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Sample records for plate thickness variations

  1. Through thickness property variations in a thick plate AA7050 friction stir welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Clinton T.; Moore, Matthew A.; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, moderately thick (32 mm) AA7050 plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). Various methods were used to characterize the welded joints, including nugget grain size measurements at different locations through the thickness, micro-hardness indentation through nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and heat affected zone (HAZ) at different cross section heights, and residual stress measurement using the cut compliance method with full thickness and partial thickness specimens. All testing results are consistent with the presence of a strong gradient in peak temperature through the plate thickness during FSW.

  2. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  3. A Comparison of Vibroacoustic Response of Isotropic Plate with Attached Discrete Patches and Point Masses Having Different Thickness Variation with Different Taper Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sound radiation behavior of plate in air medium with attached discrete patches/point masses having different thickness variations with different taper ratio of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 is analysed. Finite element method is used to find the vibration characteristics while Rayleigh integral is used to predict the sound radiation characteristics. Minimum peak sound power level obtained is at a taper ratio of 0.6 with parabolic increasing-decreasing thickness variation for plate with four discrete patches. At higher taper ratio, linearly increasing-decreasing thickness variation is another alternative for minimum peak sound power level suppression with discrete patches. It is found that, in low frequency range, average radiation efficiency remains almost the same, but near first peak, four patches or four point masses cause increase in average radiation efficiency; that is, redistribution of point masses/patches does have effect on average radiation efficiency at a given taper ratio.

  4. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  5. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  6. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The structures with thick plates have been used extensively in national defence, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, nuclear engineering, civil engineering, etc.. Various theories have been established to deal with the problems of elastic plates, which include the classical theory of thin plates, the improved theory of thick plates, three-dimensional elastical theory. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic analysis of thick plates subjected the concentrated load is presented. The improved Donnell's equation of thick plates is deduced and employed as the basic equation. The generalized coordinates are solved by using the method of MWR. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elastic thick plates subjected the concentrated load are given. The numerical results for rectangular plates are given herein. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. (orig./GL)

  7. Numerical investigation on the variation of welding stresses after material removal from a thick titanium alloy plate joined by electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Jianxun; Wu, Bing; Gong, Shuili

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → After less materials removal from the top, stresses on the bottom remain unchanged. → The transverse stress within the weld decreases significantly with material removal. → Local material removal does not influence the longitudinal stress significantly. -- Abstract: The stress modification after material removal from a 50 mm thick titanium alloy plate jointed by electron beam welding (EBW) was investigated through the finite element method (FEM). The welding experiment and milling process were carried out to experimentally determine the stresses induced by EBW and their modification after local material removal. The modification of as-welded stresses due to the local material removal method and the whole layer removal method was discussed with the finite element analysis. Investigated results showed that with less materials removal from the top, the stresses on the bottom surface remain almost unchanged; after material removal from the top and bottom part, the transverse stress on the newly-formed surface decreases significantly as compared to the as-welded stresses at the same locations; however, the stress modification only occurs at the material removal region in the case of local region removal method; the longitudinal stress decreases with the whole layer removal method while remains almost unchanged with the local region removal method.

  8. Measuring plate thickness using spatial local wavenumber filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, To; Han, Soon Woo; Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Jeong Han; Park, Gyu Hae; Jeon, Jun Young

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion on the surface of a structure can generate cracks or cause walls to thin. This can lead to fracturing, which can eventually lead to fatalities and property loss. In an effort to prevent this, laser imaging technology has been used over the last ten years to detect thin-plate structure, or relatively thin piping. The most common laser imaging was used to develop a new technology for inspecting and imaging a desired area in order to scan various structures for thin-plate structure and thin piping. However, this method builds images by measuring waves reflected from defects, and subsequently has a considerable time delay of a few milliseconds at each scanning point. In addition, the complexity of the system is high, due to additional required components, such as laser-focusing parts. This paper proposes a laser imaging method with an increased scanning speed, based on excitation and the measurement of standing waves in structures. The wavenumber of standing waves changes at sections with a geometrical discontinuity, such as thickness. Therefore, it is possible to detect defects in a structure by generating standing waves with a single frequency and scanning the waves at each point by with the laser scanning system. The proposed technique is demonstrated on a wall-thinned plate with a linear thickness variation

  9. Stresses and strains in thick perforated orthotropic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Alshaya; John Hunt; R. Rowlands

    2016-01-01

    Stress and strain concentrations and in-plane and out-of-plane stress constraint factors associated with a circular hole in thick, loaded orthotropic composite plates are determined by three-dimensional finite element method. The plate has essentially infinite in-plane geometry but finite thickness. Results for Sitka Spruce wood are emphasized, although some for carbon...

  10. Aerodynamic sound from a sawtooth plate with different thickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acoustic performance of an airfoil can be improved with the serrated leading or trailing edge. A sawtooth plate is one of the serration shapes. In this study, the effect of sawtooth plate thickness on the aerodynamically generated noise in wake-sawtooth plate interaction at a Reynolds number of 150 is numerically investigated ...

  11. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  12. Analysis of a Fluid-Loaded Thick Plate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The physics of a thick plate with fluid loading on both sides provides the theoretical basis for insertion loss and echo reduction tests, both of which are typically used to determine how efficiently...

  13. Mechanical properties of F82H plates with different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo, E-mail: sakasegawa.hideo@jaea.go.jp; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mass effect, homogeneity, and anisotropy in mechanical properties were studied. • Thickness dependence of tensile property was not observed. • Thickness dependence of Charpy impact property was observed. • Appropriate mechanical properties were obtained using an electric furnace. - Abstract: Fusion DEMO reactor requires over 11,000 tons of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel and it is indispensable to develop the manufacturing technology for producing large-scale components of DEMO blanket with appropriate mechanical properties. This is because mechanical properties are generally degraded with increasing production volume. In this work, we focused mechanical properties of F82H–BA12 heat which was melted in a 20 tons electric arc furnace. Plates with difference thicknesses from 18 to 100 mm{sup t} were made from its ingot through forging and hot-rolling followed by heat treatments. Tensile and Charpy impact tests were then performed on plates focusing on their homogeneity and anisotropy. From the result, their homogeneity and anisotropy were not significant. No obvious differences were observed in tensile properties between the plates with different thicknesses. However, Charpy impact property changed with increasing plate thickness, i.e. the ductile brittle transition temperature of a 100 mm{sup t} thick plate was higher than that of the other thinner plates.

  14. Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Plates with Variable Thickness Resting on Elastic Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K K; Aziz, Z A; Navaneethakrishnan, P V

    2015-01-01

    Buckling of rectangular plates of variable thickness resting in elastic foundation is analysed using a quintic spline approximation technique. The thickness of the plate varies in the direction of one edge and the variations are assumed to be linear, exponential and sinusoidal. The plate is subjected to in plane load of two opposite edges. The buckling load and the mode shapes of buckling are computed from the eigenvalue problem that arises. Detailed parametric studies are made with different boundary conditions and the results are presented through the diagram and discussed

  15. CRUSTAL THICKNESS VARIATIONS AND SEISMICITY OF NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Kim Jeong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Any uncompensated mass of the northern Andes Mountains is presumably under pressure to adjust within the Earth to its ideal state of isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy is the ideal state that any
    uncompensated mass seeks to achieve in time. These pressures interact with the relative motions between adjacent plates that give rise to earthquakes along the plate boundaries. By combining the
    gravity MOHO estimates and crustal discontinuities with historical and instrumental seismological catalogs the correlation between isostatically disturbed terrains and seismicity has been established.
    The thinner and thicker crustal regions were mapped from the zero horizontal curvature of the crustal thickness estimates. These boundaries or edges of crustal thickness variations were compared to
    crustal discontinuities inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies and the patterns of seismicity that have been catalogued for the last 363 years. The seismicity is very intense along the Nazca-North
    Andes, Caribbean-North American and North Andes-South American collision zones and associated with regional tectonic compressional stresses that have locally increased and/or diminished by
    compressional and tensional stress, respectively, due to crustal thickness variations. High seismicity is also associated with the Nazca-Cocos diverging plate boundary whereas low seismicity is associated with the Panama-Nazca Transform Fault and the South American Plate.

  16. Minimum Plate Thickness in High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The minimum plate thickness requirements specified by the classification societies for high-speed craft are supposed to ensure adequate resistance to impact loads such as collision with floating objects and objects falling on the deck. The paper presents analytical methods of describing such impact...... phenomena and proposes performance requirements instead of thickness requirements for hull panels in high-speed craft made of different building materials....

  17. Transitional behaviour of thickness effects in shipbuilding materials (MS plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, S. M. Ikhtiar; Razib, Amirul Hasan; Rahman, Md. Rabab Raiyatur

    2017-12-01

    Majority of the crack propagation in ships and offshore structures are caused due to fatigue. Previously, it was known that fatigue strength of notched specimen is dependent on size, but recently it came to light that fatigue strength of some welded joints depends on the thickness. Much investigation is done on the fatigue growth of welded joints. Fatigue often results in fracture accidents, which starts from the sites of structural discontinuities because of the reason that they may induce local stress concentrations. Structural discontinuities include notches, holes, sharp corners, and weld defects. Weld defects include undercut, porosity, lack of fusion, slag inclusion, incomplete weld root penetration, and misalignments. In order to investigate the effects of plate thickness on fatigue strength, semi-elliptical side notches (U and V shaped) in plates are studied in the present research. First consider a simple problem of crack emanating from notches in plates where the solution of stress intensity factor is given by an empirical formula so that the thickness effect on fatigue strength can easily be investigated for a variety of geometrical parameters. The present study aims to investigate the transitional behaviour of thickness effect in plates on fatigue strength. In order to calculate the stress, finite element analysis is carried by using ANSYS.

  18. Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

    2010-01-01

    A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

  19. Splitting diffraction peak in different thickness LL-interferometer and determination of thickness of damaged layer induced by electron irradiation of plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truni, K.G.; Sedrakyan, A.G.; Papoyan, A.A.; Bezirganyan, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Amplitude of twice reflected beam is calculated analytically, oscillatory dependence of peak intensity in the centre of diffraction image on the small variations in thickness is shown. The expression, clearly binding the splitting value of diffraction peak with variation in thickness of the interferometer plates, is received. The effect of variation in thickness on the splitting value of focal line is studied experimentally in case of irradiation of the equal-arm Π-shaped interferometer blocks by fast electron flow, thickness of the originated damaged layers are determined

  20. Analysis of Shrinkage on Thick Plate Part using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection moulding is the most widely used processes in manufacturing plastic products. Since the quality of injection improves plastic parts are mostly influenced by process conditions, the method to determine the optimum process conditions becomes the key to improving the part quality. This paper presents a systematic methodology to analyse the shrinkage of the thick plate part during the injection moulding process. Genetic Algorithm (GA method was proposed to optimise the process parameters that would result in optimal solutions of optimisation goals. Using the GA, the shrinkage of the thick plate part was improved by 39.1% in parallel direction and 17.21% in the normal direction of melt flow.

  1. Asymmetric Vibration of Polar Orthotropic Annular Circular Plates of Quadratically Varying Thickness with Same Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhardwaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, asymmetric vibration of polar orthotropic annular circular plates of quadratically varying thickness resting on Winkler elastic foundation is studied by using boundary characteristic orthonormal polynomials in Rayleigh-Ritz method. Convergence of the results is tested and comparison is made with results already available in the existing literature. Numerical results for the first ten frequencies for various values of parameters describing width of annular plate, thickness profile, material orthotropy and foundation constant for all three possible combinations of clamped, simply supported and free edge conditions are shown and discussed. It is found that (a higher elastic property in circumferential direction leads to higher stiffness against lateral vibration; (b Lateral vibration characteristics of F-Fplates is more sensitive towards parametric changes in material orthotropy and foundation stiffness than C-C and S-Splates; (c Effect of quadratical thickness variation on fundamental frequency is more significant in cases of C-C and S-S plates than that of F-Fplates. Thickness profile which is convex relative to plate center-line tends to result in higher stiffness of annular plates against lateral vibration than the one which is concave and (d Fundamental mode of vibration of C-C and S-Splates is axisymmetrical while that of F-Fplates is asymmetrical.

  2. Interference in a thick plate at large angle of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, M.T.; Shah Shehany, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the interference in a plane parallel plate is introduced which is valid for any angle of incidence and any thickness. It is shown that the interference in a plate can be interpreted as the interference in a double-slit and the corresponding parameters are derived. It is also shown that for a particular angle of incidence, which depends only on the refractive index, the interfringes are minimum. It is proved theoretically and verified experimentally that the interference around this particular angle of incidence has several exploitable features which include: a) In thick plates large numbers of equidistant fringes are formed which are very adequate for producing interference gratings. b) It provides, in comparison to the conventional interferometric methods, an easier and more accurate means for direct measurement of wave-length. c) Multiple-beam interference at this particular angle improve the accuracy of the measurement of the fine structures of the atomic spectra, compared to other interferometric methods. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  3. Effect of Glass Thickness on Performance of Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Fruits Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Bakari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of thickness of glazing material on the performance of flat plate solar collectors. Performance of solar collector is affected by glaze transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance which results into major heat losses in the system. Four solar collector models with different glass thicknesses were designed, constructed, and experimentally tested for their performances. Collectors were both oriented to northsouth direction and tilted to an angle of 10° with the ground toward north direction. The area of each collector model was 0.72 m2 with a depth of 0.15 m. Low iron (extra clear glass of thicknesses 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm was used as glazing materials. As a control, all collector performances were analysed and compared using a glass of 5 mm thickness and then with glass of different thickness. The results showed that change in glass thickness results into variation in collector efficiency. Collector with 4 mm glass thick gave the best efficiency of 35.4% compared to 27.8% for 6 mm glass thick. However, the use of glass of 4 mm thick needs precautions in handling and during placement to the collector to avoid extra costs due to breakage.

  4. Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large volcanos on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanos on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot volcanos results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the volcano's flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large volcanos on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanos should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical volcano. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the volcano's edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the volcanos. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the locations of these flows to the predicted moat locations from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.

  5. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THICK PLATES ON TWO PARAMETER ELASTIC FOUNDATION UNDER TIME VARIABLE LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgan, Korhan; Daloglu, Ayse T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, behavior of foundation plates with transverse shear deformation under time variable loading is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of thick plates on elastic foundation is derived by using an 8-noded finite element based on Mindlin plate theory. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem which arises when smaller plate thickness is considered for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices. After comparis...

  6. Some aspects of thick, soft nickel plating for end shields of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, R.

    1987-01-01

    Thick (55 Thou) and soft (160 vickers) hardness number nickel plating over SS for RAPP end shields presented unusual problems as the thickness required was extremely large creating adhesion problems and the extremely stringent hardness conditions. A sulfamate bath with nickel anode was found suitable. The problems in thick, soft plating, the chemical and other procedures adopted to monitor the bath and the plated specimen and the other details are presented. (author). 11 refs

  7. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of elasto-plastic thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The elasto-plastic dynamic analysis of thick plates is of great significance to the research and the design on an anti-seismic structure and an anti-explosive structure. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic influence coefficient of thick plates in deduced. A dynamic response of elasto-plastic thick plates its material has hardening behaviour considered, is analysed by using known elastic solutions. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elasto-plastic rectangular thick plates subjected arbitrary loads are given. Detailed computations are performed for the square plates of various height-span ratios. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. The modification of the classical deflection theory for plates is employed. The increment analysis is used for calculations. The yield function is considered as a function of inplane and transverse shear stresses. (orig./GL)

  8. Spatial Evolution of the Thickness Variations over a CFRP Laminated Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Yves; Crouzeix, Laurent; Douchin, Bernard; Collombet, Francis; Grunevald, Yves-Henri

    2017-10-01

    Ply thickness is one of the main drivers of the structural performance of a composite part. For stress analysis calculations (e.g., finite element analysis), composite plies are commonly considered to have a constant thickness compared to the reality (coefficients of variation up to 9% of the mean ply thickness). Unless this variability is taken into account reliable property predictions cannot be made. A modelling approach of such variations is proposed using parameters obtained from a 16-ply quasi-isotropic CFRP plate cured in an autoclave. A discrete Fourier transform algorithm is used to analyse the frequency response of the observed ply and plate thickness profiles. The model inputs, obtained by a mathematical representation of the ply thickness profiles, permit the generation of a representative stratification considering the spatial continuity of the thickness variations that are in good agreement with the real ply profiles spread over the composite part. A residual deformation FE model of the composite plate is used to illustrate the feasibility of the approach.

  9. Laser cutting of thick steel plates with 30 kW fiber laser for nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Laser cutting technologies of the thick steel plates for the nuclear decommissioning were developed with a 30 kW fiber laser. Plates of stainless steel and carbon steel more than 100 mm thick were successfully cut, indicating that this technology is promising for the application to the nuclear decommissioning. (author)

  10. The Relation Between Plate Spreading Rate, Crustal Thickness and Axial Relief at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Buck, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in axial valley relief and in faulting at plate spreading centers are clearly related to magma supply and axial lithospheric structure. Previous models that consider the interaction of magmatic dikes with lithospheric stretching do not successfully reproduce both of these trends. We present the first model that reproduces these trends by making simple assumptions about the partitioning of magma between dikes, gabbros and extrusives. A key concept is that dikes open not only in the brittle axial lithosphere but also into the underlying ductile crust, where they cool to form gabbro. The amount of gabbro so intruded depends on magma pressure that is related to axial relief. The deeper the valley the less magma goes into gabbros and the more magma is available for dikes to accommodate plate separation. We define the fraction of plate separation rate accommodated by dikes as M. If Mreasonable. Finally, we describe themo-mechanical models that allow us to relate plate spreading rate and crustal thickness and to axial valley depth.

  11. Finite thickness effect of a zone plate on focusing hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Chrzas, J.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Spatial resolution and focusing efficiency are two important properties of a zone plate in x-ray focusing applications. A general expression of the zone plate equation describing its zone registration is derived from the interference of spherical waves emited from two mutually coherent point sources. An analytical expression of the focusing efficiency in terms of the zone plate thickness and x-ray refractive indices of the zones is also derived. Validity condition for using this expression is considered. Thickness required for obtaining adequate focusing efficiency is calculated as a function of x-ray energy for several representative materials. The spatial resolution of a finite thickness zone plate is worse than that of an infinetly thin zone plate. which is approximately equal to the smallest zone width of the zone plate. The effect of the finite thickness on the spatial resolution is considered

  12. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  13. Thickness of the Buccal Plate in Posterior Teeth: A Prospective Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Kayleigh Eaves; Schoolfield, John; Noujeim, Marcel E; Huynh-Ba, Guy; Lasho, David J; Mealey, Brian L

    Buccal plate thickness is an important clinical parameter for postextraction implant treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess buccal plate thickness of the posterior maxilla and mandible using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 265 patients and 934 teeth met the inclusion criteria for this study. CBCT volumes were taken and aligned for measurement at the ideal midsagittal cross-section. Buccal plate thickness was measured at 1, 3, and 5 mm apical to the alveolar crest. The frequency of thick (≥ 1 mm), thin (teeth.

  14. Variation of microchannel plate resistance with temperature and applied voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.F.; Fraser, G.W.; Whiteley, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The resistance of microchannel plate electron multiplier is well known to be a function of both applied voltage and detector temperature. We show that the apparent variation of resistance with bias voltage is simply due to plate temperature increases resulting from resistive heating. (orig.)

  15. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range

  16. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M., E-mail: Badreddine.Assouar@univ-lorraine.fr [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  17. Investigation of the Section Thickness Measurement in Tomosynthesis by Thin Metal Plate Edge Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Kaoru; Akita, Tsunemichi; Hanai, Kozo; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa

    When performing tomosynthesis, the section thickness needs to be set depending on a radiographic part and its diagnostic purpose. However, the section thickness in tomosynthesis has not been clearly defined and its measurement method has not been established yet. In this study, we devised the alternative measurement method to diagnose the section thickness using an edge of thin metal plate, and compared with the simulation results, the wire and bead method reported in the previous papers. The tomographic image of the thin metal plate positioned on the table top inclining 30 degrees, which showed the edge spread function (ESF) of each tomographic height, was taken, and then the line spread function (LSF) was obtained by differentiating the ESF image. For the next, a profile curve was plotted by maximum values of LSF of each tomographic height, and a section thickness was calculated using the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the profile curve. The edge method derived the section thickness close to the simulation results than the other methods. Further, the section thickness depends on the thickness of the metal plate and not the material. The thickness of the metal plate suitable for the evaluation of section thickness is 0.3 mm that is equivalent to pixel size of the flat panel detector (FPD). We conducted quantitative verification to establish the measurement method of the section thickness. The edge method is a useful technique as well as the wire and bead method for grasping basic characteristics of an imaging system.

  18. Axisymmetric buckling analysis of laterally restrained thick annular plates using a hybrid numerical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.ir; Ouji, A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Islamic Azad University, Larestan Branch, Larestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The buckling analysis of annular thick plates with lateral supports such as two-parameter elastic foundations or ring supports is investigated using an elasticity based hybrid numerical method. For this purpose, firstly, the displacement components are perturbed around the pre-buckling state, which is located using the elasticity theory. Then, by decomposing the plate into a set of sub-domain in the form of co-axial annular plates, the buckling equations are discretized through the radial direction using global interpolation functions in conjunction with the principle of virtual work. The resulting differential equations are solved using the differential quadrature method. The method has the capability of modeling the arbitrary boundary conditions either at the inner and outer edges of thin-to-thick plates and with different types of lateral restraints. The fast rate of convergence of the method is demonstrated and comparison studies are carried out to establish its accuracy and versatility for thin-to-thick plates.

  19. Comparison of experimental techniques for characterization of through-thickness texture variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Lauridsen, E.M.; Krieger Lassen, N.C.

    1999-01-01

    For the investigation of through-thickness texture gradients, a number of layers in rolled plates and sheets are inspected. Crystallographic textures in different layers can be characterized using several techniques. In the present work, traditional low-energy X-ray diffraction, the electron...... backscattering pattern technique in the scanning electron microscope and a novel technique which involves high energy synchrotron radiation are used for characterization of through-thickness texture variations in commercial purity cold-rolled aluminium. Important experimental aspects of these three techniques...

  20. Computational Model for Impact-Resisting Critical Thickness of High-Speed Machine Outer Protective Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Wang, Li Zhong; Wang, Yantao; Yuan, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The blade or surface grinding blade of the hypervelocity grinding wheel may be damaged due to too high rotation rate of the spindle of the machine and then fly out. Its speed as a projectile may severely endanger the field persons. Critical thickness model of the protective plate of the high-speed machine is studied in this paper. For easy analysis, the shapes of the possible impact objects flying from the high-speed machine are simplified as sharp-nose model, ball-nose model and flat-nose model. Whose front ending shape to represent point, line and surface contacting. Impact analysis based on J-C model is performed for the low-carbon steel plate with different thicknesses in this paper. One critical thickness computational model for the protective plate of high-speed machine is established according to the damage characteristics of the thin plate to get relation among plate thickness and mass, shape and size and impact speed of impact object. The air cannon is used for impact test. The model accuracy is validated. This model can guide identification of the thickness of single-layer outer protective plate of a high-speed machine.

  1. Analysis on Interfacial Performance of CFRPConcrete with Different Thickness of Adhesive Layer and CFRP Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Qingyong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The bond behavior of CFRP-concrete interface is the analysis foundation for concrete structures with external strengthening CFRP. In the paper, the influences of the thickness of CFRP plate and adhesive layer on interfacial adhesive properties are investigated through the finite element program. The influence rules of the thickness on the interfacial ultimate bearing capacity and the effective bond length are performed. The results show that the thickness of adhesive layer and CFRP plate has a significant effect on the interfacial performance of CFRP-concrete.

  2. Thickness dependence of effective critical exponents in three-dimensional Ising plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.I.; Gonzalo, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in ising plates of equal area and different thickness have been studied by the Monte Carlo approach. The evolution of the critical temperature and of the effective critical exponents with the thickness of the lattice has been numerically determined. The thickness dependence of the maximum value of the effective critical exponents is well described by an exponential decay towards the respective three-dimensional value. (author)

  3. Quantification of thickness loss in a liquid-loaded plate using ultrasonic guided wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) provides an attractive solution to map thickness changes from remote locations. It is based on the velocity-to-thickness mapping employing the dispersive characteristics of selected guided modes. This study extends the application of GWT on a liquid-loaded plate. It is a more challenging case than the application on a free plate, due to energy of the guided waves leaking into the liquid. In order to ensure the accuracy of thickness reconstruction, advanced forward models are developed to consider attenuation effects using complex velocities. The reconstruction of the thickness map is based on the frequency-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) method, and its accuracy is discussed using different frequencies and defect dimensions. Validation experiments are carried out on a water-loaded plate with an irregularly shaped defect using S0 guided waves, showing excellent performance of the reconstruction algorithm.

  4. Anatomical Variation in the Wall Thickness of Wood Fibres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wall thickness of wood fibres of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) grown and tapped for latex in south eastern Nigeria were investigated to determine anatomical variation. The rubber trees which were overmature for tapping and keeping were sampled in hierarchical order of plantations, bud classes, trees, discs, cardinal ...

  5. Numerical simulation of springback of medium-thick plates in local hot rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to understand the factors of springback in the local hot rolling of medium-thick steel plates,[Methods] a 3D thermal-elastic-plastic analysis is conducted to investigate the factors affecting the amount of springback. Through a series of numerical analyses,the influence of deformation temperature,temperature field distribution,plate size and local loading are examined. [Results] The results show that when the deformation temperature exceeds a certain level at which material yield stress begins to decrease significantly,the springback will reduce markedly with the increase in temperature. Due to the distribution characteristics of the deformation area,the influence of temperature distribution on springback where the local deformation scale is larger is dominated by the three dimensions of temperature field distribution. Changes in the length and width of the plate have a certain influence on the springback,in which changes to the length of a plate where the local deformation scale is larger have a more obvious influence on springback. The springback of the plate decreases with the increase of local loading. [Conclusions] The results of this study can assist in the optimization of parameters in the automatic hot rolling of thick plates,while also having a basic guiding effect on the further study of springback in the local hot rolling of thick plates.

  6. A variational analysis for large deflection of skew plates under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, the static behaviour of thin isotropic skew plates under uniformly distributed load is analyzed with the geometric nonlinearity of the model properly handled. A variational method based on total potential energy has been implemented through assumed displacement field. The computational work has ...

  7. Conformity Check of Thickness to the Crystal Plate λ/4(λ/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Syuy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates that if crystal plates are identical in thickness in the direction of radiation, the intensity at the output of the polarizer-crystal-crystal-analyzer system equals zero. This means that it is possible to control the difference in thickness between the reference crystal plate (e.g., plates of λ/4 or λ/2 and the examined plate by the intensity of the transmitted radiation. Further, it shows that if nonmonochromatic radiation is used, then the spectrum of radiation at the output is determined by the relative orientation of the optical elements and their sizes. The paper gives the theoretical model for calculations of profile of spectra for the number of important cases of orientation of elements.

  8. Three-Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Thick Plates on Pasternak Foundation with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first known vibration characteristic of rectangular thick plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions on the basis of the three-dimensional elasticity theory. The arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained by laying out three types of linear springs on all edges. The modified Fourier series are chosen as the basis functions of the admissible function of the thick plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges. The exact solution is obtained based on the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure by the energy functions of the thick plate. The excellent accuracy and reliability of current solutions are demonstrated by numerical examples and comparisons with the results available in the literature. In addition, the influence of the foundation coefficients as well as the boundary restraint parameters is also analyzed, which can serve as the benchmark data for the future research technique.

  9. Resonant frequency function of thickness-shear vibrations of rectangular crystal plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Yang, Lijun; Pan, Qiaoqiao; Chao, Min-Chiang; Du, Jianke

    2011-05-01

    The resonant frequencies of thickness-shear vibrations of quartz crystal plates in rectangular and circular shapes are always required in the design and manufacturing of quartz crystal resonators. As the size of quartz crystal resonators shrinks, for rectangular plates we must consider effects of both length and width for the precise calculation of resonant frequency. Starting from the three-dimensional equations of wave propagation in finite crystal plates and the general expression of vibration modes, we obtained the relations between frequency and wavenumbers. By satisfying the major boundary conditions of the dominant thickness-shear mode, three wavenumber solutions are obtained and the frequency equation is constructed. It is shown the resonant frequency of thickness-shear mode is a second-order polynomial of aspect ratios. This conforms to known results in the simplest form and is applicable to further analytical and experimental studies of the frequency equation of quartz crystal resonators.

  10. Evaluation of palatal plate thickness of maxillary prosthesis on phonation- a comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkula, Srujana; B, Sreedevi; Anne, Gopinadh; Manne, Prakash; Bindu O, Swetha Hima; Atla, Jyothi; Deepthi, Sneha; Chaitanya A, Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Prosthodontic treatment involves clinical procedures which influence speech performance directly or indirectly. Prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth with partial or complete maxillary removable dentures influences the individual voice characteristics like Phonation, resonance etc. To evaluate the effect of Acrylic palatal plate thickness (1mm-3mm) of maxillary prosthesis on phonation. Twelve subjects were selected randomly between the age group of 20-25 years who have full complement of teeth and have no speech problems. Speech evaluation was done under four experimental conditions i.e. Without any experimental acrylic palatal plate (control), with experimental acrylic palatal plates of thickness 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm respectively. The speech material for phonation test consisted of Vowels sounds /a/, /i/, and /o/. Speech analysis to assess phonation was done using digital acoustic analysis (PRAAT software). The obtained results were statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post-hoc for comparison of four experimental conditions with respect to different vowel sounds. Mean harmonics to noise ratio (HNR) values obtained for all the Experimental conditions did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, an increase in the thickness of the acrylic palatal plate of maxillary prosthesis for about 1 mm - 3mm in complete or partial maxillary removable dentures resulted in no significant effect on phonation of vowel sounds /a/, /i/ and /o/. Increasing the thickness of the palatal plate from 1 mm to 3 mm has not shown any significant effect on the phonation.

  11. Mechanical System Analysis of C-Frame for Steel Plate Thickness Gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear base instrument is not only applied in the area of research such as medical and agriculture sciences, but also in the field of industry especially for thickness gauge. To the present at the steel industry, the gauge that is applied to cut plate thickness using infra-red ray method, it cannot result in accurately data. To solve that case, it is developed a thickness gauge of steel plate by using gamma ray method that it is named C-Frame. This thickness gauge is hoped that it could control in cutting the steel plate by on-line, accurate, and safe, therefore, it could socialize the advanced technology in the nuclear field to support the production process in domestic industries (national industries). The present study yields the calculations of mechanical system of that C-Frame including structure, detector support, source container of radioisotope, and transmission system, be also computed by running Professional Microsoft Fortran Version 5.10, NISA-II program, and AutoCAD program. From the obtained results could be known that the design meets the requirement, so that could be employed properly to measure the thickness of plate in the steel industries. (author)

  12. Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate under mechanical and electrical loads with the consideration of surface effects. Surface effects, including surface elasticity, residual surface stress and surface piezoelectricity, are incorporated into the conventional Kirchhoff plate theory for a piezoelectric plate via the surface piezoelectricity model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. Different from the results predicted by the conventional plate theory ignoring the surface effects, the proposed model predicts size-dependent behaviours of the piezoelectric thin plate with nanoscale thickness. It is found that surface effects have significant influence on the electroelastic responses of the piezoelectric nanoplate. This work is expected to provide more accurate predictions on characterizing nanofilm or nanoribbon based piezoelectric devices in nanoelectromechanical systems. (paper)

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  14. Vibrations And Deformations Of Moderately Thick Plates In Stochastic Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywiński Maksym

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with some chosen aspects of stochastic dynamical analysis of moderately thick plates. The discretization of the governing equations is described by the finite element method. The main aim of the study is to provide the generalized stochastic perturbation technique based on classical Taylor expansion with a single random variable.

  15. Thermal stresses in rectangular plates: variational and finite element solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laura, P.A.A.; Gutierrez, R.H.; Sanchez Sarmiento, G.; Basombrio, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of an approximate method for the analysis of thermal stresses in rectangular plates (plane stress problem) and an evaluation of the relative accuracy of the finite element method. The stress function is expanded in terms of polynomial coordinate functions which identically satisfy the boundary conditions, and a variational approach is used to determine the expansion coefficients. The results are in good agreement with a finite element approach. (Auth.)

  16. Air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission thickness measurements of steel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Grunde; Hoff, Lars; Norli, Petter

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing of steel structures provide valuable information in e.g. inspection of pipes, ships and offshore structures. In many practical applications, contact measurements are cumbersome or not possible, and air-coupled ultrasound can provide a solution. This paper presents air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission measurements on a steel plate with thicknesses 10.15 mm; 10.0 mm; 9.8 mm. Ultrasound pulses were transmitted from a piezoelectric transducer at normal incidence, through the steel plate, and were received at the opposite side. The S1, A2 and A3 modes of the plate are excited, with resonance frequencies that depend on the material properties and the thickness of the plate. The results show that the resonances could be clearly identified after transmission through the steel plate, and that the frequencies of the resonances could be used to distinguish between the three plate thicknesses. The S1-mode resonance was observed to be shifted 10% down compared to a simple plane wave half-wave resonance model, while the A2 and S2 modes were found approximately at the corresponding plane-wave resonance frequencies. A model based on the angular spectrum method was used to predict the response of the through-transmission setup. This model included the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and compressional and shear waves in the solid. The model predicts the frequencies of the observed modes of the plate to within 1%, including the down-shift of the S1-mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of the Modified Vlasov Model to the Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgan, Korhan; Daloglu, Ayse T.

    2009-01-01

    The Modified Vlasov Model is applied to the free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundations. The effects of the subsoil depth, plate dimensions and their ratio, the value of the vertical deformation parameter within the subsoil on the frequency parameters of plates on elastic foundations are investigated. A four-noded, twelve degrees of freedom quadrilateral finite element (PBQ4) is used for plate bending analysis based on Mindlin plate theory which is effectively appli...

  18. Thick nickel plating of spent fuel transport and storage casks CASTOR and POLLUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1991-01-01

    Spent fuel elements have to be safely handled in containers for transport and storage. These large casks (100-120 t) are made by various firms according to the specifications given by the nuclear plant operator. For shielding and protection of the hazardous material, the casks' inner surface is coated with a nickel plating about 3000 μm thick. The product and the production process are subject to very stringent requirements, due to the hazardous potential of the material to be shipped or stored. Therefore, both the extremely high quality standards to be met by the nickel plating and the dimensions and capability of the plating plant required for the process are problems that cannot be solved by a usual commercial plating plant. The new concept and process that had to be established are explained in the paper. (orig./MM) [de

  19. Influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of piezoelectric bimorph mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libu, M.; Susanth, S.; Vasanthakumari, K. G.; Dileep Kumar, C. J.; Raghu, N.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric based bimorph mirrors (PBM) find extensive use in focusing of x-ray beams. Many optical instruments require use of PBM whose radii of curvature can be tuned precisely. The 100 mm and 300 mm PBMs were fabricated with varying piezoelectric to fused silica plate thicknesses. The radii of curvature of free standing mirrors were measured as a function of voltage and it was found to decrease with increasing voltage. For a given piezoelectric plate thickness, as the fused silica thickness increases, the radii of curvature was found to increase owing to increase in stiffness of the mirror. On the other hand, for a given fused silica plate thickness, when the piezoelectric plate thickness is increased, the radii of curvature are decreased for a given electric field, due to increase in generated force. This study brings out the influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of PBM.

  20. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  1. Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.

    2018-04-01

    The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.

  2. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  3. The fatigue life and fatigue crack through thickness behavior of a surface cracked plate, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Fujibayashi, Shinpei; Ando, Kotoji; Ogura, Nobukazu.

    1987-01-01

    Most structures have a region where stresses concentrate, and the probability of fatigue crack initiation may be higher than in other parts. Therefore, to improve the reliability of an LBB design, it is necessary to evaluate the growth and through thickness behavior of fatigue cracks in the stress concentration part. In this paper, a fatigue crack growth test at a stress concentration region has been made on 3 % NiCrMo and HT 80 steel. Stress concentration is caused by a fillet on the plate. The main results obtained are as follows : (1) Before cracking through the plate thickness, stress concentration has a remarkable effect on the fatigue crack growth behavior and it flatens the shape of a surface crack. The crack growth behavior can be explained quantatively by using the Newman-Raju equation and the stress resolving method proposed by ASME B and P Code SecXI. (2) The da/dN-ΔK relation obtained in a stress concentration specimen shows good agreement with that obtained in a surface cracked smooth specimen. (3) It is shown that stress concentration caused by a fillet has little effect on the crack growth rate after cracking through the plate thickness. (4) By using the K value based on eq. (1), (2), particular crack growth behavior and the change in crack shape after cracking through thickness can be explained quantatively. (author)

  4. Comparison of closed-form and finite-element solutions of thick laminated anisotropic rectangular plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, J N; Chao, W C [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics

    1981-04-01

    In this study the effects of reduced integration, mesh size, and element type (i.e. linear or quadratic) on the accuracy of a penalty-finite element based on the theory governing thick, laminated, anisotropic composite plates are investigated. In order to assess the accuracy of the present finite element, exact closed-form solutions are developed for cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply rectangular plates simply supported and subjected to sinusoidally distributed mechanical and/or thermal loadings, and free vibration.

  5. Thick film nickel plating - the alternative. Long-term experiences; Dickschichtvernickelung - die Alternative. Langzeiterfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senff-Wollenberg, Ralf [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany). Technik; Ansey, Johann-Wilhelm [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung; Reinmoeller, Frank [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The ecologic and energetic demands on modern plants fort he thermal utilization of waste materials increase continuously. Beside low costs of investment, enhanced efficiencies, an enhanced availability, long journey times as well as low costs of operation and maintenance are important factors for the investment decision. The primary and secondary measures for the shrinkage of corrosion are decisive for achieving the factors for the decision of investment and maintenance. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on long-term experiences on the thick film nickel plating. Especially, the process of galvanic nickel plating, the fields of application as well as the operational experiences are described.

  6. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  7. Finite plate thickness effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Rinosh; Banerjee, Arindam

    2017-11-01

    The majority of theoretical studies have tackled the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) problem in solids using an infinitely thick plate. Recent theoretical studies by Piriz et al. (PRE 95, 053108, 2017) have explored finite thickness effects. We seek to validate this recent theoretical estimate experimentally using our rotating wheel RTI experiment in an accelerated elastic-plastic material. The test section consists of a container filled with air and mayonnaise (a non-Newtonian emulsion) with an initial perturbation between two materials. The plate thickness effects are studied by varying the depth of the soft-solid. A set of experiments is run by employing different initial conditions with different container dimensions. Additionally, the effect of acceleration rate (driving pressure rise time) on the instability threshold with reference to the finite thickness will also be inspected. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared to the analytical strength models related to finite thickness effects on RTI. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA Grant # DE-NA0003195 and LANL subcontract #370333.

  8. Refined shear correction factor for very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    For moderately thick plates, the use of First order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) with a constant shear correction factor of 5/6 is sufficient to take into account the plate deflection arising from transverse shear deformation. For very thick plates, the use of Third order Shear Deformation Theory (TSDT) is preferred as it allows the shear strain distribution to be varied through the plate thickness. Therefore no correction factor is required in TSDT, unlike FSDT. Due to the complexity involved in TSDT, this paper obtains a more accurate shear correction factor for use in FSDT of very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular plates based on the TSDT. By matching the maximum deflections for this plate according to FSDT and TSDT, a variable shear correction factor is obtained. Results show that the shear correction factor for the simplified TSDT, i.e. 14/17, is least accurate. The commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 in FSDT is valid only for very thin or highly auxetic plates. This paper provides a variable shear correction for FSDT deflection that matches the plate deflection by TSDT. This variable shear correction factor allows designers to justify the use of a commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 even for very thick plates as long as the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. (paper)

  9. Natural frequencies and an atlas of mode shapes for generally-laminated, thick, skew, trapezoidal plates

    OpenAIRE

    Lovejoy, Andrew Elwyn

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly finding use in structures, such as aircraft components, and thus, an accurate method of predicting response is required. Even laminated structures that are considered thin can be significantly affected by transverse shear effects, and as a result, transverse shear should not be neglected. The free vibration response of generally-laminated, thick, skew, trapezoidal plates is investigated as there appears to be a lack of information in this ar...

  10. Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ishigami, Ryoya; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser was studied for application to nuclear decommissioning. Successful cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel plates up to 300 mm in thickness was demonstrated, as was that of thick steel components such as simulated reactor vessel walls, a large pipe, and a gate valve. The results indicate that laser cutting applied to nuclear decommissioning is a promising technology. (author)

  11. The technology and welding joint properties of hybrid laser-tig welding on thick plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenghai, Zhang; Yifu, Shen; Huijuan, Qiu

    2013-06-01

    The technologies of autogenous laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding are used on thick plate of high strength lower alloy structural steel 10CrNiMnMoV in this article. The unique advantages of hybrid laser-TIG welding is summarized by comparing and analyzing the process parameters and welding joints of autogenous laser welding laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding. With the optimal process parameters of hybrid welding, the good welding joint without visible flaws can be obtained and its mechanical properties are tested according to industry standards. The results show that the hybrid welding technology has certain advantages and possibility in welding thick plates. It can reduce the demands of laser power, and it is significant for lowering the aspect ratio of weld during hybrid welding, so the gas in the molten pool can rise and escape easily while welding thick plates. Therefore, the pores forming tendency decreases. At the same time, hybrid welding enhances welding speed, and optimizes the energy input. The transition and grain size of the microstructure of hybrid welding joint is better and its hardness is higher than base material. Furthermore, its tensile strength and impact toughness is as good as base material. Consequently, the hybrid welding joint can meet the industry needs completely.

