WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate tensile stength

  1. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and...

  2. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  3. High Velocity Tensile Test for Thin Plate Specimen with One Bar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Masaaki

    In order to design thin-walled impact-resistant structure, for example, an automotive body, dynamic behavior of thin plate is essential. So far, except for laminated composite materials, high velocity tensile test of thin plate specimen did not attract impact researchers' and engineers' attention very much. In this paper, the previous thin plate specimen assembly for the one bar method was improved. The one bar method has been utilized for cylindrical specimens of various solid materials and is known as an effective high velocity tensile testing technique. Unfortunately, the previous assembly introduced a tremendous initial peak on stress-strain curves, even for aluminum alloys. With a new specimen assembly, stress-strain curves for IF (Interstitial-atom Free) steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy obtained by the one bar method were almost equivalent to those obtained by the tensile version of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method.

  4. Characterization of surface damage of a solid plate under tensile loading using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This letter reports experimental observation of a direct correlation between the acoustic nonlinearity parameter (NP) measured with nonlinear Rayleigh waves and the accumulation of plasticity damage in an AZ31 magnesium alloy plate specimen.Rayleigh waves are generated and detected with wedge transducers,and the NPs are measured at different stress levels.The results show that there is a significant increase in the NPs with monotonic tensile loads surpassing the material's yielding stress.The research sugge...

  5. Effect of Plate Thickness on Tensile Property of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Joint Friction Stir Welded Below β-Transus Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Wang, Yue; Li, Zhengwei; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Liguo; Yue, Yumei

    2017-07-01

    Defect-free joint of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was successfully friction stir welded below β-transus temperature and then tensile tests were performed. Microstructure, macrostructure, tensile properties and fracture position are mainly discussed in order to investigate how surface indentation and plate thickness influence the tensile property. Weld zone (WZ) attained below β-transus temperature that owns better tensile strength limit than base metal (BM). During the tensile test, the elongation is decided by whether BM yields. Compared with friction stir welding joint using 2.5 mm thick plate, it is very difficult for joint using 2 mm thick plates to get bigger elongation due to surface indentation. Due to the higher tensile property of the WZ, the joint without surface indentation fractures at BM, reaching the 58.46 % elongation of BM.

  6. Analytical and Experimental Investigation for Tensile and Compressive Creep of the A3003P Aluminium Alloy Used for Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EL-SHENNAWY, Mohamed; MORITA, Yoshiyasu; KOUSO, Masashi

    1999-01-01

    Analytical and experimental analysis for tensile and compressive creep properties of fine and coarse-grained aluminium alloy, A3003P, used for plate-fin heat exchanger are presented for temperatures from 400°C to 600...

  7. Effect of Chloride on Tensile and Bending Capacities of Basalt FRP Mesh Reinforced Cementitious Thin Plates under Indoor and Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a durability experimental study for thin basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP mesh reinforced cementitious plates under indoor and marine environment. The marine environment was simulated by wetting/drying cycles (wetting in salt water and drying in hot air. After 12 months of exposure, the effects of the chloride on the tensile and bending behaviors of the thin plate were investigated. In addition to the penetration of salt water, the chloride in the thin plate could be also from the sea sand since it is a component of the plate. Experimental results showed that the effect of the indoor exposure on the tensile capacity of the plate is not pronounced, while the marine exposure reduced the tensile capacity significantly. The bending capacity of the thin plates was remarkably reduced by both indoor and marine environmental exposure, in which the effect of the marine environment is more severe. The tensile capacity of the meshes extracted from the thin plates was tested, as well as the meshes immersed in salt solution for 30, 60, and 90 days. The test results confirmed that the chloride is the reason of the BFRP mesh deterioration. Moreover, as a comparison, the steel mesh reinforced thin plate was also tested and it has a similar durability performance.

  8. Fluid stiction modeling for quickly separating plates considering the liquid tensile strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2015-01-01

    separation speed and low plate distance are present. In the case of small initial plate separation, fluid tension is known to develop and the stiction force may exceed the maximum stiction force calculated by assuming strictly positive pressures in the fluid film. In this paper, a model for simulating......Fluid stiction may significantly influence the dynamic behavior when attempting to quickly separate two plates in close contact. The liquid fluid film, filling the gap between the plates, experiences a pressure drop resulting from an increasing distance, and cavitation may appear if sufficient...... the need for finite element/volume methods. The considered geometry is two long parallel plates submerged in liquid, as present in many valve applications. The model is compared to experimental measurements, and it is found that the model is able to predict the stiction effect with reasonable accuracy...

  9. Model kekuatan geser dan kekuatan tarik perlekatan copper alloy dengan resin akrilik setelah tin plating (Tensile strength and shear strength models bonds in between copper alloy and acrylic resin after tin plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endanus Harijanto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Tooth crown restoration was made in a complex system consisting of several elements, namely tensile strength and shear strength bond between copper alloy and acrylic resin after tin plating. The aim of this exemination was to find a model representing connection between tensile strength and shear strength in between copper alloy with acrylic resin in statistic method. In conclusion, this exemination utilizing a strength model = 0.645 + 1.237 × tensile strength resulted shear strength exemination. On the other hand, the utilization of a strength = –0.506 + 0.808 × shear strength resulted tensile strength exemination.

  10. Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation Using Low Temperature Phase Transformation Filler Wire in Welded Armor Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Bunn, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Tzelepis, Demetrios A [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has been a persistent issue in welding of high-strength steels. Mitigating residual stresses is one of the most efficient ways to control HIC. The current study develops a proactive in-process weld residual stress mitigation technique, which manipulates the thermal expansion and contraction sequence in the weldments during welding process. When the steel weld is cooled after welding, martensitic transformation will occur at a temperature below 400 C. Volume expansion in the weld due to the martensitic transformation will reduce tensile stresses in the weld and heat affected zone and in some cases produce compressive residual stresses in the weld. Based on this concept, a customized filler wire which undergoes a martensitic phase transformation during cooling was developed. The new filler wire shows significant improvement in terms of reducing the tendency of HIC in high strength steels. Bulk residual stress mapping using neutron diffraction revealed reduced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the welds made by the new filler wire.

  11. Tensile bond strength of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement to microabraded and silica-coated or tin-plated high noble ceramic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, J M; Davis, R D; Overton, J D

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of alloy surface microabrasion, silica coating, or microabrasion plus tin plating on the tensile bond strengths between a resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cement and a high-noble alloy. Bond strength between the microabraded alloy specimens and conventional glass-ionomer cement or resin cement were included for comparison. One hundred twenty uniform size, disk-shaped specimens were cast in a noble metal alloy and divided into 6 groups (n = 10 pairs/group). The metal surfaces of the specimens in each group were treated and cemented as follows. Group 1: No surface treatment (as cast, control), cemented with a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Group 2: Microabrasion with 50-microm aluminum oxide particles, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Group 3: A laboratory microabrasion and silica coating system, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Group 4: Microabrasion and tin-plating, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Group 5: Microabrasion only, conventional glass-ionomer cement. Group 6: Microabrasion and tin-plating, conventional resin cement. The uniaxial tensile bond strength for each specimen pair was determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp, Canton, MA). Results were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05) and a Tukey post-hoc analysis. Mean bond strength: Group 1: 3.6 (+/- 1.5) MPa. Group 2: 4.2 (+/-0.5) MPa. Group 3: 6.7 (+/- 0.9) MPa. Group 4: 10.6 (+/- 1.8) MPa. Group 5: 1.1 (+/- 0.4) MPa. Group 6: 14.6 (+/- 2.3) MPa. Group 6 was significantly stronger than Group 4. The bond strength of specimens cemented with the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement using microabrasion and tin-plating (Group 4) was significantly stronger than all other groups except the resin cement with microabrasion and tin-plating (Group 6). Microabraded and tin-plated alloy specimens luted with the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement resulted in the greatest mean tensile strengths

  12. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  13. Experimental Study of Anchor Tensile Plate Cable Anchorage System in Concrete Girder of Actual Bridge%锚拉板式混凝土索梁锚固体系实桥试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雪飞; 周军勇; 胡可; 阮欣

    2016-01-01

    为研究索力作用下锚拉板式混凝土索梁锚固体系的受力性能,以五河淮河大桥为工程背景进行实桥试验和有限元分析。选取该桥0号节段混凝土锚拉板进行实桥试验,测试锚拉板在分级索力作用下的应力及变形,采用ANSYS软件建立有限元模型,计算2种连接方式下(考虑混凝土主梁与钢锚拉板的固结与滑移)的应力分布与锚拉板变形。结果表明,钢锚拉板与混凝土主梁在固结或滑移连接方式下,斜拉索锚固区域的应力分布基本相同,但连接区域的应力分布及锚拉板变位差别显著;测试的锚拉板应力和位移与荷载呈现良好线性相关性,最大测点应力296 M Pa ,结构仍处于弹性工作状态;锚拉板应力分布的实测值与有限元计算值吻合,板件应力扩散和传递效果良好;连接区域的实测应力和位移与滑移方式下的有限元分析较吻合,但摩擦系数不主导滑移结果。%To study the mechanical performance of the anchor tensile plate cable anchorage system in concrete girder under the action of the cable tension ,the test and finite element analysis of the steel anchor tensile plate stay cable anchorage system in the concrete main girder of the actu‐al bridge of Wuhe Huaihe River Bridge were carried out .The anchor tensile plate in the segment No .0 of the main girder of the bridge was selected and tested .The stress and displacement of the anchor tensile plate under the different levels of the stay cable tension were measured .The finite element model for the anchor tensile plate was set up ,using the software ANSYS and the stress distribution and the anchor tensile plate displacement under the 2 kinds of the connecting ways (the rigid fixity and sliding connecting of the anchor tensile plate with the concrete main girder ) were calculated .The results show that under the connecting ways of the rigid fixity or sliding connect‐ing of the anchor

  14. Metallographic studies of electron beam welded copper plates. EBSD studies of the cross-sections and determination of EBSD reference curves by EB-welded tensile test samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhula, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    This work is part of Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal canister sealing development. Posiva has welded series of plate welding experiments at Patria Aviation Facilities. At Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science (TUT DMS) metallographic and electron microscopy studies of electron beam welded copper samples have been carried out. In this report a part of the welding test program is analyzed. The results of the cross-sections of the test welds X436-X440 and X453-X458 are presented here together with the methods used. These two sets of welds were conducted to study the effects of welding speed, annealing temperature and the presence of cosmetic pass. The aim of this study was to estimate the residual stresses present in the EB-welds using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. For this task various EBSD reference curves with tensile test samples were constructed: the recrystallized, substructured and deformed fractions of grains, the occurrence of 1.5 deg C and 2.5 deg C misorientations, the average of mean intra-grain misorientation AMIS, and the hardness could be related to the applied strain. It was found that the hardness was higher if there was a cosmetic pass on the weld. The welding speed and the annealing temperature did not seem to have a noticeable effect on the measured properties. The estimated residual stresses were mainly very low, in the range 27-34 MPa. In the values estimated based on the hardness reference curve, the maximum residual stress was 58.7 MPa (in X455A). (orig.)

  15. Reasons Analysis on Laminated Fracture of DH36 Hull Plate During Tensile Test%DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 郭汉杰; 李宏亮; 吴建中; 刘锦强

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for the laminated fracture tinder tensile test of DH36 hull plate were researched by metallurgical observation and SEM observation. The results show that the main reasons are the aggregation of MnS as well as the martensite and bainite banded structure in the center of plate.%采用金相检验、扫描电镜检验等手段对DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层缺陷进行了分析.结果表明:DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层缺陷主要是由钢板厚度中心条状MnS夹杂和宽大的贝氏体、马氏体带状组织引起的.

  16. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  17. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  18. 防锈铝板/镀锌钢板异种金属冷金属过渡熔钎焊接头的组织与抗拉强度%Microstructure and Tensile Strength of Rust-Proof Aluminum Plate and Zinc-Coated Steel Plates Braze-Weld Joint Prepared by Cold Metal Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯曰海; 王克鸿; 高飞; 杜刚

    2013-01-01

    The cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing-welding process was used to weld dissimilar metals of LF21 rust-proof aluminum plate and DD51D+Z zinc-coated steel plate,and the microstructure and tensile strength of the joint were studied.The results show that the compound layer of middle interface zone of the braze-weld joint was intermetallic compound FeAla with thickness of 4-6 μm.The average transverse tensile strength of the joint was up to 77 MPa and strength coefficient was 0.6.%采用冷金属过渡(CMT)熔钎焊接工艺,对LF21防锈铝板和DD51D+Z镀锌钢板进行了异种金属的连接,对接头的显微组织和抗拉强度进行了研究.结果表明:防锈铝板和镀锌钢板的熔钎焊接头的中间界面区化合物为4~6 μm厚的FeAl3金属间化合物,接头的平均横向抗拉强度为77MPa,接头的强度系数为0.6.

  19. Study of Local Cold Working and Tensile Test for 7050 High Strength Aluminum Alloy Hole Plate%7050高强铝合金孔板的挤压强化与拉伸试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范娟; 李付国; 李江; 王少刚

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly aims at 7050 aluminum alloy to study the tensile mechanical performance of the plate with hole through testing and finite-element simulation. Then the cold working effects of different interferences (ranging from 0% to 11.11%) were compared and analyzed. Results show that compared with the standard specimens of 7050 aluminum alloy, for the plates with holes, their apparent strength, coefficient of elongation and modulus of elasticity are reduced, but the strains at plastic instability points are improved to a large extent. Cold working enhances the yield strength of the material around hole wall and improves the stress state of hole surface which make for peak stress weakened and enlarge the plane strain range along thickness direction of the hole. Meanwhile, the change of the tensile fracture with the cold working deformation degree present a regularity. Residual stress increases with interference increasing, and the position of peak stress transfers far from the wall of the hole along radial direction with interference increasing.%针对航空用7050高强铝合金的孔板件拉伸性能进行试验研究与模拟分析,并对不同过盈量(0%~11.11%)的孔挤压强化效果进行了对比分析.研究表明:孔板的表观强度、延伸率和弹性模量均降低,但塑性失稳点应变却有很大程度的提高;孔挤压强化提高了孔壁处材料的屈服强度,改善了孔表面的受力状态,使得应力峰值得到钝化,并扩大了孔壁沿厚度方向的平面应变范围,因此拉伸断口随孔挤压量的变化呈规律性的变化;孔挤压强化后残余拉、压应力峰值随挤压量的增加而增加,且其峰值出现的部位随挤压量的增加而向远离于孔壁的深处转移.

  20. 高强船板拉力分层原因分析及改进措施%Analysis on Causes Leading to Tensile Lamination in High Strength Steel Plates for Ship-building and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 张维维; 赵成林; 廖相巍; 王丽娟

    2015-01-01

    The lamination phenomenon occurred in high strength steel plates for ship-build-ing during tensile test is analyzed by such means as metallographic microscope, scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalyzer. The results show that a large amount of sulphide and oxide inclusions, non zap-lop voids after rolled and the banded structure caused by composition segregation of C and Mn are the main causes leading to the tension lamination. After taking such measures as feeding silicon and calcium wires into molten steel after vacuum treatment, optimizing continuous casting process, optimizing the heating process and thermo-mechanical control process, the qualification rate of steel plates for ship-building during flaw detecting after finishing rolling is obviously improved.%利用金相显微镜、扫描电镜和电子探针等手段对高强船板拉伸试验中出现的分层现象进行了分析,认为大量硫化物和氧化物夹杂、轧制后未轧合的孔洞以及C、Mn成分偏析造成的带状组织是导致拉力分层的直接原因。通过采取真空处理完毕后向钢液中喂入硅钙线、优化连铸工艺、优化加热及控轧控冷工艺等措施后,船板钢轧后探伤合格率明显提高。

  1. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  2. Tensile Properties of GRCop-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David L.; Loewenthal, William S.; Yun, Hee-Man

    2012-01-01

    This is a chapter in the final report on GRCop-84 for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Second Generation/Project Constellation Program. It contains information on the tensile properties of GRCop-84. GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) was produced by extrusion and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing). Some of the extrusions were rolled to plate and sheet while other extrusions were drawn into tubing. The material was further subjected to various heat treatments corresponding to annealing, anticipated typical brazing conditions, an end-of-life condition and various elevated temperature exposures to attempt to improve creep resistance. As anticipated, cold work increased strength while decreasing ductility. Annealing at 600 C (1112 F) and higher temperatures was effective. An exposure for 100 h at 500 C (932 F) resulted in an increase in strength rather than the anticipated decrease. High temperature simulated-braze cycles and thermal exposures lowered the strength of GRCop-84, but the deceases were small compared to precipitation strengthened copper alloys. It was observed that the excess Cr could form large precipitates that lower the reduction in area though it appears a minimum amount is required. Overall, GRCop-84 exhibits good stability of its tensile properties, which makes it an excellent candidate for rocket engine liners and many other high temperature applications.

  3. Residual Tensile Strength of Plain Concrete Under Tensile Fatigue Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The functional relation between the residual tensile strength of plain concrete and number of cycles was determined. 99 tappered prism specimens of plain concrete were tested under uniaxial tensile fatigue loading. Based on the probability distribution of the residual tensile strength, the empirical expressions of the residual tensile strength corresponding to the number of cycles were obtained. The residual tensile strength attenuating curves can be used to predict the residual fatigue life of the specimen under variable-amplitude fatigue loading. There is a good correlation between residual tensile strength and residual secant elastic modulus.The relationship between the residual secant elastic modulus and number of cycles was also established.

  4. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  5. Improved Tensile Test for Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecki, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    For almost-nondestructive tensile testing of ceramics, steel rod is bonded to sample of ceramic. Assembly is then pulled apart in conventional tensile-test machine. Test destroys only shallow surface layer which can be machined away making specimen ready for other uses. Method should be useful as manufacturing inspection procedure for low-strength brittle materials.

  6. Tensile strength on friction stir processed AMg5 (5083) aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumaevsky, A. V.; Eliseev, A. A.; Filippov, A. V.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Tarasov, S. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The results of the tensile tests carried out both on AMg5 (5083) aluminum alloy samples base and those obtained using friction stir processing technique are reported. The tensile test samples have been prepared from the friction stir processed plates so that their tensile axis was parallel to the processing direction. The maximum tensile strength of the processed samples was 9% higher than of the base metal. The fractographic examination shows the presence of flat areas inherent of the brittle fracture in all three friction processed samples. The load-extension curves show that friction stir processing may suppress the serrated yielding.

  7. Development of Tensile Softening Model for Plain Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    Large-scale direct tensile softenng tests using plate concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) with notch were performed under uniaxial stress. There were presented the basic physical properties and the complete load-CMOD(Crack Mouth Opening Displacement) curves for them And them the fracture energy was evaluated using the complete load-CMOD curves respectively, and there was presents optimal tensile softening model which is modified by a little revision of an existing one. Therefore, here provided the real verification data through the tests for developing other nonlinear concrete finite element models. (author). 32 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of Tensile Strength of Unresin Continuous Carbon Fiber Cables as Tensile Reinforcement for Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Toshiaki; Djamaluddin, rudy; Seo, SungTag; Sajima, Takao; Harada, Koji

    2002-01-01

    As a tensile reinforcement of a concrete structure member, tensile strength of Unresin Continuous Carbon Fiber (UCCF) cables should be stated clearly. It has been reported that, through direct tensile test, tensile capacity of UCCF cables ranged from 30%

  9. Uniaxial Tensile Test for Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    1370 UNIAXIAL TENSILE TEST FOR SOIL(U) ARMY’ ENGINEER 1/2 LD D A LEAVELL ET AL. APR 67 I4ES/TR/GL-67-14 UNCLSED F/ 9/10NL Eammhhmhhhml mommomhhhhmhl...mmohhhmmhmhhl mmohhmhhhomhl mhhhhhhhhhhhomu 3Wo HhII~ "’OM U1.2 1111 . 111.6 U- TECHNICAL REPORT GL-87-10 UNIAXIAL TENSILE TEST FOR SOIL by Daniel A...Classification) Uniaxial Tensile Test for Soil 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Leavell, Daniel A.; Peters, John F. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 1 3b TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF

  10. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  11. Tensile Test For Arboform Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavanescu (Mazurchevici), Simona; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Nedelcu, Dumitru

    2015-07-01

    Petroleum-based plastic materials constitute a major environmental problem due to their low biodegradability and accumulation in various environments. Therefore, searching for novel biodegradable plastics is received particular attention. Our studied material, "Liquid wood" produced from lignin, natural fibres and natural additives, is completely biodegradable in natural environment, in normal conditions. This paper presents the behaviour of Arboform and Arboform reinforced with Aramidic Fibers tensile test analysis. Experimental data show that the tensile strength reached an average value of 15.8 MPa, the modulus of elasticity after tests is 3513.3MPA for Arboform and for the reinforcement the tensile strength is 23.625MPa, the modulus of elasticity after tests is 3411.5MPA, the materials present a brittle behaviour. The high mechanical properties of newly developed material, better than of other ordinary plastics, recommend it as a potential environment-friendly substituent for synthetic plastics, which are present in all fields of activity.

  12. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber......-based plate shells and outlines needs, methods and effects of controlling cable stresses for secured capacity, form and function of plate tensegrity....

  13. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.

  14. BIAXIAL TENSILE TESTS OF COATED FABRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report discusses the design, operation, and purpose of a new biaxial tensile test instrument to measure the stress-strain behavior of fabrics...comparison is made between these data and previous work performed with other tensile test equipment.

  15. Elongation Transducer For Tensile Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Stokes, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Extensometer transducer measures elongation of tensile-test specimen with negligible distortion of test results. Used in stress-versus-strain tests of small specimens of composite materials. Clamping stress distributed more evenly. Specimen clamped gently between jaw and facing surface of housing. Friction force of load points on conical tips onto specimen depends on compression of spring, adjusted by turning cover on housing. Limp, light nylon-insulated electrical leads impose minimal extraneous loads on measuring elements.

  16. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Ultra High Toughness Cemontious Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hedong; XU Shilang; Christopher K Y Leung

    2009-01-01

    The tensile and flexural properties of polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)fiber reinforced ultra high toughness cementitious composite(UHTCC)were investigated.The composite,tested at the age of 14 d,28 d and 56 d,shows extremely remarkable pseudo strain hardening behavior,saturated mul-tiple cracking and ultra high ultimate strain capacity above 4%under uniaxial loading.Also,the cor-responding crack widths are controlled under 50 μm even at 56 days age.In the third point bending tests on thin plate specimens,the composite shows ultra high flexural ductility and multiple cracking on the tension surface.The high ultimate flexural strength/first tensile strength ratio of about 5 verifies the pseudo strain hardening behavior of UHTCC.SEM observation on fracture surfaces provides in-direct evidence of optimal design for the composite.

  17. Seismological Studies for Tensile Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Bin Ou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A shear slip fault, an equivalence of a double couple source, has often been assumed to be a kinematic source model in ground motion simulation. Estimation of seismic moment based on the shear slip model indicates the size of an earthquake. However, if the dislocation of the hanging wall relative to the footwall includes not only a shear slip tangent to the fault plane but also expansion and compression normal to the fault plane, the radiating seismic waves will feature differences from those out of the shear slip fault. Taking account of the effects resulting from expansion and compression to a fault plane, we can resolve the tension and pressure axes as well as the fault plane solution more exactly from ground motions than previously, and can evaluate how far a fault zone opens or contracts during a developing rupture. In addition to a tensile angle and Poisson¡¦s ratio for the medium, a tensile fault with five degrees of freedom has been extended from the shear slip fault with only three degrees of freedom, strike, dip, and slip.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  19. Tensile behavior of nanocrystalline copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, P.G.; Weertman, J.R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Eastman, J.A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1995-11-01

    High density nanocrystalline copper produced by inert gas condensation was tested in tension. Displacements were measured using foil strain gauges, which greatly improved the accuracy of the strain data. The Young`s modulus of nanocrystalline copper was found to be consistent with that of coarse-grained copper. Total elongations of {approx} 1% were observed in samples with grain sizes less than 50 nm, while a sample with a grain size of 110 nm exhibited more than 10% elongation, perhaps signifying a change to a dislocation-based deformation mechanism in the larger-grained material. In addition, tensile tests were performed as a function of strain rate, with a possible trend of decreased strength and increased elongation as the strain rate was decreased.

  20. Dynamic Tensile Test Results for Several Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    8217• AFWAL-TR-82-4026 SDYNAMIC TENSILE TEST RESULTS FOR SEVERAL METALS SUNIVERSITY OF DAYTON RESEA CH INSTITUTE ’ 300 COLLEGE PARK DR. DAYTON, OHIO... Tensile Test Results for March - September 1981 Several Metals 6. PERFORMING oDG. REPORT NUMBER UDR-TR-82-05 7. AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OfR GRANT NUMBER(&) S...tensile stresses above 10 s The split Hopkinson bar tensile test (see next section) can extend this range another decade. Resolution of rapidly

  1. Deformation and fracture of a plate under thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aptukov, V.N.; Pozdeev, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The wave processes associated with thermal shock give rise to cumulative tensile stresses whose magnitude and location are determined by the plate geometry, the heating region, and the spatial distribution of the heat sources. Here, the wave processes, damage accumulation, and the development of macrofracture zones during thermal shock are analyzed using a two-dimensional axisymmetric formulation. The evolution of macrocracks during thermal shock in a plate, a cylinder, and a partially heated plate is shown graphically. 14 references.

  2. An investigation of the dynamic separation of spot welds under plane tensile pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bohan; Fan, Chunlei; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Zhou, Fenghua

    2014-08-01

    We performed ultra-high-speed tests for purely opening spot welds using plane tensile pulses. A gun system generated a parallel impact of a projectile plate onto a welded plate. Induced by the interactions of the release waves, the welded plate opened purely under the plane tensile pulses. We used the laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate. We then used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the recovered welded plates. We found that the interfacial failure mode was mainly a brittle fracture and the cracks propagated through the spot nugget, while the partial interfacial failure mode was a mixed fracture comprised ductile fracture and brittle fracture. We used the measured velocity histories to evaluate the tension stresses in the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate by applying the characteristic theory. We also discussed the different constitutive behaviors of the metals under plane shock loading and under uniaxial split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. We then compared the numerically simulated velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate with the measured results. The numerical simulations made use of the fracture stress criteria, and then the computed fracture modes of the tests were compared with the recovered results.

  3. Understanding the tensile properties of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.

    2013-01-01

    The response of concrete under tensile loading is crucial for most applications because concrete is much weaker in tension than in compression. Understanding the response mechanisms of concrete under tensile conditions is therefore key to understanding and using concrete in structural applications.

  4. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  5. Dynamic-tensile-extrusion response of fluoropolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The current work applies the recently developed Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) technique to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE). Similar to the Taylor Impact Rod, Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion is a strongly integrated test, probing a wide range of strain rates and stress states. However, the stress state is primarily tensile enabling investigation of dynamic tensile failure modes. Here we investigate the influence of this propensity to neck or not between PCTFE and PTFE on their response under dynamic tensile extrusion loading. The results of the Dyn-Ten-Ext technique are compared with two classic techniques. Both polymers have been investigated using Tensile Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The quasistatic and dynamic responses of both fluoro-polymers have been extensively characterized. The two polymers exhibit significantly different failure behavior under tensile loading at moderate strain rates. Polytetrafluoroethylene resists formation of a neck and exhibits significant strain hardening. Independent of temperature or strain rate, PTFE sustains true strains to failure of approximately 1.5. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, on the other hand, consistently necks at true strains of approximately 0.05.

  6. Tensile and Impact Properties of Shielded Metal Arc Welded AISI 409M Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Shanmugam; A.K.Lakshminarayanan; V.Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel on tensile and impact properties of the ferritic stainless steel conforming to AISI 409M grade. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded joints. Tensile and impact properties, microhardness, microstructure and fracture surface morphology of the joints fabricated by austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel filler metals were evaluated and the results were reported. From this investigation, it is found that the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal showed higher tensile strength and hardness compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals. Joints fabricated by austenitic stainless steel filler metal exhibited higher ductility and impact toughness compared with the joints fabricated by ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel filler metals.

  7. Effect of Autogenous Arc Welding Processes on Tensile and Impact Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A K Lakshminarayanan; K Shanmugam; V Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The effect of autogeneous arc welding processes on tensile and impact properties of ferritic stainless steel conformed to AISI 409M grade is studied.Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded jointa.Tensile and impact properties,microhardness,microstructure,and fracture surface morphology of continuous current gas tungsten arc welding (CCGTAW),pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW),and plasma arc welding (PAW) joints are evaluated and the results are compared.It is found that the PAW joints of ferritic stainless steel show superior tensile and impact properties when compared with CCGTAW and PCGTAW joints,and this is mainly due to lower heat input,finer fusion zone grain diameter,and higher fusion zone hardness.

  8. Tensile and impact properties of General Atomics 832864 heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Gazda, J.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A 1300-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was procured by General Atomics (GA) for the DIII-D radiative divertor program. To determine the mechanical properties of this alloy, tensile and Charpy tests were conducted on specimens prepared from pieces of 4.8-mm-thick as-rolled plates, a major product form for the DIII-D application. The tensile tests were conducted at three temperatures, 26, 280 and 380 C, the last two being the anticipated peak temperatures during DIII-D boronization and postvent bake-out, respectively. Results from these tests show that the tensile and impact properties of the 832864 heat are comparable to those of the other smaller V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloy heats previously developed by the US Fusion Materials Program and that scale-up of vanadium alloy production can be successfully achieved as long as reasonable process control is implemented.

  9. some tensile properties of unsaturated polyester resin reinforced wi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    This study investigated the tensile response of polyester composites ... SOME TENSILE PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN REINFORCED WITH VARYING VOLUME ... the characterization of the particles and their.

  10. Prying Force Calculation and Design Method for T-shaped Tensile Connector with High Strength Bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxin Hou; Guohong Huang; Chao Gong

    2015-01-01

    In order to establish the design method for T⁃shaped tensile connector with high strength bolt, the theoretical analysis is carried out. Firstly, it analyzes the performance of the connector and establishes prying force calculation model. Based on the model, prying force equation and function between bolt prying force and flange thickness is derived, and the min and max thickness requirement of flange plate under a certain tension load is then obtained. Finally, two simplified design methods of the connector are proposed, which are bolt pulling capacity method and flange plate bending capacity method.

  11. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...... presents a detailed investigation of the ultimate capacity of simply supported plates subjected to biaxial loads. The full interaction domain of combinations of compressive and tensile loads has been investigated including a large number of imperfections. It was found that non-standard imperfection modes...

  12. Investigating the Influence of Electroplating Layer Thickness on the Tensile Strength for Fused Deposition Processed ABS Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Kannan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM is a kind of Rapid prototyping (RP technique, which allows direct transformation of CAD files into physical models. This paper attempts to identify and study the influence of electroplating layer thickness on the mechanical strength of Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS samples developed from the FDM process. The study is conducted on the tensile test samples of ABS, built on Stratasys FDM vantage SE machine, and tested under IS specified test conditions. The electroplated samples were also subjected to acetic acid tests and surface roughness measurements to check for proper adhesion of plating. The electroplating thickness adopted was 60, 70 and 80 μm. The electroplated tensile samples indicated an increase in the tensile strength with the corresponding increase in the plating thickness. 60 μm sample exhibited lower ductility and 70, 80 μm samples exhibited enhanced ductility.

  13. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  14. Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis of a locally stretched plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilardj, Madina; Ikhenzzen, Ghania [University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene (U.S.T.H.B), Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Merssager, Tanguy; Kanit, Toufik [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille Universite Lille 1, Cite ScientifiqueVilleneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    Uniformly stretched thin plates do not buckle unless they are in special boundary conditions. However, buckling commonly occurs around discontinuities, such as cracks, cuts, narrow slits, holes, and different openings, of such plates. This study aims to show that buckling can also occur in thin plates that contain no defect or singularity when the stretching is local. This specific stability problem is analyzed with the finite element method. A brief literature review on stretched plates is presented. Linear and nonlinear buckling stress analyses are conducted for a partially stretched rectangular plate, and various load cases are considered to investigate the influence of the partial loading expanse on the critical tensile buckling load. Results are summarized in iso-stress areas, tables and graphs. Local stretching on one end of the plate induces buckling in the thin plate even without geometrical imperfection.

  15. EUROFER 97. Tensile, charpy, creep and structural tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M.; Schirra, M.; Falkenstein, A.; Graf, P.; Heger, S.; Kempe, H.; Lindau, R.; Zimmermann, H.

    2003-10-01

    EUROFER 97 - the European reference material for the first wall of a DEMO fusion reactor - was produced as 3.5 t batch of rods and plates. Following the history of the development activities from conventional martensitic 12% Cr steel, MANET and OPTIFER up to the low or reduced activation (RAFM) EUROFER steel, results obtained from experiments on specimens from rods (diameter 100 mm) and plates (14 mm) are presented for a basic characterization. Physical and mechanical properties are compared with those of OPTIFER-1W and the F82H-mod 2% W steel. The transition behaviour was determined by plotting a continuous TTT (time temperature transition) diagram. In addition, extension coefficients were determined from room temperature up to 1000 C. Hardening tests at temperatures from 850 C to 1120 C illustrated the range of maximum hardness as well as grain size development. Tempering tests and additional annealing experiments from 300 C to 875 C allowed characterizing tempering behaviour and stability. Charpy properties were examined for various heat treatments and specimen types between 60 C and -100 C. Further, ductility criteria like FATT, DBTT and 68 J were determined. Particular attention was paid to the influence of grain size and O{sub 2} content. Tensile strength was measured for several heat treatments between room temperature and 700 C. Long-term ageing was investigated by means of stabilization annealing experiments. These were carried out with various temperature/time combinations including tensile tests. In EUROFER tensile strength was hardly affected by the different heat treatments while the ductility criteria showed only a moderate increase in temperature. Therefore, it can be concluded that EUROFER is not susceptible to ageing. Creep and creep rupture properties were investigated in the temperature range of 450 C to 650 C. So far, creep times of up to 15000 h have been covered by the experiments. The status of the test program allows for an extrapolation of

  16. Study on the Forming Limit Nomogram of Tensile Stamping Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachang KANG; Haobin TIAN; Shihong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Based on plasticity theory and physical experiments, the quantitative relationships between elongation δ obtained by uniaxial tensile test and forming limits of tensile stamping operations are given, which mainly resolves the problem that forming limits can be derived from simple tensile test. The forming limit nomogram of tensile stamping operations is also established to apply to engineering.

  17. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan); Gotoh, Yasuo, E-mail: ygotohy@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  19. Improvements of Nickel Deposit Characteristics by Pulse Plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per

    1993-01-01

    Investigation of the properties of electroplated nickel, using both pulse plating and conventional di-rect current (DC), has lead to several interesting improvements of deposit characteristics. Investigated properties include; internal stress, tensile strength, yield stress, elongation, hardness......, throwing power, current efficiency and corrosion resistance (porosity). Experiments have been made with Watts nickel baths, sulphamate baths and a modified Watts bath called W3....

  20. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of four boron nitride coated ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coguill, Scott L.; Adams, Donald F.; Zimmerman, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    Six types of uncoated ceramic fibers were static tensile and tensile creep tested at various elevated temperatures. Three types of boron nitride coated fibers were also tested. Room temperature static tensile tests were initially performed on all fibers, at gage lengths of 1, 2, and 4 inches, to determine the magnitude of end effects from the gripping system used. Tests at one elevated temperature, at gage lengths of 8 and 10 inches, were also conducted, to determine end effects at elevated temperatures. Fiber cross sectional shapes and areas were determined using scanning electron microscopy. Creep testing was typically performed for 4 hours, in an air atmosphere.

  1. Effect of discrete fibre reinforcement on soil tensile strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behaviour of soil plays a significantly important role in various engineering applications. Compacted soils used in geotechnical constructions such as dams and clayey liners in waste containment facilities can suffer from cracking due to tensile failure. In order to increase soil tensile strength, discrete fibre reinforcement technique was proposed. An innovative tensile apparatus was developed to determine the tensile strength characteristics of fibre reinforced soil. The effects of fibre content, dry density and water content on the tensile strength were studied. The results indicate that the developed test apparatus was applicable in determining tensile strength of soils. Fibre inclusion can significantly increase soil tensile strength and soil tensile failure ductility. The tensile strength basically increases with increasing fibre content. As the fibre content increases from 0% to 0.2%, the tensile strength increases by 65.7%. The tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil increases with increasing dry density and decreases with decreasing water content. For instance, the tensile strength at a dry density of 1.7 Mg/m3 is 2.8 times higher than that at 1.4 Mg/m3. It decreases by 30% as the water content increases from 14.5% to 20.5%. Furthermore, it is observed that the tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil is dominated by fibre pull-out resistance, depending on the interfacial mechanical interaction between fibre surface and soil matrix.

  2. Effect of discrete fibre reinforcement on soil tensile strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li; Chaosheng Tang; Deying Wang; Xiangjun Pei; Bin Shi

    2014-01-01

    The tensile behaviour of soil plays a significantly important role in various engineering applications. Compacted soils used in geotechnical constructions such as dams and clayey liners in waste containment facilities can suffer from cracking due to tensile failure. In order to increase soil tensile strength, discrete fibre reinforcement technique was proposed. An innovative tensile apparatus was developed to deter-mine the tensile strength characteristics of fibre reinforced soil. The effects of fibre content, dry density and water content on the tensile strength were studied. The results indicate that the developed test apparatus was applicable in determining tensile strength of soils. Fibre inclusion can significantly in-crease soil tensile strength and soil tensile failure ductility. The tensile strength basically increases with increasing fibre content. As the fibre content increases from 0%to 0.2%, the tensile strength increases by 65.7%. The tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil increases with increasing dry density and decreases with decreasing water content. For instance, the tensile strength at a dry density of 1.7 Mg/m3 is 2.8 times higher than that at 1.4 Mg/m3. It decreases by 30% as the water content increases from 14.5% to 20.5%. Furthermore, it is observed that the tensile strength of fibre reinforced soil is dominated by fibre pull-out resistance, depending on the interfacial mechanical interaction between fibre surface and soil matrix.

