity normalized per total electrode mass of the composite studied reaches 34 mAh g-1. The estimated maximal specific power of an aqueous alkali-metal ion battery with a tin hexacyanoferrate electrode is ca. 3.6 kW kg-1 being comparable to characteristics of industrial electric double-layer capacitors. The maximal specific energy accumulated by this battery may reach 25.6 Wh kg-1 at least three times exceeding the specific energy for supercapacitors.

  1. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  3. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  4. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-04-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn where R= Me 1, R= CH2Ph 2, and [(MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn]- NH4 +.2H2O 3 were synthesized by in situ formation of the ketoacid oximate ligand. The crystal structures were determined via single crystal X- ray diffraction of the complexes 1-3 revealed square planar and square pyramidal coordination environments for the Sn atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in all the complexes. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized by Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. From thermogravimetric analysis of 1-3, it was found that the complexes decomposed in the range of 160 – 165 oC. Analysis of the gases evolved during decomposition indicated complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step and the formation of SnO. Spin coating of 1 on silicon or glass substrate show uniform coating of SnO. Band gaps of SnO films were measured and found to be in the range of 3.0 – 3.3 eV by UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated surface oxidation of the SnO film. Heating 1 above 140 oC in air gives SnO of size ranging from 10 – 500 nm and is spherical in shape. The SnO nanomaterial is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  5. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon-Brito, Neliza; Melendez, Anamaris; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J

    2007-01-01

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600deg. C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature

  6. Obtainment of SnO2 for utilization of sensors by coprecipitation of tin salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetto, S.R.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Niobia doped tin dioxide was prepared by precipitation of tin dioxide II and IV using ammonium hydroxide. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and infra-red spectroscopy. (author) [pt

  7. Moessbauer and NMR study of novel Tin(IV)-lactames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmann, Erno; Szalay, Roland; Homonnay, Zoltan, E-mail: homonnay@ludens.elte.hu; Nagy, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)

    2012-03-15

    N-tributylstannylated 2-pyrrolidinone was reacted with tributyltin triflate in different molar ratios and the complex formation monitored using {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. Comparing the carbon NMR and tin Moessbauer results, a reaction scheme is suggested for the complexation which assumes the formation of a simultaneously O- and N-tributylstannylated pyrrolidinone cation. The formation of the only O-stannylated pyrrolidinone is also assumed to account for the non-constant Moessbauer parameters of the two tin environments in the distannylated pyrrolidinone cation when the ratio of tributyltin triflate is increased in the reaction.

  8. Thermal interaction for molten tin dropped into water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Plesset, M.S.

    1978-03-01

    Multiflash photography with extremely short duration exposure times per flash was used to observe the interaction of molten tin dropped into a water bath. Detailed photographic evidence is presented which demonstrates that transition, or nucleate boiling, is a possible triggering mechanism for vapor explosions. It was also found that the thermal constraints required to produce vapor explosions could be relaxed by introducing a stable thermal stratification within the coolant. In the present work, the threshold value of the initial tin temperature required for vapor explosion was reduced from about 500 to 343/sup 0/C.

  9. Thermal interaction for molten tin dropped into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Plesset, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    Multiflash photography with extremely short duration exposure times per flash has been used to observe the interaction of molten tin dropped into a water bath. Detailed photographic evidence is presented which demonstrates that transition, or nucleate boiling, is a possible triggering mechanism for vapour explosions. It was also found that the thermal constraints required to produce vapour explosions could be relaxed by introducing a stable thermal stratification within the coolant. In the present work, the threshold value of the initial tin temperature required for vapour explosion was reduced from about 500 to 343 0 C. (author)

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  11. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  12. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  13. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  14. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  15. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This empirical model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models. FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  16. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  18. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  19. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Jay; Sampson, Mike; Leidecker, Henning; Kadesch, Jong

    2004-01-01

    This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  6. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  7. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  8. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  9. Crane Scheduling on a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OSS produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. Two gantry cranes carry out this task. The planning task is now to create a schedule of movements for the 2 cranes...

  10. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  11. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  12. Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1994-04-01

    We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)

  13. Generalized KKR-theory for non-muffin-tin potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.

    1989-01-01

    The author shows that the secular equation in KKR (Korringa, Kohn and Rostoker) theory retains its separable structure also in the case of non-muffin-tin potentials. This generalisation has been extensively discussed recently. During this discussion, in which the possible necessity of so-called near

  14. Variationally-optimized muffin-tin potentials for band calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, M.M.

    1979-09-01

    A method is suggested to determine the best local periodic crystal potential V(r) by minimizing the Hartree-Fock expectation value of the energy. The explicit form of the integral equation for the local exchange potential is obtained for the special case of the Muffin-tin aproximation. (author)

  15. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  16. On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical migration (ECM) of tin can result in the growth of a metal deposit with a dendritic structure from cathode to anode. In electronics, such growth can lead to short circuit of biased electrodes, potentially leading to intermittent or complete failure of an electronic device...

  17. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  18. Classical and quantum chaotic scattering in a muffin tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we study the classical mechanics, the quantum mechanics and the semi-classical approximation of the 2-dimensional scattering from a muffin tin potential. The classical dynamical system for Coulombic muffin tins is proven to be chaotic by explicit construction of the exponentially increasing number of periodic orbits. These are all shown to be completely unstable (hyperbolic). By methods of the thermodynamic formalism we can determine the Hausdorff dimension, escape rate and Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy of the system. An extended KKR-method is developed to determine the quantum mechanical S-matrix. We compare a few integrable scattering examples with the results of the muffin tin scattering. Characteristic features of the spectrum of eigenphases turn out to be the level repulsion and long range rigidity as compared to a completely random spectrum. In the semiclassical analysis we can rederive the regularized Gutzwiller trace formula directly from the exact KKR-determinant to prove that no further terms contribute in the case of the muffin tin potential. The periodic orbit sum allows to draw some qualitative conclusions about the effects of classical chaos on the quantum mechanics. In the context of scaling systems the theory of almost periodic functions is discussed as a possible mathematical foundation for the semiclassical periodic orbit sums. Some results that can be obtained from this analysis are developed in the context of autocorrelation functions and distribution functions for chaotic scattering systems. (orig.)

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.M.B. van; Chae, Y.; McDaniel, A.H.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Tin oxide thin layers have very beneficial properties such as a high transparency for visible light and electrical conductivity making these coatings suitable for a wide variety of applications, such as solar cells, and low-emissivity coatings for architectural glass windows. Each application

  20. Quadtree of TIN: a new algorithm of dynamic LOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Fei, Lifan; Chen, Zhen

    2009-10-01

    Currently, Real-time visualization of large-scale digital elevation model mainly employs the regular structure of GRID based on quadtree and triangle simplification methods based on irregular triangulated network (TIN). TIN is a refined means to express the terrain surface in the computer science, compared with GRID. However, the data structure of TIN model is complex, and is difficult to realize view-dependence representation of level of detail (LOD) quickly. GRID is a simple method to realize the LOD of terrain, but contains more triangle count. A new algorithm, which takes full advantage of the two methods' merit, is presented in this paper. This algorithm combines TIN with quadtree structure to realize the view-dependence LOD controlling over the irregular sampling point sets, and holds the details through the distance of viewpoint and the geometric error of terrain. Experiments indicate that this approach can generate an efficient quadtree triangulation hierarchy over any irregular sampling point sets and achieve dynamic and visual multi-resolution performance of large-scale terrain at real-time.

  1. Determination of tungsten and tin ions after preconcentration by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, U.; Kunze, S.

    1990-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective combined method of flotation followed by spectrophotometry/d.c. polarography for the determination of tungsten and tin ions in acid and alkaline waste waters and hydrometallurgical solutions is presented here. Both kinds of ions are coprecipitated in the analyte solution with zirconium hydroxide after addition of ZrOCl 2 solution and ammonia. Afterwards, the collector precipitate is separated from the aqueous phase and preconcentrated by flotation for which sodium oleate and a frother are added. The precipitate is dissolved in a small amount of acid, with the organic reagents being destroyed by oxidation. The enrichment factor of the proposed technique is 100, with variations possible. Recovery is 94 % for tungsten and 99 % for tin. Spectrophotometry of the thiocyanate complex and d.c. polarography are applied as determination techniques for tungsten and tin, respectively. Detection limits attainable by this technique are 6 ng.ml -1 for tungsten and 5 ng.ml -1 for tin for the initial sample. (Authors)

  2. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  4. Upgrading tantalum and niobium oxides content in Bangka tin slag with double leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarsono, J. W.; Permana, S.; Hutauruk, J. K.; Adhyputra, R.; Rustandi, A.; Maksum, A.; Widana, K. S.; Trinopiawan, K.; Anggraini, M.