  12. Variation in Lateral Plate Quality in Threespine Stickleback from Fresh, Brackish and Marine Water: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wiig

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the drivers leading to adaptive phenotypic diversity within and among species. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus has become a model system for investigating the genetic and phenotypic responses during repeated colonization of fresh waters from the original marine habitat. During the freshwater colonization process there has been a recurrent and parallel reduction in the number of lateral bone plates, making it a suitable system for studying adaptability and parallel evolution.The aim of this study was to investigate an alternative evolutionary path of lateral plate reduction, where lateral plates are reduced in size rather than number.A total of 72 threespine stickleback individuals from freshwater (n = 54, brackish water (n = 27 and marine water (n = 9 were analysed using microcomputed tomography (μCT to determine variation in size, thickness and structure of the lateral plates. Furthermore, whole-body bone volume, and bone volume, bone surface and porosity of lateral plate number 4 were quantified in all specimens from each environment.The results showed a significant difference in plate size (area and volume among populations, where threespine stickleback from polymorphic freshwater and brackish water populations displayed lateral plates reduced in size (area and volume compared to marine stickleback.Reduction of lateral plates in threespine stickleback in fresh and brackish water occurs by both plate loss and reduction in plate size (area and volume.

  13. Evaluation of the x-ray fluorescence method of precious metal plating thickness measurements. Technological spinoff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.S.; Hearn, N.K.; Pettie, C.B.

    1975-09-01

    It is shown that gold and silver plating thickness measurements made using an x-ray spectrograph could be closely correlated with thicknesses measured from sectional samples. Good correlations were also shown for single overlays of gold over silver when each layer was less than 0.0003 inch thick

  14. Application of the Modified Vlasov Model to the Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modified Vlasov Model is applied to the free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundations. The effects of the subsoil depth, plate dimensions and their ratio, the value of the vertical deformation parameter within the subsoil on the frequency parameters of plates on elastic foundations are investigated. A four-noded, twelve degrees of freedom quadrilateral finite element (PBQ4 is used for plate bending analysis based on Mindlin plate theory which is effectively applied to the analysis of thin and thick plates when selective reduced integration technique is used. The first ten natural frequency parameters are presented in tabular and graphical forms to show the effects of the parameters considered in the study. It is concluded that the effect of the subsoil depth on the frequency parameters of the plates on elastic foundation is generally larger than that of the other parameters considered in the study.

  15. Measurement of fluid film thickness on the valve plate in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps (I): bearing pad effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Jung, Jae Youn

    2003-01-01

    The tribological mechanism between the valve plate and the cylinder block in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps plays an important role on high power density. In this study, the fluid film thickness between the valve plate and the cylinder block was measured with discharge pressure and rotational speed by use of a gap sensor, and a slip ring system in the operating period. To investigate the effect of the valve plate shapes, we designed two valve plates with different shapes: the first valve plate was without a bearing pad, while the second valve plate had a bearing pad. It was found that both valve plates behaved differently with respect to the fluid film thickness characteristics. The leakage flow rates and the shaft torque were also experimented in order to clarify the performance difference between the valve plate without a bearing pad and the valve plate with a bearing pad. From the results of this study, we found out that in the oil hydraulic axial piston pumps, the valve plate with a bearing pad showed better film thickness contours than the valve plate without a bearing pad

  16. Three-dimensional inverse transient heat transfer analysis of thick functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, M.R. Golbahar; Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran); Eghtesad, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran); Necsulescu, D.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, a three-dimensional transient inverse heat conduction (IHC) procedure is presented to estimate the unknown boundary heat flux of thick functionally graded (FG) plates. For this purpose, the conjugate gradient method (CGM) in conjunction with adjoint problem is used. A recently developed three-dimensional efficient hybrid method is employed to solve variable-coefficient initial-boundary-value differential equations of direct problem as a part of the inverse solution. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by simulating the exact and noisy data for problems with different types of boundary conditions and material properties. In addition to rectangular domain, skew plates are considered. The results obtained show good accuracy for the estimation of boundary heat fluxes. (author)

  17. Application of Generalized Fractional Thermoelasticity Theory with Two Relaxation Times to an Electromagnetothermoelastic Thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abd El-Latief

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional mathematical model of Maxwell’s equations in an electromagnetic field and the fractional generalized thermoelastic theory associated with two relaxation times are applied to a 1D problem for a thick plate. Laplace transform is used. The solution in Laplace transform domain has been obtained using a direct method and its inversion is calculated numerically using a method based on Fourier series expansion technique. Finally, the effects of the two fractional parameters (thermo and magneto on variable fields distributions are made. Numerical results are represented graphically.

  18. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of friction stir welded joints in 2219-O aluminum alloy thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weifeng; Liu Jinhe

    2009-01-01

    Effect of welding parameters on the microstructure and pitting corrosion of different positions along the thickness of weld nugget zone in friction stir welded 2219-O aluminum alloy plate was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarization experiment and electrochemical impedance tests (EIS). It was found that the material presents significant passivation and the top has best corrosion resistance compared to the bottom and base material. Corrosion resistance decreases with the increase of traverse speed from 60 to 100 mm/min at rotary speed 400 rpm. Corrosion resistance at rotary speed 600 rpm is lower than that at 500 rpm.

  19. Pitting corrosion of friction stir welded aluminum alloy thick plate in alkaline chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weifeng; Liu Jinhe; Zhu Hongqiang

    2010-01-01

    The pitting corrosion of different positions (Top, Middle and Bottom) of weld nugget zone (WNZ) along thickness plate in friction stir welded 2219-O aluminum alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by using open circuit potential, cyclic polarization, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The results indicate that the material presents significant passivation, the top has highest corrosion potential, pitting potential and re-passivation potential compared with the bottom and base material. With the increase of traverse speed from 60 to 100 mm/min or rotary speed from 500 to 600 rpm, the corrosion resistance decreases.

  20. Application of the beta particles backscattering technique for determining the thickness of the cladding in nuclear fuels plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.; Ferreira, P.I.; Lima, L.F.C.P. de; Vieira, J.M.; Perez, H.E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype of an instalation to measure thickness of cladding and core of nuclear fuels plate using the beta particles backscattering technique is constructed. The method and calibration system is described. The thickness measurements of the cladding and core were done in a natural uranium fuel plate developed at IPEN. The reliability of the method is confirmed by the metalographic measures analysis. (E.G.) [pt

  1. The Crustal Thickness of the Philippine Sea Plate Derived from Gravity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yuan Yen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a new free-air gravity anomaly map of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP using ship-tracked gravity data from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC. Our results show that the isogals trend correlates well with the tectonic structures in the PSP. After removing the gravity induced by sea water from the free-air gravity data, we obtained the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly, which is later used to compute the Moho geometry in the PSP by applying the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method. Our results indicate that in the southern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB the crustal thickness is nearly homogeneous with a value of about 5 km, which implies that the WPB is quite stable. The low-amplitude and near-zero free-air gravity anomalies clearly indicate that the whole WPB, except at trenches and island arcs, is nearly in a state of isostatic equilibrium. The average crustal thickness of the Palau Kyushu Ridge (PKR is more than 10 km. In the eastern PSP the crustal thickness gradually increases eastward. Our results also imply that a relatively thin and low density mantle exists beneath the Parece Vela Basin (PVB as a consequence of back-arc spreading and serpentinized upwells of the thin crustal thickness.

  2. Process stability during fiber laser-arc hybrid welding of thick steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaziv, Ivan; Frostevarg, Jan; Akselsen, Odd M.; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Thick steel plates are frequently used in shipbuilding, pipelines and other related heavy industries, and are usually joined by arc welding. Deep penetration laser-arc hybrid welding could increase productivity but has not been thoroughly investigated, and is therefore usually limited to applications with medium thickness (5-15 mm) sections. A major concern is process stability, especially when using modern welding consumables such as metal-cored wire and advanced welding equipment. High speed imaging allows direct observation of the process so that process behavior and phenomena can be studied. In this paper, 45 mm thick high strength steel was welded (butt joint double-sided) using the fiber laser-MAG hybrid process utilizing a metal-cored wire without pre-heating. Process stability was monitored under a wide range of welding parameters. It was found that the technique can be used successfully to weld thick sections with appropriate quality when the parameters are optimized. When comparing conventional pulsed and the more advanced cold metal transfer pulse (CMT+P) arc modes, it was found that both can provide high quality welds. CMT+P arc mode can provide more stable droplet transfer over a limited range of travel speeds. At higher travel speeds, an unstable metal transfer mechanism was observed. Comparing leading arc and trailing arc arrangements, the leading arc configuration can provide higher quality welds and more stable processing at longer inter-distances between the heat sources.

  3. Variation in thickness of the large cryosections cut for whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsunao; Brill, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method to assess variation in thickness of the large cryosections for whole-body autoradiography (WBARG) was described, and the degree of intraslice and interslice variations were determined for our cryomicrotome system (LKB PMV-2250). Intraslice variation in thickness of the 180 x 80 mm cryosection was 0.72-0.92 μm within the range of section thickness for WBARG (15-50 μm), and interslice variation was 0.89-1.21 μm. These potential variations in section thickness should be kept in mind whenever working with quantitative WBARG. (author)

  4. Nonlinear response arising from non self-similar crack growth in finite thickness plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sih, G.C.; Chen, C.

    1982-07-01

    Described in this report is a three-dimensional finite element procedure for finding the stresses in a finite thickness plate with a through crack. The Mode I loading is increased incrementally such that crack growth occurs in segments. The individual crack profiles are assumed to coincide with the locations of minimum strain energy density, (dW/dV)/sub min/. Its shape is found to change during growth. Each successive crack growth increment will increase even though the rising load increment is kept constant. Three different plate thickness to half crack length ratios were analyzed. An average critical crack ligament distance r/sub c/ = 0.172 in (0.437 cm) being independent of crack and specimen size was obtained. This corresponds to an analytically predicted fracture toughness S/sub c/ = r/sub c/ (dW/dV)/sub c/ = 15.489 lb/in (2708.825 N/m) for A533B steel at -10 0 F. Data at low temperature were used in order to confine crack growth within the linear elastic range

  5. Investigation of reactivity variations of the Isfahan MNSR reactor due to variations in the thickness of the core top beryllium layer using WIMSD and MCNP codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shirani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR is first simulated using the WIMSD code, and its fuel burn-up after 7 years of operation ( when the reactor was revived by adding a 1.5 mm thick beryllium shim plate to the top of its core and also after 14 years of operation (total operation time of the reactor is calculated. The reactor is then simulated using the MCNP code, and its reactivity variation due to adding a 1.5 mm thick beryllium shim plate to the top of the reactor core, after 7 years of operation, is calculated. The results show good agreement with the available data collected at the revival time. Exess reactivity of the reactor at present time (after 14 years of operation and after 7 years of the the reactor revival time is also determined both experimentally and by calculation, which show good agreement, and indicate that at the present time there is no need to add any further beryllium shim plate to the top of the reactor core. Furthermore, by adding more beryllium layers with various thicknesses to the top of the reactor core, in the input program of the MCNP program, reactivity value of these layers is calculated. From these results, one can predict the necessary beryllium thickness needed to reach a desired reactivity in the MNSR reactor.

  6. Features of propagation and recordingof the stress waves in plates of finite thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednichenko Rostislav Andreevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study at the same time the dynamics of wave propagation in plane and axisymmetric plates by finite-difference numerical calculation and by the method of dynamic photoelasticity.In many cases it is possible to carry out the investigation of the dynamic stressed state of solid structures under the impact of seismic waves in plane statement, observing the foundation and the building itself in the conditions of plane deformation. Such problems in structural mechanics are usually investigated on plates providing the conditions of generalized plane stressed condition and accounting for the necessity of the known substitution of elastic constants. In case of applying the model of generalized plane stressed state for investigating two-dimensional waves’ propagation in three-dimensional elastic medium it may be necessary to observe certain additional conditions, which for example limit the class of external impacts of high frequencies (short waves. The use of candling for wave recording in plane models explored with the method of dynamic photoelasticity in the observed cases of impulse loading of the plates with finite thickness gives satisfactory results.

  7. Loess Thickness Variations Across the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Mingan

    2018-01-01

    The soil thickness is very important for investigating and modeling soil-water processes, especially on the Loess Plateau of China with its deep loess deposit and limited water resources. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Loess Plateau and neighborhood analysis in ArcGIS software were used to generate a map of loess thickness, which was then validated by 162 observations across the plateau. The generated loess thickness map has a high resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The map indicates that loess is thick in the central part of the plateau and becomes gradually shallower in the southeast and northwest directions. The areas near mountains and river basins have the shallowest loess deposit. The mean loess thickness is the deepest in the zones with 400-600-mm precipitation and decreases gradually as precipitation varies beyond this range. Our validation indicates that the map just slightly overestimates loess thickness and is reliable. The loess thickness is mostly between 0 and 350 m in the Loess Plateau region. The calculated mean loess thickness is 105.7 m, with the calibrated value being 92.2 m over the plateau exclusive of the mountain areas. Our findings provide very basic data of loess thickness and demonstrate great progress in mapping the loess thickness distribution for the plateau, which are valuable for a better study of soil-water processes and for more accurate estimations of soil water, carbon, and solute reservoirs in the Loess Plateau of China.

  8. A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks under combined end force and cross-thickness bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yuebao; Fox, Mike J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending is derived, which allows any combination of positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment. The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept and, therefore, gives limit load values based on the Tresca yielding criterion. Solutions for both cases with and without crack face contact are derived when whole or part of the crack is located in the compressive stress zone. From the solution, particular global limit load solutions for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks under the same loading conditions are obtained. The solution is consistent with the limit load solution for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and positive bending due to Goodall and Webster and Lei when both the applied end force and bending moment are positive. The solution reduces to the limit load solution for plain plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending when the crack vanishes. - Highlights: → A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks in plates is derived. → Combined positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment are considered. → The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept.

  9. The problem of the black plate with zero thickness and finite width in neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, Pierre.

    1979-08-01

    A black plate with zero thickness, finite width and infinite height, imbedded in an infinite and homogeneous medium which scatters and absorbs neutrons, is considered. The problem is time-independent and the neutrons, which are supposed to have a unique speed, are issued, either from a current at infinity (problem A), or from a uniform source (problem B). It is shown that the Csub(N) method seems to be particularly well suited to the resolution of this 'two-dimensional Milne problem'. A particular interest is attached to the determination of the radius R of the black cylinder leading to the same polar behaviour of the flux at infinity as the plate (criterion 1), or absorbing the same number of neutrons as the plate (criterion 2). In this preliminary report, values of R are calculated in various limit cases: the width of the plate being taken equal to one, l being the mean free path and c the number of secondaries par collision in the outer medium, R is calculated at first in the limit l → 0 (for c = 1) by the theory of Musklelishvili, and then in the limit l → infinity (whatever c is) and c → 0 (whatever l is). In the limit c → 1 (whatever l is), R is shown to be the same in problems A and B and criteria 1 and 2. On the other hand, whatever l and c are; the values of R obtained in the problem A with the criterion 2 and in the problem B with the criterion 1 are shown to be equal. All these results allow henceforth a reasonable interpolation which can be useful in the practice [fr

  10. Inhomogeneity of Microstructure and Properties of 7085-T651 Aluminum Alloy Extra-thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Chengbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneity of microstructure and properties of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy extra-thick plate were investigated by tensile properties, exfoliation corrosion, optical microscopy(OM, composition analysis, scanning electron microscopy(SEM,differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that the microstructure, tensile property and exfoliation corrosion in different layers of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy of 110 mm thick are inhomogeneous. For the 1/4 thickness layer, the tensile strength is the minimum, 540 MPa, and the resistance to exfoliation corrosion of this layer is the worst, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EB. For the core layer, the tensile strength is the maximum, 580 MPa. The resistance to exfoliation corrosion of the surface layer is the best, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EA. For the 1/4 thickness layer, it has the largest recrystallized fraction up to about 47.7% and the grain size is about 105 μm; there are equilibrium phase particles precipitated on grain boundaries or within grains; the size of aging precipitates is small; and thus both mechanical properties and resistance to exfoliation corrosion are the worst. For the core layer, it has the smallest recrystallized fraction of about 14.8% and there are a large amount of sub-grains; the fraction of residual phase Al7Cu2Fe almost reaches up to about 1.43%; the size of the equilibrium phase on grain boundaries, the size of aging precipitates and the width of PFZ are large, and therefore good mechanical properties and bad resistance to exfoliation corrosion are obtained.

  11. Calibrated expressions for welding and their application to isotherm width in a thick plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentry Wood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a possible solution to the limitations of modern trial and error solutions to welding procedure development. The difficulties of finding generalized solutions to Rosenthal´s equation are discussed and the Minimal Representation and Calibration approach is introduced as a promising procedure for developing these solutions. Dominant factors are identified, with effects from secondary phenomena being taken into account by correction factors. These correction factors are then calibrated and presented in a form that can be easily computed, and therefore be amendable to industry. The approach is then demonstrated by determining the isotherm width from Rosenthal´s thick plate solution. Comparison of the calibrated scaling equations to Rosenthal´s exact solution showed a maximum error of less than 0.8% for any isotherm.

  12. Shrinkage Analysis on Thick Plate Part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isafiq M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work reported herein is about an analysis on the quality (shrinkage on a thick plate part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Previous researches showed that the most influential factor affecting the shrinkage on moulded parts are mould and melt temperature. Autodesk Moldflow Insight software was used for the analysis, while specifications of Nessei NEX 1000 injection moulding machine and P20 mould material were incorporated in this study on top of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS as a moulded thermoplastic material. Mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure and packing time were selected as variable parameters. The results show that the shrinkage have improved 42.48% and 14.41% in parallel and normal directions respectively after the optimisation process.

  13. Thermal behavior variations in coating thickness using pulse phase thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Chung, Yoonjae; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a study on the use of pulsed phase thermography in the measurement of thermal barrier coating thickness with a numerical simulation. A multilayer heat transfer model was used to analyze the surface temperature response acquired from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging. The test sample comprised four layers: the metal substrate, bond coat, thermally grown oxide and the top coat. The finite element software, ANSYS, was used to model and predict the temperature distribution in the test sample under an imposed heat flux on the exterior of the TBC. The phase image was computed with the use of the software MATLAB and Thermofit Pro using a Fourier transform. The relationship between the coating thickness and the corresponding phase angle was then established with the coating thickness being expressed as a function of the phase angle. The method is successfully applied to measure the coating thickness that varied from 0.25 mm to 1.5 mm.

  14. Phase-conjugate interferometer to estimate refractive index and thickness of transparent plane parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana-Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez-Zurita, G.; Vazquez-Castillo, J. F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    A technique to estimate the refractive index and thickness of homogeneous plane parallel dielectric plates is proposed using a phase-conjugate interferometer, in which counting of interference fringes is employed. The light beam impinges a tilted plate before it enters a phase-conjugate interferometer, and a count of the fringes passing through a given reference at the observing plane gives the phase changes as a function of tilting angle. The obtained data is fitted to a mathematical model, which leads to the determination of both refractive index and thickness simultaneously. In this letter, experimental data from two interferometers are also discussed for comparison. One with an externally-pumped phase-conjugate mirror achieved with a BSO photorefractive crystal and another one with conventional mirrors. Results show that the phase sensitivity of the phase-conjugate interferometer is not simply twice the corresponding sensitivity of the conventional version. [Spanish] Se propone una tecnica para medir indices de refraccion y espesores de placas dielectricas plano paralelas homogeneas empleando un interferometro con fase conjugada, en el cual se usa el conteo de franjas. El haz luminoso incide en una placa inclinada bajo inspeccion antes de entrar en un interferometro equipado con un espejo conjugador de fase, y se realiza un conteo de las franjas que pasan por determinada referencia en el plano de observacion, proporcionando los cambios de fase en funcion del angulo de inclinacion. Los datos obtenidos se ajustan a un modelo, el cual conduce a la determinacion, tanto del indice de refraccion como del espesor, simultaneamente. En este trabajo se discuten datos experimentales provenientes de dos interferometros para su comparacion. Uno de ellos tiene un espejo conjugador basado en un cristal BSO fotorrefractivo, mientras que el otro es una variante con espejos convencionales. Se muestra que la sensibilidad de fase del interferometro con conjugador de fase no

  15. Development method for measuring thickness of nuclei and coating of fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Junior, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important components of a nuclear reactor is the Nuclear Fuel. Currently, the most advanced commercial fuel, whose applicability in Brazilian reactors has been developed by IPEN since 1985, is the silicide U 3 Si 2 . This is formed by fuel plates with nuclei dispersion (where the fissile material (U 3 Si 2 ) is homogeneously dispersed in a matrix of aluminum) coated aluminum. This fuel is produced in Brazil with developed technology, the result of the efforts made by the group of manufacturing nuclear fuel (CCN - Center of Nuclear Fuel) of IPEN. Considering the necessity of increasing the power of the IEA- R1 and Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor Building (RMB), for the production of radioisotopes - mainly for the area of medicine - there will be significant increase in the production of nuclear fuel at IPEN. Given this situation, if necessary, make the development of more modern and automated classification techniques. Aiming at this goal, this work developed a new computational method for measuring thickness of core and cladding of fuel plates, which are able to perform such measurements in less time and with more meaningful statistical data when compared with the current method of measurement. (author)

  16. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  17. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dew Hey; Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong

    2002-03-01

    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology

  18. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology.

  19. Thickness resonances dispersion characteristics of a lossy piezoceramic plate with electrodes of arbitrary conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezheritsky, Alex A; Mezheritsky, Alex V

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical description of the dissipative phenomena in the wave dispersion related to the "energytrap" effect in a thickness-vibrating, infinite thicknesspolarized piezoceramic plate with resistive electrodes is presented. The three-dimensional (3-D) equations of linear piezoelectricity were used to obtain symmetric and antisymmetric solutions of plane harmonic waves and investigate the eigen-modes of thickness longitudinal (TL) up to third harmonic and shear (TSh) up to ninth harmonic vibrations of odd- and even-orders. The effects of internal and electrode energy dissipation parameters on the wave propagation under regimes ranging from a short-circuit (sc) condition through RC-type relaxation dispersion to an opencircuit (oc) condition are examined in detail for PZT piezoceramics with three characteristic T -mode energy-trap figure-of-merit c-(D)(33)/c-(E)(44) values - less, near equal and higher 4 - when the second harmonic spurious TSh resonance lies below, inside, and above the fundamental TL resonanceantiresonance frequency interval. Calculated complex lateral wave number dispersion dependences on frequency and electrode resistance are found to follow the universal scaling formula similar to those for dielectrics characterization. Formally represented as a Cole-Cole diagram, the dispersion branches basically exhibit Debye-like and modified Davidson Cole dependences. Varying the dissipation parameters of internal loss and electrode conductivity, the interaction of different branches was demonstrated by analytical and numerical analysis. For the purposes of dispersion characterization of at least any thickness resonance, the following theorem was stated: the ratio of two characteristic determinants, specifically constructed from the oc and sc boundary conditions, in the limit of zero lateral wave number, is equal to the basic elementary-mode normalized admittance. As was found based on the theorem, the dispersion near the basic and nonbasic TL and TSh

  20. A new discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory and assumed shear strain fields. I - An extended DKT element for thick-plate bending analysis. II - An extended DKQ element for thick-plate bending analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katili, Irwan

    1993-06-01

    A new three-node nine-degree-of-freedom triangular plate bending element is proposed which is valid for the analysis of both thick and thin plates. The element, called the discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin triangle (DKMT), has a proper rank, passes the patch test for thin and thick plates in an arbitrary mesh, and is free of shear locking. As an extension of the DKMT element, a four-node element with 3 degrees of freedom per node is developed. The element, referred to as DKMQ (discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin quadrilateral) is found to provide good results for both thin and thick plates without any compatibility problems.

  1. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, N. F. I.; Hasran, U. A.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell.

  2. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, N F I; Hasran, U A; Kamarudin, S K

    2015-01-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell. (paper)

  3. The influence of nitride thickness variations on the switching speed of MNOS memory transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1978-01-01

    The influence of nitride thickness variations on the switching speed of MNOS memory transistors is examined. The switching time constant is calculated as a function of the nitride thickness using a model of modified Fowler-Nordheim injection. The calculated characteristics compare well with measu......The influence of nitride thickness variations on the switching speed of MNOS memory transistors is examined. The switching time constant is calculated as a function of the nitride thickness using a model of modified Fowler-Nordheim injection. The calculated characteristics compare well...

  4. 3D electroplated inductors with thickness variation for improved broadband performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm-Guoo Tseng, Victor; Bedair, Sarah S.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    The performance of an RF spiral inductor is based on the balance between ohmic losses in the outer turns and eddy current losses dominant in the inner turns where the magnetic field is the strongest. In this work, air-core spiral inductors with winding trace thicknesses decreasing towards the center are demonstrated, achieving quality factor improvement over a wide frequency range compared to uniform thickness inductors. A custom 3D copper electroplating process was used to produce spiral inductors with varying winding thicknesses in a single plating step, with patterned gaps in a seed layer used to create delays in the vertical plating. The fabricated center-lowered coil inductors were 80 nH within a one square millimeter area with thickness varying from 60 µm to 10 µm from outer to inner winding. Within the 16 MHz-160 MHz range, the center-lowered inductors were shown to have a maximum to minimum quality factor improvement of 90%-10% when compared to uniform thickness inductors with thicknesses ranging from 60 µm to 10 µm. Compared to the 20 µm uniform thickness inductor which has the optimal performance among all uniform thickness inductors in this frequency range, the center-lowered inductors were shown to achieve a maximum quality factor improvement of 20% at the edge frequencies of 16 MHz and 160 MHz, and a minimum quality factor improvement of 10% near the geometric mean center frequency of 46 MHz.

  5. Failure criterion of concrete type material and punching failure analysis of thick mortar plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, T.; Kuroiwa, M.; Irobe, M.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper falure surface of concrete type material is proposed and its validity to structural analysis is examined. The study is an introductory part of evaluation for ultimate strength of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in reactor technology. The failure surface is expressed in a linear form in terms of octahedral normal and shear stresses. Coefficient of the latter stress is given by a trigonometric series in threefold angle of similarity. Hence, its meridians are multilinear and traces of its deviatoric sections are smooth curves having periodicity of 2π/3 around space diagonal in principal stress space. The mathematical expression of the surface has an arbitraty number of parameters so that material test results are well reflected. To confirm the effectiveness of proposed failure criterion, experiment and numerical analysis by the finite element method on punching failure of thick mortar plate in axial symmetry are compared. In the numerical procedure yield surface of the material is assumed to exist mainly in compression region, since a brittle cleavage or elastic fracture occurs in the concrete type material under stress state with tension, while a ductile or plastic fracture occurs under compressive stress state. (orig.)

  6. The resistive plate WELL detector as a single stage thick gaseous multiplier detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, Shikma; Breskin, Amos; Moleri, Luca; Kumar, Ashwini; Pitt, Michael [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) (Israel); Kudella, Simon [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector use high electric fields inside the h ole of a foil to achieve a high charge multiplication. As a thicker version of G EMs based on printed circuit board (PCB) structures, Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors combine the high gain of a GEM foil with the robustness, stability and low production costs of a PCB and allow a large quantity of applications that require the coverage of a large area at low cost and moderate spatial resolution. One application the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) develops as a member of the RD51 framework is the Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector. This single stage detector allows a very stable, discharge free operation at high gain (10{sup 5}). The single stage operation allows a low total height and make s the RPWELL a candidate for the Digital Hadronic Calorimeter (DHCAL) of the International Large Detector (ILD) at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The talk gives an insight into the way the RPWELL works and shows results from the last test beam.

  7. Analysis of the shrinkage at the thick plate part using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, N. M.; Azlan, M. Z.; Shayfull, Z.; Roselina, S.; Nasir, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Injection moulding is well known for its manufacturing process especially in producing plastic products. To measure the final product quality, there are lots of precautions to be taken into such as parameters setting at the initial stage of the process. Sometimes, if these parameters were set up wrongly, defects may be occurred and one of the well-known defects in the injection moulding process is a shrinkage. To overcome this problem, a maximisation at the precaution stage by making an optimal adjustment on the parameter setting need to be done and this paper focuses on analysing the shrinkage by optimising the parameter at thick plate part with the help of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and ANOVA analysis. From the previous study, the outstanding parameter gained from the optimisation method in minimising the shrinkage at the moulded part was packing pressure. Therefore, with the reference from the previous literature, packing pressure was selected as the parameter setting for this study with other three parameters which are melt temperature, cooling time and mould temperature. The analysis of the process was obtained from the simulation by Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software and the material used for moulded part was Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The analysis and result were obtained and it found that the shrinkage can be minimised and the significant parameters were found as packing pressure, mould temperature and melt temperature.

  8. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P. [Riso National Lab. (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  9. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today

  10. The effect of plate thickness, surface tension and fluid flow on detachment of drops from a plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Geld, C.W.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    The pinch-off of drops from the downstream end of plates is an important re-entrainment mechanism of condensate in compact condensers. The present experimental study complements a previous one [A.S. Lexmond, C.W.M. van der Geld, The effect of fluid flow on detachment of drops from the downstream end

  11. The effect of plate thickness, surface tension and fluid flow on detachment of drops from a plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Geld, van der C.W.M.; Celata, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    The pinch-off of drops from the downstream end of plates is an important re-entrainment mechanism of condensate in compact condensers. The present experimental study complements a previous one [1], in which ethanol and water drops were created for various mass densities and gas velocities at the

  12. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties were considered.

  13. Methods for determining the wall thickness variation of tubular heaters used in thermalhydraulic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubizolles, G.; Garnier, J.; Groeneveld, D.; Tanase, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel bundle simulators used in thermalhydraulic studies typically consist of bundles of directly heated tubes. It is usually assumed that the heater tubes have a uniform circumferential heat flux distribution. In practice, this heat flux distribution is never exactly uniform because of wall thickness variations and bore eccentricity. Ignoring the non-uniformity in wall thickness can lead to under-estimating the local heat transfer coefficients. During nucleate boiling tests in a 5x5 PWR-type bundle subassembly at CEA-Grenoble, a sinusoidal temperature distribution was observed around the inside circumference of the heater rods. These heater rods were equipped with high-accuracy sliding thermocouple probes that permit the detailed measurement of the internal wall temperature distribution, both axially and circumferentially. The sinusoidal temperature distribution strongly suggests a variation in wall thickness. A methodology was subsequently derived to determine the circumferential wall thickness variation. The method is based on the principle that for directly heated fuel-element simulators, the nucleate boiling wall superheat at high pressures is nearly uniform around the heater rod circumference. The results show wall thickness variations of up to ±4% which was confirmed by subsequent ultrasonic wall-thickness measurements performed after bundle disassembly. Non-uniformities in circumferential temperature distributions were also observed during parallel thermalhydraulic tests at the University of Ottawa (UofO) on an electrically heated tube cooled internally by R-134a and equipped with fixed thermocouples on the outside. From the measured wall temperatures and knowledge of the inside heat transfer coefficient or wall temperature distribution, the variations in wall thickness and surface heat flux to the coolant were evaluated by solving conduction equations using three separate sets of data (1) single phase heat transfer data, (2) nucleate boiling data, and (3

  14. Study of the Variation of Material layer Compotition and Thickness Related Neutron Flux and Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalasari, Yuliana Dian; Suparmi; Sardjono, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Optimation of simulation design of collimator is corresponding to 30 MeV cyclotron generator. The simulation has used the variation of the thickness materials layers that was applied at treatment room’s door. The purpose of the variation and thickness of the material in this simulation to obtain optimum results for the shielding design in the irradiation chamber. The layers that we used are Pb-Fe and Pb-SS312. Simulation on cancer treatment is used with monte carlo simaulation MCNPX. The spesifications that we used for cyclotron is the spesification of the HM-30 Proton Cyclotron from Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd. The variation of the thickness materials layers that was applied at treatment room’s door are Pb remains 4cm while Fe and SS312 varies between 2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm respectively. This simulation of Fe layer on Pb was give good result in measurement simulation at 4 cm thickness.

  15. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  16. Static bending deflection and free vibration analysis of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates using multidimensional wave digital filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Hsun

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a multidimensional wave digital filtering network for predicting static and dynamic behaviors of composite laminate based on the FSDT. The resultant network is, thus, an integrated platform that can perform not only the free vibration but also the bending deflection of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates with low plate side-to-thickness ratios (< = 20). Safeguarded by the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy stability condition with the least restriction in terms of optimization technique, the present method offers numerically high accuracy, stability and efficiency to proceed a wide range of modulus ratios for the FSDT laminated plates. Instead of using a constant shear correction factor (SCF) with a limited numerical accuracy for the bending deflection, an optimum SCF is particularly sought by looking for a minimum ratio of change in the transverse shear energy. This way, it can predict as good results in terms of accuracy for certain cases of bending deflection. Extensive simulation results carried out for the prediction of maximum bending deflection have demonstratively proven that the present method outperforms those based on the higher-order shear deformation and layerwise plate theories. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows an optimal selection of SCF can significantly increase the accuracy of FSDT-based laminates especially compared to the higher order theory disclaiming any correction. The highest accuracy of overall solution is compared to the 3D elasticity equilibrium one.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jian; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Zhixiong; Barbaro, Frank; Jiang, Laizhu; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We focus on friction stir welding of 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate. • We produce high-quality joints with special tool and optimised welding parameters. • We compare microstructure and mechanical properties of steel and joint. • Friction stir welding is a method that can maintain the properties of joint. - Abstract: In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of a friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate were investigated. The 5.4 mm thick plates with excellent properties were welded at a constant rotational speed and a changeable welding speed using a composite tool featuring a chosen volume fraction of cubic boron nitride (cBN) in a W–Re matrix. The high-quality welds were successfully produced with optimised welding parameters, and studied by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and standard hardness and impact toughness testing. The results show that microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints are affected greatly, which is mainly related to the remarkably fine-grained microstructure of equiaxed ferrite that is observed in the friction stir welded joint. Meanwhile, the ratios of low-angle grain boundary in the stir zone regions significantly increase, and the texture turns strong. Compared with the base material, mechanical properties of the joint are maintained in a comparatively high level

  18. Crustal thickness variations in the Zagros continental collision zone (Iran) from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, M.; Nasrabadi, A.

    2013-10-01

    Variations in crustal thickness in the Zagros determined by joint inversion of P wave receiver functions (RFs) and Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion. The time domain iterative deconvolution procedure was employed to compute RFs from teleseismic recordings at seven broadband stations of INSN network. Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves were estimated employing two-station method. Fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocities for each station is taken from a regional scale surface wave tomographic imaging. The main variations in crustal thickness that we observe are between stations located in the Zagros fold and thrust belt with those located in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) and Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (UDMA). Our results indicate that the average crustal thickness beneath the Zagros Mountain Range varies from ˜46 km in Western and Central Zagros beneath SHGR and GHIR up to ˜50 km beneath BNDS located in easternmost of the Zagros. Toward NE, we observe an increase in Moho depth where it reaches ˜58 km beneath SNGE located in the SSZ. Average crustal thickness also varies beneath the UDMA from ˜50 km in western parts below ASAO to ˜58 in central parts below NASN. The observed variation along the SSZ and UDMA may be associated to ongoing slab steepening or break off in the NW Zagros, comparing under thrusting of the Arabian plate beneath Central Zagros. The results show that in Central Iran, the crustal thickness decrease again to ˜47 km below KRBR. There is not a significant crustal thickness difference along the Zagros fold and thrust belt. We found the same crystalline crust of ˜34 km thick beneath the different parts of the Zagros fold and thrust belt. The similarity of crustal structure suggests that the crust of the Zagros fold and thrust belt was uniform before subsidence and deposition of the sediments. Our results confirm that the shortening of the western and eastern parts of the Zagros basement is small and

  19. The fatigue life and fatigue-crack-through-thickness behavior of a surface-cracked plate, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Matsui, Kentaro; Ando, Kotoji; Ogura, Nobukazu

    1989-01-01

    The LBB (leak-before-break) design is one of the most important subjects for the evaluation and the assurance of safety in pressure vessels, piping systems, LNG carriers and various other structures. In the LBB design, it is necessary to evaluate precisely the lifetime of steel plate. Furthermore, the change in crack shape that occurs during the propagation after through thickness is of paramount importance. For this reason, in a previous report, the authors proposed a simplified evaluation model for the stress intensity factor after cracking through thickness. Using this model, the crack propagation behavior, crack-opening displacement and crack shape change of surface-cracked smooth specimens and surface-cracked specimens with a stress concentration were evaluated quantitatively. The present study was also done to investigate the fatigue crack propagation behavior of surface cracks subjected to combined tensile and bending stress. Estimation of fatigue crack growth was done using the Newman-Raju formula before through thickness, and using formula (7) and (8) after through thickness. Crack length a r at just through thickness increases with increasing a bending stress. Calculated fatigue crack shape showed very good agreement with experimental one. It was also found that particular crack growth behavior and change in crack shape after cracking through thickness can be explained quantitatively using the K value based on Eqs. (7) and (8). (author)

  20. Coating Thickness Measurement of the Simulated TRISO-Coated Fuel Particles using an Image Plate and a High Resolution Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, Yeon Ku; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Bong Goo; Eom, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Min; Yeo, Sung Hwan; Cho, Moon Sung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the thickness of the coating layers of 196 coated particles was measured using an Image Plate detector, high resolution scanner and digital image processing techniques. The experimental results are as follows. - An X-ray image was acquired for 196 simulated TRISO-coated fuel particles with ZrO 2 kernel using an Image Plate with high resolution in a reduced amount of time. - We could observe clear boundaries between coating layers for 196 particles. - The geometric distortion error was compensated for the calculation. - The coating thickness of the TRISO-coated fuel particles can be nondestructively measured using X-ray radiography and digital image processing technology. - We can increase the number of TRISO-coated particles to be inspected by increasing the number of Image Plate detectors. A TRISO-coated fuel particle for an HTGR (high temperature gas-cooled reactor) is composed of a nuclear fuel kernel and outer coating layers. The coating layers consist of buffer PyC (pyrolytic carbon), inner PyC (I-PyC), SiC, and outer PyC (O-PyC) layer. The coating thickness is measured to evaluate the soundness of the coating layers. X-ray radiography is one of the nondestructive alternatives for measuring the coating thickness without generating a radioactive waste. Several billion particles are subject to be loaded in a reactor. A lot of sample particles should be tested as much as possible. The acquired X-ray images for the measurement of coating thickness have included a small number of particles because of the restricted resolution and size of the X-ray detector. We tried to test many particles for an X-ray exposure to reduce the measurement time. In this experiment, an X-ray image was acquired for 196 simulated TRISO-coated fuel particles using an image plate and high resolution scanner with a pixel size of 25Χ25 μm 2 . The coating thickness for the particles could be measured on the image

  1. Effect of Ice-Shell Thickness Variations on the Tidal Deformation of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.; Behounkova, M.; Tobie, G.; Kozubek, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of Enceladus's gravity and topography has suggested that the thickness of the ice shell significantly varies laterally - from 30-40 km in the south polar region to 60 km elsewhere. These variations may influence the activity of the geysers and increase the tidal heat production in regions where the ice shell is thinned. Using a model including a regional or global subsurface ocean and Maxwell viscoelasticity, we investigate the impact of these variations on the tidal deformation of the moon and its heat production. For that purpose, we use different numerical approaches - finite elements, local application of 1d spectral method, and a generalized spectral method. Results obtained with these three approaches for various models of ice-shell thickness variations are presented and compared. Implications of a reduced ice shell thickness for the south polar terrain activity are discussed.

  2. 4D segmentation of brain MR images with constrained cortical thickness variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Segmentation of brain MR images plays an important role in longitudinal investigation of developmental, aging, disease progression changes in the cerebral cortex. However, most existing brain segmentation methods consider multiple time-point images individually and thus cannot achieve longitudinal consistency. For example, cortical thickness measured from the segmented image will contain unnecessary temporal variations, which will affect the time related change pattern and eventually reduce the statistical power of analysis. In this paper, we propose a 4D segmentation framework for the adult brain MR images with the constraint of cortical thickness variations. Specifically, we utilize local intensity information to address the intensity inhomogeneity, spatial cortical thickness constraint to maintain the cortical thickness being within a reasonable range, and temporal cortical thickness variation constraint in neighboring time-points to suppress the artificial variations. The proposed method has been tested on BLSA dataset and ADNI dataset with promising results. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method, in comparison to other state-of-the-art 4D segmentation methods.

  3. The effect of filler metal thickness on residual stress and creep for stainless-steel plate-fin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Wenchun [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail: jiangwenchun@126.com; Gong Jianming; Chen Hu; Tu, S.T. [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Stainless-steel plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) has been used as a high-temperature recuperator in microturbine for its excellent qualities in compact structure, high-temperature and pressure resistance. Plate-fin structure, as the core of PFHE, is fabricated by vacuum brazing. The main component fins and the parting sheets are joined by fusion of a brazing alloy cladded to the surface of parting sheets. Owing to the material mismatching between the filler metal and the base metal, residual stresses can arise and decrease the structure strength greatly. The recuperator serves at high temperature and the creep would happen. The thickness of the filler metal plays an important role in the joint strength. Hence this paper presented a finite element (FE) analysis of the brazed residual stresses and creep for a counterflow stainless-steel plate-fin structure. The effect of the filler metal thickness on residual stress and creep was investigated, which provides a reference for strength design.

