WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate shock system

  1. Deformation and fracture of a plate under thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aptukov, V.N.; Pozdeev, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The wave processes associated with thermal shock give rise to cumulative tensile stresses whose magnitude and location are determined by the plate geometry, the heating region, and the spatial distribution of the heat sources. Here, the wave processes, damage accumulation, and the development of macrofracture zones during thermal shock are analyzed using a two-dimensional axisymmetric formulation. The evolution of macrocracks during thermal shock in a plate, a cylinder, and a partially heated plate is shown graphically. 14 references.

  2. Underwater Shock Response of Circular HSLA Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajendran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on shock response of circular plates subjected to underwater explosion is of interest to ship designers. Non-contact underwater explosion experiments were carried out on air backed circular High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel plates of 4 mm thickness and 290 mm diameter. The experiments were carried out in two phases. In the first phase, strain gauges were fixed at intervals of 30 mm from the centre of the plate and strains were recorded for the shock intensity gradually increasing to yielding. Semi-analytical models were derived for the elastic strain prediction which showed good agreement with the experiments. Dynamic yield stress and the shock factor for yielding were established. In the second phase, individual plates were subjected to increasing shock severity until fracture and the apex bulge depth and the thickness strains were measured. Empirical models were derived to predict the plastic deformation which were validated through a fresh set of experiments. Analysis of the fractured surface by visual examination showed that there was slant fracture indicating ductile mode of failure and the same was corroborated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM examination.

  3. Dynamic Response of Stiffened Plates with Holes Subjected to Shock Waves and Fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 张庆明; 黄风雷

    2004-01-01

    The power field of shock waves and fragments is analyzed and set up, and the damage modes of stiffened plates are put forward. According to the structural characters of the stiffened plates investigated and the properties of the shock waves and fragments, the experiments on the shock waves acting on the stiffened plates (penetrated and non-penetrated by fragments) are mainly conducted. The dynamic response rules of stiffened plates with holes under shock waves and fragments loading are obtained. The results show that the penetration of fragments into stiffened plates hardly affects their deformation produced by shock waves.

  4. Interaction of Shock Waves in Cement Mortar Plate Investigated by the Digital Speckle Correlation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu-Dong; LIU Kai-Xin; ZHANG Guang-Sheng; WEN Shang-Gang; TAN Fu-Li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Interaction of shock waves in cement mortar plate is studied by digital speckle correlation method and digital high-speed photography technique. When the plates were destroyed by two detonators exploding at the same time, variation of shock wave field is obtained. Experimental results show that the interaction of shock waves will result in a nonlinear huge increase of local normal strain, leading to large deformation and serious destruction. However, the occurrence of this strongly nonlinear phenomenon sensitively depends on the interval between detonators, and it will only appear when the interval is smaller than the diameter of the region where shock waves exist.

  5. Influence of baffle plate geometry on decay of shock waves propagating in a beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiya, Toshio; Terada, Yukihiro; Komura, Akio [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Higashino, Fumio; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami

    1998-06-01

    Dependency of geometries of baffle plates in a shock tube on the decay of shock waves was investigated to find an optimal design for acoustic delay lines (ADLs) in beamlines of a synchrotron radiation facility. Fabricating a thin orifice, a coned baffle plate, a diverging tube and a converging tube as a model of the ADL, we performed pressure measurement with piezo-pressure transducers by using a dedicated shock tube and two-dimensional flow visualization around the model by means of Schlieren photography. According to the results of pressure measurements, a theory of one-dimensional steady flow employed generally is not available for the coned baffle. The decay ratios defined by the strength of incident and transmitted shock waves clearly differ among the four types of the ADL models, although all of the models have the same aperture. These results suggest that non-steady phenomena observed by the Schlieren photography, such as shock wave reflection and diffraction, viscous flow behind shock waves, may be involved in shock wave decay through baffle plates. (author)

  6. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  7. Flat plate heat transfer for laminar transition and turbulent boundary layers using a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostmeyer, J. D.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transfer results are presented for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers for a Mach number of 0.12 with gas temperatures of 425 K and 1000 K over a flat plate at room temperature. The measurements were made in air for a Reynolds number range of 600 to 6 million. The heat transfer measurements were conducted in a 70-ft long, 4 in. diameter shock tube. Reflecting wedges were used to reflect the incident shock wave to produce a flow Mach number of 0.12 behind the reflected shock wave. Thin film platinum heat gages were mounted on the plate surface to measure the local heat flux. The laminar results for gas temperatures of 425 K to 1000 K agree well with theory. The turbulent results are also close to incompressible theory, with the 1000 K flow case being slightly higher. The transition results lie between the laminar and turbulent predictions.

  8. Tailoring the Blast Exposure Conditions in the Shock Tube for Generating Pure, Primary Shock Waves: The End Plate Facilitates Elimination of Secondary Loading of the Specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Matthew; Skotak, Maciej; Misistia, Anthony; Kahali, Sudeepto; Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2016-01-01

    The end plate mounted at the mouth of the shock tube is a versatile and effective implement to control and mitigate the end effects. We have performed a series of measurements of incident shock wave velocities and overpressures followed by quantification of impulse values (integral of pressure in time domain) for four different end plate configurations (0.625, 2, 4 inches, and an open end). Shock wave characteristics were monitored by high response rate pressure sensors allocated in six positions along the length of 6 meters long 229 mm square cross section shock tube. Tests were performed at three shock wave intensities, which was controlled by varying the Mylar membrane thickness (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 inch). The end reflector plate installed at the exit of the shock tube allows precise control over the intensity of reflected waves penetrating into the shock tube. At the optimized distance of the tube to end plate gap the secondary waves were entirely eliminated from the test section, which was confirmed by pressure sensor at T4 location. This is pronounced finding for implementation of pure primary blast wave animal model. These data also suggest only deep in the shock tube experimental conditions allow exposure to a single shock wave free of artifacts. Our results provide detailed insight into spatiotemporal dynamics of shock waves with Friedlander waveform generated using helium as a driver gas and propagating in the air inside medium sized tube. Diffusion of driver gas (helium) inside the shock tube was responsible for velocity increase of reflected shock waves. Numerical simulations combined with experimental data suggest the shock wave attenuation mechanism is simply the expansion of the internal pressure. In the absence of any other postulated shock wave decay mechanisms, which were not implemented in the model the agreement between theory and experimental data is excellent.

  9. Relaminarization of the boundary layer over a flat plate in shock tube experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckel, J. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The relaminarization of the boundary layer over a flat plate in the shock tube was investigated by using the partially reflected shock wave technique. The flow Mach number was approximately 0.14, which corresponds to the inleft flow Mach number for the first row of vanes in a gas turbine. The thin film platinum heat gauges were used to measure the heat transfer rate and the Stanton number was calculated from the oscilloscope voltage traces. The Reynolds number was varied by changing the operation pressure of the shock tube and the values varied from 2.3 x 10 to the 4th to 5.3 x 10 to the 5th. For a Reynolds number range of 7 x 10 to the 4th to 3.5 x 10 to the 5th, the relaminarization of the boundary layer was observed. This phenomenon is due to the decay of the turbulence level in the flow as the reflected shock wave moves upstream from the flat plate. As the Reynolds number increased, the relaminarization was delayed and the delay was related to the turbulence generated by the reflected shock wave.

  10. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  11. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Britton, Charles L [Alcoa, TN; Pearce, James [Lenoir City, TN; Jagadish, Usha [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod K [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-02

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interface circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitter with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  12. Effect of volumetric electromagnetic forces on shock wave structure of hypersonic air flow near plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomichev, Vladislav; Yadrenkin, Mikhail; Shipko, Evgeny

    2016-10-01

    Summarizing of experimental studies results of the local MHD-interaction at hypersonic air flow near the plate is presented. Pulsed and radiofrequency discharge have been used for the flow ionization. It is shown that MHD-effect on the shock-wave structure of the flow is significant at test conditions. Using of MHD-interaction parameter enabled to defining characteristic modes of MHD-interaction by the force effect: weak, moderate and strong.

  13. Modelling Thermal Shock in Functionally Graded Plates with Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav N. Burlayenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermomechanical behavior and crack propagation in a functionally graded metal/ceramic plate undergoing thermal shock are analyzed by using the finite element method. A two-dimensional plane strain functionally graded finite element has been developed within the ABAQUS software environment for this purpose. An actual material gradation has been accomplished by sampling material quantities directly at the Gauss points of the element via programming appropriate user-defined subroutines. The virtual crack closure technique is used to model a crack growth under thermal loading. Contact possible between crack lips during the crack advance is taken into account in thermomechanical simulations as well. The paper shows that the presented finite element model can be applied to provide an insight into the thermomechanical respond and failure of the metal/ceramic plate.

  14. Energy transfer in double plate system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica (Stevanovic) Hedrih

    2008-01-01

    The study of energy transfer between coupled subsystems in a hybrid system is very important for applications. This paper presents an analytical analysis of energy transfer between plates of a visco-elastically connected double-plate system in free transversal vibrations. The analytical analysis shows that the visco-elastic connection between plates is responsible for the appearance of two-frequency regime in the time function, which corresponds to one eigen amplitude function of one mode, and also that time functions of different vibration modes are uncoupled, but energy transfer between plates in one eigen mode appears. It was shown for each shape of vibrations. Series of the two Lyapunov exponents corresponding to the one eigen amplitude mode are expressed by using the energy of the corresponding eigen amplitude time component.

  15. Analysis of Heat Transfer Behaviour of the Conduction Cold Plate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChun-xin; DangChao-Bin

    1995-01-01

    The heat-transfer behaviour of the conduction cold plate system used for avionics is investigated in this paper.The steady-state temperature profile for the cold plate is derived and the relationship between the coolant mass flowrate,the heat load and the highest cold plate temperature is established.A model is proposed to describe the transient thermal rosponse of the cold plate under thermal shock condition.The analytic solution of the transient heat transfer within the cold plate is provided.The results of this paper agree with those of the finite element method and can be used for the structural design and performance evaluation of cold plate system.

  16. Evolution of disturbances in the shock layer on a flat plate in a flow of vibrationally excited gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetova, A. I.; Poplavskaya, T. V.

    2016-10-01

    The problem of disturbances evolution in a hypersonic viscous shock layer on a flat plate is considered. Numerical simulation was performed by solving 2D Navier-Stokes equations using the ANSYS Fluent software package within the model of thermally perfect gas. The change of vibrational energy was simulated by the Landau-Teller equation, in which the finite time of vibrational relaxation of CO2 molecules was taken into account. The quantitative data on the effect of vibrational relaxation of CO2 molecules on the evolution of acoustic disturbances in the shock layer on a plate is obtained.

  17. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pengwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  18. Transversal vibrations of double-plate systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica(Stevanovi(c)) Hedrih

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and numerical analysis of free and forced transversal vibrations of an elastically connected double-plate system. Analytical solutions of a system of coupled partial differential equations, which describe corresponding dynamical free and forced processes, are obtained using Bernoulli's particular integral and Lagrange's method of variation constants. It is shown that one-mode vibrations correspond to two-frequency regime for free vibrations induced by initial conditions and to three-frequency regime for forced vibrations induced by one-frequency external excitation and corresponding initial conditions. The analytical solutions show that the elastic connection between plates leads to the appearance of twofrequency regime of time function, which corresponds to one eigenamplitude function of one mode, and also that the time functions of different vibration modes are uncoupled, for each shape of vibrations. It has been proven that for both elastically connected plates, for every pair of m and n. two possibilities for appearance of the resonance dynamical states, as well as for appearance of the dynamical absorption, are present. Using the MathCad program, the corresponding visualizations of the characteristic forms of the plate middle surfaces through time are presented.

  19. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  20. SYMPLECTIC SOLUTION SYSTEM FOR REISSNER PLATE BENDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟岸; 隋永枫

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Hellinger-Reissner variatonal principle for Reissner plate bending and introducing dual variables, Hamiltonian dual equations for Reissner plate bending were presented. Therefore Hamiltonian solution system can also be applied to Reissner plate bending problem, and the transformation from Euclidian space to symplectic space and from Lagrangian system to Hamiltonian system was realized. So in the symplectic space which consists of the original variables and their dual variables, the problem can be solved via effective mathematical physics methods such as the method of separation of variables and eigenfunction-vector expansion. All the eigensolutions and Jordan canonical form eigensolutions for zero eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian operator matrix are solved in detail,and their physical meanings are showed clearly. The adjoint symplectic orthonormal relation of the eigenfunction vectors for zero eigenvalue are formed. It is showed that the all eigensolutions for zero eigenvalue are basic solutions of the Saint-Venant problem and they form a perfect symplectic subspace for zero eigenvalue. And the eigensolutions for nonzero eigenvalue are covered by the Saint-Venant theorem. The symplectic solution method is not the same as the classical semi- inverse method and breaks through the limit of the traditional semi-inverse solution. The symplectic solution method will have vast application.

  1. Influence of vibrational relaxation on perturbations in a shock layer on a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Maslov, A. A.; Poplavskaya, T. V.; Tsyryul'nikov, I. S.

    2015-05-01

    The influence of excitation of molecular vibrational degrees of freedom on the mean flow and perturbation development in a hypersonic (M = 6-14) viscous shock layer is studied. The layer originates on a plate placed in a flow of air, carbon dioxide, or their mixture at high stagnation temperatures (2000-3000 K). The mean flow and pressure pulsation on the surface of the plate are measured in an IT-302M pulsed wind tunnel (Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences). Numerical simulation is carried out in terms of a model of a thermally perfect gas using the ANSYS Fluent program package based on solving nonstationary two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. External flow perturbations are introduced into the computational domain in the form of plane monochromatic acoustic waves using UDF modules built in the computational code. It is shown that the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom in carbon dioxide molecules considerably influences the position of the head wave and intensifies perturbations in contrast to air in which the fraction of vibrationally excited molecules is low at the same parameters of the oncoming low. The influence of the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom is studied both for equilibrium gas and for a vibrationally nonequilibrium gas. Nonequilibrium vibrational degrees of freedom are simulated using a two-temperature model of relaxation flows in which the time variation of the vibrational energy is described by the Landau-Teller equation with regard to a finite time of energy exchange between vibrational and translational-rotational degrees of freedom of molecules. It is found that the vibrational nonequilibrium has a damping effect on perturbations.

  2. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjit Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whol...

  3. Underwater hydraulic shock shovel control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU He-ping; LUO A-ni; XIAO Hai-yan

    2008-01-01

    The control system determines the effectiveness of an underwater hydraulic shock shovel.This paper begins by analyzing the working principles of these shovels and explains the importance of their control systems.A new type of control system's mathematical model was built and analyzed according to those principles.Since the initial control system's response time could not fulfill the design requirements,a PID controller was added to the control system.System response time was still slower than required,so a neural network was added to nonlinearly regulate the proportional element,integral element and derivative element coefficients of the PID controller.After these improvements to the control system,system parameters fulfilled the design requirements.The working performance of electrically-controlled parts such as the rapidly moving high speed switch valve is largely determined by the control system. Normal control methods generally can't satisfy a shovel's requirements,so advanced and normal control methods were combined to improve the control system,bringing good results.

  4. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  5. FEA for designing of floating raft shock-resistant system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying-long; HE Lin; HUANG Ying-yun; WANG Yu

    2003-01-01

    Choosing the equipment with good shock-resistant performance and taking shock protection measures while designing the onboard settings, the safety of onboard settings can be assured when warships, especially submarine subjected to non-contact underwater explosion, that is, these means can be used to limit the rattlespace (i.e., the maximum displacement of the equipment relative to the base) and the peak acceleration experienced by the equipment. Using shock-resistant equipments is one of shock protection means. The shock-resistant performance of the shock-resistant equipments should be verified in the design phase of the equipments. The FEA (finite element analysis) software, for example, MSC.NASTRAN(R), can be used to verify the shock-resistant performance. MSC.PATRAN(R) and MSC.NASTRAN are used for modeling and analyzing the floating raft vibration isolating equipment. The model of the floating raft and the floating raft vibration isolating system are theoretically analyzed and calculated, and the analysis results are in agreement with the test results. The transient response analysis of the system model follows the modal analysis of the floating raft vibration isolating system. And it is used to verify the shock-resistant performance. The analysis and calculation method used in this paper can be used to analyze the shock-resistant performance of onboard shock-resistant equipments.

  6. License Plate Recognition for Parking Control System by Mathematical Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Ortiz; Alberto Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, license plate recognition for parking systems is a critical task to provide automatic control of customers and payment. This paper introduces a new method for automatic recognition of license plates of vehicles by mathematical morphology. The proposed method can provide the license plate number of the plates in different light conditions, colors, sizes, and inclination (angles). The algorithm can recognize the license plates of European Union vehicles quickly and correctly. The pattern learning of mathematical skeletons has high efficiency in the process. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated well by the test in a parking control system.

  7. Hamiltonian system for orthotropic plate bending based on analogy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analogy between plane elasticity and plate bending as well as variational principles of mixed energy, Hamiltonian system is further led to orthotropic plate bending problems in this paper. Thus many effective methods of mathematical physics such as separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion can be employed in orthotropic plate bending problems as they are used in plane elasticity. Analytical solutions of rectangular plate are presented directly, which expands the range of analytical solutions. There is an essential distinction between this method and traditional semi-inverse method. Numerical results of orthotropic plate with two lateral sides fixed are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of this method.

  8. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  9. 陶瓷涂层三明治板的抗热震性%THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF THE CERAMIC COATED SANDWICH PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳征; 赵军; 艾兴

    2008-01-01

    采用解析法研究了第3类边界条件下双面陶瓷涂层三明治板的瞬态温度场及瞬态热应力场.对不同Biot模数的热冲击过程中,Al2O3涂层/硬质合金(WC-8%Co,质量分数)基体/Al2O3涂层三明治板的瞬态热应力进行了数值计算.分析了涂层/基体厚度比、涂层与基体热-物理性能匹配对陶瓷涂层三明治板表面热应力峰值的影响.结果表明:陶瓷涂层三明治板的基体的热导率、线膨胀系数和弹性模量应高于涂层,这样可以降低其表面热应力,获得高抗热震性陶瓷涂层三明治板.此外,涂层厚度应尽可能小,以利于改善涂层的抗热震性.%The transient temperature field and transient thermal stress field of a sandwich plate with double-sided ceramic coatings under the convective boundary condition were investigated by an analytical solution approach. Numerical calculations of transient thermal stresses for a plate of Al2O3 coating/ cemented carbide (WC-8%Co, mass fraction) substrate/Al2O3 coating system under different Biot numbers in thermal shock were performed. The effects of the coating-to-substrate thickness ratio and the thermo-physical properties matching of coating with substrate on the peak surface thermal stress of the ceramic coated sandwich plate were analyzed. The results reveal that the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient and Young's modulus of the substrate must be higher than that of the coating in the coated sandwich plate in order to reduce its surface thermal stress and obtain high thermal shock resistance. Furthermore, the coating must be as thin as possible in order to improve the thermal shock resistance of the coating on the surface of the coated cutting tools.

  10. [Shock and coagulation disorders in systemic mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U; Wiese, R; Knolle, J

    1994-09-16

    A 41-year-old man was admitted in circulatory shock of unknown aetiology (systolic pressure 50 mm Hg) and marked reddening of the upper part of the body as well as maculopapular rash over the whole body. After 1500 ml of colloidal solution had been infused the blood pressure rose to a level at which the patient's condition was no longer at risk. He reported having had a similar attack of flushing and circulatory collapse during the last few years, each time after drinking 3-41 of beer. Laboratory tests showed thromboplastin time 56%, partial thromboplastin time 130 s and thrombin time > 180 s. Three hours after admission the coagulation times had further deteriorated, but had become normal within 20 hours. After rest and after a provocation (hot bath) the serum concentrations were: heparin 0.21 U/ml and 0.85 U/ml; histamine 1.9 micrograms/ml and 2.3 micrograms/ml; serotonin 23 micrograms/ml and 38 micrograms/ml. Histological examination of an iliac crest bone marrow biopsy revealed dense collections of mast cells, as seen in systemic mastocytosis. A skin biopsy was diagnostic of urticaria pigmentosa.

  11. First experience with a modified Siemens Lithostar shock wave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, K D; Köhler, G; Folberth, W; Planz, K

    1991-01-01

    A Siemens Lithostar shock wave system was modified and investigated clinically. The modified system yields increased focal pressure and energy density. The first clinical experience in renal calculi shows a significant reduction in shock wave numbers per treatment. Higher energy output enables better treatment results for difficult stones such as staghorn and infections calculi. Despite the higher energy output more than 90% of treatments could be performed without anesthesia or analgesia. No significant side effects could be detected. The service life of the modified shock wave system increased by a factor of two.

  12. Self Regulated Shocks in Massive Star Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, E R

    2013-01-01

    In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, LX remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind-driving, we term this scenario as self regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the m...

  13. Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock can be caused by any condition that reduces blood flow, including: Heart problems (such as heart attack or heart failure ) Low blood volume (as with heavy bleeding or dehydration ) Changes in blood vessels (as with infection ...

  14. A comparative analysis of reticular crack on ceramic plate driven by thermal shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, XiangHong; Sheng, ShiLong; Tian, Cheng; Yuan, WenJun

    2016-07-01

    Reticular crack is generally found on the surface of ceramic material that has been subjected to a thermal-shock condition. In the present study, a quantitative effect of thermal shock and quench temperature has been studied and investigated. Experimental tests were carried out to characterize the reticular crack that has been found in the Ge Kiln, which is a famous art of the ancient Chinese culture. After comparative analysis between thermal-shock cracks and the glaze crack patterns of the Ge Kiln porcelain, it is found that this study is expected to provide a powerful tool for recurrence of the long-lost firing and cooling process of the Ge Kiln porcelain.

  15. Side-Pinch Effect of a Magnetically Driven Shock Tube with Parallel Plate Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Mondrup, K.

    1969-01-01

    To study the possible effect of the side pinch on the steady-state current and the steady-state shock speed of a magnetically driven shock tube, a semiempirical model is formulated. The time history of the current, the radial and the translational motion of the current-carrying region are expressed...... show that the current-carrying region oscillates radially, but the current and the translational velocity of the current-carrying region approach the quasi-steady state rapidly. The deviation of the current from its “steady-state” value (when the pinch effect is absent) in no case amounts to more than...

  16. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  17. A Vehicle License Plate Detection and Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid W. Maglad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Automatic vehicle license plate detection and recognition is a key technique in most of traffic related applications and is an active research topic in the image processing domain. Different methods, techniques and algorithms have been developed for license plate detection and recognitions. Approach: Due to the varying characteristics of the license plate from country to country like numbering system, colors, language of characters, style (font and sizes of license plate, further research is still needed in this area. Results: In most of the Middle East countries, they use the combination of Arabic and English letters, along with their countries logo. Thus, it makes the localization of plate number, the differentiation between Arabic and English letters and logo’s object and finally the recognition of those characters become a more challenging research task. The use of artificial neural network has proved itself beneficial for plate recognition, but it has not been applied for the plate detection. Radial Basis Function (RBF neural network is used both for the detection and recognition of Saudi Arabian license plates. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed approach has been tested on 200 front images of national license plate of Saudi Arabia. A higher percentage of accuracy has been obtained to show that the significant of this approach. The study could be further investigated in other Middle East countries.

  18. A Malaysian Vehicle License Plate Localization and Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Velappa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological intelligence is a highly sought after commodity even in traffic-based systems. These intelligent systems do not only help in traffic monitoring but also in commuter safety, law enforcement and commercial applications. In this paper, a license plate localization and recognition system for vehicles in Malaysia is proposed. This system is developed based on digital images and can be easily applied to commercial car park systems for the use of documenting access of parking services, secure usage of parking houses and also to prevent car theft issues. The proposed license plate localization algorithm is based on a combination of morphological processes with a modified Hough Transform approach and the recognition of the license plates is achieved by the implementation of the feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network. Experimental results show an average of 95% successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of 589 images captured from a complex outdoor environment.

  19. Flat Plate and Turbine Vane Cascade Heat Transfer Investigation Using a Shock Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    piece of -. work would not have been possible without the superior and talented AFIT Shop personnel lead by Mr. Carl Shortt. I would also like to...tube. Curves were presented showing the time required to reach steady state for a given flow condition and model size. Davies and Berstein (1969...inverse of Davies’ and Bersteins ’ I alpha as the transition requirement. Dunn and Stoddard (1977) .. * .conducted heat transfer experiments in a shock

  20. Absolute viscosity measured using instrumented parallel plate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, H. H.

    1967-01-01

    An automatic system measures the true average shear viscosity of liquids and viscoelastic materials, using the parallel plate method and automatically displays the results on a graphic record. This eliminates apparatus setup and extensive calculations.

  1. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whole ANPR system depends on number plate extraction phase as character segmentation and character recognition phases are also depend on the output of this phase. Further the accuracy of Number Plate Extraction phase depends on the quality of captured vehicle image. Higher be the quality of captured input vehicle image more will be the chances of proper extraction of vehicle number plate area. The existing methods of ANPR works well for dark and bright/light categories image but it does not work well for Low Contrast, Blurred and Noisy images and the detection of exact number plate area by using the existing ANPR approach is not successful even after applying existing filtering and enhancement technique for these types of images. Due to wrong extraction of number plate area, the character segmentation and character recognition are also not successful in this case by using the existing method. To overcome these drawbacks I proposed an efficient approach for ANPR in which the input vehicle image is pre-processed firstly by iterative bilateral filtering , adaptive histogram equalization and number plate is extracted from pre-processed vehicle image using morphological operations, image subtraction, image binarization/thresholding, sobel vertical edge detection and by boundary box analysis. Sometimes the extracted plate area also contains noise, bolts, frames etc. So the extracted plate area is enhanced by using morphological operations to improve the quality of

  2. Expansion of a shock plasma in the accelerating field of a parallel-plate capacitor in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, N. D.; Pomel'nikov, R. A.; Telegin, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    We have solved the problem of expansion of a multicomponent shock plasma (initiated by an impact of a fast microprojectile against a solid target) to vacuum in the electric field of a parallel-plate capacitor. The results of calculations can be used in the development of a dust impact mass spectrometer for studying the elemental composition of micrometeorites.

  3. Shock-induced turbulent flow in baffle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reichenbach, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1993-07-01

    Experiments are described on shock propagation through 2-D aligned and staggered baffle systems. Flow visualization was provided by shadow and schlieren photography, recorded by the Cranz-Schardin camera. Also single-frame, infinite-fringe, color interferograms were used. Intuition suggests that this is a rather simple 2-D shock diffraction problem. However, flow visualization reveals that the flow rapidly evolved into a complex 3-D turbulent mixing problem. Mushroom-shaped mixing regions blocked the flow into the next baffle orifice. Thus energy was transferred from the directed kinetic energy (induced by the shock) to rotational energy of turbulent mixing, and then dissipated by molecular effects. These processes dramatically dissipate the strength of the shock wave. The experiments provide an excellent test case that could be used to assess the accuracy of computer code calculations of such problems.