  3. A Microsample Tensile Test Application: Local Strength of Impact Welds Between Sheet Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, J. T.; He, M.; Vivek, A.; Taber, G. A.; Mills, M. J.; Daehn, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    Microsample tensile testing was conducted to evaluate the quality of impact welds created by vaporizing foil actuator welding. Tensile test samples with a gauge length of 0.6 mm were electro-discharge machined out of welds created between 1-mm-thick aluminum alloy type 6061 (AA6061) sheets and 6-mm-thick copper (Cu110) plates. Aluminum sheets were used as flyers, while copper plates acted as targets. Flyer sheets in T6 as well as T4 temper conditions were utilized to create welds. Some of the welds made with T4 temper flyers were heat treated to a T6 temper. It was found that the welds made with T4 temper flyers were slightly stronger (max. of 270 MPa) than those produced with T6 temper flyers. Generally, failure propagated in a brittle manner across the weld interface; however, elemental mapping reveals material transfer on either member of the welded system. This work proves the feasibility to apply microsample tensile testing to assess impact welding, even when conducted with flyer sheets of 1 mm or less, and provides insight that is complementary to other test methods.

  4. Friction pull plug welding: dual chamfered plate hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Edmond R. (Inventor); Cantrell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid state repair process for defects up to one inch in length, only requiring single sided tooling (OSL) for usage on flight hardware. Early attempts with FPPW followed the matching plug/plate geometry precedence of the successful Friction Push Plug Welding program, however no defect free welds were achieved due to substantial plug necking and plug rotational stalling. The dual chamfered hole has eliminated plug rotational stalling, both upon initial plug/plate contact and during welding. Also, the necking of the heated plug metal under a tensile heating/forging load has been eliminated through the usage of the dual chamfered plate hole.

  5. Relation between incremental lines and tensile strength of coronal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Toshiko; Saito, Makoto; Yamamoto, Masato; Nishimura, Fumio; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In one aspect, this study examined the tensile strength of coronal dentin, as a function of the location of incremental lines, in two types of teeth: human molar versus bovine incisor. In another aspect, tensile strength in coronal dentin was examined with tensile loading in two different orientations to the incremental lines: parallel versus perpendicular. There were four experimental groups in this study: HPa, human molar dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; HPe, human molar dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines; BPa, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; BPe, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines. Tensile strengths of the parallel group (HPa and BPa) were significantly higher (pincremental lines, was thus confirmed in coronal dentin. However, there were no differences in anisotropy effect between the two tooth types.

  6. Tensile Instability in a Thick Elastic Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Dykstra, David M. J.; de Rooij, Rijk; Weaver, James; Bertoldi, Katia

    2016-08-01

    A range of instabilities can occur in soft bodies that undergo large deformation. While most of them arise under compressive forces, it has previously been shown analytically that a tensile instability can occur in an elastic block subjected to equitriaxial tension. Guided by this result, we conducted centimeter-scale experiments on thick elastomeric samples under generalized plane strain conditions and observed for the first time this elastic tensile instability. We found that equibiaxial stretching leads to the formation of a wavy pattern, as regions of the sample alternatively flatten and extend in the out-of-plane direction. Our work uncovers a new type of instability that can be triggered in elastic bodies, enlarging the design space for smart structures that harness instabilities to enhance their functionality.

  7. In-situ tensile testing of propellant samples within SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedetto, G.L. di; Ramshorst, M.C.J. van; Duvalois, W.; Hooijmeijer, P.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2015-01-01

    A tensile module system placed within a FEI NovaNanoSEM 650 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized in this work to conduct in-situ tensile testing of propellant material samples. This tensile module system allows for real-time in-situ SEM analysis of the samples to determine the failure mec

  8. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  9. Microscopic Characteristics of Damage Evolution in Ultrapure Aluminum under Tensile Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Mei-Lan; ZHONG Sheng; FAN Duan; LUO Chao; HE Hong-Liang

    2011-01-01

    A series of plate-experiments are carried out to acquire ultrapure aluminum (purity, 99.999%) samples with damage. Based on the metallographic of all "soft-recovered" samples, the characteristics of damage evolution and spallation damage mechanism in ultrapure aluminum are analyzed in detail. Results show that the damage will increase regularly with increasing loading strength. Most of voids appear in the grain boundary and grow alone under tensile loading before they coalesce each other to form big irregular voids. These analysis results are helpful to understand the evolution process of ductile metal dynamic fracture and establish the damage evolution model.

  10. Woven Hybrid Composites - Tensile and Flexural Properties of Jute Mat Fibres with Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, P.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Dhanasekaran, C.

    2017-03-01

    The jute mat fibers are fabricated with several layers of fiber with opposite orientation in addition with coconut shell powder and resins. In current trends, metallic components are replaced by natural fibers because of the inherent properties such as light in weight, easy to fabricate, less cost and easy availability. This material has high strength and withstands the load. In this investigation the plates are made without stitching the fiber. The result of tensile strength and flexural strength are compared with nano material (coconut shell powder).

  11. Tensile trabeculae--myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlova, N

    2011-03-01

    Understanding of the functional role of the trabecular bone is very important for the analysis and computer-aided simulations of bone remodelling processes. The aspired wide clinical applications remain a remote future despite a great number of developed up-to-date approaches and theories and collected data on both material properties of the trabecular bone and its reaction to various stimuli. It is widely accepted that the mechanical loading plays the major role for the structure of the cancellous bone. The in vivo loading conditions of the cancellous bone are not known. Hence, for the computer-aided analysis and modelling of the trabecular bone specimens, simplified loading conditions are used. Also for the analysis of the cancellous bone as a part of a whole bone simplified loading conditions are assumed based on previous research without questioning its accuracy or relevance to the real in vivo conditions. In particular, the bending loading of the bone, which originates from the well-known observations made more than a century ago that have evolved in the trajectorial theory or "tensile trabeculae tradition", is often assumed to reflect the physiological loading conditions of bones. Some studies show that the bending or tensile-compressive orthogonal loading conditions for the cancellous bone may lead to plausible results. However, some other research works suggest that the presence of the tensile trabecular structures (particularly in the proximal femur) is doubtful and the bending loading conditions in bone should be treated with caution. Moreover, the loading conditions with compensated (or minimised) bending also produce results that correlate with the material distribution in the bone. The purpose of this review is to analyse some of the data and ideas available in the literature and to discuss the question of the major factors that define the shape and structure of the trabecular bone during the process of functional adaptation.

  12. Stability of germanene under tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-09-01

    The stability of germanene under biaxial tensile strain and the accompanying modifications of the electronic properties are studied by density functional theory. The phonon spectrum shows that up to 16% strain the germanene lattice is stable, where the Dirac cone shifts towards higher energy and hole-doped Dirac states are achieved. The latter is due to weakening of the Ge-Ge bonds and reduction of the s-p hybridization. Our calculated Grüneisen parameter shows a similar dependence on the strain as reported for silicene (which is different from that of graphene). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tensile Strength of Snow using Centrifugal Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agraj Upadhyay

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Tensile strength of snow was determined using indigenously developed automated centrifugalmachine. Processed snow (sintered at 20 °C for 4 days samples of dia: 65 mm andheight:130 mm were tested using this machine.The experiments were conducted on sieved snowat four temperature levels of 0 °C, 3 °C,6 °C and 9 °C at density ranging from 200-460 kg/m3.Results of these experiments have been compared with the earlier  suggested models. Probabilitydistribution of snow strength on the basis of current experimental data has also been presented.

  14. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  15. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  16. Strengthening of steel–concrete composite girders using carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Mosavi; A Sadeghi Nik

    2015-02-01

    Applying composites in order to strengthen and renew the infrastructures has globally been accepted. Traditional methods to strengthen the out-of-standard structures are costly, time consuming and requires a lot of labour. Today, new techniques are hired using light and strong substances which also resist against corrosion, known as Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) plates. Regarding the high tensile strength and proper module of elasticity, CFRP plates are considered as a suitable alternative to strengthen girders. The behaviour of steel–concrete composite girders being statically loaded and strengthened by CFRP plates in this study. The CFRP plates used in this study have been stuck, with epoxy adhesive, under the tensile sections of three steel girders. The results accompanied with analytical study of moment–curvature and numerical analysis done with ANSYS, show that CFRP plates with epoxy adhesive increases the ultimate loading capacity of steel–concrete composite girder. Plastic stiffness of the girders was also increased.

  17. Study of the theoretical tensile strength of Fe by a first-principles computational tensile test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yue-Lin; Zhang Ying; Hong Rong-Jie; Lu Guang-Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a first-principles total-energy method to investigate the theoretical tensile strengths of bcc and fcc Fe systemically. It indicates that the theoretical tensile strengths are shown to be 12.4, 32.7, 27.5 Gpa for bcc Fe, and 48.1, 34.6, 51.2 Gpa for fcc Fe in the [001], [110] and [111] directions, respectively. For bec Fe, the [001] direction is shown to be the weakest direction due to the occurrence of a phase transition from ferromagnetic bcc Fe to high spin ferromagnetic fcc Fe. For fcc Fe, the [110] direction is the weakest direction duc to the formation of an instable saddle-point 'bct structure' in the tensile process. Furthermore, it demonstrates that a magnetic instability will occur under a tensile strain of 14%, characterized by the transition of ferromagnetic bcc Fe to paramagnetic fcc Fe. The results provide a good reference to understand the intrinsic mechanical properties of Fe as a potential structural material in the nuclear fusion Tokamak.

  18. Optimization of tensile strain-hardening cementhious composites for tensile strain capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shionaga, R.; Pansuk, W.; Grunewald, S.; den Uijl, J.A.; Walraven, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The synergistic action of a cementitious matrix and fibres can result in strain hardening in tension. The accompanied tensile strain capacity can be an important design parameter for strain-hardening cementitious composites in order to prevent the localization in a single crack and to assure that th

  19. Estimation of Single-fibre Tensile Properties from the Bundle Tensile Curve of Polyester Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟东

    2004-01-01

    Fibre bundle tensile curves can be used to characterise fibre processing properties and end-use performance directly and to predict single-fibre properties in theory. In this paper, the tensile behaviour of polyester fibre-bundles has been analysed in characteristic values and diagramming. The characteristic distributions which include the symmetry distribution on right part, SRBS′ (e), on left part, SLBS′(e) and the curve on base-line modification, MBS′ (e),based on the modulus distribution, BS′ (e), as well as the frequency density function of broken fibres, B′ (e), have been derived from the tail of bundle tensile curves. The theoretical and measured results show that the most important curves are MBS′ ( e ) and B′ ( e ) and can be used to estimate the breaking-extension distribution of single fibres. Especially for MBS′(e), the modulus distribution can accurately characterize single-fibre tensile properties and is no limitation as the calculation of B′(e) because the bundle specific stress Y(e) of no fibre breaking at extension e should be found at first.

  20. Mechanical properties of hot rolled 2519 aluminum alloy plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭大暑; 陈险峰; 林启权; 张辉

    2003-01-01

    The effects of differences of temper on mechanical properties of T6, T7 and T8 plates of aluminum alloy 2519 were studied. The stress corrosion cracking(SCC) sensitivity was evaluated with parameters such as Kσ and Kδ.Tensile tests were divided into two groups: one was performed on tensile specimens without pre-corrosion, the other was performed on tensile specimens which were pre-corroded in 3.5%NaCl+1%H2O2 solution at 25 ℃.The results show that SCC resistance of alloy 2519 ranks in the order of T8>T7>T6 and the mechanical properties rank in the order of T6>T8>T7. SEM fractographs of the failed specimen show that the SCC sensitivity can be determined by the distribution of the second phase particles and size and the shape of grains in the alloy.

  1. Investigation of Hot Rolling Influence on the Explosive-Welded Clad Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui ZHAO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, the shear strength and tensile strength of stainless steel explosive-welded clad plate at different rolling reduction were studied. The mechanical properties of the explosive-welded and explosive-rolled clad plates were experimentally measured. Simultaneously, the microstructures of the clad plate were investigated by the Ultra deep microscope and the tensile fracture surface were observed by the scan electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the tensile strength has been increased considerably, whereas the elongation percentage has been reduced with the increase of hot rolling reduction. In the tensile shear test, the bond strength is higher than the strength of the ferritic stainless steel layer and meets the relevant known standard criterion. Microstructural evaluations showed that the grain of the stainless steel and steel refined with the increase of thickness reduction. Examination of the tensile fracture surfaces reveal that, after hot rolling, the fracture in the low alloy steel and ferritic stainless steel clad plates is of the ductile type.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12409

  2. Microstructure evolution and tensile properties of friction-stir-welded AM50 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) technique was utilized to weld cast AM50 magnesium alloy plates. The mierostructures in the base metal (BM) and the weld joint were observed by optical microscopy. The mechanical properties were investigated by using hardness measurement and tensile test, and the fractographs were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the microstructure of the base material was characterized by bulk primary α phase, α-matrix and intermetallic compound β (orMg17Al12), and the weld nugget exhibiting recrystallized microstructure consists of α-matrix and β phase. The grain size in the weld is smaller than that in the base metal. The hardness of the weld joint is improved but the tensile strength and yield strength, as well as the elongation to failure of the base material decline. The fracture of BM has a rougher surface with more dimples, which is a characteristic of the ductile fracture, whereas the fracture on the nugget reveals a quasi-cleavage feature. The ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the FSWed AM50 are 86.2% and 94.0% of those of the base metal, respectively.

  3. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s-1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  4. Tensile properties of bacterial cellulose nanofibers - polyester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abral, H.; Mahardika, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper shows tensile properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers and polyester (PO) matrix composites. Tensile properties including tensile strength (TS), modulus elasticity (ME), and elongation (EL) were observed respectively. BC nanofibers exist in the form of a sheet that was then varied in matrix PO. The BC sheet was mounted by one, three, five and seven pieces respectively in the matrix PO. The tensile strength of the composites was conducted by using the tensile equipment. The results showed that the tensile strength of the composite with a single sheet of BC was lower than that of pure PO. The ST value achieved maximum level in the number of layers of BC three pieces, but then it decreased for the composites reinforced five and seven pieces of BC nanofiber, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation exhibits bad interface bonding between BC nanofibers and PO matrix.

  5. Effect of Sett and Construction on Uniaxial Tensile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Kumar Banerjee, Ph.D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behavior of woven fabrics is known to be affected by its sett and construction. This influence, when clearly understood, would make engineering of fabrics for tensile properties easier. Hence, this work is aimed at understanding the interdependence between the sett, construction and tensile behavior of woven fabrics. Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of number of load bearing and interlacing yarns, the spacing between them and their interlacement pattern on the tensile behavior of the fabric, typically characterized by the percent yarn strength utilization in the fabric. The results reveal that the factors mentioned above along with the crimp of the constituent yarns and their interchange during the tensile deformation process, influence the tensile properties of the fabric. It is also observed that there is a significant influence of the distribution of interlacement.

  6. Evaluating Freeze-Thaw Deterioration with Tensile Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, A. J. K.; Boyd, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Freeze-thaw damage is one of the leading contributors to infrastructure deterioration in temperate northern climates. Deterioration caused by freeze-thaw cycling is primarily induced by hydraulic pressures within the hydrated cement paste matrix that cause tensile cracking. Such damage should, therefore, be more effectively detected with tensile testing. This work presents the detection and evaluation of ongoing freeze-thaw (F/T) damage in plain concrete cylinders using the pressure tensile strength test, as it compares to compressive strength evaluation. Pressure tension test results exhibited significantly higher levels of deterioration compared to compression testing, with the samples losing up to 90% of their undamaged tensile capacity. Moreover, it was shown that tensile strength testing is far more sensitive to freeze-thaw deterioration, evidenced by a significant drop in the tensile to compressive strength ratio to below 5%.

  7. Responses of intramembranous bone and sutures upon in vivo cyclic tensile and compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptan, Alexandra I; Lopez, Aurora; Kopher, Ross A; Mao, Jeremy J

    2008-02-01

    Cranial vault and facial sutures interpose between mineralized bones of the skull, and may function analogously to appendicular and cranial base growth plates. However, unlike growth plates that are composed of chondrocyte lineage, cranial and facial sutures possess heterogeneous cell lineages such as mesenchymal cells, fibroblasts, and osteoblasts, in addition to vascular-derived cells. Despite recently intensified effort, the biological responses of intramembranous bone and sutures to mechanical loading are not well understood. This study was designed to investigate whether brief doses of tensile or compressive forces induce modeling and growth responses of intramembranous bone and sutures. In different groups of growing rabbits in vivo, cyclic tensile or compressive forces at 1 N and 8 Hz were applied to the maxilla for 20 min/day over 12 consecutive days. Computerized histomorphometric analyses revealed that the average sutural widths of both the premaxillomaxillary suture (PMS) and nasofrontal suture (NFS) loaded in either tension or compression were significantly higher than age- and sex-matched sham controls (P<0.01). The average cell densities of tension- or compression-loaded PMS and NFS were significantly higher than sham controls (P<0.01). The average osteoblast occupied sutural bone surface loaded under tension was significantly higher than that of sham control (P<0.05). Interestingly, tensile loading significantly reduced the average osteoclast surface, in comparison to sham control (P<0.05). For the NFS, tensile loading significantly increased the average osteoblast occupied sutural bone surface, in comparison with that of sham control (P<0.05). Also for the NFS suture, compression significantly reduced the average sutural osteoclast surface in comparison with sham control (P<0.05). Taken together, the present data suggest that high-frequency cyclic forces in either tension or compression induce modeling and growth changes in cranial sutures. Due to

  8. Effect of Sett and Construction on Uniaxial Tensile

    OpenAIRE

    Prabir Kumar Banerjee, Ph.D.; Swapna Mishra; Thiyagarajan Ramkumar

    2010-01-01

    The tensile behavior of woven fabrics is known to be affected by its sett and construction. This influence, when clearly understood, would make engineering of fabrics for tensile properties easier. Hence, this work is aimed at understanding the interdependence between the sett, construction and tensile behavior of woven fabrics. Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of number of load bearing and interlacing yarns, the spacing between them and their interlacement pattern on the t...

  9. High-speed tensile test instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, P H; Twigg, J N; Roland, D F; Schrader, H S; Pathak, J A; Roland, C M

    2007-04-01

    A novel high-speed tensile test instrument is described, capable of measuring the mechanical response of elastomers at strain rates ranging from 10 to 1600 s(-1) for strains through failure. The device employs a drop weight that engages levers to stretch a sample on a horizontal track. To improve dynamic equilibrium, a common problem in high speed testing, equal and opposite loading was applied to each end of the sample. Demonstrative results are reported for two elastomers at strain rates to 588 s(-1) with maximum strains of 4.3. At the higher strain rates, there is a substantial inertial contribution to the measured force, an effect unaccounted for in prior works using the drop weight technique. The strain rates were essentially constant over most of the strain range and fill a three-decade gap in the data from existing methods.

  10. On the tensile strength of insect swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2016-08-01

    Collective animal groups are often described by the macroscopic patterns they form. Such global patterns, however, convey limited information about the nature of the aggregation as a whole. Here, we take a different approach, drawing on ideas from materials testing to probe the macroscopic mechanical properties of mating swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius. By manipulating ground-based visual features that tend to position the swarms in space, we apply an effective tensile load to the swarms, and show that we can quasi-statically pull single swarms apart into multiple daughter swarms. Our results suggest that swarms surprisingly have macroscopic mechanical properties similar to solids, including a finite Young’s modulus and yield strength, and that they do not flow like viscous fluids.

  11. Tensile Behaviour of Spun Yarns under Static State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Das

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The tensile properties of spun yarn are accepted as one of the most important parameters for assessment of yarn quality. The tensile properties decide the performance of post spinning operations; warping, weaving and knitting and the properties of the final textile structure; hence its accurate technical evaluation carries much importance in industrial applications. There is no doubt that all the studies related to tensile behaviour of spun yarns are invaluable both in theory and practice. In this article, a critical review of the theoretical and practical aspect of static tensile behaviour of staple yarns has been discussed.

  12. Notched Tensile and Impact Fracture of Ti-15-3 Laser Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Leu-Wen; Wu, Yan-Jie; Chen, Chun

    2011-12-01

    The notched tensile strength (NTS) and impact toughness of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al ( β-type titanium alloy Ti-15-3) laser welds aged at temperatures ranging from 590 K to 866 K (317 °C to 593 °C) were determined, and the results were compared to those of unwelded Ti-15-3 plates aged at the same temperature. At a given aging temperature, α precipitates in welded specimens were finer and exhibited higher hardness than those in unwelded specimens. Among the tested specimens, the weld aged at 644 K (371 °C) was most susceptible to notch sensitivity. In those welds aged at or above 755 K (482 °C), the coarse columnar structure was prone to interdendritic fracture during notched tensile tests, which reduced the NTS of the weld relative to that of the unwelded plate aged at an equivalent temperature. Of the tested specimens, the weld that was not subjected to the postweld aging treatment possessed the highest impact toughness among the specimens.

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  16. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  17. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  2. Flexural Vibration Characteristics of Initially Stressed Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Daripa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of localised in-plane load on the flexural vibration characteristics of isotropic and composite plates have been studied using a four-noded shear flexible high precision plate bending finite element. First, the critical buckling loads of such plates subjected to partial or concentrated compressive loads were calculated, then the linear and nonlinear flexural vibration frequencies were obtained. Limited parametric study was carried out to study the influences of location and distribution of tensile or compressive in-plane load on the vibration frequencies of such plates.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.106-111, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.117

  3. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sábio, Sérgio; Franciscone, Paulo Afonso; Mondelli, José

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil)] when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin) affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength and polymerization

  4. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Sábio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic, a polyether (Impregum, a condensation silicone (Xantopren and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil ,3; when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength

  5. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  7. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  8. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard S.; Adams, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperature was performed. J.P. Stevens, Co., Astroquartz 9288 glass fiber; Nippon Carbon, Ltd., (Dow Corning) nicalon NLM-102 silicon carbide fiber; and 3M Company Nextel 312, 380, and 480 alumina/silica/boria fibers were supplied in unsized tows. Single fibers were separated from the tows and tested in static tension and tensile creep. Elevated test temperatures ranged from 400 C to 1300 C and varied for each fiber. Room temperature static tension was also performed. Computer software was written to reduce all single fiber test data into engineering constants using ASTM Standard Test Method D3379-75 as a reference. A high temperature furnace was designed and built to perform the single fiber elevated temperature testing up to 1300 C. A computerized single fiber creep apparatus was designed and constructed to perform four fiber creep tests simultaneously at temperatures up to 1300 C. Computer software was written to acquire and reduce all creep data.

  9. Evolution of microstructure and tensile properties of Fe–18Ni–12Cr based AFA steel during aging at 700 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Man [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 10083 (China); Nuclear Materials Development Division, Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Hongying [School of Mechanical Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455002 (China); Phaniraj, Madakashira P.; Han, Heung Nam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jinsung [Nuclear Materials Development Division, Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Zhangjian, E-mail: zhouzhj@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 10083 (China)

    2016-08-30

    The effects of aging at 700 °C on the microstructure and tensile properties of an alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel were investigated. With increasing aging time, B2-NiAl and Laves phase precipitated first on grain boundaries (GB) and then in the grain interior. The GB precipitate coverage reached 74% after aging for 1000 h. The GB precipitates not only suppressed grain coarsening during aging, but also influenced the tensile fracture mode at 700 °C by partitioning stress concentration on triple junctions. Moreover plate-like and spherical NbC particles precipitated during aging. Spherical NbC with size of around 5 nm were stable, while plate-like NbC grew to 89 nm after aging for 1000 h. These precipitates played an important role on the tensile strength. Age hardening contributed to the increasing tensile strength at RT with aging time, while the softening mechanism of dynamic recovery dominated the tensile tests at 700 °C.

  10. Tensile Strength of Water Exposed to Pressure Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Mørch, Knud Aage

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that pressurization for an extended period of time increases the tensile strength of water, but little information is available on the effect of pressure pulses of short duration. This is addressed in the present paper where we first measure the tensile strength of water...

  11. New Scanning Electron Microscope Used for Cryogenic Tensile Testing

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    At CERN engineering department's installation for cryogenic tensile testing, the new scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows for detailed optical observations to be carried out. Using the SEM, surface coatings and tensile properties of materials can investigated in order to better understand how they behave under different conditions.

  12. Relating tensile properties with flexural properties in SHCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, S.; Li, V.C.; Zhou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCCs) have seen increasing field applications in past decade, yet existing quality control test methods for tensile properties are sometime difficult to implement. This paper presents a new simple inverse method for quality control of tensile strain

  13. Relating tensile properties with flexural properties in SHCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, S.; Li, V.C.; Zhou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCCs) have seen increasing field applications in past decade, yet existing quality control test methods for tensile properties are sometime difficult to implement. This paper presents a new simple inverse method for quality control of tensile strain capacit

  14. Dynamic test devices for analyzing the tensile properties of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forquin, P.; Riedel, W.; Weerheijm, J.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their low tensile failure strain, concrete is a difficult material to test under dynamic tensile loading. Indeed, conventional testing apparatuses such as high-speed hydraulic presses or Split Hopkinson Bar facilities rely on a mechanical balance of the specimen implying a short round-trip

  15. Relationship between tensile strength and porosity for high porosity metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培生; 付超; 李铁藩; 师昌绪

    1999-01-01

    An analysis model has been established according to the structure feature of high porosity metals, and the mathematical relationship between the tensile strength and porosity for this material has been derived from the model. Moreover, the corresponding theoretical formula has been proved good to reflect the variation law of tensile strength with porosity for high porosity metals by the example experiment on nickel foam.

  16. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  17. Tensile behaviour of polyethylene and poly(p-xylylene) fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Harm

    1991-01-01

    This thesis deals with the tensile behaviour of fibres prepared from high molecular weight polymers.The tensile strength of a polymeric fibre is in general much lower than the corresponding theoretical value. In case of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), fibres can be prepared by gel

  18. Laser-induced generation of pure tensile stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemz, M.H.; Lin, C.P.; Pitsillides, C.; Cui, J.; Doukas, A.G.; Deutsch, T.F. [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Harvard University, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    While short compressive stresses can readily be produced by laser ablation, the generation of pure tensile stresses is more difficult. We demonstrate that a 90{degree} prism made of polyethylene can serve to produce short and pure tensile stresses. A compressive wave is generated by ablating a thin layer of strongly absorbing ink on one surface of the prism with a Q-switched frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The compressive wave driven into the prism is reflected as a tensile wave by the polyethylene-air interface at its long surface. The low acoustic impedance of polyethylene makes it ideal for coupling tensile stresses into liquids. In water, tensile stresses up to {minus}200bars with a rise time of the order of 20 ns and a duration of 100 ns are achieved. The tensile strength of water is determined for pure tensile stresses lasting for 100 ns only. The technique has potential application in studying the initiation of cavitation in liquids and in comparing the effect of compressive and tensile stress transients on biological media. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  20. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabruri, Efendi; Anwar, Moch. Syaiful; Prifiharni, Siska; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  1. Tensile behavior and tension stiffening of reinforced concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2001-03-01

    For the ultimate behavior analysis of containment buildings under severe accident conditions, a clear understanding of tensile behaviors of plain and reinforced concrete is necessary. Nonlinear models for tensile behaviors of concrete are also needed. This report describe following items: tensile behaviors of plain concrete, test results of reinforced concrete panels in uniaxial and biaxial tension, tension stiffening. The tensile behaviors of reinforced concrete are significantly influenced by the properties of concrete and reinforcing steel. Thus, for a more reliable evaluation of tensile behavior and ultimate pressure capacity of a reinforced or prestressed concrete containment building, an advanced concrete model which can be considered rebar-concrete interaction effects should be developed. In additions, a crack behavior analysis method and tension stiffening models, which are based on fracture mechanics, should be developed. The model should be based on the various test data from specimens considering material and sectional properties of the containment building.

  2. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon ® fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair; Gotoh, Yasuo

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon® via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon® fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  3. Tensile properties of 2024 Al alloy processed by enhanced solid-solution and equal-channel angular pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-jing; GAO Jin-qi; CHENG Xiao-nong; MO Ji-ping

    2006-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing(ECAP) of an enhanced solid-solution treated 2024 Al alloy was successfully performed at room temperature, with an imposed equivalent normal strain of about 0.5. A very high hardness about HV191 and yield strength about 610 MPa (30% higher than those of the unECAPed 2024 Al alloy) in terms of commercial aluminum alloys were observed for the ECAPed 2024 Al alloy. In addition to the strengthening, this process allows the ECAPed 2024 Al alloy have a moderate level of tensile ductility (about 12.7%) and a significant strain hardening capability up to tensile failure. After aged at 373 K for 48 h, the ECAPed alloy increases its hardness (about HV201) and tensile ductility (about 14 %) further. The TEM results show that the ECAPed 2024 Al alloy presents a plate structure (about 50-100 nm) with high density of dislocation and additional thin plate (approximately <10 nm= inside. The XRD results show that the ECAP processing decreases the texture and increases the dislocation density of the alloy considerably. The theoretical calculations show that the increase of dislocation density resulting from ECAP processing makes a considerable contribution about 55.2% for the improvement of yield strength.

  4. Mitigation of Tensile Weld Stresses in Alloy 22 Using Laser Peening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H L; Evans, K J; Hackel, L A; Rankin, J E; Yamamoto, R M; Demma, A G; Dewald, A T; Lee, M J; Hill, M R

    2002-11-27

    tensile stress in Alloy 22 welds into compressive residual stress. Particular emphasis was placed on optimization of process parameters to achieve compressive residual stress at greater depths than has currently been demonstrated. The process parameters studied included the laser irradiance (power per area), the laser pulse duration, the number of peening layers, the effect of the ablative layer (described below), and the effect of part thickness. Additionally, the effect of two process parameters, the number of peening layers and the effect of the ablative layer, was evaluated by measuring general corrosion resistance of peened and unpeened Alloy 22 coupons with an electrochemical polarization method. This initial effort ($95,000) was started in August 22, 2002 and completed on September 30, 2002. Phase 11 ($70,000) of this project was started on September 14, 2002. Using the parameters determined from the initial phase (and listed in Appendix A), five welded flat plate specimens (three plates, 3/8 inch thick and two plates, 1 inch thick) were laser peened at LLNL. These peened plates, identified as Stress Mitigation Welded Specimens, were shipped to qualified YMP suppliers (Chalk River Neutron Diffraction facility, and Lambda Research Inc.) for residual stress measurements. This report summarizes technical achievements made in Phase I. It is evident from this work that laser peening is a mature technology for YMP to effectively mitigate the potential for stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 22 welds.

  5. Penetration of disk fragments following impact on thin plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan-juan LI; Hai-jun XUAN; Lian-fang LIAO; Wei-rong HONG; Rong-ren WU

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the ballistic resistance and failure pattern of aeroengine casing following the impact of disk fragments,and to determine the optimum case structure,the phenomena of a 1/3rd disk fragment impact on single and double-layered thin plate targets were simulated using nonlinear dynamical analysis software MSC.Dytran.Strain rate effect was introduced in a Johnson-Cook (JC)material model for the disk fragment and the plate.Impact modeling was based on the Arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian method,and simulated using explicit finite element method(FEM).Simulation results showed that the major failure pattern of the plate is shearing and tensile fracture with large plastic deformation.It Was also concluded that the ballistic limit velocity increases with the standoff distance when it iS beyond a certain value.and that greater resistance is obtained when the front plate has either a proportionately low or high thickness.The impact resistance of a double-layered plate may exceed that of a single plate if the thicknesses and standoff distance of the two plates are set appropriately.

  6. Study of austenitic stainless steel welded with low alloy steel filler metal. [tensile and impact strength tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, F. A.; Dyke, R. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The tensile and impact strength properties of 316L stainless steel plate welded with low alloy steel filler metal were determined. Tests were conducted at room temperature and -100 F on standard test specimens machined from as-welded panels of various chemical compositions. No significant differences were found as the result of variations in percentage chemical composition on the impact and tensile test results. The weldments containing lower chromium and nickel as the result of dilution of parent metal from the use of the low alloy steel filler metal corroded more severely in a marine environment. The use of a protective finish, i.e., a nitrile-based paint containing aluminum powder, prevented the corrosive attack.

  7. Tensile Property of Bi-axial Warp Knitted Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈为

    2003-01-01

    The tensile property of bi-axial warp knitted fabrics is tested and compared with that of the plain weave fabric. The results show that there are obvious differences between the tensile property of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric and that of a plain weave fabric.The former can give fuller play to the property of a high modulus yarn than the latter. The tensile strength of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric is linear with the number of yarns in the direction of force.

  8. Tensile Stiffness Analysis on Ocean Dynamic Power Umbilical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤明刚; 阎军; 王野; 岳前进

    2014-01-01

    Tensile stiffness of ocean dynamic power umbilical is an important design parameter for functional implementation and structural safety. A column with radial stiffness which is wound by helical steel wires is constructed to predict the tensile stiffness value of umbilicals in the paper. The relationship between the tension and axial deformation is expressed analytically so the radial contraction of the column is achieved in the relationship by use of a simple finite element method. With an agreement between the theoretical prediction and the tension test results, the method is proved to be simple and efficient for the estimation of tensile stiffness of the ocean dynamic power umbilical.

  9. Modeling the Tensile Properties of Soybean Protein Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石风俊; 崔世忠

    2003-01-01

    The tensile properties of a series of soybean protein yarns are tested in USTER THINKPAID Ⅲ.A nonlinear viscoelastic model has been proposed to describe the tensile behavior of soybean protein yarns.The model is composed of a Maxwell element,a linear spring and a nonlinear spring.The tensile properties of soybean protein yarn are analyzed.The stress-strain curves of the yarns are fitted.The average breaking tenacity and specific work of rupture are calculated using the average breaking strain.Comparisons indicate that theoretical predictions conform the experimental results very well.

  10. High temperature tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Stevens, C.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on V-4Cr-4Ti at 750 and 800 C in order to extend the data base beyond the current limit of 700 C. From comparison with previous measurements, the yield strength is nearly constant and tensile elongations decrease slightly with increasing temperature between 300 and 800 C. The ultimate strength exhibits an apparent maximum near 600 C (attributable to dynamic strain aging) but adequate strength is maintained up to 800 C. The reduction in area measured on tensile specimens remained high ({approximately}80%) for test temperatures up to 800 C, in contrast to previous reported results.

  11. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  12. In-situ electron microscopy studies on the tensile deformation mechanisms in aluminium 5083 alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motsi, G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study tensile deformation mechanisms of aluminium alloy 5083 were investigated under observations made from SEM equipped with a tensile stage. Observations during tensile testing revealed a sequence of surface deformation events...

  13. Evaluation of tin plating systems for a high-noble alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbery, T A; Davis, R D

    1993-01-01

    The tensile bond strength of Panavia EX to a high-noble alloy prepared by abrasive spraying and tin plating was measured. Two different intraoperatory tin plating systems were compared. Disk-shaped specimens were cast in type III gold, abrasive sprayed with aluminum oxide, and divided into three groups of 30 specimens each. Specimens in one group were tin plated by using a Kura Ace Mini unit, those in the second group were tin plated by using a Micro Tin unit, and those in the third group were not tin plated and served as the control group. Disks within each group were luted to each other with Panavia EX. The specimens were thermocycled and tested in tension. There was no significant difference between the two tin plated groups; however, the luting bond of both experimental groups was significantly stronger than was that of the control (P < .05).

  14. Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile and Impact Properties, Hardness and Microstructure of AISI 409M Ferritic Stainless Joints Fabricated by Duplex Stainless Steel Filler Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A K Lakshminarayanan; K Shanmugam; V Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The effect of welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding on tensile and impact properties of the ferritic stainless steel conforming to AISI 409M grade is studied. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded joints. Tensile and impact properties, microhardness, microstructure and fracture surface morphology of the welded joints have been evaluated and the results are compared. From this investigatio.n, it is found that gas tungsten arc welded joints of ferritic stainless steel have superior tensile and impact properties compared with shielded metal are and gas metal arc welded joints and this is mainly due to the presence of finer grains in fusion zone and heat affected zone.

  15. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  16. A Simple Method for Measuring Tensile Force with Piezoelectric Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Wen; JIANG Zhong-Wei; Testuya Morisaki

    2007-01-01

    @@ We propose a simple method for monitoring the axial tensile and compressive force in a structure by using a piezoelectric patch with the piezoelectric impedance based measurement. A simple approximate equation for estimating the tensile force in two different conditions, which can be calculated easily if the natural frequencies in two different states are measured, is explained in detail. On another front, the natural frequency can be very easily measured by a piezoelectric element by bonding it on the measuring subject structure, because its electric impedance of piezoelement is related to the structural mechanical impedance. Furthermore, an experiment for measuring a tensile force in a simple supported beam is carried out for validating the proposed method. The results show a good accuracy in estimating the tensile force variation by the natural frequency change measured from the piezoelement.

  17. Tensile Fracture Behavior of Progressively-Drawn Pearlitic Steels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jesús Toribio; Francisco-Javier Ayaso; Beatriz González; Juan-Carlos Matos; Diego Vergara; Miguel Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a study is presented of the tensile fracture behavior of progressively-drawn pearlitic steels obtained from five different cold-drawing chains, including each drawing step from the initial hot-rolled bar...

  18. Tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate coated natural fabric Sterculia urens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available stress, Young's modulus and % elongation at break were determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The effect of alkali treatment and the polymethyl methacrylate coating on tensile properties of the fabric was studied. The morphology of the fabric...

  19. Tin oxide coating of aluminous porcelain by reactive ion plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P V; Tinston, S; Piddock, V; Kelly, P; Combe, E C; Arnell, R D

    1991-06-01

    Alumina reinforced dental porcelain has been coated directly with tin oxide by reactive ion plating. Samples were prepared at different distances from the tin source in the ion plating rig. Tensile bond strengths of treated and untreated porcelain discs to a commercially available phosphate-methacrylate based dental cement were determined. Bond strengths of certain coated samples were found to be in excess of the cohesive strength of the porcelain substrates (greater than 7.8 MPa), whereas untreated porcelain achieved an average bond strength of only 3.4 MPa. The microstructures of coatings produced under conditions similar to those which yielded the maximum bond strength were examined in a scanning electron microscope and were found to be approximately 0.5 microns thick. It is believed that ion plating has great potential for rendering inert ceramic surfaces capable of direct bonding to dental cements.