  4. Creep deformation behavior of weld metal and heat affected zone on 316FR steel thick plate welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Hiromichi; Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kinugawa, Junichi; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Monma, Yoshio; Nakazawa, Takanori

    1999-01-01

    Using hot-rolled 316FR stainless plate (50 mm thick) and 16Cr-8Ni-2Mo filler wire, a narrow-gap welded joint was prepared by GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process. In addition to conventional round bar specimens of base metals and weld metal, full-thickness joint specimens were prepared for creep test. Creep tests were conducted at 550degC in order to examine creep deformation and rupture behavior in the weld metal of the welded joint. Creep strain distribution on the surface of the joint specimen was measured by moire interferometry. In the welded joint, creep strength of the weld metal zone apart from the surface was larger than that in the vicinity of the surface due to repeating heat cycles during welding. Creep strain and creep rate within the HAZ adjacent to the weld metal zone were smaller than those within the base metal zone. Creep rate of the weld metal zone in the welded joint was smaller than that of the weld metal specimen due to the restraint of the hardened HAZ adjacent to the zone. The full-thickness welded joint specimens showed longer lives than weld metal specimens, though the lives of the latter was shorter than those of the base metal (undermatching). In the full-thickness welded joint specimen, crack started from the last pass layer of the weld metal zone and fracture occurred at the zone. From the results mentioned above, in order to evaluate the creep properties of the welded joint correctly, it is necessary to conduct the creep test using the full-thickness welded joint specimen which includes the weakest zones of the weld metal, the front and back sides of the plate. (author)

  5. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng [Automotive Steel Research Institute, R and D Center, BaoShan Iron and Steel Co.,Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China)

    2013-12-16

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully.

  6. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui; Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully

  7. Geographical variation of shell thickness in the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus along the southeast Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M; Fernández, Miriam; Guiñez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    At broad geographical scales, the variation in bivalve shell thickness can be modulated by environmental factors that vary with latitude, such as sea surface temperature (SST), seawater pH, or calcium carbonate availability. Mussels usually form multilayered beds, and shell thickness is also expected to be affected by density and layering due to intraspecific competition. In this work, we explored the geographical variation of shell thickness in the intertidal mussel Perumytilus purpuratus between 18° and 42°S along the southeastern Pacific coast. We tested the hypothesis that there was a positive relationship between shell thickness and SST, and then we explored other variables that could have an effect on thickness, such as density, number of layers, and others environmental variables (pH and calcite concentration). The expected positive linear relationship between shell thickness and sea surface temperature was not found, but when the other population variables were included in the analysis, an unexpected inverse SST-thickness relationships appeared as significant, probably because this species could be adapted to colder and more acid seawater as are those of the tips of South America. Thickness was also negatively affected by density, which was expected for a gregarious species showing high intraspecific competition. Finally, our results highlight the importance of including density and crowding effects when macroscale patterns are explored, particularly in gregarious species, since these patterns could also be modulated by density-dependent processes, which might then override latitudinal trends of shell thickness when they are not included in the analyses. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  8. Study on production mechanism of welding residual stress at the juncture of a pipe penetrating a thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Enomoto, Kunio; Okamoto, Noriaki; Saitoh, Hideyo; Hayashi, Eisaku.

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies welding residual stresses at the intersection of a small diameter pipe penetrating a thick plate. The pipe is welded to the plate, and Tungsten Innert Gas (TIG) cladding is melted on the inner surface of the pipe to protect it from stress corrosion cracking due to long operation in nuclear power plants. Stresses are calculated by heat conduction analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis, and also measured by strain gauges. Welding residual stresses are shown to have no corrosive influence on the inner pipe surface, and the stresses are compressed enough to protect the pipe against stress corrosion cracking on the outer surface. It was also studied to make clear the production mechanism of the residual stresses which were generated by welding processes at the pipe. (author)

  9. Reducing lumber thickness variation using real-time statistical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Young; Brian H. Bond; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    A technology feasibility study for reducing lumber thickness variation was conducted from April 2001 until March 2002 at two sawmills located in the southern U.S. A real-time statistical process control (SPC) system was developed that featured Wonderware human machine interface technology (HMI) with distributed real-time control charts for all sawing centers and...

  10. Evaluation of methods to determine the spectral variations of aerosol optical thickness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Desa, E.; Chauhan, P.

    The methods used to derive spectral variations of aerosol optical thickness, AOT are evaluated. For our analysis we have used the AOT measured using a hand held sunphotometer at the coastal station on the west coast of India, Dona-Paula, Goa...

  11. Radiographic detection of 100 A thickness variations in 1-μm-thick coatings applied to submillimeter-diameter laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed x-ray radiography to measure thickness variations of coatings on laser fusion targets. Our technique is based on measuring the variation in x-ray transmission through the targets. The simplest targets are hollow glass microshells or microballoons 100 to 500 μm in diameter, that have several layers of metals or plastics, 1 to 100 μm thick. Our goal is to examine these opaque coatings for thickness variations as small as 1% or 0.1%, depending on the type of defect. Using contact radiography we have obtained the desired sensitivity for concentric and elliptical defects of 1%. This percentage corresponds to thickness variations as small as 100 A in a 1-μm-thick coating. For warts and dimples, the desired sensitivity is a function of the area of the defect, and we are developing a system to detect 0.1% thickness variations that cover an area 10 μm by 10 μm. We must use computer analysis of contact radiographs to measure 1% thickness variations in either concentricity or ellipticity. Because this analysis takes so long on our minicomputer, we preselect the radiographs by looking for defects at the 10% level on a video image analysis system

  12. An investigation into the relationship between thickness variations and manufacturing techniques of mouthguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Timothy; Coward, Trevor; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys; Taylor, Rebecca L; Earl, Philip; Winwood, Keith

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the finished thickness of a single identical 4-mm EVA mouthguard model from a large fabricated sample group and to evaluate the degree of material thinning and variations during the fabrication process. Twenty boxes were distributed to dental technician participants, each containing five duplicated dental models (n = 100), alongside 5 × 4 mm mouthguard blanks and a questionnaire. The mouthguards were measured using electronic callipers (resolution: ±0.01 mm) at three specific points. The five thickest and thinnest mouthguards were examined using a CT scanner to describe the surface typography unique to each mouthguard, highlighting dimensional thinning patterns during the fabrication process. Of the three measurement points, the anterior sulcus point of the mouthguard showed a significant degree of variation (up to 34% coefficient of variation), in finished mouthguard thickness between individuals. The mean thickness of the mouthguards in the anterior region was 1.62 ± 0.38 mm with a range of 0.77-2.80 mm. This variation was also evident in the occlusion and posterior lingual regions but to a lesser extent (up to 12.2% and 9.8% variations, respectively). This study highlights variability in the finished thickness of the mouthguards especially in the anterior sulcus region measurement point, both within and between individuals. At the anterior region measurement point of the mouthguard, the mean thickness was 1.62 mm, equating to an overall material thinning of 59.5% when using a single 4-mm EVA blank. This degree of thinning is comparative to previous single operator research studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Determining frustum depth of 304 stainless steel plates with various diameters and thicknesses by incremental forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Sa' id [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khazaali, Hossain [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays incremental forming is more popular because of its flexibility and cost saving. However, no engineering data is available for manufacturers for forming simple shapes like a frustum by incremental forming, and either expensive experimental tests or finite element analysis (FEA) should be employed to determine the depth of a frustum considering: thickness, material, cone diameter, wall angle, feed rate, tool diameter, etc. In this study, finite element technique, confirmed by experimental study, was employed for developing applicable curves for determining the depth of frustums made from 304 stainless steel (SS304) sheet with various cone angles, thicknesses from 0.3 to 1 mm and major diameters from 50 to 200 mm using incremental forming. Using these curves, the frustum angle and its depth knowing its thickness and major diameter can be predicted. The effects of feed rate, vertical pitch and tool diameter on frustum depth and surface quality were also addressed in this study.

  14. Detection of the Thickness Variation of a Stainless Steel sample using Pulsed Eddy Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Angani, C. S.; Park, D. G.; Jhong, H. K.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) system has been developed for the detection of thickness variation of stainless steel. The sample was machined as step configuration using stainless steel for thickness variation from 1mm to 5mm step by step. The LabView computer program was developed to display the variation in the amplitude of the detected pulse by scanning the PECT probe on the flat side of the sample. The pickup Sensor measures the effective magnetic field on the sample, which is the sum of the incident field and the field reflected by the specimen due to the induced eddy currents in the sample. We use the hall sensor for the detection. Usage of hall sensor instead of coil as a field detector improves the detectability and special resolution. This technology can be used in detection of local wall thinning of the pipeline of nuclear power plant

  15. Neutron radiography of thick hydrogenous materials with use of an imaging plate neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Matsumoto, G.; Karasawa, Y.; Niimura, N.; Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1996-01-01

    The value of the neutron mass attenuation coefficient of hydrogen being very high, it is extremely difficult to image normal size, living animals with neutron radiography. However, the authors suggest the possibility of applying neutron radiography for biomedical specimens. The organs in the breast, bones and cartilages in the extremities, and the tail of mice and rats were clearly imaged by neutron radiography with Gd foils as neutron converters and X-ray films. However, no contours of the organs in the mouse abdomen were visible with neutron radiography with an exposure time of 200 s. By adding Gd or Li compounds as neutron converters to imaging X-ray plates, imaging plates have been developed for neutron detectors. A trial using these imaging plates for neutron radiography of water-filled containers and the abdomen of mice was completed. The roundness of a 100 ml-beaker was imaged with a neutron exposure of 180 s. Obscure contours of the liver and kidneys of the mouse were imaged with a neutron exposure of 100 s. (orig.)

  16. MCNP Code in Assessment of Variations of Effective Dose with Torso Adipose Tissue Thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, E.

    2005-01-01

    The effective dose is the unite used in the field of radiation protection. It is a well defined doubly weighted uantity involving both physical and biological variables. Several factors may induce variation in the effective dose in different individuals of similar exposure data. One of these factors is the variation of adipose tissue thickness in different exposed individuals. This study essentially concenrs the assessment of the possible variation in the effective dose due to variation in the thickness of adipose tissue. The study was done using MCNP4b code to perform mathematical model of the human body depending on that given to the reference man developed by International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), and calculate the effective dose with different thicknessess of adipose tissues. The study includes a comprehensive appraisal of the Monte Cario simulation, the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) model for the human body, and the various mathematical considerations involved in the radiation dose calculations for the various pertinent parts of the human body. The radiation energies considered were 80 KeV, 300 KeV and I MeV, applying two exposure positions; anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA) with different adipose tissue thickness. This study is a theoretical approach based on detailed mathematical calculations of great precision that deals with all considerations involved in the mechanisms of radiation energy absorption in biological system depending on the variation in the densities of the particular in biological system depending on the variation in the densities of the particular tissues. The results obtained indicate that maximum decrease in effective dose occures with the lowest energy at 5cm adipose tissues thickeness for both AP and PA exposure positions. The results obtained were compared to similar work previsouly done using MCNP4 b showing very good agreement

  17. Laser cutting of steel plates up to 100 mm in thickness with a 6-kW fiber laser for application to dismantling of nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Lee, Jonghwan

    2018-01-01

    A cutting study with a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber laser was conducted for the dismantling of nuclear facilities. Stainless steel and carbon steel plates of various thicknesses were cut at a laser power of 6-kW. Despite the use of a low output of 6-kW, the cutting was successful for both stainless steel and carbon steel plates of up to 100 mm in thickness. In addition, the maximum cutting speeds against the thicknesses were obtained to evaluate the cutting performance. As representative results, the maximum cutting speeds for a 60-mm thickness were 72 mm/min for the stainless steel plates and 35 mm/min for the carbon steel plates, and those for a 100-mm thickness were 7 mm/min for stainless steel and 5 mm/min for carbon steel plates. These results show an efficient cutting capability of about 16.7 mm by kW, whereas other groups have shown cutting capabilities of ∼10 mm by kW. Moreover, the maximum cutting speeds were faster for the same thicknesses than those from other groups. In addition, the kerf widths of 60-mm and 100-mm thick steels were also obtained as another important parameter determining the amount of secondary waste. The front kerf widths were ∼1.0 mm and the rear kerf widths were larger than the front kerf widths but as small as a few millimeters.

  18. Influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue behavior of notched steel plates subjected to laser shock peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Alejo, V.; Rubio-González, C.; Vázquez-Jiménez, C. A.; Banderas, J. A.; Gómez-Rosas, G.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue crack initiation of 2205 duplex stainless steel notched specimens subjected to laser shock peening (LSP) was investigated. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of LSP on flat components with different thicknesses. For the LSP treatment a Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 10 Hz with 1064 nm of wavelength was used; pulse density was 2500 pulses/cm2. The LSP setup was the waterjet arrangement without sample coating. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth was determined by the hole drilling method. Notched specimens 2, 3 and 4 mm thick were LSP treated on both faces and then fatigue loading was applied with R = 0.1. Experimental fatigue lives were compared with life predictions from finite element simulation. A good comparison of the predicted and experimental fatigue lives was observed. LSP finite element simulation helps in explaining the influence of thickness on fatigue lives in terms of equivalent plastic strain distribution variations associated with the change in thickness. It is demonstrated that specimen size effect is an important issue in applying LSP on real components. Reducing the specimen thickness, the fatigue life improvement induced by LSP is significantly increased. Fatigue life extension up to 300% is observed on thin specimens with LSP.

  19. The impact of lateral variations in lithospheric thickness on glacial isostatic adjustment in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nield, Grace A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; van der Wal, Wouter; Blank, Bas; O'Donnell, John Paul; Stuart, Graham W.

    2018-04-01

    Differences in predictions of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) for Antarctica persist due to uncertainties in deglacial history and Earth rheology. The Earth models adopted in many GIA studies are defined by parameters that vary in the radial direction only and represent a global average Earth structure (referred to as 1D Earth models). Over-simplifying actual Earth structure leads to bias in model predictions in regions where Earth parameters differ significantly from the global average, such as West Antarctica. We investigate the impact of lateral variations in lithospheric thickness on GIA in Antarctica by carrying out two experiments that use different rheological approaches to define 3D Earth models that include spatial variations in lithospheric thickness. The first experiment defines an elastic lithosphere with spatial variations in thickness inferred from seismic studies. We compare the results from this 3D model with results derived from a 1D Earth model that has a uniform lithospheric thickness defined as the average of the 3D lithospheric thickness. Irrespective of deglacial history and sub-lithospheric mantle viscosity, we find higher gradients of present-day uplift rates (i.e. higher amplitude and shorter wavelength) in West Antarctica when using the 3D models, due to the thinner-than-1D-average lithosphere prevalent in this region. The second experiment uses seismically-inferred temperature as input to a power-law rheology thereby allowing the lithosphere to have a viscosity structure. Modelling the lithosphere with a power-law rheology results in behaviour that is equivalent to a thinner-lithosphere model, and it leads to higher amplitude and shorter wavelength deformation compared with the first experiment. We conclude that neglecting spatial variations in lithospheric thickness in GIA models will result in predictions of peak uplift and subsidence that are biased low in West Antarctica. This has important implications for ice-sheet modelling

  20. Full thickness crack arrest investigations on compact specimens and a heavy wide-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Gillot, R.; Elenz, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of specimen size and testing procedure on the crack arrest toughness K Ia at various temperatures, investigations were carried out on a wide-plate and compact specimens using a highly brittle material. Test interpretation included static as well as dynamic methods. The comparison of the measured K Ia -values shows good agreement although there is a distinct difference in specimen size. In general, the (static) ASTM test method yields a lower and thus conservative estimate of the crack arrest toughness K Ia . 14 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Effect of Thickness on Oxidation Behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 using Arc Ion Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Sun Jin [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Ever since the Fukushima accident, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) has been widely studied. To increase the life time and safety of nuclear claddings, there are increasing demands for protective coatings exhibiting excellent oxidation resistance. Many metal and oxide films are produced by using this method because of the high kinetic energy of the ions, ionization efficiency and deposition rate. Candidate materials for a protective layer have higher thermal neutron absorption cross sections than Zr. However, there is no systematic study of thickness effect on oxidation resistance of protective layer. In this study, Cr films with different thickness (from 1 μm to 50 μm) were deposited on the cladding surfaces by AIP. The high temperature oxidation resistance of Cr films with different thicknesses has been investigated. Uniform oxide layer with nanoporous structures have been fabricated on the surface of Zr-Nb-Sn alloy. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA).

  2. Using refraction in thick glass plates for optical path length modulation in low coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Niklas; Schlobohm, Jochen; Pösch, Andreas; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2017-09-01

    In Michelson interferometer setups the standard way to generate different optical path lengths between a measurement arm and a reference arm relies on expensive high precision linear stages such as piezo actuators. We present an alternative approach based on the refraction of light at optical interfaces using a cheap stepper motor with high gearing ratio to control the rotation of a glass plate. The beam path is examined and a relation between angle of rotation and change in optical path length is devised. As verification, an experimental setup is presented, and reconstruction results from a measurement standard are shown. The reconstructed step height from this setup lies within 1.25% of the expected value.

  3. The influence of plate thickness on the welding residual stresses from submerged arc welding in offshore steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Welding-induced residual tensile stresses and distortion have become a major concern in relation to the structural integrity of welded structures within the offshore wind industry. The stresses have a negative impact on the integrity of the welded joint, as they promote distortion, reduce fatigue...... leading to a better understanding of the distribution and development of the welding residual stresses. This can later be used to optimize the fatigue design, providing a more efficient and improved design. In this context, the current research is expected to benefit the offshore industry by leading...... to an improved design, which consequently may be included in future norms and standards. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) was used to make a fully penetrated butt weld in 10 mm and 40 mm thick steel plates with the same welding parameters as used in the production procedures. The base material is thermomechanical hot...

  4. Vacuum Die Casting Process and Simulation for Manufacturing 0.8 mm-Thick Aluminum Plate with Four Maze Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using vacuum die casting, 0.8 mm-thick plates in complicated shapes are manufactured with the highly castable aluminum alloy Silafont-36 (AlSi9MgMn. The sizes and shapes of the cavities, made of thin plates, feature four different mazes. To investigate formability and mechanical properties by shot condition, a total of six parameters (melt temperatures of 730 °C and 710 °C; plunger speeds of 3.0 m/s and 2.5 m/s; vacuum pressure of 250 mbar and no vacuum are varied in experiments, and corresponding simulations are performed. Simulation results obtained through MAGMA software show similar tendencies to those of the experiments. When the melt pouring temperature is set to 730 °C rather than 710 °C, formability and mechanical properties are superior, and when the plunger speed is set to 3.0 m/s rather than to 2.5 m/s, a fine, even structure is obtained with better mechanical properties. The non-vacuumed sample is half unfilled. The tensile strength and elongation of the sample fabricated under a melt temperature of 730 °C, plunger speed of 3.0 m/s, and vacuum pressure of 250 mbar are 265 MPa and 8.5%, respectively.

  5. Free and Forced Vibration of the Moderately Thick Laminated Composite Rectangular Plate on Various Elastic Winkler and Pasternak Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved Fourier series method (IFSM is applied to study the free and forced vibration characteristics of the moderately thick laminated composite rectangular plates on the elastic Winkler or Pasternak foundations which have elastic uniform supports and multipoints supports. The formulation is based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT and combined with artificial virtual spring technology and the plate-foundation interaction by establishing the two-parameter foundation model. Under the framework of this paper, the displacement and rotation functions are expressed as a double Fourier cosine series and two supplementary functions which have no relations to boundary conditions. The Rayleigh-Ritz technique is applied to solve all the series expansion coefficients. The accuracy of the results obtained by the present method is validated by being compared with the results of literatures and Finite Element Method (FEM. In this paper, some results are obtained by analyzing the varying parameters, such as different boundary conditions, the number of layers and points, the spring stiffness parameters, and foundation parameters, which can provide a benchmark for the future research.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF b-VALUE VARIATIONS IN THE AFRICAN AND PARTS OF EURASIAN PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awoyemi, M. O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous earthquakes have occurred along the collision zones of the African and parts of Eurasian plates. Some of these earthquakes along these zones have generated tsunamis. To mitigate this hazard, knowledge of b-values of the Gutenberg – Richter relation for tectonic earthquakes in the African and parts of Eurasian plates is essential. The temporal variations of b-values were evaluated using sliding time windows with each window containing a total of 100 events with a view to utilizing the results as a precursor for the earthquake occurrence. The spatial variation of b-values of the study area was also delineated by dividing it into grids and calculating the b-values for each grid using constant radius and constant number of events. Results obtained from the temporal variation of b-values showed that earthquakes of large magnitudes occurred when the b-values were low while earthquakes of small magnitudes occurred when the b-values were high throughout the study period. The results of the spatial distribution of b-values also showed that earthquakes of large magnitudes occurred in areas of low b-values while earthquakes of small magnitudes occurred in areas of high b-values. The study therefore concluded that the temporal and spatial variations of b-values might be considered as a precursor for earthquake prediction.

  7. Investigation of trapped thickness-twist waves induced by functionally graded piezoelectric material in an inhomogeneous plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng; Cao, Xiao-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of functional graded piezoelectric materials on the propagation of thickness-twist waves is investigated through equations of the linear theory of piezoelectricity. The elastic and piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric permittivity, and mass density are assumed to change in a linear form but with different graded parameters along the wave propagation direction. We employ the power-series technique to solve the governing differential equations with variable coefficients attributed to the different graded parameters and prove the correction and convergence of this method. As a special case, the functional graded middle layer resulting from piezoelectric damage and material bonding is investigated. Piezoelectric damaged material can facilitate energy trapping, which is impossible in perfect materials. The increase in the damaged length and the reduction in the piezoelectric coefficient decrease the resonance frequency but increase the number of modes. Higher modes of thickness-twist waves appear periodically along the damaged length. Moreover, the displacement of the center of the damaged portion is neither symmetric nor anti-symmetric, unlike the non-graded plate. The conclusions are theoretically and practically significant for wave devices. (paper)

  8. Effects of Velocity-Slip and Viscosity Variation in Squeeze Film Lubrication of Two Circular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Rao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A generalized form of Reynolds equation for two symmetrical surfaces is taken by considering velocity-slip at the bearing surfaces. This equation is applied to study the effects of velocity-slip and viscosity variation for the lubrication of squeeze films between two circular plates. Expressions for the load capacity and squeezing time obtained are also studied theoretically for various parameters. The load capacity and squeezing time decreases due to slip. They increase due to the presence of high viscous layer near the surface and decrease due to low viscous layer.

  9. Lateral structural variation within the overlying plate and its correlation to the Tonankai earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, G.; Nakanishi, A.; Park, J.; Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Destructive interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred every 100-150 years beneath the Kumano-nada, off the Kii peninsula owing to the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the southwest Japan arc. The last great interplate earthquakes in this seismogenic subduction zone was the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes, and a number of coseismic slip distribution models derived from seismic and tsunami data show remarkable lateral variations along the trough axis. In 2006 and 2007, we conducted extensive wide-angle seismic refraction and reflection surveys in the entire rupture zone of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake. We designed two along-trough and two across-trench seismic survey lines and deployed a number of OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometers) with a spacing of 5km and fired an airgun array with a total volume of 200L at every 0.2km. The quality of the obtained wide-angle seismic record section is substantially good and we observed remarkable regional variation in the amplitude of refraction and reflection phases. For example, in some record sections, we can trace seismic signals up to the offset of more than 100 km, but in other sections, the airgun signals become dim at the offset of less than 30km. Such regional variation in the amplitude indicates the lateral variation of the seismic attenuation structure. For revealing lateral structural variation, we developed seismic structure models by the following approach. First, we applied the first arrival tomography for developing P-wave velocity structure models. Then, we imaged structural boundaries by the reflection traveltime mapping method. Finally, we developed seismic attenuation models by using raypaths and amplitude of first arrivals. Our seismic structure models showed remarkable along-trench structural variation. In the P-wave velocity models, we found a height on the subducting Philippine plate at the eastern end of the Kumano basin (south-east off Shima peninsula). In the western area (i.e. Kumano Basin

  10. The Effect of Selected Conditions in a Thermoforming Process on Wall Thickness Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sasimowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of a study on the effect of selected conditions in a thermoforming process for thin polystyrene sheet by vacuum assisted drape forming on the wall thickness non-uniformity of finished parts. The investigation was performed using Statistica’s DOE module for three variables: temperatures in the external and internal zones of the heater as well as heating time of the plastic sheet. The results demonstrate that the wall thickness in the finished parts at the measuring points is primarily affected by the heating time and the temperature in the internal zone of the heater, while the temperature in the external zone only affects some regions of the finished part. The results demonstrate that a short heating time and hence a lower temperature of the plastic sheet lead to a more uniform deformation of both the bottom and the side walls of the finished part, and as a consequence, to smaller variations in the wall thickness. The shortening of the heating time is however limited by the necessity of accurate reproduction of the shape of the finished part.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Seismological and Gravimetric Crustal Thicknesses below the Andean Region with Flat Subduction of the Nazca Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Gimenez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric study was carried out in a region of the Central Andean Range between 28∘ and 32∘ south latitudes and from 72∘ and 66∘ west longitudes. The seismological and gravimetrical Moho models were compared in a sector which coincides with the seismological stations of the CHARGE project. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the gravity Moho depths and those obtained from seismological investigations (CHARGE project, the latter giving deeper values than those resulting from the gravimetric inversion. These discrepancies are attenuated when the positive gravimetric effect of the Nazca plate is considered. Nonetheless, a small residuum of about 5 km remains beneath the Cuyania terrane region, to the east of the main Andean chain. This residuum could be gravimetrically justified if the existence of a high density or eclogitized portion of the lower crust is considered. This result differed from the interpretations from Project “CHARGE” which revealed that the entire inferior crust extending from the Precordillera to the occidental “Sierras Pampeanas” could be “eclogitized”. In this same sector, we calculated the effective elastic thickness (Te of the crust. These results indicated an anomalous value of Te = 30 km below the Cuyania terrane. This is further conclusive evidence of the fact that the Cuyania terrane is allochthonous, for which also geological evidences exist.

  12. Global variations in gravity-derived oceanic crustal thickness: Implications on oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Zhu, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new global model of oceanic crustal thickness based on inversion of global oceanic gravity anomaly with constrains from seismic crustal thickness profiles. We first removed from the observed marine free-air gravity anomaly all gravitational effects that can be estimated and removed using independent constraints, including the effects of seafloor topography, marine sediment thickness, and the age-dependent thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere. We then calculated models of gravity-derived crustal thickness through inversion of the residual mantle Bouguer anomaly using best-fitting gravity-modeling parameters obtained from comparison with seismically determined crustal thickness profiles. Modeling results show that about 5% of the global crustal volume (or 9% of the global oceanic surface area) is associated with model crustal thickness 8.6 km and is interpreted to have been affected by excess magmatism. The percentage of oceanic crustal volume that is associated with thick crustal thickness (>8.6 km) varies greatly among tectonic plates: Pacific (33%), Africa (50%), Antarctic (33%), Australia (30%), South America (34%), Nazca (23%), North America (47%), India (74%), Eurasia (68%), Cocos (20%), Philippine (26%), Scotia (41%), Caribbean (89%), Arabian (82%), and Juan de Fuca (21%). We also found that distribution of thickened oceanic crust (>8.6 km) seems to depend on spreading rate and lithospheric age: (1) On ocean basins younger than 5 Ma, regions of thickened crust are predominantly associated with slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The relatively strong lithospheric plate at slow and ultraslow ridges might facilitate the loading of large magmatic emplacements on the plate. (2) In contrast, crustal thickness near fast and intermediately fast spreading ridges typically does not exceed 7-8 km. The relatively weak lithosphere at fast and intermediately fast ridges might make it harder for excess magmatism to accrete. We further speculate that

  13. Inverse Transient Analysis for Classification of Wall Thickness Variations in Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tuck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of transient fluid pressure signals has been investigated as an alternative method of fault detection in pipeline systems and has shown promise in both laboratory and field trials. The advantage of the method is that it can potentially provide a fast and cost effective means of locating faults such as leaks, blockages and pipeline wall degradation within a pipeline while the system remains fully operational. The only requirement is that high speed pressure sensors are placed in contact with the fluid. Further development of the method requires detailed numerical models and enhanced understanding of transient flow within a pipeline where variations in pipeline condition and geometry occur. One such variation commonly encountered is the degradation or thinning of pipe walls, which can increase the susceptible of a pipeline to leak development. This paper aims to improve transient-based fault detection methods by investigating how changes in pipe wall thickness will affect the transient behaviour of a system; this is done through the analysis of laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments are carried out on a stainless steel pipeline of constant outside diameter, into which a pipe section of variable wall thickness is inserted. In order to detect the location and severity of these changes in wall conditions within the laboratory system an inverse transient analysis procedure is employed which considers independent variations in wavespeed and diameter. Inverse transient analyses are carried out using a genetic algorithm optimisation routine to match the response from a one-dimensional method of characteristics transient model to the experimental time domain pressure responses. The accuracy of the detection technique is evaluated and benefits associated with various simplifying assumptions and simulation run times are investigated. It is found that for the case investigated, changes in the wavespeed and nominal diameter of the

  14. Inverse Transient Analysis for Classification of Wall Thickness Variations in Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Jeffrey; Lee, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of transient fluid pressure signals has been investigated as an alternative method of fault detection in pipeline systems and has shown promise in both laboratory and field trials. The advantage of the method is that it can potentially provide a fast and cost effective means of locating faults such as leaks, blockages and pipeline wall degradation within a pipeline while the system remains fully operational. The only requirement is that high speed pressure sensors are placed in contact with the fluid. Further development of the method requires detailed numerical models and enhanced understanding of transient flow within a pipeline where variations in pipeline condition and geometry occur. One such variation commonly encountered is the degradation or thinning of pipe walls, which can increase the susceptible of a pipeline to leak development. This paper aims to improve transient-based fault detection methods by investigating how changes in pipe wall thickness will affect the transient behaviour of a system; this is done through the analysis of laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments are carried out on a stainless steel pipeline of constant outside diameter, into which a pipe section of variable wall thickness is inserted. In order to detect the location and severity of these changes in wall conditions within the laboratory system an inverse transient analysis procedure is employed which considers independent variations in wavespeed and diameter. Inverse transient analyses are carried out using a genetic algorithm optimisation routine to match the response from a one-dimensional method of characteristics transient model to the experimental time domain pressure responses. The accuracy of the detection technique is evaluated and benefits associated with various simplifying assumptions and simulation run times are investigated. It is found that for the case investigated, changes in the wavespeed and nominal diameter of the pipeline are both important

  15. Retrieval of the thickness and refractive index dispersion of parallel plate from a single interferogram recorded in both spectral and angular domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng

    2018-04-01

    The principle of retrieving the thickness and refractive index dispersion of a parallel glass plate is reported based on single interferogram recording and phase analysis. With the parallel plate illuminated by a convergent light sheet, the transmitted light interfering in both spectral and angular domains is recorded. The phase recovered from the single interferogram by Fourier analysis is used to retrieve the thickness and refractive index dispersion without periodic ambiguity. Experimental results of an optical substrate standard show that the accuracy of refractive index dispersion is less than 2.5 × 10-5 and the relative uncertainty of thickness is 6 × 10-5 (3σ). This method is confirmed to be robust against the intensity noises, indicating the capability of stable and accurate measurement.

  16. Firn thickness variations across the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream margins indicating nonlinear densification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverman, K. L.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.; Peters, L. E.; Christianson, K. A.; Muto, A.

    2013-12-01

    Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the largest ice stream in Greenland, draining approximately 8.4% of the ice sheet's area. The flow pattern and stability mechanism of this ice stream are unique to others in Greenland and Antarctica, and merit further study to ascertain the sensitivity of this ice stream to future climate change. Geophysical methods are valuable tools for this application, but their results are sensitive to the structure of the firn and any spatial variations in firn properties across a given study region. Here we present firn data from a 40-km-long seismic profile across the upper reaches of NEGIS, collected in the summer of 2012 as part of an integrated ground-based geophysical survey. We find considerable variations in firn thickness that are coincident with the ice stream shear margins, where a thinner firn layer is present within the margins, and a thicker, more uniform firn layer is present elsewhere in our study region. Higher accumulation rates in the marginal surface troughs due to drift-snow trapping can account for some of this increased densification; however, our seismic results also highlight enhanced anisotropy within the firn and upper ice column that is confined to narrow bands within the shear margins. We thus interpret these large firn thickness variations and abrupt changes in anisotropy as indicators of firn densification dependent on the effective stress state as well as the overburden pressure, suggesting that the strain rate increases nonlinearly with stress across the shear margins. A GPS strain grid maintained for three weeks across both margins observed strong side shearing, with rapid stretching and then compression along particle paths, indicating large deviatoric stresses in the margins. This work demonstrates the importance of developing a high-resolution firn densification model when conducting geophysical field work in regions possessing a complex ice flow history; it also motivates the need for a more

  17. Validation and Variation of Upper Layer Thickness in South China Sea from Satellite Altimeter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Jung Kuo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2005 has been used to analyze the seasonal variation and the interannual variability of upper layer thickness (ULT in the South China Sea (SCS. Base on in-situ measurements, the ULT is defined as the thickness from the sea surface to the depth of 16°C isotherm which is used to validate the result derived from satellite altimeter data. In comparison with altimeter and in-situ derived ULTs yields a correlation coefficient of 0.92 with a slope of 0.95 and an intercept of 6 m. The basin averaged ULT derived from altimeter is 160 m in winter and 171 m in summer which is similar to the in-situ measurements of 159 m in winter and 175 m in summer. Both results also show similar spatial patterns. It suggests that the sea surface height data derived from satellite sensors are usable for study the variation of ULT in the semi-closed SCS. Furthermore, we also use satellite derived ULT to detect the development of eddy. Interannual variability of two meso-scale cyclonic eddies and one anticyclonic eddy are strongly influenced by El Niño events. In most cases, there are highly positive correlations between ULT and sea surface temperature except the periods of El Niño. During the onset of El Niño event, ULT is deeper when sea surface temperature is lower.

  18. Comparison of earthquake source parameters and interseismic plate coupling variations in global subduction zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, S. L.; Moyer, P. A.; Stankova-Pursley, J.

    2010-12-01

    Geodetically determined interseismic coupling variations have been found in subduction zones worldwide. These coupling variations have been linked to heterogeneities in interplate fault frictional conditions. These connections to fault friction imply that observed coupling variations are also important in influencing details in earthquake rupture behavior. Because of the wealth of newly available geodetic models along many subduction zones, it is now possible to examine detailed variations in coupling and compare to seismicity characteristics. Here we use a large catalog of earthquake source time functions and slip models for moderate to large magnitude earthquakes to explore these connections, comparing earthquake source parameters with available models of geodetic coupling along segments of the Japan, Kurile, Kamchatka, Peru, Chile, and Alaska subduction zones. In addition, we use published geodetic results along the Costa Rica margin to compare with source parameters of small magnitude earthquakes recorded with an onshore-offshore network of seismometers. For the moderate to large magnitude earthquakes, preliminary results suggest a complex relationship between earthquake parameters and estimates of strongly and weakly coupled segments of the plate interface. For example, along the Kamchatka subduction zone, these earthquakes occur primarily along the transition between strong and weak coupling, with significant heterogeneity in the pattern of moment scaled duration with respect to the coupling estimates. The longest scaled duration event in this catalog occurred in a region of strong coupling. Earthquakes along the transition between strong and weakly coupled exhibited the most complexity in the source time functions. Use of small magnitude (0.5 earthquake spectra, with higher corner frequencies and higher mean apparent stress for earthquakes that occur in along the Osa Peninsula relative to the Nicoya Peninsula, mimicking the along-strike variations in

  19. The investigation of trapped thickness shear modes in a contoured AT-cut quartz plate using the power series expansion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic model about the anti-plane vibration of a contoured quartz plate with thickness changing continuously is established by ignoring the effect of small elastic constant c 56. The governing equation is solved using the power series expansion technique, and the trapped thickness shear modes caused by bulge thickness are revealed. Theoretically, the proposed method is more general, which can be capable of handling various thickness profiles defined mathematically. After the convergence of the series is demonstrated and the correctness is numerically validated with the aid of finite element method results, systematic parametric studies are subsequently carried out to quantify the effects of the geometry parameter upon the trapped modes, including resonant frequency and mode shape. After that, the band structures of thickness shear waves propagation in a periodically contoured quartz plate, as well as the power transmission spectra, are obtained based on the power series expansion technique. It is revealed that broad stop bands below cut-off frequency exist owing to the trapped modes excited by the geometry inhomogeneity, which has little relationship with the structural periodicity, and its physical mechanism is different from the Bragg scattering effect. The outcome is widely applicable, and can be utilized to provide theoretical and practical guidance for the design and manufacturing of quartz resonators and wave filters.

  20. SU-E-I-53: Variation in Measurements of Breast Skin Thickness Obtained Using Different Imaging Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, U; Kumaraswamy, N; Markey, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate variation in measurements of breast skin thickness obtained using different imaging modalities, including mammography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Breast skin thicknesses as measured by mammography, CT, ultrasound, and MRI were compared. Mammographic measurements of skin thickness were obtained from published studies that utilized standard positioning (upright) and compression. CT measurements of skin thickness were obtained from a published study of a prototype breast CT scanner in which the women were in the prone position and the breast was uncompressed. Dermatological ultrasound exams of the breast skin were conducted at our institution, with the subjects in the upright position and the breast uncompressed. Breast skin thickness was calculated from breast MRI exams at our institution, with the patient in the prone position and the breast uncompressed. Results: T tests for independent samples demonstrated significant differences in the mean breast skin thickness as measured by different imaging modalities. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in breast skin thickness across different quadrants of the breast for some modalities. Conclusion: The measurement of breast skin thickness is significantly different across different imaging modalities. Differences in the amount of compression and differences in patient positioning are possible reasons why measurements of breast skin thickness vary by modality

  1. Dependence Of The Structure And Magnetic Properties Of Cast Plate-Shaped Nd60Fe30Al10 Samples On Their Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hard magnetic Nd-Fe-Al alloys are inferior to Nd-Fe-B magnets as far as the magnetic properties are concerned, but their great advantage is that they need no additional annealing to achieve good magnetic properties. These properties depend on the cooling rate from the melting state, and on the thickness of the sample - the best values are achieved at the quenching rates at which the samples have a thickness of 0.3-2 mm. The present study is concerned with the correlation between the magnetic properties of the plate-shaped Nd60Fe30Al10 samples and their size - thickness. Two casting ways: with the melt stream perpendicular direction and parallel to the surface of the plates were used. The plates were produced by pressure casting and suction casting. The studies have shown that the cooling rates depends on local propagation on liquid metal in the mold resulting in heterogeneity of structure and properties.

  2. Variation of reflected radiation from all reflectors of a flat plate solar collector during a year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlović, Zoran T.; Kostić, Ljiljana T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the impact of flat plate reflectors (bottom, top, left and right reflectors) made of Al, on total solar radiation on a solar collector during a day time over a whole year is analyzed. An analytical model for determining optimum tilt angles of a collector and reflectors for any point on the Earth is proposed. Variations of reflectors' optimal inclination angles with changes of the collector's optimal tilt angle during the year are also calculated. Optimal inclination angles of the reflectors for the South directed solar collector are calculated and compared to experimental data. It is shown that optimal inclination of the bottom reflector is the lowest in December and the highest in June, while for the top reflector the lowest value is in June and the highest value is in December. On the other hand, optimal inclination of the left and right side reflectors for optimum tilt angle of the collector does not change during the year and it is 66°. It is found that intensity of the solar radiation on the collector increases for about 80% in the summer period (June–September) by using optimally inclined reflectors, in comparison to the collector without reflectors. - Highlights: • The impacts of flat plate reflectors on solar radiation on the collector are given. • The results of the optimal inclinations of reflectors during the year are shown. • The solar radiation on the collector with reflectors is 80% higher in the summer. • This model may be applied on thermal, PV, PV/T and energy harvesting systems

  3. Eggshell thickness variation in red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) from Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castilla, Aurora M.; de Aragón, Juan Martínez; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Eggshell thickness is commonly used as an indicator of habitat quality and effects of environmental pollution on avian reproduction. We present the first data available on eggshell thickness for Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa) in Spain. We compared eggshell thickness between eggs collected...

  4. Variation of structure and magnetic properties with thickness of thin Co59Fe26Ni15 films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, NG; van Voorthuysen, EHD; De Hosson, JTM; Boerma, DO

    Variations of phase composition and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Co-Fe-Ni films with film thickness in the range of 50-500 nm were analyzed. The samples were magnetically soft with coercivity in the range H-c = 2-20 Oe and uni axial magnetic anisotropy up to H-k = 20 Oe.

  5. Structure of carbon monoxide time variations in the atmospheric thickness over Central Eurasia (Issyk Kul Monitoring Station)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'ev, V. N.; Kashin, F. V.; Orozaliev, M. D.; Sizov, N. I.; Sinyakov, V. P.; Sorokina, L. I.

    2013-03-01

    The results of measurements of the CO content in the atmospheric thickness by the method of solar molecular-absorption spectroscopy are presented. Over 87 months of observations, the annual mean CO content decreased by ˜19% at a mean rate of changes equal to -(0.14 ± 0.02) atm cm per year. Maxima and minima of seasonal variations most often fall on February and September, respectively. The mean overall amplitude of changes in the CO content during the annual cycle is about 50% of the mean value. The Fourier analysis revealed variations in the CO composition with periods from 3 to 84 months. A simple statistical model satisfactorily describes time changes in the CO content in the atmospheric thickness. The results of measurements of the CO content in the atmospheric thickness are compared with the data of CO measurements in samples of surface air at stations of the Global Atmospheric Watch.

  6. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pfractures are clinically observed to happen. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness was found likely to be the most dominant parameter over body height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.

  7. In situ measurement using FBGs of process-induced strains during curing of thick glass/epoxy laminate plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    For large composite structures, such as wind turbine blades, thick laminates are required to withstand large in-service loads. During the manufacture of thick laminates, one of the challenges met is avoiding process-induced shape distortions and residual stresses. In this paper, embedded fibre...... Bragg grating sensors are used to monitor process-induced strains during vacuum infusion of a thick glass/epoxy laminate. The measured strains are compared with predictions from a cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) thermomechanical numerical model where different mechanical boundary...... conditions are employed. The accuracy of the CHILE model in predicting process-induced internal strains, in what is essentially a viscoelastic boundary value problem, is investigated. A parametric study is furthermore performed to reveal the effect of increasing the laminate thickness. The numerical model...