  4. Shock Analysis of Water Backed Perforated Plate Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopan, Obla Ramanandam; Ranjithkumar, Santharam; Nandakumar, Chirayil Gopalakrishnannair

    2016-07-01

    Perforated plates are essential structural components of sonar acoustic domes of the submarines and underwater platforms. The sonar acoustic domes are considered as `water backed condition' for structural analysis. It is of utmost importance to study the structural response of sonar acoustic domes subjected to noncontact underwater explosion since it has wide scope in defence application. It is intended to investigate the free field pressure due to the underwater explosion and structural response of perforated plate using ANSYS LS-DYNA software for plastic explosive kirkee (PEK), Tri Nitro Toluene (TNT) and Composition 4 explosives. The free field pressure from TNT explosion is validated with the Cole's expression available for this explosive. The time history plots for free field pressure, displacement and principal stress are plotted for all the three explosives. The free field pressure is validated with Cole's formula and found 18 % variation for TNT and 14 % for PEK explosive.

  5. Factors Affecting Energy Absorption of a Plate during Shock Wave Impact Using a Damage Material Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-07

    array according to the Taguchi method . An orthogonal array is generated to govern the arrangement of the five parameters in the 16 calculations... Taguchi method described in Chapter 3. Energy absorption of the plate was the response investigated and was calculated as strain energy at first... Taguchi method . Table 6.1 shows the energy absorbed by first element failure for each of the 16 simulations. Those results were placed in the

  6. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  7. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  8. System recognizing Bahamian license plate with touching characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Jingyu; Zhang, Sanyuan; Ye, Xiuzi; Zhang, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Various methods are proposed for license plate recognition, but none of them are universal. Some common methods for license plate localization, character extraction, and recognition are analyzed. Then a system is proposed to recognize the Bahamian license plate with touching characters. A vertical edge-based method with a modified sliding window technique is used to locate the license plate, and a machine learning process is used to trim the region. The located license plate is rectified by using the minimum enclosing box and the stroke width value. Then the vertical projection and pairs of extreme points are combined to segment the characters. Finally, a deep learning method is used to recognize the characters. 2996 images are experimented on and the total recognition accuracy achieves 83.29%. Typical methods of each stage are implemented to compare with the proposed methods. In addition, the proposed system is experimented on a public dataset to show the generalization ability of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed system performs better than the other methods and is able to be used in a real-time application.

  9. Particle seeding flow system for horizontal shock tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Nicolas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Adam A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orlicz, Gregory C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prestridge, Katherine P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    The Extreme Fluids Team in P-23, Physics Division, studies fluid dynamics at high speeds using high resolution diagnostics. The unsteady forces on a particle driven by a shock wave are not well understood, and they are difficult to model. A horizontal shock tube (HST) is being modified to collect data about the behavior of particles accelerated by shocks. The HST has been used previously for studies of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) as well as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), diagnostics that measure density and velocity. The purpose of our project is to design a flow system that will introduce particles into the HST. The requirements for this particle flow system (PFS) are that it be non-intrusive, be able to introduce either solid or liquid particles, have an exhaust capability, not interfere with existing diagnostics, and couple with the existing HST components. In addition, the particles must flow through the tube in a uniform way. We met these design criteria by first drawing the existing shock tube and diagnostics and doing an initial design of the ducts for the PFS. We then estimated the losses through the particle flow system from friction and researched possible fans that could be used to drive the particles. Finally, the most challenging component of the design was the coupling to the HST. If we used large inlets, the shock would lose strength as it passed by the inlet, so we designed a novel coupling inlet and outlet that minimize the losses to the shock wave. Our design was reviewed by the Extreme Fluids Team, and it is now being manufactured and built based upon our technical drawings.

  10. Charged dust and shock phenomena in the Solar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Popel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on shock phenomena in dusty plasmas of the Solar System are reviewed. The problems of dust ion acoustic bow shock in interaction of the solar wind with dusty cometary coma and formation of transient atmospheres of atmosphereless cosmic bodies such as Moon, Mercury, asteroids and comets are considered. The latter assumes the evolution of meteoroid impact plumes and production of charged dust grains due to the condensation of both the plume substance and the vapor thrown from the crater and the surrounding regolith layer. Physical phenomena occurring during large meteoroid impacts can be modeled with the aid of active rocket experiments, which involve the release of some gaseous substance in near-Earth space. New vistas in investigation of shock processes in natural dusty plasmas are determined.

  11. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, M. S.; Choi, S. B.; Cho, M. W.; Lee, H. G.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  12. Shock wave fractionated noble gases in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, G. K.

    2001-08-01

    Many processes in the active star-forming regions are accompanied by strong shock waves, in acceleration by which the nuclear-active particles form the power-law energy spectrum of high rigidity: F(> E0) ˜ Eγ , with the spectral index γ ≤ 1.5-2. It must affect the production rates of spallogenic components of the isotopes, whose excitation functions depend on the shape of the energy spectrum of radiation. Thus, the isotopic signatures formed in the conditions of the strong shock wave propagation must be different from those formed in the calm environment. The early solar system incorporated all the presumed processes of the starforming stage, so that its matter had to conserve such isotopic anomalies. In previous works [1] the shock wave effects in generation of extinct radionu-clides and light elements Li, Be and B were considered. In the report some results for their evidence in the noble gas signatures are presented. Modelling the Kr isotope generation in spallation of Rb, Sr, Y and Zr with the nuclear-active particles, the energy spectrum of which was variable in the range of γ= 1.1-6.0, shows the different pace of growth of abundances of the dif-ferent Kr isotopes with decreasing . It leads to the quite diverse behaviour of the various Kr isotope ratios: the 78,80 Kr/83 Kr ratios increase, and the 82,84,86 Kr/83 Kr ratios decrease for the smaller γ. According to such criteria, for instance, the isotopically heavier SEP-Kr in the lunar ilmenites was pro-duced with the accelerated particles of the more rigid energy spectrum (γ ˜ 2) in comparison with the SW-Kr. Another important feature of the shock wave acceleration of particles is the enrichment of their specrtum with heavier ions in proportion to A/Z. Clearly, the shock wave fractionation of the noble gases, favouring the heavier isotopes, had to be inevitable. Such a fractionation depends on timing episodes of shock wave acceleration: after the n-th act of the ion acceleration their fractionation is

  13. Cardiogenic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock - cardiogenic ... electrical system of the heart (heart block) Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump ... orthostatic hypotension) Weak (thready) pulse To diagnose cardiogenic shock, a catheter (tube) may be placed in the ...

  14. Operational success - Flat-plate photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, V. V.; Zwibel, H. S.

    The performance-to-date of 20 and 100 kW peak DOE photovoltaic array demonstration projects in New Mexico and Texas are reported. An El Paso 20 kW unit feeds power to an uninterruptible power supply for a computer controlling a 197 MW generator. System availability has been 97 percent after over 800 days of operation, and has reached monthly efficiencies of 5.3-6.2 percent. The Lovington, NM 100 kW unit has operated at an average 6.7 percent efficiency, furnishing over 15.8 MWh/mo for a 2 yr period. System availability has been 99 percent, although at increased costs due to regular maintenance.

  15. Auditory signal design for automatic number plate recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydra, C.G.; Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an auditory signal for the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system of Dutch national police. The auditory signal is designed to alert police officers of suspicious cars in their proximity, communicating priority level and location of the suspicious car and takin

  16. The Detector Control Systems for the CMS Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Paolucci, P; Gómez-Reino, R; Viviani, C; Shahzad, R; Khurshid, T

    2010-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber system is composed by 912 double-gap chambers equipped with about $10^4$ front-end boards. The correct and safe operation of the RPC system requires a sophisticated and complex online Detector Control System, able to monitor and control 2$\\cdot10^4$ hardware devices distributed on an area of about 5000 m$^2$. The RPC DCS acquires, monitors and stores about $10^5$ parameters coming from the detector, the electronics, the power system, the gas, and cooling systems. The DCS system and the first results, obtained during the 2007 and 2008 CMS cosmic runs, will be described in this paper.

  17. Delta Shock Wave for the Suliciu Relaxation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard De la cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the one-dimensional Riemann problem for a hyperbolic system of three conservation laws of Temple class. This system is a simplification of a recently proposed system of five conservations laws by Bouchut and Boyaval that model viscoelastic fluids. An important issue is that the considered 3×3 system is such that every characteristic field is linearly degenerate. We show an explicit solution for the Cauchy problem with initial data in L∞. We also study the Riemann problem for this system. Under suitable generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition, both existence and uniqueness of particular delta-shock type solutions are established.

  18. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI

  19. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI

  20. The Dry-filling System for the Shock Absorber of Car Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shock absorber is considered as an important component of the suspension system. In its production process, the liquid filling for the shock absorber is a very important part. This paper introduced one kind of shock absorber stem–filling system, which achieved liquid dry-filling in the shock absorber for the car engine. The results showed that this system is stable and reliable.

  1. THE PARALLEL CONFOCAL DETECTING SYSTEM USING OPTICAL FIBER PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective Focusing on the problem such as slow scanning speed, complex system design and low light efficiency, a new parallel confocal 3D profile detecting method based on optical fiber technology, which realizes whole-field confocal detecting, is proposed. Methods The optical fiber plate generates an 2D point light source array, which splits one light beam into N2 subbeams and act the role of pinholes as point source and point detecting to filter the stray light and reflect light. By introducing the construction and working principle of the multi-beam 3D detecting system, the feasibility is investigated. Results Experiment result indicates that the optical fiber technology is applicable in rotation. The measuring parameters that influence the detecting can easily be adapted to satisfy different requirments of measurement. Compared with the conventional confocal method, the parallel confocal detecting system using optical fiber plate is simple in the mechanism, the measuring field is larger and the speed is faster.

  2. Dual-bath Plating of Composition Modulated Alloys (CMA) based on a newly developed Computer Controlled Plating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    of a computer controlled plating system for producing large scale CMA-coatings. Employing a dual-bath technique, multilayered materials with more than 1000 alternating layers have been manufactured and investigated. The thickness of each layer ranges from 25 nm to several microns. The characterisation results......, as obtained with SEM and applications for multilayered systems such as Cu/Ni and Cu/Co, as well as the possibilities and limitation of the plating system will be discussed....

  3. Influence of Heat Shock Temperatures and Fast Freezing on Viability of Probiotic Sporeformers and the Issue of Spore Plate Count Versus True Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of various heat shock conditions and fast freezing and subsequent thawing on the viability and recovery of Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus subtilis as probiotic sporeformers, and also to compare spore plate and microscopic counts. Materials and Methods: After preparing the final suspensions of B. coagulans and Bacillus subtilis subsp. Natto spores, they were spread-plated before and after fast freezing treatment (-70°C for about 1 min. Heat shock treatments of the spores were carried out at 68oC for 15, 20, and 30 min as well as at 80oC for 10 and 15 min. Concentrations of the examined probiotic sporeformers were determined simultaneously by plate enumerations and microscopically determined counts. Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA of SPSS were used for statistical analysis of the data. Analysis of DoE results was carried out using Minitab. Results: The results presented here show that the highest recovery rates for B. coagulans (14.75 log CFU/mL and B. subtilis spores (14.80 log CFU/mL were under a heat shock condition of 68°C for 20 min in nutrient agar (p<0.05. In addition, the survival rates of B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores under the fast freezing and subsequent thawing condition were about 90% and 88%, respectively. Plate counts differed significantly from counts determined microscopically, with differences of almost 0.5 and 0.8 log for B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores, respectively (p<0.05. In addition, DoE results of the study revealed that both factors of spore count method and only freezing factor in fast freezing treatment have a significant effect on concentrations of the spores examined (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat shock conditions, freezing and subsequent thawing circumstances, and plate counts or enumerations determined microscopically have significant influences on the viability of probiotic sporeformers and

  4. A dynamic simulation of a flat-plate collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, A.

    1983-04-01

    A numerical model for the performance of a flat plate solar collector array is presented, with account taken of thermal transients and calculation on a microcomputer. The system modeled consists of a flat plate array, the heat transfer fluid, an insulated storage tank, an exchange loop for heating a secondary fluid, and a load maintained by a pump. The one-dimensional analysis includes equations for the energy balances, with consideration given to heat losses to the outside. A function is defined for the total incident solar radiation, and behavior is simulated over the entire 24-hr day, weighted by the highest and lowest recorded temperatures. Good agreement has been found with experimental data.

  5. Underwater Shock-Induced Responses of Stiffened Flat Plates: An Investigation Into the Predictive Capabilities of the USA-STAGS Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    rectangular stif- fened plate was small (j pound of TNT), and the correspond- ing plate deflections were far too slight for any firm conclusions to be drawn...s)F(s) = X(s) (eqn 5.5) For an oscillating system of order n, the transfer func- tion will have 2n poles occurring in complex conjugate pairs. Each

  6. 77 FR 58580 - Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... of Justice Programs Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard... System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Justice... development of NIJ performance standards for Interview Room Recording Systems and License Plate Readers used...

  7. 砂浆板冲击破坏试验研究%Damage tests for a cement mortar plate under shock load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾培英; 邓昌; 章道生; 汤雷; 王建

    2015-01-01

    通过锤击、均匀冲击荷载试验,采用逐级递增循环冲击加载方式,研究冲击荷载下砂浆板的破坏特征及冲击力、冲击能与最大加速度响应间关系。试验表明,二种冲击作用均使砂浆板跨中区域出现贯穿裂缝,呈脆性劈裂破坏形态,均匀冲击作用下破坏位置与跨中有一定偏移;锤击力时程经历主冲击、次冲击、卸载三阶段,加速度响应随锤击力增加而增加,裂缝贯穿后冲击力、加速度响应大幅减小;均匀冲击下加速度有二组响应区,响应随冲击能增加而增加,当冲击能达一定程度时响应大幅减小;继续增加冲击能,响应又会增加,并较快发生劈裂破坏,响应大幅减小;支座螺栓松动能缓冲部分冲击作用。%Hammering and uniform shock tests of a cement mortar plate were conducled.The opposite sides of the plate were elastic supports.Through cyclic shocks with amplitude increasing,the failure features,the relationship between shock force and acceleration response,and the relationship between impact energy and acceleration response of the plate were studied.The results showed that a transverse crack nearby the midspan of the plate appears,its failure state is brittle splitting;the location of failure offsets the midspan under uniform shock;time history curves of the hammering force include three stages of major shock,secondary shock and unloading;the acceleration response of the plate increases with increase in the hammering force,however,the hammering force and acceleration response decrease obviously after the transverse crack appears;there are two groups of acceleration response regions under uniform shock;the acceleration response increases with increase in impact energy;once impact energy reaches a certain level,the acceleration response decreases obviously;if impact energy continuously increases,the acceleration response increases again,brittle splitting failure occurs

  8. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  9. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosten, Edward J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod K [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  10. Offshoring as an Exogenous Shock to the Services Production System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Mol, Michael; Petersen, Bent

    Production of services involves three key elements, an output for the client, resources of a provider and task execution. Offshoring of services acts as an exogenous shock to such a production system. Using multiple case methodology we investigate how task output, execution, and resources change...... as a consequence of offshoring and particularly how these elements are realigned. The cases reveal substantial managerial challenges in the alignment process prompted by a relocation of service task execution to an emerging economy. In particular, we find that instead of some set of capabilities that proactively...

  11. Study of a tissue protecting system for clinical applications of underwater shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2005-04-01

    Applications of underwater shock waves have been extended to various clinical therapies during the past two decades. Besides the successful contribution of extracorporeal shock waves, tissue damage especially to the vasculature has been reported. These side effects are believed to be due to the shock wave-tissue interaction and cavitation. In the present research in order to minimize shock wave induced damage a shock wave attenuating system was designed and studied. The attenuating system consisted of thin gas packed layers immersed in water, which could attenuate more than 90% of shock waves overpressure. Silver azide micro-pellets (10 mg) were ignited by irradiation of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to generate shock waves. Pressure histories were measured with fiber optic probe and PVDF needle hydrophones. The strength of incident shock waves was changed by adjusting the distance between the pellets and the layers. The whole sequences of the shock wave attenuation due to the interaction of shock waves with the dissipating layers were quantitatively visualized by double exposure holographic interferometry and time resolved high speed photography. The attenuated shock had overpressure less than threshold damage of brain tissue evaluated from histological examination of the rat brain treated by shock waves.

  12. 78 FR 59065 - Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... of Justice Programs Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard... Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops. SUMMARY: The National Institute of... Plate Readers used by criminal justice agencies. Sessions are intended to inform manufacturers, test...

  13. An Automatic System of Vehicle Number-Plate Recognition Based on Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic system of vehicle number-plate recognition based on neural networks. In this system, location of number-plate and recognition of characters in number-plate can be automatically completed. Pixel colors of Number-plate area are classified using neural network, then color features are extracted by analyzing scanning lines of the cross-section of number-plate. It takes full use of number-plate color features to locate number plate. Characters in number-plate can be effectively recognized using the neural networks. Experimental results show that the correct rate of number-plate location is close to 100%, and the time of number-plate location is less than 1 second. Moreover, recognition rate of characters is improved due to the known number-plate type. It is also observed that this system is not sensitive to variations of weather, illumination and vehicle speed. In addition, and also the size of number-plate need not to be known in prior. This system is of crucial significance to apply and spread the automatic system of vehicle number-plate recognition.

  14. Biomechanical comparison of orthogonal versus parallel double plating systems in intraarticular distal humerus fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata C. Atalar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that both plating systems had similar biomechanical stabilities when anatomic plates with distal locking screws were used in intraarticular distal humerus fractures in artificial humerus models.

  15. Evolution of the Mariana Convergent Plate Margin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Patricia

    1996-02-01

    The Mariana convergent plate margin system of the western Pacific provides opportunities for studying the tectonic and geochemical processes of intraoceanic plate subduction without the added complexities of continental geology. The system's relative geologic simplicity and the well-exposed sections of lithosphere in each of its tectonic provinces permit in situ examination of processes critical to understanding subduction tectonics. Its general history provides analogs to ancient convergent margin terranes exposed on land and helps to explain the chemical mass balance in convergent plate margins. The Mariana convergent margin's long history of sequential formation of volcanic arcs and extensional back arc basins has created a series of volcanic arcs at the eastern edge of the Philippine Sea plate. The trenchward edge of the overriding plate has a relatively sparse sediment cover. Rocks outcropping on the trench's inner slope are typical of the early formed suprasubduction zone's lithosphere and have been subjected to various processes related to its tectonic history. Pervasive forearc faulting has exposed crust and upper mantle lithosphere. Many large serpentinized peridotite seamounts are within 100 km of the trench axis. From these we can learn the history of regional metamorphism and observe and sample active venting of slab fluids. Ocean drilling recovered suprasubduction zone lava sequences erupted since the Eocene that suggest that the forearc region remains volcanologically dynamic. Seismic studies and seafloor mapping show evidence of deformation throughout forearc evolution. Large portions of uplifted southern forearc are exposed at the larger islands. Active volcanoes at the base of the eastern boundary fault of the Mariana Trough vary in size and composition along strike and record regional differences in source composition. Their locations along strike of the arc are controlled in part by cross-arc structures that also facilitate formation of submarine

  16. Convection pattern and stress system under the African plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on tectonic forces from satellite-derived gravity data have revealed a subcrustal stress system which provides a unifying mechanism for uplift, depression, rifting, plate motion and ore formation in Africa. The subcrustal stresses are due to mantle convection. Seismicity, volcanicity and kimberlite magmatism in Africa and the development of the African tectonic and magnetic features are explained in terms of this single stress system. The tensional stress fields in the crust exerted by the upwelling mantle flows are shown to be regions of structural kinship characterized by major concentration of mineral deposits. It is probable that the space techniques are capable of detecting and determining the tectonic forces in the crust of Africa.

  17. The Role of Complement System in Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Charchaflieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Septic shock is a critical clinical condition with a high mortality rate. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important to develop effective therapies. Basic and clinical studies suggest that activation of complements in the common cascade, for example, complement component 3 (C3 and C5, is involved in the development of septic shock. The involvement of three upstream complement pathways in septic shock is more complicated. Both the classical and alternative pathways appear to be activated in septic shock, but the alternative pathway may be activated earlier than the classical pathway. Activation of these two pathways is essential to clear endotoxin. Recent investigations have shed light on the role of lectin complement pathway in septic shock. Published reports suggest a protective role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL against sepsis. Our preliminary study of MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2 in septic shock patients indicated that acute decrease of MASP-2 in the early phase of septic shock might correlate with in-hospital mortality. It is unknown whether excessive activation of these three upstream complement pathways may contribute to the detrimental effects in septic shock. This paper also discusses additional complement-related pathogenic mechanisms and intervention strategies for septic shock.

  18. Dual-bath Plating of Composition Modulated Alloys (CMA) based on a newly developed Computer Controlled Plating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per;

    1994-01-01

    of a computer controlled plating system for producing large scale CMA-coatings. Employing a dual-bath technique, multilayered materials with more than 1000 alternating layers have been manufactured and investigated. The thickness of each layer ranges from 25 nm to several microns. The characterisation results...

  19. Replacement policy in a system under shocks following a Markovian arrival process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)], E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es; Carmen Segovia, Maria del [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    We present a system subject to shocks that arrive following a Markovian arrival process. The system is minimally repaired. It is replaced when a certain number of shocks arrive. A general model where the replacements are governed by a discrete phase-type distribution is studied. For this system, the Markov process governing the system is constructed, and the interarrival times between replacements and the number of replacements are calculated. A special case of this system is when it can stand a prefixed number of shocks. For this new system, the same performance measures are calculated. The systems are considered in transient and stationary regime.

  20. Micro system comprising 96 micro valves on a titer plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, S.; Flitsch, D.; Büchs, J.; Schomburg, W. K.

    2016-10-01

    A system of 96 micro valves has been developed and mounted on top of a 48-well micro titer plate providing two valves for each well controlling its air inlet and outlet. Testing of the valve system showed that all valves are working and are opened and closed reliably. A pneumatic system is switching inlet and outlet valves independently of each other. The geometry of the feed channels ensures an equal air flow through all wells, when the valves are open. Between the micro valves, one optical fibre was inserted through the lid of each well allowing measuring the oxygen partial pressure in the enclosed air volume by fluorescence sensor spots. Escherichia coli bacteria were grown inside the wells and their metabolism was observed by the oxygen partial pressure change due to respiration. In all 48 wells, the same oxygen transfer rate was observed within an averaged standard deviation of 1 mmol/L/h. The oxygen transfer rate differences compared to a macroscopic standard shake flask system were overall compatible within their uncertainties.

  1. Dual PD Control Regulation with Nonlinear Compensation for a Ball and Plate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galvan-Colmenares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal proportional derivative (PD control is modified to a new dual form for the regulation of a ball and plate system. First, to analyze this controller, a novel complete nonlinear model of the ball and plate system is obtained. Second, an asymptotic stable dual PD control with a nonlinear compensation is developed. Finally, the experimental results of ball and plate system are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  2. A broadband proton backlighting platform to probe shock propagation in low-density systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, H.; Hua, R.; Ping, Y.; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F.; Heeter, R.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Collins, G. W.

    2017-01-01

    A proton backlighting platform has been developed for the study of strong shock propagation in low-density systems in planar geometry. Electric fields at the converging shock front in inertial confinement fusion implosions have been previously observed, demonstrating the presence of—and the need to understand—strong electric fields not modeled in standard radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. In this planar configuration, long-pulse ultraviolet lasers are used to drive a strong shock into a gas-cell target, while a short-pulse proton backlighter side-on radiographs the shock propagation. The capabilities of the platform are presented here. Future experiments will vary shock strength and gas fill, to probe shock conditions at different Z and Te.

  3. Development and Clinical Evaluation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System (Synthes)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortelazzi, Roberto; Altacera, Mario; Turco, Monica; Antonicelli, Viviana; De Benedittis, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this article, authors report the different steps of development and clinical validation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates (Synthes, Soletta, Switzerland), a specialized osteosynthesis system developed by Synthes during the past 4 years. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 62 patients were treated for subcondylar and condylar neck fractures via a preauricular or retromandibular/transparotid approach. The MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System consists of a Trapezoidal Plate, a three-dime...

  4. Shock Energy in Merging Systems: The Elephant in the Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewley, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between shocks, star formation and the evolution of merging galaxies is not well understood. We are now poised to gain major insight in this area, thanks to the high resolution narrow-band imaging capabilities of WFC3 and recent major advances in theoretical shock and and photoionization models. Shocks and star formation in merging galaxies are regulated by fundamental physical properties of the ISM such as dust, gas density, ionized gas structure, and the presence of galactic winds and outflows. We aim to uncover the relationship between shocks, galactic winds, and the fundamental ISM properties in two famous mergers NGC 6240 and Arp 220. These two galaxies are currently transitioning from disk galaxies into spheroids and they are close enough to achieve the spatial scales required to resolve individual supernova remnants with WFC3 imaging. We propose to image NGC 6240 and Arp 220 in key shock and photoionization sensitive diagnostic lines [OII], [OIII], H-beta, [NII]+H-alpha, [SII], and {where possible} [OI] to {1} resolve the source of the ionizing radiation field {shocks versus photoionization by hot stars} at spatial scales of 25-35 pc, and {2} map the distribution of the star formation and ionized gas to search for links with merger-driven shocks and large-scale gas flows.

  5. A Study of the Weak Shock Wave Propagating over a Porous Wall/Cavity System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.D.KIM; S.J.JUNG; T.AOKI; T.SETOGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    The present computational study addresses the attenuation of the shock wave propagating in a duct, using a porous wall/cavity system. In the present study, a weak shock wave propagating over the porous wall/cavity system is investigated with computational fluid dynamics. A total variation diminishing scheme is employed to solve the unsteady, two-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations. The Mach number of an initial shock wave is changed in the range from 1.02 to 1.12. Several different types of porous wall/cavity systems are tested to investigate the passive control effects. The results show that wall pressure strongly fluctuates due to diffraction and reflection processes of the shock waves behind the incident shock wave. From the results, it is understood that for effective alleviation of tunnel impulse waves, the length of the perforated region should be sufficiently long.

  6. Entropy generation in the flow system generated in between two parallel plates due to bivertical motion of the top plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmet Z Sahin; Bekir S Yilbas

    2009-06-01

    Thermodynamic irreversibility in the flow system provides information on the energy and power losses in the system. Minimization of entropy generation in the flow system enables for the parametric optimization of the system operation. In the present study, parallel plates, in between, filled with the fluid are considered. The fluid motion resulted from the bi-vertical compression of the top plate of the parallel plates is examined. The entropy generation rate in the flow system is formulated after considering the constant movement of the top plate, constant applied load, and the combination of the constant velocity and applied load to the top plate. The optimum operating conditions related to the fluid motion in between the parallel plates is determined through the entropy analysis. It is found that the combination of the constant velocity and the constant applied load resulted in the low entropy generation rate.