  20. Ion plated gold films: Properties, tribological behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1987-01-01

    The glow discharge energizing favorably modifies and controls the coating/substrate adherence and the nucleation and growth sequence of ion plated gold films. As a result the adherence, coherence, internal stresses, and morphology of the films are significantly improved. Gold ion plated films because of their graded coating/substrate interface and fine uniform densely packed microstructure not only improve the tribological properties but also induce a surface strengthening effect which improves the mechanical properties such as yield, tensile, and fatigue strength. Consequently significant improvements in the tribological performance of ion plated gold films as compared to vapor deposited gold films are shown in terms of decreased friction/wear and prolonged endurance life.

  1. Material Properties and Tensile Behaviors of Polypropylene Geogrid and Geonet for Reinforcement of Soil Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The properties and tensile behaviors of polypropylene (PP) geogrids and geonets for reinforcement of soil structures are investigated.Mass per unit area of the geogrids and geonets was weighed using an electronic balance and aperture sizes of the geonets were exactly measured using a computer.Laboratory tests were performed using a small tensile machine capable of monitoring tensile force and displacement.Tensile failure behaviors were described,and tensile index properties such as tensile strength,maximum tensile strain,tensile forces corresponding to different strains in the geogrids and gronets were obtained.The characterization of these indexes is discussed.

  2. Tensile Properties of Fiber Materials under Different Strain Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jie; GU Bo-hong; WANG Shan-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests of aranid and high strength PVA fiber bundles are carried out under a wider range of strain rate by use of MTS (Materials Testing System) and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus.The influences of strain rate on mechanical properties of aramid and high strength polyvinyl alcohol fibers ar estudied. Micro failure mechanisms of fibers at different strain rates are examined by means of SEM.

  3. Tensile Behavior of Low Density Thermally Bonded Nonwoven Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Hou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A discontinuous and non-uniform microstructure of alow-density thermally bonded nonwoven materialdisplays in a complicated and unstable tensilebehavior. This paper reports uniaxial tensile tests of alow density thermally bonded nonwoven toinvestigate the effect of the specimen size and shapefactor, as well as the cyclic tensile loading conditionsemployed to investigate the deformational behaviorand performance of the nonwoven at differentloading stages. The experimental data are comparedwith results of microscopic image analysis and FEmodels.

  4. Covalent Crosslinking of Carbon Nanotube Materials for Improved Tensile Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James S.; Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany A.; Meador, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted much interest in recent years due to their exceptional mechanical properties. Currently, the tensile properties of bulk carbon nanotube-based materials (yarns, sheets, etc.) fall far short of those of the individual nanotube elements. The premature failure in these materials under tensile load has been attributed to inter-tube sliding, which requires far less force than that needed to fracture individual nanotubes.1,2 In order for nanotube materials to achieve their full potential, methods are needed to restrict this tube-tube shear and increase inter-tube forces.Our group is examining covalent crosslinking between the nanotubes as a means to increase the tensile properties of carbon nanotube materials. We are working with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheet and yarn materials obtained from commercial sources. Several routes to functionalize the nanotubes have been examined including nitrene, aryl diazonium, and epoxide chemistries. The functional nanotubes were crosslinked through small molecule or polymeric bridges. Additionally, electron beam irradiation induced crosslinking of the non-functional and functional nanotube materials was conducted. For example, a nanotube sheet material containing approximately 3.5 mol amine functional groups exhibited a tensile strength of 75 MPa and a tensile modulus of 1.16 GPa, compared to 49 MPa and 0.57 GPa, respectively, for the as-received material. Electron beam irradiation (2.2x 1017 ecm2) of the same amine-functional sheet material further increased the tensile strength to 120 MPa and the modulus to 2.61 GPa. This represents approximately a 150 increase in tensile strength and a 360 increase in tensile modulus over the as-received material with only a 25 increase in material mass. Once we have optimized the nanotube crosslinking methods, the performance of these materials in polymer matrix composites will be evaluated.

  5. Tensile Properties of Weft Knitted Fabric Reinforced Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海如

    2001-01-01

    Seven kinds of weft knitted fabrics from glass fiber yarns were used as reinforcement to make fabric/epoxy composite laminates. Tensile tests were carried out to examine and compare the mechanical properties in course and wale direction of these composites. On the basis of experimental results, attempts have been made to analyze some main factors influencing stress-strain curve, ultimate tensile strength and initial elastic modulus of specimens.

  6. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  7. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  9. Numerical Modelling of the Compressive and Tensile Response of Glass and Ceramic under High Pressure Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Richard A.; Hayhurst, Colin J.

    1999-06-01

    Ceramic materials, including glass, are commonly used as ballistic protection materials. The response of a ceramic to impact, perforation and penetration is complex and difficult and/or expensive to instrument for obtaining detailed physical data. This paper demonstrates how a hydrocode, such as AUTODYN, can be used to aid in the understanding of the response of brittle materials to high pressure impact loading and thus promote an efficient and cost effective design process. Hydrocode simulations cannot be made without appropriate characterisation of the material. Because of the complexitiy of the response of ceramic materials this often requires a number of complex material tests. Here we present a methodology for using the results of flyer plate tests, in conjunction with numerical simulations, to derive input to the Johnson-Holmquist material model for ceramics. Most of the research effort in relation to the development of hydrocode material models for ceramics has concentrated on the material behaviour under compression and shear. While the penetration process is dominated by these aspects of the material response, the final damaged state of the material can be significantly influenced by the tensile behaviour. Modelling of the final damage state is important since this is often the only physical information which is available. In this paper we present a unique implementation, in a hydrocode, for improved modelling of brittle materials in the tensile regime. Tensile failure initiation is based on any combination of principal stress or strain while the post-failure tensile response of the material is controlled through a Rankine plasticity damaging failure surface. The tensile failure surface can be combined with any of the traditional plasticity and/or compressive damage models. Finally, the models and data are applied in both traditional grid based Lagrangian and Eulerian solution techniques and the relativley new SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) meshless

  10. Demonstration of concurrent tensile testing and magnetic resonance elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Spencer; Klatt, Dieter

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a technique used to measure the mechanical properties of soft tissues and has already shown its diagnostic potential for pathologies involving fibrogenesis and neurodegeneration. Experimental investigation of loading during MRE is fairly unexplored and may help to better understand changing mechanical properties in relation to organ function. Tensile testing is a common technique for examining mechanical properties of materials and is used as the simultaneous comparison method with MRE in this study. 3D MRE data was acquired during quasistatic uniaxial tensile loading of an Ecoflex 0010 cylindrical specimen. Individual MRE scans at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5kHz where performed on engineering strain increments of 20% from 0% to 140% while tensile reaction force was recorded using a load cell attached to an adjustable elongation slide. Tensile stress-strain relation resembled the Fung hyperelastic strain energy model. We observe that the MRE shear storage modulus is related to the state of tensile deformation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous tensile testing during MRE and the new design can potentially be used for MRE calibration using pre-tension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Creep Properties of Fine Sandstone under Uniaxial Tensile Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Haifei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A graduated uniaxial direct tensile creep test for fine sandstone is conducted by adopting a custom-designed direct tensile test device for rock. The experiment shows that the tensile creep of fine sandstone has similar creep curve patterns to those of compression creep, while the ratios of the creep strain to the total strain obtained in the tensile tests are substantially higher than those obtained for similar compression tests, which indicates that the creep ability of rock in the tensile process is higher than that in the uniaxial compression process. Based on the elastic modulus in the approximately linear portion of the obtained isochronous stress-strain curves of the tensile creep, the time dependence of the elasticity modulus for the Kelvin model is evaluated, and a revised generalized Kelvin model is obtained by substitution into the generalized Kelvin model. A new viscousplastic model is proposed to describe the accelerated creep properties, and this model is combined in series with the revised generalized Kelvin model to form a new nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep model that can describe the properties of attenuation creep, steady creep, and accelerated creep. Comparison of the test and theoretical curves demonstrates that they are nearly identical, which verifies the performance of the model.

  12. The transient behavior of electrorheological fluid in tensile flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Zhang, Minliang; Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Jile; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu

    2009-12-01

    Transient behaviors of (ER) fluids in tensile flow and applied stepwise voltages were experimentally studied. The transient tensile stress rises exponentially with time. The characteristic rising time of tensile stress is independent of the amplitude of the applied voltage and the tensile velocity, while the amplitude of tensile yield stress is significantly affected by the two factors. The transient tension applied as a stepwise voltage is different from a stable tension pre-applied at constant voltage in different particle chain structure forming processes. Because of the chain aggregation during an intermittent voltage on-off test, the achieved tensile yield stress showed an exponent of 2.75 to the applied electric field at low separation velocities (0.2 mm s-1), higher than the square relationship predicted by traditional polarization models, and the exponent of 1.5 predicted by the conduction model. The results achieved in this study show that the mechanical properties of ER fluids are greatly affected by the method of applying the electric field, the strain rate, and the gap geometry between electrodes. These factors should be properly considered in the design and control of ER actuators.

  13. Effect of a shear modified Gurson model on damage development in a FSW tensile specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2009-01-01

    For a friction stir welded aluminum plate the resistance to ductile failure is studied by analyzing tensile test specimens cut out across the weldline. As the stress triaxiality is rather low in these tests, the Gurson material model is not expected to give a very accurate description of the void...... growth to coalescence. A recently proposed modified version of the Gurson model is used, in which an extra term in the damage evolution law allows for the prediction of failure even at zero or negative values of the mean stress. This modification of the Gurson model is purely phenomenological......, such that the damage parameter does not really represent the void volume fraction. Various amounts of the additional damage evolution are compared with predictions of the original Gurson model. The analyses are carried out for different yield stress profiles transverse to the weld and for different specimen widths...

  14. Change of Tensile Strength due to Non-uniform Thermal Deterioration of XLPE Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takashi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Homma, Hiroya; Okamoto, Tatsuki

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) sheets were thermally deteriorated in atmospheric air at 180°C for at most 100 hours, and their depth profiles of the oxidation degrees were investigated with a micro FT-IR, and the relationships between the oxidation degree and mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break were examined. The oxidation degree was defined as the ratio of the IR absorption peak for the C=O bond to that for the C-H bond. When tensile strength and elongation at break of XLPE sheets decreased, the oxidation degree increased and the oxidation degree distributed non-uniformly with depth. That is, the oxidation degree was the largest on the upper surface of XLPE sheets where air supply was sufficient during heating, and it was the smallest on the lower surface that contacted with a metal plate during heating. Since the mechanical characteristics such as the hardness and the Young's modulus decreased in the oxidized region of XLPE sheets, it was pointed out that the oxidized region became a weak point against the mechanical stress. It was also pointed out that the micro FT-IR was useful in evaluating the depth profile of oxidation in polymer materials.

  15. Effect of tempering upon the tensile properties of a nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S. [University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J., E-mail: mjp54@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Avettand-Fènoël, M-N. [Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET) UMR CNRS 8207, Université, Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve D' ASCQ (France); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-06

    The tensile properties of a nanostructured carbide-free bainitic steel formed at 200–250 °C are compared against those after tempering sufficiently to remove the retained austenite. Although significant ductility is observed following tempering, a comparison of tempered and untempered samples shows that it is in fact reduced when a comparison is made at identical strength. The shape of the stress–strain curves shows clear evidence that the capacity for work hardening is reduced with the loss of austenite. The nanostructure of the steel transformed at 250 °C is examined by transmission electron microscopy, to compare the as-transformed to the tempered structure. In this case after tempering at 500 °C the energy absorbed during the tensile test is lower, due to the lower strength. Reduction of strength is caused by the slight coarsening of the bainite plates, and lower dislocation density after tempering. Considering the formation of carbide particles in high strength steel, impressive ductility is exhibited even in the tempered condition.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Tensile Test on Connection of Cold-formed Cut-curved Steel Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd; Muftah, Fadhluhartini; Rahman, Nurul Farraheeda Abdul; Fakri Muda, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) is widely used as structural and non-structural components such as roof trusses and purlin. A CFS channel section with double intermediate web stiffener and lipped is chosen based on the broader usage in roof truss construction. CFS section is cut to form cold-formed pre-cut-curved steel section and lastly strengthened by several types of method or likely known as connection to establish the cold-formed cut-curved steel (CFCCS) section. CFCCS is proposed to be used as a top chord section in the roof truss system. The CFCCS is to resist the buckling phenomena of the roof truss structure and reduced the compression effect on the top chord. The tensile test connection of CFCCS section, especially at the flange element with eight types of connection by welding, plate with self-drilling screw and combination is investigated. The flange element is the weakest part that must be solved first other than the web element because they are being cut totally, 100% of their length for curving process. The testing is done using a universal testing machine for a tensile load. From the experiment, specimen with full welding has shown as a good result with an ultimate load of 13.37 kN and reported having 35.41% when compared with normal specimen without any of connection methods. Furthermore, the experimental result is distinguished by using Eurocode 3. The failure of a full welding specimen is due to breaking at the welding location. Additionally, all specimens with either full weld or spot weld or combination failed due to breaking on weld connection, but specimen with flange plate and self-drilling screw failed due to tilting and bearing. Finally, the full welding specimen is chosen as a good connection to perform the strengthening method of CFCCS section.

  17. Bond-slip behavior of CFRP plate-concrete interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, D. Y.; Park, S. K.; Hong, S. N.

    2011-11-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of the bond performance between a CFRP plate and concrete with respect to various compressive strengths of concrete and bond lengths of the CFRP plate as parameters. To consider stress conditions in the tensile zone of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, double-lap axial tension tests were conducted for eight specimens with CFRP plates bonded to concrete prisms. In addition, a simple linear bond-slip model for the CFRP plate/concrete joints, developed from the bond tests, was used. To verify the model proposed, a total of seven RC beams were strengthened with CFRP plates and tested in flexure employing various bond lengths, strengthening methods, and numbers of CFRP plates. A nonlinear finite-element analysis, with the bond-slip model incorporated in the DIANA program, was performed for the strengthened RC beams. Also, the results of flexural test and analytical predictions are found to be in close agreement in terms of yield and ultimate loads and ductility.

  18. Spot brazing of aluminum to copper with a cover plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Junya; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    It is difficult to join dissimilar metals when an intermetallic compound is formed at the joining interface. Spot brazing can be accomplished in a short time by resistance heating. Therefore, it is said that the formation of a intermetallic compound can be prevented. In this study, aluminum and copper were joined by spot brazing with a cover plate. The cover plate was used to supply heat to base metals and prevent heat dissipation from the base metals. The ability to braze Al and Cu was investigated by observation and analysis. Pure aluminum (A1050) plate and oxygen-free copper (C1020) plate were used as base metals. Cu-Ni-Sn-P brazing filler was used as the brazing filler metal. SPCC was employed as cover plate. Brazing was done with a micro spot welder under an argon gas atmosphere. Brazing ability was estimated by tensile shear strength and cross sectional microstructure observation. Al and Cu can be joined by spot brazing with Cu-Ni-Sn-P brazing filler and cover plate.

  19. Longitudinal wave motion in width-constrained auxetic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the longitudinal wave velocity in auxetic plates in comparison to conventional ones, in which the plate is constrained from motion in the width direction. By taking into account the thickness change of the plate and its corresponding change in density, the developed wave velocity is casted not only as a function of Young’s modulus and density, but also in terms of Poisson’s ratio and longitudinal strain. Results show that density and thickness variations compensate for one another when the Poisson’s ratio is positive, but add up when the Poisson’s ratio is negative. Results also reveal that the classical model of longitudinal wave velocity for the plate is accurate when the Poisson’s ratio is about 1/3; at this Poisson’s ratio the influence from density and thickness variations cancel each other. Comparison between the current corrected model and the density-corrected Rayleigh-Lamb model reveals a number of consistent trends, while the discrepancies are elucidated. If the plate material possesses a negative Poisson’s ratio, the deviation of the actual wave velocity from the classical model becomes significant; auxeticity suppresses and enhances the wave velocity in compressive and tensile impacts, respectively. Hence the use of the corrected model is proposed when predicting longitudinal waves in width-constrained auxetic plates, and auxetic materials can be harnessed for effectively controlling wave velocities in thin-walled structures.

  20. Hot-rolled Process of Multilayered Composite Metal Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For multi-layer plate, it is a difficult problem to increase product yield rate and improve bonding interface quality. A high yield hot-rolled method of multilayered plate was proposed. The raw strips and plate were fixed by argon arc welding. The combined billet was put into a metal box and vacuum pumped, and then heated and rolled by multi passes at the temperature of 1000-1200℃. The 67 layered plate with the thickness of 2.5mm was successfully produced. The interfacial microstructures and diffusion behavior were investigated and analyzed by optical microscopy and scan electronic microscopy. The tensile and shear strength were tested,and the shear fractures were analyzed. The results show that the multilayered plate yield rate is more than 90% by two steps billet combination method and rolling process optimization. The good bonding interface quality is obtained, the shear strength of multilayered plate reaches 241 MPa. Nickel interlayer between 9Cr18 and 1Cr17 can not only prevent the diffusion of carbon, but also improve the microstructure characteristics.

  1. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  2. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  3. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  4. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  7. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  8. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  10. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  15. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  17. The Effect of Aluminum Content and Processing on the Tensile Behavior of High Pressure Die Cast Mg Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Erin M.

    Due to their high specific strength and good castability, magnesium alloys are desirable for use in weight reduction strategies in automotive applications. However, the mechanical properties of high pressure die cast (HPDC) magnesium can be highly variable and dependent on location in the casting. To better understand the relationship between microstructure and tensile properties, the influence of alloying and section thickness on the microstructural features and tensile properties of Mg-Al and Mg-Al-Mn alloys is quantified. This investigation provides experimental input to modeling activities for the development of an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering capability, to assess and quantify the impact of microstructure on the tensile behavior of HPDC Mg AM series (magnesium-aluminum-manganese) alloys. As a result of this work, it is found that with increasing aluminum content, the yield strength increases and the ductility decreases. Increasing the plate thickness results in a decrease in both the yield strength and ductility. HPDC components have varying microstructural features through the plate thickness, developing a "skin" and "core". The grain size, beta-Mg 17Al12 phase, and solute content are all quantified through the thickness of the plates. By quantifying microstructural variations, a physics-based model has been developed which is able to predict the effects of alloying and plate thickness on yield strength. The primary factors affecting strengthening are accounted for using a linear superposition model of solid solution, grain size, and dispersion hardening. This model takes into account through-thickness microstructure gradients that exist in HPDC components by using a composite model to incorporate the skin and core changes. The yield strength in these alloys is dominated by grain boundary strengthening and solute hardening effects. In order to isolate the effects of eutectic phases, shrinkage porosity and oxide films on strength and

  18. Effect of specimen geometry on tensile strength of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effect of specimen geometry on the ultimate tensile strength of cortical bone measured by a tensile test. This article is motivated by the fact that there is no clear consensus in the literature on a suitable specimen shape for cortical bone testing. We consider three commonly used tensile test specimen shapes: strip, dumbbell with sharp junctions, and dumbbell with rounded junctions. We conduct this study computationally, using a finite element method, and experimentally by testing porcine femurs. Our results show that local stress concentration factors in the specimen lead to reduced values in the measured tensile strength. The higher the stress concentrations are, the lower is the measured strength. We find that the strip specimens are not a good choice due to high stress concentrations. For the same reason, dumbbell specimens with sharp junctions between the grip and gage sections should also be avoided. The dumbbell shaped tensile test specimens with an arc transition and a maximized radius of fillet are a better choice because such geometry lowers stress concentrations.

  19. Analysis of tensile bond strengths using Weibull statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Michael F; Thomas, David; Swain, Mike V; Tyas, Martin J

    2004-09-01

    Tensile strength tests of restorative resins bonded to dentin, and the resultant strengths of interfaces between the two, exhibit wide variability. Many variables can affect test results, including specimen preparation and storage, test rig design and experimental technique. However, the more fundamental source of variability, that associated with the brittle nature of the materials, has received little attention. This paper analyzes results from micro-tensile tests on unfilled resins and adhesive bonds between restorative resin composite and dentin in terms of reliability using the Weibull probability of failure method. Results for the tensile strengths of Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive (3M) and Clearfil LB Bond (Kuraray) bonding resins showed Weibull moduli (m) of 6.17 (95% confidence interval, 5.25-7.19) and 5.01 (95% confidence interval, 4.23-5.8). Analysis of results for micro-tensile tests on bond strengths to dentin gave moduli between 1.81 (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V) and 4.99 (Gluma One Bond, Kulzer). Material systems with m in this range do not have a well-defined strength. The Weibull approach also enables the size dependence of the strength to be estimated. An example where the bonding area was changed from 3.1 to 1.1 mm diameter is shown. Weibull analysis provides a method for determining the reliability of strength measurements in the analysis of data from bond strength and tensile tests on dental restorative materials.

  20. Tensile strength of human pericardium treated with glutaraldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiromasa; Ozaki, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Kawase, Isamu; Nozawa, Yukinari; Umezu, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    We have reconstructed aortic valves using autologous pericardium treated with glutaraldehyde since April 2007. However, the strength of the human pericardium has not been confirmed. We compared tensile strength between glutaraldehyde-treated human pericardium and aortic valve leaflets with various degrees of calcification to determine their suitability for use in aortic valve reconstruction. We measured the ultimate tensile strength and elasticity of samples of glutaraldehyde-treated pericardia (n = 8), non-calcified (n = 12), calcified (n = 9) and decalcified (n = 21) aortic leaflets collected from 23 patients who underwent aortic valve surgery. Aortic valves were decalcified using a cavitational ultrasonic surgical aspirator. The pericardium was immersed in 0.6% buffered glutaraldehyde for 10 minutes and then rinsed three times for 6 minutes each in normal saline. The ultimate tensile strength of the glutaraldehyde-treated human pericardium, non-calcified, calcified and decalcified leaflets was 10, 2.8, 1.0 and 0.8 MPa, respectively. The ultimate tensile strength of glutaraldehyde-treated human pericardium was 4 times higher than non-calcified leaflets, indicating its suitability for application to aortic valve reconstruction. Calcified leaflets were slightly stronger than decalcified leaflets. Thus, calcification can be removed without altering the tensile strength of valve materials.

  1. Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kersauson, M; El Kurdi, M; David, S; Checoury, X; Fishman, G; Sauvage, S; Jakomin, R; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Boucaud, P

    2011-09-12

    We have investigated the optical properties of tensile-strained germanium photonic wires. The photonic wires patterned by electron beam lithography (50 μm long, 1 μm wide and 500 nm thick) are obtained by growing a n-doped germanium film on a GaAs substrate. Tensile strain is transferred in the germanium layer using a Si₃N₄ stressor. Tensile strain around 0.4% achieved by the technique corresponds to an optical recombination of tensile-strained germanium involving light hole band around 1690 nm at room temperature. We show that the waveguided emission associated with a single tensile-strained germanium wire increases superlinearly as a function of the illuminated length. A 20% decrease of the spectral broadening is observed as the pump intensity is increased. All these features are signatures of optical gain. A 80 cm⁻¹ modal optical gain is derived from the variable strip length method. This value is accounted for by the calculated gain material value using a 30 band k · p formalism. These germanium wires represent potential building blocks for integration of nanoscale optical sources on silicon.

  2. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  3. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  4. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  5. Effect of Cadmium Plating Thickness on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Said, O. S.; Alcisto, J.; Guerra, J.; Jones, E.; Dominguez, A.; Hahn, M.; Ula, N.; Zeng, L.; Ramsey, B.; Mulazimoglu, H.; Li, Yong-Jun; Miller, M.; Alrashid, J.; Papakyriakou, M.; Kalnaus, S.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen was intentionally introduced into ultra-high strength steel by cadmium plating. The purpose was to examine the effect of cadmium plate thickness and hence hydrogen on the impact energy of the steel. The AISI 4340 steel was austenitized at 1000 °C for 1 h, water quenched, and tempered at temperatures between 257 and 593 °C in order to achieve a range of targeted strength levels. The specimens were cadmium plated with 0.00508 mm (0.2 mils), 0.00762 mm (0.3 mils), and 0.0127 mm (0.5 mils). Results demonstrated that the uncharged specimens exhibited higher impact energy values when compared to the plated specimens at all tempering temperatures. The cadmium-plated specimens had very low Charpy impact values irrespective of their ultimate tensile strength values. The model of hydrogen transport by mobile dislocations to the fracture site appears to provide the most suitable explanation of the results.

  6. Induced martensitic transformation during tensile test in nanostructured bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Rivas, L. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); University of Kaiserslautern, Materials Testing, Gottlieb - Daimler - Str., 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Garcia-Mateo, C., E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kuntz, Matthias [Robert Bosch GmbH, Materials and Processing Dept, P.O. Box 300240, Stuttgart (Germany); Sourmail, Thomas [Asco Industries CREAS (Research Centre) Metallurgy, BP 70045, Hagondange Cedex 57301 (France); Caballero, F.G. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-26

    Retained austenite in nanostructured bainite is able to undergo mechanically induced martensitic transformation. However, the link between transformation and deformation mechanisms involved makes difficult the understanding of the process. In this work, a model has been developed to assess the effect of the external stress itself on the martensite phase transformation. In addition, after a detailed initial microstructural characterization, the martensite fraction evolution during tensile deformation has been obtained by means of X-ray diffraction analyses after interrupted tensile tests in several nanostructured bainitic steels. Experimental results have been compared to the outputs of the model, as a reference. They suggests that stress partitioning between phases upon tensile deformation is promoted by isothermal transformation at lower temperatures.

  7. Handbook for tensile properties of austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Ryu, W. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Chung, M. K.; Han, C. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Database system of nuclear materials has not been developed and the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in nuclear power plant are not summarized systematically in Korea. Although Korea designs nuclear power plant, many materials used in nuclear power plant are imported because we do not have database system of nuclear material yet and it was hard to select a proper material for the structural materials of nuclear power plant. To develop database system of nuclear materials, data of mechanical, corrosion, irradiation properties are needed. Of theses properties, tensile properties are tested and summarized in this report. Tensile properties of stainless steel used in nuclear reactor internal were investigated. Data between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and foreign laboratory were compared to determine the precision of the result. To develope database system, materials, chemical composition, heat treatment, manufacturing process, and grain size were classified. Tensile properties were tested and summarized to use input data of database system. 9 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  8. Tensile properties of austempered ductile iron under thermomechanical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achary, J.

    2000-02-01

    A new processing method was investigated for improving the strength and elongation of austempered ductile iron (ADI) by grain refinement of parent austenite using thermomechanical treatment. The material was deformed at the austenitization temperature by single and multipass rolling before the austempering treatment. The effects of the amount of deformation, austenitization temperature, austempering temperatures, reaustenitization, and secondary deformation on the tensile properties were studied. The properties obtained using the method were compared with those of the ASTM standards. The effect of deformation on the graphite shape was also studied. Tensile strength/yield strength/elongation values were found to increase with increasing austenite deformation up to 40% and then to start decreasing. Tensile strength/yield strength and elongation values of 1700 MPa/1300 MPa/5% and 1350 MPa/920 MPa/15% can be achieved with this method in the ranges of variables studied.

  9. Tensile properties of austempered ductile iron under thermomechanical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achary, J.

    2000-02-01

    A new processing method was investigated for improving the strength and elongation of austempered ductile iron (ADI) by grain refinement of parent austenite using thermomechanical treatment. The material was deformed at the austenitization temperature by single and multipass rolling before the austempering treatment. The effects of the amount of deformation, austenitization temperature, austempering temperatures, reaustenitization, and secondary deformation on the tensile properties were studied. The properties obtained using the method were compared with those of the ASTM standards. The effect of deformation on the graphite shape was also studied. Tensile strength/yield strength/elongation values were found to increase with increasing austenite deformation up to 40% and then to start decreasing. Tensile strength/yield strength and elongation values of 1,700 MPa/1,300 MPa/5% and 1,350 MPa/920 MPa/15% can be achieved with this method in the ranges of variables studied.

  10. Tensile Fracture Mechanism of Claviform Hybrid Composite Rebar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Lurong; ZENG Qingdun; WANG Ronghui

    2012-01-01

    Based on the shear-lag theory,a hexagonal model of fiber bundles was established to study the tensile fracture mechanism of a claviform hybrid composite rebar.Firstly,the stress redistributions are investigated on two conditions:one condition is that interfacial damage is taken into accotmt and the other is not.Then,a micro-statistical analysis of the multiple tensile failures of the rebar was performed by using the random critical-core theory.The results indicate that the predictions of the tensile failure strains of the rebar,in which the interracial damage is taken into account,are in better agreement with the existing experimental results than those when only elastic case is considered.Through the comparison between the theoretical and experimental results,the shear-lag theory and the model are verified feasibly in studying the claviform hybrid composite rebar.

  11. Tensile Behavior of Alloy 718 in Hot Corrosive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahobia, G. S.; Paulose, Neeta; Mannan, S. L.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Santhi Srinivas, N. C.; Singh, Vakil

    2013-12-01

    Nickel-iron-based alloy 718 was thermally exposed in peak-aged condition at 550 and 650 °C, from 5 to 100 h, with and without salt coatings and was tested in tension at room temperature and elevated temperatures. Standard tensile specimens were coated with three different salts (in wt.%): NaCl(100), Na2SO4 + NaCl (75/25), and Na2SO4 + NaCl + V2O5 (90/5/5). Exposure of salt-coated specimens at 550 and 650 °C revealed formation of scales and corrosion pits. Tensile deformation resulted in cracking of the surface oxide/corrosion scale. The uncoated specimens showed formation of oxide scales on the surface, without any cracking whereas the salt-coated specimens showed surface cracking and pitting at some places. However, tensile properties were not degraded due to salt coatings.

  12. APPROXIMATE MEANS FOR EVALUATING TENSILE STRENGTH OF HIGH POROSITY MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the simplified structure model of high porosity materials, the formulas for approximately evaluating the tensile strength of these materials have been derived from the corresponding deductions taken by means of the relative theories about geometry and mechanics. The results show that, the tensile strength of these materials not only associates with the material sort and production method, but do further have a direct value relationship with the porosity, θ. This value relationship can be specifically expressed by the power of the item (1-θ), and it makes the tensile strength variation display a complicated nonlinear law with the porosity. In addition, the application of those formulas has been investigated with the corresponding experiment on a nickel foam.

  13. Variation in tensile properties and relationship between tensile properties and air-dried density for moso bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiang YU; Benhua FEI; Haiqing REN; Zehui JIANG; Xinge LIU

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the variation in tensile properties and the relationship between the tensile properties and the air-dried density for the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) by sampling at different heights and radial positions. Results showed that the variation of the longitudinal tensile properties in the radial direction was greater than that in the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal tensile modules of elasticity (MOE) ranged from 8.49 to 32.49 GPa. MOE for the outermost layer was 3-4 times as high as that for the innermost layer. The longitudinal tensile strength (MOR) ranged from 115.94 to 328.15 MPa. MOR for the outermost layer is 2-3 times as high as that for the innermost layer. Linear and curvilinear regressions were done from tested data of MOE, MOR and air-dried density in this paper. The linear equation worked a little better than the curvilinear one to predict the longitudinal MOR and MOE from air-dried density.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF JACQUARD KNITTED FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An objective approach to select the best fabric for technical and home textiles consists in mechanical properties evaluation. The goal of this study is to analyze the behavior of knitted fabrics undergoing stretch stress. In this respect, three types of 2 colors Rib structure (backstripes jacquard, twillback jacquard and double-layered 3x3 rib fabric have been presented and tested for tensile strength and elongation on three directions. First, the elasticity and the behavior of knitted Rib fabrics were described The fabrics were knitted using 100% PAN yarns with Nm 1/15x2 on a E5 CMS 330 Stoll V-bed knitting machine, and have been tested using INSTROM 5587 Tensile Testing Machine in respect of standards conditions. After a relaxation period, 15 specimens were prepared, being disposed at 0°, 45 and 90 angles to the wale direction on the flat knitted panel. The tensile strength and the elongation values were recorded and mean values were computed. After strength and tensile elongation testing for 3 types of rib based knitted fabrics, one can see that the double layer knit presents the best mechanical behavior, followed by birds-eyebacking 2 colors Jacquard and then back striped Jacquard. For tensile stress in bias direction, the twillbacking Jacquard has a good breakage resistance value due to the higher number of rib sinker loops in structure that are positioned on the same direction with the tensile force. The twillbacking Jacquard structure could be considered as an alternative for the base material for decorative and home textile products.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WHOLE TREE VERTICAL TENSILE STRENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua CHEN; Xinxiao YU; Dongsheng ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the vertical tensile strength of whole tree roots under the same soil and landform conditions.The experiments show that the shape of a root system's distribution affects the vertical tensile strength of roots.Rhododendron trees have horizontal root systems,so the whole roots were pulled out in the experiment process.Populous purdomii has vertical roots,so the experiment continued quite a long time.Abies fabric has both vertical and horizontal main roots,so the P-S curve shows a multi-peak shape.

  16. EFFECTS OF EDGE COVERING ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF MDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Dowels, 6, 8 and 10 mm ? diameters were bonded with PVAc adhesive on Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF. Edges were covered with 5, 8 and 12 mm beech wood materials, drilled 25 mm depth. Tensile strength measurments were made on the samples. The highest tensile strength value was given as 6 mm ? dowel and MDF covered with 8 mm thickness beech wood material (2.294 N/mm2, the lowest value was obtained with 10 mm ? dowel and with unprocessed MDF (1.314 N/mm2.

  17. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamdagni, Pooja, E-mail: j.poojaa1228@gmail.com; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, 160014 (India); Thakur, Anil [Physics Department, Govt. Collage Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India,173212 (India)

    2015-05-15

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices.

  18. Tensile Properties of TWIP Steel at High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Rong-gang; FU Ren-yu; SU Yu; LI Qian; WEI Xi-cheng; LI Lin

    2009-01-01

    Tensile tests of TWIP steels of two compositions are performed in the strain rate range of 10-5 -103 s-1.Results indicate that steel 1# does not exhibit TWIP effect but deformation-induced martensitic transformation appears only.There exists TWIP effect in steel 3#.Tensile properties at room temperature are sensitive to strain rate in the studied strain rate ranges.Analysis on the relationship between strain-hardening exponent and strain rates shows that strain-induced martensitic transformation and formation of twins during deformation have significant influence on their strain-hardening behavior.

  19. Tensile Strength of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Awang, Muhd. Khairudin; Sa'at, Mohd Hisham

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays, increasing awareness of replacing synthetic fiber such as glass fiber has emerged due to environmental problems and pollutions. Automotive manufacturers also seek new material especially biodegradable material to be non-load bearing application parts. This present work discussed on the effect of silane treatment on coir fiber reinforced composites. From the results of tensile tests, fibers treated with silane have attained maximum material stiffness. However, to achieve maximum ultimate tensile strength and strain at failure performances, untreated fibers work very well through fiber bridging and internal friction between fiber and polymeric matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations have coincided with these results.

  20. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  1. Grain refinement of ASTM A356 aluminum alloy using sloping plate process through gravity die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mehmood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sloping plate flow is used for enhancement of material properties through grain refinement in gravity die casting of Aluminum alloy ASTM A356. The castings are prepared with different slope angles of an 800 mm long, naturally cooled stainless steel plate. The specimens obtained are then tested for tensile strength and elongation. Microstructure of the cast specimens is observed and conclusions drawn on the grain size and precipitate morphology as a function of angle of sloping plate. Analysis is presented for the boundary layer created while the material flows over the plate. An indication of the boundary layer thickness is determined by measuring the thickness of the residual metal layer on the plate after casting. An analytical solution of the boundary layer thickness is also presented. It is shown that the calculated boundary layer thickness and the thickness of the layer of material left in the channel after casting are in good agreement. Moreover, microstructure examination and tensile tests show that best properties are achieved with a 60° sloping plate.

  2. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  3. Tensile and fatigue properties of Inconel 718 at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, C. O.; Schmidt, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Tests to determine the tensile and fatigue properties of Inconel 718 at cryogenic temperatures show that the alloy increases in strength at low temperatures, with very little change in toughness. The effect of surface finish and grain size on the fatigue properties was also determined.

  4. Strain distribution during tensile deformation of nanostructured aluminum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob; Lu, L.; Winther, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the mechanical properties, especially formability, post-process deformation by cold rolling in the range 5–50 % reduction was applied to aluminum sheets produced by accumulative roll bonding to an equivalent strain of 4.8. During tensile testing high resolution maps of the strain...

  5. Porosity Defect Remodeling and Tensile Analysis of Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tensile properties on ASTM A216 WCB cast steel with centerline porosity defect were studied with radiographic mapping and finite element remodeling technique. Non-linear elastic and plastic behaviors dependent on porosity were mathematically described by relevant equation sets. According to the ASTM E8 tensile test standard, matrix and defect specimens were machined into two categories by two types of height. After applying radiographic inspection, defect morphologies were mapped to the mid-sections of the finite element models and the porosity fraction fields had been generated with interpolation method. ABAQUS input parameters were confirmed by trial simulations to the matrix specimen and comparison with experimental outcomes. Fine agreements of the result curves between simulations and experiments could be observed, and predicted positions of the tensile fracture were found to be in accordance with the tests. Chord modulus was used to obtain the equivalent elastic stiffness because of the non-linear features. The results showed that elongation was the most influenced term to the defect cast steel, compared with elastic stiffness and yield stress. Additional visual explanations on the tensile fracture caused by void propagation were also given by the result contours at different mechanical stages, including distributions of Mises stress and plastic strain.

  6. Material characterization at high strain by adapted tensile tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2012-01-01

    The strength of materials at high strain levels has been determined using the so-called Continuous-Bendingunder- Tension (CBT) test. This is a modified tensile test where the specimen is subjected to repetitive bending at the same time. This test enables to create high levels of uniform strain. A

  7. Axial dynamic tensile strength of concrete under static lateral compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.