  8. On the thermally-induced residual stresses in thick fiber-thermoplastic matrix (PEEK) cross-ply laminated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shoufeng; Nairn, John A.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical method for calculating thermally-induced residual stresses in laminated plates is applied to cross-ply PEEK laminates. We considered three cooling procedures: slow cooling (uniform temperature distribution); convective and radiative cooling; and rapid cooling by quenching (constant surface temperature). Some of the calculated stresses are of sufficient magnitude to effect failure properties such as matrix microcracking.

  9. Analysis of a rectangular ceramic plate in electrically forced thickness-twist vibration as a piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiashi; Liu, Jinjin; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-04-01

    A rectangular ceramic plate with appropriate electrical load and operating mode is analyzed for piezoelectric transformer application. An exact solution from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity is obtained. The solution simulates the real operating situation of a transformer as a vibrating piezoelectric body connected to a circuit. Transforming ratio, input admittance, and efficiency of the transformer are obtained.

  10. Age, Sex, and Ethnic Variations in Inner and Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thickness on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafiq, Rinoza; Mathew, Raeba; Pearce, Elizabeth; Abdel-Hey, Ahmed; Richardson, Matthew; Bailey, Thomas; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate age, sex, and ethnic variations in inner and outer retinal and choroidal thickness and foveal pit, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Single-center observational cross-sectional study. Ninety randomly selected, healthy individuals of white, black, and South Asian origin underwent SD OCT raster and enhanced depth imaging scan. Manual measurements of inner and outer retinal thickness and choroidal thickness up to 3 mm nasal and temporal to the fovea were performed. The age, sex, and ethnic differences in these parameters were analyzed. The mean inner retinal thickness was lower by approximately 12 μm in black subjects across the central retina compared to white subjects (P ethnic groups but the temporal choroid was significantly thinner in black subjects (P < .05). The choroid showed an age-related decline in thickness of 2 μm per year of age of the subjects. Interethnic differences include wider fovea, lower central foveal thickness, and thinner inner retina in eyes of black subjects compared to their white and South Asian counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Thickness Variation on the Flapping Performance of Symmetric NACA Airfoils in Plunging Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the impact of airfoil thickness on flapping performance, the unsteady flow fields of a family of airfoils from an NACA0002 airfoil to an NACA0020 airfoil in a pure plunging motion and a series of altered NACA0012 airfoils in a pure plunging motion were simulated using computational fluid dynamics techniques. The “class function/shape function transformation“ parametric method was employed to decide the coordinates of these altered NACA0012 airfoils. Under specified plunging kinematics, it is observed that the increase of an airfoil thickness can reduce the leading edge vortex (LEV in strength and delay the LEV shedding. The increase of the maximum thickness can enhance the time-averaged thrust coefficient and the propulsive efficiency without lift reduction. As the maximum thickness location moves towards the leading edge, the airfoil obtains a larger time-averaged thrust coefficient and a higher propulsive efficiency without changing the lift coefficient.

  12. Thin-plate-type embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction for the thickness monitoring of the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Hoon; Cho, Seung Hyun [Center for Safety Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Pipe wall thinning in the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant is currently a major problem that typically affects the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant directly. Regular in-service inspections are carried out to manage the piping system only during the overhaul. Online thickness monitoring is necessary to avoid abrupt breakage due to wall thinning. To this end, a transducer that can withstand a high-temperature environment and should be installed under the insulation layer. We propose a thin plate type of embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction. The transducer was designed and fabricated to measure the thickness of a pipe under a high-temperature condition. A number of experimental results confirmed the validity of the present transducer.

  13. Variation of the critical slab thickness with the degree of strongly anisotropic scattering in one-speed neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, C.

    1998-01-01

    The critical slab problem is studied in one-speed neutron transport theory using a linearly anisotropic kernel which combines forward and backward scattering. It is shown that, the recently observed non-monotonic variation of the thickness also exists in this strongly anisotropic case. In addition, the influence of the linear anisotropy on the critical thickness is analysed in detail. Numerical analysis for the critical thickness are performed using the spherical harmonics method and results are tabulated for selected illustrative cases as a function of different degrees of anisotropic scattering. Finally, some results are discussed and compared with those already obtained by other methods, the agreement is satisfactory. The spherical harmonic method gives generally accurate results in one dimensional geometry, and it is very suitable for the numerical solution of the neutron transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering

  14. Fabrication and mechanical test data for the four 6-inch-thick intermediate test vessels made from steel plate for the Heavy Section Steel Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The HSST Program has among its goals the objective of demonstrating the capability to predict safe behavior of thick-walled pressure vessels containing flaws of known dimensions under frangible, transitional, and tough loading regimes. To accomplish these objectives the program is conducting a series of tests involving 6-in.-thick pressure vessels which will serve as test specimens for assisting in the characterization of failure under these loading conditions. Among the vessels a number of parameters, such as weld type, weld location, flaw size and shape, and test temperature and pressure, will be selectively varied to show that a rationale exists for dealing with the varied stress and metallurgical states which normally exist in commercial nuclear reactor vessels. Each vessel will serve as a go, no-go determination of critical flaw size for a specific set of test parameters. Item 4 of the previous issues in this series covers the fabrication details of the first six 6-in.-thick test vessels, which were fabricated from ASTM A-508 Cl 2 forging materials. This report covers the fabrication details of four additional 6-in.-thick intermediate test vessels having shell courses fabricated from ASTM A-533 Gr B Cl 1 plate. The remaining components were made from forgings. Essentially this report is a continuation of ORNL-TM-4351; it describes the manufacturing details of the individual parts and their ultimate assembly into finished vessels. Details concerning chemical composition and mechanical and nondestructive test data are presented

  15. Enhancement of Efficiency and Reduction of Grid Thickness Variation on Casting Process with Lean Six Sigma Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witantyo; Setyawan, David

    2018-03-01

    In a lead acid battery industry, grid casting is a process that has high defect and thickness variation level. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control) method and its tools will be used to improve the casting process. In the Define stage, it is used project charter and SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) method to map the existent problem. In the Measure stage, it is conducted a data retrieval related to the types of defect and the amount of it, also the grid thickness variation that happened. And then the retrieved data is processed and analyzed by using 5 Why’s and FMEA method. In the Analyze stage, it is conducted a grid observation that experience fragile and crack type of defect by using microscope showing the amount of oxide Pb inclusion in the grid. Analysis that is used in grid casting process shows the difference of temperature that is too high between the metal fluid and mold temperature, also the corking process that doesn’t have standard. The Improve stage is conducted a fixing process which generates the reduction of grid variation thickness level and defect/unit level from 9,184% to 0,492%. In Control stage, it is conducted a new working standard determination and already fixed control process.

  16. Effect of mechanical ventilation on regional variation of pleural liquid thickness in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P M; Lai-Fook, S J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of ventilation on the regional distribution of pleural liquid thickness in anesthetized rabbits. Three transparent pleural windows were made between the second and eight intercostal space along the midaxillary line of the right chest. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (1 ml) was injected into the pleural space through a rib capsule and allowed to mix with the pleural liquid. The light emitted from the pleural space beneath the windows was measured by fluorescence videomicroscopy at a constant tidal volume (20 ml) and two ventilation frequencies (20 and 40 breaths/min). Pleural liquid thickness was determined from the light measurements after in vitro calibration of pleural liquid collected postmortem. At 20 breaths/min, pleural liquid thickness increased with a cranial-caudal distance from 5 microns at the second to third intercostal space to 30 microns at the sixth through eighth intercostal space. At 40 breaths/min, pleural space thickness was unchanged at the second to third intercostal space but increased to 46 microns at the sixth through eighth intercostal space. To determine this effect on pleural liquid shear stress, we measured relative lung velocity from videomicroscopic images of the lung surface through the windows. Lung velocity amplitude increased with cranial-caudal distance and with ventilation frequency. Calculated shear stress amplitude was constant with cranial-caudal distance but increased with ventilation frequency. Thus, pleural liquid thickness is matched to the relative lung motion so as to maintain a spatially uniform shear stress amplitude in pleural liquid during mechanical ventilation.

  17. The effect of texture variation on delayed hydride cracking behavior of Zr-2.5%Nb plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kuk, I.-H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of texture variation on the delayed hydride cracking behavior in Zr-2.5%Nb plates, crack growth rate and K IH tests have been carried out at temperature ranges varying from 415 to 506 K after texture modification by rolling. The texture variation of plates was achieved by direct-rolling and cross-rolling. Texture was measured through the determination of inverse pole figures, from which the basal pole components were calculated. The results have shown that the texture of a plate in which the basal poles are concentrated in the transverse direction can be changed significantly by cross-rolling. The crack growth rate increases exponentially with the basal pole component in the direction normal to the cracking plane. The increase in stress relieving temperature on cold worked material reduces crack growth rate. K IH decreases linearly with the basal pole component, and a behavior of which could be explained by the uniformly dispersed aggregate composite theory. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of Variation in Residual Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Plate with a Hole Subjected to Fatigue Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Young; Kang, Min Sung; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) has received considerable attention in various fields as a structural material, because of its high specific strength, high specific stiffness, excellent design flexibility, favorable chemical properties, etc. Most products consisting of several parts are generally assembled by mechanical joining methods (using rivets, bolts, pins, etc.). Holes must be drilled in the parts to be joined, and the strength of the components subjected to static and fatigue loads caused by stress concentration must be decreased. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the variation in the residual strength of a holenotched CFRP plate subjected to fatigue load. We repeatedly subjected the hole-notched specimen to fatigue load for a certain number of cycles, and then we investigated the residual strength of the hole-notched specimen by performing the fracture test. From the results of the test, we can observe the initiation of a directional crack caused by the applied fatigue load. Further, we observed that the residual strength increases with a decrease in the notch effect due to this crack. It was evaluated that the residual strength increases to a certain level and subsequently decreases. This variation in the residual strength was represented by a simple equation by using a model of the decrease in residual strength for plain plate, which was developed by Reifsnider and a stress redistribution model for hole-notched plate, which was developed by Yip.

  19. Automated computer analysis of x-ray radiographs greatly facilitates measurement of coating-thickness variations in laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Moore, K.R.; Thomas, G.D.; Whitman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    An automated system was built to analyze x-ray radiographs of laser fusion targets which greatly facilitates the detection of coating thickness variations. Many laser fusion targets reqire opaque coatings 1 to 20 μm thick which have been deposited on small glass balloons 100 to 500 μm in diameter. These coatings must be uniformly thick to 1% for the targets to perform optimally. Our system is designed to detect variations as small as 100 A in 1-μm-thick coatings by converting the optical density variations of contact x-ray radiographs into coating thickness variations. Radiographic images are recorded in HRP emulsions and magnified by an optical microscope, imaged onto television camera, digitized and processed on a Data General S/230 computer with a code by Whitman. After an initial set-up by the operator, as many as 200 targets will be automatically characterized

  20. Intraocular pressure in a cohort of healthy eastern European schoolchildren: variations in method and corneal thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Intraocular pressure (IOP) in the developing eye of a child is not always easy to measure and there is no technique that is known to be the most accurate for the young eye. Measurements are needed on many cohorts of children with different tonometers to determine how the values correlate between instruments, whether corneal parameters affect readings and whether correlations between age and IOP values can be discerned. The aim of this study was to undertake a comparative analysis of three different tonometers on a group of healthy children to see whether differences exist and whether these may be related to central corneal thickness and/or radius of curvature. In addition, the study adds to the relatively small body of literature on IOP in the growing eye which will collectively allow trends to be identified and ultimately norms to be established. Methods IOP was measured on 115 eyes in a group of Polish children, aged between 5–17 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.3 ± 3.0 years) using three different tonometers: non-contact (NCT), the ICare and Goldmann applanation (GAT). Readings obtained were compared between instruments and with central corneal thickness and radius of curvature. Results The ICare tonometer provided statistically higher IOP values (16.9 ± 3.4 mmHg) than the GAT (14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg) regardless of corneal thickness and whether or not a correction factor was applied. A correlation was found between central corneal thickness (CCT) and IOP values obtained with all three tonometers but only the IOP values detected with the ICare tonometer showed a statistically significant correlation with radius of curvature (p < 0.004). No correlations with age or gender were found for IOP values measured with any of the instruments. Conclusions IOP measurements on children vary significantly between instruments and correlations are affected by the corneal thickness. Further studies on children are needed to determine which

  1. Intraocular pressure in a cohort of healthy eastern European schoolchildren: variations in method and corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżanowska-Berkowska Patrycja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraocular pressure (IOP in the developing eye of a child is not always easy to measure and there is no technique that is known to be the most accurate for the young eye. Measurements are needed on many cohorts of children with different tonometers to determine how the values correlate between instruments, whether corneal parameters affect readings and whether correlations between age and IOP values can be discerned. The aim of this study was to undertake a comparative analysis of three different tonometers on a group of healthy children to see whether differences exist and whether these may be related to central corneal thickness and/or radius of curvature. In addition, the study adds to the relatively small body of literature on IOP in the growing eye which will collectively allow trends to be identified and ultimately norms to be established. Methods IOP was measured on 115 eyes in a group of Polish children, aged between 5–17 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.3 ± 3.0 years using three different tonometers: non-contact (NCT, the ICare and Goldmann applanation (GAT. Readings obtained were compared between instruments and with central corneal thickness and radius of curvature. Results The ICare tonometer provided statistically higher IOP values (16.9 ± 3.4 mmHg than the GAT (14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg regardless of corneal thickness and whether or not a correction factor was applied. A correlation was found between central corneal thickness (CCT and IOP values obtained with all three tonometers but only the IOP values detected with the ICare tonometer showed a statistically significant correlation with radius of curvature (p  Conclusions IOP measurements on children vary significantly between instruments and correlations are affected by the corneal thickness. Further studies on children are needed to determine which instrument is most appropriate and to derive a normative IOP scale for the growing eye.

  2. Crosstalk in a KID Array Caused by the Thickness Variation of Superconducting Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, A.; Boucher, C.; Coiffard, G.; Leclercq, S.; Schuster, K. F.; Goupy, J.; Calvo, M.; Hoarau, C.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is focused on the improvement of the kinetic detectors used on NIKA2 instrument (New IRAM KID array 2). Based on the simulation and low temperature measurements, it aims at showing how the variations of the superconducting metal corrupt the frequency comb of the kinetic Inductance detectors (KID) in the frequency range (between 1 and 3 GHz), i.e., how the superconducting metal inhomogeneity induces the resonance-to-resonance cross-coupling which deteriorates the homogeneity of the resonance quality factor and the frequency resonance separation. Solutions are then proposed to fight against the effect of these metallic variations when designing the KID array.

  3. On numerical heat transfer characteristic study of flat surface subjected to variation in geometric thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Siddique Mohammed; Kolawale, Abhijeet Rangnath; Bhise, Ganesh Anurath; Gulhane, Nitin Parashram

    Thermal management in the looming world of electronic packaging system is the most prior and conspicuous issue as far as the working efficiency of the system is concerned. The cooling in such systems can be achieved by impinging air jet over the heat sink as jet impingement cooling is one of the cooling technologies which are widely studied now. Here the modulation in impinging and geometric parameters results in the establishment of the characteristic cooling rate over the target surface. The characteristic cooling curve actually resembles non-uniformity in cooling rate. This non-uniformity favors the area average heat dissipation rate. In order to study the non-uniformity in cooling characteristic, the present study takes an initiative in plotting the local Nusselt number magnitude against the non-dimensional radial distance of the different thickness of target surfaces. For this, the steady temperature distribution over the target surface under the impingement of air jet is being determined numerically. The work is completely inclined towards the determination of critical value of geometric thickness below which the non-uniformity in the Nusselt profile starts. This is done by numerically examining different target surfaces under constant Reynolds number and nozzle-target spacing. The occurrences of non-uniformity in Nusselt profile contributes to over a 42% enhancement in area average Nusselt magnitude. The critical value of characteristic thickness (t/d) reported in the present investigation approximate to 0.05. Below this value, the impingement of air jet generates a discrete pressure zones over the target surface in the form of pressure spots. As a result of this, the air flowing in contact with the target surface experiences a damping potential, in due of which it gets more time and contact with the surface to dissipate heat.

  4. A new clinical unit for digital radiography based on a thick amorphous Selenium plate: Physical and psychophysical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Acchiappati, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Here, we present a physical and psychophysical characterization of a new clinical unit (named AcSelerate) for digital radiography based on a thick a-Se layer. We also compared images acquired with and without a software filter (named CRF) developed for reducing sharpness and noise of the images and making them similar to images coming from traditional computed radiography systems. Methods: The characterization was achieved in terms of physical figures of merit [modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE)], and psychophysical parameters (contrast-detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images). We accomplished measurements with four standard beam conditions: RAQ3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9. Results: The system shows an excellent MTF (about 50% at the Nyquist frequency). The DQE is about 55% at 0.5 lp/mm and above 20% at the Nyquist frequency and is almost independent from exposure. The contrast-detail curves are comparable to some of the best published data for other systems devoted to imaging in general radiography. The CRF filter influences both the MTF and NPS, but it does lead to very small changes on DQE. Also the visibility of CDRAD details is basically unaltered, when the filter is activated. Conclusions: As normally happens with detector based on direct conversion, the system presents an excellent MTF. The improved efficiency caused by the thick layer allows getting good noise characteristics and DQE results better (about 10% on average) than many of the computed radiography (CR) systems and comparable to those obtained by the best systems for digital radiography available on the market.

  5. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  6. Creep Modeling in a Composite Rotating Disc with Thickness Variation in Presence of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state creep response in a rotating disc made of Al-SiC (particle composite having linearly varying thickness has been carried out using isotropic/anisotropic Hoffman yield criterion and results are compared with those using von Mises yield criterion/Hill's criterion ignoring difference in yield stresses. The steady-state creep behavior has been described by Sherby's creep law. The material parameters characterizing difference in yield stresses have been used from the available experimental results in literature. Stress and strain rate distributions developed due to rotation have been calculated. It is concluded that the stress and strain distributions got affected from the thermal residual stress in an isotropic/anisotropic rotating disc, although the effect of residual stress on creep behavior in an anisotropic rotating disc is observed to be lower than those observed in an isotropic disc. Thus, the presence of residual stress in composite rotating disc with varying thickness needs attention for designing a disc.

  7. Solidifier effectiveness : variation due to oil composition, oil thickness and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Fingas, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provided an overview of solidifier types and composition. Solidifiers are a class of spill treating agents that offer an effective means to convert a liquid oil into a solid material. They are used as a treatment option for oil spills on water. This paper also reported on recent laboratory studies that consist of 4 components: (1) a qualitative examination of the characteristics of the interaction of a broad range of solidifier products with a standard oil to evaluate reaction rate, states of solidification, and the impact of dosage, (2) a comparison of a smaller subset of solidifiers on the standard oil at lower temperatures, (3) solidifier treatment on a range of oils of varying physical properties and composition to assess the potential scope of application, and (4) the treatment of a series of small-scale oil layers of varying thickness to determine the significance of oil thickness on solidifier effectiveness and recovery. This paper also reviewed solidifier chemistry with particular reference to polymer sorbents; cross-linking agents; and cross-linking agents and polymeric sorbents combined. Toxicity is also an important issue regarding solidifiers. The aquatic toxicity of solidifiers is low and not measurable as the products are not water-soluble. There have not been any studies on the effects of the solidifier or the treated oil on surface feeders and shoreline wildlife that may come into contact with the products. It was concluded that oil composition may play a major role in solidifier effectiveness. The effectiveness of solidifiers is also inhibited at reduced temperatures, increased viscosity and density of the oil. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix

  8. The Laser Welding with Hot Wire of 316LN Thick Plate Applied on ITER Correction Coil Case

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Chao; Wu, Weiyue; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Shuquan; Li, Hongwei; Dolgetta, N; Libeyre, P; Cormany, C; Sgobba, S

    2014-01-01

    ITER correction coil (CC) cases have characteristics of small cross section, large dimensions, and complex structure. The cases are made of heavy thick (20 mm), high strength and high toughness austenitic stainless steel 316LN. The multi-pass laser welding with hot wire technology is used for the case closure welding, due to its low heat input and deformation. In order to evaluate the reliability of this welding technology, 20 mm welding samples with the same groove structure and welding depth as the cases were welded. High purity argon was used as the shielding gas to prevent oxidation because of the narrowness and depth of the weld. In this paper investigation of, microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of welded joints using optimized welding parameters are presented. The results show that the base metal, fusion metal, and heat affected zone (HAZ) are all have fully austenitic microstructure, and that the grain size of fusion metal was finer than that of the base metal. The welding resulte...

  9. Effect of GaAs interlayer thickness variations on the optical properties of multiple InAs QD structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.Y.; Park, K.W.; Kim, J.M.; Lee, Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) with vertically stacked structure are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and the effects of GaAs interlayer thickness variation on optical properties are studied. The growth conditions are optimized by in-situ RHEED, AFM, and PL measurement. The five InAs QD layers are embedded in GaAs and Al0.3Ga0.7As layer. The PL intensity is increased with increasing GaAs interlayer thickness. The thin GaAs interlayer has strain field, the strain-induced intermixing of indium atoms in the InAs QDs (blue-shift) can overcompensate for the effect on the increased QD size (red-shift) (H. Heidemeyer et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1544 (2002); T. Nakaoka et al. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 150 (2004)[1, 2], respectively). For the interlayer thickness larger than about 7 nm, the blue-shifts are correlated to the dominant high-energy excited state transitions due to the successive state filling of the ground and higher excited states in the QDs. The energy separation of double PL peaks, originated from two different excited states, was kept at around 50 meV at room temperature. A possible mechanism concerning this phenomenon is also discussed. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Experimental investigation of transient temperature characteristic in high power fiber laser cutting of a thick steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Long, Nguyen; Matsunaga, Yukihiro; Hanari, Toshihide; Yamada, Tomonori; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    Experiment of temperature measurement was performed to investigate the transient temperature characteristics of molten metal during laser cutting. The aim of this study was to establish a method for measuring the surface temperature variation near the molten pool correlated with changes in cutting parameters. The relationship between temperature inside the kerf cut and characteristic of the cut surface was investigated by using thermography and thermocouples. Results show strong correlations between the transient temperatures and the thermal image for different cutting conditions. In addition, two-color thermometer has been used to obtain radiation intensity emitted from the irradiating zone as a function of operating conditions. Experiments have shown that one can detect the cutting quality by characterization of the surface temperature during laser cutting process.

  11. Structural safety test and analysis of type IP-2 transport packages with bolted lid type and thick steel plate for radioactive waste drums in a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Seo, Ki Seog; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jeong Mook

    2007-01-01

    If a type IP-2 transport package were to be subjected to a free drop test and a penetration test under the normal conditions of transport, it should prevent a loss or dispersal of the radioactive contents and a more than 20% increase in the maximum radiation level at any external surface of the package. In this paper, we suggested the analytic method to evaluate the structural safety of a type IP-2 transport package using a thick steel plate for a structure part and a bolt for tying a bolt. Using an analysis a loss or disposal of the radioactive contents and a loss of shielding integrity were confirmed for two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages to transport radioactive waste drums from a waste facility to a temporary storage site in a nuclear power plant. Under the free drop condition the maximum average stress at the bolts and the maximum opening displacement of a lid were compared with the tensile stress of a bolt and the steps in a lid, which were made to avoid a streaming radiation in the shielding path, to evaluate a loss or dispersal of radioactive waste contents. Also a loss of shielding integrity was evaluated using the maximum decrease in a shielding thickness. To verify the impact dynamic analysis for free drop test condition and evaluate experimentally the safety of two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages, free drop tests were conducted with various drop directions

  12. Assessment of delta ferrite in multipass TIG welds of 40 mm thick SS 316L plates: a comparative study of ferrite number (FN) prediction and experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Shaikh, Shamsuddin; Raole, Prakash M.; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in the fabrication of fusion reactor major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, cryostat and other major structural components development. AISI SS316L materials of different thicknesses are utilized due to the superior mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, fatigue and stability at high temperature operation. The components are developed by using welding techniques like TIG welding with suitable filler material. Like in case of vacuum vessel, the multipass welding is unavoidable due to the use of high thickness plates (like in case of ITER and DEMO reactors). In general austenitic welds contains fraction of delta ferrite phase in multipass welds. The quantification depends on the weld thermal cycles like heat input and cooling rates associated with process conditions and chemical composition of the welds. Due to the repeated weld thermal passes, the microstructure adversely alters due to the presence of complex phases like austenite, ferrite and delta ferrite and subsequently influence the mechanical properties like tensile and impact toughness of joints. Control of the delta ferrite is necessary to hold the compatible final properties of the joints and hence its evaluation vital before the fabrication process. The present paper reports the detail analysis of delta ferrite phase in welded region and heat affected zones of 40 mm thick SS316L plates welded by special design multipass narrow groove TIG welding process under three different heat input conditions (1.67 kJ/mm, 1.78 kJ/mm, 1.87 kJ/mm). The correlation of delta ferrite microstructure with optical microscope and high resolution SEM has been carried out and different type of acicular and vermicular delta ferrite structures is observed. This is further correlated with the non destructive magnetic measurement using Ferrite scope. The measured ferrite number (FN) is correlated with the formed delta ferrite phase. The chemical composition of weld samples is

  13. An analytical approach to reduce between-plate variation in multiplex assays that measure antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew; Bobbili, Naveen K; Leke, Rose F G; Taylor, Diane Wallace; Chen, John J

    2017-07-17

    Antibodies play an important role in immunity to malaria. Recent studies show that antibodies to multiple antigens, as well as, the overall breadth of the response are associated with protection from malaria. Yet, the variability and reliability of antibody measurements against a combination of malarial antigens using multiplex assays have not been well characterized. A normalization procedure for reducing between-plate variation using replicates of pooled positive and negative controls was investigated. Sixty test samples (30 from malaria-positive and 30 malaria-negative individuals), together with five pooled positive-controls and two pooled negative-controls, were screened for antibody levels to 9 malarial antigens, including merozoite antigens (AMA1, EBA175, MSP1, MSP2, MSP3, MSP11, Pf41), sporozoite CSP, and pregnancy-associated VAR2CSA. The antibody levels were measured in triplicate on each of 3 plates, and the experiments were replicated on two different days by the same technician. The performance of the proposed normalization procedure was evaluated with the pooled controls for the test samples on both the linear and natural-log scales. Compared with data on the linear scale, the natural-log transformed data were less skewed and reduced the mean-variance relationship. The proposed normalization procedure using pooled controls on the natural-log scale significantly reduced between-plate variation. For malaria-related research that measure antibodies to multiple antigens with multiplex assays, the natural-log transformation is recommended for data analysis and use of the normalization procedure with multiple pooled controls can improve the precision of antibody measurements.

  14. Variation of b and p values from aftershocks sequences along the Mexican subduction zone and their relation to plate characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Barrientos, L.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Guzmán-Speziale, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aftershock sequences along the Mexican subduction margin (between coordinates 110ºW and 91ºW) were analyzed by means of the p value from the Omori-Utsu relation and the b value from the Gutenberg-Richter relation. We focused on recent medium to large (Mw > 5.6) events considered susceptible of generating aftershock sequences suitable for analysis. The main goal was to try to find a possible correlation between aftershock parameters and plate characteristics, such as displacement rate, age and segmentation. The subduction regime of Mexico is one of the most active regions of the world with a high frequency of occurrence of medium to large events and plate characteristics change along the subduction margin. Previous studies have observed differences in seismic source characteristics at the subduction regime, which may indicate a difference in rheology and possible segmentation. The results of the analysis of the aftershock sequences indicate a slight tendency for p values to decrease from west to east with increasing of plate age although a statistical significance is undermined by the small number of aftershocks in the sequences, a particular feature distinctive of the region as compared to other world subduction regimes. The b values show an opposite, increasing trend towards the east even though the statistical significance is not enough to warrant the validation of such a trend. A linear regression between both parameters provides additional support for the inverse relation. Moreover, we calculated the seismic coupling coefficient, showing a direct relation with the p and b values. While we cannot undoubtedly confirm the hypothesis that aftershock generation depends on certain tectonic characteristics (age, thickness, temperature), our results do not reject it thus encouraging further study into this question.

  15. Association of GSK-3β genetic variation with GSK-3β expression, prefrontal cortical thickness, prefrontal physiology, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Francesco; Ursini, Gianluca; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Caforio, Grazia; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Attrotto, Maria Teresa; Colagiorgio, Lucia; Todarello, Giovanna; Piva, Francesco; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Masellis, Rita; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Rampino, Antonio; Quarto, Tiziana; Giulietti, Matteo; Lipska, Barbara K; Kleinman, Joel E; Popolizio, Teresa; Weinberger, Daniel R; Usiello, Alessandro; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2013-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is an enzyme implicated in neurodevelopmental processes with a broad range of substrates mediating several canonical signaling pathways in the brain. The authors investigated the association of variation in the GSK-3β gene with a series of progressively more complex phenotypes of relevance to schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic risk. METHOD Based on computer predictions, the authors investigated in humans the association of GSK-3β functional variation with 1) GSK-3β mRNA expression from postmortem prefrontal cortex, 2) GSK-3β and β-catenin protein expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), 3) prefrontal imaging phenotypes, and 4) diagnosis of schizophrenia. RESULTS Consistent with predictions, the TT genotype of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in GSK-3β (rs12630592) was associated with reduced GSK-3β mRNA from postmortem prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, this genotype was associated with GSK-3β protein expression and kinase activity, as well as with downstream effects on β-catenin expression in PBMCs. Finally, the TT genotype was associated with attenuated functional MRI prefrontal activity, reduced prefrontal cortical thickness, and diagnosis of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that GSK-3β variation is implicated in multiple phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia.

  16. Age- and gender-related regional variations of human brain cortical thickness, complexity, and gradient in the third decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creze, Maud; Versheure, Leslie; Besson, Pierre; Sauvage, Chloe; Leclerc, Xavier; Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    Brain functional and cytoarchitectural maturation continue until adulthood, but little is known about the evolution of the regional pattern of cortical thickness (CT), complexity (CC), and intensity or gradient (CG) in young adults. We attempted to detect global and regional age- and gender-related variations of brain CT, CC, and CG, in 28 healthy young adults (19-33 years) using a three-dimensional T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence and surface-based methods. Whole brain interindividual variations of CT and CG were similar to that in the literature. As a new finding, age- and gender-related variations significantly affected brain complexity (P gender), all in the right hemisphere. Regions of interest analyses showed age and gender significant interaction (P left inferior parietal. In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between CT and CC and between CT and CG over the whole brain and markedly in precentral and occipital areas. Our findings differ in details from previous reports and may correlate with late brain maturation and learning plasticity in young adults' brain in the third decade. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  18. Radial variation in sap velocity as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness in yellow-poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; King, Anthony W.

    2000-04-01

    Canopy transpiration and forest water use are frequently estimated as the product of sap velocity and cross-sectional sapwood area. Few studies, however, have considered whether radial variation in sap velocity and the proportion of sapwood active in water transport are significant sources of uncertainty in the extrapolation process. Therefore, radial profiles of sap velocity were examined as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness for yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) trees growing on two adjacent watersheds in eastern Tennessee. The compensation heat pulse velocity technique was used to quantify sap velocity at four equal-area depths in 20 trees that ranged in stem diameter from 15 to 69 cm, and in sapwood thickness from 2.1 to 14.8 cm. Sap velocity was highly dependent on the depth of probe insertion into the sapwood. Rates of sap velocity were greatest for probes located in the two outer sapwood annuli (P1 and P2) and lowest for probes in closest proximity to the heartwood (P3 and P4). Relative sap velocities averaged 0.98 at P1, 0.66 at P2, 0.41 at P3 and 0.35 at P4. Tree-specific sap velocities measured at each of the four probe positions, divided by the maximum sap velocity measured (usually at P1 or P2), indicated that the fraction of sapwood functional in water transport (f(S)) varied between 0.49 and 0.96. There was no relationship between f(S) and sapwood thickness, or between f(S) and stem diameter. The fraction of functional sapwood averaged 0.66 +/- 0.13 for trees on which radial profiles were determined. No significant depth-related differences were observed for sapwood density, which averaged 469 kg m(-3) across all four probe positions. There was, however, a significant decline in sapwood water content between the two outer probe positions (1.04 versus 0.89 kg kg(-1)). This difference was not sufficient to account for the observed radial variation in sap velocity. A Monte-Carlo analysis indicated that the standard error in

  19. Studies on mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology details of laser beam welded thick SS304L plates for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar, E-mail: buddu@ipr.res.in [Fusion Reactor Materials Development and Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Chauhan, N.; Raole, P.M. [Fusion Reactor Materials Development and Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Natu, Harshad [Magod Laser Machining Pvt. Ltd, Jigani, Bengaluru 560105 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • CO{sub 2} laser welding of 8 mm thick SS304L plates has been carried out and full penetration welds fabricated and characterized for mechanical properties and microstructure details. • Welded samples have shown tensile properties comparable to base indicating good weld quality joints. • Impact fracture tests of weld zone and heat affected zone samples have shown poor toughness compared to the base metal. • SEM analysis of fracture samples of tensile and impact specimens indicated the complex microstructure features in weld zone and combined ductile and brittle fracture features. • Combined features of dendrite and cellular structures are observed in weld microstructures with narrow HAZ and delta ferrite is found in the welds and further confirmed by higher Ferrite Number data. - Abstract: Austenitic stainless steel is widely used structural material for the fabrication of the fusion reactor components. Laser welding is high power density process which offers several advantages over the other conventional processes like Tungsten Inert Gas welding. The features like low distortion, narrow heat affected zone, deep penetration in single pass, good mechanical properties are some of the advantages of laser welding process. The laser weld process parameters optimization has several challenges in terms of overcoming the weld defects like voids due to lack of penetration over depth, undercuts and porosity. The present paper reports the studies carried out with CO{sub 2} laser welding of 8 mm thick austenitic stainless steel SS304L plates and their characterization of mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology details. The weld process parameter optimization towards defect free welds with full penetration welding has been carried out. The welded samples have shown tensile properties comparable to base metal, bend tests are successfully passed. The hardness measurements have shown slightly higher for weld zone compared to base metal

  20. Studies on mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology details of laser beam welded thick SS304L plates for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P.M.; Natu, Harshad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CO 2 laser welding of 8 mm thick SS304L plates has been carried out and full penetration welds fabricated and characterized for mechanical properties and microstructure details. • Welded samples have shown tensile properties comparable to base indicating good weld quality joints. • Impact fracture tests of weld zone and heat affected zone samples have shown poor toughness compared to the base metal. • SEM analysis of fracture samples of tensile and impact specimens indicated the complex microstructure features in weld zone and combined ductile and brittle fracture features. • Combined features of dendrite and cellular structures are observed in weld microstructures with narrow HAZ and delta ferrite is found in the welds and further confirmed by higher Ferrite Number data. - Abstract: Austenitic stainless steel is widely used structural material for the fabrication of the fusion reactor components. Laser welding is high power density process which offers several advantages over the other conventional processes like Tungsten Inert Gas welding. The features like low distortion, narrow heat affected zone, deep penetration in single pass, good mechanical properties are some of the advantages of laser welding process. The laser weld process parameters optimization has several challenges in terms of overcoming the weld defects like voids due to lack of penetration over depth, undercuts and porosity. The present paper reports the studies carried out with CO 2 laser welding of 8 mm thick austenitic stainless steel SS304L plates and their characterization of mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology details. The weld process parameter optimization towards defect free welds with full penetration welding has been carried out. The welded samples have shown tensile properties comparable to base metal, bend tests are successfully passed. The hardness measurements have shown slightly higher for weld zone compared to base metal and the

  1. Mathematical modelling, variational formulation and numerical simulation of the energy transfer process in a gray plate in the presence of a thermal radiant source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1992-05-01

    The energy transfer process in a gray, opaque and rigid plate, heated by an external thermal radiant source, is considered. The source is regarded as a spherical black body, with radius a (a → 0) and uniform heat generation, placed above the plate. A mathematical model is constructed, assuming that the heat transfer from/to the plate takes place by thermal radiation. The obtained mathematical model is nonlinear. Is presented a suitable variational principle which is employed for simulating some particular cases. (author)

  2. Tungsten Inert Gas and Friction Stir Welding Characteristics of 4-mm-Thick 2219-T87 Plates at Room Temperature and -196 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuefeng; Deng, Ying; Yin, Zhimin; Xu, Guofu

    2014-06-01

    2219-T87 aluminum alloy is widely used for fabricating liquid rocket propellant storage tank, due to its admirable cryogenic property. Welding is the dominant joining method in the manufacturing process of aerospace components. In this study, the tungsten inert gas welding and friction stir welding (FSW) characteristics of 4-mm-thick 2219-T87 alloy plate at room temperature (25 °C) and deep cryogenic temperature (-196 °C) were investigated by property measurements and microscopy methods. The studied 2219 base alloy exhibits a low strength plane anisotropy and excellent room temperature and cryogenic mechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strength values of TIG and FSW welding joints can reach 265 and 353 MPa at room temperature, and 342 and 438 MPa at -196 °C, respectively. The base metal consists of elongated deformed grains and many nano-scaled θ (Al2Cu) aging precipitates. Fusion zone and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the TIG joint are characterized by coarsening dendritic grains and equiaxed recrystallized grains, respectively. The FSW-welded joint consists of the weld nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and HAZ. In the weld nugget zone, a micro-scaled sub-grain structure is the main microstructure characteristic. The TMAZ and HAZ are both characterized by coarsened aging precipitates and elongated deformed grains. The excellent FSW welding properties are attributed to the preservation of the working structures and homogenous chemical compositions.

  3. Composition profiles of several contaminated and cleaned surfaces of gold thick films on copper plates by Auger electron and secondary ion mass spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, S.; Mizuno, M.; Narusawa, T.; Maeda, H.; Yoshikawa, M.

    1974-01-01

    Preparation and evaluation of a clean Au film are investigated. Development of a preparation method for obtaining clean surface on a copper shell in the JFT-2a (DIVA) TOKAMAK toroidal vacuum chamber is the aim of the present work. Au films prepared by ion plating and vacuum evaporation have been analysed by a cylindrical mirror Auger electron analyser in combination with a quadrupole mass spectrometer during 2 keV Xe ion bombardment from a sputter ion gun over the whole range of thickness of several microns. Contaminants are found to segregate on the top surface and at the interface. To expose a clean Au surface by the ion bombardment, surface layers within 1000 A had to be removed from the surfaces contaminated by touching with either a naked hand or a nylon glove or covered by a small amount of Ti. Mutual diffusions across the interfaces are also analyzed as a function of the substrate temperature. A Nb sandwich layer inhibites effectively the mutual diffusion. (auth.)

  4. A new procedure for investigating three-dimensional stress fields in a thin plate with a through-the-thickness crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dake; Wang, TzuChiang

    2018-06-01

    In the paper, a new procedure is proposed to investigate three-dimensional fracture problems of a thin elastic plate with a long through-the-thickness crack under remote uniform tensile loading. The new procedure includes a new analytical method and high accurate finite element simulations. In the part of theoretical analysis, three-dimensional Maxwell stress functions are employed in order to derive three-dimensional crack tip fields. Based on the theoretical analysis, an equation which can describe the relationship among the three-dimensional J-integral J( z), the stress intensity factor K( z) and the tri-axial stress constraint level T z ( z) is derived first. In the part of finite element simulations, a fine mesh including 153360 elements is constructed to compute the stress field near the crack front, J( z) and T z ( z). Numerical results show that in the plane very close to the free surface, the K field solution is still valid for in-plane stresses. Comparison with the numerical results shows that the analytical results are valid.

  5. Properties of light transition radiation of 660 MeV proton inclined incidence (γ=1.7) on a thick nickel plate. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelov, V.P.; Pavlovic, P.; Ruzicka, J.

    1975-01-01

    The basic properties of transition radiation in the visible fraction of the spectrum have been calculated for 660 MeV protons (γ=1.7) obliquely incident on a thick nickel plate in vacuum. The angular distributions of the summary radiation (i.e. the sums of radiations of various polarizations) both 'forward' and 'backward' for different azimuthal planes are presented in tables and diagrams for different particle inclination angles to the separation boundary. The examples of angular distributions of radiation having various polarizations (at the inclination angle of 45 0 ) show that they differ considerably. The spectra of summary radiation are of a monotonous character. The calculations have shown that in a relativistic case the forward radiation is concentrated near the direction of particle motion and backward radiation moves in an opposite direction with respect to that of the particle inclination. The dependence of the total yield of forward and backward transition radiations upon the particle inclination angle is approximately cos 2 psi. (Auth.)

  6. Thickness of patellofemoral articular cartilage as measured on MR imaging: sequence comparison of accuracy, reproducibility, and interobserver variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leersum, M.D. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schweitzer, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gannon, F. [Dept. of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vinitski, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Finkel, G. [Dept. of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mitchell, D.G. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision, and reliability of magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of articular cartilage. Fifteen cadaveric patellas were imaged in the axial plane at 1.5 T. Gradient echo and fat-suppressed FSE, T2-weighted, proton density, and T1-weighted sequences were performed. We measured each 5-mm section separately at three standardized positions, giving a total of 900 measurements. These findings were correlated with independently performed measurements of the corresponding anatomic sections. A hundred random measurements were also evaluated for reproducibility and interobserver variation. Although all sequences were highly accurate, the T1-weighted images were the most accurate, with a mean difference of 0.25 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.85. All sequences were also highly reproducible with little inter-observer variation. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of the MR measurements further, we retrospectively evaluated all measurements with discrepancies greater than 1 mm from the specimen. All these differences were attributable to focal defects causing exaggeration of the thickness on MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. Thickness of patellofemoral articular cartilage as measured on MR imaging: sequence comparison of accuracy, reproducibility, and interobserver variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Leersum, M.D.; Schweitzer, M.E.; Gannon, F.; Vinitski, S.; Finkel, G.; Mitchell, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision, and reliability of magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of articular cartilage. Fifteen cadaveric patellas were imaged in the axial plane at 1.5 T. Gradient echo and fat-suppressed FSE, T2-weighted, proton density, and T1-weighted sequences were performed. We measured each 5-mm section separately at three standardized positions, giving a total of 900 measurements. These findings were correlated with independently performed measurements of the corresponding anatomic sections. A hundred random measurements were also evaluated for reproducibility and interobserver variation. Although all sequences were highly accurate, the T1-weighted images were the most accurate, with a mean difference of 0.25 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.85. All sequences were also highly reproducible with little inter-observer variation. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of the MR measurements further, we retrospectively evaluated all measurements with discrepancies greater than 1 mm from the specimen. All these differences were attributable to focal defects causing exaggeration of the thickness on MR imaging. (orig.)