  7. Development and Clinical Evaluation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System (Synthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelazzi, Roberto; Altacera, Mario; Turco, Monica; Antonicelli, Viviana; De Benedittis, Michele

    2015-06-01

    In this article, authors report the different steps of development and clinical validation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates (Synthes, Soletta, Switzerland), a specialized osteosynthesis system developed by Synthes during the past 4 years. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 62 patients were treated for subcondylar and condylar neck fractures via a preauricular or retromandibular/transparotid approach. The MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System consists of a Trapezoidal Plate, a three-dimensional (3D) 4-hole 1.0-mm plate for smaller fracture areas, the Lambda Plate, a 7-hole 1.0-mm linear plate which mimics the two miniplates technique, and the Strut Plate, a 3D 1.0-mm plate with great versatility of employment. All devices satisfy the principles of a functionally stable osteosynthesis as stated by Champy et al. None of the plates broke and no macroscopic condylar displacement was noted on radiological follow-up. Clinical and functional parameters assessed at 6 months postoperative (mandibular range of motion, pain, dental occlusion) were almost restored. MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System (Synthes) has proved to provide sufficient mechanical stiffness and anatomically accurate fracture reduction to avoid major postoperative drawbacks of subcondylar and condylar neck fractures.

  8. PENGGUNAAN SANDWICH PLATE SYSTEM (SPS PADA KONSTRUKSI INNER BOTTOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Baidowi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi yang semakin maju memberikan alternatif-alternatif dalam memperbaiki berbagai bentuk sistem, termasuk di dalamnya konstruksi struktur kapal. Latar belakang dari penelitian ini adalah pada permasalahan kebutuhan material ringan pada kapal, kecepatan proses produksi, penyederhanaan konstruksi dan biaya perawatan kapal yang rendah. Penggunaan material ringan Sandwich Plate System (SPS menjadi salah satu jawaban dari permasalahan-permasalahan tersebut, penggunaan SPS dapat menyederhanakan bentuk dari konstruksi kapal dengan menghilangkan penegar inner bottom longitudinal dan mampu mengurangi Light Weight Tonnase (LWT. Artikel ini membahas perbandingan pola distribusi tegangan dan deformasi pada konstruksi bottom yang menggunakan SPS dan baja AH36, selain dari itu juga mengetahui seberapa besar pengurangan LWT yang dihasilkan untuk meningkatkan Payload kapal. Analisa dilakukan dengan simulasi numerik berdasarkan FEM pada konstruksi inner bottom dengan pembebanan muatan. Dari hasil simulasi didapatkan besar tegangan maksimal untuk material baja AH36 sebesar 226 Mpa dengan menggunakan penegar, sedangkan konstuksi dengan material SPS tegangan maksimal yang dihasilkan sebesar 221 Mpa tanpa penggunaan penegar, dengan deformasi maksimal untuk AH36 dan SPS yaitu 77 mm yang terjadi pada bagian tengah blok konstruksi inner bottom. Dengan hilangnya penegar berat konstruksi berkurang sebesar 13,05% dari penggunaan material baja AH36 sehingga memberikan peningkatan payload sebesar 13,05%. Simulasi penelitian dilakukan pada kapal Bulk Carrier (BC.

  9. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  10. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  11. Shock front field structure in low-density systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui; Mucguffey, Christopher; Beg, Farhat; Sio, Hong; Ping, Yuan; Wilks, Scott; Heeter, Bob; Collins, Rip

    2016-10-01

    It is known that a shock front is not a simple discontinuity in density and temperature as depicted in commonly used hydro codes but also consists of self-generated fields associated with gradients in the electron pressure. A quasi-planar platform using broadband proton radiography has been developed to study this field structure at a shock front. The broad bandwidth offers energy-dependent measurements which quantitatively constrain both the potential and field width at the shock front. Experiments were conducted on the OMEGA EP, where three long pulse beams delivered 6 kJ in 2 ns for shock initiation in a tube filled with either pure Helium or mixture of Helium and Neon, and a short pulse of 850 J, 10 ps generated broadband protons for point-projection radiography. Simultaneous spatially resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy provided shock velocity, particle velocity and thermal emission measurements, constraining density and temperature for the field generation. The data and modeling indicate that a multi-KeV potential was present at the shock front where a strong electron pressure gradient existed. This work was performed under DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 with support from OFES Early Career program and LLNL LDRD program.

  12. Experiments on a Miniature Hypervelocity Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas; Johnson, Carl; Murphy, Michael; Lieber, Mark; MIMS Team

    2013-06-01

    A miniature explosively-driven shock tube, based on the Voitenko compressor design, has been designed to produce shock speeds in light gases in excess of 80 km/s. Voitenko compressors over 1 meter in diameter have been reported but here experiments on miniature shock tubes with ~1-mm bore diameters are described. In this design a 12-mm diameter explosive pellet drives a metal plate into a hemispherical gas compression chamber. Downstream from the piston a mica diaphragm separates the gas from an evacuated shock tube which is confined by a massive polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) block. The diaphragm eventually ruptures under the applied pressure loading and the compressed gases escape into the evacuated shock tube at hyper velocities. The progress of gas shocks in the tube and bow shocks in the PMMA are monitored with an ultra-high-speed imaging system, the Shock Wave Image Framing Technique (SWIFT). The resulting time-resolved images yield two-dimensional visualizations of shock geometry and progression. By measuring both the gas and bow shocks, accurate and unequivocal measurements of shock position history are obtained. The experimental results were compared with those of hydrocode modeling to optimize the design. The first experiments were suboptimum in that the velocities were ~16 km/s. Progress with these experiments will be reported.

  13. Efeito de ondas de choque na placa de crescimento de coelhos Effect of shock waves upon the growth plate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Giusti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de ondas de choque na placa de crescimento de coelhos, variando a energia e o número de ondas aplicadas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 30 coelhos com idade de cinco semanas divididos em seis grupos. O aparelho gerador de ondas de choque foi o OSSATRON (HMT. Os animais foram submetidos a aplicações na placa de crescimento proximal da tíbia esquerda, variando a intensidade (14, 21,28kV e o número de ondas (1000 e 4000. A tíbia direita foi usada como controle. Os animais foram sacrificados após seis semanas e sua avaliação foi feita por meio da mensuração do comprimento das tíbias e pela análise microscópica da placa de crescimento. Os resultados de mensuração da área da placa e do comprimento das tíbias foram comparados com o grupo controle e entre os grupos, utilizando-se estudos estatísticos. RESULTADOS: Neste estudo não ocorreram alterações estatisticamente significantes nas medidas da área da placa ou do comprimento da tíbia após a aplicação de ondas de choque em nenhum dos grupos. Foi observada tendência de ocorrer uma diferença de crescimento das tíbias entre os grupos submetidos a 1.000 impulsos e os grupos submetidos a 4.000 impulsos, mas esta diferença não foi considerada significante. Foi observada também a formação de hematoma no local da aplicação nos grupos que receberam ondas com maior energia, evoluindo com regressão espontânea sem necessidade de cuidados especiais. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação de ondas de choque na região proximal da tíbia de coelhos imaturos, nas formas descritas, não teve nenhum efeito na placa de crescimento, de acordo com os métodos de avaliação usados neste estudo.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of shock waves upon the growth plate in rabbits by varying the energy and number of applied waves. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six groups of five rabbits aged 5 weeks (Total: 30 were studied. OSSATRON (HMT was used to generate

  14. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  15. Risk factors for breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Izumi; Igawa, Kaori; Nagata, Jyunko; Yoshida, Maho; Baba, Takashi; Ichiki, Takeshi; Kondoh, Yudai; Takamori, Koichi; Kashima, Koji; Sakoda, Sumio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback. We studied 169 Japanese adults (62 men, 107 women; age range 16-53 years) with deformities of the jaw diagnosed as mandibular prognathism. All patients were treated by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) with 2 biodegradable fixation plates and screws at the anterior mandibular ramus. We collected the following data from the medical records and radiological findings: sex; age; degree of setback; presence of asymmetry; presence of open bite; operation; design of the plate; operating time; and blood loss. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the factors that were independently associated with the dependent variable: breakage of the biodegradable plate system. In 10 of the 169 patients (6%) the biodegradable plate system for the BSSO broke. Factors that influenced whether or not the biodegradable plate system fractured were if they were asymmetrical (odds ratio (OR) 5.35; P=0.02) and had an open bite (OR 5.20; P=0.02). Asymmetry or open bite was significantly associated with breaks in the biodegradable plate system. Biodegradable plates should be used only when loading is minimal.

  16. Effects of Thickness Deviation of Elastic Plates in Multi-Layered Resonance Systems on Frequency Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Shu-Yi; FAN Li

    2009-01-01

    A model of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators is used to study the effects of thickness deviation of elastic plates on resonance frequency spectra in planar multi-layered systems. The resonance frequency shifts induced by the thickness deviations of the elastic plates periodically vary with the resonance order, which depends on the acoustic impedance ratios of the elastic plates to piezoelectric patches. Additionally, the center lines of the frequency shift oscillations Hnearly change with the orders of the resonance modes, and their slopes are sensitive to the thickness deviations of the plates, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thickness deviations.

  17. Evaluation of tin plating systems for a high-noble alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbery, T A; Davis, R D

    1993-01-01

    The tensile bond strength of Panavia EX to a high-noble alloy prepared by abrasive spraying and tin plating was measured. Two different intraoperatory tin plating systems were compared. Disk-shaped specimens were cast in type III gold, abrasive sprayed with aluminum oxide, and divided into three groups of 30 specimens each. Specimens in one group were tin plated by using a Kura Ace Mini unit, those in the second group were tin plated by using a Micro Tin unit, and those in the third group were not tin plated and served as the control group. Disks within each group were luted to each other with Panavia EX. The specimens were thermocycled and tested in tension. There was no significant difference between the two tin plated groups; however, the luting bond of both experimental groups was significantly stronger than was that of the control (P < .05).

  18. Development of a system of automatic gap-adjusted electrodes for shock wave generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousakas, Ioannis; Liang, Shen-Min; Wan, Long-Ray; Wang, Chia-Hui

    2004-11-01

    In this study, a system of automatic gap-adjusted electrodes is developed for electrohydraulic shock wave generators that can be used both for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (treatment of renal calculi) and for the extracorporeal shock wave therapy for musculo-skeletal disorders. This system is composed of three main components: (1) two electrodes and their bases; (2) servo motors and control software; (3) a high sensitivity CCD camera and image processing program. To verify system performance, in vitro fragmentation tests have been conducted using kidney stone phantoms. Results indicate that the efficiency of stone fragmentation using automatic gap adjustment can be increased up to 55.2%, which is twice more than without automatic gap adjustment (26.7%). This system can be applied to any commercial electrohydraulic extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor or orthotriptor without difficulty.

  19. Two-Dimensional Regular Shock Reflection for the Pressure Gradient System of Conservation Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxi Zheng

    2006-01-01

    We establish the existence of a global solution to a regular reflection of a shock hitting a ramp for the pressure gradient system of equations. The set-up of the reflection is the same as that of Mach's experiment for the compressible Euler system, i.e., a straight shock hitting a ramp. We assume that the angle of the ramp is close to 90 degrees. The solution has a reflected bow shock wave, called the diffraction of the planar shock at the compressive corner, which is mathematically regarded as a free boundary in the self-similar variable plane.The pressure gradient system of three equations is a subsystem, and an approximation, of the full Euler system,and we offer a couple of derivations.

  20. Thermal modeling and the optimized design of metal plate cooling systems for single concentrator solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Min; Chen Nuo-Fu; Deng Jin-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A metal plate cooling model for 400× single concentrator solar cells was established.The effects of the thickness and the radius of the metal plate,and the air environment on the temperature of the solar cells were analyzed in detail.It is shown that the temperature of the solar cells decreased sharply at the beginning,with the increase in the thickness of the metal plate,and then changed more smoothly.When the radius of the metal plate was 4 cm and the thickness increased to 2 mm or thicker,the temperature of the solar cell basically stabilized at about 53 ℃.Increasing the radius of the metal plate and the convective transfer coefficient made the temperature of the solar cell decrease remarkably.The effects of A1 and Cu as the metal plate material on cooling were analyzed contrastively,and demonstrated the superiority of Al material for the cooling system.Furthermore,considering cost reduction,space holding and the stress of the system,we optimized the structural design of the metal plate.The simulated results can be referred to the design of the structure for the metal plate.Finally,a method to devise the structure of the metal plate for single concentrator solar cells was given.

  1. Cost Comparative Study On Steel Frame Folded Plate Roofing System Vs Conventional Truss Roofing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to ever-increasing of construction materials, it becomes the foremost duty of a civil engineer to design economical and durable structures. In this project an attempt has been made to compare the cost of two types of roofing systems viz. conventional truss roofing system and steel frame folded plate roofing system. The steel frame folded plate roofing system, though found to be economical, is not widely practiced in India due to lack of knowledge regarding its analysis and design. On contrary to it, the conventional truss roofing system still remains as the widely adopted method of roofing for different types of buildings due to the available literature on its analysis, design and construction. The analysis and design of conventional truss roofing system and folded plate roofing system have been carried out for various spans. The analysis is carried out in STAAD.Pro 2004, which is based on stiffness method. Load calculations and design done manually, based on IS:875-1987, IS:800- 1984 & SP:38(1987

  2. Modelling Bending Wave Transmission across Coupled Plate Systems Comprising Periodic Ribbed Plates in the Low-, Mid-, and High-Frequency Ranges Using Forms of Statistical Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of bending wave transmission across systems of coupled plates which incorporate periodic ribbed plates is considered using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA in the low- and mid-frequency ranges and Advanced SEA (ASEA in the high-frequency range. This paper investigates the crossover from prediction with SEA to ASEA through comparison with Finite Element Methods. Results from L-junctions confirm that this crossover occurs near the frequency band containing the fundamental bending mode of the individual bays on the ribbed plate when ribs are parallel to the junction line. Below this frequency band, SEA models treating each periodic ribbed plate as a single subsystem were shown to be appropriate. Above this frequency band, large reductions occur in the vibration level when propagation takes place across successive bays on ribbed plates when the ribs are parallel to the junction. This is due to spatial filtering; hence it is necessary to use ASEA which can incorporate indirect coupling associated with this transmission mechanism. A system of three coupled plates was also modelled which introduced flanking transmission. The results show that a wide frequency range can be covered by using both SEA and ASEA for systems of coupled plates where some or all of the plates are periodic ribbed plates.

  3. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR TILTABLE PLATE WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM FOR RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC MANIPULATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dobriborsci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of work on control system design for tiltable plate with two degrees of freedom. Designed robotic system includes technical vision system that provides an opportunity to get the position of the control object placed on the square plate. Two servomotors provide each tilting axis operation. Single-board computer transmits angle values and other design elements to the servomotors by USB interface from the workstation. The problem of the object stabilization in the given coordinates on the plate is solved.

  4. The Core Services of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F. H.; Lauterjung, J.

    2013-12-01

    The ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was launched in November 2010 and has now completed its year 3 of the four-year preparatory phase. EPOS will create a single sustainable, permanent observation infrastructure, integrating existing geophysical monitoring networks, local observatories and experimental laboratories in Europe and adjacent regions. EPOS' technical Work Package 6 has developed a three layer architectural model for the construction of the EPOS Core Services (CS) during the subsequent implementation phase. The Poster will present and detail on these three layers, consisting of the EPOS Integrated Core Services (ICS), the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the existing National Research Infrastructures & Data Centers. The basic layer of the architecture is established by the National Research Infrastructures (RIs) & Data Centers, which generate data and information and are responsible for the operation of the instrumentation. National RIs will provide their data to the Thematic Cores Services. The Thematic Core Services constitute the community layer of EPOS architecture and they will: 1) consist of existing (e.g. ORFEUS, EMSC), developing (e.g. EUREF/GNSS) or still to be developed Service Providers for specific thematic communities, as represented within EPOS through the technical EPOS Working Groups (e.g., seismology, volcanology, geodesy, geology, analytic labs for rock physics, geomagnetism, geo-resources ... and many others), 2) provide data services to specific communities, 3) link the National Research Infrastructures to the EPOS Integrated Services, 4) include Service Providers (e.g. OneGeology+, Intermagnet) that may be merely linked or partially integrated and 5) consist of Integrated Laboratories and RIs spanning multiple EPOS disciplines and taking advantage of other existing Thematic Services. The EPOS Integrated Services constitute the ICT layer of the EPOS portal and they will: 1) provide access to multidisciplinary data

  5. Determining adaptive thresholds for image segmentation for a license plate recognition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle license plate recognition (LPR system is useful to many applications, such as entrance admission, security, parking control, airport and cargo, traffic and speed control. This paper describe an adaptive threshold for image segmentation applied to a system for Malaysian intelligent license plate recognition (MyiLPR. Due to the different types of license plates used, the requirements of an automatic LPR system are rather different for each country. Upon receiving the input car image, this system (MyiLPR detects and segments the license plate based on proposed adaptive threshold via image and blob histogram, and blob agglomeration, and finally, it extracts geometric character features and classifies them using neural network. The use of the proposed adaptive threshold increased the detection, segmentation and recognition rate to 99%, 94.98% and 90% correspondingly, from 95%, 78.27% and 71.08% obtained with the fixed threshold used in the originally proposed system.

  6. NUMERICAL MODELING OF MULTICYLINDER ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SYSTEM AND CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR SHOCK TEST MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Deying; ZHANG Zhiyi; WANG Gongxian; HUA Hongxing

    2007-01-01

    A high fidelity dynamic model of a high-energy hydraulically-actuated shock test machine for heavy weight devices is presented to satisfy the newly-built shock resistance standard and simulate the actual underwater explosion environments in laboratory as well as increase the testing capability of shock test machine. In order to produce the required negative shock pulse in the given time duration, four hydraulic actuators are utilized. The model is then used to formulate an advanced feedforward controller for the system to produce the required negative waveform and to address the motion synchronization of the four cylinders. The model provides a safe and easily controllable way to perform a "virtual testing" before starting potentially destructive tests on specimen and to predict performance of the system. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the controller.

  7. Exact Shock Solution of a Coupled System of Delay Differential Equations: A Car-Following Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutiya, Yohei; Kanai, Masahiro

    2007-08-01

    In this letter, we present exact shock solutions of a coupled system of delay differential equations, which was introduced as a traffic-flow model called car-following model. We use the Hirota method, originally developed in order to solve soliton equations. The relevant delay differential equations have been known to allow exact solutions expressed by elliptic functions with periodic boundary conditions. In the present work, however, shock solutions are obtained with open boundaries, representing the stationary propagation of a traffic jam.

  8. Phenomenology of the earth's bow shock system - A summary description of experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    Observational data on the earth's bow shock system are classified and characterized. Foreshock components, midshock components, and aftershock components are discussed separately. Schematic representations of the field and plasma particle parameters are elaborated, with attention given to quasi-perpendicular geometry and quasi-parallel geometry. Magnetic pulsation structure is delineated. Schematic profiles of field, particle, and wave behavior through a representative quasi-perpendicular shock crossing are displayed.

  9. Fast Sampling Gas Chromatography (GC) System for Speciation in a Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    addition of an extractive, sampling -based measurement technique allows for the measurement of species not yet measureable by optical methods (e.g...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have acquired a gas chromatograph (GC) to investigate post-shock sampling of shock-heated hydrocarbon fuels. The GC...ppm-level measurement) of C2 and C3 hydrocarbons, and detection of aromatics and hydrocarbons C4 and larger. A sampling system has been implemented on

  10. A New Method of Shock Dynamic Analysis of Multi-degree-of-freedom Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Guang-rong; WU Hui

    2008-01-01

    A new method is presented to analyze multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) dynamic systems subjected to an external shock excitation. A two-degree-of-freedom theoretical system with linear characteristics is exemplified to illustrate the procedure of this method. The equations of motion of the dynamic system are established via matrix method. The dynamic responses of the dynamic system under an external shock excitation of a half-sine type are obtained by MATLAB and ANSYS. It is proved that the new method is helpful to analyze MDOF dynamic systems.

  11. Plate Tectonics as a Far-From-Equilibrium Self-Organized Dissipative System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    A fluid above the critical Rayleigh number is far from equilibrium and spontaneously organizes itself into patterns involving the collective motion of large numbers of molecules which are resisted by the viscosity of the fluid. No external template is involved in forming the pattern. In 1928 Pearson showed that Bénard's experiments were driven by variations in surface tension at the top of the fluid and the surface motions drove convection in the fluid. In this case, the surface organized itself AND the underlying fluid. Both internal buoyancy driven flow and flow driven by surface forces can be far-from-equilibrium self-organized open systems that receive energy and matter from the environment. In the Earth, the cold thermal boundary layer at the surface drives plate tectonics and introduces temperature, shear and pressure gradients into the mantle that drive mantle convection. The mantle provides energy and material but may not provide the template. Plate tectonics is therefore a candidate for a far-from-equilibrium dissipative self-organizing system. Alternatively, one could view mantle convection as the self-organized system and the plates as simply the surface manifestation. Lithospheric architecture also imposes lateral temperature gradients onto the mantle which can drive and organize flow. Far-from-equilibrium self-organization requires; an open system, interacting parts, nonlinearities or feedbacks, an outside steady source of energy or matter, multiple possible states and a source of dissipation. In uniform fluids viscosity is the source of dissipation. Sources of dissipation in the plate system include bending, breaking, folding, shearing, tearing, collision and basal drag. These can change rapidly, in contrast to plate driving forces, and introduce the sort of fluctuations that can reorganize far-from-equilibrium systems. Global plate reorganizations can alternatively be thought of as convective overturns of the mantle, or thermal weakening of plates

  12. Advanced Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an advanced composite bipolar plate is proposed for a unitized regenerative fuel cell and electrolyzer system that operates on pure feed streams...

  13. A dynamic performance simulation model of flat-plate solar collectors for a heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinze, E.A.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). College of Engineering); Adefila, S.S.; Mumah, S.M. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Flat-plate collectors are inherently exposed to time-varying meteorological and system parameters. Thus, dynamic modeling, rather than the commonly used steady-state models, is a more accurate approach for the design and performance evaluation of flat-plate solar collectors. The dynamic model presented in this study describes the fluid, plate and cover temperatures of the collector by three different differential equations. Taylor series expansion and the Runge-Kutta method are used in the solution of the differential equations. The accuracy of the dynamic model was tested by comparing the results predicted by the model with experimental performance data obtained for a liquid-cooled flat-plate solar collector with a corrugated transparent fiberglass cover. The predicted results by the dynamic model agreed favorably with the measured experimental data for the flat-plate solar collector. Experimentally determined collector temperatures varied by a maximum of [+-]3[sup o]C from values predicted by the model. (Author)

  14. Laboratory studies of stagnating plasma flows with applications to inner solar system and stellar bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    Supercritical magnetized collisionless shocks are thought to play a dominant role in the overall partition of energy throughout the universe by converting flow kinetic energy to other forms such as thermal and supra-thermal populations, magnetic field enhancement, turbulence, and energetic particles. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL creates conditions similar to those of inner solar system and stellar bow shocks by accelerating hot (100s of eV during translation) dense (1022 - 1023 m-3) Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids to 100s of km/s; resulting in β 1, collisionless plasma flows with Msonic and MAlfvén 10. The drifting FRC can be made to impinge upon a variety of static obstacles including: a strong mirror or cusp magnetic field (mimicking magnetically excited shocks such as the Earth's bow shock), plasma pileup from a solid obstacle (similar to the bow shocks of Mercury and the Moon), and a neural gas puff (bow shocks of Venus or the comets). Characteristic shock length and time scales that are both large enough to observe yet small enough to fit within the experiment, enabling study of the complex interplay of kinetic and fluid processes that mediate cosmic shocks and can generate non-thermal distributions, produce density and magnetic field enhancements much greater than predicted by fluid theory, and accelerate particles. An overview of the experimental program will be presented, including recent results. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  15. Brunn: An open source laboratory information system for microplates with a graphical plate layout design process

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson Rolf; Spjuth Ola; Andersson Claes; Alvarsson Jonathan; Wikberg Jarl ES

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Compound profiling and drug screening generates large amounts of data and is generally based on microplate assays. Current information systems used for handling this are mainly commercial, closed source, expensive, and heavyweight and there is a need for a flexible lightweight open system for handling plate design, and validation and preparation of data. Results A Bioclipse plugin consisting of a client part and a relational database was constructed. A multiple-step plate ...

  16. Cooling Efficiency of Laminar Cooling System for Plate Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Bing-xing; ZHOU Na; YU Ming; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Heat transfer was researched from a perspective of the industry application.On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics,the cooling efficiency was deduced from the change of enthalpy inside hot plate.The relationship between the cooling efficiency and its influencing parameters was regressed from plenty of data collected from the worksite and discussed in detail.The temperature profiles resulting from the online model and the model modified by regressed formulas were presented and compared.The results indicated that the control accuracy of the modified model was increased obviously.

  17. Design and Development of ZigBee Based Instantaneous Flat-plate Collector Efficiency Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamani, K.; Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Computing the efficiency of flat-plate collector is vital in solar thermal system testing. This paper presents the design of ZigBee enabled data acquisition system for instantaneous flat-plate collector efficiency calculation. It involves measurement of parameters like inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, ambient temperature and solar radiation intensity. The designed system has a base station and a sensor node. ZigBee wireless communication protocol is used for communication between the base station and the sensor node for wireless data acquisition. The wireless sensor node which is mounted over the collector plate includes the necessary sensors and associated signal-conditioners. An application program has been developed on LabVIEW platform for data acquisition, processing and analysis and is executed in base station PC. Instantaneous flat-plate collector efficiency is computed and reported.

  18. Plate kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenberg, Helen Carrie

    This work utilizes the Four-Dimensional Plates (4DPlates) software, and Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) to examine plate-scale, regional-scale and local-scale kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression in Ethiopia. First, the 4DPlates is used to restore the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Afar Depression and the Main Ethiopian Rift to development of a new model that adopts two poles of rotation for Arabia. Second, the 4DPlates is used to model regional-scale and local-scale kinematics within the Afar Depression. Most plate reconstruction models of the Afro-Arabian Rift System relies on considering the Afar Depression as a typical rift-rift-rift triple junction where the Arabian, Somali and Nubian (African) plates are separating by the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian Rift suggesting the presence of "sharp and rigid" plate boundaries. However, at the regional-scale the Afar kinematics are more complex due to stepping of the Red Sea propagator and the Gulf of Aden propagator onto Afar as well as the presence of the Danakil, Ali Sabieh and East Central Block "micro-plates". This study incorporates the motion of these micro-plates into the regional-scale model and defined the plate boundary between the Arabian and the African plates within Afar as likely a diffused zone of extensional strain within the East Central Block. Third, DInSAR technology is used to create ascending and descending differential interferograms from the Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-Band data for the East Central Block to image active crustal deformation related to extensional tectonics and volcanism. Results of the DInSAR study indicate no strong strain localization but rather a diffused pattern of deformation across the entire East Central Block.

  19. Low-voltage shock-mitigated micro-electromechanical systems structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang; Nam, Suhyun; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Chae, Junseok

    2017-05-01

    We report a low-voltage, yet effective, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) structure capable of mitigating external mechanical disturbances, such as a physical shock. External shock onto MEMS devices can be catastrophic as a conventional single membrane may travel beyond stable oscillatory distances under shock and become irreparably damaged. However, the simple addition of a second membrane on top of the single membrane drastically reduces oscillatory distances by electrostatically holding the bottom membrane within stable oscillation. The added elements, in conjunction with a fine-control algorithm, mitigate the impact of a mechanical shock onto the MEMS device. From experimental findings, it is found that the dual-membrane structure effectively reduces the travel distance of the bottom membrane by 41.5%, upon deploying merely 0.565 V onto the additional membrane. The dynamic implementation of the shock mitigation method, using an on-board accelerometer as a trigger, delivered in-situ mitigation of shock on a dual-membrane MEMS structure.