    2006-01-01

    The rate effect on concrete tensile strength can be modeled by the description of crack extension in a fictitious fracture plane [1,2].The plane represents the initial, internal damage and the geometry of the final fracture plane. In the paper, the same approach is applied to model the failure envel

  8. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    Design of glulam according to the European timber code Eurocode 5 is based on the standard document prEN1194 , according to which glulam beam strength is to be established either by full scale testing or by calculation. The calculation must be based on a knowledge of lamination tensile strength. ...

  9. environmental effects on tensile strength and other mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    appears to have more permanent effects on the tensile modulus, with a 20% reduction even after washing and ... high strength to weight ratios; they are also ... surface wrinkling, ungelled resin patches, ... volume fraction was about 30%. ... moisture and / or acid diffusion and ... sea-coast areas and those regions subject to.

  10. Tensile Strength of GFRP Reinforcing Bars with Hollow Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP has been proposed to replace steel as a reinforcing bar (rebar due to its high tensile strength and noncorrosive material properties. One obstacle in using FRP rebars is high price. Generally FRP is more expensive than conventional steel rebar. There are mainly two ways to reduce the cost. For example, one is making the price of each composition cost of FRP rebar (e.g., fibers, resin, etc. lower than steel rebar. Another is making an optimized design for cross section and reducing the material cost. The former approach is not easy because the steel price is very low in comparison with component materials of FRP. For the latter approach, the cost could be cut down by reducing the material cost. Therefore, an idea of making hollow section over the cross section of FRP rebar was proposed in this study by optimizing the cross section design with acceptable tensile performance in comparison with steel rebar. In this study, glass reinforced polymer (GFRP rebars with hollow section and 19 mm of outer diameter were manufactured and tested to evaluate the tensile performance in accordance with the hollowness ratio. From the test results, it was observed that the tensile strength decreased almost linearly with increase of hollowness ratio and the elastic modulus decreased nonlinearly.

  11. Concrete under Impact Loading, Tensile Strength and Bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Uniaxial impact tensile tests on plain concrete were carried out with the aid of Split Hopkinson Bar equipment with stress rates of up to 60000 N/mm2. s. Various concrete mixes were investigated under. dry and wet conditions. All the concretes showed an increase in strength with increasing stress

  12. Tensile failure of two-dimensional quasi-brittle foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangipudi, K. R.; Onck, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Stress redistribution caused by damage onset and the subsequent local softening plays an important role in determining the ultimate tensile strength of a cellular structure. The formation of damage process zones with struts dissipating a finite amount of fracture energy will require the macroscopic

  13. Tensile experiments and SEM fractography on bovine subchondral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidotti, P; Bemporad, E; D'Alessio, T; Sciuto, S A; Stagni, L

    2000-09-01

    Subchondral bone undecalcified samples, extracted from bovine femoral heads, are subjected to a direct tensile load. The Young's modulus of each sample is determined from repeated tests within the elastic limit. In a last test, the tensile load is increased up to the specimen failure, determining the ultimate tensile strength. The investigation is performed on both dry and wet specimens. The measured Young's modulus for dry samples is 10.3+/-2.5GPa, while that of wet samples is 3.5+/-1.2GPa. The ultimate tensile strengths are 36+/-10 and 30+/-7.5MPa for dry and wet specimens, respectively. SEM micrographs of failure surfaces show characteristic lamellar bone structures, with lamellae composed of calcified collagen fibers. Rudimentary osteon-like structures are also observed. Failure surfaces of wet samples show a marked fiber pull-out, while delamination predominates in dry samples. The obtained results are interpreted on the basis of the deformation mechanisms typical of fiber-reinforced laminated composite materials.

  14. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1016 protons/cm2. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples' surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson-Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  15. Tensile properties of K-doped W–3%Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Makoto, E-mail: fukuda@jupiter.qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira; Usami, Hiroshi; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Gifu (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    In this work, the tensile properties of K-doped W–3%Re were investigated. This material was fabricated by powder metallurgy and hot rolling on an industrial scale. It is expected that there would be improvement of the high-temperature strength, an increase of the recrystallization temperature, and a decrease in the ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of pure tungsten due to the dispersion of K bubbles and the addition of 3% Re. In addition, suppression of the formation of irradiation-induced defect clusters is also expected. Tensile tests in the temperature range from room temperature to 1800 °C were conducted. After the tensile tests, fracture surface observations were carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tensile strength decreased with increasing test temperature. Elongation of K-doped W–3%Re was observed above 500 °C. The results of fracture surface observation showed that delamination of the layered structure occurred at 500, 700, and 900 °C and cracking along the grain boundaries occurred at 1500 and 1800 °C.

  16. Concrete under Impact Loading, Tensile Strength and Bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Uniaxial impact tensile tests on plain concrete were carried out with the aid of Split Hopkinson Bar equipment with stress rates of up to 60000 N/mm2. s. Various concrete mixes were investigated under. dry and wet conditions. All the concretes showed an increase in strength with increasing stress ra

  17. An electron microscopy appraisal of tensile fracture in metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D. T. A.; Ocelik, V.; Bronsveld, P. M.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Three glass-forming alloy compositions were chosen for ribbon production and subsequent electron microscopy studies. In situ tensile testing with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), followed by ex situ TEM and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), allowed the deformation processes in tensi

  18. An electron microscopy appraisal of tensile fracture in metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D. T. A.; Ocelik, V.; Bronsveld, P. M.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Three glass-forming alloy compositions were chosen for ribbon production and subsequent electron microscopy studies. In situ tensile testing with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), followed by ex situ TEM and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), allowed the deformation processes in

  19. ply tensile properties of banana stem and banana bunch fibres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... result of the tensile loading in 0◦ fibre direction of the composite lamina (single ply) of. 1.2mm thickness ... Introduction ... boo, pineapple and seed fibres such as rice husk ... modification were supplied by Polymer Section,.

  20. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  1. Improved Tensile Adhesion Specimens for High Strength Epoxy Systems in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, M. Reed; McLennan, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    An improved tensile adhesion button has been designed and tested that results in higher measured tensile adhesion strength while providing increased capability for testing high strength epoxy adhesive systems. The best attributes of two well-established tensile button designs were combined and refined into an optimized tensile button. The most significant design change to the tensile button was to improve alignment of the bonded tensile button specimens during tensile testing by changing the interface between the tensile button and the tensile test machine. The established or old button design uses a test fixture that pulls from a grooved annulus or anvil head while the new button design pulls from a threaded hole in the centerline of the button. Finite element (FE) analysis showed that asymmetric loading of the established anvil head tensile button significantly increases the stress concentration in the adhesive, causing failure at lower tensile test loads. The new tensile button was designed to eliminate asymmetric loading and eliminate misalignment sensitivity. Enhanced alignment resulted in improved tensile adhesion strength measurement up to 13.8 MPa (2000psi) over the established button design. Another design change increased the capability of the button by increasing the threaded hole diameter allowing it to test high strength epoxy systems up to 85 MPa(less than 12,000 psi). The improved tensile button can be used in button- to-button or button-to-panel configurations.

  2. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  3. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  4. Residual stresses in laser welded ASTM A387 Grade 91 steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh, E-mail: santosh@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Kundu, A. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Venkata, K.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Evans, A. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Truman, C.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Francis, J.A. [University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bhanumurthy, K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Bouchard, P.J. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Dey, G.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Residual stresses in 9 mm thick ASTM A387 Grade 91 steel plates, joined using constant power (8 kW) low and high heat input laser welding processes, are characterised using neutron diffraction. The measured longitudinal and normal components of residual stress show a bimodal distribution across the welded joint with a low tensile or compressive trough at the weld centre flanked by high magnitude tensile peaks in parent metal adjacent to the heat affected zone boundaries. The width of the central trough and spread of the outboard tensile zones are significantly greater for the high heat input weld. In both cases, the stress distributions can be explained by the strains associated with the austenite to martensite solid-state transformation as the joint cools after welding.

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  7. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in a 4-pack. Whether ... Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor ...

  13. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  14. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  16. Diametral tensile strength and film thickness of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cabrini Carmello

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop new dental luting agents in order to improve the success of treatments has greatly motivated research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS and film thickness (FT of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil (COP with or without addition of different quantities of filler (calcium carbonate - CaCO3. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty specimens were manufactured (DTS N=40; FT N=40 and divided into 4 groups: Pure COP; COP 10%; COP 50% and zinc phosphate (control. The cements were mixed according to the manufacturers' recommendations and submitted to the tests. The DTS test was performed in the MTS 810 testing machine (10 KN, 0.5 mm/min. For FT test, the cements were sandwiched between two glass plates (2 cm² and a load of 15 kg was applied vertically on the top of the specimen for 10 min. The data were analyzed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: The values of DTS (MPa were: Pure COP- 10.94±1.30; COP 10%- 30.06±0.64; COP 50%- 29.87±0.27; zinc phosphate- 4.88±0.96. The values of FT (µm were: Pure COP- 31.09±3.16; COP 10%- 17.05±4.83; COP 50%- 13.03±4.83; Zinc Phosphate- 20.00±0.12. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the groups (DTS - p=1.01E-40; FT - p=2.4E-10. CONCLUSION: The experimental dental luting agent with 50% of filler showed the best diametral tensile strength and film thickness.

  17. Effects of Iron-Rich Intermetallics and Grain Structure on Semisolid Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys near Solidus Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolouri, Amir; Liu, Kun; Chen, X.-Grant

    2016-12-01

    The effects of iron-rich intermetallics and grain size on the semisolid tensile properties of Al-Cu 206 cast alloys near the solidus were evaluated in relation to the mush microstructure. Analyses of the stress-displacement curves showed that the damage expanded faster in the mush structure dominated by plate-like β-Fe compared to the mush structure dominated by Chinese script-like α-Fe. While there was no evidence of void formation on the β-Fe intermetallics, they blocked the interdendritic liquid channels and thus hindered liquid flow and feeding during semisolid deformation. In contrast, the interdendritic liquid flows more freely within the mush structure containing α-Fe. The tensile properties of the alloy containing α-Fe are generally higher than those containing β-Fe over the crucial liquid fraction range of 0.6 to 2.8 pct, indicating that the latter alloy may be more susceptible to stress-related casting defects such as hot tearing. A comparison of the semisolid tensile properties of the alloy containing α-Fe with different grain sizes showed that the maximum stress and elongation of the alloy with finer grains were moderately higher for the liquid fractions of 2.2 to 3.6 pct. The application of semisolid tensile properties for the evaluation of the hot tearing susceptibility of experimental alloys is discussed.

  18. Tensile deformation and failure of North American porcupine quills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, S.F.; Overfelt, R.A., E-mail: overfra@auburn.edu

    2011-12-01

    Although the mechanical properties of some keratin-based biological materials have been extensively studied (i.e., wool) and others are beginning to be studied (e.g., horn, hooves and avian quills), data on the properties of porcupine quill are less common. Porcupine quill is a keratin-based biological material composed of a cylindrical outer shell with an inner foam core. The present paper reports on the physical characteristics, tensile properties and fracture behavior of North American porcupine quills conditioned at relative humidities of 65% and 100%. Increasing the water content decreased the tensile stiffness and strength and increased the strain at fracture of the porcupine quills. The tensile fracture strength of porcupine quill was found to be 146 MPa at 65% RH and 60 MPa at 100% RH. Although these values compare favorably with reported values for African porcupine quill, reported values of the tensile strengths of wool with similar moisture contents are considerably higher. The initial moduli of porcupine quill (2700 MPa at 65% RH and 1000 MPa at 100% RH) compare favorably to those reported for wool but are considerably less than previous reports for African porcupine quill. The engineering strains at fracture were measured as 25% at 65% RH and 49% at 100% RH and these values are also comparable to other keratin-based mammalian materials. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces of porcupine quills revealed that the cylindrical outer shells of quills are composed of 2-3 layers with distinctly different fracture characteristics, especially when the samples contain 100% RH. The outer layer of the porcupine quill shell appears to resist the plasticizing effects of moisture and appears to exhibit considerably less ductility than the inner layers, perhaps due to the presence of hydrophobic lipids in the outer layer. Highlights: {yields} We characterize the tensile properties of north American porcupine quill. {yields} Elastic modulus, tensile

  19. Experimental Investigation and Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya BOZKURT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is a relatively contemporary solid state welding process and has been employed in aerospace, railway, automotive and marine industries for joining of aluminum, magnesium, zinc, titanium, copper alloys, dissimilar metals and thermoplastics. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotation speed, tool traverse speed and tilt angle play an important role in deciding the joining quality. The present study defines the effect of FSW process on the tensile properties of the AA2124/SiC/25p metal matrix composite (MMC plates. Obtained results showed that the joint efficiency decreases by increasing the tool traverse speed while tool rotation speed was kept constant. Second contribution of this study is the application of decision tree technique to predict the tensile properties of friction stir welded MMC plates. It is seen that methodology can be applied with great accuracy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3092

  20. High-Velocity Impact Behaviour of Prestressed Composite Plates under Bird Strike Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of the response of laminated composite plates under high-velocity impact loads of soft body gelatine projectiles (artificial birds is presented. The plates are exposed to tensile and compressive preloads before impact in order to cover realistic loading conditions of representative aeronautic structures under foreign object impact. The modelling methodology for the composite material, delamination interfaces, impact projectile, and preload using the commercial finite element code Abaqus are presented in detail. Finally, the influence of prestress and of different delamination modelling approaches on the impact response is discussed and a comparison to experimental test data is given. Tensile and compressive preloading was found to have an influence on the damage pattern. Although this general behaviour could be predicted well by the simulations, further numerical challenges for improved bird strike simulation accuracy are highlighted.

  1. Experimental Investigation and Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya BOZKURT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is a relatively contemporary solid state welding process and has been employed in aerospace, railway, automotive and marine industries for joining of aluminum, magnesium, zinc, titanium, copper alloys, dissimilar metals and thermoplastics. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotation speed, tool traverse speed and tilt angle play an important role in deciding the joining quality. The present study defines the effect of FSW process on the tensile properties of the AA2124/SiC/25p metal matrix composite (MMC plates. Obtained results showed that the joint efficiency decreases by increasing the tool traverse speed while tool rotation speed was kept constant. Second contribution of this study is the application of decision tree technique to predict the tensile properties of friction stir welded MMC plates. It is seen that methodology can be applied with great accuracy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3092

  2. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  3. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for ...

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AA2195 DC Cast Ingot Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgallad, E. M.; Hekmat-Ardakan, A.; Ajersch, F.; Chen, X.-G.

    DC cast ingot plates are especially suitable for large mold manufacturing in the plastic and automotive industries. The microstructures and mechanical properties of AA2195 DC cast ingot plates in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions were studied. Aging treatments were carried out at 125 and 150°C for 12 and 24 h. A microstructural analysis was conducted using optical and scanning electron microscopies as well as a differential scanning calorimetry. The results show a significant increase in yield and tensile strengths after aging at 150°C. It is suggested that the strengthening of AA2195 cast plates is largely determined by the proportion of both θ'-Al2Cu and T1-Al2CuLi precipitations. By adopting an appropriate heat treatment, AA2195 cast ingot plates can provide a range of satisfactory combinations of strength and ductility which fulfill the design requirements of large mold applications.

  5. Sandwich panels with high performance concrete thin plates at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    of a coupled heat and mass transfer (HMT) model to HPC thin plates to study their behaviour at elevated temperatures, predicting temperature and pore pressure distributions. The same model was applied to a sandwich structure including thin plate, stiffening rib, and insulation layer. A last simulation...... (PP) fibres for pressure release is recommended. Stress analysis showed the stiffening rib assumes the major load-carrying role. The thin plate was found largely sensitive to heat, its thermal bowing restrained by shear connectors creating high localised tensile stresses. It was suggested to anchor...... the shear connectors in the ribs. Geometric discontinuities were also found critical; therefore separation of rib and plate is advised for hazardous situations such as fire events....

  6. Influence of Edge Rolling Reduction on Plate-Edge Stress Distribution During Finish Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; CHEN Li-qing; LI Chang-sheng; ZHI Ying; LI Xin-wen

    2009-01-01

    Dimensions of one kind of stainless steel plate before finish rolling were obtained through analysis of the rough rolling processes by finite element method and updated geometrical method.The FE models of finish rolling process with a front edge roll were built,and influences of the edge rolling reduction on-the stress change in the plate edge during finish roiling were analyzed.The results show that when the edge rolling reduction is increased from 0 mm to 2 ram,the compressive stress in plate corner clearly increases in edge rolling process,and the zone of tensile stress during whole rolling decreases;when the edge rolling reduction is increased from 2 mm to 5 mm,the compressive stress in the plate corner seldom changes,and the compressive stress decreases after the horizontal rolling.

  7. Tensile and fracture toughness test results of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R.; Moons, F.; Puzzolante, J.L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-01-01

    Tensile and fracture toughness test results of four Beryllium grades are reported here. The flow and fracture properties are investigated by using small size tensile and round compact tension specimens. Irradiation was performed at the BR2 material testing reactor which allows various temperature and irradiation conditions. The fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV) ranges between 0.65 and 2.45 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. In the meantime, un-irradiated specimens were aged at the irradiation temperatures to separate if any the effect of temperature from irradiation damage. Test results are analyzed and discussed, in particular in terms of the effects of material grade, test temperature, thermal ageing and neutron irradiation. (author)

  8. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  9. Tensile test of dumbbell-shaped specimen in thickness direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Sheet metal forming is widely used in manufacturing shops, and evaluation of forming limit for sheet metal is important. However, specimen shape influences on the fracture of the sheet metal. As one of methods to decrease these effects, an uniaxial tensile test using specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction had been examined using FEM analysis. In this study, actually specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction was fabricated using a new incremental sheet forging method, and uniaxial tensile test was conducted. Load-stroke diagram, fracture morphologies, stress-strain curves and shape after fracture were investigated, and effects of specimen shape were considered. Elongation was larger as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. Stress-strain curves until necking occurred were less influenced by specimen shape. However, yield stress decreased and local elongation increased as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. The reasons why these tendencies showed were considered in the view of specimen shapes.

  10. TENSILE STRESS RELAXATION OF TURBINE BOLT STEELS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Q. Jia; H.W. Shen; Y.M. Zhu

    2004-01-01

    Stress relaxation behavior of two turbine bolt steels was evaluated by the manualcontrolled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) at high temperature. First, feasibility and the procedure of the manual-controlled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) is discussed and carried out on a general creep testing machine. And then, the experimental results from such type of test were compared to the existing data provided by certain Laboratory U.K. Overall good agreement between the results of manualcontrolled TSRT method and the existing data provides confidence in the use of the proposed method in practice. Finally, the experimental results of turbine bolt steels from TSRT were compared with that of bending test. It is observed that great difference exists between the results from two different type stress relaxation tests. It is therefore suggested that the results from TSRT method be adopted in turbine bolt design in engineering.

  11. Mini-tensile specimen application for sheets characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džugan, J.; Rund, M.; Prantl, A.; Konopík, P.

    2017-02-01

    There are many cases when there is a shortage of the experimental material for detailed analysis and then small size specimens techniques becomes essential. The current paper deals with investigations of mini-tensile tests (MTT) application to metal sheets characterization. In the case of metal sheets assessment the most common are tensile tests for Lankford parameters and strain hardening determination. As most of the processes are not quasi-static and constant strain rate processes, thus assessment of strain rate hardening is also crucial part of the characterization. Previously developed and verified testing procedure of M-TTs for bulk materials is applied here for steel sheet made of DC01 characterization. Tests under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions are carried out in order to describe above mentioned properties at room temperature. Accurate strain measurement is carried out with digital image correlation systems and results obtained with M-TTs are going to be confronted with standard size specimens’ results.

  12. Osmotic pressure induced tensile forces in tendon collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Schuetz, Roman; Chang, Shu-Wei; Metzger, Till Hartmut; Buehler, Markus J.; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Water is an important component of collagen in tendons, but its role for the function of this load-carrying protein structure is poorly understood. Here we use a combination of multi-scale experimentation and computation to show that water is an integral part of the collagen molecule, which changes conformation upon water removal. The consequence is a shortening of the molecule that translates into tensile stresses in the range of several to almost 100 MPa, largely surpassing those of about 0.3 MPa generated by contractile muscles. Although a complete drying of collagen would be relevant for technical applications, such as the fabrication of leather or parchment, stresses comparable to muscle contraction already occur at small osmotic pressures common in biological environments. We suggest, therefore, that water-generated tensile stresses may play a role in living collagen-based materials such as tendon or bone.

  13. Statistical data for the tensile properties of natural fibre composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Torres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features a large statistical database on the tensile properties of natural fibre reinforced composite laminates. The data presented here corresponds to a comprehensive experimental testing program of several composite systems including: different material constituents (epoxy and vinyl ester resins; flax, jute and carbon fibres, different fibre configurations (short-fibre mats, unidirectional, and plain, twill and satin woven fabrics and different fibre orientations (0°, 90°, and [0,90] angle plies. For each material, ~50 specimens were tested under uniaxial tensile loading. Here, we provide the complete set of stress–strain curves together with the statistical distributions of their calculated elastic modulus, strength and failure strain. The data is also provided as support material for the research article: “The mechanical properties of natural fibre composite laminates: A statistical study” [1].

  14. Data characterizing tensile behavior of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bharath Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented is related to the tensile behavior of cenosphere reinforced high density polyethylene syntactic foam composites “Processing of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foams using an industrial scale polymer injection molding machine” (Bharath et al., 2016 [1]. The focus of the work is on determining the feasibility of using an industrial scale polymer injection molding (PIM machine for fabricating syntactic foams. The fabricated syntactic foams are investigated for microstructure and tensile properties. The data presented in this article is related to optimization of the PIM process for syntactic foam manufacture, equations and procedures to develop theoretical estimates for properties of cenospheres, and microstructure of syntactic foams before and after failure. Included dataset contains values obtained from the theoretical model.

  15. Uniaxial tension and tensile creep behaviors of EPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康颖安; 李显方; 谭加才

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of EPS(Expanded polystyrene) with three densities at room temperature and under tension loading was studied.The results show that EPS material is characterized by brittle behavior in the tension tests,and tensile properties of EPS increase with the increase of density.Volume fraction has no a significant effect on the modulus of these foams.The tensile creep strain increases with stress for EPS with same density,indicating that the creep behavior is of the stress dependency.And the creep behavior of EPS exhibits density dependency,which the creep strain decreases with densities for a fixed stress value.Moreover the creep behavior under the constant tension load is well in coincidence with the three-parameter solid model.

  16. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  17. Thermographic studies on IMI-834 titanium alloy during tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jalaj [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)], E-mail: k_jalaj@yahoo.com; Baby, Sony; Kumar, Vikas [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2008-11-25

    To study the material deformation kinetics under monotonic loading conditions, infrared radiation thermography (IRT) has been used in the present investigation. Studies were performed on IMI-834 titanium alloy, which is used in the compressor module of an aeroengine. The compressor has variable states of stress triaxialities at different locations. The effect of stress triaxiality on material deformation was investigated with the use of smooth and axisymmetrically notched round tensile specimens of the alloy. Instantaneous surface temperatures were measured on specimens during tensile deformation through IRT technique. The notched specimen exhibited localized and higher rate of temperature evolution during loading. Using surface temperature evolution curves, thermoelastic and inelastic regions were identified for smooth and notched specimens. With the help of Lord Kelvin's equation, stresses were predicted for thermoelastic region. A good correlation was found between the predicted and experimental stresses for this region.

  18. Testing Tensile and Shear Epoxy Strength at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, S. J.; Doehne, C. J.; Johnson, W. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper covers cryogenic, tensile testing and research completed on a number of epoxies used in cryogenic applications. Epoxies are used in many different applications; however, this research focused on the use of epoxy used to bond MLI standoffs to cryogenic storage tanks and the loads imparted to the tank through the MLI. To conduct testing, samples were made from bare stainless steel, aluminum and primed aluminum. Testing involved slowly cooling test samples with liquid nitrogen then applying gradually increasing tensile loads to the epoxy. The testing evaluated the strength and durability of epoxies at cryogenic temperatures and serves as a base for future testing. The results of the tests showed that some epoxies withstood the harsh conditions while others failed. The two epoxies yielding the best results were Masterbond EP29LPSP and Scotch Weld 2216. For all metal surfaces tested, both epoxies had zero failures for up to 11.81 kg of mass.

  19. Crack-growth behavior in thick welded plates of Inconel 718 at room and cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Results of mechanical-properties and axial-load fatigue and fracture tests performed on thick welded plates of Inconel 718 superalloy are presented. The test objectives were to determine the tensile strength properties and the crack-growth behavior in electron-beam, plasma-arc, and gas tungsten are welds for plates 1.90 cm (0.75 in) thick. Base-metal specimens were also tested to determine the flaw-growth behavior. The tests were performed in room-temperature-air and liquid nitrogen environments. The experimental crack-growth-rate data are correlated with theoretical crack-growth-rate predictions for semielliptical surface flaws.

  20. Human nail plate modifications induced by onychomycosis: implications for topical therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Baraldi, A.; S. A. Jones; Guesné, S.; Traynor, M.J.; McAuley, W.J.; Brown, M B; Murdan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Through the characterisation of the human onchomycotic nail plate this study aimed to inform the design of new topical ungual formulations. Methods The mechanical properties of the human nail were characterised using a Lloyd tensile strength tester. The nail’s density was determined via pycnometry and the nail’s ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy analysed the keratin disulphide bonds within the nail and its permeability properties were assessed by quantifying wa...

  1. Human Nail Plate Modifications Induced by Onychomycosis: Implications for Topical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Baraldi, A.; Jones, S.A.; Guesné, S.; Traynor, M. J.; McAuley, W J; Brown, M.B.; Murdan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Through the characterisation of the human onchomycotic nail plate this study aimed to inform the design of new topical ungual formulations. Methods The mechanical properties of the human nail were characterised using a Lloyd tensile strength tester. The nail’s density was determined via pycnometry and the nail’s ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy analysed the keratin disulphide bonds within the nail and its permeability properties were assessed by quantifying wa...

  2. Controlling Laminate Plate Elastic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mareš, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to express the relation of a measure of laminate plate stiffness with respect to the fiber orientation of its plies. The inverse of the scalar product of the lateral displacement of the central plane and lateral loading of the plate is the measure of laminate plate stiffness. In the case of a simply supported rectangular laminate plate this measure of stiffness is maximized, and the optimum orientation of its plies is searched.

  3. MULTITEXCO - high performance smart multifunctional technical textiles for tensile structures

    OpenAIRE

    Heyse, P.; Buyle, G; Beccarelli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the textile industry developed a new generation of advanced textile materials for the construction sector designed to address the needs of one of the largest markets for textile products. Examples of the advanced textiles developed include fabrics for the rehabilitation of buildings, geotextiles for the consolidation of a wide range of soil structures and the high performance technical textiles for tensile structures. When combine with innovative sensors the fabrics provide a...

  4. Neural Network Analysis of Tensile Strength of Austempered Ductile Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Ławrynowicz; S. Dymski; M. Trepczyńska - Łent; T. Giętka

    2007-01-01

    The neural technique was applied to the analysis of the ultimate tensile strength and additionally the yield strength of austempered ductile iron (ADI). Austempered ductile iron is an excellent material and it possesses attractive properties as high strength, ductility and toughness. This paper begins with an introduction to neural networks and demonstrates the ability of the method to investigate new phenomena in cases where the information cannot be accessed experimentally. The model allows...

  5. An apparatus for measuring the tensile strength of blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACFARLANE, R G; TOMLINSON, A H

    1961-05-01

    An apparatus is described which uses the principle of the ballistic pendulum to measure the tensile strength of blood clots formed in special cuvettes. The method appears to have a reproducibility which would allow a study to be made of the factors influencing clot strength. A brief survey of the findings with normal blood and with blood from cases of thrombosis and haemophilia shows significant differences between the mean values for each group.

  6. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  7. Finite element analysis of notch tensile behavior of alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, A.; Srivathsa, B.

    2013-06-01

    Notch tensile behavior of alloy 718 is characterized in conventionally heat treated condition as a function of U and V notches at 25, 200 & 400 °C. The experimental results were then compared with the values obtained from simulation of notched geometries in ANSYS software using smooth specimen data. An excellent agreement is noticed between simulated and experimental true stress-true strain curves.

  8. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  9. Microchannel plate streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  10. Hydroxyapatite nanorod-reinforced biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) composites for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Erkin; Planell, Josep A; Hasirci, Vasif

    2011-11-01

    Novel PLLA composite fibers containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with or without surface lactic acid grafting were produced by extrusion for use as reinforcements in PLLA-based bone plates. Fibers containing 0-50% (w/w) HAp nanorods, aligned parallel to fiber axis, were extruded. Lactic acid surface grafting of HAp nanorods (lacHAp) improved the tensile properties of composites fibers better than the non-grafted ones (nHAp). Best tensile modulus values of 2.59, 2.49, and 4.12 GPa were obtained for loadings (w/w) with 30% lacHAp, 10% nHAp, and 50% amorphous HAp nanoparticles, respectively. Bone plates reinforced with parallel rows of these composite fibers were molded by melt pressing. The best compressive properties for plates were obtained with nHAp reinforcement (1.31 GPa Young's Modulus, 110.3 MPa compressive strength). In vitro testing with osteoblasts showed good cellular attachment and spreading on composite fibers. In situ degradation tests revealed faster degradation rates with increasing HAp content. To our knowledge, this is the first study containing calcium phosphate-polymer nanocomposite fibers for reinforcement of a biodegradable bone plate or other such implants and this biomimetic design was concluded to have potential for production of polymer-based biodegradable bone plates even for load bearing applications.

  11. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  12. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  13. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...

  14. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...

  15. Fluid-mechanical Representation of Plate Boundaries - Trench-Ridge System -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, M.; Fukao, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic tomography models have been used extensively to simulate mantle convection driven by density heterogeneity. Such simulation to date has been unsuccessful to reconcile itself with the most obvious convection-related phenomenon of plate motions. Here we present a theoretical framework for tomography-based convection modeling to include the plates as an integral part of the mantle convection. We model the lithosphere as a highly viscous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid layer and plate boundaries as faults across which tangential velocities are discontinuous. Fluid-mechanical expressions of such faults have their exact analogies in the seismic source representation theory and can be derived by referring to it. We test this idea against the simplest two-dimensional case with only trench and ridge as plate boundaries, and with only subducting slab as mass anomaly. We model ridge (trench) as the horizontal (vertical) tensile fault that comprises of a conjugate pair of 45-degree dip normal (reverse) faults extending over the entire thickness of the surface layer. The system comprises of three elementary convections, slab mass-driven convection, trench fault-driven convection and ridge fault-driven convection. Flow due to the slab excess mass imposes vertical tensile stress on trench, which is released by flow driven by trench faulting. This faulting converts efficiently the vertical tensile stress to the horizontal tensile stress, which can transmit to extreme distances through the surface viscous layer. This horizontal tensile stress is relieved by flow driven by ridge faulting. The three elementary convections are thus coupled through the stress minimum conditions at ridge and trench. The resultant coupled flow is very plate-like in the surface viscous layer. In this system the horizontal surface velocity depends little on the relative distance between the ridge and trench and depends mostly on the excess weight of the subducting slab. The horizontal speed can be

  16. Effects of conventional welding and laser welding on the tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength and surface characteristics of two cobalt-chromium alloys: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan Kumar, Seenivasan; Sethumadhava, Jayesh Raghavendra; Anand Kumar, Vaidyanathan; Manita, Grover

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser welding and conventional welding on the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength of the cobalt-chromium alloy. Samples were prepared with two commercially available cobalt-chromium alloys (Wironium plus and Diadur alloy). The samples were sectioned and the broken fragments were joined using Conventional and Laser welding techniques. The welded joints were subjected to tensile and ultimate tensile strength testing; and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the surface characteristics at the welded site. Both on laser welding as well as on conventional welding technique, Diadur alloy samples showed lesser values when tested for tensile and ultimate tensile strength when compared to Wironium alloy samples. Under the scanning electron microscope, the laser welded joints show uniform welding and continuous molt pool all over the surface with less porosity than the conventionally welded joints. Laser welding is an advantageous method of connecting or repairing cast metal prosthetic frameworks.

  17. Determination of Tensile Properties of Polymers at High Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Z.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of high rate testing of polymers the measured properties are highly dependent on the applied methodology. Hence, the test setup as whole but in particular also the geometrical type of specimen plays a decisive role. The widely used standard for the determination of tensile properties of polymers (ISO527-2 was extended by a novel standard (ISO18872:2007, which is targeted on the determination of tensile properties at high strain rates. In this standard also a novel specimen shape is proposed. Hand in hand with the introduction of new specimen geometry the question of comparability arises. To point out the differences in stress-strain response of the ISO18872 specimen and the ISO527-2 multipurpose specimen tensile tests over a wide loading rate range were conducted in this paper. A digital image correlation system in combination with a high speed camera was used to characterize the local material behaviour. Different parameters like nominal stress, true stress, nominal strain, true strain as well as volumetric strain were determined and used to compare the two specimen geometries.

  18. Tensile strength and fracture of cemented granular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, R; Delenne, J-Y; Monerie, Y; Radjaï, F; Topin, V

    2012-11-01

    Cemented granular aggregates include a broad class of geomaterials such as sedimentary rocks and some biomaterials such as the wheat endosperm. We present a 3D lattice element method for the simulation of such materials, modeled as a jammed assembly of particles bound together by a matrix partially filling the interstitial space. From extensive simulation data, we analyze the mechanical properties of aggregates subjected to tensile loading as a function of matrix volume fraction and particle-matrix adhesion. We observe a linear elastic behavior followed by a brutal failure along a fracture surface. The effective stiffness before failure increases almost linearly with the matrix volume fraction. We show that the tensile strength of the aggregates increases with both the increasing tensile strength at the particle-matrix interface and decreasing stress concentration as a function of matrix volume fraction. The proportion of broken bonds in the particle phase reveals a range of values of the particle-matrix adhesion and matrix volume fraction for which the cracks bypass the particles and hence no particle damage occurs. This limit is shown to depend on the relative toughness of the particle-matrix interface with respect to the particles.

  19. Deformation behavior of reduced activation ferritic steel during tensile test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Kiyoyuki [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibakaki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: shiba@realab01.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Hirose, Takanori [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    Deformation behavior of reduced activation martensitic steel F82H during tensile tests were studied. True stress-true strain diagrams were calculated with minimum diameter determined from the specimen profile obtained by laser micro-gauge scanning the diameter along the longitudinal direction during tensile test. Cylindrical specimens of F82H were used for the measurement and test temperatures were room temperature (RT), 300, 400, 500 and 600 deg. C. Tensile tests were carried out with 1 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} of strain rate. Other strain rates (1 x 10{sup -3} and 1 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1}) were applied for the tests at RT. Although uniform elongation of F82H is relatively small at elevated temperature, true stress increases to fracture after necking starts. True stress decreases temporarily after yielding at 600 deg. C, but it increases again to fracture like the specimens tested at lower temperatures. Influence of strain rate to true stress-true strain relationship at room temperature was small, but unstable deformation occurred in narrower area at higher strain rate.

  20. Neural Network Analysis of Tensile Strength of Austempered Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The neural technique was applied to the analysis of the ultimate tensile strength and additionally the yield strength of austempered ductile iron (ADI. Austempered ductile iron is an excellent material and it possesses attractive properties as high strength, ductility and toughness. This paper begins with an introduction to neural networks and demonstrates the ability of the method to investigate new phenomena in cases where the information cannot be accessed experimentally. The model allows the strength properties to be estimated as a function of heat treatment parameters and the chemical composition. A ‘committee’ model was used to increase the accuracy of the predictions. The model was validated by comparison its predictions with data of tensile tests experiments on austempered samples of ductile cast iron. The model successfully reproduces experimentally determined ultimate tensile strength and it can be exploited in the predictions of both ultimate and yield strength and in the design of chemical composition of cast irons and their heat treatments.

  1. Tensile & impact behaviour of natural fibre-reinforced composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, B.C. [Victoria Univ. of Technology, Footscray (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Short abaca fiber reinforced composite materials are fabricated and investigated for short term performance. Abaca plants which grow in abundance in Asia contain fibers that are inexpensive but underutilized. This study attempts to utilize the abaca fibers for composite material structure as a possible alternative to timber products in building applications. The composite material is fabricated using the hand lay-up method under varying fiber length and fiber volume fraction. The fibers are impregnated with a mixture of resins which cures at room temperature. A fabricating facility is designed to accommodate fabrication of lamina. Tensile and impact properties are determined in relation to the length and volume fraction of the fiber. For a given fiber length, the tensile and impact strength increase as the volume fraction increases up to a limiting value. And for a given fiber volume fraction, the tensile strength increases but the impact strength decreases as the fiber length increases. This behavior of abaca fiber-reinforced composite lamina will help in optimizing the design parameter in random composite panels.

  2. The Effect of Corrosive Environment on Geopolymer Concrete Tensile Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayuaji Ridho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has the purpose to explore the potential of geopolymer concrete tensile strength in particular on the effects of corrosive environments. Geopolymer concrete, concrete technology used no OPC that has advantages, one of which is durability, especially for corrosive seawater environment. In addition, geopolymer concrete with polymerization mechanism does not require large energy consumption or an environmentally friendly concept. Geopolymer concrete in this study is using a type C fly ash from PT. International Power Mitsui Operation & Maintenence Indonesia (IPMOMI Paiton. The type of alkaline activator used NaOH (14 molar and Na2SiO3. Coarse and fine aggregate used are local aggregate. Geopolymer concrete molded test specimen with dimensions of (10 × 20 cm cylinder, further heating and without heating, then maintained at room temperature and seawater up to 28 days. Then to determine the mechanical properties, the tensile strength testing is done with reference. This result of study indicates the curing of geopolymer concrete at 60 ° C for 24 hours to raise the tensile strength of geopolymer concrete.