    2018-03-01

    Tantalum has become one of the 14 types of critical materials where the level of its availability is assumed as the midterm critical metal. Benefits of the element tantalum in the electronics field increased the deficit balance of supply / demand, as more variations of electronic products developed. The tantalum experts calculated the level of availability until 2020. Base on the previous studies, tin slag is a secondary source of tantalum and niobium. This study uses tin slag from Bangka, Indonesia, abbreviated, Bangka Tin Slag (BTS). BTS was roasted, water quenched and sieved, abbreviated BTS-RQS.BTS was roasted, water quenched and sieved, abbreviated BTS-RQS.BTS-RQS was roasted at a temperature 700□C given sample code BTS-R700QS, while roasted at 800°C given sample code BTS-R800QS.A variable leaching experiment on BTS-R700QS was solvent concentration variable and on BTS-R800QS was time variable. The entire residue was characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and the optimum results are on the BTS-R800QS leaching into 5 M NaOH for 20 min followed by 5M HCl for 50 min, with content of Ta2O5 and Nb2O51.56% and 1.11%, respectively. The result of XRF measurement showed was the increasing of TNO content due to the increasing solvent concentration and time of acid leaching. The discussion of thermodynamics this study used was HSC Chemistry 6 as a supporting data.

  5. Tin Whisker Formation — A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-01

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  6. Investigation of the effects of process sequence on the contact resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Cabir; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2013-12-01

    In this study, results of an investigation on the effects of manufacturing and coating process sequence on the contact resistance (ICR) of metallic bipolar plates (BPP) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are presented. Firstly, uncoated stainless steel 316L blanks were formed into BPP through hydroforming and stamping processes. Then, these formed BPP samples were coated with three different PVD coatings (CrN, TiN and ZrN) at three different thicknesses (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μm). Secondly, blanks of the same alloy were coated first with the same coatings, thickness and technique; then, they were formed into BPPs of the same shape and dimensions using the manufacturing methods as in the first group. Finally, these two groups of BPP samples were tested for their ICR to reveal the effect of process sequence. ICR tests were also conducted on the BPP plates both before and after exposure to corrosion to disclose the effect of corrosion on ICR. Coated-then-formed BPP samples exhibited similar or even better ICR performance than formed-then-coated BPP samples. Thus, manufacturing of coated blanks can be concluded to be more favorable and worth further investigation in quest of making cost effective BPPs for mass production of PEMFC.

  7. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Characterization of tin films synthesized from ethaline deep eutectic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Swatilekha; Roy, Sudipta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tin deposition was achieved by galvanostatic method on the basic substrates from ethaline deep eutectic solvent without use of any additives. • The current potential behaviour of tin system changes with increase in concentration of hydrated tin chloride in ethaline. • The deposition rate in ethaline display three times lower value compared to aqueous electrolytes. • Fine grained crystals of 62 ± 10 nm were obtained for tin deposits. • The deposition process is economical and can be adapted for industrial applications. - Abstract: Tin (Sn) films were electrodeposited by galvanostatic method from ethaline deep eutectic solvent (DES), without any additives. The effect of various deposition parameters on the microstructure was studied. With increase in metal salt concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, changes in current–potential behaviour were observed in the polarization scans. This might be due to the existence of [SnCl 3 ] − , [Sn 2 Cl 5 ] − complexes in ethaline DES. Smooth and homogeneous deposits were obtained on a steel substrate surface by applying current density of 1.57 × 10 −3 A/cm 2 at 25 °C. Under these conditions the deposition rate was found to be 0.1 ± 10% μm/min and current efficiency was obtained as 84 ± 3%. XRD analysis of the deposit confirmed the polycrystalline tetragonal structure with mostly (2 0 0) orientation having a crystallite size about 62 ± 16% nm along with an internal strain of 0.0031 ± 22%. The present deposition method is simple, economical and can be adapted for industrial applications

  10. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  11. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  12. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...... into, around and out of the storage. The system is required to create a daily schedule for the cranes, but also handle possible disruptions during the execution of the plan. The problem is solved with a Simulated Annealing algorithm....

  13. Microdetermination of lead, cadmium, zinc and tin in biological and related materials by atomic absorption spectrometry after mineralisation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteau, H.L.; Metayer, C.

    1978-01-01

    Two technics permitting to determine either lead, cadmium and zinc, or tin in any biological material (blood, urines, organs, alimentary products of animal or vegetable origin) are described. Every operation (mineralisation and extraction) is made in the same tube and technics, conceived in a way to simplify the manipulations and to reduce the more possible the contamination risks are suitable for determination in series. By working on trial samples near 250 mg, the lower determination limits are around 2 ppb for cadmium, 40 ppb for lead and tin and 2 ppm for zinc. The repeatability studies of different technical stages show that mineralisation and extraction only have a weak incidence on the acccuracy of the results [fr

  14. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  15. Effect of Graphene Addition on Mechanical Properties of TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, In-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Despite of many attractive properties of TiN, the current concern about the TiN focuses on its low fracture toughness below the ductile-brittle transition temperature. To improve its mechanical properties, the approach generally utilized has been the addition of a second phase to form composites and to make nanostructured materials. In this respect, highly dense nanostructured TiN and TiN-graphene composites were obtained within two min at 1250 ℃. The grain size of TiN was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene. The addition of graphene to TiN simultaneously improved the fracture toughness and hardness of TiN-graphene composite due to refinement of TiN and deterring crack propagation by graphene. This study demonstrates that the graphene can be an effective reinforcing agent for improved hardness and fracture toughness of TiN composites.

  16. Effect of Graphene Addition on Mechanical Properties of TiN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, In-Jin [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Despite of many attractive properties of TiN, the current concern about the TiN focuses on its low fracture toughness below the ductile-brittle transition temperature. To improve its mechanical properties, the approach generally utilized has been the addition of a second phase to form composites and to make nanostructured materials. In this respect, highly dense nanostructured TiN and TiN-graphene composites were obtained within two min at 1250 ℃. The grain size of TiN was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene. The addition of graphene to TiN simultaneously improved the fracture toughness and hardness of TiN-graphene composite due to refinement of TiN and deterring crack propagation by graphene. This study demonstrates that the graphene can be an effective reinforcing agent for improved hardness and fracture toughness of TiN composites.

  17. Process control with optical emission spectroscopy in triode ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenoja, K.; Korhonen, A.S.; Sulonen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques used to prepare, e.g., hard TiN, HfN, or ZrN coatings include a great variety of processes ranging from reactive evaporation to sputtering and ion plating. In ion plating one effective way to enhance ionization is to use a negatively biased hot filament. The use of an electron emitting filament brings an extra variable to be taken into account in developing the process control. In addition, proper control of the evaporation source is critical in ensuring reproducible results. With optical emission spectroscopy (OES) it should be possible to control the coating process more accurately. The stoichiometry and the composition of the growing coating may then be ensured effectively in subsequent runs. In this work the application of optical emission spectroscopy for process control in triode ion plating is discussed. The composition of the growing coating is determined experimentally using the relative intensities of specific emission lines. Changes in the evaporation rate and the gas flow can be seen directly from emission line intensities. Even the so-called poisoning of the evaporation source with reactive gas can be detected. Several experimental runs were carried out and afterwards the concentration profiles of the deposited coatings were checked with the nuclear resonance broadening (NRB) method. The results show the usefulness of emission spectroscopy in discharge control

  18. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  19. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  1. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  2. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  3. A Sub-channel Analysis of a VHTR Fuel Block with Tin Gap-Filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Ho; Kim, Yong Hee; Yi, Yong Sun; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2005-01-01

    In the Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project, two types of VHTRs (Very High Temperature Reactors), prismatic or pebble bed, are under investigation as the nuclear heat source for hydrogen production. In general, the targeted coolant outlet temperature of VHTR is 950∼1000 .deg. C and the maximum allowable fuel temperature is 1250 .deg. C during the normal operation. In the case of the prismatic reactor (PMR), conventional fuel designs result in a small margin in the maximum fuel temperature. This is one of the biggest demerits of the prismatic type In this paper, a technique of lowering the maximum fuel temperature is suggested. The PMR fuel assembly is comprised of many coolant holes and fuel channels. Cylindrical fuel compacts are stacked inside the fuel channel. Consequently, there should be a physical gap between the fuel compact and graphite block, which is filled with the He gas in the conventional design. The heat transfer coefficient of the He gap is very poor, and this increases the fuel temperature substantially. In the proposed design measure, the gap is filled with a liquid metal, tin (Sn) that has a very high thermal conductivity. The effects of tin in the gap with gap distance variation in the viewpoint of thermal hydraulics are quantitatively discussed. Also, the effects of the variations of the axial power distribution are discussed

  4. Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one of the promising energy source alternatives to fossil fuel. To produce biodiesel in a more economical way, the employment of the low-cost feed stocks, such as non-edible oils with high free fatty acid (FFA, is necessary. Accordingly, the esterification reaction of FFA in vegetable oils plays an important role in the biodiesel production. In this work, esterification of FFA contained in Crude Jatropha Oil (CJO in the presence of tin (II chloride catalyst in a batch reactor has been carried out. The esterification reaction was conducted using methanol at the temperature of 40-60 °C for 4 hours. The effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil was studied in the range 15:1 to 120:1. The influence of catalyst loading was investigated in the range of 2.5 to 15% w/w oil. The optimum reaction conversion was obtained at 60 °C with the catalyst loading of 10% w/w oil and molar ratio of methanol to oil of 120:1. A pseudo-homogeneous reversible second order kinetic model for describing the esterification of FFA contained in CJO with methanol over tin (II chloride catalyst was developed based on the experimental data. The kinetic model can fit the data very well.