  20. Competition between shock and turbulent heating in coronal loop system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2016-11-01

    2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are performed with high spatial resolution in order to distinguish between competing models of the coronal heating problem. A single coronal loop powered by Alfvén waves excited in the photosphere is the target of this study. The coronal structure is reproduced in our simulations as a natural consequence of the transportation and dissipation of Alfvén waves. Further, the coronal structure is maintained as the spatial resolution is changed from 25 to 3 km, although the temperature at the loop top increases with the spatial resolution. The heating mechanisms change gradually across the magnetic canopy at a height of 4 Mm. Below the magnetic canopy, both the shock and the MHD turbulence are dominant heating processes. Above the magnetic canopy, the shock heating rate reduces to less than 10 per cent of the total heating rate while the MHD turbulence provides significant energy to balance the radiative cooling and thermal conduction loss or gain. The importance of compressibility shown in this study would significantly impact on the prospects of successful MHD turbulence theory in the solar chromosphere.

  1. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  2. Competition between shock and turbulent heating in coronal loop system

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are performed with high spatial resolution in order to distinguish between competing models of the coronal heating problem. A single coronal loop powered by Alfv\\'{e}n waves excited in the photosphere is the target of the present study. The coronal structure is reproduced in our simulations as a natural consequence of the transportation and dissipation of Alfv\\'{e}n waves. Further, the coronal structure is maintained as the spatial resolution is changed from 25 to 3 km, although the temperature at the loop top increases with the spatial resolution. The heating mechanisms change gradually across the magnetic canopy at a height of 4 Mm. Below the magnetic canopy, both the shock and the MHD turbulence are dominant heating processes. Above the magnetic canopy, the shock heating rate reduces to less than 10 % of the total heating rate while the MHD turbulence provides significant energy to balance the radiative cooling and thermal conduction loss or gain. The i...

  3. Behavior of CFRP Plate in Simulated ICCP System of Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Xing, Feng; LIU Wei; Bertolini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    An innovative effort was made to utilize carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate as an anode in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) of reinforced concrete structure. The feasibility was explored by bonding CFRP strips to concrete and then applying protection current through CFRP strips to steel rebar in concrete. Service life and performance of CFRP plate were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Steel potential results confirmed that the steel reb...

  4. Shock wave velocity measuring system based on vernier VISAR-type interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubskii, K. L.; Koshkin, D. S.; Antonov, A. S.; Mikhailuk, A. V.; Pirog, V. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents a multi-line diagnostic system for measuring the surface velocity in shock physics experiments. This system is designed for simultaneous measurement of surface velocity at multiple points. It is free from ambiguity caused by harmonic dependence of interference signals on the velocity and has a time resolution of 0.8 ns.

  5. Study on rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of hub-plate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feiyun; XIE Yongcheng; ZHANG Ming; HE Yinbiao

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of a rotating flexible hubplate system is investigated by using Jourdain's variation principle in which the finite element method (FEM) is used as discretization method for a flexible plate. Different from the previous modeling of a plate with a prescribed large overall motion, the coupling between large overall motion of the system and elastic deformation of the flexible plate is taken into account in the proposed coupling model. The quadratic terms are included in the strain-displacement expression,such that the dynamic stiffening terms are included. Simulation of a rotating hub-plate system indicates that the linear model based on linear strain-displacement assumption may lead to erroneous results in the case of high rotation speed. Conservation of energy verifies the validity of the proposed model. Furthermore, frequency analysis of a hub-plate system shows the difference between the frequencies of the system with free and prescribed large overall motion, and parameter analysis of the system reveals the coupling characteristics of the rotational motion and the deformation.

  6. GMFilter and SXTestPlate: software tools for improving the SNPlex™ genotyping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is a fundamental technology in modern genetics. The SNPlex™ mid-throughput genotyping system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA enables the multiplexed genotyping of up to 48 SNPs simultaneously in a single DNA sample. The high level of automation and the large amount of data produced in a high-throughput laboratory require advanced software tools for quality control and workflow management. Results We have developed two programs, which address two main aspects of quality control in a SNPlex™ genotyping environment: GMFilter improves the analysis of SNPlex™ plates by removing wells with a low overall signal intensity. It enables scientists to automatically process the raw data in a standardized way before analyzing a plate with the proprietary GeneMapper software from Applied Biosystems. SXTestPlate examines the genotype concordance of a SNPlex™ test plate, which was typed with a control SNP set. This program allows for regular quality control checks of a SNPlex™ genotyping platform. It is compatible to other genotyping methods as well. Conclusion GMFilter and SXTestPlate provide a valuable tool set for laboratories engaged in genotyping based on the SNPlex™ system. The programs enhance the analysis of SNPlex™ plates with the GeneMapper software and enable scientists to evaluate the performance of their genotyping platform.

  7. Dynamic response of electronic systems to shocks and vibrations: Application of analytical (mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhir E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Some basic problems of the dynamic response of electronic and photonic (E&P systems to shocks and vibrations are addressed and discussed. The emphasis is on analytical (mathematical modeling, the reliability physics behind the addressed phenomena, and design-for-reliability (DfR issues and challenges. The addressed problems include 1 linear response: effect of viscous damping, shock tests vs. drop tests, role of compliant interfaces, and maximum acceleration and maximum dynamic stress as a suitable reliability criterion; 2 nonlinear response: printed circuit board (PCB experiencing an impact load applied to its support contour and ball-grid-array (BGA testing on the board level; 3 shock protection of portable electronics, including the possible use of nano-wires as a suitable protective “cushion”. The fruitfulness of the probabilistic DfR (PDfR concept to quantify and assure the field (operational reliability of E&P devices and systems is also indicated.

  8. Effects of rubber shock absorber on the flywheel micro vibration in the satellite imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changcheng; Mu, Deqiang; Jia, Xuezhi; Li, Zongxuan

    2016-12-01

    When a satellite is in orbit, its flywheel will generate micro vibration and affect the imaging quality of the camera. In order to reduce this effect, a rubber shock absorber is used, and a numerical model and an experimental setup are developed to investigate its effect on the micro vibration in the study. An integrated model is developed for the system, and a ray tracing method is used in the modeling. The spot coordinates and displacements of the image plane are obtained, and the modulate transfer function (MTF) of the system is calculated. A satellite including a rubber shock absorber is designed, and the experiments are carried out. Both simulation and experiments results show that the MTF increases almost 10 %, suggesting the rubber shock absorber is useful to decrease the flywheel vibration.

  9. Analysis of errors induced by λ/4 wave plate in fiber-optic current sensor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞峰

    2008-01-01

    1/4λ wave plate is a key element in the fiber-optic current sensor system. When a retardation error or an orientation error of birefringence axes of 1/4λ wave plate with respect to the hi-bi fiber axes occurs in the 1/4λ wave plate, the sensor system will output a wrong result of the measured current. The contributions of these two errors to the final result of the whole system were studied and the errors functions were deduced by establishing the measurement function of the current sensor system with Jones matrixes of the optical elements. The results show that that the greater the orientation error or the retardation error, the larger the final error, and that these two errors cannot be compensated each other.

  10. Reliability Analysis of a Cold Standby System with Imperfect Repair and under Poisson Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the reliability analysis of a two-component cold standby system with a repairman who may have vacation. The system may fail due to intrinsic factors like aging or deteriorating, or external factors such as Poisson shocks. The arrival time of the shocks follows a Poisson process with the intensity λ>0. Whenever the magnitude of a shock is larger than the prespecified threshold of the operating component, the operating component will fail. The paper assumes that the intrinsic lifetime and the repair time on the component are an extended Poisson process, the magnitude of the shock and the threshold of the operating component are nonnegative random variables, and the vacation time of the repairman obeys the general continuous probability distribution. By using the vector Markov process theory, the supplementary variable method, Laplace transform, and Tauberian theory, the paper derives a number of reliability indices: system availability, system reliability, the rate of occurrence of the system failure, and the mean time to the first failure of the system. Finally, a numerical example is given to validate the derived indices.

  11. Towards a proper assignment of systemic risk: the combined roles of network topology and shock characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepfe, Lasse; Cabrales, Antonio; Sánchez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The 2007-2008 financial crisis solidified the consensus among policymakers that a macro-prudential approach to regulation and supervision should be adopted. The currently preferred policy option is the regulation of capital requirements, with the main focus on combating procyclicality and on identifying the banks that have a high systemic importance, those that are "too big to fail". Here we argue that the concept of systemic risk should include the analysis of the system as a whole and we explore systematically the most important properties for policy purposes of networks topology on resistance to shocks. In a thorough study going from analytical models to empirical data, we show two sharp transitions from safe to risky regimes: 1) diversification becomes harmful with just a small fraction (~2%) of the shocks sampled from a fat tailed shock distributions and 2) when large shocks are present a critical link density exists where an effective giant cluster forms and most firms become vulnerable. This threshold depends on the network topology, especially on modularity. Firm size heterogeneity has important but diverse effects that are heavily dependent on shock characteristics. Similarly, degree heterogeneity increases vulnerability only when shocks are directed at the most connected firms. Furthermore, by studying the structure of the core of the transnational corporation network from real data, we show that its stability could be clearly increased by removing some of the links with highest centrality betweenness. Our results provide a novel insight and arguments for policy makers to focus surveillance on the connections between firms, in addition to capital requirements directed at the nodes.

  12. Towards a proper assignment of systemic risk: the combined roles of network topology and shock characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Loepfe

    Full Text Available The 2007-2008 financial crisis solidified the consensus among policymakers that a macro-prudential approach to regulation and supervision should be adopted. The currently preferred policy option is the regulation of capital requirements, with the main focus on combating procyclicality and on identifying the banks that have a high systemic importance, those that are "too big to fail". Here we argue that the concept of systemic risk should include the analysis of the system as a whole and we explore systematically the most important properties for policy purposes of networks topology on resistance to shocks. In a thorough study going from analytical models to empirical data, we show two sharp transitions from safe to risky regimes: 1 diversification becomes harmful with just a small fraction (~2% of the shocks sampled from a fat tailed shock distributions and 2 when large shocks are present a critical link density exists where an effective giant cluster forms and most firms become vulnerable. This threshold depends on the network topology, especially on modularity. Firm size heterogeneity has important but diverse effects that are heavily dependent on shock characteristics. Similarly, degree heterogeneity increases vulnerability only when shocks are directed at the most connected firms. Furthermore, by studying the structure of the core of the transnational corporation network from real data, we show that its stability could be clearly increased by removing some of the links with highest centrality betweenness. Our results provide a novel insight and arguments for policy makers to focus surveillance on the connections between firms, in addition to capital requirements directed at the nodes.

  13. Development of a Heat-Shock Inducible Gene Expression System in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Misumi, Osami; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    The cell of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae contains a single chloroplast and mitochondrion, the division of which is tightly synchronized by a light/dark cycle. The genome content is extremely simple, with a low level of genetic redundancy, in photosynthetic eukaryotes. In addition, transient transformation and stable transformation by homologous recombination have been reported. However, for molecular genetic analyses of phenomena that are essential for cellular growth and survival, inducible gene expression/suppression systems are needed. Here, we report the development of a heat-shock inducible gene expression system in C. merolae. CMJ101C, encoding a small heat shock protein, is transcribed only when cells are exposed to an elevated temperature. Using a superfolder GFP as a reporter protein, the 200-bp upstream region of CMJ101C orf was determined to be the optimal promoter for heat-shock induction. The optimal temperature to induce expression is 50°C, at which C. merolae cells are able to proliferate. At least a 30-min heat shock is required for the expression of a protein of interest and a 60-min heat shock yields the maximum level of protein expression. After the heat shock, the mRNA level decreases rapidly. As an example of the system, the expression of a dominant negative form of chloroplast division DRP5B protein, which has a mutation in the GTPase domain, was induced. Expression of the dominant negative DRP5B resulted in the appearance of aberrant-shaped cells in which two daughter chloroplasts and the cells are still connected by a small DRP5B positive tube-like structure. This result suggests that the dominant negative DRP5B inhibited the final scission of the chloroplast division site, but not the earlier stages of division site constriction. It is also suggested that cell cycle progression is not arrested by the impairment of chloroplast division at the final stage. PMID:25337786

  14. Oscillations of a spring-magnet system damped by a conductive plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladera, C. L.; Donoso, G.

    2013-09-01

    We study the motion of a spring-magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level.

  15. Geodynamic Evolution of the Nubia-Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.; Vernant, P.; Ogubazghi, G.; Fisseha, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Bendick, R. O.; Sholan, J.

    2009-12-01

    We present a geodynamic scenario for the evolution of the Nubia (Nu)-Arabia (Ar)-Somalia (So) plate boundary system that is based on new geodetic constraints on the kinematics of active deformation, and published estimates of the timing of regional tectonic processes. This scenario supports two, long debated, principal hypotheses for plate dynamics, 1) plate motions are driven primarily by sinking of oceanic lithosphere at subduction zones, and 2) the lithosphere is strong in relation to plate boundaries and drag forces on the base of the lithosphere (and likely, resisting forces associate with continental collision). 1) During the Late Oligocene (~30 Ma), domal uplift of the Afar region due to the Afar hot spot caused regional extension and the initial development of the Afar Triple Junction (TJ) along pre-existing zones of weakness; 2) The So-Nu plate boundary, East African Rift (EAR), developed at a slow rate due to the absence of boundary-normal extensional stresses (i.e., no subduction “pulling” the So Plate), slow motion that continues to the present; 3) Larger extensional stresses across the Nu-Ar and Ar-So boundaries (Red Sea and Gulf of Aden) due to active subduction of the Neotethys ocean lithosphere beneath Eu caused more rapid extension of these early rifts, with full scale continental rifting beginning ~ 25-30 Ma; 4) Between 16 - 11 Ma full ocean rifting in the Gulf of Aden caused a decrease in the forces transmitted to the So and Nu plates, causing slowing of the Nu and So plates with respect to Eu and Ar, and (possibly) an additional component of N-S oriented extension across the Red Sea; 5) Around this time (~10 Ma), activity shifted from the Gulf of Suez to the DSF system in the N Red Sea, and the Danakil Block in the southern Red Sea began rotating with respect to Nu and Ar, both changes related to the change in Nu-Ar relative motion; and 6) The balance of forces on the plate system have remained roughly unchanged since ~10 Ma, as have

  16. The Matrix Rib Plating System: improving aesthetic outcomes in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdoot, Michael A; Echo, Anthony; Otake, Leo R; Son, Ji; Zeidler, Kamakshi R; Saadian, Isaac; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-04-01

    During microvascular breast reconstruction, exposure of internal mammary vessels (IMVs) is facilitated by the removal of a portion of the rib resulting in occasional chest contour deformity (CCD). The use of rib plating may reduce CCD and reduce postoperative pain. All patients underwent microvascular breast reconstruction using IMVs. In the retrospective arm, photographs were assessed by a blinded reviewer for CCDs. In the prospective cohort, patients were randomized to rib plating with the Synthes Matrix Rib Plating System or no rib plating. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for CCD and pain. In the retrospective arm, 11 of 98 (11.2%) patients representing 12 of 130 (9.2%) breast reconstructions had a noticeable contour deformity. The average body mass index (BMI) of patients with CCDs was 26.6 kg/m. In the prospective arm, there was 16% (3 of 19) rate of visible and palpable CCDs among controls, compared to 0% rate of palpable and visible contour deformity in the rib plating group. Pain was decreased in the rib plating group on all postoperative days. The pain reduction was statistically significant at rest by postoperative day 30. The majority of patients (9 of 11) with compromised aesthetic outcomes had a BMI less than 30 kg/m, suggesting a paucity of overlying soft tissue contributed to visibility of these bony defects. Rib plating prevented chest contour deformity, reduced postoperative pain, and added limited additional morbidity. We believe that rib plating is a safe, useful adjunct to microvascular breast reconstruction using IMVs, as it may improve aesthetic outcomes and reduce postoperative pain.

  17. A planar shock isolation system with high-static-low-dynamic-stiffness characteristic based on cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanhui; He, Minghua; Shen, Wenhou; Ren, Gexue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a simple and designable shock isolation system with ideal high-static-low-dynamic-stiffness (HSLDS) is proposed, which is intended for the horizontal plane shock isolation application. In this system, the isolated object is suspended by several bearing cables and constrained by a number of uniformly distributed pretensioned cables in the horizontal plane, where the low dynamic stiffness of the system is main controlled by the pretension of the planar cables, whilst the high static stiffness is determined by the axial stiffness of the planar cables and their geometric settings. To obtain the HSLDS characteristic of the system, a brief theoretical description of the relationship between the restoring force and displacement is derived. By obtaining the three-order Taylor expansion with sufficient accuracy of the restoring force, influence of planar cable parameters on the low dynamic and high static stiffness is thus given, therefore, the required HSLDS isolator can be easily designed by adjusting the planar cable length, pretension and tensile stiffness. Finally, the isotropy characteristic of the restoring force of the system with different numbers of planar cables is investigated. To evaluate the performance of the system, a rigid isolated object and flexible cables coupling simulation model considering the contacts of the system is established by using multibody dynamics approach. In this model, flexible cables are simulated by 3-node cable element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation; the contact between cable and isolated object is simulated based on Hertz contact theory. Finally, the time-domain shock excitation is converted from the design shock spectrum on the basis of BV043/85 criterion. The design procedure of this isolator and some useful guidelines for choosing cable parameters are presented. In addition, a summary about the performance of the isolators with different numbers of cables shocking in an arbitrary direction is

  18. A study of reactant interfaces in Ni+Al particle systems during shock wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ryan A.; McDowell, David L.; Horie, Yasuyuki; Benson, David J.

    2007-06-01

    Macro-scale responses of energetic materials during shock compression are influenced strongly by thermo-mechano-chemical processes occurring at the level of the microstructure. For example, it is believed that the propagation of chemical reactions in reactive particle systems is intimately linked to conditions at reactant interfaces such as surface temperature, phase changes, defect density, and mass mixing due to inelastic deformation. To provide explicit resolution of such interfacial conditions, numerical models are constructed. The finite element method is used to numerically solve the differential equations that govern the coupled thermomechanical response of micron-size particle mixtures of Ni and Al during shock wave propagation (interface chemistry is not yet modeled). The size and temperature distributions of contiguous reactant contact surfaces are quantified for a range of shock strengths. A parametric study of mixture attributes is undertaken to assess the sensitivity of the aforementioned distributions to variations of the microstructure.

  19. On the Optimal Shock Isolation of a System with One and a Half Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of shock isolation of a system with one and a half degrees of freedom is studied. The possibility of using a single-degree-of-freedom model for this analysis is investigated. The error of such an approximation is estimated. Numerical examples are presented.

  20. Design and Simulation of a Feedback Control System for a Steel Plate Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Torben; Feld; Holmgaard; Kristensen; Hans; Holm; Jesper; Hansen

    2002-01-01

    A discrete event heuristic feedback control system fo r a steel plate storage at Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd is developed and implemente d in a computer-based simulation model. The plant is subject to stochastic dist urbances. The control system is able to handle this stochastic behaviour bec ause of the feedback design. The present simulation results indicate that a bene fit in the range of 30%~40% is reachable by modifying the plant. Plant description The steel plate storage is located at Odense Steel ...

  1. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real‐time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real‐ time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study.By neglecting the high‐order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input‐ output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  2. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real-time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real-time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study. By neglecting the high-order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input-output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  3. Synergy effects of hybrid carbon system on properties of composite bipolar plates for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuilla, Tapas; Kim, Tae Jin; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Lee, Joong Hee

    A hybrid carbon system of graphite powder (GP) and continuous carbon fibre fabric (CFF) is used for an epoxy composite to improve the electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and mouldability of a composite bipolar plate. These improvements are achieved simultaneously by inserting several layers of CFF into the GP/epoxy composite to enhance the mechanical properties and in-plane conductivity. The electrical properties, flexural strength and mouldability of the composite plates are measured as a function of conducting filler content and number of CFF layers. The composites show improved electrical conductivity, flexural properties and mouldability. Composites with 70-75 vol.% carbon fillers have the highest electrical conductivity with reasonable flexural properties. These results suggest that the poor mouldability and low through-plane electrical conductivity of the continuous fibre composite bipolar plate, as well as the weak flexural properties of GP composites, can be overcome by incorporating a GP/CFF hybrid system.

  4. Ray equations of a weak shock in a hyperbolic system of conservation laws in multi-dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phoolan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we give a complete proof of a theorem, which states that ‘for a weak shock, the shock ray velocity is equal to the mean of the ray velocities of nonlinear wavefronts just ahead and just behind the shock, provided we take the wavefronts ahead and behind to be instantaneously coincident with the shock front. Similarly, the rate of turning of the shock front is also equal to the mean of the rates of turning of such wavefronts just ahead and just behind the shock’. A particular case of this theorem for shock propagation in gasdynamics has been used extensively in applications. Since it is useful also in other physical systems, we present here the theorem in its most general form.

  5. Electroless copper plating process of N, N, N, N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine system with high plating rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ya-jie; ZOU Wei-hong; YI Dan-qing; GONG Zhu-qing; LI Xin-hai

    2005-01-01

    Electroless copper plating process of N, N, N′, N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine(THPED) chelating agent was researched comprehensively. The results indicate that plating rate decreases with the 3H2O has a bad effect on deposits quality, but 2, 2′-dipyridyl and PEG make deposits quality improve greatly. Low concentration of 2-mercaptobenzothiozole (2-MBT) increases plating rate and improves deposits quality, but decreases plating rate and worsens deposits quality when 2-MBT reaches 5 mg/L. The optimal conditions of this electroless MBT are 16.8 g/L, 16.0 mL/L, 13.3 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 5.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, pH value is 12.75,bath temperature is 30 ℃. Plating rate reaches 9.54 μm/h plating for 30 min in the bath. The SEM images demonstrate that the surface of copper film is smooth and the crystal is fine.

  6. VAPI: low-cost, rapid automated visual inspection system for Petri plate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatburn, L. T.; Kirkup, B. C.; Polz, M. F.

    2007-09-01

    Most culture-based microbiology tasks utilize a petri plate during processing, but rarely do the scientists capture the full information available from the plate. In particular, visual analysis of plates is an under-developed rich source of data that can be rapid and non-invasive. However, collecting this data has been limited by the difficulties of standardizing and quantifying human observations, by the limits of a scientists' fatigue, and by the cost of automating the process. The availability of specialized counting equipment and intelligent camera systems has not changed this - they are prohibitively expensive for many laboratories, only process a limited number of plate types, are often destructive to the sample, and have limited accuracy. This paper describes an automated visual inspection solution, VAPI, that employs inexpensive consumer computing hardware and digital cameras along with custom cross-platform open-source software written in C++, combining Trolltech's Qt GUI toolkit with Intel's OpenCV computer vision library. The system is more accurate than common commercial systems costing many times as much, while being flexible in use and offering comparable responsiveness. VAPI not only counts colonies but also sorts and enumerates colonies by morphology, tracks colony growth by time series analysis, and provides other analytical resources. Output to XML files or directly to a database provides data that can be easily maintained and manipulated by the end user, offering ready access for system enhancement, interaction with other software systems, and rapid development of advanced analysis applications.

  7. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which i...

  8. A vision-based material tracking system for heavy plate rolling mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnig, Mark; Reisinger, Johann; Hlobil, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    A modern heavy plate rolling mill can process more than 20 slabs and plates simultaneously. To avoid material confusions during a compact occupancy and the permanent discharging and re-entering of parts, one must know the identity and position of each part at every moment. One possibility to determine the identity and position of each slab and plate is the application of a comprehensive visual-based tracking system. Compared to a tracking system that calculates the position of a plate based on the diameter and the turns of the transport rolls, a visual system is not corrupted by a position- and material dependent transmission slip. In this paper we therefore present a vision-based material tracking system for the 2-dimensional tracking of glowing material in harsh environment. It covers the production area from the plant's descaler to the pre-stand of the rolling mill and consists of four independent, synchronized overlapping cameras. The paper first presents the conceptual design of the tracking system - and continues then with the camera calibration, the determination of pixel contours, the data segmentation and the fitting & modelling of the objects bodies. In a next step, the work will then show the testing setup. It will be described how the material tracking system was implemented into the control system of the rolling mill and how the delivered tracking data was checked on its correctness. Finally, the paper presents some results. It will be shown that the position of some moving plates was estimated with a precision of approx. 0.5m. The results will be analyzed and it will be explained where the inaccuracies come from and how they eventually can be removed. The paper ends with a conclusion and an outlook on future work.

  9. Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, Diego [University of São Paulo, Polytechnic School, LAC -PTC, São Paulo (Brazil); Balthazar, José M. [São Paulo State University - Rio Claro Campus, Rio Claro (Brazil); Reis, Célia A. dos [São Paulo State University - Bauru Campus, Bauru (Brazil); Bueno, Átila M.; Diniz, Ivando S. [São Paulo State University - Sorocaba Campus, Sorocaba (Brazil); Rosa, Suelia de S. R. F. [University of Brasilia, Brasilia (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.

  10. Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Diego; Balthazar, José M.; dos Reis, Célia A.; Bueno, Átila M.; Diniz, Ivando S.; de S. R. F. Rosa, Suelia

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.

  11. Molecular systems under shock compression into the dense plasma regime: carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Root, Seth; Carpenter, John H.

    2013-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) has proven remarkably accurate in predicting properties of matter under shock compression into the dense plasma regime. Materials where chemistry plays a role are of interest for many applications, including planetary science and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). As examples of systems where chemical reactions are important, and demonstration of the high fidelity possible for these both structurally and chemically complex systems, we will discuss shock- and re-shock of liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) in the range 100 to 800 GPa and shock compression of hydrocarbon polymers, including GDP (glow discharge polymer) which is used as an ablator in laser ICF experiments. Experimental results from Sandia's Z machine validate the DFT simulations at extreme conditions and the combination of experiment and DFT provide reliable data for evaluating existing and constructing future wide-range equations of state models for molecular compounds. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Present-day plate motions: Retrieval from the TOPEX/Poseidon orbitography network (DORIS system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souriau, Annie; Cazenave, Anny; Biancale, R.; Balmino, G.; Dominh, K.; Mazzega, P.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Boucher, Claude; Willis, P.; Kasser, M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the proposal is to determine the present motion of the main tectonic plates from the Doppler data of the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) orbitography system, which includes in its final configuration about 50 tracking stations with a world-wide distribution.

  13. Approximate analysis of rigid plate loading on elastic multi-layered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Games software is well known for its capability to compute responses for uniformly distributed load acting on the surface of a multi-layered linear elastic system. In this study a method was developed to approximate rigid plate loading to be used...

  14. Studies on solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SRITHAR K.; MANIA.

    2006-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer analysis of an incompressible, laminar boundary layer over solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor) is investigated. The goveming equations are solved for various liquid to air velocity ratios. Profiles of velocity, temperature and concentration as well as their gradients are presented. The heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients thus obtained are used to evaluate mass of water evaporated for an inclined fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP)solar flat plate collector (FPC) with and without cover. Comparison of these results with the experimental performance shows encouraging trend of good agreement between them.