  3. Tensile Deformation and Morphological Evolution of Precise Acid Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Luri Robert; Szewczyk, Steve; Schwartz, Eric; Azoulay, Jason; Murtagh, Dustin; Cordaro, Joseph; Wagener, Kenneth; Winey, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Acid- and ion-containing polymers have specific interactions that produce complex and hierarchical morphologies that provide tunable mechanical properties. We report tensile testing and in situ x-ray scattering measurements of a homologous series of precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymers (pxAA). Upon variation of the number of backbone carbons (x = 9, 15, 21) between pendant acrylic acid groups along the linear polyethylene chain, these materials exhibit pronounced changes in both their tensile properties as well as their morphological evolution during deformation. The hierarchical layered acid aggregate structure coincides with the onset of a strain hardening mechanism and was observed in both a semi-crystalline sample (p21AA) as well as an amorphous sample (p15AA). The polymer with the shortest spacing between acid groups (p9AA) maintains a liquid-like distribution of acid aggregates during deformation, exhibiting low tensile strength which we attribute to facile acid exchange between acid aggregates during deformation. Our results indicate that the formation of the hierarchical layered structure, which coincides with polymer strain-hardening regime, originates from the associating acid groups cooperatively preventing disentanglement. NSF-DMR-1103858.

  4. The Tensile Behavior of High-Strength Carbon Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Tye

    2016-08-01

    Carbon fibers exhibit exceptional properties such as high stiffness and specific strength, making them excellent reinforcements for composite materials. However, it is difficult to directly measure their tensile properties and estimates are often obtained by tensioning fiber bundles or composites. While these macro scale tests are informative for composite design, their results differ from that of direct testing of individual fibers. Furthermore, carbon filament strength also depends on other variables, including the test length, actual fiber diameter, and material flaw distribution. Single fiber tensile testing was performed on high-strength carbon fibers to determine the load and strain at failure. Scanning electron microscopy was also conducted to evaluate the fiber surface morphology and precisely measure each fiber's diameter. Fiber strength was found to depend on the test gage length and in an effort to better understand the overall expected performance of these fibers at various lengths, statistical weak link scaling was performed. In addition, the true Young's modulus was also determined by taking the system compliance into account. It was found that all properties (tensile strength, strain to failure, and Young's modulus) matched very well with the manufacturers' reported values at 20 mm gage lengths, but deviated significantly at other lengths.

  5. Microstructure and tensile properties of tungsten at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tielong; Dai, Yong; Lee, Yongjoong

    2016-01-01

    In order to support the development of the 5 MW spallation target for the European Spallation Source, the effect of fabrication process on microstructure, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), tensile and fracture behaviour of powder-metallurgy pure tungsten materials has been investigated. A hot-rolled (HR) tungsten piece of 12 mm thickness and a hot-forged (HF) piece of about 80 mm thickness were used to simulate the thin and thick blocks in the target. The two tungsten pieces were characterized with metallography analysis, hardness measurement and tensile testing. The HR piece exhibits an anisotropic grain structure with an average size of about 330 × 140 × 40 μm in rolling, long transverse and short transverse (thickness) directions. The HF piece possesses a bimodal grain structure with about 310 × 170 × 70 μm grain size in deformed part and about 25 μm sized grains remained from sintering process. Hardness (HV0.2) of the HR piece is slightly greater than that of the HF one. The ductility of the HR tungsten specimens is greater than that of the HF tungsten. For the HF tungsten piece, specimens with small grains in gauge section manifest lower ductility but higher strength. The DBTT evaluated from the tensile results is 250-300 °C for the HR tungsten and about 350 °C for the HF tungsten.

  6. Evaluation of High-Temperature Tensile Property of Diffusion Bond of Austenitic Alloys for S-CO{sub 2} Cycle Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sunghoon; Sah, Injin; Jang, Chanheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To improve the inherent safety of the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is being considered as an alternative power conversion system to steam the Rankine cycle. In the S-CO{sub 2} system, a PCHE (printed circuit heat exchanger) is being considered. In this type of heat exchangers, diffusion bonding is used for joining the thin plates. In this study, the diffusion bonding characteristics of various austenitic alloys were evaluated. The tensile properties were measured at temperatures starting from the room temperature up to 650℃. For the 316H and 347H types of stainless steel, the tensile ductility was well maintained up to 550℃. However, the Incoloy 800HT showed lower strength and ductility at all temperatures. The microstructure near the bond line was examined to understand the reason for the loss of ductility at high temperatures.

  7. Direct assessment of tensile stress-crack opening behavior of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    at the level of a single crack. The derived tensile stress-crack opening behavior is utilized to analyze and compare the influence of various composite parameters on the resulting tensile behavior. The deformations occurring during tensile loading are furthermore examined using a digital image...

  8. 3D Finite Element Numerical Simulation of Residual Stresses on Electron Beam Welded BT20 Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixing HUO; Furong CHEN; Yufeng ZHANG; Li ZHANG; Fangjun LIU; Gang CHEN

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element model (FEM) used for calculating electron beam (EB) welding temperature and stresses fields of thin plates of BT20 titanium has been developed in which the nonlinear thermophysical and thermo-mechanical properties of the material has been considered. The welding temperature field, the distributions of residual stresses in aswelded (AW) and electron beam local post-weld heat treatment (EBLPWHT) conditions have been successfully simulated.The results show that: (1) In the weld center, the maximum magnitude of residual tensile stresses of BT20 thin plates of Ti alloy is equal to 60%~ 70% of its yield strength σs. (2) The residual tensile stresses in weld center can be even decreased after EBLPWHT and the longitudinal tensile stresses are decreased about 50% compared to joints in AW conditions. (3)The numerical calculating results of residual stresses by using FEM are basically in agreement with the experimental results.Combined with numerical calculating results, the effects of electron beam welding and EBLPWHT on the distribution of welding residual stresses in thin plates of BT20 have been analyzed in detail.

  9. Modeling elastic tensile fractures in snow using nonlocal damage mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstad, C. P.; McClung, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    The initiation and propagation of tensile fractures in snow and ice are fundamental to numerous important physical processes in the cryosphere, from iceberg calving to ice shelf rift propagation to slab avalanche release. The heterogeneous nature of snow and ice, their proximity to the melting temperature, and the varied governing timescales typically lead to nonlinear fracture behavior which does not follow the predictions of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). Furthermore, traditional fracture mechanics is formally inapplicable for predicting crack initiation in the absence of a pre-existing flaw or stress concentration. An alternative to fracture mechanics is continuum damage mechanics, which accounts for the material degradation associated with cracking in a numerically efficient framework. However, damage models which are formulated locally (e.g. stress and strain are defined as point properties) suffer from mesh-sensitive crack trajectories, spurious localization of damage and improper fracture energy dissipation with mesh refinement. Nonlocal formulations of damage, which smear the effects of the material heterogeneity over an intrinsic length scale related to the material microstructure, overcome these difficulties and lead to numerically efficient and mesh-objective simulations of the tensile failure of heterogeneous materials. We present the results of numerical simulations of tensile fracture initiation and propagation in cohesive snow using a nonlocal damage model. Seventeen beam bending experiments, both notched and unnotched, were conducted using blocks of cohesive dry snow extracted from an alpine snowpack. Material properties and fracture parameters were calculated from the experimental data using beam theory and quasi-brittle fracture mechanics. Using these parameters, a nonlocal isotropic damage model was applied to two-dimensional finite element meshes of the same scale as the experiments. The model was capable of simulating the propagation

  10. Tensile Hoop Behavior of Irradiated Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Roger A [ORNL; Hendrich, WILLIAM R [ORNL; Packan, Nicolas H [ORNL

    2007-03-01

    A method for evaluating the room temperature ductility behavior of irradiated Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding has been developed and applied to evaluate tensile hoop strength of material irradiated to different levels. The test utilizes a polyurethane plug fitted within a tubular cladding specimen. A cylindrical punch is used to compress the plug axially, which generates a radial displacement that acts upon the inner diameter of the specimen. Position sensors track the radial displacement of the specimen outer diameter as the compression proceeds. These measurements coupled with ram force data provide a load-displacement characterization of the cladding response to internal pressurization. The development of this simple, cost-effective, highly reproducible test for evaluating tensile hoop strain as a function of internal pressure for irradiated specimens represents a significant advance in the mechanical characterization of irradiated cladding. In this project, nuclear fuel rod assemblies using Zircaloy-4 cladding and two types of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel pellets were irradiated to varying levels of burnup. Fuel pellets were manufactured with and without thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR) processing. Fuel pellets manufactured by both methods were contained in fuel rod assemblies and irradiated to burnup levels of 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/MT. These levels of fuel burnup correspond to fast (E > 1 MeV) fluences of 0.27, 0.68, 0.98, 1.4 and 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2, respectively. Following irradiation, fuel rod assemblies were disassembled; fuel pellets were removed from the cladding; and the inner diameter of cladding was cleaned to remove residue materials. Tensile hoop strength of this cladding material was tested using the newly developed method. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding was also tested. With the goal of determining the effect of the two fuel types and different neutron fluences on clad ductility, tensile hoop strength tests were

  11. Tensile and bending fatigue of the adhesive interface to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Renan; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Braem, Marc; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatigue limits of the dentin-composite interfaces established either with an etch-and-rinse or an one-step self-etch adhesive systems under tensile and bending configurations. Flat specimens (1.2 mm×5 mm×35 mm) were prepared using a plexiglass mold where dentin sections from human third molars were bonded to a resin composite, exhibiting the interface centrally located. Syntac Classic and G-Bond were used as adhesives and applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The fluorochrome Rhodamine B was added to the adhesives to allow for fractographic evaluation. Tensile strength was measured in an universal testing machine and the bending strength (n=15) in a Flex machine (Flex, University of Antwerp, Belgium), respectively. Tensile (TFL) and bending fatigue limits (BFL) (n=25) were determined under wet conditions for 10(4) cycles following a staircase approach. Interface morphology and fracture mechanisms were observed using light, confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA (mod LSD test, pbending characteristic strengths at 63.2% failure probability for Syntac were 23.8 MPa and 71.5 MPa, and 24.7 MPa and 72.3 MPa for G-Bond, respectively. Regarding the applied methods, no significant differences were detected between adhesives. However, fatigue limits for G-Bond (TFL=5.9 MPa; BFL=36.2 MPa) were significantly reduced when compared to Syntac (TFL=12.6 MPa; BFL=49.7 MPa). Fracture modes of Syntac were generally of adhesive nature, between the adhesive resin and dentin, while G-Bond showed fracture planes involving the adhesive-dentin interface and the adhesive resin. Cyclic loading under tensile and bending configurations led to a significant strength degradation, with a more pronounced fatigue limit decrease for G-Bond. The greater decrease in fracture strength was observed in the tensile configuration. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental

  12. Simultaneous imaging and measurement of tensile stress on cornea by using a common-path optical coherence tomography system with an external contact reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Utkarsh Sharma; Jin U. Kang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate that tensile stress resulting due to applied force on cornea can be accurately measured by using a time-domain common-path optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with an external contact reference. The unique design of the common-path OCT is utilized to set up an imaging system in which a chicken eye is placed adjacent to a glass plate serving as the external reference plane for the imaging system. As the force is applied to the chicken eye, it presses against the reference glass plate. The modified OCT image obtained is used to calculate the size of contact area, which is then used to derive the tensile stress on the cornea. The drop in signal levels upon contact of reference glass plate with the tissue are extremely sharp because of the sharp decline in reference power levels itself, thus providing us with an accurate measurement of contact area. The experimental results were in good agreement with the numerical predictions. The results of this study might be useful in providing new insights and ideas to improve the precision and safety of currently used ophthalmic surgical techniques. This research outlines a method which could be used to provide high resolution OCT images and a precise feedback of the forces applied to the cornea simultaneously.

  13. Influences of hot-isostatic-pressing temperature on microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of Inconel 718 powder compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Litao [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Sun, Wenru; Cui, Yuyou [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Yang, Rui, E-mail: ryang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2014-04-01

    Inconel 718 powders have been hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) at representative temperatures to investigate the variations in microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of the powder compact. Microstructure of the powder compacts were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and so on. The results showed that the interdendritic precipitates inherited from the powders were partially retained in the powder compacts when the powders were HIPed at or below 1210 °C but were eliminated when HIPed at and above 1260 °C. The grain size uniformity of the powder compacts first increases and then decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Prior particle boundaries (PPBs) were observed in the powder compacts HIPed at and below 1260 °C but was eliminated when HIPed at 1275 °C. The PPBs were decorated with carbide particles, the amount of the carbide particles at the PPBs decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Most of the PPBs were pinned by the carbide particles in the compacts HIPed at 1140 °C. When the HIPing temperature was increased to 1210 °C and 1260 °C, a large number of PPBs de-pinned and moved beyond the pinning carbide particles, leading to grain growth and leaving carbide particles at the site of the original PPBs within the new grains. With increasing HIPing temperature, the 0.2% yield strength of the powder compacts at 650 °C decreases, the tensile elongation increases, and the tensile fracture mode changed from inter-particle dominant fracture to fully dimple ductile fracture.

  14. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bowin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s−1. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive

  15. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  16. Using plate mapping to examine portion size and plate composition for large and small divided plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David E; Sobal, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods - such as meat versus vegetables - differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, which showed that the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are that plate size may influence portion size and change the proportions of foods served.

  17. Friction Stir Welding of very thin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Galvão

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in present research, relative to friction stir welding of 1 mm thick plates of aluminium, copper, copper-zinc and zinc alloys, prove that the application of the process in the joining of very thin plates is feasible and desirable. In fact, independently of the base material, the welds produced presented very good morphological characteristics and significant grain refinement in the nugget. Tensile and hardness tests proved that all the welds were at least in even-match relative to the base material properties. Based on the AA 5182 aluminium alloy results it was also possible to conclude that augmenting the welding speed, which improves process productivity, increases grain refinement in the nugget, improving the mechanical properties of the welds.Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo, referentes a friction stir welding de chapas de alumínio, cobre, cobre-zinco e zinco com 1 mm de espessura, provam que a aplicação desta tecnologia para a ligação de chapas muito finas é possível e desejável. De fato, independentemente do material de base, as soldas produzidas apresentaram características morfológicas muito boas e um significativo refinamento do grão na zona do nugget. Ensaios de dureza e tração provaram que todas as soldas apresentavam, no mínimo, propriedades mecânicas semelhantes às dos materiais de base. Com base nos resultados da liga de alumínio AA 5182 foi também possível concluir que ao aumentar a velocidade de soldagem, o que melhora a produtividade do processo, aumenta-se o refinamento do grão no nugget, melhorando as propriedades mecânicas das soldas.

  18. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  19. Effect of chain extension on rheology and tensile properties of PHB and PHB-PLA blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousfield, Glenn

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), referred to as PHB, is a bacterially-synthesized and biodegradable polymer which is being considered as a substitute for non-biodegradable bulk polymers like polypropylene. PHB is naturally extremely isotactic and naturally has a very high degree of crystallinity, resulting in a stiff but brittle material. The stability of PHB crystals also means that the melting point of the polymer is approximately 170°C, high with respect to similar polymers. For instance, the melting point of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) is only 53°C (Saito, Nakamura, Hiramitsu, & Doi, 1996). Above 170°C, PHB is subject to a thermomechanical degradation mechanism, meaning that the polymer cannot be melted without degrading. One possible solution to the problem of degradation is to add a chain extender to the molten polymer to increase average molecular weight to counteract the molecular weight lost to degradation. In this work, a variety of chain extenders (JoncrylRTM ADR 4368-C, pyromellitic dianhydride, hexamethylene diisocyanate, polycarbodiimide) were compounded with a random copolymer of 98 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate and 2 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (referred to as PHB) in concentrations ranging from 0.25% to 4%, to determine which chain extender functionality worked best with PHB. Molecular weight change was inferred from torque monitored during compounding, and from complex viscosity determined from parallel-plate rheology. None of the chain extenders changed the rate of degradation of PHB, although Joncryl increased the complex viscosity of the polymer. PHB was also blended with Poly(L-lactic acid), referred to as PLLA in PHB/PLLA ratios of 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100, to determine the effect of blending on the thermal stability of PHB. Again, thermal stability was determined by monitoring torque during compounding and by measuring complex viscosity through parallel-plate rheology. Blends in which PHB was the more abundant phase, as well as the 50% PHB/50% PLA

  20. Real Plates and Dubious Microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M. G.; Steblov, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    From the onset of plate tectonics, the existence of most of the plates was never put in doubt, although the boundaries of some plates, like Africa, were later revised. There are however, two microplates in northeast Asia, the Amurian and Okhotsk, whose existence and the sense of rotation was revised several times. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 0.5-0.9 mm/a for sets of stations representing the motion of the following plates: Antarctic, Australian, Eurasian, North American, Nubian, Pacific, and South American. This value can be regarded as an upper bound on deviation of real plates from infinite stiffness. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 1.2-1.8 mm/a for the Indian, Nazca, and Somalian plates. Higher rms values for India and Nazca are attributed to the noisier data. The higher rms value for Somalia appears to arise from the distributed deformation to the east of the East African Rift; whether this statement is true can only be decided from observations of denser network in the future. From the analysis of plate-residual GPS velocities, the Canadian Arctic and northeastern Siberia belong to the North American plate. The detailed GPS survey on Sakhalin Island shows that the Sea of Okhotsk region also belongs to the North American plate while the region to the west of it belongs to the Eurasian plate. These results provide a constraint on the geometry of the North American plate and put in doubt the existence of smaller plates in northeast Asia.

  1. Isolation of kinetic and spatial properties of uni-axial dynamic tensile loading of OFHC copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Materials performance is recognized as being central to many emergent technologies. Future technologies will place increasing demands on materials performance with respect to extremes in stress, strain, temperature, and pressure. In this study, the dynamic ductile damage evolution of OFHC Cu is explored as a test bed to understand the role of spatial effects due to loading profile and defect density as well as the role of the kinetics of tensile pulse evolution. Well-characterized OFHC Cu samples of 30 μm, 60 μm, 100 μm, and 200 μm grain sizes were subjected to plate impact uniaxial strain loading in spall geometry to produce early stage (incipient damage. Using 2D metallographic techniques, soft recovered samples were studied to statistically link mesoscale processes to continuum level observations of free surface particle velocity measured with VISAR. Based on these findings, mechanisms for the void nucleation/growth and coalescence are proposed.

  2. Mechanical properties of gold twinned nanocubes under different triaxial tensile rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zailin; Zhang, Guowei; Luo, Gang; Sun, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Jianwei

    2016-08-01

    The gold twinned nanocubes under different triaxial tensile rates are explored by molecular dynamics simulation. Hydrostatic stress and Mises stress are defined in order to understand triaxial stresses. Twin boundaries prevent dislocations between twin boundaries from developing and dislocation angles are inconspicuous, which causes little difference between triaxial stresses. The mechanical properties of the nanocubes under low and high tensile rates are different. The curves of nanocubes under high tensile rates are more abrupt than those under low tensile rates. When the tensile rate is extremely big, the loadings are out of the nanocubes and there are not deformation and fracture in the internal nanocubes.

  3. ZERO-TENSILE STRENGTH FOR RESULT COMPARISON IN CAVITATION INCEPTION TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The tensile strength of test liquid affects the cavitation inception numbers very seriously, and the zero-tensile strength as a criterion for detection of the cavitation inception numbers can be used, in order to reduce the influence of tensile strength. The scale effect on measuring zero-tensile strength of test liquid based on hydraulic methods must be considered. it is supposed that the zero-tensile strength can be defined by use of the comparative method, which unites the classical theory of cavitation inception with the modern one based on an identical criterion.

  4. The influences of anneal temperature and cooling rate on microstructure and tensile properties of laser deposited Ti–4Al–1.5Mn titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, X.J., E-mail: tianxj@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang, S.Q.; Wang, H.M.

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • We study the heat treatment parameters of laser deposited near-α titanium alloy. • Microstructure/tensile property relationships are demonstrated and discussed. • Higher cooling rate leads to finer microstructure and higher strength. • Higher anneal temperature promotes strength without ductility obviously decreased. - Abstract: As a metal near-net-shape manufacturing technology, direct laser fabrication has a great potential to reduce costs and delivery time and received an intense attention in the field of titanium alloy aerospace components fabrications. However, the laser deposited titanium alloys usually have equivalent strength and lower ductility compared to the wrought counterparts due to their lamellar microstructure. To investigate the responses of laser deposit titanium alloy Ti–4Al–1.5Mn to anneal parameters, various anneal temperatures and cooling rates were applied in this study. Microstructures were examined by Optical Microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Microhardness test and room temperature tensile tests were employed to evaluate the tensile properties of the as-deposited and annealed specimens. Results show that air cooling from the α + β phase region generates a microstructure composed of coarse primary α plates and fine lamellar transformed β, while water quenching produces similar but much finer microstructure. Moreover, higher cooling rate generates more area fraction of fine transformed β. With increasing anneal temperature, the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength increase for both cooling methods. Moreover, higher cooling rate leads to higher strength as expected. It is worth noting that both the strength and ductility of the laser deposited alloy improved by water quenched from the α + β duplex phase region. The improved tensile properties were mainly owing to the fine lamellar transformed β in the special bimodal microstructure.

  5. An experimental and numerical study on nonlinear impact responses of steel-plated structures in an Arctic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K. J.; Lee, J. H.; Park, D. K.; Jung, B. G.; Han, X.(Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany); Paik, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ships and offshore platforms that operate in Arctic regions at low temperatures are likely subjected to impact loads that arise from collisions with icebergs. The aim of this paper was to examine the nonlinear impact response of steel-plated structures in an Arctic environment. In addition to material tensile tests for characterisation of the mechanical properties of polar-class high-tensile steel of grade DH36, an experimental study was undertaken in a dropped-object test facility on steel-p...

  6. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  7. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  8. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend ...

  9. Influence of the microstructural changes and induced residual stresses on tensile properties of wrought magnesium alloy friction stir welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commin, Loreleie, E-mail: lorelei.commin@kit.edu [LMPF, Arts et Metiers ParisTech, rue St Dominique, 51000 Chalons en Champagne (France); Dumont, Myriam [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, IM2NP (UMR 6242), Faculte St-Jerome, Case 261, Av. Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, 13 397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Rotinat, Rene; Pierron, Fabrice [LMPF, Arts et Metiers ParisTech, rue St Dominique, 51000 Chalons en Champagne (France); Masse, Jean-Eric; Barrallier, Laurent [MecaSurf, Arts et Metiers ParisTech, 2 cours des Arts et Metiers, 13100 Aix en Provence (France)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of AZ31 FSW mechanical behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early yielding occurs in the TMAZ, the nugget and base metal zones undergo almost no plastic strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Texture gradient in the TMAZ localises the deformations in this area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residual stresses have a major influence in FSW mechanical behaviour. - Abstract: Friction stir welding induces a microstructural evolution and residual stresses that will influence the resulting mechanical properties. Friction stir welds produced from magnesium alloy hot rolled plates were studied. Electron back scattered diffraction was used to determine the texture evolution, residual stresses were analysed using X ray diffraction and tensile tests coupled with speckle interferometry were performed. The residual stresses induced during friction stir welding present a major influence on the final mechanical properties.

  10. Strain Rate Effect on the Tensile Behavior of Fibers and Its Application to Ballistic Perforation of Multi-layered Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Bo-hong; PAN Xiong-qi

    2002-01-01

    Rate-dependent property of material is very important in analysis of ballistic impact. The tensile property of Twaron(R) filaments at strain rate range from 0.01/s to1 000/s was obtained by MTS materials testing and split Hopkinson tension bar. Rate sensitivity of Twaron(R) filaments is discussed. Application of high strain rate property to ballistic perforation of multi- layered fabrics conforms to the actual situation than that of quasi-static property. The revised analytical model can be used to calculate the process of ballistic penetration and perforation on soft armour, such as fabric target plate,at intuitive approach and simple algorithm with a little computer process time. Predictions of the residual velocities and energy absorbed by the multi- layered fabric show good agreement with experimental data.

  11. Analysis of Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys and Optimization of Welding Parameters for Maximum Tensile Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. S. K. Aditya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Friction Stir Welding (FSW process is an innovative technique to join metals in the plastic state thus not reaching the liquid state as it happen in traditional welding processes. This feature of the FSW proved that a modification can be done on the fatigue behavior and strength of the welding joints so, some of the leading companies to adopted the process for the manufacturing of Automotive, Locomotive, Shipping & Aerospace. The FSW is a variant of the linear friction welding process in which the material is being welded without bulk melting. The FSW parameters such as tool Rotational speed, Welding speed, Axial Force, Tool tilt angle, Welding Tool Shoulder Diameter, and Welded Plate thickness play a major role in determining the properties like Tensile strength, hardness, residual stress, HAZ etc. of the joints. Our objective is to optimize the welding parameters to achieve Max. Tensile Strength of Aluminium Alloys (especially on AA-2xxx, AA-5xxx under FSW. We only wish to optimize (by Taguchi and ANOVA method with three variable input parameters (Rotational speed in rpm, Translation speed in mm/min & Axial force in KN considering a cylindrical pin.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Metal Composite Multi Bolt Radial Joint on Laminate Level, under uni Axial Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sharada Prabhakar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal tensile load exerted due to internal hydraulic pressure, on bolted radial joints between large size PAN carbon epoxy filament wound composite cylindrical section and small size 15CDV6 steel cylindrical sections, were simulated and tested on flat laminate level, mainly to check the strength of PAN carbon epoxy helical wound laminate made by wet winding method. Small segmental portion of circumference of cylindrical sections was considered as width of composite laminate and of metallic plates, necessary to accommodate 5 rows of fasteners in transverse direction with specified pitch distance. Bolted radial joints between carbon epoxy helical wound flat laminate and 15CDV6 steel plates were realized with 8 numbers of steel fasteners distributed in 3 longitudinal and 5 transverse rows at each joint. Helical angle of winding, length and thickness of carbon epoxy laminate was ±22.5°, 458mm and 11mm respectively. Length and structural thickness of radial joints, total length and width of assembly test specimen were 98mm, 18mm, 870mm and 169.43mm respectively. Joints were tested under uni-axial tensile load up to failure. Joints failed at 18 tonnes (1.7 times of design load. Failure mode was observed as initiation of bearing failure at all 8, countersink fastener holes in laminate and shear out failure at edge hole. Strains in fibre direction, at 45°and at transverse to fibre direction were found very less. Maximum compressive strain and residual strain, near fastener holes were found as -1423 and -136 micro strain respectively. Test was successful

  13. Tensile behavior of irradiated manganese-stabilized stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Tensile tests were conducted on seven experimental, high-manganese austenitic stainless steels after irradiation up to 44 dpa in the FFTF. An Fe-20Mn-12Cr-0.25C base composition was used, to which various combinations of Ti, W, V, B, and P were added to improve strength. Nominal amounts added were 0.1% Ti, 1% W, 0.1% V, 0.005% B, and 0.03% P. Irradiation was carried out at 420, 520, and 600{degrees}C on the steels in the solution-annealed and 20% cold-worked conditions. Tensile tests were conducted at the irradiation temperature. Results were compared with type 316 SS. Neutron irradiation hardened all of the solution-annealed steels at 420, 520, and 600{degrees}C, as measured by the increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile strength. The steel to which all five elements were added to the base composition showed the least amount of hardening. It also showed a smaller loss of ductility (uniform and total elongation) than the other steels. The total and uniform elongations of this steel after irradiation at 420{degrees}C was over four times that of the other manganese-stabilized steels and 316 SS. There was much less difference in strength and ductility at the two higher irradiation temperatures, where there was considerably less hardening, and thus, less loss of ductility. In the cold-worked condition, hardening occured only after irradiation at 420{degrees}C, and there was much less difference in the properties of the steels after irradiation. At the 420{degrees}C irradiation temperature, most of the manganese-stabilized steels maintained more ductility than the 316 SS. After irradiation at 420{degrees}C, the temperature of maximum hardening, the steel to which all five of the elements were added had the best uniform elongation.

  14. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  15. Nanoscale Morphology in Tensile Fracture of a Brittle Amorphous Ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xifeng LI; Kaifeng ZHANG; Guofeng WANG

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the observation of nanoscale morphology on the tensile fracture surface of a brittle amorphous Fe-based ribbon. The formation of nanoscale damage cavity structure is a main characteristic morphology on the fracture surfaces. Approaching the ribbon boundary, these damage cavities assemble and form the nanoscale periodic corrugations, which are neither Wallner lines nor crack front waves. The periodic corrugations result from the interactions between the reflected elastic waves by the boundaries of amorphous ribbon and the stress fields of the crack tip.

  16. On the off-axis tensile test for unidirectional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, M. P.; Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.

    1982-01-01

    The off axis tensile test was examined experimentally to obtain actual displacement fields over the surface of graphite polyimide coupon specimens. The experimental results were compared with approximate analytical solutions and generated finite element results. An optical method of high sensitivity moire interferometry was used to determine the actual displacements to high precision. The approximate analytical solution and the finite element results compare very favorably with the measured centerline displacements in the test section, and the finite element displacement fields provide excellent agreement with the moire displacements throughout the specimen. A 15 degree fiber orientation and coupon aspect ratios of 5 and 15 are presented.

  17. Magnetoactive elastomeric composites: Cure, tensile, electrical and magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sasikumar; G Suresh; K A Thomas; Reji John; V Natarajan; T Mukundan; R M R Vishnubhatla

    2006-11-01

    Magnetically active elastomer materials were prepared by incorporating nickel powder in synthetic elastomeric matrices, polychloroprene and nitrile rubber. Cure characteristics, mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties were experimentally determined for different volume fractions of magnetoactive filler. The cure time decreases sharply for initial filler loading and the decrease is marginal for additional loading of filler. The tensile strength and modulus at 100% strain was found to increase with increase in the volume fraction of nickel due to reinforcement action. The magnetic impedance and a.c. conductivity are found to increase with increase in volume fraction of nickel as well as frequency.

  18. Tensile Properties of Poly (N-vinyl caprolactam) Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgret, Leslie D.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    N-vinyl caprolactam was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate using a free-radical initiator in alcohol/water solution. The resulting gels were thermally-responsive in water, undergoing an approximate fivefold reversible volume shrinkage between room temperature and ca. 50 C. Tensile testing showed that the stress-strain behavior was qualitatively different in the collapsed state above the temperature-induced transition. At the higher temperature, gels were stiffer, more ductile, and showed greater time dependence. Implications for the design of gel actuators are briefly discussed.

  19. A Weibull characterization for tensile fracture of multicomponent brittle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Necessary to the development and understanding of brittle fiber reinforced composites is a means to statistically describe fiber strength and strain-to-failure behavior. A statistical characterization for multicomponent brittle fibers is presented. The method, which is an extension of usual Weibull distribution procedures, statistically considers the components making up a fiber (e.g., substrate, sheath, and surface) as separate entities and taken together as in a fiber. Tensile data for silicon carbide fiber and for an experimental carbon-boron alloy fiber are evaluated in terms of the proposed multicomponent Weibull characterization.

  20. Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kurdi, M.; Prost, M.; Ghrib, A.; Elbaz, A.; Sauvage, S.; Checoury, X.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Picardi, G.; Ossikovski, R.; Boeuf, F.; Boucaud, P.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the combination of germanium microdisks tensily strained by silicon nitride layers and circular Bragg reflectors. The microdisks with suspended lateral Bragg reflectors form a cavity with quality factors up to 2000 around 2 μm. This represents a key feature to achieve a microlaser with a quasi-direct band gap germanium under a 1.6% biaxial tensile strain. We show that lowering the temperature significantly improves the quality factor of the quasi-radial modes. Linewidth narrowing is observed in a range of weak continuous wave excitation powers. We finally discuss the requirements to achieve lasing with these kind of structures.

  1. Strain rate effects on tensile strength of iron green bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact tensile strength of iron green bodies with densities of 7.2 and 7.4 g/cm3 was examined by Brazilian test using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (Kolsky bar method. The powder material used for the experiments was a press-ready premix containing Distaloy AE, graphite, and lubricant. During dynamic compression, the failure behavior of specimens was observed using a high-speed video camera. The failure stress and failure behavior of dynamic compressive tests were compared with those of static compressive tests.

  2. HIGH VISCOUS STRESS OF ORIENTED POLYOLEFINS UNDER UNIAXIAL TENSILE DEFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Na; Qin Zhang; Hong Yang; Qiang Fu; Yong-feng Men

    2007-01-01

    In this communication, by means of stress relaxation experiments, the viscous stress at various strains during tensile deformation of oriented polyolefin samples including high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP), has been determined. The viscous stress in the oriented samples takes up to 50%-70% of the total stress, which is unusually high compared with their isotropic counterparts. The unusual high viscous stress was discussed based on mainly the existence of shish structure in oriented polyolefins, which could enhance the inter-lamella coupling significantly.

  3. Strain rate effects on tensile strength of iron green bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Kuroyanagi, Yuki; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Gustafsson, Gustaf

    2015-09-01

    Impact tensile strength of iron green bodies with densities of 7.2 and 7.4 g/cm3 was examined by Brazilian test using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (Kolsky bar) method. The powder material used for the experiments was a press-ready premix containing Distaloy AE, graphite, and lubricant. During dynamic compression, the failure behavior of specimens was observed using a high-speed video camera. The failure stress and failure behavior of dynamic compressive tests were compared with those of static compressive tests.

  4. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-03-11

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  5. Infliximab treatment reduces tensile strength in intestinal anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Sanberg; Petersen, Nacie Bello; Biagini, Matteo;

    2015-01-01

    effect on the healing process in intestinal anastomosis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of repeated IFX treatment on anastomotic strength and degree of inflammation in the anastomotic line in the small intestine of rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-two rabbits were randomized (2...... as number of sutures in the tested anastomosis (coefficient = 0.51; P = 0.024). The general histologic score was significantly higher in the placebo group (5.00 +/- 1.26 versus 3.31 +/- 1.65, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated high-dose IFX treatment reduces tensile strength significantly in rabbits...

  6. 2D micromechanical analysis of SiC/Al metal matrix composites under tensile, shear and combined tensile/shear loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai

    2013-01-01

    and dimensions of Silicon-Carbide (SiC) particles are randomly distributed. Finite element simulations of the deformation and damage evolution of SiC particle reinforced Aluminum (Al) alloy composite are carried out for different microstructures and interphase strengths under tensile, shear and combined tensile...

  7. Notch Sensitivity of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Tensile Loading: An Experimental, Analytical, and Finite Element Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, A.; Ahmed, L.; Ware, T.; Jeelani, S.; Verrilli, Michael J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The stress concentrations associated with circular notches and subjected to uniform tensile loading in woven ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) have been investigated for high-efficient turbine engine applications. The CMC's were composed of Nicalon silicon carbide woven fabric in SiNC matrix manufactured through polymer impregnation process (PIP). Several combinations of hole diameter/plate width ratios and ply orientations were considered in this study. In the first part, the stress concentrations were calculated measuring strain distributions surrounding the hole using strain gages at different locations of the specimens during the initial portion of the stress-strain curve before any microdamage developed. The stress concentration was also calculated analytically using Lekhnitskii's solution for orthotropic plates. A finite-width correction factor for anisotropic and orthotropic composite plate was considered. The stress distributions surrounding the circular hole of a CMC's plate were further studied using finite element analysis. Both solid and shell elements were considered. The experimental results were compared with both the analytical and finite element solutions. Extensive optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations were carried out for identifying the fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of both the notched and notched specimens. The stress concentration factors (SCF) determined by analytical method overpredicted the experimental results. But the numerical solution underpredicted the experimental SCF. Stress concentration factors are shown to increase with enlarged hole size and the effects of ply orientations on stress concentration factors are observed to be negligible. In all the cases, the crack initiated at the notch edge and propagated along the width towards the edge of the specimens.

  8. Localised Plate Motion on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1996-03-01

    The volcanic and tectonic features observed in Dali Vinculum, Parga Vinculum and Imdr Regio are concentrated at long, narrow, curvilinear zones, with relatively minor volcanism and tectonism between these zones. These zones, whilst more diffuse than terrestrial plate boundaries, nevertheless define the margins of tectonic plates. In contrast to Earth, however, it appears that venusian plates are neither created nor destroyed by lateral motion. Rather, plates are thinned and intruded at vincula plate boundaries, vertically accreted by small-scale intra-plate (planitia) volcanism and perhaps destroyed by delamination of thickened crust in tesserae and montane regions such as Thetis Regio and Ishtar Terra. The diversity in age both between and within these three areas together with the evidence for infrequent, small scale resurfacing in the planitiae are difficult to reconcile with a non-uniformitarian geological process.

  9. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  10. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  11. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Dry fixture thoroughly with the air gun. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process...easily destroyed if blown with the air. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process and...especially careful to dry water out of crevices. 13. Carefully remove part from fixture. If residual plating solution is present at attachments points

  12. Glass-bead peen plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  13. Tensile/Shear Behaviour of Multi-stitched/Nano Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilisik, Kadir; Kaya, Gaye

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to investigate tensile/shear behavior of multi-stitched/nano composites. For this purpose, non-stitched, non-stitched/nano, multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites were made. It was shown that the warp/filling tensile strength and modulus of composites were slightly reduced in both multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites due to fiber breakage that resulted from the multi-stitching process. In addition, there were not significant differences between non-stitched and multi-stitched structures. The non-stitched/nano composite showed slightly higher in-plane shear strength compared with the non-stitched composite. The in-plane shear strength of the non-stitched composite, on the other hand, increased steadily compared to the multi-stitched composite because of the stitching process and the interface between the stitching yarn and polymer matrix. Stitching significantly improved the delamination resistance in the multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites experienced a small amount of damaged areas. The incorporation of nano silica improved the damage resistance of multi-stitched composites. Therefore, the damaged tolerance composite was developed with stitching and the addition of the nano silica for various industrial applications, such as electronic boards.