  8. Variations of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to the torsion direction of optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Chan Yun; Kim, Na Rae

    2014-02-20

    To examine the relationship between the optic disc torsion and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness through a comparison with the macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer complex (GCIPL) thickness measured by Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ninety-four eyes of 94 subjects with optic disc torsion and 114 eyes of 114 subjects without optic disc torsion were enrolled prospectively. The participants underwent fundus photography and OCT imaging in peripapillary RNFL mode and macular GCIPL mode. The participants were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion. The eyes with optic disc torsion were further divided into supranasal torsion and inferotemporal torsion groups according to the direction of optic disc torsion. The mean RNFL and GCIPL thicknesses for the quadrants and subsectors were compared. The superior and inferior peak locations of the RNFL were also measured according to the torsion direction. The temporal RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in inferotemporal torsion, whereas the GCIPL thickness at all segments was unaffected. The inferotemporal optic torsion had more temporally positioned superior peak locations of the RNFL than the nontorsion and supranasal-torted optic disc. Thickening of the temporal RNFL with a temporal shift in the superior peak within the eyes with inferotemporal optic disc torsion can lead to interpretation errors. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm can assist in differentiating eyes with optic disc torsion.

  9. Structural variation of the oceanic Moho in the Pacific plate revealed by active-source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Akane; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fujie, Gou; Arai, Ryuta; Miura, Seiichi

    2017-10-01

    The characteristics of the oceanic Moho are known to depend on various factors, such as seafloor spreading rate, crustal age, and accretionary processes at a ridge. However, the effect of local magmatic activities on the seismic signature of the Moho is poorly understood. Here an active-source reflection and refraction survey is used to investigate crustal structure and Moho characteristics along a >1000-km-long profile southeast of the Shatsky Rise in a Pacific Ocean basin formed from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and spanning the onset of Shatsky Rise volcanism. Although the seismic velocity structure estimated from the refraction data showed typical characteristics of the oceanic crust of the old Pacific plate, the appearance of the Moho reflections was spatially variable. We observed clear Moho reflections such as those to be expected where the spreading rate is fast to intermediate only at the southwestern end of the profile, whereas Moho reflections were diffuse, weak, or absent along other parts of the profile. The poor Moho reflections can be explained by the presence of a thick crust-mantle transition layer, which is temporally coincident with the formation of the Shatsky Rise. We inferred that the crust-mantle transition layer was formed by changes in on-axis accretion process or modification of the primary Moho by off-axis magmatism, induced by magmatic activity of the Shatsky Rise.

  10. Detailed measurements of local thickness changes for U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with Al-3.5Si matrix after irradiation at different powers in the RERTR-9B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Williams, Walter; Robinson, Adam; Wachs, Dan; Moore, Glenn; Crawford, Doug

    2017-10-01

    The Materials Management and Minimization program is developing fuel designs to replace highly enriched fuel with fuels of low enrichment. Swelling is an important irradiation behavior that needs to be well understood. Data from high resolution thickness measurements performed on U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with Al-Si alloy matrices that were irradiated at high power is sparse. This paper reports the results of detailed thickness measurements performed on two dispersion fuel plates that were irradiated at relatively high power to high fission densities in the Advanced Test Reactor in the same RERTR-9B experiment. Both plates were irradiated to similar fission densities, but one was irradiated at a higher power than the other. The goal of this work is to identify any differences in the swelling behavior when fuel plates are irradiated at different powers to the same fission densities. Based on the results of detailed thickness measurments, more swelling occurs when a U-7Mo dispersion fuel with Al-3.5Si matrix is irradiated to a high fission density at high power compared to one irradiated at a lower power to high fission density.

  11. A Variationally Formulated Problem of the Stationary Heat Conduction in a Plate with Radiation Reduction Factor Increased under Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    dependence of the absorption factor on the local intensity of this radiation. Furthermore, it can be a significant dependence of this factor on the local value of the material temperature, reflecting the above-mentioned relationship between the absorption of electromagnetic wave energy and the excitation of material microparticles. This process can be described by Boltzmann distribution function that comprises the energy to activate microparticles and the local value of temperature.This paper presents a variational formulation of the nonlinear problem of stationary heat conduction in a plate for the case when the radiation reduction factor in relation to the Bouguer law depends on the local temperature. This formulation includes a functional that can have several fixed points corresponding to different steady states of the plate temperature. Analysis of the properties of this functional enabled us to identify the stationary points, which correspond to the realized temperature distribution in the plate.

  12. Impacts of variable thermal conductivity on stagnation point boundary layer flow past a Riga plate with variable thickness using generalized Fourier's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Hussain, S.; Sagheer, M.

    2018-06-01

    This article explores the problem of two-dimensional, laminar, steady and boundary layer stagnation point slip flow over a Riga plate. The incompressible upper-convected Maxwell fluid has been considered as a rheological fluid model. The heat transfer characteristics are investigated with generalized Fourier's law. The fluid thermal conductivity is assumed to be temperature dependent in this study. A system of partial differential equations governing the flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid, heat and mass transfer using generalized Fourier's law is developed. The main objective of the article is to inspect the impacts of pertinent physical parameters such as the stretching ratio parameter (0 ⩽ A ⩽ 0.3) , Deborah number (0 ⩽ β ⩽ 0.6) , thermal relaxation parameter (0 ⩽ γ ⩽ 0.5) , wall thickness parameter (0.1 ⩽ α ⩽ 3.5) , slip parameter (0 ⩽ R ⩽ 1.5) , thermal conductivity parameter (0.1 ⩽ δ ⩽ 1.0) and modified Hartmann number (0 ⩽ Q ⩽ 3) on the velocity and temperature profiles. Suitable local similarity transformations have been used to get a system of non-linear ODEs from the governing PDEs. The numerical solutions for the dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions have been achieved by employing an effective numerical method called the shooting method. It is seen that the velocity profile shows the reduction in the velocity for the higher values of viscoelastic parameter and the thermal relaxation parameter. In addition, to enhance the reliability at the maximum level of the obtained numerical results by shooting method, a MATLAB built-in solver bvp4c has also been utilized.

  13. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Shen, Wei; Niu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin

    2015-01-01

    To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China. 6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationship of ethnicity and other factors with CCT. The mean CCT readings were 536.4 ± 34.2 μm in ethnic Bai, 532.1 ± 32.1 μm in ethnic Yi and 529.6 ± 32.7 μm in ethnic Han adults (Pethnic groups. In multivariate linear regression models, increasing CCT was associated with younger age (Pethnicity, greater body mass index (PEthnicity contributed significantly to presence of thin cornea (60%; Pethnic groups. This study of more than 6500 multiethnic participants demonstrates significant ethnic variations in CCT, with Han ethnicity having the thinnest cornea compared with ethnic minorities. These data are essential to guide future multiethnic clinical trials on CCT-related ocular conditions such as glaucoma.

  14. Imaging b-value depth variations within the Cocos and Rivera plates at the Mexican subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Zuñiga, F. Ramón

    2018-06-01

    By a systematic mapping of the b-value along profiles perpendicular to the Mexican Wadati-Benioff zone, we obtained important characteristics pertaining the stress state and faulting style related to the subduction process. To this purpose, we used data from the earthquake catalog reported by the Servicio Sismologico Nacional (1988-2016). We investigate depth variations of the b-value for the Cocos and Rivera under North American plates interface, by a detailed analysis of 15 cross-sections. The obtained b-value profiles vary from 0.50 to 2.50, which nevertheless appear related to the faulting style and stress state. By comparing the locations and focal mechanism of the largest events with the b-values of the surrounding regions, our analysis corroborates the dependence of the b-value on the faulting style. Thrust events occur in regions of low and high b-value at depths 30 km), in agreement with global studies. These results support the hypothesis that differential stress processes may be behind the occurrence of the different faulting style. On the contrary, by analyzing the mean b-values for both types of faulting mechanism at each of the cross-sections, we found a significantly lower mean b-value related to normal faulting for those regions where the 8 (Mw 8.2) and 19 (Mw 7.1) September 2017 earthquakes occur. These results lead us to conclude that those regions experienced an increased stress state prone to the occurrence of normal-intraplate events. We also compare the b-value distribution with Vp and Q tomography studies obtaining a good correlation between them. We found evidence to relate b-value variations with subduction processes such as stress state due to tectonic and flexural conditions, and to a lesser extent to material heterogeneity and fluid dehydration.

  15. Compositional variation within thick (>10 m) flow units of Mauna Kea Volcano cored by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichun; Vollinger, Michael J.; Frey, Frederick A.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Zhang, Qun

    2016-07-01

    Geochemical analyses of stratigraphic sequences of lava flows are necessary to understand how a volcano works. Typically one sample from each lava flow is collected and studied with the assumption that this sample is representative of the flow composition. This assumption may not be valid. The thickness of flows ranges from 100 m. Geochemical heterogeneity in thin flows may be created by interaction with the surficial environment whereas magmatic processes occurring during emplacement may create geochemical heterogeneities in thick flows. The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) cored ∼3.3 km of basalt erupted at Mauna Kea Volcano. In order to determine geochemical heterogeneities in a flow, multiple samples from four thick (9.3-98.4 m) HSDP flow units were analyzed for major and trace elements. We found that major element abundances in three submarine flow units are controlled by the varying proportion of olivine, the primary phenocryst phase in these samples. Post-magmatic alteration of a subaerial flow led to loss of SiO2, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5, and as a consequence, contents of immobile elements, such as Fe2O3 and Al2O3, increase. The mobility of SiO2 is important because Mauma Kea shield lavas divide into two groups that differ in SiO2 content. Post-magmatic mobility of SiO2 adds complexity to determining if these groups reflect differences in source or process. The most mobile elements during post-magmatic subaerial and submarine alteration are K and Rb, and Ba, Sr and U were also mobile, but their abundances are not highly correlated with K and Rb. The Ba/Th ratio has been used to document an important role for a plagioclase-rich source component for basalt from the Galapagos, Iceland and Hawaii. Although Ba/Th is anomalously high in Hawaiian basalt, variation in Ba abundance within a single flow shows that it is not a reliable indicator of a deep source component. In contrast, ratios involving elements that are typically immobile, such as La/Nb, La

  16. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China.6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationship of ethnicity and other factors with CCT.The mean CCT readings were 536.4 ± 34.2 μm in ethnic Bai, 532.1 ± 32.1 μm in ethnic Yi and 529.6 ± 32.7 μm in ethnic Han adults (P<0.001, respectively. There was a decreasing trend of mean CCT with increasing age across all ethnic groups. In multivariate linear regression models, increasing CCT was associated with younger age (P<0.001, male gender (P<0.001, Bai (P<0.001 or Yi (P<0.001 ethnicity, greater body mass index (P<0.001, higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001, greater corneal curvature (P<0.001, deeper anterior chamber (P < 0.001, and thicker lens (P<0.001. Ethnicity contributed significantly to presence of thin cornea (60%; P< 0.001 compared with other factors. CCT had similar impact on intraocular pressure readings across all ethnic groups.This study of more than 6500 multiethnic participants demonstrates significant ethnic variations in CCT, with Han ethnicity having the thinnest cornea compared with ethnic minorities. These data are essential to guide future multiethnic clinical trials on CCT-related ocular conditions such as glaucoma.

  17. ICESat Observations of Seasonal and Interannual Variations of Sea-Ice Freeboard and Estimated Thickness in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Donghui; Robbins, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Sea-ice freeboard heights for 17 ICESat campaign periods from 2003 to 2009 are derived from ICESat data. Freeboard is combined with snow depth from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) data and nominal densities of snow, water and sea ice, to estimate sea-ice thickness. Sea-ice freeboard and thickness distributions show clear seasonal variations that reflect the yearly cycle of growth and decay of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) pack ice. During October-November, sea ice grows to its seasonal maximum both in area and thickness; the mean freeboards are 0.33-0.41 m and the mean thicknesses are 2.10-2.59 m. During February-March, thinner sea ice melts away and the sea-ice pack is mainly distributed in the west Weddell Sea; the mean freeboards are 0.35-0.46 m and the mean thicknesses are 1.48-1.94 m. During May-June, the mean freeboards and thicknesses are 0.26-0.29 m and 1.32-1.37 m, respectively. The 6 year trends in sea-ice extent and volume are (0.023+/-0.051) x 10(exp 6)sq km/a (0.45%/a) and (0.007+/-1.0.092) x 10(exp 3)cu km/a (0.08%/a); however, the large standard deviations indicate that these positive trends are not statistically significant.

  18. Variation of the optical energy gap with {gamma}-radiation and thickness in Bi-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Houty, L.; Kassem, M.E.; Abdel Kader, H.I. [Qatar Univ., Doha (Qatar). Dept. of Physics

    1995-02-01

    The effect of {gamma}-radiation and thickness on the optical energy gap of Bi-thin films has been investigated by measuring their optical absorbance. The measurements were carried out on thermally evaporated films having thicknesses in the range 5-20 nm. Different {gamma}-radiation doses were used ranging from 0-300 Mrad. The optical energy gap as well as the absorption coefficient were found to be {gamma}-dose dependent. (author).

  19. Variation of the optical energy gap with γ-radiation and thickness in Bi-thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Houty, L.; Kassem, M.E.; Abdel Kader, H.I.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation and thickness on the optical energy gap of Bi-thin films has been investigated by measuring their optical absorbance. The measurements were carried out on thermally evaporated films having thicknesses in the range 5-20 nm. Different γ-radiation doses were used ranging from 0-300 Mrad. The optical energy gap as well as the absorption coefficient were found to be γ-dose dependent. (author)

  20. Mathematical model of temperature field distribution in thin plates during polishing with a free abrasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilov Alex

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the heating process of thin plates during polishing with a free abrasive. A mathematical model of the temperature field distribution in space and time according to the plate thickness is based on Lagrange equation of the second kind in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes (variation principle Bio. The research results of thermo elasticity of thin plates (membranes will allow to correct the modes of polishing with a free abrasive to receive the exact reflecting surfaces of satellites reflector, to increase temperature stability and the ability of radio signal reflection, satellite precision guidance. Calculations of temperature fields in thin plates of different thicknesses (membranes is held in the Excel, a graphical characteristics of temperature fields in thin plates (membranes show non-linearity of temperature distribution according to the thickness of thin plates (membranes.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Hydro-mechanical Deep Drawing — A Study on the Effect of Process Parameters on Drawability and Thickness Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swadesh Kumar; Kumar, D. Ravi

    2005-08-01

    Hydro-mechanical deep drawing is a process for producing cup shaped parts with the assistance of a pressurized fluid. In the present work, numerical simulation of the conventional and counter pressure deep drawing processes has been done with the help of a finite element method based software. Simulation results were analyzed to study the improvement in drawability by using hydro-mechanical processes. The thickness variations in the drawn cups were analyzed and also the effect of counter pressure and oil gap on the thickness distribution was studied. Numerical simulations were also used for the die design, which combines both drawing and ironing processes in a single operation. This modification in the die provides high drawability, facilitates smooth material flow, gives more uniform thickness distribution and corrects the shape distortion.

  2. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  3. Fracture resistance and failure modes of polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrown restorations with variations in margin design and occlusal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Doaa; Spintzyk, Sebastian; Schille, Christine; Sabet, Ahmed; Wahsh, Marwa; Salah, Tarek; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

    2017-12-11

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of varying the margin designs and the occlusal thicknesses on the fracture resistance and mode of failures of endodontically treated teeth restored with polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrown restorations. Root canal treated mandibular molars were divided into four groups (n=8) and were prepared to receive Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) fabricated polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrowns (ENAMIC blocks). Group B2 represents teeth prepared with a butt joint design receiving endocrowns with 2mm occlusal thickness and the same for group B3.5 but with 3.5mm occlusal thickness. Group S2 represents teeth prepared with 1mm shoulder finish line receiving endocrowns with 2mm occlusal thickness and the same for group S3.5 but with 3.5mm occlusal thickness. After cementation and thermal aging, fracture resistance test was performed and failure modes were observed. Group S3.5 showed the highest mean fracture load value (1.27±0.31kN). Endocrowns with shoulder finish line had significantly higher mean fracture resistance values than endocrowns with butt margin (p<0.05). However, the results were not statistically significant regarding the restoration thickness. Evaluation of the fracture modes revealed no statistically significant difference between the modes of failure of tested groups. For the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, adding a short axial wall and shoulder finish line can increase the fracture resistance. However, further investigations, especially the fatigue behavior, are needed to ensure this effect applies with small increases of restoration thickness. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation of the development and interaction of instabilities in a relativistic electron beam under variation of the beam wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badarin, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Koronovskii, A. A. [Yuri Gagarin State Technical University (Russian Federation); Rak, A. O. [Belorussian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Hramov, A. E., E-mail: hramovae@gmail.com [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The development and interaction of Bursian and diocotron instabilities in an annular relativistic electron beam propagating in a cylindrical drift chamber are investigated analytically and numerically as functions of the beam wall thickness and the magnitude of the external uniform magnetic field. It is found that the interaction of instabilities results in the formation of a virtual cathode with a complicated rotating helical structure and several reflection regions (electron bunches) in the azimuthal direction. It is shown that the number of electron bunches in the azimuthal direction increases with decreasing beam wall thickness and depends in a complicated manner on the magnitude of the external magnetic field.

  5. NDE methods for determining the materials properties of silicon carbide plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderian, Shant; Kim, Yong; Johnson, Eric; Palusinski, Iwona A.

    2009-08-01

    Two types of SiC plates, differing in their manufacturing processes, were interrogated using a variety of NDE techniques. The task of evaluating the materials properties of these plates was a challenge due to their non-uniform thickness. Ultrasound was used to estimate the Young's Modulus and calculate the thickness profile and Poisson's Ratio of the plates. The Young's Modulus profile plots were consistent with the thickness profile plots, indicating that the technique was highly influenced by the non-uniform thickness of the plates. The Poisson's Ratio is calculated from the longitudinal and shear wave velocities. Because the thickness is cancelled out, the result is dependent only on the time of flight of the two wave modes, which can be measured accurately. X-Ray was used to determine if any density variations were present in the plates. None were detected suggesting that the varying time of flight of the acoustic wave is attributed only to variations in the elastic constants and thickness profiles of the plates. Eddy Current was used to plot the conductivity profile. Surprisingly, the conductivity profile of one type of plates varied over a wide range rarely seen in other materials. The other type revealed a uniform conductivity profile.

  6. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, D.K.; Kant, Tarun; Srinivas, K.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature

  7. Characterization of a texture gradient in tantalum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.I.; Gray, G.T. III.

    1994-01-01

    Clark et al. have shown that significant texture gradients can be produced in rolled tantalum plate and that the strength of the gradient is dependent on the processing path. Texture gradients are often ignored because they are time consuming to characterize and add significant complexity to materials modeling. The variation in texture through the thickness of rolled materials is most commonly measured by sectioning samples to different depths through the thickness of the plate and then measuring the texture from these section planes by X-ray diffraction. A new technique based on automatic indexing of electron backscatter diffraction patterns in the scanning electron microscope enables spatially specific orientations to be measured in a practical manner. This technique allows spatial variations in texture to be measured directly enabling gradients in texture to be investigated in more detail than previously possible. This data can be used directly in coupled finite-element/polycrystal-plasticity models to simulate the effects of variations in texture on the plastic behavior of polycrystals. This work examines the variation in texture through the thickness of a tantalum plate and its resultant effect on the compressive deformation of samples prepared from the plate. The characterization of the texture gradient using the automatic point-by-point measurement technique mentioned above is described in detail. The effect of the gradient on the plastic response of through-thickness compression tests is also discussed

  8. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Shen, Wei; Niu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China. Methods 6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and princ...

  9. In-process tool rotational speed variation with constant heat input in friction stir welding of AZ31 sheets with variable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, Gianluca; Campanella, Davide; Forcellese, Archimede; Fratini, Livan; Simoncini, Michela

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, friction stir welding experiments on AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets, characterized by a variable thickness along the welding line, were carried out. The approach adapted during welding consisted in maintaining constant the heat input to the joint. To this purpose, the rotational speed of the pin tool was increased with decreasing thickness and decreased with increasing thickness in order to obtain the same temperatures during welding. The amount by which the rotational speed was changed as a function of the sheet thickness was defined on the basis of the results given by FEM simulations of the FSW process. Finally, the effect of the in-process variation of the tool rotational speed on the mechanical and microstructural properties of FSWed joints was analysed by comparing both the nominal stress vs. nominal strain curves and microstructure of FSWed joints obtained in different process conditions. It was observed that FSW performed by keeping constant the heat input to the joint leads to almost coincident results both in terms of the curve shape, ultimate tensile strength and ultimate elongation values, and microstructure.

  10. Assessment of the applicability of AWJ technique for dismantling the reactor of Fugen. Performance of underwater-cutting thick plate and testing of sound-based monitoring for underwater-cutting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shin-ichiro; Nishio, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The reactor of Fugen is characterized by its double-walled pressure tube construction that is composed of pressure tubes and calandria tubes. The reactor dismantlement has been planning on dismantling it under water and the abrasive water jet (AWJ) underwater-cutting method is chosen as an option among simultaneous double tubes cutting technologies. For assessing the applicability of the AWJ cutting technology, a thick plate was cut under water by the small AWJ cutting machine. In addition, since cutting causes muddiness in water, cutting was monitored by the sound-based monitoring system which was adopted as a secondary cutting monitoring method. As a results, it was demonstrated that one-phase cutting was possible under water for a stainless-steel plate with 150mm thickness and that the relationship between cutting depth and capable cutting speed could be predictable. As for the sound-based cutting monitoring, the predictability whether or not cutting would be successful was verified by checking the change of sounds level. (author)

  11. Topographical Variation of Human Femoral Articular Cartilage Thickness, T1rho and T2 Relaxation Times Is Related to Local Loading during Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossom, Sam; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Assche, Dieter; Jonkers, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Objective Early detection of degenerative changes in the cartilage matrix composition is essential for evaluating early interventions that slow down osteoarthritis (OA) initiation. T1rho and T2 relaxation times were found to be effective for detecting early changes in proteoglycan and collagen content. To use these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, it is important to document the topographical variation in cartilage thickness, T1rho and T2 relaxation times in a healthy population. As OA is partially mechanically driven, the relation between these MRI-based parameters and localized mechanical loading during walking was investigated. Design MR images were acquired in 14 healthy adults and cartilage thickness and T1rho and T2 relaxation times were determined. Experimental gait data was collected and processed using musculoskeletal modeling to identify weight-bearing zones and estimate the contact force impulse during gait. Variation of the cartilage properties (i.e., thickness, T1rho, and T2) over the femoral cartilage was analyzed and compared between the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing zone of the medial and lateral condyle as well as the trochlea. Results Medial condyle cartilage thickness was correlated to the contact force impulse ( r = 0.78). Lower T1rho, indicating increased proteoglycan content, was found in the medial weight-bearing zone. T2 was higher in all weight-bearing zones compared with the non-weight-bearing zones, indicating lower relative collagen content. Conclusions The current results suggest that medial condyle cartilage is adapted as a long-term protective response to localized loading during a frequently performed task and that the weight-bearing zone of the medial condyle has superior weight bearing capacities compared with the non-weight-bearing zones.

  12. On the growth of the baleen plate of the Fin Whale and the Blue Whale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht, van W.L.

    1965-01-01

    1. In Whales variations in the thickness of the baleen plates are supposed to give an insight into certain cyclical processes in the life of the animal. To a certain extent, by means of these variations, it is possible to reach conclusions about the age of the animal and/or about its recent period

  13. Edge-wave-driven durable variations in the thickness of the surfactant film and concentration of surface floats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbukh, Elena [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kurkina, Oksana, E-mail: okurkina@hse.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 25/12 Bol' shaya Pecherskaya St., 603155 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kurkin, Andrey [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Soomere, Tarmo, E-mail: soomere@cs.ioc.ee [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2014-01-03

    By employing a simple model for small-scale linear edge waves propagating along a homogeneous sloping beach, we demonstrate that certain combinations of linear wave components may lead to durable changes in the thickness of the surfactant film, equivalently, in the concentration of various substances (debris, litter) floating on the water surface. Such changes are caused by high-amplitude transient elevations that resemble rogue waves and occur during dispersive focusing of wave fields with a continuous spectrum. This process can be treated as an intrinsic mechanism of production of patches in the surface layer of an otherwise homogeneous coastal environment impacted by linear edge waves.

  14. Mathematical Model of Stress-Strain State of Curved Tube of Non-Circular Cross-Section with Account of Technological Wall Thickness Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, S. P.; Ustinov, N. N.; Smolin, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    A mathematical model of the stress-strain state of a curved tube of a non-circular cross-section is presented, taking into account the technological wall thickness variation. On the basis of the semi-membrane shell theory, a system of linear differential equations describing the deformation of a tube under the effect of pressure is obtained. To solve the boundary value problem, the method of shooting is applied. The adequacy of the proposed mathematical model is verified by comparison with the experimental data and the results of the calculation of tubes by the energy method.

  15. Microstructure, thickness and sheet resistivity of Cu/Ni thin film produced by electroplating technique on the variation of electrolyte temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toifur, M.; Yuningsih, Y.; Khusnani, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, it has been made Cu/Ni thin film produced with electroplating technique. The deposition process was done in the plating bath using Cu and Ni as cathode and anode respectively. The electrolyte solution was made from the mixture of HBrO3 (7.5g), NiSO4 (100g), NiCl2 (15g), and aquadest (250 ml). Electrolyte temperature was varied from 40°C up to 80°C, to make the Ni ions in the solution easy to move to Cu cathode. The deposition was done during 2 minutes on the potential of 1.5 volt. Many characterizations were done including the thickness of Ni film, microstructure, and sheet resistivity. The results showed that at all samples Ni had attacked on the Cu substrate to form Cu/Ni. The raising of electrolyte temperature affected the increasing of Ni thickness that is the Ni thickness increase with the increasing electrolyte temperature. From the EDS spectrum, it can be informed that samples already contain Ni and Cu elements and NiO and CuO compounds. Addition element and compound are found for sample Cu/Ni resulted from 70° electrolyte temperature of Ni deposition, that are Pt and PtO2. From XRD pattern, there are several phases which have crystal structure i.e. Cu, Ni, and NiO, while CuO and PtO2 have amorphous structure. The sheet resistivity linearly decreases with the increasing electrolyte temperature.

  16. Solvent micro-evaporation and concentration gradient synergistically induced crystallization of poly(L-lactide) and ring banded supra-structures with radial periodic variation of thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaoyong; Li, Hongfei; Wen, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    The crystalline morphology and structure of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in a PLLA film-chloroform system were investigated by means of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Birefringent and nonbirefringent ring banded supra-structure......The crystalline morphology and structure of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in a PLLA film-chloroform system were investigated by means of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Birefringent and nonbirefringent ring banded supra......-structures with radial periodic variation of thickness were obtained, which were induced by micro-evaporation of solvents and concentration gradient of PLLA. The ring banded morphologies consisted of multilayer lamellar crystals, which is a manifestation of alternating ridge and valley bands of periodic variation...

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of thaw layer thickness and its controlling factors identified using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography and hydro-thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh Phuong; Dafflon, Baptiste; Bisht, Gautam; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2018-06-01

    Quantitative understanding of controls on thaw layer thickness (TLT) dynamics in the Arctic peninsula is essential for predictive understanding of permafrost degradation feedbacks to global warming and hydrobiochemical processes. This study jointly interprets electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements and hydro-thermal numerical simulation results to assess spatiotemporal variations of TLT and to determine its controlling factors in Barrow, Alaska. Time-lapse ERT measurements along a 35-m transect were autonomously collected from 2013 to 2015 and inverted to obtain soil electrical resistivity. Based on several probe-based TLT measurements and co-located soil electrical resistivity, we estimated the electrical resistivity thresholds associated with the boundary between the thaw layer and permafrost using a grid search optimization algorithm. Then, we used the obtained thresholds to derive the TLT from all soil electrical resistivity images. The spatiotemporal analysis of the ERT-derived TLT shows that the TLT at high-centered polygons (HCPs) is smaller than that at low-centered polygons (LCPs), and that both thawing and freezing occur earlier at the HCPs compared to the LCPs. In order to provide a physical explanation for dynamics in the thaw layer, we performed 1-D hydro-thermal simulations using the community land model (CLM). Simulation results showed that air temperature and precipitation jointly govern the temporal variations of TLT, while the topsoil organic content (SOC) and polygon morphology are responsible for its spatial variations. When the topsoil SOC and its thickness increase, TLT decreases. Meanwhile, at LCPs, a thicker snow layer and saturated soil contribute to a thicker TLT and extend the time needed for TLT to freeze and thaw. This research highlights the importance of combination of measurements and numerical modeling to improve our understanding spatiotemporal variations and key controls of TLT in cold regions.

  18. Method for i.a. measuring the thickness of plate constructions and pipes; Fremgangsmaate for automatisk tilstandskontroll, inspeksjon, rengjoering og/eller overflatebehandling av strukturer, saerlig tykkelsesmaaling av platekonstruksjoner og roer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, Tor Inge; Olsen, Anette S.

    1998-03-11

    It is described an method for automatic state control, inspection, cleaning and/or surface treatment of structures, especially measuring the thickness of plate constructions and pipes by means of ultrasound signals from a self-propelled, remotely controllable unit. The unit is continuously moved in the measurement area, and a transmitter transmits an ultrasound signal in a direction substantially perpendicular to the surface of the construction. The thickness and material quality of the construction is determined at the measurement spot by a receiver on the basis of received reflected signal, and parameters such as transit time for the reflected signal. The unit performs self-positioning by means of previously known spots on the construction. All received data regarding waveform of the reflected signal is stored in a computer, and thickness and material quality are verified by comparing data for received signal in one spot with data for received signals in adjacent spots. The steps are repeated for collection of data for new measurement spots. 6 figs.

  19. Microstructural variation through weld thickness and mechanical properties of peened friction stir welded 6061 aluminum alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulstaar, Mustafa A., E-mail: mustafa.abdulstaar@gmail.com [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, Agricolastr. 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Al-Fadhalah, Khaled J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering & Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Wagner, Lothar [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, Agricolastr. 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The current study examined the effect of microstructure variation on the development of mechanical properties in friction stir welded joints of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, which were subsequently processed by shot peening (SP). Following to FSW, fatigue specimens were extracted perpendicularly to the welding direction. Surface Skimming to 0.5 mm from crown and root sides of the joint was made and SP was later applied on the two sides using ceramic shots of two different Almen intensities of 0.18 mmA and 0.24 mmA. Microstructural examination by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) indicated variation in the grain refinement of the weld zone, with coarsest grains (5 μm) at the crown side and finest grains (2 μm) at the root side. Reduction of microhardness to 60 HV occurred in the weld zone for samples in FSW condition. Application of SP promoted significant strain hardening at the crown side, with Almen intensities of 0.24 mmA providing maximum increase in microhardness to 120 HV. On the contrary, only a maximum microhardness of 75 HV was obtained at the root side. The difference in strain hardening capability at the two sides was strongly dependent on grain size. The two Almen intensities produced similar distribution of compressive residual stresses in the subsurface regions that led to enhance the fatigue strength to the level of base metal for N ≥ 10{sup 5} cycles. Yet, the increase in fatigue strength was more pronounced with increasing Almen intensity to 0.24 mmA, demonstrating further enhancement by strain hardening. - Highlights: • Grain refinement was observed after friction stir welding of AA 6061-T6. • Reduction in microhardness and fatigue strength were obtained after welding. • Variation in grain refinement led to different hardening behavior after peening. • Shot peening induced beneficial compressive residual stresses. • Shot peening and surface skimming markedly improved the fatigue performance.

  20. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  1. Fatigue strength of field welded joints in I-section girders of thick flange plates with cope hole details; Sukarappu wo yusuru atsuita I gata danmen keta genba yosetsu tsugitebu no hiro kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, K.; Miki, C.; Tateishi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-15

    Field welding an I-section girder forms details having scallop at the web, whereas the presence of the scallop causes shear deformation and localized stress concentration. Therefore the details in joints with low fatigue strength are ranked as class G in the fatigue design guideline published by JSSC. With special notice on the effect of shear, the present study has varied the phase by using multiple number of jacks; so loaded that the direction of the shear force will change; assumed field welding of a bridge constructed with a few number of main girders; and verified fatigue strength at thick flange plates. In addition, in order to improve the fatigue strength, elucidation was given on the effect of grinder finish at boxing welds. From these results, items to be considered were made clear when structural details are designed and fabricated, in which I-section girders having scallop are welded in fields. Furthermore, it was considered that stress in web plate jointing welding bead becomes relatively higher than local stress in boxing, which was indicated as a point requiring precaution. 8 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis to Map Sediment Thickness and to Explain Macroseismic Intensity Variation of a Low-Magnitude Seismic Swarm in Central Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008 and 2010, the Royal Observatory of Belgium received numerous ';Did You Feel It'-reports related to a 2-year lasting earthquake swarm at Court-Saint-Etienne, a small town in a hilly area 20 km SE of Brussels, Belgium. These small-magnitude events (-0.7 ≤ ML ≤ 3.2, n = c. 300 events) were recorded both by the permanent seismometer network in Belgium and by a locally installed temporary seismic network deployed in the epicentral area. Relocation of the hypocenters revealed that the seismic swarm can be related to the reactivation of a NW-SE strike-slip fault at 3 to 6 km depth in the basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic London-Brabant Massif. This sequence caused a lot of emotion in the region because more than 60 events were felt by the local population. Given the small magnitudes of the seismic swarm, most events were more often heard than felt by the respondents, which is indicative of a local high-frequency earthquake source. At places where the bedrock is at the surface or where it is covered by thin alluvial sediments ( 30 m). In those river valleys that have a considerable alluvial sedimentary cover, macroseismic intensities are again lower. To explain this variation in macroseismic intensity we present a macroseismic analysis of all DYFI-reports related to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm and a pervasive H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient noise measurements to model the thickness of sediments covering the London-Brabant Massif. The HVSR method is a very powerful tool to map the basement morphology, particularly in regions of unknown subsurface structure. By calculating the soil's fundamental frequency above boreholes, we calibrated the power-law relationship between the fundamental frequency, shear wave velocity and the thickness of sediments. This relationship is useful for places where the sediment thickness is unknown and where the fundamental frequency can be calculated by H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise. In a

  3. On the effects from the simultaneous occurrence of the critical Casimir and dispersion forces between conical colloid particle and a thick plate immersed in nonpolar critical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchev Galin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the interplay between the van der Waals (vdWF and critical Casimir forces (CCF, as well as the total force (TF between a conical colloid particle and a thick planar slab. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field type calculations utilizing the so-called “surface integration approach”, a generalization of the well known Derjaguin approximation. Its usage in the present research, requires knowledge on the forces between two parallel slabs, confining in between some fluctuating fluid medium characterized by its temperature T and chemical potential μ. The surfaces of the colloid particle and the slab are assumed coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of a simple fluid, or one of the components of a binary mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials, ensuring the so-called (+,+ boundary conditions. On the other hand, the core region of the slab and the particle, influence the fluid by long-ranged competing dispersion potentials. We demonstrate that for a suitable set of colloid-fluid, slab-fluid, and fluid-fluid coupling parameters the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the core regions of the objects, result, when one changes T or μ, in sign change of the Casimir force (CF and the TF acting between the colloid and the slab. Such an effect can provide a strategy for solving problems with handling, feeding, trapping and fixing of microparts in nanotechnology.

  4. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  5. Simulation of bending stress variation in long buried thick-walled pipes under the earth’s movement using combined linear dynamics and beam theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salau Tajudeen A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported a simulation approach to the understanding of the interactions between a buried pipe and the soil system by computing the bending stress variation of harmonically-excited buried pipes. The established principles of linear dynamics theory and simple beam theory were utilised in the analysis of the problem of buried pipe bending stress accumulation and its dynamics. With regards to the parameters that influence the bending stress variations, the most important are the isolation factor, uniform external load, and the corresponding limiting conditions. The simulated mathematical expressions, containing static and dynamic parameters of the buried pipe and earth, were coded in Fortran programming language and applied in the simulation experiment. The results obtained showed that harmonically-excited buried thick-walled pipe became stable and effective when the ratio of the natural frequency of vibration to the forced frequency is greater than 2.0, whenever the damped factor is used as the control parameter for the maximum bending stress. The mirror image of the stress variation produces variation in the location of the maximum bending stress in quantitative terms. The acceptable pipe materials for the simulated cases must have yield strength in bending greater than or equal to 13.95 MPa. The results obtained in this work fill a gap in the literature and will be useful to pipeline engineers and designers, as well as to environmental scientists in initialising and controlling environmental issues and policy formulation concerning the influence of buried pipe on the soil and water in the environment.

  6. Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    a digital surface model with a degree of accuracy varing among the glacier and the surrounding area. Comparison with available cartography may be performed if digital ortophoto is being generated from the photogrammetric processing in a well defined reference system. Accuracy in volumetric changes estimations is nevertheless of fundamental importance being derived from the comparison of different metodologies with related single accuracies. By using GIS sofware the maps and ortophotos were managed after digitalisation; Digital Elevation Models were produced and their comparison allowed: 1) to quantify surface and volume variations 2) to elaborate thematic maps about ice thickness and debris areal distribution variations 4) to elaborate topographic longitudinal and transverse profiles to underline glacier changes The preliminary results about volumetric and thickness variations obtained from maps are the following: a) 1959-1971: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 15 millions mc of ice that correspond to an increase in thickness of about 20 m of ice with maximum values of about 40-50 m. b)1971-1983: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 18 millions mc of ice that is to say a mean increase in thickness of a little more than 20 m of ice. In the same time the glacier advanced of about 200 m (Italian Glaciological Committee data), probably this advancing phase was related to the ablation reduction caused by the emispheric climate cooling occurred during the second half of the 20th century. It influenced the mass balance trend of a large number of glaciers in the North Emisphere between the 70s and the 80s of the 20 th century c)1983-1991: for this period a negative volumetric variation of about 8 millions mc of ice was calculated equal to a thickness decreasing of about 10 m of ice. The managing of orthopotos by GIS software to obtain DEMs is in progress and its results will confirm or add arguments to discuss them. The final results will allow to

  7. Asymptotical construction of a fully coupled, Reissner–Mindlin model for piezoelectric composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Lin; Yu Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    The variational asymptotic method is used to construct a fully coupled Reissner–Mindlin model for piezoelectric composite plates with some surfaces parallel to the reference surface coated with electrodes. Taking advantage of the smallness of the plate thickness, we asymptotically split the original three-dimensional electromechanical problem into a one-dimensional through-the-thickness analysis and a two-dimensional plate analysis. The through-the-thickness analysis serves as a link between the original three-dimensional analysis and the plate analysis by providing a constitutive model for the plate analysis and recovering the three-dimensional field variables in terms of two-dimensional plate global responses. The present theory is implemented into the computer program VAPAS (variational asymptotic plate and shell analysis). The resulting model is as simple as an equivalent single-layer, first-order shear deformation theory with accuracy comparable to higher-order layerwise theories. Various numerical examples have been used to validate the present model

  8. Mantle Circulation Models with variational data assimilation: Inferring past mantle flow and structure from plate motion histories and seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, H.; Hagelberg, C.; Travis, B.

    2002-12-01

    EarthScope will deliver data on structure and dynamics of continental North America and the underlying mantle on an unprecedented scale. Indeed, the scope of EarthScope makes its mission comparable to the large remote sensing efforts that are transforming the oceanographic and atmospheric sciences today. Arguably the main impact of new solid Earth observing systems is to transform our use of geodynamic models increasingly from conditions that are data poor to an environment that is data rich. Oceanographers and meteorologists already have made substantial progress in adapting to this environment, by developing new approaches of interpreting oceanographic and atmospheric data objectively through data assimilation methods in their models. However, a similarly rigorous theoretical framework for merging EarthScope derived solid Earth data with geodynamic models has yet to be devised. Here we explore the feasibility of data assimilation in mantle convection studies in an attempt to fit global geodynamic model calculations explicitly to tomographic and tectonic constraints. This is an inverse problem not quite unlike the inverse problem of finding optimal seismic velocity structures faced by seismologists. We derive the generalized inverse of mantle convection from a variational approach and present the adjoint equations of mantle flow. The substantial computational burden associated with solutions to the generalized inverse problem of mantle convection is made feasible using a highly efficient finite element approach based on the 3-D spherical fully parallelized mantle dynamics code TERRA, implemented on a cost-effective topical PC-cluster (geowulf) dedicated specifically to large-scale geophysical simulations. This dedicated geophysical modeling computer allows us to investigate global inverse convection problems having a spatial discretization of less than 50 km throughout the mantle. We present a synthetic high-resolution modeling experiment to demonstrate that mid

  9. Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

  10. [Effect of repeated sintering and variations in thickness on the color and microstructure of dental lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic veneers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huang; Jia, Yu; Shaofeng, Meng; Biyun, Gao

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of repeated sintering and variation in thickness on the color and microstructure of dental lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic veneers. Methods A total of 24 computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) veneers was fabricated using the IPS e.max-CAD LS2 and then randomly divided into four groups (S0, S1, S2, S3; n=6). Each group was sintered 0, 1, 2, 3 times individually according to the manufacturer's recommendation. The color parameters (L, C, H, a, b values) of all the specimens were measured by a Vita easyshade dental colorimeter. The results were statistically analyzed using the SAS 9.1.3 software for MANOVA and LSD. Subsequently, the microstructures of the intersecting surfaces of the specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results After repeated sintering, the L value significantly decreased (P<0.05). For the C and b values, statistical differences were observed among the groups except between S2 and S3. SEM results showed that the interlocking microstructures of rod-shaped Li₂Si₂O₅ crystals became more compact when the number of sintering times was increased. Conclusion Repeated sintering exhibited significant influence on the color of the IPS e.max-CAD LS2 veneers.