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetism of tin oxide nanocrystal based on synthesis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthiraj, K.; Hema, M. [Department of Physics, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, Virudhunagar 626001, Tamil Nadu (India); Balachandrakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Raja Doraisingam Government Arts College, Sivagangai 630561, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-04-15

    The experimental conditions used in the preparation of nanocrystalline oxide materials play an important role in the room temperature ferromagnetism of the product. In the present work, a comparison was made between sol–gel, microwave assisted sol–gel and hydrothermal methods for preparing tin oxide nanocrystal. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the formation of tetragonal rutile phase structure for all the samples. The crystallite size was estimated from the HRTEM images and it is around 6–12 nm. Using optical absorbance measurement, the band gap energy value of the samples has been calculated. It reveals the existence of quantum confinement effect in all the prepared samples. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra confirms that the luminescence process originates from the structural defects such as oxygen vacancies present in the samples. Room temperature hysteresis loop was clearly observed in M–H curve of all the samples. But the sol–gel derived sample shows the higher values of saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and remanence (M{sub r}) than other two samples. This study reveals that the sol–gel method is superior to the other two methods for producing room temperature ferromagnetism in tin oxide nanocrystal.

  6. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premalatha, S.; Krithika, P.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramanarayanan, R.R.; Prabhu, E.; Jayaraman, V.; Parthasarathy, R.

    2015-01-01

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H 2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  7. Metallography and microstructure interpretation of some archaeological tin bronze vessels from Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudbashi, Omid, E-mail: o.oudbashi@aui.ac.ir [Department of Conservation of Historic Properties, Faculty of Conservation, Art University of Isfahan, Hakim Nezami Street, Sangtarashha Alley, P.O. Box 1744, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davami, Parviz, E-mail: pdavami@razi-foundation.com [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology/Razi Applied Science Foundation, No. 27, Fernan St., Shahid Ghasem Asghari Blvd., km 21 of Karadj Makhsous Road, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Archaeological excavations in western Iran have recently revealed a significant Luristan Bronzes collection from Sangtarashan archaeological site. The site and its bronze collection are dated to Iron Age II/III of western Iran (10th–7th century BC) according to archaeological research. Alloy composition, microstructure and manufacturing technique of some sheet metal vessels are determined to reveal metallurgical processes in western Iran in the first millennium BC. Experimental analyses were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Optical Microscopy/Metallography methods. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process of bronze vessels in Luristan. It proved that the samples have been manufactured with a binary copper–tin alloy with a variable tin content that may relates to the application of an uncontrolled procedure to make bronze alloy (e.g. co-smelting or cementation). The presence of elongated copper sulphide inclusions showed probable use of copper sulphide ores for metal production and smelting. Based on metallographic studies, a cycle of cold working and annealing was used to shape the bronze vessels. - Highlights: • Sangtarashan vessels are made by variable Cu-Sn alloys with some impurities. • Various compositions occurred due to applying uncontrolled smelting methods. • The microstructure represents thermo-mechanical process to shape bronze vessels. • In one case, the annealing didn’t remove the eutectoid remaining from casting. • The characteristics of the bronzes are similar to other Iron Age Luristan Bronzes.

  8. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  9. Reactivation of a Tin-Oxide-Containing Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert; Sidney, Barry; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin; Miller, George; Upchurch, Bill; Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The electrons in electric-discharge CO2 lasers cause dissociation of some CO2 into O2 and CO, and attach themselves to electronegative molecules such as O2, forming negative O2 ions, as well as larger negative ion clusters by collisions with CO or other molecules. The decrease in CO2 concentration due to dissociation into CO and O2 will reduce the average repetitively pulsed or continuous wave laser power, even if no disruptive negative ion instabilities occur. Accordingly, it is the primary object of this invention to extend the lifetime of a catalyst used to combine the CO and O2 products formed in a laser discharge. A promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide (Pt/SnO2). First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. The pretreatment is considered complete when no measurable quantity of CO2 is given off by the catalyst. After this standard pretreatment, the catalyst is ready for its low-temperature use in the sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser. However, after about 3,000 minutes of operation, the activity of the catalyst begins to slowly diminish. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during exposure to the circulating gas stream inside or external to the laser, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature between 100 and 400 C. A temperature of 225 C was experimentally found to provide an adequate temperature for reactivation. During this period, the catalyst is still exposed to the circulating gas inside or external to the laser. This constant heating and exposing the catalyst to the laser gas mixture is maintained for an hour. After heating and exposing for an appropriate amount of time, the heated zone around the catalyst is allowed to return to the nominal operating temperature of the CO2 laser. This temperature normally resides in the range of 23 to 100 C. Catalyst activity can be measured as the percentage conversion of CO to CO2. In the specific embodiment

  10. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishii, Masaomi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [Department of Helical Plasma Research, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 502-5292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe{sub 3}Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed

  11. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishii, Masaomi; Muroga, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe 3 Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed in

  12. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  13. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.

  14. Epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si substrates with TiN buffer layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si (100 substrates with a TiN buffer layer. A 50-nm-thick (200-oriented TiN thin film was introduced as the buffer layer for epitaxial growth of NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers on Si substrates. The fabricated NbN/AlN/NbN junctions demonstrated excellent tunneling properties with a high gap voltage of 5.5 mV, a large IcRN product of 3.8 mV, a sharp quasiparticle current rise with a ΔVg of 0.4 mV, and a small subgap leakage current. The junction quality factor Rsg/RN was about 23 for the junction with a Jc of 47 A/cm2 and was about 6 for the junction with a Jc of 3.0 kA/cm2. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers were grown epitaxially on the (200-orientated TiN buffer layer and had a highly crystalline structure with the (200 orientation.

  15. Epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si substrates with TiN buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan); Zhang, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Zhen, E-mail: zwang@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Tech University, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2016-06-15

    We have developed epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si (100) substrates with a TiN buffer layer. A 50-nm-thick (200)-oriented TiN thin film was introduced as the buffer layer for epitaxial growth of NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers on Si substrates. The fabricated NbN/AlN/NbN junctions demonstrated excellent tunneling properties with a high gap voltage of 5.5 mV, a large I{sub c}R{sub N} product of 3.8 mV, a sharp quasiparticle current rise with a ΔV{sub g} of 0.4 mV, and a small subgap leakage current. The junction quality factor R{sub sg}/R{sub N} was about 23 for the junction with a J{sub c} of 47 A/cm{sup 2} and was about 6 for the junction with a J{sub c} of 3.0 kA/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers were grown epitaxially on the (200)-orientated TiN buffer layer and had a highly crystalline structure with the (200) orientation.

  16. Combinatorial study of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. G.; Sanderson, R. J.; Hill, I. G.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of thin-film transistors using a zinc tin oxide semiconductor layer have been fabricated via a combinatorial rf sputtering technique. The ZnO :SnO2 ratio of the film varies as a function of position on the sample, from pure ZnO to SnO2, allowing for a study of zinc tin oxide transistor performance as a function of channel stoichiometry. The devices were found to have mobilities ranging from 2to12cm2/Vs, with two peaks in mobility in devices at ZnO fractions of 0.80±0.03 and 0.25±0.05, and on/off ratios as high as 107. Transistors composed predominantly of SnO2 were found to exhibit light sensitivity which affected both the on/off ratios and threshold voltages of these devices.

  17. Electronegativity-dependent tin etching from thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachecka, M., E-mail: m.pachecka@utwente.nl; Sturm, J. M.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Lee, C. J.; Bijkerk, F. [Industrial Focus Group XUV Optics, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    The influence of a thin film substrate material on the etching of a thin layer of deposited tin (Sn) by hydrogen radicals was studied. The amount of remaining Sn was quantified for materials that cover a range of electronegativities. We show that, for metals, etching depends on the relative electronegativity of the surface material and Sn. Tin is chemically etched from surfaces with an electronegativity smaller than Sn, while incomplete Sn etching is observed for materials with an electronegativity larger than Sn. Furthermore, the amount of remaining Sn increases as the electronegativity of the surface material increases. We speculate, that, due to Fermi level differences in the material’s electronic structure, the energy of the two conduction bands shift such that the availability of electrons for binding with hydrogen is significantly reduced.