  14. Xyloglucan for Generating Tensile Stress to Bend Tree Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kei'ichi Baba; Yong Woo Park; Tomomi Kaku; Rumi Kaida; Miyuki Takeuchi; Masato Yoshida; Yoshihiro Hosoo; Yasuhisa Ojio; Takashi Okuyama; Toru Taniguchi; Yasunori Ohmiya; Teiji Kondo; Ziv Shani; Oded Shoseyov; Tatsuya Awano; Satoshi Serada; Naoko Norioka; Shigemi Norioka; Takahisa Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    In response to environmental variation, angiosperm trees bend their stems by forming tension wood, which consists of a cellulose-rich G (gelatinous)-Iayer in the walls of fiber cells and generates abnormal tensile stress in the sec-ondary xylem. We produced transgenic poplar plants overexpressing several endoglycanases to reduce each specific poly-saccharide in the cell wall, as the secondary xylem consists of primary and secondary wall layers. When placed horizontally, the basal regions of stems of transgenic poplars overexpressing xyloglucanase alone could not bend upward due to low strain in the tension side of the xylem. In the wild-type plants, xyloglucan was found in the inner surface of G-layers during multiple layering. In situ xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity showed that the incorporation of whole xylo-glucan, potentially for wall tightening, began at the inner surface layers S1 and S2 and was retained throughout G-layer development, while the incorporation of xyloglucan heptasaccharide (XXXG) for wall loosening occurred in the primary wall of the expanding zone. We propose that the xyloglucan network is reinforced by XET to form a further connection between wall-bound and secreted xyloglucans in order to withstand the tensile stress created within the cellulose G-layer microfibrils.

  15. Effects of Voids on Concrete Tensile Fracturing: A Mesoscale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional mesoscale modeling framework, which considers concrete as a four-phase material including voids, is developed for studying the effects of voids on concrete tensile fracturing under the plane stress condition. Aggregate is assumed to behave elastically, while a continuum damaged plasticity model is employed to describe the mechanical behaviors of mortar and ITZ. The effects of voids on the fracture mechanism of concrete under uniaxial tension are first detailed, followed by an extensive investigation of the effects of void volume fraction on concrete tensile fracturing. It is found that both the prepeak and postpeak mesoscale cracking in concrete are highly affected by voids, and there is not a straightforward relation between void volume fraction and the postpeak behavior due to the randomness of void distribution. The fracture pattern of concrete specimen with voids is controlled by both the aggregate arrangement and the distribution of voids, and two types of failure modes are identified for concrete specimens under uniaxial tension. It is suggested that voids should be explicitly modeled for the accurate fracturing simulation of concrete on the mesoscale.

  16. ROLE OF SCALE FACTOR DURING TENSILE TESTING OF SMALL SPECIMENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N [ORNL; Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Gray, Mr. Sean [University of Michigan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of scale factor (tensile specimen geometry and dimensions) on mechanical test results was investigated for different widely used types of small specimens (SS-1, SS-2, SS-3, and SS-J3) and a set of materials. It was found that the effect of scale factor on the accurate determination of yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and uniform elongation values was weak; however, clear systematic differences were observed and should be accounted for during interpretation of results. In contrast, total elongation values were strongly sensitive to variations in specimen geometry. Modern experimental methods like digital image correlation allow the impact of scale factor to be reduced. Using these techniques, it was shown that true stress true strain curves describing strain-hardening behavior were very close for different specimen types. The limits of miniaturization are discussed, and an ultra-miniature specimen concept was suggested and evaluated. This type of specimen, as expected, may be suitable for SEM and TEM in situ testing.

  17. Highly tensile-strained Ge/InAlAs nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daehwan; Faucher, Joseph; Mukherjee, Samik; Akey, Austin; Ironside, Daniel J.; Cabral, Matthew; Sang, Xiahan; Lebeau, James; Bank, Seth R.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2017-01-01

    Self-assembled nanocomposites have been extensively investigated due to the novel properties that can emerge when multiple material phases are combined. Growth of epitaxial nanocomposites using lattice-mismatched constituents also enables strain-engineering, which can be used to further enhance material properties. Here, we report self-assembled growth of highly tensile-strained Ge/In0.52Al0.48As (InAlAs) nanocomposites by using spontaneous phase separation. Transmission electron microscopy shows a high density of single-crystalline germanium nanostructures coherently embedded in InAlAs without extended defects, and Raman spectroscopy reveals a 3.8% biaxial tensile strain in the germanium nanostructures. We also show that the strain in the germanium nanostructures can be tuned to 5.3% by altering the lattice constant of the matrix material, illustrating the versatility of epitaxial nanocomposites for strain engineering. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence results are then discussed to illustrate the potential for realizing devices based on this nanocomposite material. PMID:28128282

  18. Tensile stress and creep in thermally grown oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Boyd W; Paulikas, Arvydas P; Hou, Peggy Y

    2006-05-01

    Structural components that operate at high temperatures (for example, turbine blades) rely on thermally grown oxide (TGO), commonly alumina, for corrosion protection. Strains that develop in TGOs during operation can reduce the protectiveness of the TGO. However, the occurrence of growth strains in TGOs, and mechanisms that cause them, are poorly understood. It is accepted that compressive strains can develop as oxygen and metal atoms meet to form new growth within constrained oxide. More controversial is the experimental finding that large tensile stresses, close to 1 GPa, develop during isothermal growth conditions in alumina TGO formed on a FeCrAlY alloy. Using a novel technique based on synchrotron radiation, we have confirmed these previous results, and show that the tensile strain develops as the early oxide, (Fe,Cr,Al)(2)O(3), converts to alpha-Al2O3 during the growth process. This allows us to model the strain behaviour by including creep and this diffusion-controlled phase change.

  19. Two new tensile devices for X-ray diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freri, N.; Tintori, A.; Depero, L.E.; Sangaletti, L. [Brescia Univ. (Italy); Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Two tensile devices were designed to be used with parallel beam and parafocusing-geometry diffractometers. In thefirst case the device was designed to be attached to a strainflex diffractometer by Rigaku Inc., dedicated to stress analysis and commonly used in metallurgical industry. Since the sample does not move during the measurement, the tensile device can be kept fixed on the experimental table. The device design takes into account the steric hindrance by moving parts of diffractometer. The maximun load that can be applied to the sample is 60.000 N. An attachement to a Siemens D5000 diffractometer with Eulerian cradle has also benn designed for applying a load up tp 6000 N to a sample in the parafocusing-geometry. The installation does not require a re-alignment of the diffractometer. In both cases strain gages were applied to both sides of the specimen for the simultaneous determination of the macroscopic strains. Experiments based on the use of these devices are planned to determine the crystallographic elastic constants and study the influence of the microstructure on the mechanical behaviour of residual stresses in the zone of almost static stresses as well as the influence of residual stresses on uniaxially loaded samples. In addition, by using these devices, it is possible to measure the unstressed d-0 spacings providing useful information in the neutron diffraction study fo stress fields in steel samples.

  20. Dynamic compressive and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlitsky, I.; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2014-06-01

    Fully dense submicron grain size alumina samples were manufactured from alumina nano-powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two kinds of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the first kind, samples were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors, accelerated to a velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed at studying the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)-processed alumina and the decay, with propagation distance, of the elastic precursor wave. In the tests of the second kind, alumina samples of 3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated to 100-1000 m/s. These tests were aimed at studying the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina specimens. The tensile fracture of the un-alloyed alumina shows a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. Analysis of the decay of the elastic precursor wave allowed determining the rate of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of the shock-induced inelastic deformation and to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the deformation. The 1-% addition of Cr2O3 decreases the HEL of the SPS-processed alumina by 5-% and its spall strength by 50% but barely affects its static properties.

  1. Dynamic yield and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlitsky, I.; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M.; Frage, N.

    2014-05-01

    Fully dense alumina samples with 0.6 μm grain size were produced from alumina powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two types of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the tests of the first type the samples of 0.28 to 6-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors accelerated up to a velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed to study the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the SPS-processed alumina and the decay of the elastic precursor wave with propagation distance. In the second type of test the samples of ~3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated up to velocities 100-1000 m/s. These tests were aimed to study the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina. The data on tensile fracture of the alumina demonstrate a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. The data on the decay of the elastic precursor wave allows for determining the rates of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of shock-induced inelastic deformation and, thus, to derive some conclusions concerning the mechanisms responsible of the deformation.

  2. Effect of aging on tensile properties of ODS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Whan; Noh, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Gyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel is a candidate material for fuel cladding of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (SFR). ODS steel shows high strength at high temperature because of the dispersion of oxide particle in matrix and high thermal conductivity. The operating temperature of SFR was 550.deg.C and precipitates, such as M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, MX, Laves phase, were observed after long exposure at the operating temperature of SFR for martensitic Cr-Mo steel. To design SFR, the effect of aging on mechanical properties should be evaluated as a function of temperature because these precipitates affect mechanical properties. In this study, tensile properties of martensitic ODS steel were investigated after aging at high temperature. ODS steel shows high strength but exhibits low elongation at temperature range from RT to 500.deg.C. Tensile properties are little changed by aging. Dynamic strain aging is not observed at temperature range from RT to 700.deg.C for unaged and aged steels.

  3. TENSILE STRENGTH FOR SPLITTING FAILURE OF BRITTLE PARTICLES WITH CONSIDERATION OF POISSON'S RATIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoming Hu; Yanmin Wang; Pingbo Xie; Zhidong Pan

    2004-01-01

    The core mechanism of comminution could be reduced to the breakage of individual particles that occurs through contact with other particles or with the grinding media, or with the solid walls of the mill. When brittle particles are loaded in compression or by impact, substantial tensile stresses are induced within the particles. These tensile stresses are responsible for splitting failure of brittle particles. Since many engineering materials have Poisson's ratios very close to 0.3, the influence of Poisson's ratio on the tensile strength is neglected in many studies. In this paper, the state of stress in a spherical particle due to two diametrically opposed forces is analyzed theoretically. A simple equation for the tensile stress at the centre of the particle is obtained. It is found reasonable to propose this tensile stress at the instant of failure as the tensile strength of the particle. Moreover, this tensile strength is a function of the Poisson's ratio of the material. As the state of stress along the z-axis in an irregular specimen tends to be similar to that in a spherical particle compressed diametrically with the same force, this tensile strength has some validity for irregular particles as well.Therefore, it could be used as the tensile strength for brittle particles in general. The effect of Poisson's ratio on the tensile strength is discussed.

  4. Friction stir welding of 5052 aluminum alloy plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Jai KWON; Seong-Beom SHIM; Dong-Hwan PARK

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding between 5052 aluminum alloy plates with a thickness of 2 mm was performed. The tool for welding was rotated at speeds ranging from 500 to 3 000 r/min under a constant traverse speed of 100 mm/min. The results show that at all tool rotation speeds, defect-free welds are successfully obtained. Especially at 1 000, 2 000 and 3 000 r/min, the welds exhibit very smooth surface morphologies. At 500, 1 000, and 2 000 r/min, onion ring structure is clearly observed in the friction-stir-welded zone (SZ). In addition, the onion ring structure region becomes wider as the tool rotation speed is increased. The gain size in the SZ is smaller than that in the base metal, and is decreased with a decrease of the tool rotation speed. In all tool rotation speeds, the SZ exhibits higher average hardness than the base metal. Especially at 500 r/min, the average hardness of the SZ reaches a level about 33% greater than that of the base metal. At 500, 1 000 and 2 000 r/min, the tensile strength of the friction stir welded (FSWed) plates is similar to that of the base metal (about 204 Mpa). The elongation of the FSWed plates is lower than that of the base metal (about 22%). However, it is noticeable that the maximum elongation of about 21% is obtained at 1 000 r/min.

  5. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  6. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

  7. Impact of the Weld Geometry on the Stress Intensity Factor of the Welded T-Joint Exposed to the Tensile Force and the Bending Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoković, Jelena M.; Nikolić, Ružica R.; Bujňák, Ján

    2015-12-01

    In this paper it is analyzed the welded T-joint exposed to the axial tensile force and the bending moment, for determining the impact of the weld geometry on the fracture mechanics parameters. The stress intensity factor was calculated analytically, based on the concept of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), by application of the Mathematica® programming routine. The presence of the weld was taken into account through the corresponding correction factors. The results show that increase of the size of the triangular welds leads to decrease of the stress intensity factor, while the SIF increases with increase of the welds' width. The ratio of the two welded plates' thicknesses shows that plate thicknesses do not exhibit significant influence on the stress intensity factor behavior.

  8. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  9. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  10. Features of Seismicity in the Northeastern China Region and Their Relation to the Subduction of the Japan Sea Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Wenbin; He Yueshi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analyses of grouped activity features of deep-focus (M ≥ 6.0) and shallow-focus(Ms ≥ 5.0) earthquakes in the Northeast China region, the time-space correlation betweendeep focus "strong earthquake group" and shallow focus "strong earthquake group" have beenstudied. The study was mainly on the characteristics of earthquake distribution on the collisionzone between the west Pacific plate and the Eurasian plate and on its relations to themorphological feature of the western Pacific subduction zone. Moreover, emphasis was laid onanalysis of the effect of the west Pacific plate on the seismicity of Eurasian plate. It is shownthat in the region where the west Pacific plate subducts at low angles, the seismicity on theplate collision zone is strong, the effect of plate subduction on Eurasian continent is strong too,and the subduction zone is under a state of high compressional stress. However, in the regionwhere the west Pacific plate subducts at high angles, the seismicity along the plate collision zoneis weak, the effect of plate subduction on Eurasian continent is weak too, and the tensile stressproduced by the subduction zone at depth is enhanced. We therefore propose that the seismicityin the northeast China region will enter an active period of shallow "strong earthquake group"in the future 10 years. In the period, six earthquakes of Ms ≥5.0 may occur. Therefore, the work of earthquake monitoring and prediction in this region shall be strengthened.

  11. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  12. Customized a Ti6Al4V Bone Plate for Complex Pelvic Fracture by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yimeng; Wu, Shibiao; Lin, Hui; Yang, Yongqiang; Fan, Shicai; Gu, Cheng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Changhui

    2017-01-01

    In pelvic fracture operations, bone plate shaping is challenging and the operation time is long. To address this issue, a customized bone plate was designed and produced using selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The key steps of this study included designing the customized bone plate, metal 3D printing, vacuum heat treatment, surface post-processing, operation rehearsal, and clinical application and evaluation. The joint surface of the bone plate was placed upwards with respect to the build platform to keep it away from the support and to improve the quality of the joint surface. Heat conduction was enhanced by adding a cone-type support beneath the bone plate to prevent low-quality fabrication due to poor heat conductivity of the Ti-6Al-4V powder. The residual stress was eliminated by exposing the SLM-fabricated titanium-alloy bone plate to a vacuum heat treatment. Results indicated that the bone plate has a hardness of HV1 360–HV1 390, an ultimate tensile strength of 1000–1100 MPa, yield strength of 900–950 MPa, and an elongation of 8%–10%. Pre-operative experiments and operation rehearsal were performed using the customized bone plate and the ABC-made pelvic model. Finally, the customized bone plate was clinically applied. The intraoperative C-arm and postoperative X-ray imaging results indicated that the customized bone plate matched well to the damaged pelvis. The customized bone plate fixed the broken bone and guides pelvis restoration while reducing operation time to about two hours. The customized bone plate eliminated the need for preoperative titanium plate pre-bending, thereby greatly reducing surgical wounds and operation time. PMID:28772395

  13. Customized a Ti6Al4V Bone Plate for Complex Pelvic Fracture by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In pelvic fracture operations, bone plate shaping is challenging and the operation time is long. To address this issue, a customized bone plate was designed and produced using selective laser melting (SLM technology. The key steps of this study included designing the customized bone plate, metal 3D printing, vacuum heat treatment, surface post-processing, operation rehearsal, and clinical application and evaluation. The joint surface of the bone plate was placed upwards with respect to the build platform to keep it away from the support and to improve the quality of the joint surface. Heat conduction was enhanced by adding a cone-type support beneath the bone plate to prevent low-quality fabrication due to poor heat conductivity of the Ti-6Al-4V powder. The residual stress was eliminated by exposing the SLM-fabricated titanium-alloy bone plate to a vacuum heat treatment. Results indicated that the bone plate has a hardness of HV1 360–HV1 390, an ultimate tensile strength of 1000–1100 MPa, yield strength of 900–950 MPa, and an elongation of 8%–10%. Pre-operative experiments and operation rehearsal were performed using the customized bone plate and the ABC-made pelvic model. Finally, the customized bone plate was clinically applied. The intraoperative C-arm and postoperative X-ray imaging results indicated that the customized bone plate matched well to the damaged pelvis. The customized bone plate fixed the broken bone and guides pelvis restoration while reducing operation time to about two hours. The customized bone plate eliminated the need for preoperative titanium plate pre-bending, thereby greatly reducing surgical wounds and operation time.

  14. Notched Strength of Woven Fabric Kenaf Composite Plates with Different Stacking Sequences and Hole Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Romayne Anders

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of using kenaf fibres over synthetic fibres in composites manufacturing are relatively cheap, less abrasive and hazardous during handling, and renewable materials. Current work investigates parametric effects on notched strength of woven fabric kenaf polymer composites plates with variation of lay-up types, notch sizes and plate thickness. Testing coupons are prepared using hand lay-up technique and circular notch were drilled prior to mechanical testing. Stress concentration at the notch edge promotes micro-damage event as tensile loading was applied leading to crack initiation and propagations across the plate width. It is suggested that woven fabric kenaf polymer composites are potentially used in low and medium load bearing applications.

  15. A Study on Friction Stir Welding of 12mm Thick Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepati Anil Kumar; Pankaj Biswas; Sujoy Tikader; M. M. Mahapatra; N. R. Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

  16. Extensive Characterisation of Copper-clad Plates, Bonded by the Explosive Technique, for ITER Electrical Joints

    CERN Document Server

    Langeslag, S A E; Libeyre, P; Gung, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors will be extensively implemented in the large superconducting magnet coils foreseen to confine the plasma in the ITER experiment. The design of the various magnet systems imposes the use of electrical joints to connect unit lengths of superconducting coils by inter-pancake coupling. These twin-box lap type joints, produced by compacting each cable end in into a copper - stainless steel bimetallic box, are required to be highly performing in terms of electrical and mechanical prop- erties. To ascertain the suitability of the first copper-clad plates, recently produced, the performance of several plates is studied. Validation of the bonded interface is carried out by determining microstructural, tensile and shear characteristics. These measure- ments confirm the suitability of explosion bonded copper-clad plates for an overall joint application. Additionally, an extensive study is conducted on the suitability of certain copper purity grades for the various joint types.

  17. Industrial Test of High Strength Steel Plates Free Boron Q890D Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Liu, Zetian; Gao, Jun

    The chemistry composition, process parameters and the test results of Q890D free boron high strength steel plate used for engineering machinery was studied. The 16 40 mm thickness steel plates with good mechanical properties that was yield strength of 930 970 MPa, tensile strength of 978 1017 MPa, elongation of 13.5 15%, the average impact energy value of more than 100 J were developed by improving steel purity, adopting the reasonable controlled rolling and cooling process, using reasonable off-line quenching and tempering process. The test plates have good crack resistance in 60 °C preheat temperature condition because of that there are no any cracks in the surfaces, cross-section and roots of welding joints.

  18. Tensile Properties and Failure Mechanism of 3D Woven Hollow Integrated Sandwich Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Cai, Deng'an; Zhou, Guangming; Lu, Fangzhou

    2017-01-01

    Tensile properties and failure mechanism of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites are investigated experimentally, theoretically and numerically in this paper. Firstly, the tensile properties are obtained by quasi-static tensile tests on the specimens in two principal directions of the sandwich panels, called warp and weft. The experimental results shows that the tensile performances of the warp are better than that of the weft. By observing the broken specimens, it is found that the touch parts between yarns are the main failure regions under tension. Then, a theoretical method is developed to predict the tensile properties. By comparing with the experimental data, the accuracy of the theoretical method is verified. Simultaneously, a finite element model is established to predict the tensile behavior of the composites. The numerical results agree well with the experimental data. Moreover, the simulated progressive damages show that the contact regions in the warp and weft tension are both the initial failure areas.

  19. Tensile properties of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites at different orientations of fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Hegde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Diglycidyl Ether of BisphenolA(DGEBA / TriEthylene Tetra Amine(TETA system is used as the epoxy matrix and unidirectional glass fabric is used to reinforce with the polymer matrix by hand layup and vacuum bagging process. The glass fibre reinforced composites are prepared with fibre orientations of 0°, 45° and 90°. The specimens, after preparation, are tested for various tensile properties at different angles of the laminate. The tensile properties studied in this case are Tensile Strength, Tensile Modulus, Specific Tensile Strength and Specific Tensile Modulus. The result shave then been tabulated and studied to understand variation in the properties with orientation of fibre in the composite. Experimental procedure is carried out as per ASTM D3039 standards.

  20. EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF FRICTION STIR WELDED DISSIMILAR ALUMINUM JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PADMANABAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding is one of the recent solid state joining processes that has drawn the attention of the metal joining community. In this work the effects of tool rotation speed (TRS and welding speed (WS on the tensile strength of dissimilar friction stir welded AA2024-AA7075 joints are investigated. Response surface methodology is used for developing a mathematical model for the tensile strength of the dissimilar aluminum alloy joints. The model is used to investigate the effect of TRS and WS on the tensile strength of the joints. It is seen that the tensile strength of the joint increases with the increase in TRS up to a limit of 1050 rpm and decreases thereafter. The tensile strength of the joints is also seen increasing with the WS up to 15 mm/min. Further increase in WS results in a reduction of the tensile strength of the joints.

  1. A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.

  2. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  3. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  4. Gold plating on spectacle frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G

    1997-05-01

    An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.

  5. Effect of surface oxidation layer on tensile strength of Cu-Ni alloy in friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Taejin; Park, Sangwon; Chung, Sungwook; Noh, Joongsuk; Kim, Kwangho; Kang, Chungyun

    2016-05-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) of thick Cu-Ni plate was successfully completed. The fracture position after tensile testing was located at the weld nugget zone (WNZ), where surface oxidation occurred. The oxidation morphologies on the surface of the base metal were analyzed by SEM, EPMA and XRD, with the oxide layer being obtained by simple and useful way to analyze the oxide products, namely, collecting oxide powders after immersing of the oxidized specimen into HNO3 solution. The results highlighted that an oxide layer of 30 μm thickness consists of a mixture of two phases, Cu2O and NiO, on the surface of the base metal. After FSW, the thickness of the oxide layer on the surface was decreased to approximately 5 μm, and broken oxide particles, which is NiO, penetrated into the WNZ by the rotating tool. NiO was preferentially formed at the surface after FSW because it has a lower Gibbs free energy value at 950 °C, which is the peak temperature measured during FSW. Oxide layer of Cu-Ni plate was clearly only removed by mechanical method grinding with 1200-grit SiC paper. The removal of oxide layer results in improved mechanical strength.

  6. Effect of reactive adhesives on the tensile bond strength of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials to methyl methacrylate tray material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sato, Masayuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2010-05-01

    The effect of new adhesives on the bond strength of elastomeric impression materials to acrylic trays was evaluated. Two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Fusion and Imprinsis) with reactive adhesives and one (Examix) with a conventional adhesive were tested. Flat, double-sided plates of auto-polymerizing methyl methacrylate (10 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared with one of the adhesives. Five specimens were prepared by injecting each impression material into a 2-mm gap between the two plates. Tensile tests were conducted until separation failure occurred. The mean bond strengths of Fusion (1.0 MPa) and Imprinsis (0.8 MPa) were significantly greater than that of Examix (0.2 MPa). On the contrary, one of five Fusion showed adhesive failure mode while all the Imprinsis exhibited mixed failure. The conflicting results were presumably attributed to the mean tear strength of Fusion (0.8 N/mm) being higher than that of Imprinsis (0.5 N/mm).

  7. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  8. The moving plate capacitor paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2000-03-01

    For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.

  9. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  10. Enhancing Effect of Glycerol on the Tensile Properties of Bombyx mori Cocoon Sericin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Liangjun Zhu; Lei Yang; Sijia Min; Haiping Zhang; Lianxia Deng; Mingying Yang

    2011-01-01

    An environmental physical method described herein was developed to improve the tensile properties of Bombyx mori cocoon sericin films, by using the plasticizer of glycerol, which has a nontoxic effect compared with other chemical crosslinkers. The changes in the tensile characteristics and the structure of glycerolated (0–40 wt% of glycerol) sericin films were investigated. Sericin films, both in dry and wet states, showed enhanced tensile properties, which might be regulated by the addition ...

  11. Tensile fracture and shear localization under high loading rate in tungsten alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Couque, H.; Lankford, J.; Bose, A

    1992-01-01

    The influence of loading rate and microstructure on the tensile and compressive failure properties of three microstructurally dissimilar tungsten alloys has been investigated. Dynamic tensile fracture properties were characterized through fracture toughness tests performed at a stress intensity loading rate of 106 MPa $\\sqrt{{\\rm m}}$ s-1, and by tensile testing at a strain rate of 103 s-1. Shear banding phenomena were investigated by means of compression tests performed at strain rates of 5 ...

  12. COMPARISON OF PLATE AND CONICAL FILLINGS IN REFINING OF BLEACHED SOFTWOOD AND HARDWOOD PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Koskenhely; K.Nieminen; E.Hiltunen; H.Paulapuro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plate and conical refiner fillings in refining of softwood and hardwood pulp fibers. Contrary to expectations,better tensile strength values were achieved when BSW was refined with conical fillings and the development of strength Was found to be insensitive to variations in refining intensity. A bar microprocile was measured with the aid of a profilometer. The leading edges of conicalfilling bars.were found to be rounder. A possible reason for the better tensile strength of pulp refined with conical fillings is that the round edge helps large SW fiber flocs to enter the space between the bars, resulting in less heterogeneous or more efficient treatment of fibers.The recorded gap closure values supported the above interpretation. The gap between conical fillings was found to become wider when pulp consistency and thus fiber flocculation increased, whereas increased pulp consistency decreased the gap between plate fillings, which was further reflected as increased fiber cutting. The reduction in fiber length was proportional to the increase in gap closure,supporting the earlier theory that fibers are squeezed and crushed between the bars. More attention should be paid to the wear of filling materials when refining BSW. A filling material which wears so that the bar edges are rounded would seem to promote high tensile strength and high average fiber length.

  13. COMPARISON OF PLATE AND CONICAL FILLINGS IN REFINING OF BLEACHED SOFTWOOD AND HARDWOOD PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Koskenhely; K.Nieminen; E.Hiltunent; H.Paulapuro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plate and conical refiner fillings in refining of softwood and hardwood pulp fibers. Contrary to expectations, better tensile strength values were achieved when BSW was refined with conical fillings and the development of strength was found to be insensitive to variations in refining intensity. A bar microprofile was measured with the aid of a profilometer. The leading edges of conical filling bars were found to be rounder. A possible reason for the better tensile strength of pulp refined with conical fillings is that the round edge helps large SW fiber flocs to enter the space between the bars, resulting in less heterogeneous or more efficient treatment of fibers. The recorded gap closure values supported the above interpretation. The gap between conical fillings was found to become wider when pulp consistency and thus fiber flocculation increased, whereas increased pulp consistency decreased the gap between plate fillings, which was further reflected as increased fiber cutting. The reduction in fiber length was proportional to the increase in gap closure, supporting the earlier theory that fibers are squeezed and crushed between the bars. More attention should be paid to the wear of filling materials when refining BSW. A filling material which wears so that the bar edges are rounded would seem to promote high tensile strength and high average fiber length.

  14. Thin plate neotectonic models of the Australian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.

    2004-10-01

    Thin plate finite element models of the neotectonic deformation of the Australian plate have been calculated in order to estimate the stress and strain rate within the plate, specifically concentrating on the Australian continent. The model includes plate-bounding faults, an anelastic brittle-ductile layered rheology and the option of laterally varying elevation and heat flow. The results of the models are compared to (1) the velocity of geodetic benchmarks on the Australian plate, (2) the spreading rate of the mid-oceanic ridges along the Australian plate's margins, (3) the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress, (4) the stress regime within the plate, and (5) the crustal thickness estimated from the depth to the base of Mohorovicic discontinuity's transition zone. A variety of models are tested with a wide range of input parameters. The model with the smallest misfit with observations predicts that the strain rate for most of the Australian continent is approximately 10-17 s-1. This model has a slightly lower strain rate in the central Australia and is higher off the northern coast of Australia than for the rest of the continent. Strain rates of this magnitude would be difficult to observe from geodetic or geologic data for most parts of Australia but would be enough to generate much of the seismicity that has been observed over the last century.

  15. Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-09-01

    Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.

  16. A microdynamic version of the tensile test machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Very large space structures require structural reactions to control forces associated with nanometer-level displacements; JPL has accordingly built a tensile test machine capable of mN-level force measurements and nm-level displacement measurements, with a view to the study of structural linear joining technology at the lower limit of its resolution. The tester is composed of a moving table that is supported by six flexured legs and a test specimen cantilevered off the table to ground. Three vertical legs contain piezoactuators allowing changes in length up to 200 microns while generating axial load and bending moments. Displacements between ground and table are measured by means of three laser-interferometric channels.

  17. Tensile strength and the mining of black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam R

    2013-11-22

    There are a number of important thought experiments that involve raising and lowering boxes full of radiation in the vicinity of black hole horizons. This Letter looks at the limitations placed on these thought experiments by the null energy condition, which imposes a fundamental bound on the tensile-strength-to-weight ratio of the materials involved, makes it impossible to build a box near the horizon that is wider than a single wavelength of the Hawking quanta, and puts a severe constraint on the operation of "space elevators" near black holes. In particular, it is shown that proposals for mining black holes by lowering boxes near the horizon, collecting some Hawking radiation, and dragging it out to infinity cannot proceed nearly as rapidly as has previously been claimed. As a consequence of this limitation, the boxes and all the moving parts are superfluous and black holes can be destroyed equally rapidly by threading the horizon with strings.

  18. Effect of tensile and torsion on GMI in amorphous wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. M.; Zhukov, A.; Gonzalez, J.

    1999-05-01

    GMI effect, Δ Z/Z = [ Z( H) - Z( Hmax)]/ Z( Hmax) has been measured in (Fe 0.94Co 0.06) 72.5B 15Si 12.5 wire under tensile, σ ten, and torsional, σ tor, stresses. Generally Δ Z/Z( H) dependence has a non-monotonic shape with a maximum at certain axial magnetic field, Hm. Both tension and torsion modify Δ Z/Z( H) dependence. Application of tension results in an increase of Hm with σ ten. Torsional stress dependence of GMI effect has asymmetry with a maximum at torsion angle, φ, around + 12π/m in as-cast wire, when Δ Z/Z is around 250%. An increase of Δ Z/Zm up to 350% and change of Δ Z/Z(φ) dependence towards a nearly symmetric shape have been observed after Joule heating.

  19. Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2012-11-01

    The large-scale strength of rock is known to be lower than the strength determined from small-scale samples in the laboratory. However, it is not well known how strength scales with sample size. I estimate kilometer-scale tensional rock mass strength by measuring offsets across new tensional fractures (joints), formed above a shallow magmatic dike intrusion in western Arabia in 2009. I use satellite radar observations to derive 3D ground displacements and by quantifying the extension accommodated by the joints and the maximum extension that did not result in a fracture, I put bounds on the joint initiation threshold of the surface rocks. The results indicate that the kilometer-scale tensile strength of the granitic rock mass is 1–3 MPa, almost an order of magnitude lower than typical laboratory values.

  20. The effect of grain size on dynamic tensile extrusion behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Leeju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE tests were conducted on coarse grained and ultrafine grained (UFG OFHC Cu, Interstitial free (IF Steel, and pure Ta. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP of 16passes with Bc for Cu, IF Steel and 4 passes for Ta was employed to fabricated UFG materials. DTE tests were carried out by launching the sphere samples (Dia. 7.62 mm to the conical extrusion die at a speed of ∼500 m/sec. The fragmentation behavior of the soft-recovered fragments were examined and compared with each other. The DTE fragmentation behavior of CG and UFG was numerically simulated by the LS-DYNA FEM code.

  1. Tensile Fracture Behavior of Progressively-Drawn Pearlitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Toribio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a study is presented of the tensile fracture behavior of progressively-drawn pearlitic steels obtained from five different cold-drawing chains, including each drawing step from the initial hot-rolled bar (not cold-drawn at all to the final commercial product (pre-stressing steel wire. To this end, samples of the different wires were tested up to fracture by means of standard tension tests, and later, all of the fracture surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Micro-fracture maps (MFMs were assembled to characterize the different fractographic modes and to study their evolution with the level of cumulative plastic strain during cold drawing.

  2. Method and device for tensile testing of cable bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lawrence M; Ardelean, Emil V; Goodding, James C; Babuska, Vit

    2012-10-16

    A standard tensile test device is improved to accurately measure the mechanical properties of stranded cables, ropes, and other composite structures wherein a witness is attached to the top and bottom mounting blocks holding the cable under test. The witness is comprised of two parts: a top and a bottom rod of similar diameter with the bottom rod having a smaller diameter stem on its upper end and the top rod having a hollow opening in its lower end into which the stem fits forming a witness joint. A small gap is present between the top rod and the larger diameter portion of the bottom rod. A standard extensometer is attached to the top and bottom rods of the witness spanning this small witness gap. When a force is applied to separate the mounting blocks, the gap in the witness expands the same length that the entire test specimen is stretched.

  3. Curli mediate bacterial adhesion to fibronectin via tensile multiple bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Gruber, Hermann J.; Cui, Yidan; Traxler, Lukas; Siligan, Christine; Park, Sungsu; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Many enteric bacteria including pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains produce curli fibers that bind to host surfaces, leading to bacterial internalization into host cells. By using a nanomechanical force-sensing approach, we obtained real-time information about the distribution of molecular bonds involved in the adhesion of curliated bacteria to fibronectin. We found that curliated E. coli and fibronectin formed dense quantized and multiple specific bonds with high tensile strength, resulting in tight bacterial binding. Nanomechanical recognition measurements revealed that approximately 10 bonds were disrupted either sequentially or simultaneously under force load. Thus the curli formation of bacterial surfaces leads to multi-bond structural components of fibrous nature, which may explain the strong mechanical binding of curliated bacteria to host cells and unveil the functions of these proteins in bacterial internalization and invasion.

  4. Tensile Strain Hardening Behavior and Fractography of Superalloy GH39

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The strain hardening behaviour and fractography of superalloy GH39 was investigated by tensile test at different strain rates. Results indicate that strain hardening behaviours are different during the deformation process. True stress-strain curve obeys the Hollomon relationship partly. The strain hardening exponentn in this stage is constant in the initial plastic stage. However, the value of n increased with true strain ε increasing when true strain is between 0.014 and 0.13. A lot of deformation twinning can be found, the twins and dislocations worked together to increase the value of n. The strain hardening exponent is increased lightly with the strain rate increasing, SEM observations show that in the case of low strain rate, the fracture mode is typical ductile, but there is a tendency from ductile to brittle fracture with increasing the strain rate.

  5. Tensile mechanical response of polyethylene – clay nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the microstructural and the mechanical characteristics of high density polyethylene (HDPE-clay nanocomposites, with particular attention to the creep behaviour. The samples were prepared through melt compounding, using two high-density polyethylenes with different melt flow rate (MFR, two different organo-modified clays, and changing the relative amount of a polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PEgMA compatibilizer. The intercalation process is more effective as the matrix melt viscosity decreases (higher MFR, while the clay interlamellar spacing increases as the compatibilizer amount increases. The relative stiffness of the nanocomposites increases with the addition of clay, with a limited enhancement of the relative yield stress. The better intercalation obtained by the addition of the compatibilizer is not accompanied by a concurrent improvement of the tensile mechanical properties. The creep resistance is enhanced by the introduction of clay, with an appreciable dependence on both the polyethylene and the clay type.

  6. Stress Analysis of Lap Joints With Embedded Cover Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İşcan Bahattin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the bonding joints that are partly embedded in the adherent on the tensile behaviour of reinforcing plate adhesive joint have been investigated by 2D finite element method. In the study, the SBT 9244 material was used as the adhesive, and the adherent was the AA2024-T3 material. Three different models were built for the height of the embedded part in the adherent (a and five models for the length of the embedded part (b, while three models were built for the total overlap length (c. Results showed that with the increase of the height of the embedded part and total overlap length, the strength of the joint was considerably increased. The increase of the length of the embedded part was initially led to an increase in the strength of the joints but after 0.25 value of the b/c the strength was reduced.

  7. Effect of Polypropylene Fibers on the Long-term Tensile Strength of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Wu; ZHONG Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    The influence of low volume fraction of polypropylene(PP) fibers on the tensile properties of normal and high strength concretes was studied. The experimental results indicate that the addition of PP fibers in concrete leads to a reduction in tensile strength during the age of 28 d. Whereas, after 28 days, there is a notable effect in tensile strength due to PP fibers restraining the formation and growth of microcracks in concrete, which improves the continuity and integrality of concrete structure. Thus, a low volume fraction of PP fibers is beneficial to enhancing the long-term tensile strength of concrete materials and improving the durability of concrete structures.

  8. Development of Manila Hemp Fiber Epoxy Composite with High Tensile Properties Through Handpicking Fiber Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Takagi, Hitoshi; Yang, Zhimao

    Manila hemp fibers are separated to several sequent fragments from single fiber. The tensile strength of each fiber fragments and their epoxy composite are measured, followed by scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis. The results show that the tensile strength of fiber fragments is almost constant along fiber. For composite, the tensile strength first increases and then decreases at the position near to root. The Young's modulus presents increasing with location from root to top for fiber and composite. Microstructure analysis indicates that the difference of tensile properties between fiber fragments derive from the difference of fiber diameter.