  15. Plate coil thermal test bench for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) carousel cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Montijo, Guillermo; Hauth, David

    2014-08-01

    Analyses have shown that even a white-painted enclosure requires active exterior skin-cooling systems to mitigate dome seeing which is driven by thermal nonuniformities that change the refractive index of the air. For the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Enclosure, this active surface temperature control will take the form of a system of water cooled plate coils integrated into the enclosure cladding system. The main objective of this system is to maintain the surface temperature of the enclosure as close as possible to, but always below, local ambient temperature in order to mitigate this effect. The results of analyses using a multi-layer cladding temperature model were applied to predict the behavior of the plate coil cladding system and ultimately, with safety margins incorporated into the resulting design thermal loads, the detailed designs. Construction drawings and specifications have been produced. Based on these designs and prior to procurement of the system components, a test system was constructed in order to measure actual system behavior. The data collected during seasonal test runs at the DKIST construction site on Haleakalā are used to validate and/or refine the design models and construction documents as appropriate. The test fixture was also used to compare competing hardware, software, components, control strategies, and configurations. This paper outlines the design, construction, test protocols, and results obtained of the plate coil thermal test bench for the DKIST carousel cooling system.

  16. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  17. Morphology of diamond plate grown in the C-H-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanose, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, H. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    A ECR-CVD system was newly designed and applied on the growth of large scale plate-like single crystal diamond. The diamond plate was grown on the (200) surface of a heated silicon substrate in H{sub 2}-CO-O{sub 2} mixing gas. Silicon wafers with (110) and (111) surface were also employed as a substrate. A plate like single crystal ten micro meter in size was grown on the (200) surface at 1123K. Top surface of the platelet crystal was very flat and was parallel to (111) plane, which was parallel to the (200) surface of the silicon substrate. Half peak width of the Raman scattering spectra was 2.6 cm{sup {minus}1} showing low impunity content in the platelet crystal less than 1ppm for N and B.

  18. Resolution of a shock in hyperbolic systems modified by weak dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, G. A.

    2005-09-01

    We present a way to deal with dispersion-dominated "shock-type" transition in the absence of completely integrable structure for the systems that one may characterize as strictly hyperbolic regularized by a small amount of dispersion. The analysis is performed by assuming that the dispersive shock transition between two different constant states can be modeled by an expansion fan solution of the associated modulation (Whitham) system for the short-wavelength nonlinear oscillations in the transition region (the so-called Gurevich-Pitaevskii problem). We consider both single-wave and bidirectional systems. The main mathematical assumption is that of hyperbolicity of the Whitham system for the solutions of our interest. By using general properties of the Whitham averaging for a certain class of nonlinear dispersive systems and specific features of the Cauchy data prescription on characteristics we derive a set of transition conditions for the dispersive shock, actually bypassing full integration of the modulation equations. Along with the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified KdV (mKdV) equations as model examples, we consider a nonintegrable system describing fully nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in collisionless plasma. In all cases our transition conditions are in complete agreement with previous analytical and numerical results.

  19. Module-based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kurata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms, even in situations where much simpler designs seem to be sufficient for generating nominal functionality. Using module-based analysis coupled with rigorous mathematical comparisons, we propose that in analogy to control engineering architectures, the complexity of cellular systems and the presence of hierarchical modular structures can be attributed to the necessity of achieving robustness. We employ the Escherichia coli heat shock response system, a strongly conserved cellular mechanism, as an example to explore the design principles of such modular architectures. In the heat shock response system, the sigma-factor sigma32 is a central regulator that integrates multiple feedforward and feedback modules. Each of these modules provides a different type of robustness with its inherent tradeoffs in terms of transient response and efficiency. We demonstrate how the overall architecture of the system balances such tradeoffs. An extensive mathematical exploration nevertheless points to the existence of an array of alternative strategies for the existing heat shock response that could exhibit similar behavior. We therefore deduce that the evolutionary constraints facing the system might have steered its architecture toward one of many robustly functional solutions.

  20. Double plate system with a discontinuity in the elastic bonding layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica (Stevanovi(c)) Hedrih

    2007-01-01

    The double plate system with a discontinuity in the elastic bonding layer of Winker type is studied in this paper. When the discontinuity is small, it can be taken as an interface crack between the bi-materials or two bodies (plates or beams). By comparison between the number of multifrequencies of analytical solutions of the double plate system free transversal vibrations for the case when the system is with and without discontinuity in elastic layer we obtain a theory for experimental vibration method for identification of the presence of an interface crack in the double plate system. The analytical analysis of free transversal vibrations of an elastically connected double plate systems with discontinuity in the elastic layer of Winkler type is presented. The analytical solutions of the coupled partial differential equations for dynamical free and forced vibration processes are obtained by using method of Bernoulli's particular integral and Lagrange's method of variation constants. It is shown that one mode vibration corresponds an infinite or finite multi-frequency regime for free and forced vibrations induced by initial conditions and onefrequency or corresponding number of multi-frequency regime depending on external excitations. It is shown for every shape of vibrations. The analytical solutions show that the discontinuity affects the appearance of multi-frequency regime of time function corresponding to one eigen amplitude function of one mode, and also that time functions of different vibration basic modes are coupled. From final expression we can separate the new generalized eigen amplitude functions with corresponding time eigen functions of one frequency and multifrequency regime of vibrations.

  1. Biomechanical evaluation of Caspar and Cervical Spine Locking Plate systems in a cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, J D; Ryken, T C; Traynelis, V C; Sawin, P D; Dexter, F; Goel, V K

    1996-06-01

    There exist two markedly different instrumentation systems for the anterior cervical spine: the Cervical Spine Locking Plate (CSLP) system, which uses unicortical screws with a locking hub mechanism for attachment, and the Caspar Trapezial Plate System, which is secured with unlocked bicortical screws. The biomechanical stability of these two systems was evaluated in a cadaveric model of complete C5-6 instability. The immediate stability was determined in six loading modalities: flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation. Biomechanical stability was reassessed following fatigue with 5000 cycles of flexion-extension, and finally, the spines were loaded in flexion until the instrumentation failed. The Caspar system stabilized significantly in flexion before (p < 0.05) but not after fatigue, and it stabilized significantly in extension before (p < 0.01) and after fatigue (p < 0.01). The CSLP system stabilized significantly in flexion before (p < 0.01) but not after fatigue, and it did not stabilize in extension before or after fatigue. The moment needed to produce failure in flexion did not differ substantially between the two plating systems. The discrepancy in the biomechanical stability of these two systems may be due to differences in bone screw fixation.

  2. Studies of components of the coagulation systems in normal individuals and septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Erichsen, N; Aasen, A O; Gallimore, M J; Amundsen, E

    1982-01-01

    Components of the coagulation system were determined in plasma samples from normal individuals and septic shock patients. The parameters measured included Hageman factor (HF), prekallikrein (PKK), high molecular weight kininogen (HMwK), antithrombin III (AT III), fibrinogen (Fg) and fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDP's). The combined effects of factors II, VII & X were estimated using Normotest (NT). Plasma levels of HF, PKK, and HMwK and both immunochemical levels and functional activities of AT III were significantly lower in the septic shock patients. NT values were also significantly reduced. Fibrinogen levels varied from very low to very high indicating both Fg consumption and acute-phase synthesis. Elevated FDP levels were seen during septic shock, but no difference between survivors and fatal cases was found. Prekallikrein levels and functional AT III activities were significantly higher in the samples from patients who recovered following septic shock than in the samples from subjects who died. During treatment all the parameters gradually returned toward normal in the survivors, whereas continuous low values for HF, AT III, PKK, and NT were observed in the fatal cases.

  3. Predicting traffic volumes and estimating the effects of shocks in massive transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo; Kang, Soong Moon; Airoldi, Edoardo M

    2015-05-05

    Public transportation systems are an essential component of major cities. The widespread use of smart cards for automated fare collection in these systems offers a unique opportunity to understand passenger behavior at a massive scale. In this study, we use network-wide data obtained from smart cards in the London transport system to predict future traffic volumes, and to estimate the effects of disruptions due to unplanned closures of stations or lines. Disruptions, or shocks, force passengers to make different decisions concerning which stations to enter or exit. We describe how these changes in passenger behavior lead to possible overcrowding and model how stations will be affected by given disruptions. This information can then be used to mitigate the effects of these shocks because transport authorities may prepare in advance alternative solutions such as additional buses near the most affected stations. We describe statistical methods that leverage the large amount of smart-card data collected under the natural state of the system, where no shocks take place, as variables that are indicative of behavior under disruptions. We find that features extracted from the natural regime data can be successfully exploited to describe different disruption regimes, and that our framework can be used as a general tool for any similar complex transportation system.

  4. GITR-GITRL System, A Novel Player in Shock and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Tibor Krausz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-Related (GITR protein is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that modulates acquired and natural immune response. It is expressed in several cells and tissues, including T cells, natural killer cells, and, at lower levels, in cells of innate immunity. GITR is activated by its ligand, GITRL, mainly expressed on antigen presenting and endothelial cells. Recent evidence suggests that the GITR/GITRL system participates in the development of inflammatory responses, including shock, either due to early response of neutrophils and macrophages, or together with autoimmune/allergic pathogenesis. The pro-inflammatory role of the GITR/GITRL system is due to: 1 modulation of the extravasation process, 2 activation of innate immunity cells, 3 activation of effector T cells also favored by partial inhibition of suppressor T cells and modulation of dendritic function. This review summarizes the in vivo role of the GITR/GITRL system in inflammation and shock, explaining the mechanisms responsible for their effects, considering the interplay among the different cells of the immune system and transduction pathways activated by GITR and GITRL triggering. The hidden aspects about GITR/GITRL function, crucial for treatment planning of inflammatory diseases and shock by modulation of this system is stressed.

  5. Use of self-tapping metal screws for temporary fixation of a resorbable plate system in maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Omura, Susumu; Aoki, Noriaki; Tohnai, Iwai

    2015-05-01

    Resorbable plate systems have been used in maxillofacial surgery to obviate the need for plate removal. However, resorbable plates and screws are very costly, and refixation with additional screws may be necessary when reduction or repositioning of the bone segment is inaccurate. Here we report the use of self-tapping metal screws for temporary fixation of a resorbable plating system in maxillofacial surgery to avoid the use of additional screws following inaccurate fixation or the reuse of resorbable screws, which may result in loosening.

  6. Stability of the Forward/Reverse Shock System Formed by the Impact of a Relativistic Fireball on an Ambient Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X; Waxman, E; Wang, Xiaohu; Loeb, Abraham; Waxman, Eli

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the stability of a relativistic double (forward/reverse) shock system which forms when the fireball of a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) impacts on the surrounding medium. We find this shock system to be stable to linear global perturbations for either a uniform or a wind (r^{-2}) density profile of the ambient medium. For the wind case, we calculate analytically the frequencies of the normal modes which could modulate the early short-term variability of GRB afterglows. We find that perturbations in the double shock system could induce oscillatory fluctuations in the observed flux on short (down to seconds) time scales during the early phase of an afterglow.

  7. Places, Chains, and Plates: Governing Transitions in the Shrimp Aquaculture Production-Consumption System

    OpenAIRE

    Lebel, L.; Lebel, P; Garden, P.; Dao, H. G.; Khrutmuang, S.; Nakayama, S

    2008-01-01

    The shrimp production-consumption system is governed by a diverse and dynamic array of actors each drawing on institutions at various levels, from local through national to international. But, for the most part, the politics of consumption (plates), chains, and places are disconnected. Instead, shrimp producers face a myriad of institutional and consumer demands and the sustainability of the shrimp aquaculture production-consumption system is not merely a technical problem to be solved by bet...

  8. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  9. A search for systemic mass loss in Algols with bow shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Andreas; Jorissen, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Various studies indicate that interacting binary stars of Algol type evolve non-conservatively. However, direct detection of systemic mass loss in Algols has been scarce so far. We aim at studying the systemic mass loss in Algols by looking for the presence of infrared excesses originating from the thermal emission of dust grains, which is linked to the presence of a stellar wind. Methods. In contrast to previous studies, we make use of the fact that stellar and interstellar material is piled up at the edge of the asterosphere where the stellar wind interacts with the interstellar medium. We analyse WISE W3 $12\\,\\mu$m and WISE W4 $22\\,\\mu$m data of Algol-type binary Be and B[e] stars and the properties of their bow shocks. From the stand-off distance of the bow shock we are able to determine the mass loss rate of the binary system. Results. Although the velocities of the stars with respect to the interstellar medium are quite low, we find bow shocks to be present in two systems, namely $\\pi$ Aqr, and $\\...

  10. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  11. A hybrid electromagnetic shock absorber for active vehicle suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Bolandhemmat, Hamidreza; Behrad Khamesee, Mir; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2011-02-01

    The use of electromagnetic dampers (ED) in vehicle active suspension systems has drawn considerable attention in the past few years, attributed to the fact that active suspension systems have shown superior performance in improving ride comfort and road handling of terrain vehicles, compared with their passive and semi-active counterparts. Although demonstrating superb performance, active suspensions still have some shortcomings that must be overcome. They have high energy consumption, weight, and cost and are not fail-safe in case of a power breakdown. The novel hybrid ED, which is proposed in this paper, is a potential solution to the above-mentioned drawbacks of conventional active suspension systems. The proposed hybrid ED is designed to inherit the high-performance characteristics of an active ED with the reliability of a passive damper in a single package. The eddy current damping effect is utilised as a source of the passive damping. First, a prototype ED is designed and fabricated. The prototype ED is then utilised to experimentally establish the design requirements for a real-size active ED. This is accomplished by comparing its vibration isolation performance in a 1-DOF quarter-car test rig with that of a same-class semi-active damper. Then, after a real-size active ED is designed, the concept of hybrid damper is introduced to the damper design to address the drawbacks of the active ED. Finally, the finite-element method is used to accurately model and analyse the designed hybrid damper. It is demonstrated that by introducing the eddy current damping effect to the active part, a passive damping of approximately 1570 Ns/m is achieved. This amount of passive damping guarantees that the damper is fail-safe and reduces the power consumption more than 70%, compared with an active ED in an automotive active suspension system.

  12. (BARS) -- Bibliographic Retrieval System Sandia shock compression (SSC) database shock physics index (SPHINX) database. Volume 3, UNIX version Systems Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Laven, G.M. [Advanced Software Engineering, Madison, AL (United States); Herrmann, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Bibliographic Retrieval System (BARS) is a database management system specially designed to store and retrieve bibliographic references and track documents. The system uses INGRES to manage this database and user interface. It uses forms for journal articles, books, conference proceedings, theses, technical reports, letters, memos, visual aids, as well as a miscellaneous form which can be used for data sets or any other material which can be assigned an access or file number. Sorted output resulting from flexible BOOLEAN searches can be printed or saved in files which can be inserted in reference lists for use with word processors.

  13. Protective Structure Backpacking and In-Structure Shock Isolation Systems Analysis and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A parametric analysis is used to develop feasible backpacking -structure configurations and to determine the effect of backpacking on the responses of...the study determined the effectiveness of backpacking in attenuating the structure motions and in reducing the peak stresses and peak accelerations...in the structure. The second phase investigated the response of various shock isolation systems to structure input motions from preferred backpacking

  14. Interplay between RNA interference and heat shock response systems in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The genome expression pattern is strongly modified during the heat shock response (HSR) to form an adaptive state. This may be partly achieved by modulating microRNA levels that control the expression of a great number of genes that are embedded within the gene circuitry. Here, we investigated the cross-talk between two highly conserved and universal house-keeping systems, the HSR and microRNA machinery, in Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrated that pronounced interstrain differences in th...

  15. Cerenkov and cyclotron Cerenkov instabilities in a dielectric loaded parallel plate waveguide sheet electron beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ding; Ding Yaogen [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A dielectric loaded parallel plate waveguide sheet electron beam system can be taken as a reliable model for the practical dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide sheet beam system that has a transverse cross section with a large width to height ratio. By using kinetic theory, the dispersion equations for Cerenkov and cyclotron Cerenkov instabilities in the parallel plate waveguide sheet beam system have been obtained rigorously. The dependences of the growth rate of both instabilities on the electric and structural parameters have also been investigated in detail through numerical calculations. It is worthwhile to point out that adopting an electron beam with transverse velocity can evidently improve the growth rate of Cerenkov instability, which seems like the case of cyclotron Cerenkov instability.

  16. 破片和冲击波复合作用下靶板毁伤仿真%Damage Simulation of Target Metal Plate by Fragments and Shock Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志敏; 雷灏; 尉广军; 姜勉

    2014-01-01

    Using the finite element analysis software ANSYS/LS-DYNA,the damage model of the target metal plate under the attack of fragments and shock waves is built in order to study the damage of target attacked by those two mutilate elements. The damage action is modeled by separating the fragment and shock wave loading. The damage effect of the shock waves on the metal plate with the groove resulted from the attack of fragments is mainly studied,which makes the model simple and ensures the simulating precision. The versatility of the model is enhanced to make up for the deficiency of the previous researches in which the damage effect of the fragments is equivalent to holes. The simulation results provide important reference for the warhead design,the target damage evaluation and protection research.%为了研究目标在破片和冲击波复合作用下的毁伤情况,应用有限元动力分析软件ANSYS/LS-DYNA,建立破片和冲击波复合作用下靶板毁伤模型。将两者作用分开研究,重点研究破片对金属靶板毁伤形成沟槽的前提下冲击波的毁伤作用效果,即简化了模型又保证了仿真精度,弥补了以往只以穿孔等效破片毁伤效果的不足,增强了模型的通用性,为战斗部设计、毁伤评估和目标防护研究提供参考。

  17. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  18. SHOCKS AND MAGNETIZED WINDS: LEARNING FROM THE INTERACTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM WITH THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the interaction of the solar system with the interstellar medium we can learn about shocks and magnetized winds. Voyager 1 crossed, in Dec 2004, the termination shock and is now in the heliosheath. On August 30, 2007 Voyager 2 crossed the termination shock, providing us for the first time in-situ measurements of the subsonic solar wind in the heliosheath. Our recent results indicate that magnetic effects, in particular the interstellar magnetic field, are very important in the interaction between the solar system and the interstellar medium. We summarize here our recent work that shows that the interstellar magnetic field affects the symmetry of the heliosphere that can be detected by different measurements. We combined radio emission and energetic particle streaming measurements from Voyager 1 and 2 with extensive state-of-the art 3D MHD modeling, to constrain the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field. The orientation derived is a plane ¿ 60¿¿90¿ from the galactic plane. As a result of the interstellar magnetic field the solar system is asymmetric being pushed in the southern direction.

  19. Development of Portable Automatic Number Plate Recognition System on Android Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutholib, Abdul; Gunawan, Teddy S.; Chebil, Jalel; Kartiwi, Mira

    2013-12-01

    The Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System has performed as the main role in various access control and security, such as: tracking of stolen vehicles, traffic violations (speed trap) and parking management system. In this paper, the portable ANPR implemented on android mobile phone is presented. The main challenges in mobile application are including higher coding efficiency, reduced computational complexity, and improved flexibility. Significance efforts are being explored to find suitable and adaptive algorithm for implementation of ANPR on mobile phone. ANPR system for mobile phone need to be optimize due to its limited CPU and memory resources, its ability for geo-tagging image captured using GPS coordinates and its ability to access online database to store the vehicle's information. In this paper, the design of portable ANPR on android mobile phone will be described as follows. First, the graphical user interface (GUI) for capturing image using built-in camera was developed to acquire vehicle plate number in Malaysia. Second, the preprocessing of raw image was done using contrast enhancement. Next, character segmentation using fixed pitch and an optical character recognition (OCR) using neural network were utilized to extract texts and numbers. Both character segmentation and OCR were using Tesseract library from Google Inc. The proposed portable ANPR algorithm was implemented and simulated using Android SDK on a computer. Based on the experimental results, the proposed system can effectively recognize the license plate number at 90.86%. The required processing time to recognize a license plate is only 2 seconds on average. The result is consider good in comparison with the results obtained from previous system that was processed in a desktop PC with the range of result from 91.59% to 98% recognition rate and 0.284 second to 1.5 seconds recognition time.

  20. Centralized Gap Clearance Control for Maglev Based Steel-Plate Conveyance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUNEY, O. F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The conveyance of steel-plates is one of the potential uses of the magnetic levitation technology in industry. However, the electromagnetic levitation systems inherently show nonlinear feature and are unstable without an active control. Well-known U-shaped or E-shaped electromagnets cannot provide redundant levitation with multiple degrees of freedom. In this paper, to achieve the full redundant levitation of the steel plate, a quadruple configuration of U shaped electromagnets has been proposed. To resolve the issue of instability and attain more robust levitation, a centralized control algorithm based on a modified PID controller (I PD is designed for each degree of freedom by using the Manabe canonical polynomial technique. The model of the system is carried out using electromechanical energy conversion princi¬ples and verified by 3-D FEM analysis. An experimental bench is built up to test the system performance under trajectory tracking and external disturbance excitation. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system and the control approach to obtain a full redundant levitation even in case of disturbances. The paper demonstrates the feasibility of the con¬veyance of steel plates by using the quadruple configuration of U-shaped electromagnets and shows the merits of I-PD controller both in stabilization and increased robust levitation.

  1. Fluid-mechanical Representation of Plate Boundaries - Trench-Ridge System -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, M.; Fukao, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic tomography models have been used extensively to simulate mantle convection driven by density heterogeneity. Such simulation to date has been unsuccessful to reconcile itself with the most obvious convection-related phenomenon of plate motions. Here we present a theoretical framework for tomography-based convection modeling to include the plates as an integral part of the mantle convection. We model the lithosphere as a highly viscous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid layer and plate boundaries as faults across which tangential velocities are discontinuous. Fluid-mechanical expressions of such faults have their exact analogies in the seismic source representation theory and can be derived by referring to it. We test this idea against the simplest two-dimensional case with only trench and ridge as plate boundaries, and with only subducting slab as mass anomaly. We model ridge (trench) as the horizontal (vertical) tensile fault that comprises of a conjugate pair of 45-degree dip normal (reverse) faults extending over the entire thickness of the surface layer. The system comprises of three elementary convections, slab mass-driven convection, trench fault-driven convection and ridge fault-driven convection. Flow due to the slab excess mass imposes vertical tensile stress on trench, which is released by flow driven by trench faulting. This faulting converts efficiently the vertical tensile stress to the horizontal tensile stress, which can transmit to extreme distances through the surface viscous layer. This horizontal tensile stress is relieved by flow driven by ridge faulting. The three elementary convections are thus coupled through the stress minimum conditions at ridge and trench. The resultant coupled flow is very plate-like in the surface viscous layer. In this system the horizontal surface velocity depends little on the relative distance between the ridge and trench and depends mostly on the excess weight of the subducting slab. The horizontal speed can be

  2. Thickness measurement system for transparent plates using dual digital versatile disc (DVD) pickups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Shien-Chang; Huang, Hsueh-Liang

    2010-02-01

    A low-cost high-precision thickness measurement system for transparent plates that uses dual digital versatile disc (DVD) pickups is proposed. The two DVD pickups are used as the transmitter and the receiver in the measurement system, respectively. One of the DVD pickups emits a laser to the other DVD pickup (receiver) and projects on the photodiode integrated circuit of the receiver. The transparent plate is placed in the optical path to change the focused point that will affect the focusing error signal (FES) of the receiver. Using the FES, a mathematical model for thickness measurement based on the geometric optical method is developed. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 1.5 microm, and the uncertainty is estimated to be +/-1.37 microm for the measured thickness of 150 microm.

  3. Numerical evaluation of plate heat exchanger performance in geothermal district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, T. [Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the performance of plate heat exchangers in residential water radiator heating systems receiving their heat from geothermal resources. Radiator theory is reviewed and determination of annual hot water requirements for space heating is discussed. Performance evaluation is made of plate heat exchangers and results obtained by means of two equations commonly used for this purpose, the Sieder-Tate and the Dittus-Boelter equations, compared to results obtained with a simplified equation where heat transfer in the heat exchanger is assumed to depend only on the fluid mass flow on both sides. It is found that for prevailing temperature ranges in Icelandic geothermal systems the mass pow approximation gives results very close to those determined by the more complicated conventional equations. (UK)

  4. Experimental Study and System Identification of Hydrodynamic Force Acting on Heave Damping Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Heng-teng; FAN Ju; HUANG Xiang-lu

    2008-01-01

    Although Morison equation is often applied for simulating hydrodynamic force of marine structure, it may give poor results when non-linear behavior is severe or random wave is encountered. This leads to some modifications of Morison equation or other methods for predicting hydrodynamic force. One of them is the system identification technique. In this paper, NARMAX model theory is firstly used to identify the hydrodynamic system of heave damping plates, which are commonly installed on spar platform. Both linear and non-linear models are obtained. The comparisons between the predicted results and measured data indicate that NARMAX model can predict hydrodynamic force of a heave damping plate very well. The measured data for identification originate from forced oscillation tests, which are random records with given spectrum. The forced oscillation forms in experiment also contain simple harmonic, multi-frequency ones.

  5. Home monitoring system improves the detection of ventricular arrhythmia and inappropriate shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huan; HUA Wei; DING Li-gang; WANG Jing; CHEN Ke-ping; ZHANG Shu

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of home monitoring system in the early detection of ventricular arrhythmia and inappropriate shock in daily work is not clear.The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of home monitoring system on the early detection of ventricular arrhythmia and inappropriate shock in daily clinical practice.Methods Cases of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation with or without the home monitoring system from June 2010 to October 2011 at our center were reviewed.Follow-up was scheduled after implantation.Data relating to the home monitoring ICD were retrieved using a remote transmitter system.Data relating to the other devices were obtained during scheduled follow-up or unscheduled visits.Results Our study involved 69 patients (mean age (68.4±17.6) years,64.3% males,26 in the home monitoring group vs.43 in the non-home monitoring group).In all,561 ventricular arrhythmia episodes were detected in 17 patients (39.5%) in the non-home monitoring group:495 episodes were ventricular tachycardia and 66 episodes were ventricular fibrillation; among these,476 episodes of ventricular tachycardia and 45 episodes of ventricular fibrillation were appropriately diagnosed (96.1% and 68.2%,respectively).In the home monitoring group,389 ventricular arrhythmia episodes were transmitted by the home monitoring system in nine patients (34.6%):348 ventricular tachycardia episodes and 41 ventricular fibrillation episodes.Device detection was appropriate in 348 ventricular tachycardia episodes (100.0%) and 36 ventricular fibrillation episodes (87.8%).The home monitoring group showed a higher appropriate detection rate of ventricular tachycardia (P <0.01) and ventricular fibrillation (P=0.02).The proportion of inappropriate shock was comparable in the two groups (6/11 in the non-home monitoring group vs.1/7 in the home monitoring group; P=O.08).Conclusions The home monitoring ICD was able to provide information relating to inappropriate

  6. Wave system fitting: A new method for force measurements in shock tunnels with long test duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Changtong; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Chun; Jiang, Zonglin

    2015-10-01

    Force measurements in shock tunnels are difficult due to the existence of vibrations excited by a sudden aerodynamic loading. Accelerometer inertia compensation could reduce its negative effect to some extent, but has inherent problems. A new signal decomposition method, wave system fitting (WSF), is proposed to remove vibration waves of low frequency. The WSF is accelerometer-free. It decomposes the balance signal and can separate vibration waves without the influence on the DC component, and it does work no matter the cycle of the sample signal is complete or not. As a standard signal post-processing tool in JF-12, the application results show that it works reliably with high accuracy, and it can also explain puzzling signals encountered in JF-12. WSF method is especially useful and irreplaceable whenever only a few cycles of a periodic signal could be obtained, as is usual for shock tunnels.