  18. Gap enhancement in phonon-irradiated superconducting tin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, N.D.; Rutledge, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of tin-tin tunnel junctions driven out of equilibrium by a flux of near-thermal phonons from a heater. The reduced ambient temperature was T/T/sub c/ = 0.41. The nonequilibrium I-V curves are compared to equilibrium thermal I-V curves at an elevated temperature chosen to match the total number of quasiparticles. The nonequilibrium curves show a smaller current near zero bias and a larger gap than the thermal curves. This is the first experimental evidence of phonon-induced gap enhancement far below T/sub c/. The results are discussed in terms of the coupled kinetic equations of Chang and Scalapino

  19. TDPAC characterization of tin oxides using 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.S.; Desimoni, J.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with a general study of the evolution of tin-oxygen thin films, we report here on the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta substitutionally replacing tin in the isolated phases SnO and SnO 2 . For this purpose, pure SnO pressed powder and a thin SnO 2 film were implanted with 181 Hf. In both cases, unique quadrupole frequencies were found after thermal annealing treatments. The results indicate that the following hyperfine parameters: ν Q =740.6(2.1) MHz, η=0.07(2) and ν Q =971.5(1.9) MHz, η=0.72(1) characterize 181 Ta and SnO and SnO 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  20. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  1. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, R.; Morris, O.; Ohashi, H.; Suda, S.; Tanuma, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, T.; Koike, F.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2011-06-01

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  2. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  3. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  4. Plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using porous nickel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H + and H - ions, are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a porous nickel plate. Positive ions in a hydrogen plasma generated by dc arc discharge are irradiated to the porous plate, and pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. It becomes clear that the production quantity of pair ions mainly depends on the irradiation current of positive ions and the irradiation energy affects the production efficiency of H - ions.

  5. Effect of triangular texture on the tribological performance of die steel with TiN coatings under lubricated sliding condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Xiang, Xin; Shao, Tianmin; La, Yingqian; Li, Junling

    2016-12-01

    The friction and wear of stamping die surface can affect the service life of stamping die and the quality of stamping products. Surface texturing and surface coating have been widely used to improve the tribological performance of mechanical components. This study experimentally investigated the effect of triangular surface texture on the friction and wear properties of the die steel substrate with TiN coatings under oil lubrication. TiN coatings were deposited on a die steel (50Cr) substrate through a multi-arc ion deposition system, and then triangular surface texturing was fabricated by a laser surface texturing. The friction and wear test was conducted by a UMT-3 pin-on-disk tribometer under different sliding speeds and different applied loads, respectively. The adhesion test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of triangular texturing on the interfacial bonding strength between the TiN coating and the die steel substrate. Results show that the combination method of surface texturing process and surface coating process has excellent tribological properties (the lowest frictional coefficient and wear volume), compared with the single texturing process or the single coating process. The tribological performance is improved resulting from the high hardness and low elastic modulus of TiN coatings, and the generation of hydrodynamic pressure, function of micro-trap for wear debris and micro-reservoirs for lubricating oil of the triangular surface texture. In addition, the coating bonding strength of the texturing sample is 3.63 MPa, higher than that of the single coating sample (3.48 MPa), but the mechanisms remain to be further researched.

  6. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  7. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Dynamics of implanted muons at low temperatures in white tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solt, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Herlach, D.

    2008-01-01

    The low temperature lattice site of the implanted μ + particle and its subsequent delocalization at higher temperatures was investigated in single crystal white tin for 2 + was found to reside at the interstitial sites of type d. With increasing temperature thermally activated hopping sets in at T=48±2K, resulting in complete delocalization near 60 K. The activation energy for hopping, E a =113±15meV, is substantially higher than that found previously for the equally tetragonal indium

  10. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-10-18

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  11. Evaluation on the characteristics of tin-silver-bismuth solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z.; Shi, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2002-02-01

    Tin-silver-bismuth solder is characterized by its lower melting point, good wetting behavior, and good mechanical property for which it is expected to be a new lead-free solder to replace tin-lead solder. In this article, Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder was investigated concerning its physical, spreading, and mechanical properties under specific conditions. Cooling curves and DSC results showed that it was close to eutectic composition (m.p. 210° 212 °C). Coefficiency of thermal expansion (CTE) of this solder, between that of PCBs and copper substrates, was beneficial to alleviate the thermal mismatch of the substrates. It was also a good electrical and thermal conductor. Using a rosin-based, mildly activated (RMA) flux, a spreading test indicated that SnAgBi solder paste had good solderability. Meanwhile, the solder had high tensile strength and fracture energy. Its fracture mechanism was a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture morphology. The metallographic and EDAX analyses indicated that it was composed of a tin-based solid solution and some intermetallic compound (IMC) that could strengthen the substrate. However, these large needle-like IMCs would cut the substrate and this resulted in the decreasing of the toughness of the solder.

  12. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Hilton, Diana L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Cho, Nam-Joon, E-mail: njcho@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species.

  13. Reactive sputtering of TiN films at large substrate to target distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musil, J.; Kadlec, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the present status of the magnetron ion sputter plating of thin CiN films. Thus different possibilities of extracting high ion currents 1 s from the magnetron discharge to substrates located not only at standard target to substrate distances d S-T of about 50 mm but also at larger distances d S-T are discussed in detail. Special attention is devoted to magnetron sputtering systems with enhanced ionization, to plasma confinement in the magnetron sputtering systems and to the discharge characteristics of an unbalanced magnetron (UM). It is shown that a UM can be operated in the regime of a double-site-sustained discharge (DSSD) and in this case large 1 s can be extracted to substrates located in large D S-T of about 200 mm and even at high pressures p = 5 Pa. A physical comparison of the conventional magnetron (CM), UM and DSSD is also given. Considerable attention is also devoted to the effect of ion bombardment on properties of TiN films created in the sputtering system using DSSD. (author)

  14. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  15. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-09-29

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption-dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  16. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  18. Tin-Silver Alloys for Flip-Chip Bonding Studied with a Rotating Cylinder Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Pedersen, E.H.; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1999-01-01

    Electrodeposition of solder for flip-chip bonding is studied in the form of a pyrophosphate/iodide tin-silver alloy bath. The objective is to obtain a uniform alloy composition, with 3.8 At.% silver, over a larger area. This specific alloy will provide an eutectic solder melting at 221°C (or 10°C...... photoresist, have shown a stable and promising alternative to pure tin and tin-lead alloys for flip-chip bonding applications....

  19. Shanghai Futures Exchange Published Draft of Tin and Nickel Futures Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai Futures Exchange published draft for soliciting opinions for tin and nickel futures contract on its official website on January 19,which implies the marketing time of the long awaited tin and nickel futures is drawing near.According to the draft for soliciting opinions,the transaction unit of tin futures contract is 1tonne/lot,minimum variation unit is 10 yuan/tonne,daily maximum price fluctuation shall

  20. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  1. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  2. Investigation of the Optoelectronic Properties of Ti-doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nen-Wen Pu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available : In this study, direct-current magnetron sputtering was used to fabricate Ti-doped indium tin oxide (ITO thin films. The sputtering power during the 350-nm-thick thin-film production process was fixed at 100 W with substrate temperatures increasing from room temperature to 500 °C. The Ti-doped ITO thin films exhibited superior thin-film resistivity (1.5 × 10−4 Ω/cm, carrier concentration (4.1 × 1021 cm−3, carrier mobility (10 cm2/Vs, and mean visible-light transmittance (90% at wavelengths of 400–800 nm at a deposition temperature of 400 °C. The superior carrier concentration of the Ti-doped ITO alloys (>1021 cm−3 with a high figure of merit (81.1 × 10−3 Ω−1 demonstrate the pronounced contribution of Ti doping, indicating their high suitability for application in optoelectronic devices.

  3. Knockout and fragmentation reactions using a broad range of tin isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Bertulani, C. A.; Vargas, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Atkinson, J.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Boretzky, K.; Caamaño, M.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Díaz-Cortes, J.; Fernández, P. Díaz; Estrade, A.; Geissel, H.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mostazo, M.; Paradela, C.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Takechi, M.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2017-09-01

    Production cross sections of residual nuclei obtained by knockout and fragmentation reactions of different tin isotopes accelerated at 1 A GeV have been measured with the fragment separator (FRS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The new measurements are used to investigate the neutron-excess dependence of the neutron- and proton-knockout cross sections. These cross sections are compared to Glauber model calculations coupled to a nuclear de-excitation code in order to investigate the role of the remnant excitations. This bench marking shows an overestimation of the cross sections for the removal of deeply bound nucleons. A phenomenological increase in the excitation energy induced in the remnants produced in these cases allows us to reproduce the measured cross sections.