  9. RING-TENSILE-STRENGTH AND FLEXURE-STRENGTH CORRELATIONS OF SEA ICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEA ICE, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES), TENSILE PROPERTIES, SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, ICE, FLEXURAL STRENGTH , CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, ACCURACY, SAMPLING, THICKNESS, PREDICTIONS, ANTARCTIC REGIONS, LOADS(FORCES)

  10. The tensile strength properties of CFRPs and GRRPs for Unnes electric car body material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaedi, Muhammad; Sumbodo, Wirawan; Widodo, Rahmat Doni

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes composite materials tensile testing of electric car body material. The UNNES electric car body must be developed using a high strength and lightweight material. A fiber-reinforced plastic composite is widely used for the concerned objective. Selection of the type of composites, variations in fiber orientation, and the number of fiber layers will affect the tensile strength of the material. Composite materials use Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) variation to the fiber areal weight, variations in fiber orientation and the number of fiber layers. The CFRPs areal weight consists of 230 gsm and 400 gsm. The GFRPsareal weight consists of 400 gsm and 600 gsm. Fibre orientationsconsist of 0° and 45°. Number of fiber layers consists of one layer and two layers. Various variations were then tested to figure out their tensile to get ultimate tensile strength of materials. Standard test method for tensile test was conducted using ASTM D3039. Tensile specimen geometry used a type of balanced and symmetric fiber orientation, with 25mm in width, 250 mm in length, and 2.5 mm in thickness. The result shows that the more fiber areal weight and the layer number were used, the more its tensile strength would increase, beside it increased the ultimate tensile strength of the material for both glass and carbon fiber with 0o and 45o fiber arientation. Fiber plain wave with 45o has greater tensile strength compared to any other variation.

  11. Tensile properties of Inconel 718 after low temperature neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, T. S.; Farrell, K.

    2003-05-01

    Tensile properties of Inconel 718 (IN718) have been investigated after neutron irradiation to 0.0006-1.2 dpa at 60-100 °C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The alloy was exposed in solution-annealed (SA) and precipitation-hardened (PH) conditions. Before irradiation, the yield strength of PH IN718 was about 1170 MPa, which was 3.7 times higher than that of SA IN718. In the SA condition, an almost threefold increase in yield strength was found at 1.2 dpa, but the alloy retained a positive strain-hardening capability and a uniform ductility of more than 20%. Comparisons showed that the strain-hardening behavior of the SA IN718 is similar to that of a SA 316LN austenitic stainless steel. In the PH condition, the IN718 displayed no radiation-induced hardening in yield strength and significant softening in ultimate tensile strength. The strain-hardening capability of the PH IN718 decreased with dose as the radiation-induced dissolution of precipitates occurred, which resulted in the onset of plastic instability at strains less than 1% after irradiation to 0.16 or 1.2 dpa. An analysis on plastic instability indicated that the loss of uniform ductility in PH IN718 was largely due to the reduction in strain-hardening rate, while in SA IN718 and SA 316LN stainless steel it resulted primarily from the increase of yield stress.

  12. Modified ring stretch tensile testing of Zr-1Nb cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.B.; Majumdar, S.; Ruther, W.E.; Billone, M.C.; Chung, H.M.; Neimark, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    In a round robin effort between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire in France, and the Russian Research Centre-Kurchatov Institute, Argonne National Laboratory conducted 16 modified ring stretch tensile tests on unirradiated samples of zr-1Nb cladding, which is used in Russian VVER reactors. Test were conducted at two temperatures (25 and 400 C) and two strain rates (0.001 and 1 s{sup {minus}1}). At 25 C and 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}, the yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), uniform elongation (UE), and total elongation (TE) were 201 MPa, 331 MPa, 18.2%, and 57.6%, respectively. At 400 C and 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}, the YS, UTS, UE, and TE were 109 MPa, 185 MPa, 15.4%, and 67.7%, respectively. Finally, at 400 C and 1 s{sup {minus}1}, the YS, UTS, UE, and TE were 134 MPa, 189 MPa, 18.9%, and 53.4%, respectively. The high strain rate tests at room temperature were not successful. Test results proved to be very sensitive to the amount of lubrication used on the inserts; because of the large contact area between the inserts and specimen, too little lubrication leads to significantly higher strengths and lower elongations being reported. It is also important to note that only 70 to 80% of the elongation takes place in the gauge section, depending on specimen geometry. The appropriate percentage can be estimated from a simple model or can be calculated from finite-element analysis.

  13. Tensile mechanical properties of swine cortical mandibular bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Brosh

    Full Text Available Temporary orthodontic mini implants serve as anchorage devices in orthodontic treatments. Often, they are inserted in the jaw bones, between the roots of the teeth. The stability of the mini implants within the bone is one of the major factors affecting their success and, consequently, that of the orthodontic treatment. Bone mechanical properties are important for implant stability. The aim of this study was to determine the tensile properties of the alveolar and basal mandible bones in a swine model. The diametral compression test was employed to study the properties in two orthogonal directions: mesio-distal and occluso-gingival. Small cylindrical cortical bone specimens (2.6 mm diameter, 1.5 mm thickness were obtained from 7 mandibles using a trephine drill. The sites included different locations (anterior and posterior and aspects (buccal and lingual for a total of 16 specimens from each mandible. The load-displacement curves were continuously monitored while loading half of the specimens in the oclluso-gingival direction and half in the mesio-distal direction. The stiffness was calculated from the linear portion of the curve. The mesio-distal direction was 31% stiffer than the occluso-gingival direction. The basal bone was 40% stiffer than the alveolar bone. The posterior zone was 46% stiffer than the anterior zone. The lingual aspect was stiffer than the buccal aspect. Although bone specimens do not behave as brittle materials, the diametral compression test can be adequately used for determining tensile behavior when only small bone specimens can be obtained. In conclusion, to obtain maximal orthodontic mini implant stability, the force components on the implants should be oriented mostly in the mesio-distal direction.

  14. Mechanical characterization of stomach tissue under uniaxial tensile action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z G; Li, W; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-26

    In this article, the tensile properties of gastric wall were investigated by using biomechanical test and theoretical analysis. The samples of porcine stomach strips from smaller and greater curvature of the stomach were cut in longitudinal and circumferential direction, respectively. The loading-unloading, stress relaxation, strain creep, tensile fracture tests were performed at mucosa-submucosa, serosa-muscle and intact layer, respectively. Results showed that the biomechanical properties of the porcine stomach depended on the layers, orientations and locations of the gastric wall and presented typical viscoelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties. During loading-unloading test, the stress of serosa-muscle layer in the longitudinal direction was 15-20% more than that in the circumferential direction at 12% stretch ratio, while it could reach about 40% for the intact layer and 50% for the mucosa-submucosa layer. The results of stress relaxation and strain creep showed that the variation degree was obviously faster in the circumferential direction than that in the longitudinal direction, and the ultimate residual values were also different for the different layers, orientations and locations. In the process of fracture test, the serosa-muscle layer fractured firstly followed by the mucosa-submucosa layer when the intact layer was tested, the longitudinal strips firstly began to fracture and the required stress value was about twice as much as that in the circumferential strips. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of mechanical characterization of the porcine stomach were related to its complicated geometry, structure and functions. The results would help us to understand the biomechanics of soft organ tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling the tensile behavior of human Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; Shaw, K M

    1997-01-01

    Uniaxial quasi-static tensile stress, sigma versus strain, epsilon, data were obtained from 29 cadaveric Achilles tendons (donor ages: 36 to 100 years), at a strain rate of either 10 or 100%/s. These results were then used in modeling the elastic component of the tensile deformational behavior of this tissue. Two approaches were taken. In the first, it was shown that the following constitutive relation provided an excellent fit to the elastic section of the sigma-epsilon curve, sigma = C epsilon exp[D epsilon + F epsilon 2], with C, D and F being material constants, whose values for the present dataset were found to be C = 2.00 +/- 0.99, D = 0.089 +/- 0.087 and F = -0.0047 +/- 0.0095. The values of these coefficients were not statistically significantly affected by either donor age or test strain rate. In the second approach, the value of the modulus of elasticity of a filamentary polymer matrix composite material was computed as a function of various combinations of values of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber, the modulus of elasticity of the matrix, and angle of orientation of the principal material axes with respect to the reference coordinate axes (theta) for a fiber volume fraction of 0.6 and a material Poisson's ratio of 0.4. By comparing these results with the experimentally-obtained values of the tangent modulus of elasticity of the tendons (defined as the slope of the linear section of the post-toe zone in the sigma-epsilon plot), and assuming that the tendon may be idealized as a filamentary polymer matrix composite material, the suggestion is made that the winding angle of the fibers (collagen fibrils) in the tendon (taken to be equal to theta) is about 6 degrees.

  16. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  17. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  18. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  19. Effects of reverse waves on the hydrodynamic pressure acting on a dual porous horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweon Hyuck-Min

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The seaward reverse wave, occurring on the submerged dual porous horizontal plate, can contribute to the reduction of the transmitted wave as it reflects the propagating wave. However, the collision between the propa¬gating and seaward reverse waves increases the water level and acts as a weight on the horizontal plate. This study investigated the characteristics of the wave pressure created by the seaward reverse wave through the analysis of expe¬rimental data. The analysis confirmed the following results: 1 the time series of the wave pressure showed reverse phase phenomena due to the collision, and the wave pressures acted simultaneously on both upper and lower surfaces of the horizontal plate; 2 the horizontal plate became repeatedly compressed and tensile before and after the occur¬rence of the seaward reverse wave; and 3 the seaward reverse wave created the total wave pressure to the maximum towards the direction of gravity, primarily on the upper plate. It was also confirmed that the wave distributions showed a similar trend to the wave steepness. Such outcome of the analysis will provide basic information to the structural analysis of the horizontal plate as a wave dissipater of the steel-type breakwater (STB.

  20. The diametral tensile strength and hydrostability of polymer-ceramic nano-composite (pcnc) material prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Johanna

    Statement of the problem: There is a weak connection between the filler and the resin matrix of dental composites caused primarily by hydrolysis of silane coupling agent, therefore, jeopardizing the mechanical properties of the dental restorations. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the diametral tensile strength (DTS) of a nano-mechanically bonded polymer ceramic nano composite (pcnc) versus the chemically bonding prototype polymer ceramic nano composite (pcnc) fabricated by using hydrolytically stable interphase. Materials and Methods: Composites were made with 60wt % filler, 38% triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEDGMA), 1% camphorquinone (CQ) and 1% 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Tests for DTS were performed using a universal testing machine. The disk-shaped specimens were loaded in compression between two supporting plates at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The samples, measuring 3 mm in height and 6 mm in diameter, were produced in a round stainless steel (SS) mold. A total of 144 samples were created. Groups of 48 samples were made for each of three different fillers. Specimens were soaked in artificial saliva at 37° for four time periods, dry(t=0), 1 day, 7 days, 28 days). At the end of each soaking time DTS tests were performed. Results: There where statistically significant differences in the DTS between the filler groups and the soaking times (p=composition and bonding interphase of resin base composites promise improvements of mechanical properties, decreasing the incidence of clinical failure of posterior composite restorations, hence resulting in a more ideal restorative material for use in posterior segment. The results of this investigation showed that the deficiency of hydrostability in dental composites is a detrimental factor in the mechanical behavior. The silanation of the filler particles have a positive influence on the mechanical properties of dental composites but the hydrolysis of the silane

  1. Analytical Algorithms for the Blend Ratios by Fibre-bundle Tensile Curves Part I:Typical Tensile Curve and the Strength and Work Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei-dong(于伟东); POSTLE Ron; YAN Hao-jing(严灏景)

    2004-01-01

    The blend ratio and tensile properties are vital important characteristics of blended fibre bundles. Fibre-bundle tensile behaviour has been measured by means of the Sirolan-Tensor in order to derive a typical specific stress - extension curve. According to the typical tensile curve, the relationships between the blend ratio and the tensile parameters are discussed and established. Two new algorithms, so-called the strength method and the work method, have been developed for the blend-ratio estimation of blended fibre bundles. The relevant blend-ratios and calculations of the two methods are defined in detail. Also, the characteristics have been explained for every calculation and compared to each others. The experimental results show that the blend ratios estimated from the theoretical methods are high coincidence with the measured results. Meanwhile, the specific stress - extension curve of blended fibre bundles depends directly on the blend ratios of the fibre bundles.

  2. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  3. Optical Near-Field Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    color filtering and spectral imaging ,” Nat. Comm. 1, 59 (2010). 3. H.-F. Shi and L. J. Guo, “Design of Plasmonic Near Field Plate at Opitical...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0085 OPTICAL NEAR-FILED PLATES Roberto Merlin UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 04/08/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...03-2015 Final 09/01/2009-12/31/2014 Optical Near-Field Plates FA9550-09-1-0636 erlin, Roberto, D. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109

  4. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  5. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...

  6. Bauschinger effect on API 5L B and X56 steel plates under repeating bending load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Icho Y.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2017-01-01

    During steel pipe fabrication, hot rolled coil steel will undergo coiling and uncoiling process, where the steel plate is bent repeatedly. When cyclic loading is imposed on steel, tensile and compressive stress will occur in it resulting in softening caused by Bauschinger effect. This research is focused on Bauschinger effect and cyclic loading during coiling and uncoiling process on API 5L B and API 5L X56 steel. Both types of steel were given repeated bend loading with variation in loading cycle and the curvature radius. The steel's response was then observed by using tensile testing, microhardness testing, and microstructure observation. A decrease in yield strength is observed during lower cycles and on smaller radii. After higher loading cycle, the yield strength of the steel was increased. Microhardness testing also reported similar results on the subsurface part of the steel where loading is at its highest.

  7. ADHESIVE CONTACT PROBLEM OF AXISYMMETRIC MINIATURE CIRCULAR PLATES WITH CENTRAL RIGID BUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yiming; Li Sheng; Tian Yanping

    2006-01-01

    Considering the adhesive effect and geometric nonlinearity, the adhesive contact between an elastic substrate and a clamped miniature circular plate with two different central rigid bumps under the action of uniform transverse pressure and in-plane tensile force in the radial direction was analyzed. And an analytical solution is presented by using the perturbation method. The relation of surface adhesive energies with critical load to detach the contacted surfaces is obtained. In the numerical results, the effects of adhesive energy, in-plane tensile force, rigid bump size and contact radius on the critical load are discussed, and the relation of critical contact radius with the gap between the central rigid bump and the substrate for different adhesive energies is investigated.

  8. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  9. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  10. Tectonics: Changing of the plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alan

    2016-10-01

    The composition of Earth's crust depends on the style of plate tectonics and of the melting regimes in the mantle. Analyses of the oldest identified rocks suggest that these styles and the resulting crust have changed over Earth's history.

  11. Study of the Tensile Damage of High-Strength Aluminum Alloy by Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The key material of high-speed train gearbox shells is high-strength aluminum alloy. Material damage is inevitable in the process of servicing. It is of great importance to study material damage for in-service gearboxes of high-speed train. Structural health monitoring methods have been widely used to study material damage in recent years. This study focuses on the application of an acoustic emission (AE method to quantify tensile damage evolution of high-strength aluminum alloy. First, a characteristic parameter was developed to connect AE signals with tensile damage. Second, a tensile damage quantification model was presented based on the relationship between AE counts and tensile behavior to study elastic deformation of tensile damage. Then tensile tests with AE monitoring were employed to collect AE signals and tensile damage data of nine samples. The experimental data were used to quantify tensile damage of high-strength aluminum alloy A356 to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. 10 Degree Off-Axis Tensile Test for Intralaminar Shear Characterization of Fiber Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen for the...from Mod-I/epoxy, T-300/epoxy, and S-glass/ epoxy were used in the experimental program. It was found that the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen is

  13. In situ EBSD during tensile test of aluminum AA3003 sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Sören; Peng, Ru Lin; Calmunger, Mattias; Olsson, Björn; Johansson, Sten

    2014-03-01

    Miniature tensile-test specimens of soft-annealed, weakly textured AA3003 aluminum sheet in 0.9 mm thickness were deformed until fracture inside a scanning electron microscope. Tensile strength measured by the miniature tensile test stage agreed well with the tensile strength by regular tensile testing. Strain over the microscope field of view was determined from changes in positions of constituent particles. Slip lines were visible in secondary electron images already at 0.3% strain; activity from secondary slip systems became apparent at 2% strain. Orientation rotation behavior of the tensile load axis with respect to the crystallographic axes agreed well with previously reported trends for other aluminum alloys. Start of the fracture and tensile crack propagation were documented in secondary electron images. The region of fracture nucleation included and was surrounded by many grains that possessed high Schmid factors at zero strain. Crystal lattice rotation angles in the grains surrounding the initial fracture zone were higher than average while rotations inside the initial fracture zone were lower than average for strains from zero to 31%. The orientation rotation behavior of the tensile load axes of the grains around the fracture zone deviated from the average behavior in this material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Second Phase Particles on the Tensile Instability of a Nanostructured Al-1%Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tian Lin; Wu, Gui Lin; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A nanostructured Al-1%Si alloy containing dispersed Si particles was produced by heavily cold-rolling to study the effect of second phase particles on the tensile instability of nanostructured metals. Tensile tests were conducted on the as-deformed sample and the samples after recovery annealing...

  15. EVALUATION OF A RING TEST FOR DETERMINING THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF MORTARS AND CONCRETE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an evaluation of a specific type of test procedure, the ring tensile test , which results in a...strength’ and the techniques used to obtain them by other investigators over the years with the exception of the work involving the ring tensile test . Some

  16. Tensile Properties of the Individual Phases in Unreacted Multifilament Nb3Sn Wires

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Fedelich, B; Finn, M; Griepentrog, M; El-Kallassi, P; Lecouturier, F; Oberli, L; Rehmer, B; Sgobba, Stefano; Thilly, L; Vidal, V

    2007-01-01

    The room temperature elastic and plastic properties under uniaxial tensile loading of the different phases of an un-reacted, internal-tin process, Nb3Sn wire have been determined by tensile tests of whole wires and of extracted Ta, Nb and Nb alloy filaments, as well as by indentation hardness measurements in metallographic wire cross sections.

  17. The Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Properties of Cotton Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石风俊; 崔世忠

    2003-01-01

    The effect of strain rate on tensile properties of cotton yarns is analyzed using the standard linear solid model. The tensile curve, breaking strength and work of rupture of the yarns under different strain rate are calculated. A good correlation exists between the experiment results and theoretical anticipations.

  18. Guidelines to come to minimized tensile strength loss upon cellulase application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenting, H.B.M.; Lenting, H.B.M.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2001-01-01

    Application of cellulase technology in the textile production process often results in a certain loss of tensile strength along with the desired performance. In this paper guidelines are given how to come to minimization or even prevention of tensile strength loss. Part of the considerations is

  19. Flexural and tensile bond strength, related via a stochastic numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, R. van der

    1998-01-01

    The flexural strength of masonry parallel to the bed joint depends on the geometry of the cross section, tensile bond strength, fracture energy, stiffness of units and of mortar joints. In experiments, tensile bond strength and fracture energy determined on relatively small specimens, show a large s

  20. Different stimulation strategies to enhance the performance of subsurface heat exchangers based on tensile fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Wees, J.D.A.M. van; Hoedeman, G.C.; Fokker, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Tensile fraccing in non-critically stressed tectonic environments, such as occur in large parts of the Netherlands, allows stimulation with a negligible level of seismicity. In this paper we analyse the performance of two tensile hydraulic stimulation strategies, for geothermal systems at large dept

  1. The effect of processing on defects and tensile strength of single flax fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Mehmood, Shahid; Madsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This study is to investigate the influence of consecutive processing steps on the defects and the tensile strength of single flax fibres. It was found that each processing step leads to an increasing number of defects and larger defect sizes, as well as decreasing tensile strength of the fibres....

  2. Investigation of anistropic behavior of Montney Shale under indirect tensile strength test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keneti, S.A.R.; Wong, R.C.K. [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Montney Shale Formation is located near the British Columbia and Alberta borders and is one of the largest economically feasible resource plays in North America. Hydraulic fracturing is used to enhance the gas production. Initiation and propagation of hydraulically induced fracture is controlled by in-situ stresses magnitude and orientation and the reservoir tensile strength. The tensile strength becomes one of the most important parameters in governing hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir if the in-situ stresses composing one vertical and two horizontal stresses are comparable or lie within a narrow range. Different point and line load tests were used in this study to determine the tensile strength of Montney shale cores in two perpendicular directions. The paper discussed image analysis of Montney shale cores and tensile strength tests, including Brazilian tests for measuring tensile strength in the horizontal direction and point load tests for measuring tensile strength in the vertical direction. The effect of anisotropic tensile strength on hydraulic fracturing of Montney shale was also presented. It was concluded from the test results that the Montney shale exhibits a high anisotropy in tensile strength. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  3. Microstructure and Properties of Low Cost TC4 Titanium Alloy Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiuyuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing law of microstructure and mechanical properties of low cost TC4 titanium alloy during deformation and annealing was investigated. The results show that the coarse cast dendritic structure of slab is broken to form rod-like or equiaxial α+β transformed microstructure by rolling deformation. After annealing, the microstructure of plate becomes uniform, moreover, the flake secondary α separates out and the amount of primary α phase decreases with the increase of annealing temperature and gradually tends to equiaxization. The tensile strength and ductility of plate show an increased tendency with deforming. When annealing temperature increases, the tensile strength firstly increases, and then reaches the maximum value at 820 °C, after that, it gradually decreases. The yield strength and reduction of area show decreasing trend as a whole, but the elongation has a little change. The plate has preferable matching of strength and ductile after annealing treatment at 750~820 °C for 1h in air.

  4. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Austempering SUS440 Steel Thin Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUS440 is a high-carbon stainless steel, and its martensite matrix has high heat resistance, high corrosion resistance, and high pressure resistance. It has been widely used in mechanical parts and critical materials. However, the SUS440 martempered matrix has reliability problems in thin plate applications and thus research uses different austempering heat treatments (tempering temperature: 200 °C–400 °C to obtain a matrix containing bainite, retained austenite, martensite, and the M7C3 phase to investigate the relationships between the resulting microstructure and tensile mechanical properties. Experimental data showed that the austempering conditions of the specimen affected the volume fraction of phases and distribution of carbides. After austenitizing heat treatment (1080 °C for 30 min, the austempering of the SUS440 thin plates was carried out at a salt-bath temperature 300 °C for 120 min and water quenching was then used to obtain the bainite matrix with fine carbides, with the resulting material having a higher tensile fracture strength and average hardness (HRA 76 makes it suitable for use as a high-strength thin plate for industrial applications.

  5. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  6. Tensile strength of bilayered ceramics and corresponding glass veneers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champirat, Tharee; Jirajariyavej, Bundhit

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the microtensile bond strength between two all-ceramic systems; lithium disilicate glass ceramic and zirconia core ceramics bonded with their corresponding glass veneers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Blocks of core ceramics (IPS e.max® Press and Lava™ Frame) were fabricated and veneered with their corresponding glass veneers. The bilayered blocks were cut into microbars; 8 mm in length and 1 mm2 in cross-sectional area (n = 30/group). Additionally, monolithic microbars of these two veneers (IPS e.max® Ceram and Lava™ Ceram; n = 30/group) were also prepared. The obtained microbars were tested in tension until fracture, and the fracture surfaces of the microbars were examined with fluorescent black light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify the mode of failure. One-way ANOVA and the Dunnett's T3 test were performed to determine significant differences of the mean microtensile bond strength at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The mean microtensile bond strength of IPS e.max® Press/IPS e.max® Ceram (43.40 ± 5.51 MPa) was significantly greater than that of Lava™ Frame/Lava™ Ceram (31.71 ± 7.03 MPa)(P<.001). Fluorescent black light and SEM analysis showed that most of the tested microbars failed cohesively in the veneer layer. Furthermore, the bond strength of Lava™ Frame/Lava™ Ceram was comparable to the tensile strength of monolithic glass veneer of Lava™ Ceram, while the bond strength of bilayered IPS e.max® Press/IPS e.max® Ceram was significantly greater than tensile strength of monolithic IPS e.max® Ceram. CONCLUSION Because fracture site occurred mostly in the glass veneer and most failures were away from the interfacial zone, microtensile bond test may not be a suitable test for bonding integrity. Fracture mechanics approach such as fracture toughness of the interface may be more appropriate to represent the bonding quality between two materials. PMID:25006377

  7. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  8. Horizontally oriented plates in clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bréon, François-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...

  9. [The properties of dentin and resinified dentin in the tensile test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of resinifying therapy to the hard tissue of tooth by using measurement of the tensile strength. The fresh extracted maxillary anterior teeth having been cleaned and sterilized were divided into two groups. The control group was placed into 9% N-saline solution of 37 +/- 1 degrees C. The experimental group was treated with resinifying therapy. The tensile specimens were shaped by turning in a lathe until it satisfied the tensile test requirement of Mechanics of Materials except that they were hollow. A set of special split jig was made for this test. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used for measuring the load on the specimens. The loading speed was 0.05 mm/min. The straining meter was used to measure the tensile strain. The result revealed that tensile strength of resinifying dentin was little lower than that of unresinified dentin. The resinified dentin didn't increases stiffness or brittleness.

  10. Indigenous Design for Automatic Testing of Tensile Strength Using Graphical User Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rafay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensile Testing is a fundamental material test to measure the tenacity and tensile strength. Tensile strength means ability to take tensile stress. This Universal Testing Machine is designed using Dual Cylinder Technique in order to comply with the maximun load (tensile force with the reduction of minimum physical effort and minimized losses.It is to provide material testing opportunity to the students of different institutions, locally and globally, at lowest price; so that they can have a comprehensive understanding of the testing procedures and examining material properties on practical grounds with a minimum expenditure. The testing mechanism is automated along with the inclusion of all necessary parameters and the movement of the members. Specimens of different engineering materials were used to carry out the test and their mechanical strength was tested and compared with the actual values

  11. Modeling effects of constituents and dispersoids on tensile ductility of aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Min; CHEN Kang-hua; QI Xiong-wei

    2007-01-01

    The modeling effects of constituents and dispersoids on the tensile ductility of aluminum alloy were studied. The results show that the tensile ductility decreases with the increase of the volume fraction and size of constituents. Thus, purification can improve the tensile ductility by decreasing the volume fraction of constituents (normally compositions of Fe and Si) and the first-class microcracks. The model also indicates that the tensile ductility decreases with the increase in the volume fraction of dispersoids. Decreasing the volume fraction of dispersoids along the grain boundaries by proper heat-treatment and improving the cohesion strength between dispersoids and matrix can also improve the tensile ductility by decreasing the volume fraction of the second-class microcracks.

  12. Effect of δ Phase on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Inconel 718 by Notch Tensile Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liufa LIU; Chen LU; Wenjiang DING; Akio Hirose; Kojiro F.Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    The effect of δ phase on the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) sensitivity of Inconel 718 was investigated by conducting notch tensile tests. Notch tensile specimens with various precipitation morphologies of δ phase were prepared with different heat treatments, and hydrogen was charged into the tensile specimens before tensile tests via a cathodic charging process. The loss of notch tensile strength (NTS) due to the charged hydrogen was used to evaluate the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity. The results show that δ phase has deleterious effect on NTSs, and the fracture of hydrogen-charged specimens initiated near the notch surfaces. The loss of NTS caused by precharged hydrogen can be greatly decreased by dissolving δ phase. δ-free Inconel 718 alloy is proposed for the applications in hydrogen environments.

  13. Research on tensile fracture process of ring-spun yarn based on AE technique and HHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing XUE

    Full Text Available The audio signals of polyester filament and ring-spun yarn were collected respectively during tensile failure by self-built Acoustic Emission detection system (AE for short, which is based on the conventional yarn tensile strength tester. And then the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT program was compiled by Matlab software to analysis and process the collected signals, in order to get the time-frequency characteristics of each damage source in the yarn tensile fracture process. The results show that, AE signal via HHT can be identified two modes involved in polyester ring-spun yarn tensile fracture process, which are fiber fracture and fiber slippage. And the characteristic frequencies of the modes are 30, 20 kHz and 6, 3 kHz respectively. Thus, this paper provides an effective new approach for the analysis and further research of yarn tensile fracture mechanism.

  14. Deformation of two welded elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined tensile fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kumar; Sarva Jit Singh; Jagdish Singh

    2005-02-01

    The calculation of the deformation caused by shear and tensile faults is necessary for the investigation of seismic and volcanic sources. The solution of the two-dimensional problem of a long inclined shear fault in two welded half-spaces is well known. The purpose of this note is to present the corresponding solution for a tensile fault. Closed-form analytical expressions for the Airy stress function for a tensile line source in two welded half-spaces are first obtained. These expressions are then integrated analytically to derive the Airy stress function for a long tensile fault of arbitrary dip and finite width. Closed-form analytical expressions for the displacements and stresses follow immediately from the Airy stress function. These expressions are suitable for computing the displacement and stress fields around a long inclined tensile fault near an internal boundary.

  15. Prediction of Splitting Tensile Strength from Cylinder Compressive Strength of Concrete by Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezhen Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive strength and splitting tensile strength are both important parameters that are utilized for characterization concrete mechanical properties. This paper aims to show a possible applicability of support vector machine (SVM to predict the splitting tensile strength of concrete from compressive strength of concrete, a SVM model was built, trained, and tested using the available experimental data gathered from the literature. All of the results predicted by the SVM model are compared with results obtained from experimental data, and we found that the predicted splitting tensile strength of concrete is in good agreement with the experimental data. The splitting tensile strength results predicted by SVM are also compared to those obtained by using empirical results of the building codes and various models. These comparisons show that SVM has strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting splitting tensile strength from compressive strength.

  16. Development of 70/30 Poly-L-DL-Lactic Acid Filaments for 3D Printers (Part 2): Mechanical and Surface Properties of Bioabsorbable Printed Plates for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniel J.; Vidal, Rafael; Assayag, Ariel; de Biasi, Ronaldo S.; Elias, Carlos N.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical, chemical, roughness and wettability properties of 70/30 poly (L,DL-lactide acid) three-dimensional (3D)-printed surgical plates made with extruded polymer filaments developed in the first part of this work were investigated. The plates were printed with horizontal (HRZ) and vertical (VRT) running layer orientations and evaluated by tensile, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), optical perfilometry and wettability tests before and after degradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of HRZ plates before immersion in SBF was higher (34.1 MPa) than that of VRT plates (31.8 MPa). The Young's modulus ( E) of HRZ plates and VRT plates are similar (4 GPa). After immersion in SBF, the UTS of HRZ plates dropped to 20.5 MPa and E decreased to 3.3 GPa. VRT were not tested after SBF immersion due to the large degradation. FTIR analysis showed no evidence of chemical change in the plates after immersion in SBF. The roughness parameter R3z of VRT surfaces (19.54 µm) was higher than that of the HRZ surfaces (12.80 µm). The roughness parameters increased after degradation in SBF ( p = 0.7048). The contact angles of HRZ surfaces before immersion in SBF (66.28°) were higher than after immersion in SBF (18.12°); the same behavior was also observed in VRT plates.

  17. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  18. Mechanical properties of friction stir butt-welded Al-5086 H32 plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Çam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to study Al-5086 H32 plates with a thickness of 3 mm friction stir butt-welded using different welding speeds at a tool rotational speed of 1600 rpm. Design/methodology/approach: The effect of welding speed on the weld performance of the joints was investigated by conducting optical microscopy, microhardness measurements and mechanical tests (i.e. tensile and bend tests. The effect of heat input during friction stir welding on the microstructure, and thus mechanical properties, of cold-rolled Al- 5086 plates was also determined.Findings: The experimental results indicated that the maximum tensile strength of the joints, which is about 75% that of the base plate, was obtained with a traverse speed of 200 mm/min at the tool rotational speed used, e.g. 1600 rpm, and the maximum bending angle of the joints can reach 180º. The maximum ductility performance of the joints was, on the other hand, relatively low, e.g. about 20%. These results are not unexpected due to the loss of the cold-work strengthening in the weld region as a result of the heat input during welding, and thus the confined plasticity within the stirred zone owing to strength undermatching. Higher joint performances can also be achieved by increasing the penetration depth of the stirring probe in butt-friction stir welding of Al-5086 H32 plates.Research limitations/implications: The results suggest that both strength and ductility performances can be increased by optimizing the tool penetration depth.Originality/value: Examination of mechanical properties of friction stir butt-welded Al-5086 H32 plate.

  19. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  20. Tensile Strength of PHBV/Natural Rubber Latex Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promkotra Sarunya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV is mingled with natural rubber latex (R to develop its mechanical property of the blend. Normally, substantial effects of the PHBV are hard, fragile, and inelastic, whereas the natural rubber is represented itself as very high elastic matter. The mixtures between the PHBV and natural rubber latex (R are considered in different proportions. The PHBV solutions (w/v are defined suitability at 1% (P1, 2% (P2, and 3% (P3. Their liquid mixtures of the PHBV to natural rubber latex (P:R are fabricated the blended films in three different ratios of 2:3, 1:1 and 3:2, respectively. The PHBV blended films are characterized the crystallinity form by x-ray diffractometry (XRD, which are appeared their identity crystals at 13.30 and 16.68 degree (2θ. Mechanical characterizations of the blends are examined by a universal testing machine (UTM. The average elastic moduli of P1, P2, and P3 mixtures are indicated as 773, 955, and 1,007 kPa, respectively. Their tensile strengths, similarly to elastic moduli, enhance with the PHBV concentrations. The effects of mechanical behaviors and crystallinity reveal that the PHBV blends can be improved their properties by more flexible with natural rubber latex.

  1. Mechanochromism of a luminescent natural rubber under tensile deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jimin; Park, Minwook; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Nah, Changwoon

    2016-09-01

    Various examples are reported of chromogenic materials composed of a functional dye covalently linked to the polymer chains or physically dispersed in the continuous macromolecular matrix, the latter appears to be a more sustainable route for the industrial scale-up of these materials. In this study, a mechanochromic elastomer was prepared by physically dispersing dye materials into a rubber matrix by solution mixing technique. The employed rubber is natural rubber (NR). The NR was chosen because of its ability of strain-induced crystallization. Perylene diimide I is selected after considering its aggregachromic nature and affinity with rubber matrix. The optimum composition of dye in rubber composites was determined based on the mechanochromic performance characterized with ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrometer, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectrofluorometer (FL). The UV/Vis spectrometer and FL monitor the optical responses, such as absorbance and emission property, under tensile deformation due to the breakage of dye aggregates. Spectroscopic analysis with polarization monitors the breakage of dye aggregates and anisotropic property of the sample. The XRD monitors the change in size of dye aggregates. With polarization filtering, the breakage of dye aggregates are clearly observed and anisotropic property of the sample is also confirmed. The XRD results indicate that dye aggregates were broken during stretching because the shear force is applied to dye aggregates.

  2. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  3. Preparation of insoluble fibroin films and its tensile property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Qiang; CAO Chuanbao; ZHAI Huazhang; ZHU Hesun

    2004-01-01

    Silk fibroin is becoming a promising biomaterial because of its excellent biocompatibility. However, the regenerated fibroin is usually soluble in water and its mechanical properties should be improved. Although many methods, such as adding other polymers or treating with methanol, can ameliorate the mechanical properties and insolubility, the biocompatibility of fibroin is usually damaged in these processes. In this article, it is first reported that the insoluble fibroin films are directly prepared without methanol treatment. According to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the amount of β-sheet conformation increased with the increasing of concentration. When fibroin films are dried from 15 wt% at 60℃, the films become insoluble in water. More importantly, The tensile strength and elongation of the insoluble fibroin films dried from 15% solution at 60℃ reached 15.9 MPa and 49.4% respectively in the wet state, which is distinctly superior to the fibroin films treated with methanol.

  4. Tensile properties of ADI material in water and gaseous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnovic, Dragan, E-mail: draganr@uns.ac.rs [Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Balos, Sebastian; Sidjanin, Leposava [Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Eric Cekic, Olivera [Innovation Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Grbovic Novakovic, Jasmina [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-03-15

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is an advanced type of heat treated ductile iron, having comparable mechanical properties as forged steels. However, it was found that in contact with water the mechanical properties of austempered ductile irons decrease, especially their ductility. Despite considerable scientific attention, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. Some authors suggested that hydrogen or small atom chemisorption causes the weakening of the surface atomic bonds. To get additional reliable data of that phenomenon, in this paper, two different types of austempered ductile irons were tensile tested in various environments, such as: argon, helium, hydrogen gas and water. It was found that only the hydrogen gas and water gave a statistically significant decrease in mechanical properties, i.e. cause embrittlement. Furthermore, the fracture surface analysis revealed that the morphology of the embrittled zone near the specimen surface shares similarities to the fatigue micro-containing striation-like lines, which indicates that the morphology of the brittle zone may be caused by cyclic local-chemisorption, micro-embrittlement and local-fracture. - Highlights: • In contact with water and other liquids the ADI suddenly exhibits embrittlement. • The embrittlement is more pronounced in water than in the gaseous hydrogen. • The hydrogen chemisorption into ADI surface causes the formation of a brittle zone. • The ADI austempered at lower temperatures (300 °C) is more resistant to embrittlement.

  5. Swelling and tensile properties of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1990-07-01

    Vanadium-base alloys are candidates for use as structural material in magnetic fusion reactors. In comparison to other candidate structural materials (e.g., Type 316 stainless and HT-9 ferritic steels), vanadium-base alloys such as V-15Cr-5Ti and V-20Ti have intrinsically lower long-term neutron activation, neutron irradiation after-heat, biological hazard potential, and neutron-induced helium and hydrogen transmutation rates. Moreover, vanadium-base alloys can withstand a higher surface-heat, flux than steels because of their lower thermal stress factor. In addition to having these favorable neutronic and physical properties, a candidate alloy for use as structural material in a fusion reactor must have dimensional stability, i.e., swelling resistance, and resistance to embrittlement during the reactor lifetime at a level of structural strength commensurate with the reactor operating temperature and structural loads. In this paper, we present experimental results on the swelling and tensile properties of several vanadium-base alloys after irradiation at 420, 520, and 600{degree}C to neutron fluences ranging from 0.3 to 1.9 {times} 10{sup 27} neutrons/m{sup 2} (17 to 114 atom displacements per atom (dpa)).

  6. Permeability and Tensile Strength of Concrete with Arabic Gum Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeliazim Mustafa Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of materials of vegetal origin is increasingly being promoted in many industries due to their cost effectiveness and the rising sensitivity to environmental protection and sustainability. Arabic Gum Biopolymer (AGB is a wild plant byproduct that is abundantly found in Sudan and is also produced in other African countries. It has long been used in various industries. However, its utilization is very limited in the construction sector although there appears to be a significant potential for use of AGB in the building industry. As an example, there is evidence that AGB may be an effective additive to concrete mixes that would improve fresh and hardened concrete properties. The aim of the present work is to provide further experimental evidence on the improvement that can be achieved in the physical and mechanical properties of hardened concrete when AGB is added to the mixture. The experimental results show a significant reduction in permeability for an optimum percentage of AGB and an increase in flexural and tensile strength and in the elastic modulus.