  11. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Aluminum Alloy Plate AA 7055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junzhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through-thickness microstructure and mechanical property of AA 7055-T7751 aluminum alloy plate were investigated by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM and small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS. The results indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of microstructure through the thickness. The degree of recrystallization decreases gradually from 69% to 19.1%, as deepening from the surface to the center of the plate. The size of subgrains decreases from 10 μm at the surface to around 2 μm at the center. Strong texture of rolling type is observed near the center but the intensity decreases gradually as nearing the surface and the shear texture becomes the dominant. High density of plate-like η' phases are observed in the alloy, indicating the sufficient precipitation. η' precipitates of this condition are around 3.7 nm in radius, 1-3 nm in thickness and are found coherent with the Al matrix with a coherent strain of 0.0133, showing a strong strengthening effect. The heterogeneity in grain scale does not influence the distribution and the morphology of precipitates. The yield strength (L direction varies linearly along the thickness direction of the plate, fitting an equation of σy=-38.7S+604.8 (0≤S≤1. The variation of yield strength is related to the heterogeneity of grain structure.

  13. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  14. Effect of length to thickness ratio on free vibration analysis of thick fiber reinforced plastic skew cross-ply laminate with circular cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, K.; Reddy, Ch. Kishore; Sumanth, Ch. Mohan; Krishnaiah, P. Gopala; Kishan, V. Mallikharjuna

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the free vibration analysis of a thick four-layered symmetric cross-ply skew laminated composite plate with a circular cutout. Three dimensional finite element models (FEM) which use the elasticity theory for the determination of stiffness matrices are modeled in ANSYS software to evaluate first five natural frequencies of the laminate. The variations of the first five natural frequencies with respect to length to thickness ratio (S) for different diameter to length ratios (d/l) are presented. It is observed that, the natural frequencies decreases with increase of thickness ratio(S).

  15. Reprodutibilidade das mensurações da espessura das tábuas ósseas na tomografia computadorizada Cone-Beam utilizando diferentes protocolos de aquisição de imagem Reproducibility of bone plate thickness measurements with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography using different image acquisition protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carmo de Menezes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: quanto menor a dimensão do voxel, maior a nitidez da imagem de tomografia computadorizada Cone-Beam (TCCB, porém, maior a dose de radiação emitida. OBJETIVOS: avaliar e comparar a reprodutibilidade da mensuração da espessura das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual em imagens de TCCB, utilizando diferentes protocolos de aquisição de imagem com variação da dimensão do voxel. MÉTODOS: exames de TCCB foram tomados de 12 mandíbulas humanas secas, com dimensão do voxel de 0,2; 0,3 e 0,4mm, no aparelho i-CAT Cone-Beam 3-D Dental Imaging System. No software i-CAT Viewer, foi mensurada a espessura das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual, em um corte axial passando 12mm acima do forame mentoniano do lado direito. A reprodutibilidade intraexaminador foi avaliada por meio da aplicação do teste t pareado. Para a comparação interexaminadores, foi utilizado o teste t independente. Os resultados foram considerados com o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: observou-se uma excelente reprodutibilidade interexaminadores para os três protocolos avaliados. A reprodutibilidade intraexaminadores foi muito boa, com exceção de algumas regiões dos dentes anteriores, que mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas, independentemente da dimensão do voxel. CONCLUSÃO: a mensuração da espessura das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual em imagens de TCCB mostrou boa precisão para exames obtidos com voxel de 0,2; 0,3 ou 0,4mm. A reprodutibilidade das mensurações na região anterior da mandíbula foi mais crítica do que na região posterior.INTRODUCTION: A smaller voxel dimension leads to greater resolution of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT, but a greater dosage of radiation is emitted. OBJECTIVE: Assess and compare the reproducibility of buccal and lingual bone plate thickness measurements in CBCT images using different image acquisition protocols, with variations in the voxel dimension. METHODS: CBCT exams

  16. Characterizing cycle-to-cycle variations of the shedding cycle in the turbulent wake of a normal flat plate using generalized phase averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-periodic vortex shedding in the turbulent wake of a thin-flat plate placed normal to a uniform stream at Reynolds number of 6700 is investigated based on Particle Image Velocimetry experiments. The wake structure and vortex formation are characterized using a generalized phase average (GPA), a refinement of the triple decomposition of Reynolds and Hussain (1970) incorporating elements of mean-field theory (Stuart, 1958). The resulting analysis highlights the importance of cycle-to-cycle variations in characterizing vortex formation, wake topology and the residual turbulent Reynolds Stresses. For example, it is shown that during high-amplitude cycles vorticity is strongly concentrated within the well-organized shed vortices, whereas during low-amplitude cycles the shed vortices are highly distorted resulting in significant modulation of the shedding frequency. It is found that high-amplitude cycles contribute more to the coherent Reynolds stress field while the low-amplitude cycles contribute to the residual stress field. It is further shown that traditional phase-averaging techniques lead to an over-estimation of the residual stress field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  17. Mechanical behaviors of the dispersion nuclear fuel plates induced by fuel particle swelling and thermal effect II: Effects of variations of the fuel particle diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shurong; Wang Qiming; Huo Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    In order to predict the irradiation mechanical behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the total burnup is divided into two stages: the initial stage and the increasing stage. At the initial stage, the thermal effects induced by the high temperature differences between the operation temperatures and the room temperature are mainly considered; and at the increasing stage, the intense mechanical interactions between the fuel particles and the matrix due to the irradiation swelling of fuel particles are focused on. The large-deformation thermo-elasto-plasticity finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the effects of particle diameters on the in-pile mechanical behaviors of fuel elements. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the fuel particle diameters; the effects of particle diameters on the maximum first principal stresses vary with burnup, and the considered case with the largest particle diameter holds the maximum values all along; (2) at the cladding near the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding, the Mises stresses and the first principal stresses undergo major changes with increasing burnup, and different variations exist for different particle diameter cases; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles rise with the particle diameters.

  18. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  19. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  20. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  1. A bend thickness sensitivity study of Candu feeder piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Meysner, A.; Micelotta, C.

    2005-01-01

    In CANDU reactors, feeder bends close to the connection at the fuel channel may be subjected to the highest Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and stresses. Feeder pipe stress analysis is crucial in the life extension of aging CANDU plants. Typical feeder pipes are interconnected by upper link plates and spacers. It is well known that the stresses at the bends are sensitive to the local bend thicknesses. It is also known from the authors' study (Li and et al, 2005) that feeder inter linkage effect is significant and cannot be ignored. The field measurement of feeder bend thickness is difficult and may be subjected to uncertainty in accuracy. Hence, it is desirable to know how the stress on a subject feeder could be affected by the bend thickness variation of the neighboring feeders. This effect cannot be evaluated by the traditional 'single' feeder model approach. In this paper, the 'row' and 'combined' models developed in the previous study (Li and et al, 2005), which include the feeder interactions, are used to investigate the sensitivity of bend thickness. A series of random thickness bounded by maximum and minimum measured values were applied to feeders in the model. The results show that an individual feeder is not sensitive to the bend thickness variation of the remaining feeders in the model, but depends primarily on its own bend thickness. The highest stress at a feeder always occurs when the feeder has the smallest possible bend thickness. A minimum acceptable bend thickness for individual feeders can be computed by an iterative computing process. The dependency of field thickness measurement and the amount of required analysis work can be greatly reduced. (authors)

  2. Exchange bias variations of the seed and top NiFe layers in NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayer as a function of seed layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O.

    2005-01-01

    Development of exchange bias at the seed and top NiFe layers in the NiFe (t nm)/FeMn(10 nm)/NiFe(5 nm) trilayer structure is investigated as a function of seed layer thickness, in the range of 2-20 nm. The seed NiFe layer shows maximum exchange bias at 4 nm seed layer thickness. The bias shows inverse thickness dependence with increasing thickness. The top NiFe layer on the other hand shows only half the bias of the seed layer which is retained even after the sharp fall in seed layer bias. The much smaller bias for the top NiFe layer is related to the difference in crystalline texture and spin orientations at the top FeMn/NiFe interface, in comparison to the bottom NiFe/FeMn interface which grows on a saturated NiFe layer with (1 1 1) orientation

  3. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  4. Variation of central corneal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy as detected by ultrasonic pachymetry in patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the central corneal thickness between patients with diabetic retinopathy and non diabetics. Study Design: A cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Lahore General Hospital Lahore, from 1st Dec 2015 to 31st May 2016. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the ophthalmology outpatient department of Lahore General Hospital. A total of one hundred and fifty subjects from different age groups were selected for the study. An ultrasound pachymeter was used to measure CCT. There were two groups for sample, 75 were patients with diabetic retinopathy and 75 of them were non-diabetic subjects. Results: The diabetic patients had average central corneal thickness of value 554.93 +- 33.73 microns. The average central corneal thickness found in non-diabetic patients was 520.41 +- 26.06 microns. The diabetic patients showed an increased central corneal thickness as compared to non-diabetics. The result of this study was statistically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: The diabetic patients showed an increased central corneal thickness as compared to non-diabetic patients. (author)

  5. P-type surface effects for thickness variation of 2um and 4um of n-type layer in GaN LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, N. S. A. Abdul; Wahid, M. H. A.; Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Rashid, S.; Ramli, M. M.; Shahimin, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    The internal quantum efficiency of III-Nitrides group, GaN light-emitting diode (LED) has been considerably limited due to the insufficient hole injection and this is caused by the lack of performance p-type doping and low hole mobility. The low hole mobility makes the hole less energetic, thus reduced the performance operation of GaN LED itself. The internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based LED with surface roughness (texture) can be changed by texture size, density, and thickness of GaN film or by the combined effects of surface shape and thickness of GaN film. Besides, due to lack of p-type GaN, attempts to look forward the potential of GaN LED relied on the thickness of n-type layer and surface shape of p-type GaN layer. This work investigates the characteristics of GaN LED with undoped n-GaN layer of different thickness and the surface shape of p-type layer. The LEDs performance is significantly altered by modifying the thickness and shape. Enhancement of n-GaN layer has led to the annihilation of electrical conductivity of the chip. Different surface geometry governs the emission rate extensively. Internal quantum efficiency is also predominantly affected by the geometry of n-GaN layer which subjected to the current spreading. It is recorded that the IQE droop can be minimized by varying the thickness of the active layer without amplifying the forward voltage. Optimum forward voltage (I-V), total emission rate relationship with the injected current and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for 2,4 µm on four different surfaces of p-type layer are also reported in this paper.

  6. Effects of thickness and geometric variations in the oxide gate stack on the nonvolatile memory behaviors of charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kim, So-Jung; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ryu, Min-Ki; Hwang, Chi Sun; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Device designs of charge-trap oxide memory thin-film transistors (CTM-TFTs) were investigated to enhance their nonvolatile memory performances. The first strategy was to optimize the film thicknesses of the tunneling and charge-trap (CT) layers in order to meet requirements of both higher operation speed and longer retention time. While the program speed and memory window were improved for the device with a thinner tunneling layer, a long retention time was obtained only for the device with a tunneling layer thicker than 5 nm. The carrier concentration and charge-trap densities were optimized in the 30-nm-thick CT layer. It was observed that 10-nm-thick tunneling, 30-nm-thick CT, and 50-nm-thick blocking layers were the best configuration for our proposed CTM-TFTs, where a memory on/off margin higher than 107 was obtained, and a memory margin of 6.6 × 103 was retained even after the lapse of 105 s. The second strategy was to examine the effects of the geometrical relations between the CT and active layers for the applications of memory elements embedded in circuitries. The CTM-TFTs fabricated without an overlap between the CT layer and the drain electrode showed an enhanced program speed by the reduced parasitic capacitance. The drain-bias disturbance for the memory off-state was effectively suppressed even when a higher read-out drain voltage was applied. Appropriate device design parameters, such as the film thicknesses of each component layer and the geometrical relations between them, can improve the memory performances and expand the application fields of the proposed CTM-TFTs.

  7. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  8. Crustal Structure of the Tengchong Intra-plate Volcanic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Rongyi; Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2015-09-01

    We here provide an overview of our current understanding of the crustal structure of Tengchong in southwest China, a key intra-plate volcanic area along the Himalayan geothermal belt. Given that there is hitherto a lack of information about the near-surface structure of intra-plate volcanic areas, we present the first seismic reflection and velocity constraints on the shallow crust between intra-plate volcanoes. Our near-surface seismic images reveal the existence of dome-shaped seismic reflectors (DSRs) in the shallow crust between intra-plate volcanic clusters in Tengchong. The two DSRs are both ~2 km wide, and the shallowest parts of the DSRs are found at the depth of 200-300 m. The velocity model shows that the shallow low-velocity layer (<4 km/s) is anomalously thick (~1 km) in the region where the DSRs are observed. The presence of DSRs indicates significant levels of intra-plate magmatism beneath the along-axis gap separating two volcano clusters. Along-axis gaps between volcano clusters are therefore not necessarily an indicator of lower levels of magmatism. The seismic images obtained in this technically challenging area for controlled-source seismology allow us to conclude that shallow crustal structures are crucial for understanding the along-axis variations of magmatism and hydrothermal activities in intra-plate volcanic areas.

  9. On the variation in the electrical properties and ac conductivity of through-thickness nano-porous anodic alumina with temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Mahmood; Mehmood, Mazhar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Waheed, Abdul; Tanvir, Muhammad Tauseef

    2013-01-01

    The electrical response of self-organized through-thickness anodic alumina with hexagonal arrangement of cylindrical pores has been studied as a function of temperature. Mechanically stable thick porous anodic alumina was prepared, by through-thickness anodic oxidation of aluminum sheet in sulfuric acid, with extremely high aspect ratio pores exhibiting fairly uniform diameter and interpore distance. It was observed that the electrical properties of through-thickness anodic alumina are very sensitive to minute changes in temperature and the role of surface conductivity in governing its electrical response cannot be overlooked. At high frequencies, intrinsic dielectric response of anodic alumina was dominant. The frequency-dependent conductivity behavior at low and intermediate frequencies was explained on the basis of correlated barrier hopping (CBH) and quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) models, respectively. Experimental data was modeled using an equivalent circuit consisting of Debye circuit, for bulk alumina, parallel to surface conduction path. The surface conduction was primarily based on two circuits in series, each with a parallel arrangement of a resistor and a constant phase element. This suggested heterogeneity in alumina pore surface, possibly related with islands of physisorbed water separated by the regions of chemisorbed water. Temperature dependence of some circuit elements has been analyzed to express different charge migration phenomena occurring in nano-porous anodic alumina

  10. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  11. A simple method of correcting for variation of sample thickness in the determination of the activity of environmental samples by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Gamma ray spectrometry is a well established method of determining the activity of radioactive components in environmental samples. It is usual to maintain precisely the same counting geometry in measurements on samples under investigation as in the calibration measurements on standard materials of known activity, thus avoiding perceived uncertainties and complications in correcting for changes in counting geometry. However this may not always be convenient if, as on some occasions, only a small quantity of sample material is available for analysis. A procedure which avoids re-calibration for each sample size is described and is shown to be simple to use without significantly reducing the accuracy of measurement of the activity of typical environmental samples. The correction procedure relates to the use of cylindrical samples at a constant distance from the detector, the samples all having the same diameter but various thicknesses being permissible. (author)

  12. Analysis of the effect of transverse power distribution in an involute fuel plate with and without oxide film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Existing thermal hydraulics computer codes can account for variations in power and temperature in the axial and thickness directions but variations across the width of the plate cannot be accounted for. In the case of fuel plates in an annular core this can lead to significant errors which are accentuated by the presence of an oxide layer that builds up on the aluminum cladding with burnup. This paper uses a three dimensional SINDA model to account for the transverse variations in power. The effect of oxide thickness on these differences is studied in detail. Power distribution and fuel conductivity are also considered. The lower temperatures predicted with the SINDA model result in a greater margin to clad and fuel damage

  13. Structural context and variation of ocean plate stratigraphy, Franciscan Complex, California: insight into mélange origins and subduction-accretion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, John

    2017-12-01

    The transfer (accretion) of materials from a subducting oceanic plate to a subduction-accretionary complex has produced rock assemblages recording the history of the subducted oceanic plate from formation to arrival at the trench. These rock assemblages, comprising oceanic igneous rocks progressively overlain by pelagic sedimentary rocks (chert and/or limestone) and trench-fill clastic sedimentary rocks (mostly sandstone, shale/mudstone), have been called ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). During accretion of OPS, megathrust slip is accommodated by imbricate faults and penetrative strain, shortening the unit and leading to tectonic repetition of the OPS sequence, whereas OPS accreted at different times are separated by non-accretionary megathrust horizons. The Franciscan subduction complex of California accreted episodically over a period of over 150 million years and incorporated OPS units with a variety of characteristics separated by non-accretionary megathrust horizons. Most Franciscan OPS comprises MORB (mid-ocean-ridge basalt) progressively overlain by chert and trench-fill clastic sedimentary rocks that are composed of variable proportions of turbidites and siliciclastic and serpentinite-matrix olistostromes (sedimentary mélanges). Volumetrically, the trench-fill component predominates in most Franciscan OPS, but some units have a significant component of igneous and pelagic rocks. Ocean island basalt (OIB) overlain by limestone is less common than MORB-chert assemblages, as are abyssal serpentinized peridotite slabs. The earliest accreted OPS comprises metabasite of supra-subduction zone affinity imbricated with smaller amounts of metaultramafic rocks and metachert, but lacking a clastic component. Most deformation of Franciscan OPS is localized along discrete faults rather than being distributed in the form of penetrative strain. This deformation locally results in block-in-matrix tectonic mélanges, in contrast to the sedimentary mélanges making up part of

  14. The Kepler-19 System: A Thick-envelope Super-Earth with Two Neptune-mass Companions Characterized Using Radial Velocities and Transit Timing Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavolta, Luca; Borsato, Luca; Granata, Valentina; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Universita’di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lopez, Eric [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH93HJ (United Kingdom); Vanderburg, Andrew; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Figueira, Pedro [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Mortier, Annelies; Cameron, Andrew Collier [Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Affer, Laura [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90124 Palermo (Italy); Bonomo, Aldo S. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bouchy, Francois [Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Buchhave, Lars A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Cosentino, Rosario, E-mail: luca.malavolta@unipd.it [INAF—Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain); and others

    2017-05-01

    We report a detailed characterization of the Kepler-19 system. This star was previously known to host a transiting planet with a period of 9.29 days, a radius of 2.2 R {sub ⊕}, and an upper limit on the mass of 20 M {sub ⊕}. The presence of a second, non-transiting planet was inferred from the transit time variations (TTVs) of Kepler-19b over eight quarters of Kepler photometry, although neither the mass nor period could be determined. By combining new TTVs measurements from all the Kepler quarters and 91 high-precision radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph, using dynamical simulations we obtained a mass of 8.4 ± 1.6 M {sub ⊕} for Kepler-19b. From the same data, assuming system coplanarity, we determined an orbital period of 28.7 days and a mass of 13.1 ± 2.7 M {sub ⊕} for Kepler-19c and discovered a Neptune-like planet with a mass of 20.3 ± 3.4 M {sub ⊕} on a 63-day orbit. By comparing dynamical simulations with non-interacting Keplerian orbits, we concluded that neglecting interactions between planets may lead to systematic errors that can hamper the precision in the orbital parameters when the data set spans several years. With a density of 4.32 ± 0.87 g cm{sup −3} (0.78 ± 0.16 ρ {sub ⊕}) Kepler-19b belongs to the group of planets with a rocky core and a significant fraction of volatiles, in opposition to low-density planets characterized only by transit time variations and an increasing number of rocky planets with Earth-like density. Kepler-19 joins the small number of systems that reconcile transit timing variation and radial velocity measurements.

  15. The determination of uranium distribution homogeneity in the fuel plates with the uranium loading of 4.80 and 5.20 g/cm3 by X-Ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo; Rojak, A.; Boybul; Suyoto; Datam, A. S.

    2000-01-01

    The calibration of X-Ray intensity of the U 3 Si 2 -AI fuel plates with the uranium loading between 3.60 up to 5.20 g/cm 3 and varied thickness of AIMgSi1 reference block have been performed. The measurement with changing variable slit diameter and energy of X-Ray attenuation, are produced enough representative X-Ray intensity at 18 mm slit diameter and energy of 43 kV. From the correlation of X-ray intensities vs variation of uranium loading in the fuel plates and thickness of the AIMgSi1 materials, the equivalence of thickness of the AIMgSi1 block to the uranium loading of fuel plates are determined. By assuming that the tolerance of the homogeneity measurement is + 20 % from normal thickness staircase of the AIMgSi1 standard could be determined and than together with fuel plate were scanned to determine the uranium homogeneity. The test result on the U 3 Si 2 -AI fuel plates with uranium loading of 4.80 and 5.20 g/cm 3 (each 4 fuel plates) indicated that uranium distribution in the fuel plates is relatively homogeneous, with each maximum deviation being 6.30 % and 6.90%. It is showed that measurement method is relatively good, easy, and fast so that this method is suitable to control the uranium homogeneity in the fuel plate. (author)

  16. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  17. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  18. Green roof seasonal variation: comparison of the hydrologic behavior of a thick and a thin extensive system in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R. M.; Gibson, R. A.; Carson, T. B.; Marasco, D. E.; Culligan, P. J.; McGillis, W. R.

    2016-07-01

    Green roofs have been utilized for urban stormwater management due to their ability to capture rainwater locally. Studies of the most common type, extensive green roofs, have demonstrated that green roofs can retain significant amounts of stormwater, but have also shown variation in seasonal performance. The purpose of this study is to determine how time of year impacts the hydrologic performance of extensive green roofs considering the covariates of antecedent dry weather period (ADWP), potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and storm event size. To do this, nearly four years of monitoring data from two full-scale extensive green roofs (with differing substrate depths of 100 mm and 31 mm) are analyzed. The annual performance is then modeled using a common empirical relationship between rainfall and green roof runoff, with the addition of Julian day in one approach, ET0 in another, and both ADWP and ET0 in a third approach. Together the monitoring and modeling results confirm that stormwater retention is highest in warmer months, the green roofs retain more rainfall with longer ADWPs, and the seasonal variations in behavior are more pronounced for the roof with the thinner media than the roof with the deeper media. Overall, the ability of seasonal accounting to improve stormwater retention modeling is demonstrated; modification of the empirical model to include ADWP, and ET0 improves the model R 2 from 0.944 to 0.975 for the thinner roof, and from 0.866 to 0.870 for the deeper roof. Furthermore, estimating the runoff with the empirical approach was shown to be more accurate then using a water balance model, with model R 2 of 0.944 and 0.866 compared to 0.975 and 0.866 for the thinner and deeper roof, respectively. This finding is attributed to the difficulty of accurately parameterizing the water balance model.

  19. Quaternary volcanism near the Valley of Mexico: implications for subduction zone magmatism and the effects of crustal thickness variations on primitive magma compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul J.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

    The Valley of Mexico and surrounding regions of Mexico and Morelos states in central Mexico contain more than 250 Quaternary eruptive vents in addition to the large, composite volcanoes of Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, and Nevado de Toluca. The eruptive vents include cinder and lava cones, shield volcanoes, and isolated andesitic and dacitic lava flows, and are most numerous in the Sierra Chichináutzin that forms the southern terminus of the Valley of Mexico. The Chichináutzin volcanic field (CVF) is part of the E-W-trending Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), a subduction-related volcanic arc that extends across Mexico. The crustal thickness beneath the CVF ( 50km) is the greatest of any region in the MVB and one of the greatest found in any arc worldwide. Lavas and scoriae erupted from vents in the CVF include alkaline basalts and calc-alkaline basaltic andesites, andesites, and dacites. Both alkaline and calc-alkaline groups contain primitive varieties that have whole rock Mg#, MgO, and Ni contents, and liquidus olivine compositions (<=Fo90) that are close to those expected of partial melts from mantle peridotite. Primitive varieties also show a wide range of incompatible trace element abundances (e.g. Ba 210-1080ppm Ce 25-100ppm Zr 130-280ppm). Data for primitive calc-alkaline rocks from both the CVF and other regions of the MVB to the west are consistent with magma generation in an underlying mantle wedge that is depleted in Ti, Zr, and Nb and enriched in large ion lithophile (K, Ba, Rb) and light rare earth (La, Ce) elements. Extents of partial melting estimated from Ti and Zr data are lower for primitive calc-alkaline magmas in the CVF than for those from the regions of the MVB to the west where the crust is thinner. The distinctive major element compositions (low CaO and Al2O3, high SiO2) of the primitive calc-alkaline magmas in the CVF indicate a more refractory mantle source beneath this region of thick crust. In contrast, primitive alkaline magmas from the

  20. Red shift, blue shift: investigating Doppler shifts, blubber thickness, and migration as explanations of seasonal variation in the tonality of Antarctic blue whale song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Miller

    Full Text Available The song of Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia comprises repeated, stereotyped, low-frequency calls. Measurements of these calls from recordings spanning many years have revealed a long-term linear decline as well as an intra-annual pattern in tonal frequency. While a number of hypotheses for this long-term decline have been investigated, including changes in population structure, changes in the physical environment, and changes in the behaviour of the whales, there have been relatively few attempts to explain the intra-annual pattern. An additional hypothesis that has not yet been investigated is that differences in the observed frequency from each call are due to the Doppler effect. The assumptions and implications of the Doppler effect on whale song are investigated using 1 vessel-based acoustic recordings of Antarctic blue whales with simultaneous observation of whale movement and 2 long-term acoustic recordings from both the subtropics and Antarctic. Results from vessel-based recordings of Antarctic blue whales indicate that variation in peak-frequency between calls produced by an individual whale was greater than would be expected by the movement of the whale alone. Furthermore, analysis of intra-annual frequency shift at Antarctic recording stations indicates that the Doppler effect is unlikely to fully explain the observations of intra-annual pattern in the frequency of Antarctic blue whale song. However, data do show cyclical changes in frequency in conjunction with season, thus suggesting that there might be a relationship among tonal frequency, body condition, and migration to and from Antarctic feeding grounds.

  1. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  2. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  3. Investigation of free vibration analysis of functionally graded annular piezoelectric plate using COMSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Trivendra Kumar; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present age functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPM) are increasingly being used as actuators and sensors. In spite of the fact that the piezoelectric coupling coefficient for shear d15 has much higher value in comparison to d31 or d33, it is far less utilized for the applications due to complex nature of the shear induced vibrations. In this work three dimensional free vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric material annular plates with free-free boundary conditions is presented. The annular FGPM plate is polarized along the radial direction while the electric field is applied along the thickness direction inducing flexural vibrations of the plate due to d15 effect of functionally graded piezoelectric materials. The material properties are assumed to have a power law variation along the thickness. COMSOL Multiphysics is used to obtain the natural frequencies and modeshapes. Detailed numerical study is performed to ascertain the effect of variation in power law index and various geometrical parameters. The results presented shall be helpful in optimizing the existing applications and developing the new ones utilizing the FGPM annular plates.

  4. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  6. Experimental investigations of sandwich panels using high performance concrete thin plates exposed to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Structural sandwich panels using thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates offer a possibility to address the modern environmental challenges faced by the construction industry. Fire resistance is a major necessity in structures using HPC. This paper presents experimental studies at elevated...... temperatures for panels with 30 mm thick plates stiffened by structural ribs, thick insulation layers, and steel shear connecting systems. Parametric variation assessing the role of each component of the sandwich structure was performed on unloaded specimens of reduced size. Full size walls were tested...... with load. Tests were performed in standard furnaces, following the conditions of REI certification tests. Unloaded specimens successfully passed tests. Loaded specimens met the R and I requirements, failing E due to sustained flaming of the insulation. They exhibited multiple cracking of their exposed...

  7. Finite element analysis of actively controlled smart plate with patched actuators and sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yaqoob Yasin

    Full Text Available The active vibration control of smart plate equipped with patched piezoelectric sensors and actuators is presented in this study. An equivalent single layer third order shear deformation theory is employed to model the kinematics of the plate and to obtain the shear strains. The governing equations of motion are derived using extended Hamilton's principle. Linear variation of electric potential across the piezoelectric layers in thickness direction is considered. The electrical variable is discretized by Lagrange interpolation function considering two-noded line element. Undamped natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigen value problem with and without electromechanical coupling. The finite element model in nodal variables are transformed into modal model and then recast into state space. The dynamic model is reduced for further analysis using Hankel norm for designing the controller. The optimal control technique is used to control the vibration of the plate.

  8. Notched Strength of Woven Fabric Kenaf Composite Plates with Different Stacking Sequences and Hole Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Romayne Anders

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of using kenaf fibres over synthetic fibres in composites manufacturing are relatively cheap, less abrasive and hazardous during handling, and renewable materials. Current work investigates parametric effects on notched strength of woven fabric kenaf polymer composites plates with variation of lay-up types, notch sizes and plate thickness. Testing coupons are prepared using hand lay-up technique and circular notch were drilled prior to mechanical testing. Stress concentration at the notch edge promotes micro-damage event as tensile loading was applied leading to crack initiation and propagations across the plate width. It is suggested that woven fabric kenaf polymer composites are potentially used in low and medium load bearing applications.

  9. Complete Fabrication of a Traversable 3 µm Thick NbN Film Superconducting Coil with Cu plated layer of 42m in Length in a Spiral Three-Storied Trench Engraved in a Si Wafer of 76.2 mm in Diameter Formed by MEMS Technology for a Compact SMES with High Energy Storage Volume Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Iguchi, Nobuhiro; Adachi, Kazuhiro; Ichiki, Akihisa; Hioki, Tatsumi; Hsu, Che-Wei; Sato, Ryoto; Kumagai, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru; Noh, Joo-Hyong; Sakurahara, Yuuske; Okabe, Kyohei; Takai, Osamu; Honma, Hideo; Watanabe, Hideo; Sakoda, Hitoshi; Sasagawa, Hiroaki; Doy, Hideyuki; Zhou, Shuliang; Hori, H.; Nishikawa, Shigeaki; Nozaki, Toshihiro; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2017-09-01

    Based on the concept of a novel approach to make a compact SMES unit composed of a stack of Si wafers using MEMS process proposed previously, a complete fabrication of a traversable 3 µam thick NbN film superconducting coil lined with Cu plated layer of 42m in length in a spiral three-storied trench engraved in and extended over a whole Si-wafer of 76.2 mm in diameter was attained for the first time. With decrease in temperature, the DC resistivity showed a metallic decrease indicating the current pass was in the Cu plated layer and then made a sudden fall to residual contact resistance indicating the shift of current pass from the Cu plated layer to the NbN film at the critical temperature Tc of 15.5K by superconducting transition. The temperature dependence of I-V curve showed the increase in the critical current with decrease in the temperature and the highest critical current measured was 220 mA at 4K which is five times as large as that obtained in the test fabrication as the experimental proof of concept presented in the previous report. This completion of a one wafer superconducting NbN coil is an indispensable step for the next proof of concept of fabrication of series-connected two wafer coils via superconductive joint which will read to series connected 600 wafer coils finally, and for replacement of NbN by high Tc superconductor such as YBa2Cu3O7-x for operation under the cold energy of liquid hydrogen or liquid nitrogen.

  10. A self-similar solution of a curved shock wave and its time-dependent force variation for a starting flat plate airfoil in supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun CHEN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of aeroelasticity and maneuvering of command surface and gust wing interaction involves a starting flow period which can be seen as the flow of an airfoil attaining suddenly an angle of attack. In the linear or nonlinear case, compressive Mach or shock waves are generated on the windward side and expansive Mach or rarefaction waves are generated on the leeward side. On each side, these waves are composed of an oblique steady state wave, a vertically-moving one-dimensional unsteady wave, and a secondary wave resulting from the interaction between the steady and unsteady ones. An analytical solution in the secondary wave has been obtained by Heaslet and Lomax in the linear case, and this linear solution has been borrowed to give an approximate solution by Bai and Wu for the nonlinear case. The structure of the secondary shock wave and the appearance of various force stages are two issues not yet considered in previous studies and has been studied in the present paper. A self-similar solution is obtained for the secondary shock wave, and the reason to have an initial force plateau as observed numerically is identified. Moreover, six theoretical characteristic time scales for pressure load variation are determined which explain the slope changes of the time-dependent force curve. Keywords: Force, Self-similar solution, Shock-shock interaction, Shock waves, Unsteady flow

  11. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  12. Vortex Shedding Characteristics of the Wake of a Thin Flat Plate with a Circular Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2018-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a thin flat plate with a circular trailing edge are investigated with direct numerical simulations (DNS). Data obtained for two different Reynolds numbers (based on plate thickness, D) are the main focus of this study. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in both cases. An earlier investigation of one of the cases (Case F) showed shed vortices in the wake that were about 1.0 D to 4.0 D in spanwise length. Considerable variation in both the strength and frequency of these shed vortices was observed. One objective of the present investigation is to determine the important contributors to this variability in strength and frequency of shed vortices and their finite spanwise extent. Analysis of the data shows that streamwise vortices in the separating boundary layer play an important role in strengthening/weakening of the shed vortices and that high/low-speed streaks in the boundary layer are important contributors to variability in shedding frequency. Both these features of the boundary layer contribute to the finite extent of the vortices in the spanwise direction. The second plate DNS (Case G, with 40 percent of the plate thickness of Case F) shows that while shedding intensity is weaker than obtained in Case F, many of the wake features are similar to that of Case F. This is important in understanding the path to the wake of the thin plate with a sharp trailing edge where shedding is absent. Here we also test the efficacy of a functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers based on the boundary layer momentum thickness (Re (sub theta) and D (Re (sub D)); data for developing this behavioral model is from Cases F & G and five earlier DNSs of the flat plate wake.

  13. Finite element analysis of functionally graded bone plate at femur bone fracture site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Pravat Kumar; Sahoo, Bamadev; Panda, L. N.; Das, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of fractured Femur bone with functionally graded bone plate. The Femur bone is modeled by using the data from the CT (Computerized Tomography) scan and the material properties are assigned using Mimics software. The fracture fixation plate used here is composed of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). The functionally graded bone plate is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous materials. Finite element method approach is adopted for analysis. The volume fraction of the material is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law and the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated. The model developed is validated by comparing numerical results available in the literature. Static analysis has been performed for the bone plate system by considering both axial compressive load and torsional load. The investigation shows that by introducing FG bone plate instead of titanium, the stress at the fracture site increases by 63 percentage and the deformation decreases by 15 percentage, especially when torsional load is taken into consideration. The present model yields better results in comparison with the commercially available bone plates.

  14. Generating Quasi-Isentropic Loading to Targets via Flier-Plate Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qiang; Su Xiaopeng; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng; Hua Jinsong; Tan Hua

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-isentropic loading technique allows investigation of material properties in a high-pressure, low-temperature regime that is inaccessible by conventional shock wave experiments. In the present paper, the layered flier-plate and graded density flier-plate, which have different variations in the density gradient along the thickness direction but the same density range, were designed and fabricated. Impact experiments were then performed on a two-stage light gas gun. VISAR-measured results show that wave profiles with an initial jump followed by a slowly-rising front to the peak velocity amplitude are generated by using both types of the flier-plate, indicating that quasi-isentropic loading to the targets have been successfully realized. The process of quasi-isentropic loading can be seen as the successive overlap of a series of small shock waves by the transient layers in the flier-plate. It is obvious that the graded density flier-plate creates a more smoothly rising front, and the compression effect must be closer to isentropic loading than that of the layered flier-plate with the same density range

  15. A Plate Tectonic Model for the Neoproterozoic with Evolving Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdith, Andrew; Collins, Alan; Williams, Simon; Pisarevsky, Sergei; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic was dominated by the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, its break-up and the subsequent amalgamation of Gondwana, during which, the planet experienced large climatic variations and the emergence of complex life. Here we present a topological plate model of the Neoproterozoic based on a synthesis of available geological and palaeomagnetic data. Subduction zones, which are well preserved in the geological record, are used as a proxy for convergent margins; evidence for mid-ocean ridges and transform motion is less clearly preserved, though passive margins are used as a proxy for spreading centres, and evidence for strike-slip motions are used to model transform boundaries. We find that the model presented here only predicts 70% of the total length of subduction active today, though it models similar lengths of both transform and divergent boundaries, suggesting that we have produced a conservative model and are probably underestimating the amount of subduction. Where evidence for convergent, divergent or transform motion is not preserved, we interpret the locations of plate boundaries based on the relative motions of cratonic crust as suggested through either palaeomagnetic data or the geological record. Using GPlates, we tie these boundaries together to generate a plate model that depicts the motion of tectonic plates through the Neoproterozoic. We omit India and South China from Rodinia completely, due to long-lived subduction preserved on margins of India and conflicting palaeomagnetic data for the Cryogenian, but tie them together due to similar Tonian aged accretionary patterns along their respective (present-day) north-western and northern margins, such that these two cratons act as a "lonely wanderer" for much of the Neoproterozoic, and form their own tectonic plate. We also introduce a Tonian-Cryogenian aged rotation of the Congo-São Francisco Craton relative to Rodinia to better fit palaeomagnetic data and account for thick passive

  16. Voltage-current characteristics of a pin-plate system with different plate configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhuangbo; Long, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of a pin-plate system with four types of collection plate configurations are studied experimentally. The collection plates consider a single metal plate, a metal plate with a fly ash cake layer, a metal plate with a clean filter media and a metal plate with a dirty filter media. The results show that the clean filter media has no obvious effect on the V-I characteristics. But the dirty filter media reduces the current density because of its high resistance. The thick fly ash cake layer increase current density because of the anti-corona effect but the increment is not very obvious.

  17. Finite element analysis of a solar collector plate using two plate geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Manuel Medina Carril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of an absorber plate in a solar collector is investigated using finite element analysis. The thermal behavior and efficiency of two absorber plate geometries are studied, using a typical solar collector with a rectangular profile as reference, and a proposed absorber plate with curved geometry. An analysis of the most important parameters involved in the design of the absorber plate was carried out, indicating that the curved geometry of the absorber plate yields an average efficiency ~25% higher than the conventional rectangular geometry. The results suggest that a curved profile made of materials such as aluminum with thermal conductivity higher than 200W/m°C, plate thickness of the order of 2-3mm and with a large density of tubes per unit area of the collector´s plate greatly benefits the thermal efficiency of the solar collector.

  18. Heavy gauge plates for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviet, A.; Roux, J.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The production of energy from nuclear sources leads to the building of very large vessels working under pressure at elevated temperatures, requiring very thick steel plate (from 50 mm to 300 mm). The plates necessary for the production of these vessels have to be as large as possible in order to reduce the length of welds on the vessels. Those two requirements lead to the manufacture of heavy products from 10 to 80 tons unit weight. These products are special, because their fabrication requires very big facilities and also extremely high quality of the steel. The main points are: high cleanliness; properties as homogeneous as possible. The tests carried out on industrially produced plates (especially on a plate of 200 mm thick show the level of quality that can be reached [fr

  19. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  20. Sound Radiation of Aerodynamically Excited Flat Plates into Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Osterziel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibrations and the sound radiation of flexible plate structures of different thickness mounted in a rigid plate are experimentally investigated. Therefore, flow properties and turbulent boundary layer parameters are determined through measurements with a hot-wire anemometer in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel. Furthermore, the excitation of the vibrating plate is examined by laser scanning vibrometry. To describe the sound radiation and the sound transmission of the flexible aluminium plates into cavities, a cuboid-shaped room with adjustable volume and 34 flush-mounted microphones is installed at the non flow-excited side of the aluminium plates. Results showed that the sound field inside the cavity is on the one hand dependent on the flow parameters and the plate thickness and on the other hand on the cavity volume which indirectly influences the level and the distribution of the sound pressure behind the flexible plate through different excited modes.

  1. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  2. Classifying Taiwan Lianas with Radiating Plates of Xylem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Zehn Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiating plates of xylem are a lianas cambium variation, of which, 22 families have this feature. This study investigates 15 liana species representing nine families with radiating plates of xylem structures. The features of the transverse section and epidermis in fresh liana samples are documented, including shapes and colors of xylem and phloem, ray width and numbers, and skin morphology. Experimental results indicated that the shape of phloem fibers in Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. hancei is gradually tapered and flame-like, which is in contrast with the other characteristics of this type, including those classified as rays. Both inner and outer cylinders of vascular bundles are found in Piper kwashoense, and the irregularly inner cylinder persists yet gradually diminishes. Red crystals are numerous in the cortex of Celastrus kusanoi. Aristolochia shimadai and A. zollingeriana develop a combination of two cambium variants, radiating plates of xylem and a lobed xylem. The shape of phloem in Stauntonia obovatifoliola is square or truncate, and its rays are numerous. Meanwhile, that of Neoalsomitra integrifolia is blunt and its rays are fewer. As for the features of a stem surface within the same family, Cyclea ochiaiana is brownish in color and has a deep vertical depression with lenticels, Pericampylus glaucus is greenish in color with a vertical shallow depression. Within the same genus, Aristolochia shimadai develops lenticels, which are not in A. zollingeriana; although the periderm developed in Clematis grata is a ring bark and tears easily, that of Clematis tamura is thick and soft.