  7. Shock state: an unrecognized and underestimated presentation of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmoun, Antoine; Dubois, Elsa; Perez, Pierre; Barbaud, Annick; Levy, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Some patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are probably admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), but data concerning their clinical features at admission are scarce. Therefore, in the present study, we used a clinical network of French intensivists to study the clinical features and evolution of DRESS patients hospitalized in ICU. A national, retrospective, multicenter study collected DRESS cases hospitalized in ICU for DRESS from 2000 to end of 2011. All files were analyzed through the RegiSCAR scoring system as "no," "possible," "probable," or "definite" DRESS. Patients were included only if they had a probable or definite DRESS. Demographic, hemodynamic, biological, and infectious data were recorded. Twenty-one patients were included. Hospital mortality was 10 (47%) of 21, and 16 of 21 patients had on admission a shock state necessitating vasopressor agents. Echocardiographic ejection fraction in shock patients was depressed (47% ± 13%). Mechanical ventilation was required in 13 of 21 cases. Hepatic failure was observed in 11 of 21 cases, acute renal failure in 18 of 20 cases, and lactic acidosis in 12 of 20 patients. Initial bacteriology was negative in all patients. Human herpesvirus reactivations were found in five of 15 cases. In conclusion, shock without bacteriological documentation associated with multiple organ failure is the most common presentation of DRESS at admission in ICU and is associated with a higher mortality than previously described.

  8. [Neurogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Rafael; Pasquier, Mathieu; Clerc, David; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2014-08-13

    The neurogenic shock is a common complication of spinal cord injury, especially when localized at the cervical level. Characterized by a vasoplegia (hypotension) and bradycardia, the neurogenic shock is secondary to the damage of the sympathetic nervous system. The clinical presentation often includes tetraplegia, with or without respiratory failure. Early treatment aims to minimize the occurrence of secondary spinal cord lesions resulting from systemic ischemic injuries. Medical management consists in a standardized ABCDE approach, in order to stabilize vital functions and immobilize the spine. The hospital care includes performing imaging, further measures of neuro-resuscitation, and coordinated surgical assessment and treatment of any other injury.

  9. Radiation-hard ceramic Resistive Plate Chambers for forward TOF and T0 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindinov, A.; Dreyer, J.; Fan, X.; Kämpfer, B.; Kiselev, S.; Kotte, R.; Garcia, A. Laso; Malkevich, D.; Naumann, L.; Nedosekin, A.; Plotnikov, V.; Stach, D.; Sultanov, R.; Voloshin, K.

    2017-02-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers with ceramic electrodes are the main candidates for a use in precise multi-channel timing systems operating in high-radiation conditions. We report the latest R&D results on these detectors aimed to meet the requirements of the forward T0 counter at the CBM experiment. RPC design, gas mixture, limits on the bulk resistivity of ceramic electrodes, efficiency, time resolution, counting rate capabilities and ageing test results are presented.

  10. A planar EMT system for the detection of faults on thin metallic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes a novel planar electromagnetic tomography system for the detection of conductivity inhomogeneity on a metallic plate. The proposed system differs from traditional electromagnetic inductance tomography (EMT) systems in its spatial arrangements of coils. Sensor coils are distributed to form a circular array with their axes not parallel but perpendicular to the plate under inspection. The forward solution for the sensor array next to a homogeneous conductive plate is based on the analytical solution provided by Cheng. The sensitivity matrix for a prototype sensor was computed by numerical evaluation of the analytical solution. For the inverse solution, a modified Newton-Raphson method was used to adjust the conductivity distribution to fit a set of inductances measured from the sensor array in a least-squared sense. Frequency- dependent sensitivity analysis was performed to find an optimum testing frequency. The far-field and near-field effects in electrical tomography are discussed. Good estimates for the conductivity distribution were obtained at the optimum frequency. Experimental tests were performed by taking the difference in mutual inductance of the coil pairs when placed next to a homogeneous reference conductor and next to a conductor with faults. Inverse results based on experimental data verified this method.

  11. Design of Intelligent Parking Management System Based on License Plate Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available License Plate Recognition (LPR which has been extensively studied recently is becoming one important part of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. It is not only applied to public security monitoring, but also applied to a red light shot, speeding violation paparazzi, parking system and so on. The present paper introduces an intelligent parking management system based on LPR, recognizing license plate automatically at the parking lot access and realizing vehicle information integrated management conveniently. The software part is developed with VC++, QT and Microsoft Office Access Database. In the system, LPR is carried out through video streaming frame by frame to choose the best result with a high speed. After accurate LPR, the vehicle information, such as LP number, LP color, car type and access time, will be stored in system database. In addition, the system interface is designed very friendly and simple for administrators to operate, which can largely improve the whole performance of LPR system. Experimental results show that this parking management system can achieve high correct rate at 95%, and can be applied to real-time implementation

  12. Study on the Holdup and Mass Transfer Performances for Gas-Liquid-Liquid System in a Screen Plate Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gas and dispersed phase holdups and mass transfer coefficients of liquid-iquid were determined for gas-liquid-liquid three phase system in a screen plate column. The flow pattern of gas-liquid-liquid three phase system was studied under different gas velocities. The shape factors showed the geometric properties of screen plates and the corrected drop characteristic velocities were introduced. The phase holdup in two phases was correlated. The research results indicated that mass transfer coefficient for liquid-liquid system in a column with screen plates and gas agitation was found to increase apparently.

  13. Effect of wettability of Wilhelmy plate and du Nouey ring on interfacial tension measurements in solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaonkar, A.G.; Neuman, R.D.

    1984-03-01

    The interfacial tension, ..gamma.., of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid/n-dodecane/0.0010 N HCl systems was investigated at 20/sup 0/C to develop appropriate experimental techniques for use in liquid-liquid solvent extraction studies. The stringent precautions and purification procedures necessary to ensure that the system is free from interfering surface-active impurities are discussed. The Wilhelmy plate method was found to be superior to the du Nouey ring technique. Sandblasted glass plates gave reliable and reproducible values of ..gamma... However, with sandblasted platinum plates, increasingly lower ..gamma.. values were obtained with higher HDEHP concentrations. This behavior was attributed to the change in the wetting characteristics of the platinum plate by the adsorption of HDEHP on the platinum plate during its passage through the n-dodecane phase containing HDEHP. 30 references, 4 figures.

  14. Design of an Automated Secure Garage System Using License Plate Recognition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern technologies have reached our garage to secure the cars and entrance to the residences for the demand of high security and automated infrastructure. The concept of intelligent secure garage systems in modern transport management system is a remarkable example of the computer interfaced controlling devices. License Plate Recognition (LPR process is one of the key elements of modern intelligent garage security setups. This paper presents a design of an automated secure garage system featuring LPR process. A study of templates matching approach by using Optical Character Recognition (OCR is implemented to carry out the LPR method. We also developed a prototype design of the secured garage system to verify the application for local use. The system allows only a predefined enlisted cars or vehicles to enter the garage while blocking the others along with a central-alarm feature. Moreover, the system maintains an update database of the cars that has left and entered into the garage within a particular duration. The vehicle is distinguished by the system mainly based on their registration number in the license plates. The tactics are tried on several samples of license plate’s image in both indoor and outdoor setting.

  15. Modelling, Testing and Analysis of a Regenerative Hydraulic Shock Absorber System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruichen Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve vehicle fuel economy whilst enhancing road handling and ride comfort, power generating suspension systems have recently attracted increased attention in automotive engineering. This paper presents our study of a regenerative hydraulic shock absorber system which converts the oscillatory motion of a vehicle suspension into unidirectional rotary motion of a generator. Firstly a model which takes into account the influences of the dynamics of hydraulic flow, rotational motion and power regeneration is developed. Thereafter the model parameters of fluid bulk modulus, motor efficiencies, viscous friction torque, and voltage and torque constant coefficients are determined based on modelling and experimental studies of a prototype system. The model is then validated under different input excitations and load resistances, obtaining results which show good agreement between prediction and measurement. In particular, the system using piston-rod dimensions of 50–30 mm achieves recoverable power of 260 W with an efficiency of around 40% under sinusoidal excitation of 1 Hz frequency and 25 mm amplitude when the accumulator capacity is set to 0.32 L with the load resistance 20 Ω. It is then shown that the appropriate damping characteristics required from a shock absorber in a heavy-haulage vehicle can be met by using variable load resistances and accumulator capacities in a device akin to the prototype. The validated model paves the way for further system optimisation towards maximising the performance of regeneration, ride comfort and handling.

  16. An Ion Beam Tracking System based on a Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter I. P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pair of twin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters have been developed at the Australian National University as a tracking system to aid in the further rejection of unwanted beam particles from a 6.5 T super conducting solenoid separator named SOLEROO. Their function is to track and identify each beam particle passing through the detectors on an event-by-event basis. In-beam studies have been completed and the detectors are in successful operation, demonstrating the tracking capability. A high efficiency 512-pixelwide-angle silicon detector array will then be integrated with the tracking system for nuclear reactions studies of radioactive ions.

  17. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  18. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 meter off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O2, N2O and SO2 are carried...

  19. An Experimental and Analytical Study of a Radiative Cooling System with Unglazed Flat Plate Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Taherian, Hessam

    2012-01-01

    On an average about 40% of world energy is used in residential buildings and the largest energy consumption is allocated to the cooling and air-conditioning systems. So every attempt to economize energy consumption is very valuable. In this research a nocturnal radiative cooling system with flat...... as a guideline to derive the governing equations of a night sky radiator. Then, a cooling loop, including a storage tank, pump, connecting pipes, and a radiator has been studied experimentally. The water is circulated through the unglazed flat-plate radiator having 4 m2 of collector area at night to be cooled...

  20. Hepatocyte function within a stacked double sandwich culture plate cylindrical bioreactor for bioartificial liver system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Arooz, Talha; Zhang, Shufang; Tuo, Xiaoye; Xiao, Guangfa; Susanto, Thomas Adi Kurnia; Sundararajan, Janani; Cheng, Tianming; Kang, Yuzhan; Poh, Hee Joo; Leo, Hwa Liang; Yu, Hanry

    2012-11-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) system is promising as an alternative treatment for liver failure. We have developed a bioreactor with stacked sandwich culture plates for the application of BAL. This bioreactor design addresses some of the persistent problems in flat-bed bioreactors through increasing cell packing capacity, eliminating dead flow, regulating shear stress, and facilitating the scalability of the bioreactor unit. The bioreactor contained a stack of twelve double-sandwich-culture plates, allowing 100 million hepatocytes to be housed in a single cylindrical bioreactor unit (7 cm of height and 5.5 cm of inner diameter). The serial flow perfusion through the bioreactor increased cell-fluid contact area for effective mass exchange. With the optimal perfusion flow rate, shear stress was minimized to achieve high and uniform cell viabilities across different plates in the bioreactor. Our results demonstrated that hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor could re-establish cell polarity and maintain liver-specific functions (e.g. albumin and urea synthesis, phase I&II metabolism functions) for seven days. The single bioreactor unit can be readily scaled up to house adequate number of functional hepatocytes for BAL development.

  1. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS INTERNAL LOCKING SYSTEM PLATING FOR DISPLACED PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarswami Ramulu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional outcome, benefits and complications of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures with proximal humerus locking plate. METHODS We studied the functional outcome of 40 patients aged between 15 to 65 years from September 2013 to February 2015, who had displaced proximal humerus fracture and underwent PHILOS plate fixation for the same. Fractures were classified according to NEER’s and AO classification. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year. Functional outcomes and shoulder range of movement were assessed based on the Constant and Murley scoring system. RESULTS Patients were followed up for 12 months. All fractures healed satisfactorily; 12 weeks (27.5% was the most common union time (radiological finding in the study population followed by 8 weeks (22.5% and 10 weeks (20%. Avascular necrosis was noted in 1 patient, mild infection in 2 patients and stiffness in 2 patients. The mean Constant score at 6 weeks was 40.39, at 12 weeks was 59.24, at 6 months was 73.88 and at one year was 75.62. Constant score continues to improve till 1 year. CONCLUSION Proximal humerus locking plate gives a reliable, stable fixation for fractures of proximal humerus with a good radiological union and good functional outcome.

  2. Investigation of one-dimensional heat flow in a solarflat plate collector with sun tracing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Samimi Akhijahani

    2016-09-01

    variation of total heat flow over the time at different surfaces of the collector is determined by using equation 3: 3 Two cases (solar panel with rotation and without rotation were considered for testing. Data measuring was carried out for 9 hours from 8 to 17. The fluid flow rate was 0.0185m3.s-1. The dryer was installed in an environment with air temperature of 31.6 oC and 31.8 oC, with the air velocity of 0.58 m.s-1 and 0.54 m.s-1 and with the relative air humidity of about 21%and 21.5% at the first and second days, respectively. The dryer had an automatic temperature controller to fix the air temperature with an accuracy of ±0.1 oC. An anemometer Yk-2005AM model was used to regulate the required air velocity. The output data of the thermocouples was recorded by a digital thermometer (DL-9601A, Lutron that was connected to a computer using RS232 cable and recorded the temperature at required point every an hour. The relative humidity of the ambient was measured every hour with a digital hygrometer (HT.3600, Taiwan, accuracy of 3%. By assembling controlling system with a DC motor, a precious photocell and a proper mechanism, the frame would rotate by the sun and followed solar radiation, therefore more solar energy produced in solar panel. Results and Discussion The results of the experiments showed that the heat transfer process increased in both cases from the early morning and reached to its maximum value around 12 to 14 o’clock. The trend was more homogeneous in the dryer by absorber plate without rotation due to the decline of the heat accumulation. The mean temperature rise in the solar dryer without rotation was 37oC and in the solar dryer with rotation was 54oC. Because of the rotation of solar plate, variations of solar radiation were low. Therefore, by rotation of the solar dryer panel the temperature rise was 27oC. The values of heat transfer coefficient in the solar dryer with rotation were decreased by the time. This reduction in the hours before noon is

  3. Multipoint Vernier VISAR Interferometer System for Measuring Mass Velocity in Shock Wave Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubskii, K. L.; Koshkin, D. S.; Mikhaylyuk, A. V.; Korolev, A. M.; Pirog, V. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.

    The results of development of a laser interferometer designed to measure the mass velocity of condensed substances in shock wave experiments in the field of high energy density physics are presented. The developed laser system allows measurements of the velocity of free surfaces of samples in shockwave experiments with accuracy no worse than 10 m/s for the entire range of velocities attained experimentally. The time resolution of measurements is limited by the response speed of the used PMTs and amounts to 2.5 ns.

  4. Quantification of Acoustic Cavitation Produced by a Clinical Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy System Using a Passive Cylindrical Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M. J.; Cho, S. C.; Kang, G. S.; Paeng, D. G.; Lee, K. I.; Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.; Coleman, A. J.

    Acoustic cavitation is regarded to play an important role in extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). However it is not yet well characterized the cavitation in ESWT due to difficulty in its measurement. This study tests NPL cavitation sensor to discuss its potential to quantify cavitation activities produced by a clinical shock wave field. In the present experiment, the sensor was located at the focus of an electromagentic shock wave generator (HnT Medical System, Korea). Measurements were repeated 15 times as varying setting numbers. It was observed that the acoustic signals recorded by the sensor contain characteristic features of broadband spikes representing cavitation. Spectral band magnitude (SBM), used as a cavitation measure, rose with the setting number. There was a threshold above which SBM soared up and had its uncertainty greately increased. The results prove the potential of the sensor in characterizing the cavitation produced by shock wave fields.

  5. Structural Changes in Alloys of the Al-Cu-Mg System Under Ion Bombardment and Shock-Wave Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Gushchina, N. V.; Romanov, I. Yu.; Kaigorodova, L. I.; Grigor'ev, A. N.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Plokhoi, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    To confirm the hypothesis on the shock-wave nature of long-range effects upon corpuscular irradiation of condensed media presumably caused by emission and propagation of post-cascade shock waves, comparative experiments on ion beam modification and mechanical shock-wave loading of specimens of VD1 and D16 alloys of the Al-Cu-Mg system are performed. Direct analogy between the processes of microstructural change of cold-deformed VD1 and D16 alloys under mechanical shock loading and irradiation by beams of accelerated Ar+ ions (E = 20-40 keV) with low fluences (1015-1016 cm-2) is established. This demonstrates the important role of the dynamic long-range effects that have not yet been considered in classical radiation physics of solids.

  6. The Multichannel Deflection Plates Control System for the ALF Facility at the APS

    CERN Document Server

    Deriy, Boris

    2005-01-01

    A deflection plate control system was developed as part of SPIRIT (Single Photon Ionization / Resonant Ionization to Threshold), a new secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) instrument that uses tunable vacuum ultraviolet light from the ALF (Argonne Linear Free-electron laser) facility at the APS for postionization. The system comprises a crate controller with PC104 embedded computer, 32 amplifiers, and two 1-kV power supplies. Thirty-two D/A converters are used to control voltages at the deflection plates within ± 400 V with 100-mV resolution. An algorithm of simultaneous sweeping of up to 16 XY areas with 10-μs time resolution also has been implemented in the embedded computer. The purpose of the system is to supply potentials to various ion optical elements for electrostatic control of keV primary and secondary ion beams in this SNMS instrument. The control system is of particular value in supplying (1) bipolar potentials for steering ions, (2) multiple potentials for octupole lenses...

  7. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  8. High-speed microstrip multi-anode multichannel plate detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Rohner, Urs; Wurz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    High-speed detector systems with high dynamic range and pulse width characteristics in the sub-nanosecond regime are mandatory for high resolution and highly sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Typically, for a reasonable detector area, an impedance-matched anode design is necessary to transmit the registered signal fast and distortion-free from the anode to the signal acquisition system. In this report, a high-speed microstrip multi-anode multichannel plate detector is presented and discussed. The anode consists of four separate active concentric anode segments allowing a simultaneous readout of signal with a dynamic range of about eight orders of magnitude. The impedance matched anode segments show pulse width of about 250 ps, measured at full width at half maximum, and rise time of ˜170 ps, measured with an oscilloscope with a sampling rate of 20 GS/s and 4 GHz analogue bandwidth. The usage of multichannel plates as signal amplifier allowed the design of a lightweight, low power consuming, and compact detector system, suitable, e.g., for the integration into space instrumentation or portable systems where size, weight, and power consumption are limited parameters.

  9. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnostics and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-02-01

    Circulatory shock is lethal, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, circulatory shock resuscitation is guided by blood pressure, heart rate, and mental status, which have poor predictive value. In patients, in whom early goaldirected therapy was applied using central venous oxygenation measurement, a substantial reduction of mortality was reported (from 46.5% to 30%). However, central venous catheterization is invasive, time-consuming and often results in complications. We proposed to use the optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of central venous oxygenation. In our previous works we demonstrated that the optoacoustic technique can provide measurement of blood oxygenation in veins and arteries due to high contrast and high resolution. In this work we developed a novel optoacoustic system for noninvasive, automatic, real-time, and continuous measurement of central venous oxygenation. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in human subjects with different oxygenation in the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. A novel optoacoustic interface incorporating highly-sensitive optoacoustic probes and standard ultrasound imaging probes were developed and built for the study. Ultrasound imaging systems Vivid i and hand-held Vscan (GE Healthcare) as well as Site-Rite 5 (C.R. Bard) were used in the study. We developed a special algorithm for oxygenation monitoring with minimal influence of overlying tissue. The data demonstrate that the system provides precise measurement of venous oxygenation continuously and in real time. Both current value of the venous oxygenation and trend (in absolute values and for specified time intervals) are displayed in the system. The data indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic system developed by our group is capable of noninvasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific veins; 2) clinical ultrasound imaging systems can facilitate optoacoustic probing of specific blood vessels; 3) the

  10. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: system sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for federal agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borden, C.S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E.H.; Lawson, A.C.

    1984-05-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-along applications is presented in this document. It is designed to assist engineers at government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed herein are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems. A companion document, Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Power Systems Handbook for Federal Agencies (Reference 10), is recommended for discussion of issues for evaluating the viability of potential photovoltaic applications; descriptions of present photovoltaic system applications; synthesis of lessons learned from photovoltaic system design, installation, and operation; and identification of procurement strategies for federal agencies.

  11. Analysis on strength and stiffness of double-deck plates filter system of mechanical water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, De-zhen; Yu, Qi-qi

    2017-01-01

    Domestic water treatment is a very important technology field. Now, mechanical water treatment technology is getting wide use in production. In the process of life water treatment, filter process is a very important step. In this paper, the strength and deformation of double-deck plates filter system which includes upper filter plate, lower filter plate and reinforced ribs were analyzed with ANSYS and useful results were got. Through the analysis on strength and deformation, the paper found the advantages and disadvantages of production and design of filter systems. After analyzing and comparing the stresses and deformations of several different design schemes, the paper provided the optimized design plan of filter system which can satisfy the strength need and decrease the creep deformation of plastic filter plates.

  12. Hall Effects on Unsteady Hydromagnetic Flow Past an Accelerated Porous Plate in a Rotating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanatan Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady hydromagnetic flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an accelerated porous flat plate in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field in a rotating system taking the Hall effects into account have been presented. An analytical solution describing the flow at large and small times after the start is obtained by the use of Laplace transform technique. The influences of the physical parameters acting on the flow are discussed in detail with the help of several graphs. It is found that interplay of Coriolis force and hydromagnetic force in the presence of Hall currents plays an important role in characterizing the flow behavior.

  13. Gating System Design for Casting thin Aluminium Alloy (Al-Si) Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Victor ANJO; Reyaz KHAN

    2013-01-01

    The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminium oxide films, cuts and washes, low casting yield and entrapped gas. This study describes the design of a gating system to produce thin Aluminium cast alloy plates of different sizes and thicknesses of 4mm, 6mm, 8mm, and 10mm using the non-pressurized gating with ratio of 1:4:4 and green sand moulding technique. The gating design was based on the laws of fluid mechanics and empirical rules of gating for non ferrous metals. The ...

  14. Distributed Plate Boundary Deformation Across the San Andreas Fault System, Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, M.; Titus, S. J.; Demets, C.; Tikoff, B.

    2007-12-01

    Plate boundaries are now recognized as broad zones of complex deformation as opposed to narrow zones with discrete offsets. When assessing how plate boundary deformation is accommodated, both spatially and temporally, it is therefore crucial to understand the relative contribution of the discrete and distributed components of deformation. The creeping segment of the San Andreas fault is an ideal location to study the distribution of plate boundary deformation for several reasons. First, the geometry of the fault system in central California is relatively simple. Plate motion is dominated by slip along the relatively linear strike-slip San Andreas fault, but also includes lesser slip along the adjacent and parallel Hosgri-San Gregorio and Rinconada faults, as well as within the borderlands between the three fault strands. Second, the aseismic character of the San Andreas fault in this region allows for the application of modern geodetic techniques to assess creep rates along the fault and across the region. Third, geologic structures within the borderlands are relatively well-preserved allowing comparison between modern and ancient rates and styles of deformation. Continuous GPS stations, alignment arrays surveys, and other geodetic methods demonstrate that approximately 5 mm/yr of distributed slip is accumulated (on top of the fault slip rate) across a 70-100 km wide region centered on the San Andreas fault. New campaign GPS data also suggest 2-5 mm/yr of deformation in the borderlands. These rates depend on the magnitude of the coseismic and postseismic corrections that must be made to our GPS time series to compensate for the 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes, which rupture faults outside, but near the edges of our GPS network. The off-fault deformation pattern can be compared to the style of permanent deformation recorded in the geologic record. Fold and thrust belts in the borderlands are better developed in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks west of

  15. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haris, K. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Singh, Param Jeet [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shastri, Aparna, E-mail: ashastri@barc.gov.in [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sunanda, K.; Babita, K.; Rao, S.V.N. Bhaskara [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ahmad, Shabbir; Tauheed, A. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2014-12-11

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 m off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} are carried out to evaluate the performance of the IP detection system. An FWHM of ∼0.5 Å is achieved for the Xe atomic line at 1469.6 Å. Reproducibility of spectra is found to be within the experimental resolution. Compared to the PMT scanning system, the IP shows several advantages in terms of sensitivity, recording time and S/N ratio, which are highlighted in the paper. This is the first report of incorporation of an IP detection system in a VUV beamline using synchrotron radiation. Commissioning of the new detection system is expected to greatly enhance the utilization of the HRVUV beamline as a number of spectroscopic experiments which require fast recording times combined with a good signal to noise ratio are now feasible. - Highlights: • Incorporation of an image plate detection system on HRVUV beamline at Indus-1. • Design and fabrication of mounting mechanisms, performance evaluation of new system. • Photoabsorption spectra of Xe, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O recorded in the region 1150–2300 Å. • Sensitivity, wavelength coverage, reproducibility and resolution of IP demonstrated. • First report of IP detector for VUV photoabsorption using synchrotron radiation.

  16. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  17. Visible hyperspectral imaging: monitoring the systemic effects of shock and resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopold C.; Brand, Derek; Kerby, Jeffery; Freeman, Jenny; Hopmeier, Michael; Mansfield, James R.

    2002-03-01

    Hyperspectral (HS) imaging has been useful in the monitoring of several medical conditions, which to date have generally involved changes in skin oxygenation in isolated regions of interest such as skin flaps or small burns. Here, by contrast, we present a study in which HSI was used to assess the cutaneous manifestations of significant systemic events. HS imaging of the ventral surface of the lower jaw was used to monitor changes in skin oxygenation during hypovolemic shock induced by pulmonary contusion and hemorrhage in a porcine model, and to monitor the subsequent recovery of oxygenation following resuscitation. Changes are seen both quantitatively, in the level of skin oxygenation as determined by the fitting of reference hemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin spectra to sample spectra, and qualitatively, in the observed spatial distribution or pattern of oxygenation-related changes in the skin. Linear regression was used to correlate these changes with invasively obtained parameters to include mixed venous oxygen saturation and systemic arterial blood pressure. Historically, the assessment of skin color and mottling has been an important, albeit inexact, component of resuscitation algorithms. Now, it is possible to analyze these variables during shock and resuscitation in an objective manner. The clinical utility of these advances needs to be determined.

  18. Patient exposure and radiation environment of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, P.J.; Hrejsa, A.F.

    1987-10-01

    Radiation exposures to the patient undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy were assessed along with the scattered radiation levels around the lithotriptor systems. The data gathered from 2 Dornier lithotriptor systems suggest that the lead shieldings required for this particular make and model are minimal. Owing to the physical size of the lithotriptor system, the treatment room housing it may not require additional lead shielding when the walls are constructed with appropriate materials. Typical radiation exposures to the patient have been assessed from the experimental data. The total amount of radiation exposures a patient is likely to receive has been estimated to be approximately 26 roentgens, for example 21 roentgens from 3 to 4 minutes of fluoroscopic exposure and 5 roentgens from 8 frames of video spot filming. The scattered radiation has been found to be approximately 0.5 mR. per hour at 3 feet or 91 cm. from the center of the lithotriptor water tank.