  7. Fractographic analysis of tensile failures of aerospace grade composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Suresh Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes fractographic features observed in aerospace composites failed under tensile loads. Unidirectional Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (UD CFRP and Unidirectional Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (UD GFRP composite specimens were fabricated and tested in tension. The morphology of fractured surfaces was studied at various locations to identify failure mechanism and characteristic fractographic features. CFRP composites displayed transverse crack propagation and the fracture surface showed three distinct regions, viz., crack origin, propagation and final failure. Significant variations in the fractographic features were noticed in crack propagation and final failure regions. Crack propagation region exhibited brittle fracture with chevron lines emanating from the crack origin. The entire crack propagation region exhibited radial marks on the individual fibre broken ends. On the other hand, the final fracture region revealed longitudinal matrix splitting and radial marks in majority of locations, and chop marks at some locations. The change in fracture mode in the final fracture was attributed to superimposition of bending loads. GFRP composites exhibited broom like fracture with extensive longitudinal splitting with radial marks present on individual fibre broken ends. Transverse fracture was observed at a few locations. These fracture features were analyzed and correlated with the loading conditions.

  8. Geometry of the Cocos Plate Under North American Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Cocos plate subducts under the North American plate with a complex geometry, and previous seismicity studies revealed some of this complexity. However, details of the geometry and the depth that the plate penetrates werelargely unknown. Since 2004, temporary experiments and the expansion of the permanent network of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) have improved resolution of the plate geometry and have helped to map its descent into the upper mantle. Going from northwest to southeast, the Cocos plate appears to be fragmenting into north and south segments. The north segment subducts with an angle of ~30º and the south with an angle of ~10-15º. The transition is smooth near the trench and progresses to a tear at depth; this coincides with the projection of the Orozco Fracture Zone to depth. Also, this transition marks the limit of the presence to the south of an ultra slow velocity layer (USL) on top of the slab.South of this transition, the Cocos plate subducts horizontally , underplating the North American plate for a distance of ~140 to ~300 km from the trench. Along this horizontal region, silent slow events (SSE) and tectonic tremor (TT) have been observed. At a distance of 300 km from the trench (beneath central Mexico), the plate dives into the mantle with an angle of 76º to a depth of 500 km. This geometry changes abruptly to the south, marking the eastern limit of the USL. This change seems to be also characterized by a tear on the slab. Finally to the south, the Cocos plate subducts with a constant angle of 26º. This presentation summarizes the work of many contributors including A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Brudzinski, E. Cabral-Cano, T. Chen, R. Clayton,F. Cordoba-Montiel,P. Davis,S. Dougherty,F. Green, M. Gurnis, D. V. Helmberger, A. Husker,A. Iglesias, Y. Kim, V. Manea, D. Melgar, M. Rodríguez-Domínguez,S. K. Singh, T.-R. A. Song, C. M. Valdés-González, D. Valencia-Cabrera

  9. Design Optimization of Hydraulic Press Plate using Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Vaishnav

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal forming is a process which is done by deforming metal work pieces to the desired shape and size using pressing or hammering action. Hydraulic presses are being used for forming and pressing operations with wide range of capacities. Hydraulic press machine works under continuous impact load. Because of this continuous load, tensile and compressive stresses are experienced in various parts of machine. These stresses cause permanent deformation in some parts of machine. This work is based on optimization of a 250-ton four pillar type hydraulic press considering constraints like design, weight and cost. The work is focused on design and optimization of top plate of the press machine. Top plate holds the hydraulic cylinder and is one of the most critical parts of the machine. The design is based on sizing optimization method and the results are validated by Finite Element method with proper boundary conditions. The CAD modelling has been carried out by PTC CREO and for FEA, ANSYS software is used.

  10. Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.

  11. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  12. 30 CFR 18.13 - Certification plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification plate. 18.13 Section 18.13... Certification plate. Each certified component shall be identified by a certification plate attached to the... characteristics of the component. The plate shall be of serviceable material, acceptable, to MSHA, and shall...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section 872.4760 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device... plate with screws to prevent movement of the segments. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  14. 30 CFR 18.11 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 18.11 Section 18.11 Mineral... plate. (a)(1) The notice of approval will be accompanied by a photograph of an approval plate, bearing... number shall be added to the original approval number on the approval plate. (Example: Original approval...

  15. Computational aspects of crack growth in sandwich plates from reinforced concrete and foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakaliatakis, G.; Panoskaltsis, V. P.; Liontas, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we study the initiation and propagation of cracks in sandwich plates made from reinforced concrete in the boundaries and from a foam polymeric material in the core. A nonlinear finite element approach is followed. Concrete is modeled as an elastoplastic material with its tensile behavior and damage taken into account. Foam is modeled as a crushable, isotropic compressible material. We analyze slabs with a pre-existing macro crack at the position of the maximum bending moment and we study the macrocrack propagation, as well as the condition under which we have crack arrest.

  16. Effects of equal channel angular extrusion on microstructure, strength and ballistic performance of AA5754 plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Hong, Chuanshi; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness, tensile properties and ballistic performance have been investigated in thick plates of the AA5754 alloy both in a coarse-grained as-received condition and after 4 passes of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) conducted at elevated temperatures. It is found that ECAE...... refines the microstructure to an average subgrain size of 0.3 μm, which results in significantly increased hardness and strength. Although ductility decreases due to ECAE, the uniform elongation is still fairly large, ~10%. The ballistic performance of the ECAE-processed material is found...

  17. Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

  18. Study of a reinforced concrete beam strengthened using a combination of SMA wire and CFRP plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Hui

    2006-03-01

    Traditional methods used for strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, such as bonding of steel plates, suffer from inherent disadvantages. In recent years, strengthening of RC structures using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates has attracted considerable attentions around the world. Most existing research on CFRP plate bonding for flexural strengthening of RC beams has been carried out for the strength enhancement. However, little research is focused on effect of residual deformations on the strengthening. The residual deformations have an important effect on the strengthening by CFRP plates. There exists a very significant challenge how the residual deformations are reduced. Shape memory alloy (SMA) has showed outstanding functional properties as an actuator. It is a possibility that SMA can be used to reduce the residual deformation and make cracks of concrete close by imposing the recovery forces on the concrete in the tensile zone. It is only an emergency damage repair since the SMA wires need to be heated continuously. So, an innovative method of a RC beam strengthened by CFRP plates in combination with SMA wires was first investigated experimentally in this paper. In addition, the nonlinear finite element software of ABAQUS was employed to further simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened through the new strengthening method. It can be found that this is an excellent and effective strengthening method.

  19. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  20. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  1. Chladni's law for vibrating plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1982-03-01

    The normal vibrational modes of free circular plates can be classified according to the number of nodal diameters m and the number of nodal circles n. Chladni observed that the addition of one nodal circle raised the frequency f about the same amount as adding two nodal diameters, and Rayleigh pointed out that f is proportional to (m+2n)2 for large f. Waller, however, concluded that the number of nodal diameters necessary to raise the frequency as much as a nodal circle varies from two to five. We have examined data on the vibrations of flat and non-flat circular plates and fitted their vibration frequencies to the relationship f = c(m+bn)k. By proper choice of c it is possible to satisfy Chladni's law (b = 2, k = 2) over quite a wide range of frequency in flat plates. Non-flat plates such as cymbals and bells, require different choices of b and k. A brief history of Chladni patterns, and suggestions for observing and demonstrating the vibrational modes of plates are included (AIP).

  2. Research on Design and Simulation of Biaxial Tensile-Bending Complex Mechanical Performance Test Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize a micro-mechanic performance test of biaxial tensile-bending-combined loading and solve the problem of incompatibility of test apparatus and observation apparatus, novel biaxial-combined tensile-bending micro-mechanical performance test apparatus was designed. The working principle and major functions of key constituent parts of test apparatus, including the servo drive unit, clamping unit and test system, were introduced. Based on the finite element method, biaxial tensile and tension-bending-combined mechanical performances of the test-piece were studied as guidance to learn the distribution of elastic deformation and plastic deformation of all sites of the test-piece and to better plan test regions. Finally, this test apparatus was used to conduct a biaxial tensile test under different pre-bending loading and a tensile test at different rates; the image of the fracture of the test-piece was acquired by a scanning electron microscope and analyzed. It was indicated that as the pre-bending force rises, the elastic deformation phase would gradually shorten and the slope of the elastic deformation phase curve would slightly rise so that a yield limit would appear ahead of time. Bending speed could exert a positive and beneficial influence on tensile strength but weaken fracture elongation. If bending speed is appropriately raised, more ideal anti-tensile strength could be obtained, but fracture elongation would decline.

  3. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. B.; Liu, S. X.; Gu, K. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper.

  4. Relationships between tensile strength, morphology and crystallinity of treated kenaf bast fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosiati, H.; Rohim, Ar; Ma`arif, Triyana, K.; Harsojo

    2013-09-01

    Surface treatments on kenaf bast fibers were carried out with steam, alkali and a combination of steam-alkali. To verify and gain an understanding of their inter-relationship, tensile strength, surface morphology and crystallinity of treated and raw fibers were characterized. Tensile strength of fibers was measured with a universal tensile machine (UTM), crystallinity was estimated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tensile strength of the treated fibers was higher than that of the raw fiber. Tensile strength increased after steam treatment and was further improved by alkali treatment, but slightly reduced after steam treatment followed by alkalization. Increase of concentration of alkali tended to increase tensile strength. Differences in tensile strength of the treated fibers are discussed in relation to the changes in surface morphology and crystallinity. Understanding of these relationships may provide direction towards the goal of producing better performance of natural fiber composites.

  5. The Influence of Partial Knee Replacement Designs on Tensile Strain at Implant-Bone Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial knee replacement (PKR results in fast recovery and good knee mechanics and is ideal to treat medial knee osteoarthritis. Cementless PKR depends on bone growing into the implant surface for long-term fixation. Implant loosening may occur due to high tensile strain resulted from large mechanical loads during rehab exercises. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether external fixations such as superior screw and frontal flange could reduce the tensile strain at the implant-bone interface. Three medial PKRs were designed. The first PKR had no external fixations. A superior screw and a frontal flange were then added to the first PKR to form the second and third PKR designs, respectively. Finite element analysis was performed to examine the tensile strain at the implant-bone interface during weight-bearing exercises. The PKR with no external fixations exhibited high tensile strain at the anterior implant-bone interface. Both the screwed and flanged PKRs effectively reduced the tensile strain at the anterior implant-bone interface. Furthermore, the flanged PKR resulted in a more uniform reduction of the tensile strain than the screwed PKR. In conclusion, external fixations are necessary to alleviate tensile strain at the implant-bone interface during knee rehab exercises.

  6. A silicon microwire under a three-dimensional anisotropic tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Poilvert, Nicolas; Liu, Wenjun; Xiong, Yihuang; Cheng, Hiu Yan; Badding, John V.; Dabo, Ismaila; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional tensile stress, or triaxial tensile stress, is difficult to achieve in a material. We present the investigation of an unusual three-dimensional anisotropic tensile stress field and its influence on the electronic properties of a single crystal silicon microwire. The microwire was created by laser heating an amorphous silicon wire deposited in a 1.7 μm silica glass capillary by high pressure chemical vapor deposition. Tensile strain arises due to the thermal expansion mismatch between silicon and silica. Synchrotron X-ray micro-beam Laue diffraction (μ-Laue) microscopy reveals that the three principal strain components are +0.47% (corresponding to a tensile stress of +0.7 GPa) along the fiber axis and nearly isotropic +0.02% (corresponding to a tensile stress of +0.3 GPa) in the cross-sectional plane. This effect was accompanied with a reduction of 30 meV in the band gap energy of silicon, as predicted by the density-functional theory calculations and in close agreement with energy-dependent photoconductivity measurements. While silicon has been explored under many stress states, this study explores a stress state where all three principal stress components are tensile. Given the technological importance of silicon, the influence of such an unusual stress state on its electronic properties is of fundamental interest.

  7. Validation of the shear punch-tensile correlation technique using irradiated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G. [Loughborough Univ., Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Toloczko, M.B. [Washington State Univ., WA (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    It was recently demonstrated that tensile data could be successfully related to shear punch data obtained on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) discs for a variety of irradiated alloys exhibiting yield strengths that ranged from 100 to 800 MPa. This implies that the shear punch test might be a viable alternative for obtaining tensile properties using a TEM disk, which is much smaller than even the smallest miniature tensile specimens, especially when irradiated specimens are not available or when they are too radioactive to handle easily. The majority of the earlier tensile-shear punch correlation work was done using a wide variety of unirradiated materials. The current work extends this correlation effort to irradiated materials and demonstrates that the same relationships that related shear punch tests remain valid for irradiated materials. Shear punch tests were performed on two sets of specimens. In the first group, three simple alloys from the {sup 59}Ni isotopic doping series in the solution annealed and cold worked conditions were irradiated at temperatures ranging from 365 to 495 C in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The corresponding tensile data already existed for tensile specimens fabricated from the same raw materials and irradiated side-by-side with the disks. In the second group, three variants of 316 stainless steel were irradiated in FFTF at 5 temperatures between 400 and 730 C to doses ranging from 12.5 to 88 dpa. The specimens were in the form of both TEM and miniature tensile specimens and were irradiated side-by-side.

  8. Dynamic tensile failure mechanics of the musculoskeletal neck using a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Eno M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Doczy, Erica J; Nuckley, David J; Perry, Chris E; Ching, Randal P

    2009-05-01

    Although the catapult phase of pilot ejections has been well characterized in terms of human response to compressive forces, the effect of the forces on the human body during the ensuing ejection phases (including windblast and parachute opening shock) has not been thoroughly investigated. Both windblast and parachute opening shock have been shown to induce dynamic tensile forces in the human cervical spine. However, the human tolerance to such loading is not well known. Therefore, the main objective of this research project was to measure human tensile neck failure mechanics to provide data for computational modeling, anthropometric test device development, and improved tensile injury criteria. Twelve human cadaver specimens, including four females and eight males with a mean age of 50.1+/-9 years, were subjected to dynamic tensile loading through the musculoskeletal neck until failure occurred. Failure load, failure strain, and tensile stiffness were measured and correlated with injury type and location. The mean failure load for the 12 specimens was 3100+/-645 N, mean failure strain was 16.7+/-5.4%, and mean tensile stiffness was 172+/-54.5 N/mm. The majority of injuries (8) occurred in the upper cervical spine (Oc-C3), and none took place in the midcervical region (C3-C5). The results of this study assist in filling the existing void in dynamic tensile injury data and will aid in developing improved neck injury prevention strategies.

  9. Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Cyclic Immersion on Tensile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Haniffah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the degradation of tensile properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites due to cyclic immersion into two different solutions, as well as comparison of the developed composites’ tensile properties under continuous and cyclic immersion. Composites with 40% and 60% fibre loadings were immersed in tap water and bleach for 4 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 3 days of immersion and 4 days of conditioning in room temperature (28°C and 55% humidity. The tensile strength and modulus of composites were affected by fibre composition, type of liquid of immersion, and number of cycles. The number of immersion cycles and conditioning caused degradation to tensile strength and modulus of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Continuous and cyclic immersion in bleach caused tensile strength of the composites to differ significantly whereas, for tensile modulus, the difference was insignificant in any immersion and fibre loadings. However, continuous immersion in the bleach reduced the tensile strength of composites more compared to cyclic immersion. These preliminary results suggest further evaluation of the suitability of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites for potential bathroom application where the composites will be exposed to water/liquid in cyclic manner due to discontinuous usage of bathroom.

  10. Flexural and diametral tensile strength of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Della Bona

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the flexural strength (sf and the diametral tensile strength (st of light-cured composite resins, testing the hypothesis that there is a positive relation between these properties. Twenty specimens were fabricated for each material (Filtek Z250- 3M-Espe; AM- Amelogen, Ultradent; VE- Vit-l-escence, Ultradent; EX- Esthet-X, Dentsply/Caulk, following ISO 4049 and ANSI/ADA 27 specifications and the manufacturers’ instructions. For the st test, cylindrical shaped (4 mm x 6 mm specimens (n = 10 were placed with their long axes perpendicular to the applied compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The sf was measured using the 3-point bending test, in which bar shaped specimens (n = 10 were tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Both tests were performed in a universal testing machine (EMIC 2000 recording the fracture load (N. Strength values (MPa were calculated and statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (a = 0.05. The mean and standard deviation values (MPa were Z250-45.06 ± 5.7; AM-35.61 ± 5.4; VE-34.45 ± 7.8; and EX-42.87 ± 6.6 for st; and Z250-126.52 ± 3.3; AM-87.75 ± 3.8; VE-104.66 ± 4.4; and EX-119.48 ± 2.1 for sf. EX and Z250 showed higher st and sf values than the other materials evaluated (p < 0.05, which followed a decreasing trend of mean values. The results confirmed the study hypothesis, showing a positive relation between the material properties examined.

  11. Impact Tensile Testing of Stainless Steels at Various Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. Morton

    2008-03-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern (1 to 300 per second) are not well documented. However, research is being performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to quantify these characteristics. The work presented herein discusses tensile impact testing of dual-marked 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens. Both base material and welded material specimens were tested at -20 oF, room temperature, 300 oF, and 600 oF conditions. Utilizing a drop weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch and 1/2-inch thick dog bone-shaped test specimens, a strain rate range of approximately 4 to 40 per second (depending on initial temperature conditions) was achieved. Factors were determined that reflect the amount of increased strain energy the material can absorb due to strain rate effects. Using the factors, elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials at various strain rates and temperatures were generated. By incorporating the strain rate elevated true stress-strain material curves into an inelastic finite element computer program as the defined material input, significant improvement in the accuracy of the computer analyses was attained. However, additional impact testing is necessary to achieve higher strain rates (up to 300 per second) before complete definition of strain rate effects can be made for accidental drop events and other similar energy-limited impulsive loads. This research approach, using impact testing and a total energy analysis methodology to quantify strain rate effects, can be applied to many other materials used in government and industry.

  12. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  13. Multiregional Evaluation of the SimPlate Heterotrophic Plate Count Method Compared to the Standard Plate Count Agar Pour Plate Method in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  14. Multiple-Dynode-Layer Microchannel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1990-01-01

    Improved microchannel-plate electron image amplifier made of stack of discrete microchannel-plate layers. New plates easier to manufacture because no need to etch long, narrow holes, to draw and bundle thin glass tubes, or to shear plates to give microchannels curvatures necessary for reduction of undesired emission of ions. Discrete dynode layers stacked with slight offset from layer to layer to form microchannel plate with curved channels. Provides for relatively fast recharging of microchannel dynodes, with consequent enhancement of performance.

  15. Determination of Dynamic Flexural Tensile Strength of Thermally Treated Laurentian Granite Using Semi-Circular Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tubing; Wang, Pin; Li, Xibing; Wu, Bangbiao; Tao, Ming; Shu, Ronghua

    2016-10-01

    To understand the effects of increasing temperature and loading rate on the flexural tensile strength of Laurentian granite, dynamic flexural tensile strength experiments were carried out by means of a semi-circular bend specimen with a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar system. The tests were performed at different loading rates, specimens were treated from room temperature up to 850 °C, and a high-speed camera was utilized to monitor the failure process of the specimen. For samples in the same temperature group, a loading rate dependence of the flexural tensile strength was observed; it increased consistently with the increase of loading rate. Temperature effects on rock mechanical properties were investigated from the microscopic viewpoint, and the dynamic flexural tensile strength decreased with the treatment temperature. A formula relating dynamic flexural tensile strength to loading rate and temperature is presented to quantify the results. It was found that the change regulation of the dynamic flexural tensile strength of rock is very similar to that of its crack growth along with the increase of loading rate, which indicates that the essence of rock failure is the initiation and propagation of the internal cracks. Compared with our earlier work on dynamic tensile tests using the Brazilian test, it was observed that the flexural tensile strength is higher than the tensile strength. Non-local failure theory can be adopted to explain this discrepancy at low temperature conditions, but it is no longer effective at high temperatures. Under high loading rates, rock failure is initiated at the centre of the half circular disc, and finally it is separated completely into two equal parts.

  16. Optimal design of tunable phononic bandgap plates under equibiaxial stretch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, M. S.; Guest, James K.

    2016-05-01

    Design and application of phononic crystal (PhCr) acoustic metamaterials has been a topic with tremendous growth of interest in the last decade due to their promising capabilities to manipulate acoustic and elastodynamic waves. Phononic controllability of waves through a particular PhCr is limited only to the spectrums located within its fixed bandgap frequency. Hence the ability to tune a PhCr is desired to add functionality over its variable bandgap frequency or for switchability. Deformation induced bandgap tunability of elastomeric PhCr solids and plates with prescribed topology have been studied by other researchers. Principally the internal stress state and distorted geometry of a deformed phononic crystal plate (PhP) changes its effective stiffness and leads to deformation induced tunability of resultant modal band structure. Thus the microstructural topology of a PhP can be altered so that specific tunability features are met through prescribed deformation. In the present study novel tunable PhPs of this kind with optimized bandgap efficiency-tunability of guided waves are computationally explored and evaluated. Low loss transmission of guided waves throughout thin walled structures makes them ideal for fabrication of low loss ultrasound devices and structural health monitoring purposes. Various tunability targets are defined to enhance or degrade complete bandgaps of plate waves through macroscopic tensile deformation. Elastomeric hyperelastic material is considered which enables recoverable micromechanical deformation under tuning finite stretch. Phononic tunability through stable deformation of phononic lattice is specifically required and so any topology showing buckling instability under assumed deformation is disregarded. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (GA) NSGA-II is adopted for evolutionary multiobjective topology optimization of hypothesized tunable PhP with square symmetric unit-cell and relevant topologies are analyzed through finite

  17. Ultimately Thin Metasurface Wave Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Keene, David; Durach, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of a metasurface which can be considered a monolayer of two classical uniaxial metamaterials, parallel-plate and nanorod arrays, are investigated. It is shown that such metasurface acts as an ultimately thin sub-50 nm wave plate. This is achieved via an interplay of epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole behavior along different axes in the plane of the metasurface allowing for extremely rapid phase difference accumulation in very thin metasurface layers. These effects are shown to not be disrupted by non-locality and can be applied to the design of ultrathin wave plates, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and plasmon-carrying optical torque wrench devices.

  18. LARGELY IMPROVED TENSILE PROPERTIES OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) BY USING GLYCERIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-jian Yin; Xue Yun; Zhao-jun Chen; Wen Cao; Qin Zhang; Qiang Fu

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the tensile properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET), we used the direct esterification method to synthesize PET in a home-made facility, and a certain amount of ethylene glycol (EG), one of the two starting monomers, was substituted by glycerin (GE). Four PETs with different GE contents were prepared to investigate the effect of GE on the crystallization and tensile properties of the prepared copolyester. The results showed largely improved tensile properties and increased crystallization temperature due to the possible crosslinking structure in PET by using a small amount of GE.

  19. An Analysis Of Tensile Test Results to Assess the Innovation Risk for an Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczak Stanisław

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the innovation risk for an additive manufacturing process. The analysis was based on the results of static tensile tests obtained for specimens made of photocured resin. The assessment involved analyzing the measurement uncertainty by applying the FMEA method. The structure of the causes and effects of the discrepancies was illustrated using the Ishikawa diagram. The risk priority numbers were calculated. The uncertainty of the tensile test measurement was determined for three printing orientations. The results suggest that the material used to fabricate the tensile specimens shows clear anisotropy of the properties in relation to the printing direction.

  20. Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Ultimate Tensile Capacity of Adhesive Anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bo; WU Zhi-min; SONG Zhi-fei

    2007-01-01

    To predict the tensile capacity of adhesive anchors, a multilayered feed-forward neural network trained with the backpropagation algorithm is constructed. The ANN model have 5 inputs, including the compressive strength of concrete, tensile strength of concrete, anchor diameter, hole diameter, embedment of anchors, and ultimate load. The predictions obtained from the trained ANN show a good agreement with the experiments. Meanwhile, the predicted ultinate tensile capacity of anchors is close to the one calculated from the strength formula of the combined cone-bond failure model.

  1. A Surface Damage Investigation on Uniaxial Tensile Test Specimens Prepared by Common Cutting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    REPORI’ A SURFACE DAMAGE INVESTIGATION ON UNIAXIAL TENSILE TEST SPECIMENSPREPARED BY COMMON CUTTING METHODS JUN 2 1931 THOMAS J. C. CHEW DALE A...Sýrfa-i-mage Investigation on Uniaxial Tensile Test Specimens Prepared by Common Cutting Method I Spi-.i t’ ,, ., • T7. AUTHORý#) . _" ’ /t’ .• r...Saw 10 2.1.3 Cutting by Milling Machine 11 2.1.4 Cutting by Die Cutter 11 2.2 Uniaxial Tensile Test 12 2.3 Electron Microscope Surface Examination 13 3

  2. Effect of Different Organic Modifiers on the Tensile Properties of PVC/EVA/Montmorillonite Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Ying WAN; Yong ZHANG; Yin Xi ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)/ethylene-vinyl acetate/montmorillonite (PVC/EVA/OMMT) composites were prepared by melt blending method. Two kinds of montmorillonites were organically modified by trimethyloctadecyl ammonium and dimethyl bis (hydrogenated tallow) ammonium, respectively. The morphology and tensile properties of the resultant composites were discussed in terms of the modifier type and OMMT content. The PVC/EVA/OMMT composites have intercalated structure, which is independent of the polarity of the modifiers, while the tensile properties show strong dependence on the modifier type. The OMMT modified by polar modifier gives higher tensile ductile and strength of PVC/EVA/OMMT composites.

  3. Tensile properties in zircaloy-II after 590 MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Y. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Victoria, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate radiation potential damage effects on the SINQ Zircaloy-rod target, four Zircaloy-II tensile specimens were irradiated at the PIREX facility in 1995 to a proton fluence about 3x10{sup 20} p/cm{sup 2}, which produced a radiation damage of about 1.35 displacements per atom (dpa). Tensile test results show that, although there is some reduction in tensile elongation, substantial ductility still exists after such irradiation dose which corresponds to the peak value obtained in the SINQ target for 23 days operation at 1 mA. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  4. Influece of the austempering temperature on the tensile strength of the austempered ductile iron (ADI samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savićević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI is a class of ductile iron subjected to a two-step heat treatment process – austenitization and austempering. The heat treatment gives to ADI a high value of tensile strength and an especially good strength-to-weight ratio. However, designers in most cases are unfamiliar with this material that can compete favorably with steel and aluminum castings, weldments and forgings. The high tensile strength of ADI is the result of its unique ausferrite microstructure. In this paper, an investigation of the influence of the austempering temperature on the tensile strength of the ADI samples is presented.

  5. Compressive and tensile strain sensing using a polymer planar Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, M; Hessler, S; Belle, S; Schmauss, B; Hellmann, R

    2014-03-10

    A polymer planar Bragg grating sensor is used for measuring both mechanical compressive and tensile strain. The planar waveguide with integrated Bragg grating is fabricated in bulk Polymethylmethacrylate in a single writing step using combined amplitude and phase mask technique. After butt coupling of a single-mode optical fiber the planar structure can be applied for measuring both mechanical tensile and compressive strain alongside the integrated waveguide without the need of further modifications. In this respect, we particularly report for the first time compressive strain measurements using a polymer Bragg grating. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the sensor against tensile and compressive strain, its reproducibility and hysteresis are investigated and discussed.

  6. Deformation mechanisms of carbon nanotube fibres under tensile loading by in situ Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu; Kang, Yi-Lan; Qiu, Wei; Li, Ya-Li; Huang, Gan-Yun; Guo, Jian-Gang; Deng, Wei-Lin; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2011-06-03

    Deformation mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres under tensile loading are studied by means of in situ Raman spectroscopy to detect the CNT deformation and stress distributions in the fibres. The G' band in the Raman spectrum responds distinctly to the tensile stress in Raman shift, width and intensity. The G' band changes with the tensile deformation of the fibre at different stages, namely elastic deformation, strengthening and damage-fracture. It is deduced that the individual CNTs only deform elastically without obvious damage or bond breaking. The yield and fracture of fibres can be due to the slippage among the CNTs.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Modulus of Rupture and Splitting Tensile Strength of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinkurolere Olufunke Olanike

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available - In this experimental investigation, an attempt is made to report the comparative analysis of the modulus of rupture and the splitting tensile strength of recycled aggregate concrete. The two properties are usually used to estimate the tensile strength of concrete; however, they don’t usually yield the same results hence need to investigate each of the properties. Taguchi optimization technique was employed to reduce the number of trials needed to get the results. The results showed that the splitting tensile strength ranges between 60-80% of the modulus of rupture which is also known as the flexural strength.

  8. Examining the influence of injection speed and mould temperature on the tensile strength of polypropylene and ABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Esben Raahede; Blaimschein, Karl Stephan; Deker, Lasse

    specimens. After production and tensile testing the specimens were examined with a microscope to underpin conclusions from the tensile test data. It was experienced that the injection speed in general increased the the tensile strength by orienting the polymeric-chains lengthwise in the specimens and thus...

  9. Plate-like osteoma cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Charisse M; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Long, Wendy

    2014-12-16

    Osteoma cutis is the aberrant development of bone within the skin. The bone formation may be de novo (primary) or result from an injury to the skin (secondary). Here we present a healthy 53-year-old man with no known abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism with plate-like osteoma cutis of the scalp. Plate- or plaque-like osteoma cutis was initially described as a congenital condition but has now been reported several times in the literature as an idiopathic process that occurs in adults. Treatment options are limited and are only required if the lesion is bothersome to the patient.

  10. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...... in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important...

  11. Orifice plates and venturi tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reader-Harris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book gives the background to differential-pressure flow measurement and goes through the requirements explaining the reason for them. For those who want to use an orifice plate or a Venturi tube the standard ISO 5167 and its associated Technical Reports give the instructions required.  However, they rarely tell the users why they should follow certain instructions.  This book helps users of the ISO standards for orifice plates and Venturi tubes to understand the reasons why the standards are as they are, to apply them effectively, and to understand the consequences of deviations from the standards.

  12. Outer rise seismicity of the subducting Nazca Plate: Plate stress distribution, fault orientation and plate hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barama, Louisa

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate drives frequent and sometimes large magnitude earthquakes. During the past 40 years, significant numbers of outer rise earthquakes have occurred in the offshore regions of Colombia and Chile. In this study, we investigate the distribution of stress due to lithospheric bending and the extent of faults within the subducting plate. To calculate more accurate epicenters and to constrain which earthquakes occurred within the outer rise, we use hypocentroidal decomposition to relocate earthquakes with Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions occurring after 1976 offshore Colombia and Chile. We determine centroid depths of outer rise earthquakes by inverting teleseismic P-, SH-, and SV- waveforms for earthquakes occurring from 1993 to 2014 with Mw ≥ 5.5. In order to further constrain the results of the waveform inversion, we estimate depths by comparing earthquake duration, amplitude, and arrival times for select stations with waveforms with good signal to noise ratios. Our results indicate that tensional earthquakes occur at depths down to 13 km and 24 km depth beneath the surface in the Colombia and Chile regions, respectively. Since faulting within the outer rise can make the plate susceptible to hydration and mantle serpentinization, we therefore infer the extent of possible hydration of the Nazca plate to extend no deeper than the extent of tensional outer rise earthquakes.

  13. An investigation on Incoloy 800-SS304 clad plate by explosive welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Pingcang; Zhou, Yigang; Wang, Hunian [Xi' an Tianli Clad Metal Mateials Co., Ltd. (China); Huang, Zhanghong [Xi' an Western Titanium Technologies Co., Ltd. (China)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, Incoloy800 and 304 stainless steel (SS304) were clad by explosive welding. Accordingly, hardness, tensile strength, shearing strength, bending properties and microstructure of the clad plates were evaluated. The bonding interface showed a wavy morphology. Line scanning results indicated that there was no diffusion area through the bonding interface. Whereas, a colorful zone was observed at the wave ridge of the base metal (white area in optical microscopy and black area in scanning electronic microscopy). Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis indicated that compositions and contents of the colorful zone were the same as that in the base metal. Hardness testing showed that the highest value of hardness was obtained in the colorful zone. Thus, the colorful zone was an intensive deformation area in SS304, which was produced by shock pressure from collision. Mechanical tests showed that the clad plate was acceptable according to ASTM specification. (orig.)

  14. Probabilistic fracture investigation of symmetric angle ply laminated composite plates using displacement correlation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Achchhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second order statistics of mixed mode stress intensity factors (MSIF of single edge V-notched angle ply laminated composite plate subjected to uniaxial tensile load with uncertinity in the system properties using displacement correlation method (DCM is evaluated. The random system properties such as material properties, crack opening and crack length are modelled as combined uncorrelated and correlated random system variables. A C0 finite element method (FEM based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT is used for basic formulation. The Taylor series based first order perturbation technique (FOPT, second order perturbation technique (SOPT are used and direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS is performed to evaluate the statistics (mean and coefficient of variance of the mixed mode SIFs. The present work signifies the accurate analysis of frature behaviour by influence of different random variables and fibre orientations on the fracture behaviour in angle ply laminates.

  15. [The direct tensile test of composite resins using the small specimen--effect of the preparation of specimen, the size of specimen and the testing condition on the tensile properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, A; Miyazaki, T; Kuneshita, H; Suzuki, E; Miyaji, T

    1990-09-01

    The direct tensile test of composite resins using the specimen with the gauge length 10 mm has been developed by authors. In this study smaller specimens with the gauge length 5 mm and 2 mm were also investigated. As the gauge length became smaller, tensile properties such as the proportional limit, the proof stress, and the tensile strength showed the tendency to become higher. The effect of strain rate on the tensile properties appeared clearly when using the specimen with the gauge length 2 mm. The small specimen was found to have many advantages for the preparation, the cost of material and the handling during the tensile test.

  16. Light splitting with imperfect wave plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom S; Archibald, James L; Durfee, Dallin S

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the use of wave plates with arbitrary retardances, in conjunction with a linear polarizer, to split linearly polarized light into two linearly polarized beams with an arbitrary splitting fraction. We show that for non-ideal wave plates, a much broader range of splitting ratios is typically possible when a pair of wave plates, rather than a single wave plate, is used. We discuss the maximum range of splitting fractions possible with one or two wave plates as a function of the wave plate retardances, and how to align the wave plates to achieve the maximum splitting range possible when simply rotating one of the wave plates while keeping the other one fixed. We also briefly discuss an alignment-free polarization rotator constructed from a pair of half-wave plates.

  17. Effects of a sliding plate on morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-sheng; Lian, Ke-jian; Hong, Jia-yuan; Ding, Zhen-qi; Zhai, Wen-liang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a sliding plate on the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur. Eighteen premature female goats were divided randomly into sliding plate, regular plate and control groups. Radiographic analysis and histological staining were performed to evaluate the development of epiphyseal plate at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. In the sliding plate group, the plate extended accordingly as the epiphyseal plate grows, and the epiphyseal morphology was kept essential normal. However, the phenomenon of the epiphyseal growth retardation and premature closure were very common in the regular plate group. In addition, the sliding plate group exhibited more normal histologic features and Safranin O staining compared to the regular plate group. Our results suggest that the sliding plate can provide reliable internal fixation of epiphyseal fracture without inhibiting epiphyseal growth.

  18. Effects of a Sliding Plate on Morphology of the Epiphyseal Plate in Goat Distal Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-sheng LIN, Ke-jian LIAN, Jia-yuan HONG, Zhen-qi DING, Wen-liang ZHAI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a sliding plate on the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur. Eighteen premature female goats were divided randomly into sliding plate, regular plate and control groups. Radiographic analysis and histological staining were performed to evaluate the development of epiphyseal plate at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. In the sliding plate group, the plate extended accordingly as the epiphyseal plate grows, and the epiphyseal morphology was kept essential normal. However, the phenomenon of the epiphyseal growth retardation and premature closure were very common in the regular plate group. In addition, the sliding plate group exhibited more normal histologic features and Safranin O staining compared to the regular plate group. Our results suggest that the sliding plate can provide reliable internal fixation of epiphyseal fracture without inhibiting epiphyseal growth.

  19. Effect of Inclined Water Jets on Tensile Strength of Bicomponent Hydroentangled Nonwoven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mbwana Suleiman Ndaro; JIN Xiang-yu; CHEN Ting; YU Chong-wen

    2007-01-01

    The effects of inclined water jets on bicomponent hydroentangled fabrics were investigated. The PET/COPET and PA6/PET hydroentangled fabrics were made by using designed inclined water jet apparatus. Effects of basis weight, water ts inclination angle and water jet pressure were discussed. The comparison was made on the average tensile strength of fabrics made by perpendicular water jets (0° inclination angle) and inclined water jets of 20° with pressure levels of 3 bars and 7 bars. It was found that increases of water jet pressure, the fabrics tensile strength were increased. Furthermore, increases of water jets inclination angle, fabric tensile strength of 60 g/m2 fabrics decreased while for 100 g/m2 fabrics tensile strength increased.

  20. Experimental Study on Common and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Under Dynamic Tensile Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董新龙; 陈江瑛; 高培正; 祁振林; 王永忠; 王永刚; 王礼立

    2004-01-01

    Split Hopkinson technique has been developed to test the strength of common concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete under dynamic tensile stress. Two types of test methods are considered, the splitting tensile test and a modified spalling test in which a specimen is loaded under uniaxial stress. The result shows that the dynamic strength enhancement of concrete is remarkable by using the reinforcing fiber. But for the common concrete, the base of compressive strength seems to show little effect on the tensile strength under dynamic loading. The experimental results also show that the resistance to tensile fracture of the steel fiber reinforced concrete for C100-mix is higher than those of C40-mix.