  4. Composition control of tin-zinc electrodeposits through means of experimental strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Saurat, M.; Ayedi, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Tin-zinc coatings offer excellent corrosion protection and do not suffer the drawback of the voluminous white corrosion product of pure zinc or high zinc alloy coatings. The aim of this study was to determine the suitable electroplating conditions (i.e. electrolyte composition and cathode current density) to produce 70Sn-30Zn electrodeposits. Thus, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of experimental parameters (Zn II concentration, Sn IV concentration, pH and current density) on the Zn content of the electrodeposit. On the other hand, the electrodeposits were characterised by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Correlation between operating conditions, composition and morphology was attempted

  5. Investigation of the Optoelectronic Properties of Ti-doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Nen-Wen; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Cheng, Huai-Ming; Hu, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Wei-Ting; Yu, Hau-Wei; Liang, Shih-Chang

    2015-09-21

    : In this study, direct-current magnetron sputtering was used to fabricate Ti-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The sputtering power during the 350-nm-thick thin-film production process was fixed at 100 W with substrate temperatures increasing from room temperature to 500 °C. The Ti-doped ITO thin films exhibited superior thin-film resistivity (1.5 × 10 - ⁴ Ω/cm), carrier concentration (4.1 × 10 21 cm - ³), carrier mobility (10 cm²/Vs), and mean visible-light transmittance (90%) at wavelengths of 400-800 nm at a deposition temperature of 400 °C. The superior carrier concentration of the Ti-doped ITO alloys (>10 21 cm - ³) with a high figure of merit (81.1 × 10 - ³ Ω - ¹) demonstrate the pronounced contribution of Ti doping, indicating their high suitability for application in optoelectronic devices.

  6. Catalytic Isomerization of Dihydroxyacetone to Lactic Acid and Alkyl Lactates over Hierarchical Zeolites Containing Tin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Feliczak-Guzik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical zeolites containing tin were obtained, characterized and used in a reaction of catalytic isomerization of dihydroxyacetone (DHA to lactic acid and alkyl lactates. These catalysts are characterized by preserved crystallinity and primary microporosity with the simultaneous existence of secondary porosity regarding mesopores, which facilitates access of large molecules of reagents to active centers. Creation of additional porosity was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption studies. The reaction of dihydroxyacetone isomerization was conducted in different reaction media such as methanol, ethanol or water with the use of two heating methods: microwave radiation and conventional heating. The application of microwave radiation enabled to reduce the reaction time to 1 h and achieve dihydroxyacetone conversion of >90% and high yields of the desired reaction products.

  7. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide on electrodeposited tin-based surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Bianca Christina S.; Camayang, John Carl A.; Mopon, Marlon L.; del Rosario, Julie Anne D.

    2017-08-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to small organic molecular compounds provides a means of generating alternative fuel source while suppressing climate change. Suitable catalysts, however, are necessary to optimize its reaction kinetics towards more valuable products. Consequently, in this study, electrodeposited Sn electrodes have been developed as catalysts for CO2 electroreduction. Deposition potential was varied to produce different Sn catalysts. SEM showed varying morphologies and increasing amount as the applied potential becomes more negative. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry showed that the activity and stability of the catalysts towards CO2 reduction depend on the morphology and presence of tin oxides. These results provide a better understanding on the performance of electrodeposited Sn-based surfaces as catalysts for CO2 reduction.

  8. Application of argon atmospheric cold plasma for indium tin oxide (ITO) based diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Nia, S.; Jalili, Y. Seyed; Salar Elahi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layers due to transparency, high conductivity and hole injection capability have attracted a lot of attention. One of these layers is Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). ITO due to low resistance, transparency in the visible spectrum and its proper work function is widely used in the manufacture of organic light emitting diodes and solar cells. One way for improving the ITO surface is plasma treatment. In this paper, changes in surface morphology, by applying argon atmospheric pressure cold plasma, was studied through Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) image analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. FTIR analysis showed functional groups were not added or removed, but chemical bond angle and bonds strength on the surface were changed and also AFM images showed that surface roughness was increased. These factors lead to the production of diodes with enhanced Ohmic contact and injection mechanism which are more appropriate in industrial applications.

  9. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  10. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam.

  11. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu 2 O 3 and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam

  12. Studies on Nanocrystalline TiN Coatings Prepared by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride (TiN coatings with nanostructure were prepared on the surface of 45 steel (Fe-0.45%C via reactive plasma spraying (denoted as RPS Ti powders using spraying gun with self-made reactive chamber. The microstructural characterization, phases constitute, grain size, microhardness, and wear resistance of TiN coatings were systematically investigated. The grain size was obtained through calculation using the Scherrer formula and observed by TEM. The results of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction indicated that the TiN is main phase of the TiN coating. The forming mechanism of the nano-TiN was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of surface of TiN coating and TiN drops sprayed on the surface of glass, and observing the temperature and velocity of plasma jet using Spray Watch. The tribological properties of the coating under nonlubricated condition were tested and compared with those of the AISI M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating. The results have shown that the RPS TiN coating presents better wear resistance than the M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating under nonlubricated condition. The microhardness of the cross-section and longitudinal section of the TiN coating was tested. The highest hardness of the cross-section of TiN coating is 1735.43HV100 g.

  13. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  14. Petrogenesis of Malaysian tin granites: geochemistry, fractional crystallization, U-Pb zircon geochronology and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-Pan Ng, Samuel; Searle, Mike; Whitehouse, Martin; Chung, Sun-Lin; Ghani, Azman; Robb, Laurence; Sone, Masatoshi; Oliver, Grahame; Gardiner, Nick; Roselee, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    The Malaysian tin granites forming the backbone of the Thai-Malay Peninsula has been long recognized with two distinct granitic provinces:- 1. Early Permian to Late Triassic Eastern Province with mainly "I-type" (Hbl)-Bt granites with associated Cu-Au deposits, with subordinate Bt granites hosting limited Sn-W deposits, and 2. Late Triassic Main Range Province with mainly "S-type" Bt granites with associated Sn-W deposits, and subordinate (Hbl)-Bt granites. New geochemical data show that Chappell and White's (1974) I-S granite classification adopted in the existing model does not adequately distinguish the granites from one another as previously implied. Trace element geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions show that the Malaysian tin granites in both provinces have transitional I-S characteristics. In addition, they inherited within-plate signature from Cambro-Ordovician Gondwana-related source rocks. Previous ages were obtained by whole rock Rb-Sr and biotite K-Ar geochronology in the 70s and 80s, dating methods that may not accurately represent the crystallization age of granites. We re-sampled the entire Malaysian Peninsula and 40 samples were collected for high-precision U-Pb SIMS dating on extracted zircon grains in order to better constrain the magmatic and tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. The crystallization ages of the Eastern Province granitoids have been constrained ranging from 220 to 290 Ma, while the Main Range (Western) Province granitoids have ages ranging from 200 to 230 Ma. A progressive westward younging trend is apparent across the Eastern Province, but becomes less obvious in the Main Range Province. Our model suggests two east dipping subduction zones. We suggest that subduction roll-back along the Bentong-Raub suture might account for the westward younging trend, in the Eastern province. A second Late Triassic east-dipping subduction zone beneath western Malaysia is proposed in order to explain the "I-type" components to the Main

  15. Fabrication and performance analysis of 4-sq cm indium tin oxide/InP photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.; Phelps, P. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Tzafaras, N.

    1991-01-01

    Large-area photovoltaic solar cells based on direct current magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO) into single-crystal p-InP substrates demonstrated both the radiation hardness and high performance necessary for extraterrestrial applications. A small-scale production project was initiated in which approximately 50 ITO/InP cells are being produced. The procedures used in this small-scale production of 4-sq cm ITO/InP cells are presented and discussed. The discussion includes analyses of performance range of all available production cells, and device performance data of the best cells thus far produced. Additionally, processing experience gained from the production of these cells is discussed, indicating other issues that may be encountered when large-scale productions are begun.

  16. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  17. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  18. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  19. Selective oxidation of propene on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, P.; Taylor, D.

    1976-01-01

    Propene + 18 0 2 reactions have been studied in a static reaction system on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony. The [ 16 0] acrolein content of the total acrolein formed and the proportion of 16 0 in the oxygen of the carbon dioxide by-product have been determined. The results indicate that for each catalyst the lattice is the only direct source of the oxygen in the aldehyde, and that lattice and/or gas phase oxygen is used in carbon dioxide formation. Oxygen anion mobility appears to be greater in the molybdate catalyst than in the other two. (author)

  20. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  1. Rf reactive sputtering of indium-tin-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvarozek, V.; Novotny, I.; Harman, R.; Kovac, J.

    1986-01-01

    Films of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) have been deposited by rf reactive diode sputtering of metallic InSn alloy targets, or ceramic ITO targets, in an Ar and Ar+0 2 atmosphere. Electrical as well as optical properties of ITO films were controlled by varying sputtering parameters and by post-deposition heat-treatment in Ar, H 2 , N 2 , H 2 +N 2 ambients. The ITO films exhibited low resistivity approx. 2 x 10 -4 Ω cm, high transmittance approx. 90% in the visible spectral region and high reflectance approx. 80% in the near infra-red region. (author)

  2. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  3. Coating power RF components with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used

  4. Charge radii and moments of tin nuclei by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselment, M.; Bekk, K.; Hanser, A.; Hoeffgen, H.; Meisel, G.; Goering, S.; Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1986-04-01

    The isotope shift and hyperfine structure of the optical Sn I resonance transition 5p 2 3 P 0 ->5p6s 3 P 1 at lambda=286.3 nm have been studied for 18 Sn nuclei including 2 isomers. Laser induced resonance fluorescence from a collimated atomic beam of tin was observed using a tunable cw dye laser with frequency doubler. The electromagnetic nuclear moments and changes of the mean square charge radii of the nuclear charge distributions were determined. The results are discussed with respect to the information they provide on the nuclear structure of the nuclei investigated; they are compared with various theoretical models. (orig.) [de

  5. Reactivation of a tin oxide-containing catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Hess, Robert V. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Sidney, Barry D. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Paulin, Patricia A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method for the reactivation of a tin oxide-containing catalyst of a CO.sub.2 laser is provided. First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during usage, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature which is the operating temperature of the laser and 400.degree. C. for approximately one hour. The catalyst is exposed to the same laser gas mixture during this period. The temperature of the heated zone is then lowered to the operating temperature of the CO.sub.2 laser.