  19. Systemic Inflammatory Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury, Femur Fracture, and Shock: An Experimental Murine Polytrauma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Probst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite broad research in neurotrauma and shock, little is known on systemic inflammatory effects of the clinically most relevant combined polytrauma. Experimental investigation in an animal model may provide relevant insight for therapeutic strategies. We describe the effects of a combined injury with respect to lymphocyte population and cytokine activation. Methods. 45 male C57BL/6J mice (mean weight 27 g were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine. Animals were subjected to a weight drop closed traumatic brain injury (WD-TBI, a femoral fracture and hemorrhagic shock (FX-SH. Animals were subdivided into WD-TBI, FX-SH and combined trauma (CO-TX groups. Subjects were sacrificed at 96 h. Blood was analysed for cytokines and by flow cytometry for lymphocyte populations. Results. Mortality was 8%, 13% and 47% for FX-SH, WD-TBI and CO-TX groups (P<0.05. TNFα (11/13/139 for FX-SH/WD-TBI/CO-TX; P<0.05, CCL2 (78/96/227; P<0.05 and IL-6 (16/48/281; P=0.05 showed significant increases in the CO-TX group. Lymphocyte populations results for FX-SH, WD-TBI and CO-TX were: CD-4 (31/21/22; P= n.s., CD-8 (7/28/34, P<0.05, CD-4-CD-8 (11/12/18; P= n.s., CD-56 (36/7/8; P<0.05. Conclusion. This study shows that a combination of closed TBI and femur-fracture/ shock results in an increase of the humoral inflammation. More attention to combined injury models in inflammation research is indicated.

  20. Operation, performance and upgrade of the CMS Resistive Plate Chamber system at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, Marcello, E-mail: Marcello.Abbrescia@ba.infn.it

    2013-12-21

    The Resistive Plate Chambers are used in CMS as dedicated muon trigger detectors in both barrel and endcap regions. They also contribute to the identification, reconstruction and tracking of the muons, together with Drift Tubes in the barrel and Cathode Strip Chambers in the endcaps. In this paper a detailed report about the operation and performance of the system after three years of LHC activities with increasing instantaneous luminosity is given. This period allowed to accumulate enough statistics to measure the detector performance with an unprecedented accuracy on such a large amount of chambers. This provided new insights both on the detector fundamentals and on the related operational aspects. Special attention was devoted to the working point calibration procedures and to the stability of the system. A comparison between the initial and present performance is made, and an overview is given of what has been learned in almost three years of operation of one of the largest systems based on RPCs.

  1. FBG sensor array-based-low speed impact localization system on composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Yaozhang; Jiang, Mingshun; Sui, Qingmei; Lu, Shizeng; Jia, Lei

    2016-03-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors-based impact localization system on composite structure and a novel localization algorithm independent of wave velocity were proposed. Six FBG sensors constitute two isosceles right triangle FBG arrays. Impact signals were detected by a high-speed FBG interrogation system. Morlet wavelet transform was employed to extract time differences of impact signals. The straight lines equations, which are through impact source and FBG sensors of right-angled vertices of FBG arrays, can be obtained by the time differences. The coordinate of impact source is the intersection of straight lines. Testing experiments were carried out on composite plate within 400 mm × 400 mm monitor area. The experimental results showed that the maximum and average errors were 20.92 and 8.67 mm, respectively. This article provides a simple and stable impact source localization system independent of wave velocity.

  2. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-04-05

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  3. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-08-09

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  4. A serial sample loading system: interfacing multiwell plates with microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2012-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for novel high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. The robotic sample-handling techniques currently used in these industries, although fast, are still limited to operating in multiwell plates with the sample volumes per reaction in the microliter regime. Digital microfluidics offers an alternative for reduction in sample volume consumption for HTS but lacks a reliable technique for transporting a large number of samples to the microfluidic device. In this report, we develop a technique for serial delivery of sample arrays to a microfluidic device from multiwell plates, through a single sample inlet. Under this approach, a serial array of sample plugs, separated by an immiscible carrier fluid, is loaded into a capillary and delivered to a microfluidic device. Similar approaches have been attempted in the past, however, either with a slower sample loading device such as a syringe pump or vacuum-based sample loading with limited driving pressure. We demonstrated the application of our positive-pressure-based serial sample loading (SSL) system to load a series of sample plugs into a capillary. The adaptability of the SSL system to generate sample plugs with a variety of volumes in a predictable manner was also demonstrated.

  5. Systematic analysis of in vitro cell rolling using a multi-well plate microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Oren; Anandakumaran, Priya; Ngai, Jessica; Karnik, Rohit; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2013-10-16

    A major challenge for cell-based therapy is the inability to systemically target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest following intravenous or intraarterial infusion. Consequently, increasing cell homing is currently studied as a strategy to improve cell therapy. Cell rolling on the vascular endothelium is an important step in the process of cell homing and can be probed in-vitro using a parallel plate flow chamber (PPFC). However, this is an extremely tedious, low throughput assay, with poorly controlled flow conditions. Instead, we used a multi-well plate microfluidic system that enables study of cellular rolling properties in a higher throughput under precisely controlled, physiologically relevant shear flow. In this paper, we show how the rolling properties of HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cells on P- and E-selectin-coated surfaces as well as on cell monolayer-coated surfaces can be readily examined. To better simulate inflammatory conditions, the microfluidic channel surface was coated with endothelial cells (ECs), which were then activated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), significantly increasing interactions with HL-60 cells under dynamic conditions. The enhanced throughput and integrated multi-parameter software analysis platform, that permits rapid analysis of parameters such as rolling velocities and rolling path, are important advantages for assessing cell rolling properties in-vitro. Allowing rapid and accurate analysis of engineering approaches designed to impact cell rolling and homing, this platform may help advance exogenous cell-based therapy.

  6. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  7. Design of the Dual Stone Locating System on an Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chen Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptors are very popular for the treatment of urinary stones all over the world. They depend basically upon either X-ray fluoroscopy or ultrasound scans to detect the stones before therapy begins. To increase the effectiveness of treatment this study took advantage of both X-ray and ultrasound to develop a dual stone locating system with image processing modules. Its functions include the initial stone locating mode with stone detection by fluorescent images and the follow-up automatic stone tracking mode made by constant ultrasound scanning. The authors have integrated both apparatus and present the operating principles for both modes. The system used two in vitro experiments to justify its abilities of stone location in all procedures.

  8. Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Seungjae; Yoo, Dongheon; Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-08-22

    We propose three-dimensional (3D) head-mounted display (HMD) providing multi-focal and wearable functions by using polarization-dependent optical path switching in Savart plate. The multi-focal function is implemented as micro display with high pixel density of 1666 pixels per inches is optically duplicated in longitudinal direction according to the polarization state. The combination of micro display, fast switching polarization rotator and Savart plate retains small form factor suitable for wearable function. The optical aberrations of duplicated panels are investigated by ray tracing according to both wavelength and polarization state. Astigmatism and lateral chromatic aberration of extraordinary wave are compensated by modification of the Savart plate and sub-pixel shifting method, respectively. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, a prototype of the HMD module for monocular eye is implemented. The module has the compact size of 40 mm by 90 mm by 40 mm and the weight of 131 g with wearable function. The micro display and polarization rotator are synchronized in real-time as 30 Hz and two focal planes are formed at 640 and 900 mm away from eye box, respectively. In experiments, the prototype also provides augmented reality function by combining the optically duplicated panels with a beam splitter. The multi-focal function of the optically duplicated panels without astigmatism and color dispersion compensation is verified. When light field optimization for two additive layers is performed, perspective images are observed, and the integration of real world scene and high quality 3D images is confirmed.

  9. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-10

    A zero energy ready home was recently completed that features an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system, called the extended plate and beam, is for use above grade in residential buildings. The Building America research team Home Innovation Research Labs featured this system in a new construction test house.

  10. Lamb shift of non-degenerate energy level systems placed between two infinite parallel conducting plates

    CERN Document Server

    Billaud, B

    2012-01-01

    The issue of the observability of the Lamb shift in systems with non-degenerate energy levels is put to question. To this end, we compute the Lamb shift of such systems in the electromagnetic environment provided by two infinite parallel conducting plates, which is instrumental in demonstrating the existence of the so-called Casimir effect. A formula giving the relative change in the Lamb shift (as compared to the standard one in vacuum) is explicitly obtained for spherical semiconductor Quantum Dots (QD). It suggests a possibility of QD non-degenerate energy spectrum fine-tuning for experimental purposes as well as a {\\it Gedankenexperiment} to observe the Lamb shift in spherical semiconductor quantum dots.

  11. Design and performance of an imaging plate system for X-ray diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Matsushita, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Satow, Yoshinori; Miyahara, Junji; Chikawa, Jun-ichi

    1988-04-01

    A new readout system for a BaFBr: Eu 2+ photostimulable phosphor screen (imaging plate) was constructed by modifying a drum scanner, with a design optimized for X-ray diffraction and scattering applications. An effort was made to achieve a high detective quantum efficiency below 20 keV, a small pixel size (25 μm × 25 μm), a low quantization noise (0.22%) using 12-bit A/D converters, and the capability to cover an inherent dynamic range (1:10 5) of the photostimulated luminescence by using two photomultiplier tubes. This system is being used in several synchrotron radiation experiments: Laue diffraction of protein crystals, small angle diffraction from a single muscle fiber, powder diffraction from crystals in a diamond anvil cell, and time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering from a synthetic polymer during stretching.

  12. When Shock Waves Collide

    CERN Document Server

    Hartigan, P; Frank, A; Hansen, E; Yirak, K; Liao, A S; Graham, P; Wilde, B; Blue, B; Martinez, D; Rosen, P; Farley, D; Paguio, R

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than an oblique one does. In this paper we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and ...

  13. Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.

    2011-05-01

    In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.

  14. The role of 3D plating system in mandibular fractures: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of 3D plating system in the treatment of mandibular fractures. Patients and Methods: 20 mandibular fractures in 18 patients at various anatomic locations and were treated by open reduction and internal fixation using 3D plates. All patients were followed at regular intervals of 4 th , 8 th and 12 th weeks respectively. Patients were assessed post-operatively for lingual splay and occlusal stability. The incidence of neurosensory deficit, infection, masticatory difficulty, non-union, malunion was also assessed. Results: A significant reduction in lingual splay (72.2% and occlusal stability (72.2% was seen. The overall complication rate was (16.6% which included two patients who developed post-operative paresthesia of lip, three patients had infection and two cases of masticatory difficulty which later subsided by higher antibiotics and 4 weeks of MMF. No evidence of non-union, malunion was noted. Conclusion: A single 3D 2 mm miniplate with 2 mm × 8 mm screws is a reliable and an effective treatment modality for mandibular fracture.

  15. Gating System Design for Casting thin Aluminium Alloy (Al-Si Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ANJO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminium oxide films, cuts and washes, low casting yield and entrapped gas. This study describes the design of a gating system to produce thin Aluminium cast alloy plates of different sizes and thicknesses of 4mm, 6mm, 8mm, and 10mm using the non-pressurized gating with ratio of 1:4:4 and green sand moulding technique. The gating design was based on the laws of fluid mechanics and empirical rules of gating for non ferrous metals. The equipments used for this experiment includes; a coal fired crucible furnace and an X-Ray machine. Materials used include; silica sand, clay, wood, glue and Aluminium alloy scraps. The experimental procedure involved: the gating design calculations, construction of wooden pattern and gating; using the wooden pattern and gating to produce the mould cavities and gating; melting, melt treatment and pouring of melt in the sand mould to produce the casting. The plate castings after removal from mould were visually examined for surface defects and after fettling and cleaning X-Ray radiography was used to find the internal soundness of the castings. From the results obtained in the experiment, it was found that there were no internal defects and quality castings were produced.

  16. (99m)Tc thyroid imaging system using multiple imaging plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigeki; Saze, Takuya; Ariga, Eiji; Deji, Shizuhiko; Hirota, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2009-06-01

    A system for taking static thyroid (99m)Tc images was devised by using multiple imaging plates (IPs) and a low-energy high resolution collimator. System spatial resolution of the IP systems and the gamma camera was determined by referring to standards set by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Sensitivity was represented by using lower detection limits (LDLs). The sensitivity and resolution of IP systems using 16 IP probes connecting two collimators and 9 IPs were determined by using a 20 ml thyroid phantom, and compared with the sensitivity of gamma cameras. The sensitivity of the IP systems increased in proportion to the number of IPs. The sensitivity and resolution of a probe using 6 IPs and a high resolution collimator were equivalent to or superior to the gamma camera for taking static thyroid (99m)Tc images. IP systems can be applied clinically as mobile static nuclear imaging devices. The performance of IP systems should be thoroughly investigated for combinations of various collimators and the number of IPs in order to verify their efficacy for imaging all organs.

  17. Wave-plate structures, power selective optical filter devices, and optical systems using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-07-03

    In an embodiment, an optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes first and second substantially zero-order, zero-wave plates arranged in series with and oriented at an angle relative to each other. The first and second zero-wave plates are configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. Each zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  18. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, K.; Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; Sunanda, K.; Babita, K.; Rao, S. V. N. Bhaskara; Ahmad, Shabbir; Tauheed, A.

    2014-12-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 m off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O2, N2O and SO2 are carried out to evaluate the performance of the IP detection system. An FWHM of ~0.5 Å is achieved for the Xe atomic line at 1469.6 Å. Reproducibility of spectra is found to be within the experimental resolution. Compared to the PMT scanning system, the IP shows several advantages in terms of sensitivity, recording time and S/N ratio, which are highlighted in the paper. This is the first report of incorporation of an IP detection system in a VUV beamline using synchrotron radiation. Commissioning of the new detection system is expected to greatly enhance the utilization of the HRVUV beamline as a number of spectroscopic experiments which require fast recording times combined with a good signal to noise ratio are now feasible.

  19. High frequency analysis of a plate carrying a concentrated nonlinear spring-mass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Dean; Dowell, Earl

    2016-09-01

    Examining the behavior of dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom undergoing random excitation at high frequency often requires substantial computation. These requirements are even more stringent for nonlinear systems. One approach for describing linear systems, Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA), has been extended to nonlinear systems in this paper. A prototypical system, namely a thin plate carrying a concentrated hardening cubic spring-mass, is explored. The study focuses on the response of three principal variables to random, frequency-bounded excitation: the displacement of the mounting location of the discrete spring-mass, the relative displacement of the discrete mass to this mounting location, and the absolute displacement of the discrete mass. The results indicate that extending AMA to nonlinear systems for input frequency bands containing a large number of modes is feasible. Several advantageous properties of nonlinear AMA are found, and an additional reduced frequency-domain modal method, Dominance-Reduced Classical Modal Analysis (DRCMA), is proposed that is intermediate in accuracy and the cost of computation between AMA and Classical Modal Analysis (CMA).

  20. Mantle flow geometry from ridge to trench beneath the Gorda-Juan de Fuca plate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Short, Robert; Allen, Richard M.; Bastow, Ian D.; Totten, Eoghan; Richards, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic plates are underlain by a low-viscosity mantle layer, the asthenosphere. Asthenospheric flow may be induced by the overriding plate or by deeper mantle convection. Shear strain due to this flow can be inferred using the directional dependence of seismic wave speeds--seismic anisotropy. However, isolation of asthenospheric signals is challenging; most seismometers are located on continents, whose complex structure influences the seismic waves en route to the surface. The Cascadia Initiative, an offshore seismometer deployment in the US Pacific Northwest, offers the opportunity to analyse seismic data recorded on simpler oceanic lithosphere. Here we use measurements of seismic anisotropy across the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates to reconstruct patterns of asthenospheric mantle shear flow from the Juan de Fuca mid-ocean ridge to the Cascadia subduction zone trench. We find that the direction of fastest seismic wave motion rotates with increasing distance from the mid-ocean ridge to become aligned with the direction of motion of the Juan de Fuca Plate, implying that this plate influences mantle flow. In contrast, asthenospheric mantle flow beneath the Gorda Plate does not align with Gorda Plate motion and instead aligns with the neighbouring Pacific Plate motion. These results show that asthenospheric flow beneath the small, slow-moving Gorda Plate is controlled largely by advection due to the much larger, faster-moving Pacific Plate.

  1. MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF WHEAT STRAW BY ROLLER-PLATE GRIND SYSTEM WITH SHARP-EDGED SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colloid mills and extruders are widely used for disintegrating wet fibrous biomass. However, their main disadvantages are a high energy requirement in the range of hundreds or thousands of kWh per ton of material, and the fact that they grind in process cycles. Efforts have therefore been made to design a new type of continuously operated grinder. Its disintegration principle uses a roller-plate grinding system with sharp-edged segments, where the compressive and shear forces combine to comminute the particles. Test experiments verified that the grinder disintegrates wet untreated straw to particles below 10mm in an effective manner in a single pass, with an energy requirement of 50 kWht−1 TS. A 23% increase in biogas yield was achieved, leading to a net gain in electric energy of310 kWht−1 TS.

  2. Heat transfer studies in a spiral plate heat exchanger for water: palm oil two phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramachandran

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies were conducted in a spiral plate heat exchanger with hot water as the service fluid and the two-phase system of water – palm oil in different mass fractions and flow rates as the cold process fluid. The two phase heat transfer coefficients were correlated with Reynolds numbers (Re in the form h = a Re m, adopting an approach available in literature for two phase fluid flow. The heat transfer coefficients were also related to the mass fraction of palm oil for identical Reynolds numbers. The two-phase multiplier (ratio of the heat transfer coefficient of the two phase fluid and that of the single phase fluid was correlated with the Lockhart Martinelli parameter in a polynomial form. This enables prediction of the two-phase coefficients using single-phase data. The predicted coefficients showed a spread of ± 10 % in the laminar range.

  3. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively.

  4. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagarajan David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years (range, 19-92 years. The average overall ASES score was 66.5. The average overall Constant score was 57.5. Conclusion: Our results show that good fracture stability was achieved, and the functional outcome was very good in younger patients and it declined with increasing age. Early mobilization of the shoulder can be achieved without compromising fracture union.

  5. RESPONSE OF CYPRINUS CARPIO TO PHENOL AND FURFURAL SHOCK LOADS IN PACT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment efficiency, design factors and kinetic coefficients were studied using two pilots of activated sludge (AS and powdered activated carbon technology (PACT, for treating Tehran Oil Refinery effluent, in a duration of more than 12 months In order to evaluate the performance of each system against growth inhibitor shock loads, different concentrations of phenol and furfural (10-300 mg/l were applied, following a series of experiments in which, treated effluents from the two systems were used as influent water into two aquariums containing freshwater Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio of 9-15g weight, 6-9 cm length and with a fish density of 5g/1. Results of fish fatal rates with 125 and 250-mg/l phenol were 16% and 38% for AS system and 5.6% and 8% for PACT system, respectively. Changing the growth inhibitor to furfural, with a concentration of 100 mg/I, led to the fatal rates of 100% and 0% for AS and PACT systems, respectively. Increasing furfural load to 300 mg/I destroyed only 20% of fish in PACT pilot.

  6. Hazardous effects of effluent from the chrome plating industry: 70 kDa heat shock protein expression as a marker of cellular damage in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Saxena, Daya Krishna; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous effects of an effluent from the chrome plating industry were examined by exposing transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) to various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 micro L/mL) of the effluent through diet. The emergence pattern of adult flies was affected, along with impaired reproductive performance at the higher dietary concentrations of the effluent. Interestingly, the effect of the effluent was more pronounced in male than in female flies. The effect of the effluent on development of adult flies was concurrent with the expression pattern of the heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70), both in larval tissues and in the reproductive organs of adult flies. We observed a dose- and time-dependent expression of hsp70 in third instar larvae exposed for different time intervals. Absence of hsp70 expression in larvae exposed to 0.1 micro L/mL of the effluent indicated that this is the highest nontoxic concentration for Drosophila. The stress gene assay in the reproductive organs of adult flies revealed hsp70 expression in the testis of male flies only. However, trypan blue dye exclusion tests in these tissues indicate tissue damage in the male accessory gland of adult flies, which was further confirmed by ultrastructural observations. In the present study we demonstrate the utility of transgenic Drosophila as an alternative animal model for evaluating hazardous effects of the effluent from the chrome plating industry and further reveal the cytoprotective role of hsp70 and its expression as an early marker in environmental risk assessment. PMID:14644668

  7. Progress towards a 256 channel multi-anode microchannel plate photomultiplier system with picosecond timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J S; Ashton, T J R; Ross, D; Conneely, T

    2012-12-11

    Despite the rapid advances in solid state technologies such as the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers still offer a proven and practical technological solution for high channel count pixellated photon-counting systems with very high time resolution. We describe progress towards a 256 channel optical photon-counting system using CERN-developed NINO and HTDC ASICs, and designed primarily for time resolved spectroscopy in life science applications. Having previously built and demonstrated a 18 mm diameter prototype tube with an 8×8 channel readout configuration and <43 ps rms single photon timing resolution, we are currently developing a 40 mm device with a 32×32 channel readout. Initially this will be populated with a 256 channel electronics system comprising four sets of modular 64 channel preamplifier/discriminator, and time-to-digital converter units, arranged in a compact three dimensional configuration. We describe the detector and electronics design and operation, and present performance measurements from the 256 channel development system. We discuss enhancements to the system including higher channel count and the use of application specific on-board signal processing capabilities.

  8. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Haris, K; Shastri, Aparna; K., Sunanda; K., Babita; Rao, S V N Bhaskara; Ahmad, Shabbir; Tauheed, A

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 meter off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O2, N2O and SO2 are carried out to evaluate the performance of the IP detection system. An FWHM of ~ 0.5 {\\AA} is achieved for the Xe atomic line at 1469.6 {\\AA}. Reproducibility of spectra is found to be within the experimental resolution. Compared to the PMT scanning system, the IP shows several advantages in terms of sensitivity, recording time and S/N ratio, which are highlighted in the paper. This is the first report of incorporation of an IP detection system in a VUV beamline using synchrotron radiation. Commissioning of the new detection sys...

  9. The effects of the overriding plate thermal state on the slab dip in an ocean-continent subduction system

    CERN Document Server

    Roda, Manuel; Spalla, Maria Iole; 10.1016/j.crte.2011.01.005

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of variations in the thermal state of the overriding plate on the slab dip in an ocean-continent subduction system, a 2-D finite element thermo-mechanical model was implemented. The lithosphere base was located at the depth of the 1600 K isotherm. Numerical simulations were performed while taking into account four different initial thicknesses for the oceanic lithosphere (60, 80, 95 and 110 km) and five different thicknesses of the overriding plate, as compared in terms of the continental-oceanic plate thickness ratio (100, 120, 140, 160 and 200% of the oceanic lithosphere thickness). The results of numerical modeling indicate that a high variability of the subducting plate geometry occurs for an oceanic lithosphere thickness ranging from 60 to 80 km, while the variability decreases where the oceanic plates are thicker (95 and 110 km). Furthermore, the slab dip strongly depends on the thermal state of the overriding plate, and, in particular, the slab dip decreases with the increase in...

  10. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome associated with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome. Use of transpulmonary thermodilution technique for volume management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS is a rare disorder characterized by increased capillary hyperpermeability leading to hypovolemic shock due to a markedly increased shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia and a monoclonal gammopathy are characteristic laboratory findings. Here we present a patient who suffered from SCLS with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome of both lower legs and thighs. Volume and catecholamine management was guided using transpulmonary thermodilution. Extended hemodynamic monitoring for volume and catecholamine management as well as monitoring of muscle compartment pressure is of crucial importance in SCLS patients.

  11. Modeling of reactant plate subjected to explosion shock wave based on dimensional analysis and its experiment verification%基于量纲分析的爆炸冲击波效应靶模型分析与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽萍; 孔德仁; 王芳; 商飞; 贾云飞

    2016-01-01

    In order to eliminate the interference in traditional electric measurement of shock wave pressure,a method to evaluate the shock wave pressure based on reactant plate plastic deformation was proposed.Considering the complexity of the theoretical reactant plate model with multiple parameters,the dimensional analysis was introduced to simplify the model,by which the relations between the deformation of reactant plate and TNT equivalent,mounting height and explosion distance wave obtained.Then,a calculation model of reactant plate deformation under standard TNT explosive shock wave was established.Three groups of experiments were designed to measure the reactant plate deformation under explosion shock wave of three TNT equivalents of 100 kg,60 kg and 20 kg.A regression analysis method was applied to calculate the coefficients of the empirical models for vertical and horizontal reactant plates.Through comparison of the deformations by experiments empirical models,the errors of vertical reactant plate are less than 3.59%and 3.33% respectively.The analysis provides new ideas for shock wave damage effectiveness assessment and can greatly reduce the amount of explosive experiments.%针对传统的冲击波压力电测法易受爆炸场寄生效应干扰问题,提出基于效应靶塑性变形的爆炸冲击波压力评定方法。由于效应靶理论模型复杂、参数较多,利用量纲分析方法简化模型获得爆炸冲击波压力作用的效应靶最大挠度与炸药 TNT 当量、炸高及炸距之关系,并建立冲击波压力作用的效应靶最大挠度计算模型;设计100 kg、60 kg、20 kg三种标准 TNT 爆炸的立靶、平靶实验,用回归分析法获得二者经验模型系数。结果表明,立靶与平靶两种结构效应靶最大挠度实验结果与经验模型计算结果误差分别优于3.59%及3.33%。该研究可指导战斗部冲击波压力评估,进而减少爆炸实验量。

  12. Involvement of the histaminergic system in the resuscitating effect of centrally acting leptin in haemorrhagic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochem, J; Altinbas, B; Yalcin, M; Ottani, A; Giuliani, D; Savci, V; Kasperska-Zajac, A; Guarini, S

    2016-02-01

    Leptin, acting centrally as a neuromodulator, induces the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which may lead to a pressor action in normotensive animals. In haemorrhagic shock, leptin administered intracerebroventricularly (icv.) evokes the resuscitating effect, with long-lasting rises in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), subsequent increase in peripheral blood flows, and a 100% survival at 2 h. Since leptin is able to activate histaminergic neurons, and centrally acting histamine also induces the resuscitating effect with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, in the present study, we investigated an involvement of the histaminergic system in leptin-evoked cardiovascular effects in haemorrhagic shock. The model of irreversible haemorrhagic shock, with MAP decreased to and stabilised at 20 - 25 mmHg, has been used. Leptin (20 μg) given icv. at 5 min of critical hypotension evoked 181.5% increase in extracellular hypothalamic histamine concentration during the first 10 min after injection. Rises in MAP, HR and renal, mesenteric and hindquarters blood flows induced by leptin were inhibited by icv. pre-treatment with histamine H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (50 nmol). In contrast, there was no effect of H2, H3 and H4 receptor antagonists ranitidine (25 nmol), VUF 5681 (25 nmol) and JNJ 10191584 (25 nmol), respectively. In conclusion, the histaminergic system is involved in centrally-acting leptin-induced resuscitating effect in haemorrhagic shock in rats.