  3. Influence of boundary conditions on the response of multilayered plates with cohesive interfaces and delaminations using a homogenized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Massabò

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress and displacement fields in multilayered composites with interfacial imperfections, such as imperfect bonding of the layers or delaminations, or where the plies are separated by thin interlayers allowing relative motion, have large variations in the thickness, with characteristic zigzag patterns and jumps at the layer interfaces. These effects are well captured by a model recently formulated by the author for multilayered plates with imperfect interfaces and affine interfacial traction laws (Massabò & Campi, Meccanica, 2014, in press; Compos Struct, 2014, 116, 311-324. The model defines a homogenized displacement field, which satisfies interfacial continuity, and uses a variational technique to derive equilibrium equations depending on only six generalized displacement functions, for any arbitrary numbers of layers and interfaces. The model accurately predicts stresses and displacements in simply supported, highly anisotropic, thick plates with continuous, sliding interfaces. In this paper the model is applied to wide plates with clamped edges and some inconsistencies, which have been noted in the literature for models based on similar approaches and have limited their utilization, are explained. A generalized transverse shear force is introduced as the gross stress resultant which is directly related to the bending moment in the equilibrium equations of multilayered structures with imperfect interfaces and substitutes for the shear force of single-layer theory. An application to a delaminated wide plate highlights the potential and limitations of the proposed model for the solution of fracture mechanics problems.

  4. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  5. Contribution to the study of slab thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraitis, G.A.; Rorris, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the time-independent values of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere, defined as the ratio of the total electron content to the corresponding maximum electron density of the F region. Periodic variations of slab thickness are studied and are correlated to relative changes in exospheric temperature, deduced from the OGO-6 model

  6. Plume-stagnant slab-lithosphere interactions: Origin of the late Cenozoic intra-plate basalts on the East Eurasia margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Sakuyama, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Fukao, Yoshio; Stern, Robert J.

    2018-02-01

    Intra-plate basalts of 35-0 Ma in East Eurasia formed in a broad backarc region above the stagnant Pacific Plate slab in the mantle transition zone. These basalts show regional-scale variations in Nd-Hf isotopes. The basalts with the most radiogenic Nd-Hf center on the Shandong Peninsula with intermediate Nd-Hf at Hainan and Datong. The least radiogenic basalts occur in the perimeters underlain by the thick continental lithosphere. Shandong basalts possess isotopic signatures of the young igneous oceanic crust of the subducted Pacific Plate. Hainan and Datong basalts have isotopic signatures of recycled subduction materials with billions of years of storage in the mantle. The perimeter basalts have isotopic signatures similar to pyroxenite xenoliths from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath East Eurasia. Hainan basalts exhibit the highest mantle potential temperature (Tp), while the Shandong basalts have the lowest Tp. We infer that a deep high-Tp plume interacted with the subducted Pacific Plate slab in the mantle transition zone to form a local low-Tp plume by entraining colder igneous oceanic lithosphere. We infer that the subducted Izanagi Plate slab, once a part of the Pacific Plate mosaic, broke off from the Pacific Plate slab at 35 Ma to sink into the lower mantle. The sinking Izanagi slab triggered the plume that interacted with the stagnant Pacific slab and caused subcontinental lithospheric melting. This coincided with formation of the western Pacific backarc marginal basins due to Pacific Plate slab rollback and stagnation.

  7. Study on unified fatigue strength assessment method for welded structure. Hot spot stress evaluating method for various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length; Yosetsu kozo no toitsutekina hiro kyodo hyokaho ni kansuru kenkyu. Itaatsu to yosetsu ashinaga no kumiawase ni taisuru hot spot oryoku sanshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.; Inamura, F.; Koe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    There has been tried to apply unified assessment method using hot spot stress, which is effective to evaluate fatigue strength of fillet welded structures for ships and marine structures. This method can be applied to complicated structures and is independent of welding processes. In this study, first, stress analysis has been conducted for two-dimensional fillet welded joint models with various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length of general fillet structures by means of boundary element method. Then, critical position, which is not affected by local stress concentration due to bead, was determined from the detailed stress distribution in the vicinity of weld toe. As a result, a general equation has been proposed to estimate the hot spot stress by one-point representative method. Second, the fatigue tests of typical fillet welded joints have been conducted by applying this method. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the unified fatigue strength can be evaluated by the S-N data based on hot spot stress range determined from the proposed equation, independent of structural stress concentration. 22 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Study on unified fatigue strength assessment method for welded structure. Hot spot stress evaluating method for various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length; Yosetsu kozo no toitsutekina hiro kyodo hyokaho ni kansuru kenkyu. Itaatsu to yosetsu ashinaga no kumiawase ni taisuru hot spot oryoku sanshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K; Inamura, F; Koe, S [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    There has been tried to apply unified assessment method using hot spot stress, which is effective to evaluate fatigue strength of fillet welded structures for ships and marine structures. This method can be applied to complicated structures and is independent of welding processes. In this study, first, stress analysis has been conducted for two-dimensional fillet welded joint models with various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length of general fillet structures by means of boundary element method. Then, critical position, which is not affected by local stress concentration due to bead, was determined from the detailed stress distribution in the vicinity of weld toe. As a result, a general equation has been proposed to estimate the hot spot stress by one-point representative method. Second, the fatigue tests of typical fillet welded joints have been conducted by applying this method. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the unified fatigue strength can be evaluated by the S-N data based on hot spot stress range determined from the proposed equation, independent of structural stress concentration. 22 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Air-coupled ultrasound for plate thickness measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Waag, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Non-destructive testing using ultrasound is well established as a technique of inspecting miscellaneous structures and components. Ultrasonic waves propagating in an elastic solid are sensitive to both the material and geometrical properties of the solid. Decades of experience have shown that it is possible to extract these properties from the waves in an efficient and reliable way in a variety of practical measurement settings. Different techniques have been developed over many decades, and ...

  10. Buckling transition and boundary layer in non-Euclidean plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Efi; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz

    2009-07-01

    Non-Euclidean plates are thin elastic bodies having no stress-free configuration, hence exhibiting residual stresses in the absence of external constraints. These bodies are endowed with a three-dimensional reference metric, which may not necessarily be immersible in physical space. Here, based on a recently developed theory for such bodies, we characterize the transition from flat to buckled equilibrium configurations at a critical value of the plate thickness. Depending on the reference metric, the buckling transition may be either continuous or discontinuous. In the infinitely thin plate limit, under the assumption that a limiting configuration exists, we show that the limit is a configuration that minimizes the bending content, among all configurations with zero stretching content (isometric immersions of the midsurface). For small but finite plate thickness, we show the formation of a boundary layer, whose size scales with the square root of the plate thickness and whose shape is determined by a balance between stretching and bending energies.

  11. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  12. Advances and Trends in Plate Buckling Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hydrostatic State of In- Plane Stress. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 79-21 (Puerto Belgrano, Argentina), June 1979, 10 pp. (to be published). 38. Leissa...and Elastic Stability of Circular Plates With Thickness Varying in a Bilinear Fashion. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 81-23 (Puerto Belgrano

  13. A finite element for plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.; Feijoo, R.A.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1981-08-01

    A simple triangular finite element for plates and shells, is presented. Since the rotation fields are assumed independent of the displacement fields, the element allows one to solve thick shells problems. In the limit for thin shell, the Kirchoff-Love hypothesis is automatically satisfied, thus enlarging its range of application. (Author) [pt

  14. Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Kalita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nine-node isoparametric plate element in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory is used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutouts. Both thick and thin plate problems are solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this article, primary focus is given to the effect of rotary inertia on natural frequencies of perforated rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia has significant effect on thick plates, while for thin plates the rotary inertia term can be ignored. It is seen that the numerical convergence is very rapid and based on comparison with experimental and analytical data from literature, it is proposed that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Finally, some new numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmark for future research on similar problems.

  15. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Dual beam x-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for continuous measurement of thickness of a sheet at a rolling mill or the like without contacting the sheet are described. A system directing radiation through the sheet in two energy bands and providing a measure of change in composition of the material as it passes the thickness gauging station is included. A system providing for changing the absorption coefficient of the material in the thickness measurement as a function of the change in composition so that the measured thickness is substantially independent of variations in composition is described

  17. Non-cyanide silver plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work

  18. Characterization of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy RX226-T8 Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum-copper-magnesium-silver (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag) alloys that were developed for thermal stability also offer attractive ambient temperature strength-toughness combinations, and therefore, can be considered for a broad range of airframe structural applications. The current study evaluated Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy RX226-T8 in plate gages and compared performance with sheet gage alloys of similar composition. Uniaxial tensile properties, plane strain initiation fracture toughness, and plane stress tearing resistance of RX226-T8 were examined at ambient temperature as a function of orientation and thickness location in the plate. Properties were measured near the surface and at the mid-plane of the plate. Tensile strengths were essentially isotropic, with variations in yield and ultimate tensile strengths of less than 2% as a function of orientation and through-thickness location. However, ductility varied by more than 15% with orientation. Fracture toughness was generally higher at the mid-plane and greater for the L-T orientation, although the differences were small near the surface of the plate. Metallurgical analysis indicated that the microstructure was primarily recrystallized with weak texture and was uniform through the plate with the exception of a fine-grained layer near the surface of the plate. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed Al-Cu-Mg second phase particles which varied in composition and were primarily located on grain boundaries parallel to the rolling direction. Fractography of toughness specimens for both plate locations and orientations revealed that fracture occurred predominantly by transgranular microvoid coalescence. Introduction High-strength, low-density Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys were initially developed to replace conventional 2000 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7000 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) series aluminum alloys for aircraft structural applications [1]. During the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program, improvements in thermal stability were demonstrated for candidate

  19. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P., E-mail: darnold@ufl.edu

    2016-10-15

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1{sub 0} CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm{sup 2}), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1{sub 0} ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH{sub max} of 100 kJ/m{sup 3}) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1{sub 0} phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH{sub max} ~100 kJ/m{sup 3}.

  20. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1 0 CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm 2 ), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1 0 ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH max of 100 kJ/m 3 ) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm 2 , pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1 0 phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH max ~100 kJ/m 3 .

  1. Active Control of Fan Noise-Feasibility Study. Volume 2: Canceling Noise Source-Design of an Acoustic Plate Radiator Using Piezoceramic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, F. G.; Rajiyah, H.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of using acoustic plate radiators powered by piezoceramic thin sheets as canceling sources for active control of aircraft engine fan noise is demonstrated. Analytical and numerical models of actuated beams and plates are developed and validated. An optimization study is performed to identify the optimum combination of design parameters that maximizes the plate volume velocity for a given resonance frequency. Fifteen plates with various plate and actuator sizes, thicknesses, and bonding layers were fabricated and tested using results from the optimization study. A maximum equivalent piston displacement of 0.39 mm was achieved with the optimized plate samples tested with only one actuator powered, corresponding to a plate deflection at the center of over 1 millimeter. This is very close to the deflection required for a full size engine application and represents a 160-fold improvement over previous work. Experimental results further show that performance is limited by the critical stress of the piezoceramic actuator and bonding layer rather than by the maximum moment available from the actuator. Design enhancements are described in detail that will lead to a flight-worthy acoustic plate radiator by minimizing actuator tensile stresses and reducing nonlinear effects. Finally, several adaptive tuning methods designed to increase the bandwidth of acoustic plate radiators are analyzed including passive, active, and semi-active approaches. The back chamber pressurization and volume variation methods are investigated experimentally and shown to be simple and effective ways to obtain substantial control over the resonance frequency of a plate radiator. This study shows that piezoceramic-based plate radiators can be a viable acoustic source for active control of aircraft engine fan noise.

  2. Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eddy currents. Most of the ... istics, Lamb waves were used for damage detection and inspection on a variety of applications like strips and ...... wide and 0.5 mm deep (12.5% of the plate thickness) was machined on the plate (figure 17) and.

  3. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora

    2017-06-01

    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  4. Quantitative tectonic reconstructions of Zealandia based on crustal thickness estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobys, Jan W. G.; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Zealandia is a key piece in the plate reconstruction of Gondwana. The positions of its submarine plateaus are major constraints on the best fit and breakup involving New Zealand, Australia, Antarctica, and associated microplates. As the submarine plateaus surrounding New Zealand consist of extended and highly extended continental crust, classic plate tectonic reconstructions assuming rigid plates and narrow plate boundaries fail to reconstruct these areas correctly. However, if the early breakup history shall be reconstructed, it is crucial to consider crustal stretching in a plate-tectonic reconstruction. We present a reconstruction of the basins around New Zealand (Great South Basin, Bounty Trough, and New Caledonia Basin) based on crustal balancing, an approach that takes into account the rifting and thinning processes affecting continental crust. In a first step, we computed a crustal thickness map of Zealandia using seismic, seismological, and gravity data. The crustal thickness map shows the submarine plateaus to have a uniform crustal thickness of 20-24 km and the basins to have a thickness of 12-16 km. We assumed that a reconstruction of Zealandia should close the basins and lead to a most uniform crustal thickness. We used the standard deviation of the reconstructed crustal thickness as a measure of uniformity. The reconstruction of the Campbell Plateau area shows that the amount of extension in the Bounty Trough and the Great South Basin is far smaller than previously thought. Our results indicate that the extension of the Bounty Trough and Great South Basin occurred simultaneously.

  5. Elasto-plastic deformation and plate weakening due to normal faulting in the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Jian

    2018-06-01

    We investigated variations in the elasto-plastic deformation of the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench through an analysis of flexural bending and normal fault characteristics together with geodynamic modeling. Most normal faults were initiated at the outer-rise region and grew toward the trench axis with strikes mostly subparallel to the local trench axis. The average trench relief and maximum fault throws were measured to be significantly greater in the southern region (5 km and 320 m, respectively) than the northern and central regions (2 km and 200 m). The subducting plate was modeled as an elasto-plastic slab subjected to tectonic loading at the trench axis. The calculated strain rates and velocities revealed an array of normal fault-like shear zones in the upper plate, resulting in significant faulting-induced reduction in the deviatoric stresses. We then inverted for solutions that best fit the observed flexural bending and normal faulting characteristics, revealing normal fault penetration to depths of 21, 20, and 32 km beneath the seafloor for the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively, which is consistent with the observed depths of the relocated normal faulting earthquakes in the central Mariana Trench. The calculated deeper normal faults of the southern region might lead to about twice as much water being carried into the mantle per unit trench length than the northern and central regions. We further calculated that normal faulting has reduced the effective elastic plate thickness Te by up to 52% locally in the southern region and 33% in both the northern and central regions. The best-fitting solutions revealed a greater apparent angle of the pulling force in the southern region (51-64°) than in the northern (22-35°) and central (20-34°) regions, which correlates with a general southward increase in the seismically-determined dip angle of the subducting slab along the Mariana Trench.

  6. Experimental Lamb mode identification in a plate containing a hole using dual signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondel, Sébastien; Assaad, Jamal; Youbi, Faysal El; Moulin, Emmanuel; Leyla, Najib Abou

    2008-01-01

    The identification of Lamb mode amplitude variation as a function of the damage evolution is still the most difficult step in the process of damage monitoring using embedded Lamb wave-based systems. The aim of this paper is to propose a simple system based on the generation of two different frequencies in order to better identify Lamb mode amplitude and to avoid false data interpretation in plates containing a hole of variable diameter. This identification is based on a simple relation between the short-time Fourier transform and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Experimentally, a 3 mm thick aluminium plate is used and the two frequencies have been chosen equal to 400 kHz and 600 kHz in order to generate the two first fundamental Lamb waves

  7. Investigation on the variation of annual ring thicknesses and word densities in South African Pinus radiata stands under the influence of climate and different thinning measures by means of radiodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bues, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    The present work investigates three phenomena of growth biology in Pinus radiata stands: In the first investigation project: the thickness of the annual rings in relation to climate factors; In the second project: the variability of annual ring thickness and wood density as a function of different thinning measures; In the third project the variability of wood density within a Pinus radiate stand is analyzed. To determine the thickness of the annual rings and the wood density values within the annual rings, the method of radiodensitometry, developed during the last decade, is adopted: In the first investigation project the thicknesses of 800 annual rings are determined, in the second project 3808 annual ring structures are investigated, and in the third project 2000 annual rings are evaluated for their density characteristics. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  9. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  11. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  13. Determination of the coating base thickness with beta backscattering gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejndlin, I.I.; Novikov, V.S.; Pravikov, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    In using beta thickness meters for coating examination, it is necessary that the substrate thickness be greater or equal to the saturation thickness for which one can neglect a systematic error caused by substrate thickness variation. A formula is derived and nomograms are presented for the determination of the substrate saturation thickness with the account of factors affecting the results of coating thickness measurement. The results of saturation thickness calculation are tabulated for a number of substrate materials with using different β-sources ( 147 Pm, 85 Kr, 90 Sr+ 90 Y)

  14. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  15. Vibration characteristics of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite rectangular plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions and internal line supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Wang, Qingshan; Tang, Jinyuan; Shuai, Cijun; Liang, Qian

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the first known vibration characteristics of moderately thick functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite rectangular plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions and internal line supports on the basis of the firstorder shear deformation theory. Different distributions of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) along the thickness are considered. Uniform and other three kinds of functionally graded distributions of carbon nanotubes along the thickness direction of plates are studied. The solutions carried out using an enhanced Ritz method mainly include the following three points: Firstly, create the Lagrange energy function by the energy principle; Secondly, as the main innovation point, the modified Fourier series are chosen as the basic functions of the admissible functions of the plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges; Lastly, solve the natural frequencies as well as the associated mode shapes by means of the Ritz-variational energy method. In this study, the influences of the volume fraction of CNTs, distribution type of CNTs, boundary restrain parameters, location of the internal line supports, foundation coefficients on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FG-CNT reinforced composite rectangular plates are presented.

  16. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  17. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  18. Evaluation of dose distributions in gamma chamber using glass plate detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial glass plate of thickness 1.75 mm has been utilized for evaluation of dose distributions inside the irradiation volume of gamma chamber using optical densitometry technique. The glass plate showed linear response in the dose range 0.10 Kilo Gray (kGy to 10 kGy of cobalt-60 gamma radiation with optical sensitivity 0.04 Optical Density (OD /kGy. The change in the optical density at each identified spatial dose matrix on the glass plate in relation to the position in the irradiation volume has been presented as dose distributions inside the gamma chamber. The optical density changes have been graphically plotted in the form of surface diagram of color washes for different percentage dose rate levels as isodose distributions in gamma chamber. The variation in dose distribution inside the gamma chamber unit, GC 900, BRIT India make, using this technique has been observed within ± 15%. This technique can be used for routine quality assurances and dose distribution validation of any gamma chamber during commissioning and source replacement. The application of commercial glass plate for dose mapping in gamma chambers has been found very promising due to its wider dose linearity, quick measurement, and lesser expertise requirement in application of the technique.

  19. Numerical Study on Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted End-Plate Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.S. Ismail

    Full Text Available Abstract Bolted end-plate steel connections have become more popular due to ease of fabrication. This paper presents a three dimension Finite Element Model (FEM, using the multi-purpose software ABAQUS, to study the effect of different geometrical parameters on the ultimate behavior of the connection. The proposed model takes into account material and geometrical non-linearities, initial imperfection, contact between adjacent surfaces and the pretension force in the bolts. The Finite Element results are calibrated with published experimental results ''briefly reviewed in this paper'' and verified that the numerical model can simulate and analyze the overall and detailed behavior of different types of bolted end-plate steel connections. Using verified FEM, parametric study is then carried out to study the ultimate behavior with variations in: bolt diameter, end-plate thickness, length of column stiffener, angle of rib stiffener. The results are examined with respect to the failure modes, the evolution of the resistance, the initial stiffness, and the rotation capacity. Finally, the ultimate behavior of the bolted end-plate steel connection is discussed in detail, and recommendations for the design purpose are made.

  20. Numerical Investigation of an Oscillating Flat Plate Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Fazlolah; Janechek, Matthew; Buchholz, James; Udaykumar, Hs

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the vortex dynamics of a plunging flat plate airfoil by analyzing the vorticity transport in 2D simulations. A horizontal airfoil is subject to a freestream flow at Re =10000. A prescribed vertical sinusoidal motion is applied to the airfoil. Smoothed Profile Method (SPM) models the fluid-structure interaction. SPM as a diffuse interface model considers a thickness for the interface and applies a smooth transition from solid to fluid. As the forces on the airfoil are highly affected by the interaction of the generated vortices from the surface, it is very important to find out whether a diffuse interface solver can model a flow dominated by vorticities. The results show that variation of lift coefficient with time agrees well with the experiment. Study of vortex evolution shows that similar to experiments, when the plate starts moving downward from top, the boundary layer is attached to the surface and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) is very small. By time, LEV grows and rolls up and a secondary vortex emerges. Meanwhile, the boundary layer starts to separate and finally LEV detaches from the surface. In overall, SPM as a diffuse interface model can predict the lift force and vortex pattern accurately.

  1. Flexure of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation Using Two-Variable Refined Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzegar Jafar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wpublikacji wykorzystano udoskonalona teorie płyty z dwiema zmiennymi do analizy grubych płyt spoczywajacych na sprezystym podłozu. Teoria ta, która zawiera tylko dwa nieznane parametry, pozwala przewidziec paraboliczna zmiennosc naprezen scinajacych. W teorii jest spełniony warunek zerowej trakcji na powierzchni płyty bez uzycia współczynnika korekcyjnego dla scinania. Stosujac zasade minimum energii potencjalnej wyprowadzono równania rzadzace dla płyt prostokatnych o prostym podparciu spoczywajacych na sprezystym podłozu Winklera. Do rozwiazania otrzymanego układu równan sprzezonych zaadoptowano metode Naviera. Obecna teoria pozwoliła rozwiazac szereg przykładowych problemów płyt przy róznych warunkach obciazenia. Porównanie otrzymanych rezultatów z uzyskanymi w innych znanych teoriach wykazuje doskonala efektywnosc stosowanej teorii w modelowaniu grubych płyt spoczywajacych na podłozu sprezystym. Przestudiowano takze wpływ modułu sprezystosci podłoza, grubosci płyty i typu obciazenia. Wyniki pokazuja, ze ugiecia płyty maleja przy wzroscie modułu sprezystosci podłoza i grubosci płyty

  2. Fabrication techniques of X-ray spiral zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Nan; Zhu Xiaoli; Li Hailiang; Xie Changqing

    2010-01-01

    The techniques to make X-ray spiral zone plates using electron beam and X-ray lithography were studied. A master mask was fabricated on polyimide membrane by E-beam lithography and micro-electroplating. Spiral zone plates were efficiently replicated by X-ray lithography and micro-electroplating. By combining the techniques, spiral zone plates at 1 keV were successfully fabricate. With an outermost zone width of the 200 nm, and the gold absorbers thickness of 700 nm, the high quality zone plates can be used for X-ray phase contrast microscopy.(authors)

  3. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  4. Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.

  5. Isostatic Model and Isostatic Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-04-01

    The isostatic modeling represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction, it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Although there exist several isostatic compensation schemes, it is usually supposed that a choice of the model is not an important factor to first order, since the total weight of compensating masses remains the same. We compare two alternative models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which cannot be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also, the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from existing seismic observations. The second isostatic model includes the Moho, which is based on seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). According to this model, the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield is less dense than under the Platform. In the Arabian platform, the maximum density coincides with the Rub' al Khali, one of the richest oil basin in the world. This finding agrees with previous studies, showing that such basins are often underlain by dense mantle, possibly related to an eclogite layer that has caused their subsidence. The mantle density variations might be also a result of variations of the lithosphere thickness. With the combined isostatic model, it is possible to minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies correspond well to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies, showing isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere, are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  6. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  7. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D'alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LBC; based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (117 mn each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author)

  8. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  9. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Byung Joon; Ji Tae Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  10. Waveguiding in supported phononic crystal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J; Hladky-Hennion, A-C; Deymier, P; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Duval, F; Dubus, B; Pennec, Y

    2007-01-01

    We investigate, with the help of the finite element method, the existence of absolute band gaps in the band structure of a free-standing phononic crystal plate and of a phononic crystal slab deposited on a substrate. The two-dimensional phononic crystal is constituted by a square array of holes drilled in an active piezoelectric (PZT5A or AlN) matrix. For both matrix materials, an absolute band gap occurs in the band structure of the free-standing plate provided the thickness of the plate is on the order of magnitude of the lattice parameter. When the plate is deposited on a Si substrate, the absolute band gap still remains when the matrix of the phononic crystal is made of PZT5A. The AlN phononic crystal plate losses its gap when supported by the Si substrate. In the case of the PZT5A matrix, we also study the possibility of localized modes associated with a linear defect created by removing one row of air holes in the deposited phononic crystal plate

  11. Combined Effect of Piezoviscous Dependency and Non-Newtonian Couple Stress on Squeeze-Film Porous Annular Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanth, K. R.; Hanumagowda, B. N.; Santhosh Kumar, J.

    2018-04-01

    Squeeze film investigations focus upon film pressure, load bearing quantity and the minimum thickness of film. The combined effect of pressure viscous dependent and non- Newtonian couple stress in porous annular plate is studied. The modified equations of one dimensional pressure, load bearing quantity, non dimensional squeeze time are obtained. The conclusions obtained in the study are found to be in very good agreement compared to the previous results which are published. The load carrying capacity is increased due to the variation in the pressure dependent viscosity and also due to the couple stress effect. Finally this results in change in the squeeze film timings.

  12. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  13. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  14. Create Your Plate

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  16. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plate using New Higher Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Abbas Sadiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a theoretical analysis depending on the new higher order . element in shear deformation theory for simply supported cross-ply laminated plate is developed. The new displacement field of the middle surface expanded as a combination of exponential and trigonometric function of thickness coordinate with the transverse displacement taken to be constant through the thickness. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved using Navier solution method to obtain the deflection and stresses under uniform sinusoidal load. The effect of many design parameters such as number of laminates, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on static behavior of the laminated composite plate has been studied. The modal of the present work has been verified by comparing the results of shape functions with that were obtained by other workers. Result shows the good agreement with 3D elasticity solution and that published by other researchers.

  17. Available: lead plate from COMPASS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    The COMPASS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS collaboration would like to offer the possibility to take over a large and thick lead plate, since it is not required anymore in the spectrometer.   It has the following dimensions: thickness 100 mm, width 4.4 m and height 2.0 m, with a square hole in the middle with dimensions of 40 cm x 40 cm. The measured weight including the metal frame it is housed in is 10,180 kg. The CERN stores reference is 44.13.30.100.9. Please contact Erwin Bielert (erwin.bielert@cern.ch or 160539) for further information and details.

  18. Thickness filters for gradient based multi-material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new gradient based method for performing discrete material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures. The novelty in the new method lies in the application of so-called casting constraints, or thickness filters in this context, to control the thickness...... variation throughout the laminate. The filters replace the layerwise density variables with a single continuous through-the-thickness design variable. Consequently, the filters eliminate the need for having explicit constraints for preventing intermediate void through the thickness of the laminate....... Therefore, the filters reduce both the number of constraints and design variables in the optimization problem. Based upon a continuous approximation of a unit step function, the thickness filters are capable of projecting discrete 0/1 values to the underlying layerwise or ”physical” density variables which...

  19. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam.

  20. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu 2 O 3 and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam

  1. On the estimation of ice thickness from scattering observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. D.; Squire, V. A.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is inspired by the proposition that it may be possible to extract descriptive physical parameters - in particular the ice thickness, of a sea-ice field from ocean wave information. The motivation is that mathematical theory describing wave propagation in such media has reached a point where the inherent heterogeneity, expressed as pressure ridge keels and sails, leads, thickness variations and changes of material property and draught, can be fully assimilated exactly or through approximations whose limitations are understood. On the basis that leads have the major wave scattering effect for most sea-ice [Williams, T.D., Squire, V.A., 2004. Oblique scattering of plane flexural-gravity waves by heterogeneities in sea ice. Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Ser.-A 460 (2052), 3469-3497], a model two dimensional sea-ice sheet composed of a large number of such features, randomly dispersed, is constructed. The wide spacing approximation is used to predict how wave trains of different period will be affected, after first establishing that this produces results that are very close to the exact solution. Like Kohout and Meylan [Kohout, A.L., Meylan, M.H., 2008. An elastic plate model for wave attenuation and ice floe breaking in the marginal ice zone. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C09016, doi:10.1029/2007JC004434], we find that on average the magnitude of a wave transmitted by a field of leads decays exponentially with the number of leads. Then, by fitting a curve based on this assumption to the data, the thickness of the ice sheet is obtained. The attenuation coefficient can always be calculated numerically by ensemble averaging but in some cases more rapidly computed approximations work extremely well. Moreover, it is found that the underlying thickness can be determined to good accuracy by the method as long as Archimedean draught is correctly provided for, suggesting that waves can indeed be effective as a remote sensing agent to measure ice thickness in areas where pressure ridges

  2. Vibration analysis of orthotropic circular and elliptical nano-plates embedded in elastic medium based on nonlocal Mindlin plate theory and using Galerkin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjomshoa, Amin; Tahani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a continuum model based on the nonlocal elasticity theory is developed for free vibration analysis of embedded ortho tropic thick circular and elliptical nano-plates rested on an elastic foundation. The elastic foundation is considered to behave like a Pasternak type of foundations. Governing equations for vibrating nano-plate are derived according to the Mindlin plate theory in which the effects of shear deformations of nano-plate are also included. The Galerkin method is then employed to obtain the size dependent natural frequencies of nano-plate. The solution procedure considers the entire nano-plate as a single super-continuum element. Effect of nonlocal parameter, lengths of nano-plate, aspect ratio, mode number, material properties, thickness and foundation on circular frequencies are investigated. It is seen that the nonlocal frequencies of the nano-plate are smaller in comparison to those from the classical theory and this is more pronounced for small lengths and higher vibration modes. It is also found that as the aspect ratio increases or the nanoplate becomes more elliptical, the small scale effect on natural frequencies increases. Further, it is observed that the elastic foundation decreases the influence of nonlocal parameter on the results. Since the effect of shear deformations plays an important role in vibration analysis and design of nano-plates, by predicting smaller values for fundamental frequencies, the study of these nano-structures using thick plate theories such as Mindlin plate theory is essential.

  3. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.

  4. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun

    2013-01-01

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on

  5. Create Your Plate

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  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  9. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  10. Infrared sensing and the measurement of oil slick thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.M.; Baschuk, J.J.; Goodman, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether infrared images can be used to detect the thickness of a marine oil spill was discussed. Infrared images of oil spills on water show density variations because of variations in oil temperature and emissivity. These observations have been used to determine thickness variations in the oil. Experiments were conducted in a large wave basin using two typical crude oils in the thickness range of 1 mm to 10 mm. Infrared images of oil spills were recorded and simultaneous thickness measurements were made using an acoustic thickness gauge. The study showed that there is no relationship between infrared image pixel greyness and the thickness measured with an acoustic probe. It was not possible to determine the volume of a spill using infrared images. 2 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K.; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  12. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  13. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    shrinking oceans, forcing rapid Pacific spreading. Slabs suck forward overriding arcs and continental lithosphere, plus most subjacent mantle above the transition zone. Changes in sizes of oceans result primarily from transfer of oceanic lithosphere, so backarcs and expanding oceans spread only slowly. Lithosphere parked in, or displaced from, the transition zone, or mixed into mid-upper mantle, is ultimately recycled, and regional variations in age of that submerged lithosphere may account for some regional contrasts in MORB. Plate motions make no kinematic sense in either the "hotspot" reference frame (HS; the notion of fixed plumes is easily disproved) or the no-net-rotation frame (NNR) In both, for example, many hinges roll forward, impossible with gravity drive. Subduction-drive predictions are fulfilled, and paleomagnetic data are satisfied (as they are not in HS and NNR), in the alternative framework of propulsionless Antarctica fixed relative to sluggish lower mantle. Passive ridges migrate away from Antarctica on all sides, and migration of these and other ridges permits tapping fresh asthenosphere. (HS and NNR tend to fix ridges). Ridge migration and spreading rates accord with subduction drive. All trenches roll back when allowance is made for back-arc spreading and intracontinental deformation. Africa rotates slowly toward subduction systems in the NE, instead of moving rapidly E as in HS and NNR. Stable NW Eurasia is nearly stationary, instead of also moving rapidly, and S and E Eurasian deformation relates to subduction and rollback. The Americas move Pacificward at almost the full spreading rates of passive ridges behind them. Lithosphere has a slow net westward drift. Reference: W.B. Hamilton, An alternative Earth, GSA Today, in press.

  14. Real weld geometry determining mechanical properties of high power laser welded medium plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sang; Mi, Gaoyang; Yan, Fei; Wang, Chunming; Li, Peigen

    2018-06-01

    Weld width is commonly used as one of main factors to assess joint performances in laser welding. However, it changes significantly through the thickness direction in conditions of medium or thick plates. In this study, high-power autogenous laser welding was conducted on 7 mm thickness 201 stainless steel to elucidate the factor of whole weld transverse shape critically affecting the mechanical properties with the aim of predicting the performance visually through the weld appearance. The results show that single variation of welding parameters could result in great changes of weld pool figures and subsequently weld transverse shapes. All the obtained welds are composed of austenite containing small amount of cellular dendritic δ-Ferrite. The 0.2% proof stresses of Nail- and Peanut-shaped joint reach 458 MPa and 454 MPa, 88.2% and 87.5% of the base material respectively, while that of Wedge-shaped joint only comes to 371 MPa, 71.5% of the base material. The deterioration effect is believed to be caused by the axial grain zone in the weld center. The fatigue strength of joint P is a bit lower than N, but much better than W. Significant deformation incompatibility through the whole thickness and microstructure resistance to crack initiation should be responsible for the poor performance of W-shaped joints.

  15. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  16. Special heavy plates and steel solutions for bridge building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    In many European countries infrastructure, -road as well as railway infrastructure-, needs intensive investments to follow the growing demands of mobility and goods traffic. Steel or steel composite bridges offer in this context viable and very sustainable solutions. Due to its unlimited recyclability steel can in general be seen as the ideal material for such sustainable constructions, but especially when designers or fabricators exploit the nowadays available possibilities of steel industry very cost-efficient and remarkable constructions are realizable. This paper will highlight some of these newest developments in heavy plates for bridge building. For example, for small span railway bridges the so-called thick plate trough bridges have proven to be a favourable concept. Very heavy plates with single plate weights up to 42 t allow building these bridges very efficiently out of one or very few single plates. Another interesting development is the so-called longitudinally profiled plates which allow a varying plate thickness along the actual loading profile. As last point the rising entry of higher strength steels in bridge building will be discussed and it will be shown why thermomechanically rolled plates are the ideal solution for these demands.

  17. Development of stress correction formulae for heat formed steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyun Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The heating process such as line heating, triangular heating and so on is widely used in plate forming of shell plates found in bow and stern area of outer shell in a ship. Local shrinkage during heating process is main physical phenomenon used in plate forming process. As it is well appreciated, the heated plate undergoes the change in material and mechanical properties around heated area due to the harsh thermal process. It is, therefore, important to investigate the changes of physical and mechanical properties due to heating process in order to use them plate the design stage of shell plates. This study is concerned with the development of formula of plastic hardening constitutive equation for steel plate on which line heating is applied. In this study the stress correction formula for the heated plate has been developed based on the numerical simulation of tension test with varying plate thickness and heating speed through the regression analysis of multiple variable case. It has been seen the developed formula shows very good agreement with results of numerical simulation. This paper ends with usefulness of the present formula in examining the structural characteristic of ship's hull. Keywords: Heat input, Heat transfer analysis, Line heating, Shell plate, Stress correction, Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.

  19. Interferometric measurement of film thickness during bubble blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Mandracchia, B.; Ferraro, V.; Tammaro, D.; Di Maio, E.; Maffettone, P. L.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose digital holography in transmission configuration as an effective method to measure the time-dependent thickness of polymeric films during bubble blowing. We designed a complete set of experiments to measure bubble thickness, including the evaluation of the refractive index of the polymer solution. We report the measurement of thickness distribution along the film during the bubble formation process until the bubble`s rupture. Based on those data, the variation range and variation trend of bubble film thickness are clearly measured during the process of expansion to fracture is indicated.

  20. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  1. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  2. Light emission by an oscillator moving through a refracting plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskij, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    Optical-frequency light emitted by a fast electron passing through a crystalline plate of a finite thickness is treated. Formulas are presented for the spectral distribution and intensity of the emission at a given frequency and amplitude of the electron oscillations. The formulas correspond to both normal and abnormal Doppler effects. The calculations are carried out for the light observed in the vacuum, with the reflection and refraction at the edges of the plate taken into account

  3. Optimal Design, Reliability And Sensitivity Analysis Of Foundation Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrdá Katarína

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimal design of thickness of a plate rested on Winkler’s foundation. First order method was used for the optimization, while maintaining different restrictive conditions. The aim is to obtain a minimum volume of the foundation plate. At the end some probabilistic and safety analysis of the deflection of the foundation using LHS Monte Carlo method are presented.

  4. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  5. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  6. Create Your Plate

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  1. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  2. Create Your Plate

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  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  5. The lead equivalence of plate glass for diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.F.; Morris, N.D.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of plate glass as a radiation protection barrier was determined. For x ray energies between 80 and 140 kVp, the lead equivalence of plate glass is energy independent, but below 80 kVp there is an apparent dependence. A thickness of plate glass of 25 mm for radiation energies between 80 and 140 kVp is equivalent to lead of .3mm thickness. There could be a limited application for the use of plate glass in viewing panels

  6. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  7. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  8. Three-beam interferogram analysis method for surface flatness testing of glass plates and wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    When testing transparent plates with high quality flat surfaces and a small angle between them the three-beam interference phenomenon is observed. Since the reference beam and the object beams reflected from both the front and back surface of a sample are detected, the recorded intensity distribution may be regarded as a sum of three fringe patterns. Images of that type cannot be succesfully analyzed with standard interferogram analysis methods. They contain, however, useful information on the tested plate surface flatness and its optical thickness variations. Several methods were elaborated to decode the plate parameters. Our technique represents a competitive solution which allows for retrieval of phase components of the three-beam interferogram. It requires recording two images: a three-beam interferogram and the two-beam one with the reference beam blocked. Mutually subtracting these images leads to the intensity distribution which, under some assumptions, provides access to the two component fringe sets which encode surfaces flatness. At various stages of processing we take advantage of nonlinear operations as well as single-frame interferogram analysis methods. Two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D CWT) is used to separate a particular fringe family from the overall interferogram intensity distribution as well as to estimate the phase distribution from a pattern. We distinguish two processing paths depending on the relative density of fringe sets which is connected with geometry of a sample and optical setup. The proposed method is tested on simulated data.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Through Transmission Pulsed Eddy Current Testing and Effects of Pulse Width Variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Kil; Choi, Dong Myung

    2007-01-01

    By using numerical analysis methods, through transmission type pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing is modeled and PEC signal responses due to varying material conductivity, permeability, thickness, lift-off and pulse width are investigated. Results show that the peak amplitude of PEC signal gets reduced and the time to reach the peak amplitude is increased as the material conductivity, permeability, and specimen thickness increase. Also, they indicate that the pulse width needs to be shorter when evaluating the material conductivity and the plate thickness using the peak amplitude, and when the pulse width is long, the peak time is found to be more useful. Other results related to lift-off variation are reported as well

  10. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  11. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter

    When designing timber trusses it is often found that the cross section controlling the dimensions of the top chord is located at a joint with a moment peak. However, the timber volume affected by the moment peak is rather limited and by embedding a punched metal plate in this area a reinforcement...... of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...

  13. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Arabian Plate originated ˜ 25 Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10 km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000 m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed. The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540 Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ˜ 850 and 550 Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the

  14. Status of high-density fuel plate fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has continued on the fabrication of fuel plates with equivalent fuel zone loadings approaching 9 gU/cm 3 . Through hot isostatic pressing (HIP), successful diffusion bonds have been made with 1100 Al and 6061 Al alloys. Although additional study is necessary to optimize the procedure, these bonds demonstrated the most critical processing step for proof-of-concept hardware. Two types of prototype highly loaded fuel plates have been fabricated. The first is a fuel plate in which 0.030-in. (0.76-mm) uranium compound wires are bonded within an aluminum cladding; the second, a dispersion fuel plate with uniform cladding and fuel zone thickness. The successful fabrication of these fuel plates derives from the unique ability of the HIP process to produce diffusion bonds with minimal deformation. (orig.)

  15. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Chuan; Norhamidi Muhamad; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  16. Simulation of the transient eddy current measurement for the characterization of depth and conductivity of a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Weiying; Komura, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    A transient eddy current measurement method is presented to determine the thickness and conductivity of a conductive plate. The conductive plate is induced by an air-cored coil, the magnetic flux density along the axial is measured and the various signals corresponding to plates with different thickness and conductivity are calculated using a 3D transient eddy current simulator. Characteristic features are obtained from the transient response. A similarity-based modeling method is utilized in this study to estimate the thickness and conductivity of the conductive plate. (author)

  17. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Splitting in Dual-Phase 590 high strength steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Chao, Yuh J.; Li Xiaodong; Tan Jinzhu

    2008-01-01

    Charpy V-notch impact tests on 5.5 mm thick, hot-rolled Dual-Phase 590 (DP590) steel plate were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 90 deg. C to -120 deg. C. Similar tests on 2.0 mm thick DP590 HDGI steel plate were also conducted at room temperature. Splitting or secondary cracks was observed on the fractured surfaces. The mechanisms of the splitting were then investigated. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composition of the steel plates was determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro Vickers hardness of the steel plates was also surveyed. Results show that splitting occurred on the main fractured surfaces of hot-rolled steel specimens at various testing temperatures. At temperatures above the ductile-brittle-transition-temperature (DBTT), -95 deg. C, where the fracture is predominantly ductile, the length and amount of splitting decreased with increasing temperature. At temperatures lower than the DBTT, where the fracture is predominantly brittle, both the length and width of the splitting are insignificant. Splitting in HDGI steel plates only appeared in specimens of T-L direction. The analysis revealed that splitting in hot-rolled plate is caused by silicate and carbide inclusions while splitting in HDGI plate results from strip microstructure due to its high content of manganese and low content of silicon. The micro Vickers hardness of either the inclusions or the strip microstructures is higher than that of the respective base steel

  19. Analysis of single blow effectiveness in non-uniform parallel plate regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of plate spacings in parallel plate regenerators have been found to induce loss of performance. In this paper, it has been investigated how variations of three geometric parameters (the aspect ratio, the porosity, and the standard deviation of the plate spacing) affects...