  6. High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2015-01-01

    A dislocation density of as high as 10 17 /m 2 in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10 3 A/ cm 2 . The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining

  7. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  8. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin (IV Tungstate Nanoparticles – A Solid Acid Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sadanandan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tin (IV tungstate, a tetravalent metal acid salt was synthesized in the nanoform by chemical coprecipitation method using EDTA as capping agent. The material was found to be stable in mineral acids, bases and organic solvents except  in HF and aquaregia. The material was characterized using EDS, TG/DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, HRTEM and BET surface area measurement. The molecular formula of the compound is 2SnO2 3WO3.5H2O determined from elemental analysis using TG/DTA. Surface morphology and particle size were obtained using SEM and HRTEM. The surface area was found to be 205-225m2/g. The Na+ exchange capacity found to be 3.8 meq/g, indicates the presence of surface hydroxyl group and hence the presence of Bronsted acid sites. The catalytic activity of the material was tested by using esterification and oxidation as model reactions. For the esterification of different alcohols, the percentage yield was found to be high for n-alcohol compared to isomeric alcohols. Oxidation of benzyl alcohol gives benzaldehyde and benzoic acid as the only products. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd June 2012, Revised: 23rd July 2012, Accepted: 29th July 2012[How to Cite: S. Manoj, R. Beena, (2012. Synthesis and Characterization of tin(IV Tungstate Nanoparticles – A Solid Acid Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 105-111. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3622.105-111] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3622.105-111 ] | View in 

  10. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu 3 SnS 4 nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn 4+ ions leads to the formation of Cu 3 SnS 4 . These Cu 3 SnS 4 nanocrystals form Au-Cu 3 SnS 4 hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help you thrive with diabetes The Let's Be Well Diabetes Box offers products and resources for people with diabetes. ... Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  12. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources,

  13. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...

  14. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  15. Self-consistent approximation for muffin-tin models of random substitutional alloys with environmental disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, T.; Gray, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The self-consistent approximation of Kaplan, Leath, Gray, and Diehl is applied to models for substitutional random alloys with muffin-tin potentials. The particular advantage of this approximation is that, in addition to including cluster scattering, the muffin-tin potentials in the alloy can depend on the occupation of the surrounding sites (i.e., environmental disorder is included)

  16. Selective Recovery of Mushistonite from Gravity Tailings of Copper–Tin Minerals in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tajikistan has abundant copper–tin resources. In this study, mineralogical analysis of copper–tin ores from the Mushiston deposit of Tajikistan indicates that tin mainly occurred in mushistonite, cassiterite, and stannite, while copper mainly occurred in mushistonite, malachite, azurite, and stannite. The total grades of tin (Sn and copper (Cu were 0.65% and 0.66%, respectively, and the dissemination size of copper–tin minerals ranged from 4 μm to over 200 μm. Coarse particles of copper–tin minerals were partially recovered by shaking table concentrators with a low recovery rate. Based on the mineralogical analysis, flotation recovery was used for the first time on the fine particles of copper–tin minerals, including mushistonite, from shaking table tailings. Single factor flotation experiments, open circuit flotation tests, and closed circuit flotation tests were performed to determine the optimized flotation conditions. Results indicated that benzohydroxamic acid (C6H5CONHOH and lead nitrate could effectively recover the mushistonite, cooperating with other depressants. The final concentrate contained 13.28% Sn, with a recovery rate of 61.56%, and 18.51% Cu, with a recovery rate of 86.52%. This method proved effective for the exploitation and use of this type of copper–tin resource in Tajikistan.

  17. Moessbauer study of the lattice dynamics of tin atoms in antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Moessbauer effect probability f was investigated for tin impurity atoms in the SnSb solution (the impurity varied from 3 at% to 15 at%). The absolute value of the Moessbauer effect probability was determined from Moessbauer absorption spectra by the area method using a calibration absorber of a β-tin foil with known f. (Z.S.)

  18. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...

  19. The electrochemical deposition of tin-nickel alloys and the corrosion properties of the coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2005-01-01

    The electrodeposition of tin/nickel (65/35 wt%) is a unique coating process because of the deposition of an intermetallic phase of nickel and tin, which cannot be formed by any pyrometallurgical process. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that intermetallic phases can be formed throu...

  20. Reversible storage of lithium in a rambutan-like tin-carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang

    2009-01-01

    Fruity electrodes: A simple bottom-up self-assembly method was used to fabricate rambutan-like tin-carbon (Sn@C) nanoarchitecture (see scheme, green Sn) to improve the reversible storage of lithium in tin. The mechanism of the growth of the pear-like hairs is explored.

  1. Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use...

  2. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one...

  3. Colorimetric properties of TiN coating implanted by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: zhouqg99@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Bai, X.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xue, X.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ling, Y.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, X.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, J. [Beijing Great Wall Ti-Gold Corporation, Beijing 100095 (China); Wang, D.R. [Beijing Great Wall Ti-Gold Corporation, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2005-04-05

    TiN coating was prepared by cathodic arc deposition and implanted aluminum using a metal vacuum vapor arc ion source with doses ranging from 5 x 10{sup 16} to 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The purpose of this work was to determine the dependence of the colorimetric properties of TiN films on the implanting conditions, especially by the aluminum ion implantation. The colorimetry of coatings was evaluated quantitatively in terms of CIE L * a * b *. The color coordinate values L *, a *, and b * provide a numerical representation of the color of the surface. With the dose increasing, the surface color has no obvious change but the surface turns brighter, and a * as well as b * values all decline. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the aluminum implantation induced a slight shift of diffraction peaks. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was employed to analyze the surface valence states. The oxygen in surface top layer does not decrease a * and b * values, it partially combined with nitrogen.

  4. Accommodation of tin in tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B. D. C.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R., E-mail: m.wenman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials and Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Murphy, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Burr, P. A. [Department of Materials and Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2015-02-28

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The Sn{sub Zr}{sup ×} defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} charge compensated by V{sub O}{sup ••} occurring at partial pressures below 10{sup −31 }atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical partial pressure at which Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} is stable. Recently developed low-Sn nuclear fuel cladding alloys have demonstrated an improved corrosion resistance and a delayed transition compared to Sn-containing alloys, such as Zircaloy-4. The interaction between the positive charge and the tin defect is discussed in the context of alloying additions, such as niobium and their influence on corrosion of cladding alloys.

  5. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  6. The\tutility\tof\tneuroimaging\tin\tthe\tmanagement\tof\tdementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak\tE\tWilliams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive\tdomains\tassociated\twith\timpairment\tof\tactivities\tof\tdaily\tliving. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis\tis\timportant\tin\tthe\tpursuit\tof\tpossible\tdisease\tmodifying\ttherapy for\tdementia.\tNeuroimaging\thas\tgreatly\ttransformed\tthis\tfield\tof\tresearch as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This\treview\tfocuses\ton\tthe\tdiagnostic\tutility\tof\tneuroimaging\tin the\tmanagement\tof\tprogressive\tdementias.\tStructural\timaging\ttechniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography\tand\tblood\toxygen\tlevel-dependent\tfunctional\tmagnetic\tresonance\timaging\tfocuses\ton\tchemistry, circulatory\tstatus\tand\tphysiology\tof\tthe\tdifferent\tbrain\tstructures\tand\tregions.

  7. A variable resolution right TIN approach for gridded oceanographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David; Elmore, Paul; Blain, Cheryl Ann; Bourgeois, Brian; Petry, Frederick; Ferrini, Vicki

    2017-12-01

    Many oceanographic applications require multi resolution representation of gridded data such as for bathymetric data. Although triangular irregular networks (TINs) allow for variable resolution, they do not provide a gridded structure. Right TINs (RTINs) are compatible with a gridded structure. We explored the use of two approaches for RTINs termed top-down and bottom-up implementations. We illustrate why the latter is most appropriate for gridded data and describe for this technique how the data can be thinned. While both the top-down and bottom-up approaches accurately preserve the surface morphology of any given region, the top-down method of vertex placement can fail to match the actual vertex locations of the underlying grid in many instances, resulting in obscured topology/bathymetry. Finally we describe the use of the bottom-up approach and data thinning in two applications. The first is to provide thinned, variable resolution bathymetry data for tests of storm surge and inundation modeling, in particular hurricane Katrina. Secondly we consider the use of the approach for an application to an oceanographic data grid of 3-D ocean temperature.

  8. Amdel on-line analyser at Rooiberg Tin Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    An Amdel on line analysis system was installed on the 'A' mine tin flotation plant at Rooiberg in April 1984. The motivation for the installation was made on account of the large variations in the feed grade to the plant and the resulting need for rapid operational adjustments to control concentrate grades thereby maximising the financial returns. An 'on-line' analyser system presented itself as a suitable alternative to the existing control method of smaller laboratory x-ray fluorescence analysers. On the system as installed at Rooiberg, two probes were fitted in each analysis zone, viz a density probe using high energy gamma radiation from a Cesium 127 source and a specific element absorption probe using low energy gamma radiation from a Americium 241 source. The signals as received from the probes are fed to a line receiver unit in the control room where a micro computer is doing the processing and prints out the information as required. Several advantages of this type of installation were gained at Rooiberg Tin Limited

  9. Bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells made of thermal and electrical high conductivity thermoplastics. Formulation, production, characterization and application; Bipolarplatten fuer Polymerelektrolytmembran-Brennstoffzellen aus thermisch und elektrisch hochleitfaehigen thermoplastischen Kunststoffen. Rezeptierung, Herstellung, Charakterisierung und Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Ralf Leonhard

    2008-07-01

    The upcoming lack of primary energy sources and the need of reducing the anthropogenic climate change led to increased research activities in the field of Fuel Cells (FC) technology within the last ten years in Europe, the USA and Japan. Especially the automotive industry is highly interested in developing zero emission cars as a replacement of nowadays cars within the next twenty years. Not only for mobile applications the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell systems (PEM-FC systems) is the focus of research and development. Also stationary (PEM-) FC applications seem to be more and more interesting for a decentralized energy supply, producing electricity and heat (Vaillant FC-Systems, Bosch/Junkers). For this purpose, system miniaturizing and weight reduction (70-90 wt-% of the stack itself is due to bipolar- and endplate) is not that essential as it is for mobile appliance, resulting in earlier commercial market introduction of these systems within the next few years. Not only the weight reduction of the FC-stack itself, but also the cost cutting of its components is vital for the economic success of this technology. The three most expensive components of the stack are the perfluorsulfonated ion conducting Membranen (PEM: Nafion, Ashai, Ashai glass), the noble metal catalyst (Platinum and/or Ruthenium) and the Bipolar Plate (BPP). The moulding processes (injection and/or compression moulding) of polymer materials allow highly integrated, tool reduced mass production of tailored stack components like the BP, the endplate, cell frame and peripheral components. The objective of this thesis is to describe the development of an conductive functionalised material suitable for moulding BPP, to investigate compounding optimisation methods (DOE) and evaluate the best fit parameters, to analyse the rheological behaviour of these highly filled compounds, to discuss suitable polymer related manufacturing processes like hot pressing, injection moulding and profile

  10. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  11. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  12. Electrochemical migration of tin in electronics and microstructure of the dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2011-01-01

    The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb (∼2wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electr...... by the dehydration of the hydrated oxide originally formed in solution ex-situ in ambient air.......The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb (∼2wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron...... microscopy including Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The tin dendrites were formed under 5 or 12V potential bias in 10ppm by weight NaCl electrolyte as a micro-droplet on the resistor during electrochemical migration experiments. The dendrites formed were found to have...

  13. Synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles by the nitrate-citrate combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianrong; Gao Lian

    2004-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles having rutile structure have been synthesized by the combustion method using citric acid (CA) as fuel and nitrate as an oxidant, the metal sources were granulated tin and Sb 2 O 3 . The influence of citric acid (fuel) to metal ratio on the average crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles has been investigated. X-ray diffraction showed the tin ions were reduced to elemental tin during combustion reaction. The average ATO crystallite size increased with the increase of citric acid (fuel). Powder morphology and the comparison of crystallite size and grain size shows that the degree of agglomeration of the powder decreased with an increase of the ratio. The highest specific surface area was 37.5 m 2 /g when the citric acid to tin ratio was about 6

  14. VO2 /TiN Plasmonic Thermochromic Smart Coatings for Room-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Li, Wan; Xu, Huiyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Yin; Wang, Huaiyu; Ma, Libo; Ma, Fei; Jiang, Xuchuan; Schmidt, Oliver G; Chu, Paul K

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide/titanium nitride (VO 2 /TiN) smart coatings are prepared by hybridizing thermochromic VO 2 with plasmonic TiN nanoparticles. The VO 2 /TiN coatings can control infrared (IR) radiation dynamically in accordance with the ambient temperature and illumination intensity. It blocks IR light under strong illumination at 28 °C but is IR transparent under weak irradiation conditions or at a low temperature of 20 °C. The VO 2 /TiN coatings exhibit a good integral visible transmittance of up to 51% and excellent IR switching efficiency of 48% at 2000 nm. These unique advantages make VO 2 /TiN promising as smart energy-saving windows. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Wave Propagation and Phase Transition of Tin under Shock-Wave Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Feng, Song; Hai-Feng, Liu; Guang-Cai, Zhang; Yan-Hong, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    We undertake a numerical simulation of shock experiments on tin reported in the literature, by using a multiphase equation of state (MEOS) and a multiphase Steinberg Guinan (MSG) constitutive model for tin in the β, γ and liquid phases. In the MSG model, the Bauschinger effect is considered to better describe the unloading behavior. The phase diagram and Hugoniot of tin are calculated by MEOS, and they agree well with the experimental data. Combined with the MEOS and MSG models, hydrodynamic computer simulations are successful in reproducing the measured velocity profile of the shock wave experiment. Moreover, by analyzing the mass fraction contour as well as stress and temperature profiles of each phase for tin, we further discuss the complex behavior of tin under shock-wave loading. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  16. Research into tin and arsenical copper artefacts using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This study includes the chemical analysis, sourcing and historical metallurgy of tin and arsenical copper artefacts discovered at Rooiberg and elsewhere in the Northern Transvaal and at Great Zimbabwe. A complete chemical analysis method for tin and cassiterite is presented, based on INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) and supplemented by PIXE or AAS for elements such as lead, bismuth and niobium. This is apparently the first study in which tin artefacts were analysed by INAA without chemical processing of the samples. INAA and PIXE returned the same results when a homogenized tin alloy block was analysed, but the structure and distribution of hardhead phases appear to produce an iron quantification problem in ancient tin. Ores and slags were analysed for light matrix elements by XRF or PIXE and INAA for the heavy trace metals. 108 refs., 24 figs., 130 tabs

  17. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  18. Effect of manufacturing process sequence on the corrosion resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) with high corrosion and low contact resistance, durability, strength, low cost, volume, and weight requirements is one of the critical parts of the PEMFC. This study is dedicated to understand the effect of the process sequence (manufacturing then coating vs. coating then manufacturing) on the corrosion resistance of coated metallic bipolar plates. To this goal, three different PVD coatings (titanium nitride (TiN), chromium nitride (CrN), zirconium nitride (ZrN)), with three thicknesses, (0.1, 0.5, 1 μm) were applied on BPPs made of 316L stainless steel alloy before and after two types of manufacturing (i.e., stamping or hydroforming). Corrosion test results indicated that ZrN coating exhibited the best corrosion protection while the performance of TiN coating was the lowest among the tested coatings and thicknesses. For most of the cases tested, in which coating was applied before manufacturing, occurrence of corrosion was found to be more profound than the case where coating was applied after manufacturing. Increasing the coating thickness was found to improve the corrosion resistance. It was also revealed that hydroformed BPPs performed slightly better than stamped BPPs in terms of the corrosion behavior.

  19. Development of materials and processes for low-cost production of high-temperature bipolar plates for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Final report; Material- und Verfahrensentwicklung fuer eine kostenguenstige Herstellung von Hochtemperatur-Bipolarplatten zum Einsatz in Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran Brennstoffzellen (PEM-BZ). Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In the context of the project 'Verfahren zur spritzgiesstechnischen Herstellung von HT-BPP' (processes for injection moulding of high-temperature fuel cells), bipolar plates for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEM-FC) were produced by an injection moulding process suited for mass production. This implied extensive material analyses of fillers and matrix materials. A specific compound for application in fuel cells and suited for mass production was produced on this basis. (orig./AKB)

  20. 76 FR 58536 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United.... 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated...