  20. Synthetic Analysis of the Effective Elastic Thickness of the Lithosphere in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Effective elastic thickness (Te) represents the response of the lithosphere to a long-term (larger than 105 years) geological loading and reflects the deformation mechanism of plate and its thermodynamic state. Temperature and composition of the lithosphere, coupling between crust and lithospheric mantle, and lithospheric structures affect Te. Regional geology in China is quite complex, influenced by the subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in the east and the collision of the Eurasia plate with the India-Australia plate in the southwest. Te can help understand the evolution and strength of the lithospheres in different areas and tectonic units. Here we apply the multitaper coherence method to estimate Te in China using the topography (ETOPO1) and Bouguer gravity anomalies (WGM2012) , at different window sizes (600km*600km, 800km*800km, 1000km*1000km) and moving steps. The lateral variation of Te in China coincides well with the geology. The old stable cratons or basins always correspond to larger Te, whereas the oceanic lithosphere or active orogen blocks tend to get smaller Te. We further correlate Te to curie-point depths (Zb) and heat flow to understand how temperature influences the strength of the lithosphere. Despite of a complex correlation between Te and Zb, good positive correlations are found in the North China Block, Tarim Basin, and Lower Yangtze, showing strong influence of temperature on lithospheric strength. Conversely, the Tibetan Plateau, Upper and Middle Yangtze, and East China Sea Basin even show negative correlation, suggesting that lithospheric structures and compositions play more important roles than temperature in these blocks. We also find that earthquakes tend to occur preferably in a certain range of Te. Deeper earthquakes are more likely to occur where the lithosphere is stronger with larger Te. Crust with a larger Te may also have a deeper ductile-brittle boundary, along which deep large earthquakes tend to cluster.

  1. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  2. Electron beam cladding of titanium on stainless steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomie, Michio; Abe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Masanori; Noguchi, Shuichi.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental characteristics of electron beam cladding was investigated. Titanium foil of 0.2mm thickness was cladded on stainless steel plate of 3mm thickness by scanning electron beam. Surface roughness and cladded layer were analyzed by surface roughness tester, microscope, scanning electron microscope and electron probe micro analyzer. Electron beam conditions were discussed for these fundamental characteristics. It is found that the energy density of the electron beam is one of the most important factor for cladding. (author)

  3. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 (micro)m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  4. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  5. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A R; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M S Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding

  6. Charge distribution dependency on gap thickness of CMS endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung Keun

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness.Prototypes of double-gap with five different gap thickness from 1.8mm to 1.0mm in 0.2mm steps have been built with 2mm thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated (HPL) plates. The charges of cosmic-muon signals induced on the detector strips are measured as a function of time using two four-channel 400-MHz fresh ADCs. In addition, the arrival time of the muons and the strip cluster sizes are measured by digitizing the signal using a 32-channel voltage-mode front-end-electronics and a 400-MHz 64-channel multi-hit TDC. The gain and the input impedance of the front-end-electronics were 200mV/mV and 20 Ohm, respectively.

  7. TOSGAGETM-8000A series X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    X-ray thickness gauges are widely used for online measurement of the thickness of plates in a steel roiling line. As the thickness of the steel has a direct effect on the yield rate of the rolling line, thickness gauge measurement data are necessary for accuracy and reliability. In recent years, there have also been increasing requirements for rapid delivery, flexible interface specifications, and low cost. To meet these market requirements. Toshiba has developed the TOSGAGE TM -8000A series X-ray thickness gauge, which is the first release of a new series of measuring instruments for rolling applications with a new interface and employing an industrial computer for data processing. (author)

  8. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  9. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  10. Development of dual PZT transducers for reference-free crack detection in thin plate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hoon; Kim, Seuno Bum

    2010-01-01

    A new Lamb-wave-based nondestructive testing (NDT) technique, which does not rely on previously stored baseline data, is developed for crack monitoring in plate structures. Commonly, the presence of damage is identified by comparing "current data" measured from a potentially damaged stage of a structure with "baseline data" previously obtained at the intact condition of the structure. In practice, structural defects typically take place long after collection of the baseline data, and the baseline data can be also affected by external loading, temperature variations, and changing boundary conditions. To eliminate the dependence on the baseline data comparison, the authors previously developed a reference-free NDT technique using 2 pairs of collocated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers placed on both sides of a plate. This reference-free technique is further advanced in the present study by the necessity of attaching transducers only on a single surface of a structure for certain applications such as aircraft. To achieve this goal, a new design of PZT transducers called dual PZT transducers is proposed. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden thickness change of the structure. This crack appearance is instantly detected from the measured Lamb wave signals using the dual PZT transducers. This study also suggests a reference-free statistical approach that enables damage classification using only the currently measured data set. Numerical simulations and experiments were conducted using an aluminum plate with uniform thickness and fundamental Lamb waves modes to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to reference-free crack detection.

  11. Impact of polymer film thickness and cavity size on polymer flow during embossing : towards process design rules for nanoimprint lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; King, William P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Rowland, Harry D. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents continuum simulations of polymer flow during nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The simulations capture the underlying physics of polymer flow from the nanometer to millimeter length scale and examine geometry and thermophysical process quantities affecting cavity filling. Variations in embossing tool geometry and polymer film thickness during viscous flow distinguish different flow driving mechanisms. Three parameters can predict polymer deformation mode: cavity width to polymer thickness ratio, polymer supply ratio, and Capillary number. The ratio of cavity width to initial polymer film thickness determines vertically or laterally dominant deformation. The ratio of indenter width to residual film thickness measures polymer supply beneath the indenter which determines Stokes or squeeze flow. The local geometry ratios can predict a fill time based on laminar flow between plates, Stokes flow, or squeeze flow. Characteristic NIL capillary number based on geometry-dependent fill time distinguishes between capillary or viscous driven flows. The three parameters predict filling modes observed in published studies of NIL deformation over nanometer to millimeter length scales. The work seeks to establish process design rules for NIL and to provide tools for the rational design of NIL master templates, resist polymers, and process parameters.

  12. MTR fuel plate qualification in OSIRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacristan, P.; Boulcourt, P.; Naury, S.; Marchard, L.; Carcreff, H.; Noirot, J.

    2005-01-01

    Qualification of new MTR fuel needs the irradiation in research reactors under representative neutronic, heat flux and thermohydraulic conditions. The experiments are performed in France in the OSIRIS reactor by irradiating MTR full size fuel plates in the IRIS device located in the reactor core. The fuel plates are easily removed from the device during the shutdown of the reactor for performing thickness measurements along the plates by means of a swelling measurement device. Beside the calculation capabilities, the experimental platform includes: the ISIS neutron mock-up for the measurement of neutron flux distribution along the plates; the γ spectrometry for the purpose of measuring the activities of the radionuclides representative of the power and the burnup and to compare with the neutronic calculation. Owing to the experience feedback, a good agreement is observed between calculation and measurement; destructive post irradiation examinations in the LECA facility (Cadarache). New irradiations with the IRIS device and at higher heat flux are under preparation for qualification of MTR fuels. (author)

  13. BEPLATE emdash simulation of electrochemical plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, G.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); Gray, L.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bullock, J.S. IV (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    BEPLATE is a FORTRAN code that uses the boundary element method to simulate the electrochemical plating of material on parts, primarily rotating axisymmetric parts. A boundary element technique is used to solve for the local current density and thus the plating rate on the part, which is used to calculate the growth in the plated layer over a user-specified time step. The surface is moved to reflect this growth, and the new surface is used to generate the local current density. This cycle is repeated until the final time specified by the analyst, producing the final plated thickness. BEPLATE includes models for the polarization effects at both the part (cathode) and anode and allows the use of symmetry planes and nonconducting shields. For electroplating simulations, the part shape is normally assumed to be axisymmetric with a centerline along the z-axis. More general part shapes can be analyzed by BEPLATE if the surface growth simulation is not needed. In either case, the shield, anode, and tank geometries are not restricted to specific shapes. This report includes the information required to run BEPLATE, specifically, a brief description of the BEPLATE system including hardware and software requirements, a description of the complete simulation process, discussion of rules for generating models, and additional reference material. This system of codes consists of model generators (PIGS or PATRAN), input processor (BEPIN), the simulation code (BEPLATE) and postprocessing codes (PATRAN or CONPLOT).

  14. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  15. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  16. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  17. Reducing the Lift-Off Effect on Permeability Measurement for Magnetic Plates From Multifrequency Induction Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Mingyang; Zhu, Wenqian; Yin, Liyuan; Peyton, Anthony J.; Yin, Wuliang; Qu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Lift-off variation causes errors in eddy current measurement of nonmagnetic plates as well as magnetic plates. For nonmagnetic plates, previous work has been carried out to address the issue. In this paper, we follow a similar strategy, but try to reduce the lift-off effect on another index--zero-crossing frequency for magnetic plates. This modified index, termed as the compensated zero-crossing frequency, can be obtained from the measured multifrequency inductance spectral data using the alg...

  18. Interaction Between Downwelling Flow and the Laterally-Varying Thickness of the North American Lithosphere Inferred from Seismic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, M. D.; Conrad, C. P.; Silver, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Shear flow in the asthenosphere tends to align olivine crystals in the direction of shear, producing a seismically anisotropic asthenosphere that can be detected using a number of seismic techniques (e.g., shear-wave splitting (SWS) and surface waves). In the ocean basins, where the asthenosphere has a relatively uniform thickness and lithospheric anisotropy appears to be small, observed azimuthal anisotropy is well fit by asthenospheric shear flow in global flow models driven by a combination of plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity. In contrast, beneath the continents both the lithospheric ceiling and asthenospheric thickness may vary considerably across cratonic regions and ocean-continent boundaries. To examine the influence of a continental lithosphere with variable thickness on predictions of continental seismic anisotropy, we impose lateral variations in lithospheric viscosity in global models of mantle flow driven by plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity. For the North American continent, the Farallon slab descends beneath a deep cratonic root, producing downwelling flow in the upper mantle and convergent flow beneath the cratonic lithosphere. We evaluate both the orientation of the predicted azimuthal anisotropy and the depth dependence of radial anisotropy for this downwelling flow and find that the inclusion of a strong continental root provides an improved fit to observed SWS observations beneath the North American craton. Thus, we hypothesize that at least some continental anisotropy is associated with sub-lithospheric viscous shear, although fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric layer may also contribute significantly. Although we do not observe significant variations in the direction of predicted anisotropy with depth, we do find that the inclusion of deep continental roots pushes the depth of the anisotropy layer deeper into the upper mantle. We test several different models of laterally-varying lithosphere and asthenosphere

  19. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  20. Thickness measurement by using cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Chul; Yoon, Chan Hoon; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Jong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic thickness measurement is a non-destructive method to measure the local thickness of a solid element, based on the time taken for an ultrasound wave to return to the surface. When an element is very thin, it is difficult to measure thickness with the conventional ultrasonic thickness method. This is because the method measures the time delay by using the peak of a pulse, and the pulses overlap. To solve this problem, we propose a method for measuring thickness by using the power cepstrum and the minimum variance cepstrum. Because the cepstrums processing can divides the ultrasound into an impulse train and transfer function, where the period of the impulse train is the traversal time, the thickness can be measured exactly. To verify the proposed method, we performed experiments with steel and, acrylic plates of variable thickness. The conventional method is not able to estimate the thickness, because of the overlapping pulses. However, the cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing that divides a pulse into an impulse and a transfer function can measure the thickness exactly.

  1. An Investigation of Ionic Flows in a Sphere-Plate Electrode Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alisoy, H. Z.; Alagoz, B. B.; Alagoz, S.; Alisoy, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of ion flow characteristics and ion discharge pulses in a sphere-ground plate electrode system. As a result of variation in electric field intensity in the electrode gap, the ion flows towards electrodes generate non-uniform discharging pulses. Inspection of these pulses provides useful information on ionic stream kinetics, the effective thickness of ion cover around electrodes, and the timing of ion clouds discharge pulse sequences. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) based space-charge motion simulation is used for the numerical analysis of the spatio-temporal development of ionic flows following the first Townsend avalanche, and the simulation results demonstrate expansion of the positive ion flow and compression of the negative ion flow, which results in non-uniform discharge pulse characteristics

  2. An Investigation of Ionic Flows in a Sphere-Plate Electrode Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Alisoy, H.; Alagoz, S.; T. Alisoy, G.; B. Alagoz, B.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents analyses of ion flow characteristics and ion discharge pulses in a sphere-ground plate electrode system. As a result of variation in electric field intensity in the electrode gap, the ion flows towards electrodes generate non-uniform discharging pulses. Inspection of these pulses provides useful information on ionic stream kinetics, the effective thickness of ion cover around electrodes, and the timing of ion clouds discharge pulse sequences. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) based space-charge motion simulation is used for the numerical analysis of the spatio-temporal development of ionic flows following the first Townsend avalanche, and the simulation results demonstrate expansion of the positive ion flow and compression of the negative ion flow, which results in non-uniform discharge pulse characteristics.

  3. Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.

  4. 3D geometry of a plate boundary fault related to the 2016 Off-Mie earthquake in the Nankai subduction zone, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Minato, Shohei; Kamei, Rie; Tsuru, Tetsuro; Kimura, Gaku

    2017-11-01

    We used recent seismic data and advanced techniques to investigate 3D fault geometry over the transition from the partially coupled to the fully coupled plate interface inboard of the Nankai Trough off the Kii Peninsula, Japan. We found that a gently dipping plate boundary décollement with a thick underthrust layer extends beneath the entire Kumano forearc basin. The 1 April 2016 Off-Mie earthquake (Mw6.0) and its aftershocks occurred, where the plate boundary décollement steps down close to the oceanic crust surface. This location also lies beneath the trenchward edge of an older accretionary prism (∼14 Ma) developed along the coast of the Kii peninsula. The strike of the 2016 rupture plane was similar to that of a formerly active splay fault system in the accretionary prism. Thus, the fault planes of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks were influenced by the geometry of the plate interface as well as splay faulting. The 2016 earthquake occurred within the rupture area of large interplate earthquakes such as the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (Mw8.1), although the 2016 rupture area was much smaller than that of the 1944 event. Whereas the hypocenter of the 2016 earthquake was around the underplating sequence beneath the younger accretionary prism (∼6 Ma), the 1944 great earthquake hypocenter was close to oceanic crust surface beneath the older accretionary prism. The variation of fault geometry and lithology may influence the degree of coupling along the plate interface, and such coupling variation could hinder slip propagation toward the deeper plate interface in the 2016 event.

  5. Optimization of weld bead geometry of MS plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The considered specimen was checked to harmonize the optimum setting between input factors, for example, welding current, open circuit voltage, and thickness of plate, with respect to obtaining prosperous weld strength as well as bead geometry quality characteristics, for example, tensile strength, bead width, ...

  6. Optimum development temperature and duration for nuclear plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Chieko.

    1975-01-01

    Sakura 100 μm thick nuclear plates have been employed to determine optimum temperature and duration of the Amidol developer for low energy protons (Ep 0 C were tried for periods of 15--35 min. For Ep 0 C and for development time less than 30 min. (auth.)

  7. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    dynamic process changing with time. By combining 1D thermal time evolution models and 2D/3D steady state models we are able to conclude that planetary mass does influence the propensity of plate tectonics on planets. The pressure dependence changes the scaling laws for parameterized models and influences the scaling of stresses associated with breaking of plates and thus the initiation of plate tectonics. The results indicate that for planets with masses larger than Earth lithospheric plates are either becoming thicker or remain similar in thickness and yield stresses to break the plates increase - making it harder to assume that plate tectonics is more likely on Super-Earths. Moreover, convective stresses decrease more than yield stresses do for planets smaller than Earth, leading to the fact that planets with masses close to one Earth mass seem to have better chances to exhibit plate tectonics than larger or smaller planets with similar composition and structure. References [1] Noack, L. Stamenkovic, V., and Breuer, D. (2009) ESLAB 09, P1.04. [2] Valencia, D., O’Connell, R.J., and Sasselov, D.D. (2007) Astroph. J., 670, 45-48. [3] O’Neill, C. and Lenardic, A. (2007) GRL, 34, L19204

  8. Method of working thick beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giezynski, A; Bialasik, A; Krawiec, A; Wylenzek, A

    1981-12-30

    The patented method of working thick coal beds in layers consists of creating in the collapsed rocks or from the fill material a bearing rock plate by strengthening these rocks with a hardening composition made of wastes of raw material, resin and water injected into the rock through wells. The difference in the suggestion is that through boreholes drilled in the lower part of the rock roofing on a previously calculated network, a solution is regularly injected which consists of dust wastes obtained in electric filters during production of clinker from mineral raw material in a quantity of 60-70% by volume, wastes of open-hearth production in a quantity of 15-20% and natural sand in a quantity of 15-20%, and water in a quantity of 35-55% of the volume of mineral components. In the second variant, the injected compostion contains: wastes from production of clinker 55-57%, open-hearth wastes 20-23%, natural sand 12-14%, asbestos fine particles 7-8% and water 38-45% of the volume of mineral components. In addition, the difference is that in the boreholes drilled in the coal block directly under the roofing, a composition is injected which consists of natural sand and catalyst in the form of powder and individually supplied liquid synthetic resin in a quantity of 3-5% by weight in relation to the sand. The hardening time with normal temperature is 1-1.5 h, after which strength is reached of 80 kg-f/cm/sup 2/.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of alternative glass microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Mahony, Aileen, E-mail: aom@incomusa.com; Craven, Christopher A.; Minot, Michael J.; Popecki, Mark A.; Renaud, Joseph M.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Foley, Michael R.; Adams, Bernhard W. [Incom, Inc., 294 Southbridge Road, Charlton, Massachusetts 01507 (United States); Mane, Anil U.; Elam, Jeffrey W. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Ertley, Camden; Siegmund, Oswald H. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The technique of atomic layer deposition (ALD) has enabled the development of alternative glass microchannel plates (MCPs) with independently tunable resistive and emissive layers, resulting in excellent thickness uniformity across the large area (20 × 20 cm), high aspect ratio (60:1 L/d) glass substrates. Furthermore, the use of ALD to deposit functional layers allows the optimal substrate material to be selected, such as borosilicate glass, which has many benefits compared to the lead-oxide glass used in conventional MCPs, including increased stability and lifetime, low background noise, mechanical robustness, and larger area (at present up to 400 cm{sup 2}). Resistively stable, high gain MCPs are demonstrated due to the deposition of uniform ALD resistive and emissive layers on alternative glass microcapillary substrates. The MCP performance characteristics reported include increased stability and lifetime, low background noise (0.04 events cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}), and low gain variation (±5%)

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  16. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  17. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  18. Study for evaluation of filter thickness in the determination of k Vp in function of the attenuation relative factors of the radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.G.; Souza, R.T.F.; Carbi, E.D.O.; Pina, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    This work consisted of evaluating 3 pairs of filters (cupper). The aim of it was to verify the best combination between attenuating material thicknesses for determination voltage value applied to X ray tube as function of attenuation relative factors. The employed methodology consisted of measuring the relative expositions, using thicknesses copper plates: (0,3, 0,5 and 0,8) mm. The thicknesses had been combined between itself with the purpose to form pairs of filters look that used ones ink Vp measurers. The great kVp band was used for 3 X ray equipment with generators of single-phase. Three-phase tension of 12 pulses and generator of tension in high frequency. The results had pointed the best combination, the thicknesses of filters (0,5/0,3) mm, because it does not have presented duplicity of values throughout all the band of evaluated tension. The results had still shown that the relative attenuation factors had not suffered significant variations between the different equipment with different voltage wave form. The variations found are related with differences in the effective energy of X ray beam. (author)

  19. Relationship between macular ganglion cell complex thickness and macular outer retinal thickness: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yoshiyuki; Kita, Ritsuko; Takeyama, Asuka; Anraku, Ayako; Tomita, Goji; Goldberg, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thicknesses. Case-control study. Forty-two normal eyes and 91 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100) was used to measure the macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thickness. Ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio was also calculated. The relationships between the ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses and between the ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio and outer retinal thickness were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses in the normal group and the glaucoma group (r = 0.53, P variation in the outer retinal thickness. Therefore, when determining the ganglion cell complex, it seems necessary to consider the outer retinal thickness as well. We propose the ratio as a suitable parameter to account for individual variations in outer retinal thickness. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. Ultrasonic diagnosis of spot welding in thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No You; Hong, Min Sung

    2005-01-01

    Spot welding widely used in automotive and aerospace industries has made it possible to produce more precise and smaller electric part by robotization and systemization of welding process. The quality of welding depends upon the size of nugget between the overlapped steel plates. Recently, the thickness of the steel plates becomes much thinner and hence, it introduces the smaller size of nugget. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the criterion to evaluate the quality of weld in order to obtain the optimal welding conditions for the better performance. In this paper, a thin steel plates, 0.1 mm through 0.3 mm thickness, have been spot-welded at different welding conditions and the nugget sizes are examined by defocused scanning microscopy. The relationships between nugget sizes and weldability have been investigated experimentally. The result of ultrasonic technique shows the good agreement with that of the tensile test.

  1. Anatomical Thin Titanium Mesh Plate Structural Optimization for Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fracture under Fatigue Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a structural optimization of anatomical thin titanium mesh (ATTM plate and optimal designed ATTM plate fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM to verify its stabilization under fatigue testing. Finite element (FE analysis was used to simulate the structural bending resistance of a regular ATTM plate. The Taguchi method was employed to identify the significance of each design factor in controlling the deflection and determine an optimal combination of designed factors. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour was fabricated using AM and applied to a ZMC comminuted fracture to evaluate the resting maxillary micromotion/strain under fatigue testing. The Taguchi analysis found that the ATTM plate required a designed internal hole distance to be 0.9 mm, internal hole diameter to be 1 mm, plate thickness to be 0.8 mm, and plate height to be 10 mm. The designed plate thickness factor primarily dominated the bending resistance up to 78% importance. The averaged micromotion (displacement and strain of the maxillary bone showed that ZMC fracture fixation using the miniplate was significantly higher than those using the AM optimal designed ATTM plate. This study concluded that the optimal designed ATTM plate with enough strength to resist the bending effect can be obtained by combining FE and Taguchi analyses. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour fabricated using AM provides superior stabilization for ZMC comminuted fractured bone segments.

  2. EFFECTS OF GEOMETRIC RATIOS AND FIBRE ORIENTATION ON THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to examine the influence of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural frequencies of fibre-reinforced laminated composite plates using finite element method based on Yang’s theory and his collaborators. The transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects were taken into consideration in the developed Fortran computer program. It has been shown that the use of first-order displacement field provides the same accuracy as higher-order displacement field when the number of elements representing the plate structure is increased (refined mesh. However, poor precision may appear for plates with high thickness-to-side ratio h/a (thickness/side length. This discrepancy limits the application of the developed theory to thick plates (h/a<0.5. The various curves show the evolution of the dimensionless frequency (w* versus fibre orientation angle (q and illustrate the apparition of a “triple-point” phenomenon engendered by the increase of the plate aspect ratio a/b (length/width for a specific value of h/a. This point defines the maximum natural frequency and the associated fibre orientation. Also, results show that for high and/or low aspect ratios, the triple-point phenomenon does not occur. This latter is rapidly reached for thick plates than thin plates when the plate aspect ratio a/b is progressively increased.

  3. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  4. Storm-time slab thickness at low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, N.S.; Gurm, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    The ATS-6 data for a period of 1975-76 is used for the study of slab thickness during two moderate storms (Ksub(p) - ) around the crest of the anomaly, Ahmedabad and a very great (Ksub(p) + ) outside the equatorial anomaly region, Delhi. While at Ahmedabad, on the average, the slab thickness is found to be above the frequency. Comparison of slab thickness with foF2 and the equatorial magnetic record (for Ahmedabad only) shows that the foF2 changes alone cannot be held responsible for the slab thickness variation and thus entry of the plasma flux from the plasmasphere cannot be ruled out. The pressure variation effect of storm-time heating on the slab thickness at Ahmedabad is that even for Ksub(p)=8, the thermal expansion and the contraction effects are unable to explain complete quantitative and qualitative features of the observations

  5. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  6. Characterization and comparison of thermistor thick films. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehman, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    Four thermistor thick film inks were evaluated for HMC production use. The physical, chemical and electrical properties of the wet inks and fired films were measured. Variations in the physical and chemical properties of the inks were used to explain variations in thermistor electrical resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance

  7. Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.

  8. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  9. Angular dependence of the parallel plate ionization chambers of Ipen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Caldas, L.

    1989-08-01

    The ionization chambers with parallel plates designed and constructed at IPEN for the dosimetry of soft X-radiation fields were studied in relation to thein angular dependence between O and +- 90 0 . The objective of this study is to verify the chambers response variation for small positioning errors during the field dosimetry used in Radiotherapy. The results were compared with those of commercial parallel plate ionization chambers used as secondary and testiary standards. (author) [pt

  10. Evaluation of Bone Atrophy After Treatment of Forearm Fracture Using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis: A Comparative Study of Locking Plates and Conventional Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takane; Thoreson, Andrew Ryan; An, Kai-Nan; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki

    2017-08-01

    Forearm diaphysis fractures are usually managed by open reduction internal fixation. Recently, locking plates have been used for treatment. In the long-term period after surgery, some patients present with bone atrophy adjacent to the plate. However, a comparison of locking and conventional plates as a cause of atrophy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term bone atrophy associated with use of locking and conventional plates for forearm fracture treatment. In this study we included 15 patients with forearm fracture managed by either locking or conventional plates and with more than 5 years of follow-up. Computed tomographic imaging of both forearms was performed to assess bone thickness and local bone mineral density and to predict bone strength without plate reinforcement based on finite element analysis. Mean patient age at surgery was 48.0 years. Eight patients underwent reduction with fixed locking plates and were followed up for a mean of 79.5 months; the remaining 7 patients were treated with conventional plates and were followed up for a mean of 105.0 months. Compared with the conventional plate group, the locking plate group had the same fractured limb-contralateral limb ratio of cortex bone thickness, but had significantly lower ratios of mineral density adjacent to the plate and adjusted bone strength. This study demonstrated bone atrophy after locking plate fixation for forearm fractures. Treatment plans for forearm fracture should take into consideration the impact of bone atrophy long after plate fixation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  12. A Novel Higher-Order Shear and Normal Deformable Plate Theory for the Static, Free Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chao Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form solution of a special higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory is presented for the static situations, natural frequencies, and buckling responses of simple supported functionally graded materials plates (FGMs. Distinguished from the usual theories, the uniqueness is the differentia of the new plate theory. Each individual FGM plate has special characteristics, such as material properties and length-thickness ratio. These distinctive attributes determine a set of orthogonal polynomials, and then the polynomials can form an exclusive plate theory. Thus, the novel plate theory has two merits: one is the orthogonality, where the majority of the coefficients of the equations derived from Hamilton’s principle are zero; the other is the flexibility, where the order of the plate theory can be arbitrarily set. Numerical examples with different shapes of plates are presented and the achieved results are compared with the reference solutions available in the literature. Several aspects of the model involving relevant parameters, length-to-thickness, stiffness ratios, and so forth affected by static and dynamic situations are elaborate analyzed in detail. As a consequence, the applicability and the effectiveness of the present method for accurately computing deflection, stresses, natural frequencies, and buckling response of various FGM plates are demonstrated.

  13. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  14. Highly conductive, multi-layer composite precursor composition to fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z [Centerville, OH; Zhamu, Aruna [Centerville, OH; Guo, Jiusheng [Centerville, OH

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides a moldable, multiple-layer composite composition, which is a precursor to an electrically conductive composite flow field plate or bipolar plate. In one preferred embodiment, the composition comprises a plurality of conductive sheets and a plurality of mixture layers of a curable resin and conductive fillers, wherein (A) each conductive sheet is attached to at least one resin-filler mixture layer; (B) at least one of the conductive sheets comprises flexible graphite; and (C) at least one resin-filler mixture layer comprises a thermosetting resin and conductive fillers with the fillers being present in a sufficient quantity to render the resulting flow field plate or bipolar plate electrically conductive with a conductivity no less than 100 S/cm and thickness-direction areal conductivity no less than 200 S/cm.sup.2.

  15. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  17. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  18. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  19. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  20. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  1. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Perforated plates having very small holes with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a open-quotes wire drawingclose quotes process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er 3 Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er 3 Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations, one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed. 10 figures

  2. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D' Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Pojidaev, V.

    1993-07-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LHC, based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (17 mm each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Pojidaev, V.

    1993-01-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LHC, based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (17 mm each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Analytical study of dispersion relations for shear horizontal wave propagation in plates with periodic stubs

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-01

    structures' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes

  5. Cenozoic intraplate tectonics in Central Patagonia: Record of main Andean phases in a weak upper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, G. M.; Echaurren, A.; Folguera, A.; Likerman, J.; Encinas, A.; García, H. P. A.; Dal Molin, C.; Valencia, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Contraction in intraplate areas is still poorly understood relative to similar deformation at plate margins. In order to contribute to its comprehension, we study the Patagonian broken foreland (PBF) in South America whose evolution remains controversial. Time constraints of tectonic events and structural characterization of this belt are limited. Also, major causes of strain location in this orogen far from the plate margin are enigmatic. To unravel tectonic events, we studied the Cenozoic sedimentary record of the central sector of the Patagonian broken foreland (San Bernardo fold and thrust belt, 44°30‧S-46°S) and the Andes (Meseta de Chalia, 46°S) following an approach involving growth-strata detection, U-Pb geochronology and structural modeling. Additionally, we elaborate a high resolution analysis of the effective elastic thickness (Te) to examine the relation between intraplate contraction location and variations in lithospheric strength. The occurrence of Eocene growth-strata ( 44-40 Ma) suggests that contraction in the Andes and the Patagonian broken foreland was linked to the Incaic phase. Detection of synextensional deposits suggests that the broken foreland collapsed partially during Oligocene to early Miocene. During middle Miocene times, the Quechua contractional phase produced folding of Neogene volcanic rocks and olistostrome deposition at 17 Ma. Finally, the presented Te map shows that intraplate contraction related to Andean phases localized preferentially along weak lithospheric zones (Te < 15 km). Hence, the observed strain distribution in the PBF appears to be controlled by lateral variations in the lithospheric strength. Variations in this parameter could be related to thermo-mechanical weakening produced by intraplate rifting in Paleozoic-Mesozoic times.

  6. The effect of electrode vertex angle on automatic tungsten-inert-gas welds for stainless steel 304L plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarek, V.; Sharir, Y.; Stern, A.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of electrode vertex angle on penetration depth and weld bead width, in automatic tungsten-inert-gas (TIG) dcsp bead-on-plate welding with different currents, has been studied for stainless steel 304L plates 1.5 mm and 8 mm thick. It has been found that for thin plates, wider and deeper welds are obtained when using sharper electrodes while, for thick plates, narrower and deeper welds are produced when blunt electrodes (vertex angle 180 deg) are used. An explanation of the results, based on a literature survey, is included

  7. Stress analyses of flat plates with attached nozzles. Vol. 2: Experimental stress analyses of a flat plate with one nozzle attached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiste, R.L.; Peters, W.H.; Ranson, W.F.; Swinson, W.F.

    1975-07-01

    Vol. 1 of this report compares experimental results with theoretical stress distributions for a flat plate with one nozzle configuration and for a flat plate with two closely spaced nozzles attached. This volume contains the complete test results for a flat plate with one nozzle attached that was subjected to 1:1 and 1:2 biaxial planar loadings on the plate, to a thrust loading on the nozzle, and to a moment loading on the nozzle. The plate tested was 36 x 36 x 0.375 in., and the attached nozzle had an outer dia of 2.625 in. and a 0.250-in.-thick wall. The nozzle was located in the center of the plate and was considered to be free of weld distortions and irregularities in the junction area. (U.S.)

  8. Corrosion and erosion monitoring in plates and pipes using constant group velocity Lamb wave inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter B; Simonetti, Francesco; Instanes, Geir

    2014-09-01

    Recent improvements in tomographic reconstruction techniques generated a renewed interest in short-range ultrasonic guided wave inspection for real-time monitoring of internal corrosion and erosion in pipes and other plate-like structures. Emerging evidence suggests that in most cases the fundamental asymmetric A0 mode holds a distinct advantage over the earlier market leader fundamental symmetric S0 mode. Most existing A0 mode inspections operate at relatively low inspection frequencies where the mode is highly dispersive therefore very sensitive to variations in wall thickness. This paper examines the potential advantages of increasing the inspection frequency to the so-called constant group velocity (CGV) point where the group velocity remains essentially constant over a wide range of wall thickness variation, but the phase velocity is still dispersive enough to allow accurate wall thickness assessment from phase angle measurements. This paper shows that in the CGV region the crucial issue of temperature correction becomes especially simple, which is particularly beneficial when higher-order helical modes are also exploited for tomography. One disadvantage of working at such relatively high inspection frequency is that, as the slower A0 mode becomes faster and less dispersive, the competing faster S0 mode becomes slower and more dispersive. At higher inspection frequencies these modes cannot be separated any longer based on their vibration polarization only, which is mostly tangential for the S0 mode while mostly normal for the A0 at low frequencies, as the two modes become more similar as the frequency increases. Therefore, we propose a novel method for suppressing the unwanted S0 mode based on the Poisson effect of the material by optimizing the angle of inclination of the equivalent transduction force of the Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) used for generation and detection purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical currents of variable thickness bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapir, G.M.; Likharev, K.K.; Maslova, L.A.; Semenov, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    A variable thickness bridge (VTB) is a short strip of thin normal or superconducting electrodes - 'banks'. This type of weak link has the peculiarity of having the changes of the modulus of the orderparameter localized in the film of the bridge. Only changes of the phase of the orderparameter take place in the banks, and so the electrodynamics of the banks is linear. The problem of the distribution of the linear density of current Jsub(s)(psi) and of the phase difference of the banks psi along the VTB width is considered and the critical current Isub(c) for the important case of a VTB deposited over a superconducting ground plate - 'screen' is calculated. (Auth.)

  10. Predictions and measurements of residual stress in repair welds in plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.B. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited, Technology and Engineering, Porterfield Road, Renfrew, PA4 8DJ, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bbrown@mitsuibabcock.com; Dauda, T.A. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited, Technology and Engineering, Porterfield Road, Renfrew, PA4 8DJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Truman, C.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR, England (United Kingdom); Smith, D.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Memhard, D. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany); Pfeiffer, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the work, from the European Union FP-5 project ELIXIR, on a series of rectangular repair welds in P275 and S690 steels to validate the numerical modelling techniques used in the determination of the residual stresses generated during the repair process. The plates were 1,000 mm by 800 mm with thicknesses of 50 and 100 mm. The repair welds were 50%, 75% and 100% through the plate thickness. The repair welds were modelled using the finite element method to make predictions of the as-welded residual stress distributions. These predictions were compared with surface-strain measurements made on the parent plates during welding and found to be in good agreement. Through-thickness residual stress measurements were obtained from the test plates through, and local to, the weld repairs using the deep hole drilling technique. Comparisons between the measurements and the finite element predictions generally showed good agreement, thus providing confidence in the method.

  11. Predictions and measurements of residual stress in repair welds in plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.B.; Dauda, T.A.; Truman, C.E.; Smith, D.J.; Memhard, D.; Pfeiffer, W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the work, from the European Union FP-5 project ELIXIR, on a series of rectangular repair welds in P275 and S690 steels to validate the numerical modelling techniques used in the determination of the residual stresses generated during the repair process. The plates were 1,000 mm by 800 mm with thicknesses of 50 and 100 mm. The repair welds were 50%, 75% and 100% through the plate thickness. The repair welds were modelled using the finite element method to make predictions of the as-welded residual stress distributions. These predictions were compared with surface-strain measurements made on the parent plates during welding and found to be in good agreement. Through-thickness residual stress measurements were obtained from the test plates through, and local to, the weld repairs using the deep hole drilling technique. Comparisons between the measurements and the finite element predictions generally showed good agreement, thus providing confidence in the method

  12. Theories for Elastic Plates via Orthogonal Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1981-01-01

    A complementary energy functional is used to derive an infinite system of two-dimensional differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions for stresses and displacements in homogeneous anisotropic elastic plates. Stress boundary conditions are imposed on the faces a priori......, and this introduces a weight function in the variations of the transverse normal and shear stresses. As a result the coupling between the two-dimensional differential equations is described in terms of a single difference operator. Special attention is given to a truncated system of equations for bending...... of transversely isotropic plates. This theory has three boundary conditions, like Reissner's, but includes the effect of transverse normal strain, essentially through a reinterpretation of the transverse displacement function. Full agreement with general integrals to the homogeneous three-dimensional equations...

  13. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  15. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  16. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor plate performance and lifetime considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1990-03-01

    The ITER divertor plate performance during the technology phase of operation has been analyzed. High-Z materials, such as tungsten and tantalum, have been considered as plasma side materials, and refractory metal alloys, Ta-10W, TZM, Nb-1Zr, and V-15Cr-5Ti, plus copper alloys have been considered as the structural materials. The fatigue lifetime have been predicted for structural plates and for duplex plates with the plasma side material bonded to the structure. The results indicate that refractory alloys have a comparable or improved performance to copper alloys. Peak allowable heat fluxes for these analyses are in the range of 15--20 MW/m 2 for 2 mm thick structural plates and 7--11 MW/m 2 for 4 mm thick duplex plates. 4 refs., 55 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Alumina plate containing photosystem I reaction center complex oriented inside plate-penetrating silica nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamidaki, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Noji, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Tetsuji; Yamaguchi, Akira; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-08-22

    The photosynthetic photosystem I reaction center complex (PSI-RC), which has a molecular diameter of 21 nm with 100 pigments, was incorporated into silica nanopores with a 100-nm diameter that penetrates an alumina plate of 60-μm thickness to make up an inorganic-biological hybrid photocell. PSI-RCs, purified from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, were stable inside the nanopores and rapidly photoreduced a mediator dye methyl viologen. The reduced dye was more stable inside nanopores suggesting the decrease of dissolved oxygen. The analysis by a cryogenic electron spin paramagnetic resonance indicated the oriented arrangement of RCs inside the 100-nm nanopores, with their surface parallel to the silica wall and perpendicular to the plane of the alumina plate. PSI RC complex in the semicrystalline orientation inside silica nanopores can be a new type of light energy conversion unit to supply strong reducing power selectively to other molecules inside or outside nanopores.

  18. Variations the diameter tip of electrode on the resistance spot welding using electrode Cu on worksheet Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoro, A. S.; Sugeng, S.; Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Endramawan, Tito

    2018-04-01

    Resistance Spot Weld (RSW) is a welding technology which plays an important role that is often used in industry in large manufacturing industries, especially in the automotive sector, some of the parameters are affecting the welding process that give impact in the weld quality, diameter tip important impact on the resistance spot welding, This study can be categorized as experimental study by using Electrode material such as Cu and Fe Worksheet Materials, with a material thickness of 1 mm,0,8 mm, and 0,6 mm on each worksheet, and the large diameter of tip electrode (5√t) depend on the thickness of worksheet. Testing the material in the electrode and the worksheet by testing the composition and tensile test, and the hardness of the material used are to know the material used certainly. The result of the welding process was done by using the parameters voltage of 8KV, with a duty cycle of 50% using a variation of the time 8s-10s, and variations the electrode tip diameter that are affected by the thickness of the worksheet 5\\sqrt{t}, plate thickness used 1 mm, 0,8 mm and 0,6 mm, so that the electrodes was used to a thickness of 1 mm diameter tip electrode 5 mm, thickness 0,8 mm with an electrode tip diameter 4,5 mm and a thickness 0,6 mm with an electrode diameter of 4 mm, with current welding parameter 8kVA, and variations in holding time 10s, 9s and 8s 50% duty cycle, then testing welds with the standard shear test refers ASTM A370-2012 with more results to a thickness of 0,6 has the ability to withstand greater load on the holding time 8s and 9s, 10s, to a thickness 0,8 mm and 1 mm shear test results demonstrate the ability to withstand loads on the holding time of 10s and 9s have a greater ability than 8s on worksheet that has thickness 1 mm at a holding time of 10s, and then Maximum shear test averaging of 36,41 N at a worksheet with a thickness of 0,8 mm (diameter tip 4,5 mm) at a holding time of 8s and a mean minimum shear stress of 23,73 N at worksheet that

  19. Calculation analysis of the thickness of radiation shield for the RIA equipment IP10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benar Bukit; Kristiyanti; Hari Nurcahyadi

    2011-01-01

    Calculation Analysis has been performed on the thickness of radiation shield for the design of the Radioimmunoassay (RIA) IP10 counters using five detectors arranged in parallel. The calculation is intended to ensure that the radiation on each detector does not influence each other. The radiation shield is made of lead. The calculation of lead thickness was based on the principle of the lead plates absorptive power toward the gamma ray of a certain energy. which is the function of linear absorption coefficient and the material thickness. Assuming the use of Iodium-125(I-125) source with an activity 10 µCi, and expecting an absorptive power of 95%, calculations showed that the required lead thickness is equal to 0,013 cm. Since lead is soft and its availability in the market is limited, lead plate of 2 mm thickness are used instead, so that counting result for the detectors do not influence each other. (author)

  20. Advanced gamma spectrum processing technique applied to the analysis of scattering spectra for determining material thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Duc Tam; VNUHCM-University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City; Huynh Dinh Chuong; Tran Thien Thanh; Vo Hoang Nguyen; Hoang Thi Kieu Trang; Chau Van Tao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an advanced gamma spectrum processing technique is applied to analyze experimental scattering spectra for determining the thickness of C45 heat-resistant steel plates. The single scattering peak of scattering spectra is taken as an advantage to measure the intensity of single scattering photons. Based on these results, the thickness of steel plates is determined with a maximum deviation of real thickness and measured thickness of about 4 %. Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP5 code is also performed to cross check the results, which yields a maximum deviation of 2 %. These results strongly confirm the capability of this technique in analyzing gamma scattering spectra, which is a simple, effective and convenient method for determining material thickness. (author)