  1. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of diamond-containing function-gradient materials with a ceramic matrix based on TiB2-TiN and Ti5Si3-TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashov, E.A.; Akulinin, P.V.; Sorokin, M.N.; Sviridova, T.A.; Khosomi, S.; Okh'yanagi, M.; Koizumi, S.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time a study is made into specific features of phase- and structure formation in diamond-bearing functionally gradient materials (FGM) with a ceramic binder on the basis of titanium diboride and nitride TiB 2 -TiN as well as titanium silicide and nitride Ti 5 Si 3 -TiN. For a titanium diboride and nitride base binder the maximum residual strength of diamond grains is 24 N for a specimen with 12.5 vol. % of diamond and 29 N for a specimen with 25 vol. % of diamond in a charge layer when an initial strength of diamond grains is equal to 37 N. For a titanium silicide and nitride base binder the residual strength of diamond in synthesized products is 32.5 and 28.7 N for specimens with 12.5 and 25 vol. % of diamond respectively, the initial strength of diamond grains being the same. A positive effect is shown for a 5% additive of titanium hydride in a charge diamond-bearing layer on the preservation of diamond in a tita nium diboride and nitride binder. Optimal conditions are determined to provide the possibility of obtaining high-quality products with a high degree of preservation and strength of diamond grains [ru

  2. Optimization of nanoparticulate indium tin oxide slurries for the manufacture of ultra-thin indium tin oxide coatings with the slot-die coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, M.; Riess, K.; Roosen, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of colloidal processing to achieve suitable nanoparticulate indium tin oxide (ITO) slurries for the production of sub-μm-thin ITO coatings with the slot die coating process. For application in printed electronics these ITO coatings, which are composite films consisting of nanoparticulate ITO and a polymeric binder, should offer high flexibility, transparency and electrical conductivity. To preserve their flexibility, the composite films are not subject to any heat treatment, instead they are used as deposited and dried. To achieve very good transparency and electrical conductivity at the same time, the slurries must exhibit excellent dispersivity to result in a dense particle packing during film formation and drying. To reduce materials costs, films with thicknesses of several 100 nm are of interest. Therefore, the slot-die technique was applied as a fast, pre-dosing technique to produce sub-μm-thin ITO/binder composite films. The resulting ITO/binder films were characterized with regard to their key properties such as total transmission and specific electrical resistance. With the colloidal optimization of ethanol- and water-based nanoparticulate ITO slurries using PVP and PVB as binders, it was possible to achieve films of 250 nm in thickness exhibiting high total transmission of ∝ 93 % and a low specific electrical resistance of ∝ 10 Ω.cm.

  3. Optimization of nanoparticulate indium tin oxide slurries for the manufacture of ultra-thin indium tin oxide coatings with the slot-die coating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, M.; Riess, K.; Roosen, A. [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Materials Science, Glass and Ceramics

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of colloidal processing to achieve suitable nanoparticulate indium tin oxide (ITO) slurries for the production of sub-μm-thin ITO coatings with the slot die coating process. For application in printed electronics these ITO coatings, which are composite films consisting of nanoparticulate ITO and a polymeric binder, should offer high flexibility, transparency and electrical conductivity. To preserve their flexibility, the composite films are not subject to any heat treatment, instead they are used as deposited and dried. To achieve very good transparency and electrical conductivity at the same time, the slurries must exhibit excellent dispersivity to result in a dense particle packing during film formation and drying. To reduce materials costs, films with thicknesses of several 100 nm are of interest. Therefore, the slot-die technique was applied as a fast, pre-dosing technique to produce sub-μm-thin ITO/binder composite films. The resulting ITO/binder films were characterized with regard to their key properties such as total transmission and specific electrical resistance. With the colloidal optimization of ethanol- and water-based nanoparticulate ITO slurries using PVP and PVB as binders, it was possible to achieve films of 250 nm in thickness exhibiting high total transmission of ∝ 93 % and a low specific electrical resistance of ∝ 10 Ω.cm.

  4. Interaction between plate make and protein in protein crystallisation screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallisation screening involves the parallel testing of large numbers of candidate conditions with the aim of identifying conditions suitable as a starting point for the production of diffraction quality crystals. Generally, condition screening is performed in 96-well plates. While previous studies have examined the effects of protein construct, protein purity, or crystallisation condition ingredients on protein crystallisation, few have examined the effect of the crystallisation plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a statistically rigorous examination of protein crystallisation, and evaluated interactions between crystallisation success and plate row/column, different plates of same make, different plate makes and different proteins. From our analysis of protein crystallisation, we found a significant interaction between plate make and the specific protein being crystallised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protein crystal structure determination is the principal method for determining protein structure but is limited by the need to produce crystals of the protein under study. Many important proteins are difficult to crystallize, so that identification of factors that assist crystallisation could open up the structure determination of these more challenging targets. Our findings suggest that protein crystallisation success may be improved by matching a protein with its optimal plate make.

  5. Preparation of transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films from nanocrystalline indium tin hydroxide by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with well-controlled layer thickness were produced by dip-coating method. The ITO was synthesized by a sol-gel technique involving the use of aqueous InCl 3 , SnCl 4 and NH 3 solutions. To obtain stable sols for thin film preparation, as-prepared Sn-doped indium hydroxide was dialyzed, aged, and dispersed in ethanol. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was applied to enhance the stability of the resulting ethanolic sols. The transparent, conductive ITO films on glass substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ITO layer thickness increased linearly during the dipping cycles, which permits excellent controllability of the film thickness in the range ∼ 40-1160 nm. After calcination at 550 o C, the initial indium tin hydroxide films were transformed completely to nanocrystalline ITO with cubic and rhombohedral structure. The effects of PVP on the optical, morphological and electrical properties of ITO are discussed.

  6. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  7. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  8. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  9. Modifying the Casimir force between indium tin oxide film and Au sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A. A.; Chang, C.-C.; Castillo-Garza, R.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Mohideen, U.

    2012-01-01

    We present complete results of the experiment on measuring the Casimir force between an Au-coated sphere and an untreated or, alternatively, UV-treated indium tin oxide (ITO) film deposited on a quartz substrate. Measurements were performed using an atomic force microscope in a high vacuum chamber. The measurement system was calibrated electrostatically. Special analysis of the systematic deviations is performed, and respective corrections in the calibration parameters are introduced. The corrected parameters are free from anomalies discussed in the literature. The experimental data for the Casimir force from two measurement sets for both untreated and UV-treated samples are presented. The random, systematic, and total experimental errors are determined at a 95% confidence level. It is demonstrated that the UV treatment of an ITO plate results in a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Casimir force (from 21% to 35% depending on separation). However, ellipsometry measurements of the imaginary parts of dielectric permittivities of the untreated and UV-treated samples did not reveal any significant differences. The experimental data are compared with computations in the framework of the Lifshitz theory. It is found that the data for the untreated sample are in a very good agreement with theoretical results taking into account the free charge carriers in an ITO film. For the UV-treated sample the data exclude the theoretical results obtained with account of free charge carriers. These data are in very good agreement with computations disregarding the contribution of free carriers in the dielectric permittivity. According to the hypothetical explanation provided, this is caused by the phase transition of the ITO film from metallic to dielectric state caused by the UV treatment. Possible applications of the discovered phenomenon in nanotechnology are discussed.

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your meal, add a low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control ... with easy-sealing lid is offered in a 4-pack. Whether you're at home, the office, ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack ( ... to Give Do-It-Yourself Fundraising & Local Events Promotions that Give Back Donate Your Collectibles Donate Stocks ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of ... hotelscom.html Ways to Give Vacation for Donations Travel bookings completed through Hotels.com give 5% back ...

  15. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R.; Budić, B.; Stamenković, D.; Čolić, M.; Ivanič, A.; Kosec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  16. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  17. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental or felsic terrain and an oceanic or mafic terrain as well as internal crustal convection. Small-scale convection with plume shaped cold downwellings also in the upper mantle is of increased importance compared to the large-scale subduction cycle observed for present temperature conditions. It is also observed that lithospheric downwellings may initiate subduction by

  18. Advantages of liquid nitrogen freezing of Penaeus monodon over conventional plate freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, R.; Chaudhury, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen frozen products are biochemically and organoleptically superior to conventional plate frozen products but beneficial effect of liquid nitrogen freezing over conventional plate freezing can exist only up to 59 days at a commercial storage temperature of -18°C.

  19. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast ( 5 counts/mm 2 . A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (≥10 10 Ω·cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm 2 , leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases

  20. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on indium tin oxide films under cathodic polarization in NaOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wenjiao; Cao, Si; Yang, Yanze; Wang, Hao; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of indium tin oxide (ITO) films under the cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The as-received and the cathodically polarized ITO films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for morphological, compositional and structural studies. The results showed that ITO films underwent a corrosion process during the cathodic polarization and the main component of the corrosion products was body-centered cubic indium. The electrochemical impedance parameters were related to the effect of the cathodic polarization on the ITO specimens. The capacitance of ITO specimens increased, while the charge transfer resistance and the inductance decreased with the increase of the polarization time. The proposed mechanism indicated that the corrosion products (metallic indium) were firstly formed during the cathodic polarization and then absorbed on the surface of the ITO film. As the surface was gradually covered by indium particles, the corrosion process was suppressed. - Highlights: ► Cathodic polarization of indium tin oxide (ITO) in 0.1 M NaOH. ► Cathodic polarization studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ► ITO underwent a corrosion attack during cathodic polarization, indium was observed. ► Electrochemical parameters of ITO were obtained using equivalent electrical circuit. ► A corrosion mechanism is proposed.