  13. A development of the method of the control signal formation for the hot plate mill automation systems to improve the flatness of the finish plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Stanislav S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to control of the hot plate mill automation system to improve the quality metrics if the final strip. Based on the data of the modern hot rolling mills the classification of the cage equipment was designed. Depending on the degree of influence on the magnitude of reduction, the equipment was divided into categories. The functioning of every system including the main and the vertical cages was described. The conditions of electrical and hydraulic mechanisms was marked. The developed algorithm allows to improve defects based on the finite number of the thickness measurements given by special non-contact sensors. The example of regulators signals calculating was shown. The result of the algorithm operating was illustrated.

  14. H pylori infection and systemic antibodies to CagA and heat shock protein 60 in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Lenzi; Fabio Rollo; Ranuccio Nuti; Natale Figura; Alberto Palazzuoli; Nicola Giordano; Giuliano Alegente; Catia Gonnelli; Maria Stella Campagna; Annalisa Santucci; Michele Sozzi; Panagiotis Papakostas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the overall prevalence of H pylori and CagA positive H pylori infection and the prevalence of other bacterial and viral causes of chronic infection in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), and the potential role of anti-heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) antibody response to these proteins in increasing the risk of CHD development.METHODS: Eighty patients with CHD and 160 controls were employed. We also compared the levels of antiheat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) antibodies in the two groups. The H pylori infection and the CagA status were determined serologically, using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and a Western blotting method developed in our laboratory.Systemic antibodies to Hsp60 were determined by a sandwich ELISA, using a polyclonal antibody to Hsp60 to sensitise polystyrene plates and a commercially available human Hsp60 as an antigen.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori infection was 78.7% (n = 63) in patients and 76.2% (n =122) in controls (P = 0.07). Patients infected by CagApositive (CagA+) H pylori strains were 71.4% (n = 45) vs 52.4% of infected controls (P = 0.030, OR = 2.27). Systemic levels of IgG to Hsp60 were increased in H pylorinegative patients compared with uninfected controls (P< 0.001) and CagA-positive infected patients compared with CagA-positive infected controls (P = 0.007).CONCLUSION: CagA positive H pylori infection may concur to the development of CHD; high levels of antiHsp60 antibodies may constitute a marker and/or a concomitant pathogenic factor of the disease.

  15. Clinical application of plasma shock wave lithotripsy in treating impacted stones in the bile duct system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xu; Li-Xin Wang; Neng-Wei Zhang; Chun-Sheng Hou; Xiao-Feng Ling; Yao Xu; Xiao-Si Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To verify the safety and efficacy of plasma shock wave lithotripsy (PSWL) in fragmenting impacted stones in the bile duct system.METHODS: From September 1988 to April 2005, 67 patients (26 men and 41 women) with impacted stones underwent various biliary operations with tube (or T-tube)drainage. Remnant and impacted stones in the bile duct system found by cholangiography after the operation were fragmented by PSWL and choledochofiberscopy. A total of 201 impacted stones were fragmented by PSWL setting the voltage at 2.5-3.5 kV, and the energy output at 2-3 J for each pulse of PSWL. Then the fragmented stones were extracted by choledochofiberscopy. The safety and efficacy of PSWL were observed during and after the procedure.RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-nine of 201 impacted stones (99.0%) in the bile duct system were successfully fragmented using PSWL and extracted by choledochofiberscopy. The stone clearance rate for patients was 97% (65/67). Ten patients felt mild pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, and could tolerate it well.Eleven patients had a small amount of bleeding from the mucosa of the bile duct. The bleeding was transient and stopped spontaneously within 2 min of normal saline irrigation. There were no significant complications during and after the procedure.CONCLUSION:PSWL is a safe and effective method for fragmenting impacted stones in the bile duct system.

  16. SNC Qwksep - A simple, reliable, stiff and low-shock separation system for small sat missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavast, V. M.; Lazansky, C.; Helgesen, B. R.

    The SNC Qwksep technology is a Marman band retention system with a low shock release mechanism. The Qwksep is unique in that it combines flight heritage geometry and a Clamp Band Opening Device (CBOD), packages these features in a very small height envelope of 2 inches, and provides bolt circle interfaces for the launch vehicle and payload. The system developed targeted a specific set of requirements related to small satellites in the 600 to 1,100 pound size to demonstrate the technology as opposed to a specific product. An engineering unit was designed and built to demonstrate functionality and load capacity. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used in the design stage to predict stiffness and service load capability. The engineering unit was tested for function, stiffness, and load capacity. Test results were compared to analysis predictions and show very good correlation. The engineering unit was tested to an equivalent tensile load (Peq) of 25,000 pounds. This load envelopes the target payload launch environment. Stiffness was measured at over 3.7 × 106 pounds per inch in axial tension. Correlated analysis predicts a tensile load capacity of 33,600 pounds for a 5,000-pound nominal band tension. The engineering unit tests successfully demonstrated that the technology is a viable alternative to other systems and is ready to satisfy mission requirements in the small satellite market. Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems plans to have a new 15-inch diameter version qualified by the end of 2013.

  17. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  18. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  19. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of Shocks in Two-Dimensional Yukawa Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, M.; Murillo, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Particle-level simulations of shocked plasmas are carried out to examine kinetic properties not captured by hydrodynamic models. In particular, molecular dynamics simulations of 2D Yukawa plasmas with variable couplings and screening lengths are used to examine shock features unique to plasmas, including the presence of dispersive shock structures for weak shocks. A phase-space analysis reveals several kinetic properties, including anisotropic velocity distributions, non-Maxwellian tails, and the presence of fast particles ahead of the shock, even for moderately low Mach numbers. We also examine the thermodynamics (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) of recent experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 015002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.015002] and find no anomalies in their equations of state.

  20. Coefficient of Variation Estimates for the Plate Boundary Fault System of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, G. P.; Scharer, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The number of high-quality paleoseismic records on major strike-slip faults of California has increased in recent years to the point that patterns in earthquake recurrence are emerging. The degree of predictability in time intervals between ground-rupturing earthquakes can be measured by the CoV (coefficient of variation). The CoV approximately normalizes for mean recurrence, and is thus useful to isolate the temporal variability of earthquake records. CoV estimates are themselves uncertain because input dates are actually probability distributions and because paleoseismic records are short and not necessarily representative samples from the underlying recurrence distribution. Radiocarbon dating uncertainty can be incorporated by sampling from event PDFs and compiling sample CoV estimates. Uncertainty due to the brevity of the site event record is larger, and neglect of it can lead to improbable estimates. Long records are now available on the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults in Southern California, and the San Andreas and Hayward faults in northern California. These faults accommodate most of the Pacific-North American relative plate motion in their respective regions. CoV estimates from sites with 8 or more events cluster around 0.63, but are as low as 0.4 for the southern Hayward fault. Sites with fewer events give similar estimates, though with lower resolution. The one prominent outlier, Burro Flats, with a CoV near 1.0, is in a region of severe fault complexity and rapid fault-normal compression. Quasi-periodic recurrence is emerging as a general property for these plate boundary faults. Some individual site records allow that, at low probabilities, recurrence could be random in time. When the ensemble is considered together, however, it is improbable that we would see the observed degree of agreement among boundary fault paleoseismic records; the more likely explanation is that quasi-periodic recurrence is a real property of the boundary fault system.

  1. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hawass

    2015-12-01

    The strain gauge data and displacement sensors results showed that the multi-layer plates have higher level of underwater shock wave mitigation than the triple aluminum plates with strain and deflection of nearly 50%.

  2. Priming the prophenoloxidase system of Artemia franciscana by heat shock proteins protects against Vibrio campbellii challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Ranjan, Jayant; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Macrae, Thomas H; Bossier, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Like other invertebrates, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana relies solely on innate immunity, which by definition lacks adaptive characteristics, to combat against invading pathogens. One of the innate mechanisms is melanisation of bacteria mediated by the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) derived from either prokaryote (Escherichia coli) or eukaryote (Artemia), well conserved and immune-dominant molecules, protect Artemia against Vibrio campbellii. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these proteins protect Artemia against Vibrio campbellii infection are unknown. Here we demonstrated that feeding gnotobiotically grown Artemia with either Artemia Hsp70 or the E. coli Hsp70 equivalent DnaK, each overproduced in E. coli, followed by V. campbellii challenge enhanced the proPO system, at both mRNA and protein activity levels. Additionally, the Artemia fed with these proteins survived well in a Vibrio challenge assay. These results indicated that Hsp70s derived from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic sources generate protective immunity in the crustacean Artemia against V. campbellii infection by priming the proPO system. This is apparently the first in vivo report on priming activity of Hsp70 in an invertebrate.

  3. 热冲击下平面薄板非傅里叶效应的解析分析%Analysis of non-Fourier effects in a thin plate with boundary subjected to thermal shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖泽; 徐杰; 许冠杰; 白文斌

    2016-01-01

    基于热质理论,研究了平面薄板在温度突变加热边界条件下的温度响应。在假设温度只沿薄板厚度方向变化的情况下,根据牛顿力学分析方法建立了表征薄板热量传递过程的热传导方程,并联合能量守恒方程得到薄板的热传导偏微分控制方程。借助Laplace 正、逆变换技术,推导了薄板边界受均匀热冲击作用下温度响应的解析表达式。通过对温度场的解析求解,揭示了其内部热量的传播机制。结果表明:在热冲击作用下两边界产生的热扰动会激发2列热波以有限速度向薄板的中心传递,形成阶跃性的温度分布,且热波波速受特征时间和特征长度的影响呈动态分布;热波在传递过程中会发生反射、叠加等典型的波动特征,从而导致了板内部过热和过冷等非常规现象。%Based on thermomass theory,the temperature responses of a thin plate were investigated with the boundary subjected to sudden temperature rise.The heat conduction equation was established to describe the heat transfer along the thickness direction of thin plate by Newtonian mechanics.The temperature equation with differential form was obtained by combining with energy conservation equation. Laplace transform and inverse transform techniques were used to derive the analytical solutions of temperature distribution with the boundary subjected to uniform thermal shock.By the calculation of temperature field,the mechanism of heat transfer in thin plate was revealed.The results show that the thermal disturbance is generated in the boundaries of thin plate and deduces the propagation of two waves towards to the centre of thin plate with finite speed to form step temperature distribution.Affected by characteristic time and characteristic length,the speed of thermal wave shows dynamic distribution.The typical wavelike behavior of reflection and superposition is appeared to lead to the unnormal phenomena of

  4. Design of a novel flat-plate photobioreactor system for green algal hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburic, B.; Zemichael, F.W.; Maitland, G.C.; Hellgardt, K. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Some unicellular green algae have the ability to photosynthetically produce molecular hydrogen using sunlight and water. This renewable, carbon-neutral process has the additional benefit of sequestering carbon dioxide during the algal growth phase. The main costs associated with this process result from building and operating a photobioreactor system. The challenge is to design an innovative and cost effective photobioreactor that meets the requirements of algal growth and sustainable hydrogen production. We document the details of a novel 1 litre vertical flat-plate photobioreactor that has been designed to accommodate green algal hydrogen production at the laboratory scale. Coherent, non-heating illumination is provided by a panel of cool white LEDs. The reactor body consists of two compartments constructed from transparent Perspex sheets. The primary compartment holds the algal culture, which is agitated by means of a recirculating gas flow. A secondary compartment is filled with water and used to control the temperature and wavelength of the system. The reactor is fitted with instruments that monitor the pH, pO{sub 2}, temperature and optical density of the culture. A membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system has been developed for hydrogen collection and in situ monitoring. The reactor is fully autoclaveable and the possibility of hydrogen leaks has been minimised. The modular nature of the reactor allows efficient cleaning and maintenance. (orig.)

  5. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  6. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  7. Efficiency of liquid flat-plate solar energy collector with solar tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekerovska Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive testing programme is performed on a solar collector experimental set-up, installed on a location in Shtip (Republic of Macedonia, latitude 41º 45’ and longitude 22º 12’, in order to investigate the effect of the sun tracking system implementation on the collector efficiency. The set-up consists of two flat plate solar collectors, one with a fixed surface tilted at 30о towards the South, and the other one equipped with dual-axis rotation system. The study includes development of a 3-D mathematical model of the collectors system and a numerical simulation programme, based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The main aim of the mathematical modelling is to provide information on conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer, so as to simulate the heat transfer performances and the energy capture capabilities of the fixed and moving collectors in various operating modes. The feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by experimental verification, showing significant increase of the daily energy capture by the moving collector, compared to the immobile collector unit. The comparative analysis demonstrates a good agreement between the experimental and numerically predicted results at different running conditions, which is a proof that the presented CFD modelling approach can be used for further investigations of different solar collectors configurations and flow schemes.

  8. Effects of heat shock on resistance to parasitoids and on life history traits in an aphid/endosymbiont system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cayetano

    Full Text Available Temperature variation is an important factor determining the outcomes of interspecific interactions, including those involving hosts and parasites. This can apply to variation in average temperature or to relatively short but intense bouts of extreme temperature. We investigated the effect of heat shock on the ability of aphids (Aphis fabae harbouring protective facultative endosymbionts (Hamiltonella defensa to resist parasitism by Hymenopteran parasitoids (Lysiphlebus fabarum. Furthermore, we investigated whether heat shocks can modify previously observed genotype-by-genotype (G x G interactions between different endosymbiont isolates and parasitoid genotypes. Lines of genetically identical aphids possessing different isolates of H. defensa were exposed to one of two heat shock regimes (35°C and 39°C or to a control temperature (20°C before exposure to three different asexual lines of the parasitoids. We observed strong G x G interactions on parasitism rates, reflecting the known genetic specificity of symbiont-conferred resistance, and we observed a significant G x G x E interaction induced by heat shocks. However, this three-way interaction was mainly driven by the more extreme heat shock (39°C, which had devastating effects on aphid lifespan and reproduction. Restricting the analysis to the more realistic heat shock of 35°C, the G x G x E interaction was weaker (albeit still significant, and it did not lead to any reversals of the aphid lines' susceptibility rankings to different parasitoids. Thus, under conditions feasibly encountered in the field, the relative fitness of different parasitoid genotypes on hosts protected by particular symbiont strains remains mostly uncomplicated by heat stress, which should simplify biological control programs dealing with this system.

  9. Chlorine isotope geochemistry of Icelandic thermal fluids: Implications for geothermal system behavior at divergent plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Barnes, Jaime D.

    2016-09-01

    The chlorine isotope composition of thermal fluids from Iceland were measured in order to evaluate the source of chlorine and possible chlorine isotope fractionation in geothermal systems at divergent plate boundaries. The geothermal systems studied have a wide range of reservoir temperatures from 40 to 437 °C and in-situ pH of 6.15 to 7.15. Chlorine concentrations range from 5.2 to 171 ppm and δ37 Cl values are -0.3 to + 2.1 ‰ (n = 38). The δ37 Cl values of the thermal fluids are interpreted to reflect the source of the chlorine in the fluids. Geothermal processes such as secondary mineral formation, aqueous and vapor speciation and boiling were found to have minimal effects on the δ37 Cl values. However, further work is needed on incorporation of Cl into secondary minerals and its effect on Cl isotope fractionation. Results of isotope geochemical modeling demonstrate that the range of δ37 Cl values documented in the natural thermal fluids can be explained by leaching of the basaltic rocks by meteoric source water under geothermal conditions. Magmatic gas partitioning may also contribute to the source of Cl in some cases. The range of δ37 Cl values of the fluids result mainly from the large range of δ37 Cl values observed for Icelandic basalts, which range from -0.6 to + 1.2 ‰.

  10. Continuous distributed phase-plate advances for high-energy laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Zuegel, J. D.; McKenty, P. W.; Cao, D.; Fochs, S.; Radha, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    The distributed phase plate (DPP) design code Zhizhoo’ has been used to design full- aperture, continuous near-field transmission optics for a wide variety of high-fidelity focal-spot shapes for high-energy laser systems: OMEGA EP, Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS), and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The envelope shape, or profile, of the focal spot affects the hydrodynamics of directly driven targets in these laser systems. Controlling the envelope shape to a high degree of fidelity impacts the quality of the ablatively driven implosions. The code Zhizhoo’ not only produces DPP's with great control of the envelope shape, but also spectral and gradient control as well as robustness from near-field phase aberrations. The focal-spot shapes can take on almost any profile from symmetric to irregular patterns and with high fidelity relative to the objective function over many decades of intensity. The control over the near-field phase spectrum and phase gradients offer greater manufacturability of the full- aperture continuous surface-relief pattern. The flexibility and speed of the DPP design code Zhizhoo’ will be demonstrated by showing the wide variety of successful designs that have been made and those that are in progress.

  11. The Whitham approach to dispersive shocks in systems with cubic–quintic nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, M

    2012-09-12

    By employing a rigorous approach based on the Whitham modulation theory, we investigate dispersive shock waves arising in a high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with competing cubic and quintic nonlinear responses. This model finds important applications in both nonlinear optics and Bose–Einstein condensates. Our theory predicts the formation of dispersive shocks with totally controllable properties, encompassing both steering and compression effects. Numerical simulations confirm these results perfectly. Quite remarkably, shock tuning can be achieved in the regime of a very small high order, i.e. quintic, nonlinearity.

  12. Characterization of a High Temporal Resolution TDLAS System for Measurements in a Shock Tube Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, F.; O'Byrne, Sean; Kleine, H.; Weigand, B.

    Transient heating and pressurization of a gas by shock waves can be useful for a variety of purposes, particularly for configurations involving shock wave focussing. Unless the geometry is particularly simple, the time history of temperature can be difficult to predict accurately. Hence, a non-intrusive measurement technique with high temporal resolution is required to record the time history of the very rapidly changing temperature of a shock-heated flow. One promising measurement techniques for these high-speed flows is Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS)

  13. Application of Approximation Full-Load Distribution Method to Pass Scheduling on Plate Mill With Hydro-Bending System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-lei; ZHANG Qi-sheng; ZHAO Zhong; TIAN Yong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    The influence of positive bending system on plate crown control was researched. The approximation full-load distribution method for pass scheduling was put forward. This method can not only make full use of the mill capacity with decreased pass number, but also give quality product of excellent flatness.

  14. A critical appraisal of the phene-plate biochemical fingerprinting system for epidemiological subtyping of Salmonella typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, S.L.W.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy and reproducibility of the Phene-Plate (PhP) system (Biosys Inova, Stockholm, Sweden) for biochemical fingerprinting of Salmonella typhimurium was investigated. Duplicate and replicate assays on 40 epidemiologically related and unrelated strains were performed in two batches of PhP-48......P-types which are epidemiologically unjustified, (ii) tests currently recommended for PhP-typing S. typhimurium may be somewhat unstable and not satisfactory for fingerprinting purposes, (iii) caution must be exercised when comparing data from different batches of PhP-48 plates, and (iv) best results...

  15. Clinical results of using the proximal humeral internal locking system plate for internal fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Masoud; Naderi, Mohammad Nasir; Komasi, Mehdi Hemmati; Sharifzadeh, Seyyed Reza; Shahrezaei, Mostafa; Eajazi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are accounting for 4-5% of all fractures with increasing incidence. Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (PHILOS) plate is a new plate which permits early mobility and lowers the risk of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after using this plate. Between 2006-2008, 37 patients with displaced 2-, 3-, and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus underwent surgery using PHILOS plate. The mean range of follow-up was 12 months. Twenty patients were aged 60 years and younger, and 17 were aged older than 60 years. The average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score at the final follow-up was 77.62. According to Michener and colleagues classification, 5.4% of patients had an excellent outcome, 72.9% were minimally functionally limited, 16.2% were moderately functionally limited, and 5.4% were maximally functionally limited. The average ASES score between patients 60 years and older and those 60 years and younger was not different significantly. One patient developed avascular necrosis of the humeral head, 2 patients developed an infection, and no patients developed a nonunion. Fixation with PHILOS plate can be considered a good method with high union rates for this kind of fracture, especially in the older population with osteoporotic bone.

  16. An Expert System to Analyze Homogeneity in Fuel Element Plates for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolosa, S.C.; Marajofsky, A.

    2004-10-06

    In the manufacturing control of Fuel Element Plates for Research Reactors, one of the problems to be addressed is how to determine the U-density homogeneity in a fuel plate and how to obtain qualitative and quantitative information in order to establish acceptance or rejection criteria for such, as well as carrying out the quality follow-up. This paper is aimed at developing computing software which implements an Unsupervised Competitive Learning Neural Network for the acknowledgment of regions belonging to a digitalized gray scale image. This program is applied to x-ray images. These images are generated when the x-ray beams go through a fuel plate of approximately 60 cm x 8 cm x 0.1 cm thick. A Nuclear Fuel Element for Research Reactors usually consists of 18 to 22 of these plates, positioned in parallel, in an arrangement of 8 x 7 cm. Carrying out the inspection of the digitalized x-ray image, the neural network detects regions with different luminous densities corresponding to U-densities in the fuel plate. This is used in quality control to detect failures and verify acceptance criteria depending on the homogeneity of the plate. This modality of inspection is important as it allows the performance of non-destructive measurements and the automatic generation of the map of U-relative densities of the fuel plate.

  17. Localized shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A; Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, $W_{x_{n}}(t_{n}) ... W_{x_1}(t_1)$, where $W_x(t) = e^{-iHt} W_x e^{iHt}$. Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in $t$. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

  18. TT系统接地和防电击简析%Analysis of TT System Grounding and Electric Shock Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚余

    2013-01-01

    阐述IEC 60364-4-41:2005《Low-voltage electrical installations-Part 4-41: Protection for safety-Protection against electric shock》标准规定TT系统内由同一保护电器所保护的所有电气设备必须采用共用接地防电击的原由,举例说明户外农电装置、施工场地、路灯等TT系统应用中的接地和防电击实施方案。着重叙述路灯TT系统共用接地并采用过电流防护电器兼防电击在我国的特殊现实意义。%To elaborate the reason why all electrical equipments protected by the same protective device must adopt common grounding to prevent electric shock as set up in Low-voltage Electrical Installations-Part 4-41:Protection for Safety-Protection against Electric Shock ( IEC 60364 - 4 - 41: 2005) , and to illustrate the implementation plan of grounding and electric shock prevention for outdoor rural power devices, construction sites and street lamps etc. with examples, in particular the special practical significance of TT system of street lamps with common grounding, adopting overcurrent protective devices to prevent against electric shock in China.

  19. Effect of osmotic shock on the redox system in plasma membrane of Dunaliella salina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENSIXUE; CHICHIONGYEN; 等

    1996-01-01

    The unicellular halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina had the ability to oxidize NADH and reduce Fe(CN)63-.The redox reactions were to some extent stimulated by slight hyperosmotic shock (2.0mol/L→2.6mol/L NaCl),but markably inhibited by abrupt hyperosmotic shock (2.0mol/L→3.5mol/L NaCl) and hypoosmotic shock (2.0mol/L→1.0mol/L NaCl;2.0mol/L→0.67mol/L NaCl).With the adaptation of algal cells to osmotic shock by accumulating or degraging intracellular grycerol,the plasmalemma redox activities were also restored.The O2 uptake stimulated by NADH could be promoted by FA and SHAM.Hypoosmotic shock increases the basal respiration rate of alga cells,but weakened the stimulating effects of NADH,FA and SHAM on O2 uptake.On the other hand,hyperosmotic shock reduced the basal respiration rate,but relatively enhanced the above effects of NADH,FA and SHAM.H+ extrusion of alga cells was inhibited by NADH and stimulated by Fe(CN)63-.Vanadate and DES could inhibit H+ efflux,but had little effect in the presence of NADH and Fe(CN)63-.Both hyperand hypoosmotic shock stimulated H+ extrusion.This effect could be totally inhibited by vanadate and DES,but almost unaffected by 8-hydroxyquinoline.It was suggested that H+-ATPase probably played a more important role in H+ extrusion and osmoregulation under the conditions of osmotic shock.

  20. Limiting Performance Analysis of Underwater Shock Isolation of a System with Biodynamic Response Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zong

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic response of shipboard crew to underwater shock is of a major concern to navies. An underwater shock can produce very high accelerations, resulting in severe human injuries aboard a battleship. Protection of human bodies from underwater shock is implemented by installing onboard isolators. In this paper, the optimal underwater shock isolation to protect human bodies is studied. A simple shock-structure-isolator-human interaction model is first constructed. The model incorporates the effect of fluid-structure interaction, biodynamic response of human body, isolator influence. Based on this model, the optimum shock isolation is then formulated. The performance index and restriction are defined. Thirdly, GA (genetic algorithm is employed to solve the formulated optimization problem. GA is a powerful evolutionary optimization scheme suitable for large-scale and multi-variable optimization problems that are otherwise hard to be solved by conventional methods. A brief introduction to GA is given in the paper. Finally, the method is applied to an example problem and the limiting performance characteristic is obtained.

  1. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thready Tests that may be done include: Blood chemistry, including kidney function tests and those tests looking ... severe shock. Severe hypovolemic shock may lead to death, even with immediate medical attention. Older adults are ...

  2. Novel highly efficient process for decorative trivalent chromium plating in sulfate system%硫酸盐体系高效三价铬电镀装饰铬新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 赖奂汶

    2012-01-01

    开发了Trich-9289硫酸盐体系三价铬电镀装饰铬的新工艺.该工艺电流效率高,沉积速率达到0.072 μm/min,并且不随电镀时间延长而改变.镀液性能稳定,操作简单,便于维护.铬镀层光滑,无裂纹或孔隙,结合力强,厚度在0.3μm以上,中性盐雾试验72 h不变色,恒定湿热试验、冷热冲击试验、人造汗液测试及抗化学污染测试均合格.%A novel Trich-9289 process for decorative trivalent chromium plating in sulfate system was developed. The current efficiency of the process is high and the deposition rate reaches 0.072 μm/min, invariable with prolonged plating time. The plating bath has advantages of high stability, simple operation, and easy maintenance. The chromium coating is smooth, crack and pore-free, and well-adhered, with a thickness above 0.3 μm; it does not tarnish after neutral salt spray test for 72 h, and can pass the steady-state damp heat test, cold-heat shock test, artificial sweat test, and chemical contamination test.

  3. The evolution of the phage shock protein response system: interplay between protein function, genomic organization, and system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvet, M; Toni, T; Sheng, X; Thorne, T; Jovanovic, G; Engl, C; Buck, M; Pinney, J W; Stumpf, M P H

    2011-03-01

    Sensing the environment and responding appropriately to it are key capabilities for the survival of an organism. All extant organisms must have evolved suitable sensors, signaling systems, and response mechanisms allowing them to survive under the conditions they are likely to encounter. Here, we investigate in detail the evolutionary history of one such system: The phage shock protein (Psp) stress response system is an important part of the stress response machinery in many bacteria, including Escherichia coli K12. Here, we use a systematic analysis of the genes that make up and regulate the Psp system in E. coli in order to elucidate the evolutionary history of the system. We compare gene sharing, sequence evolution, and conservation of protein-coding as well as noncoding DNA sequences and link these to comparative analyses of genome/operon organization across 698 bacterial genomes. Finally, we evaluate experimentally the biological advantage/disadvantage of a simplified version of the Psp system under different oxygen-related environments. Our results suggest that the Psp system evolved around a core response mechanism by gradually co-opting genes into the system to provide more nuanced sensory, signaling, and effector functionalities. We find that recruitment of new genes into the response machinery is closely linked to incorporation of these genes into a psp operon as is seen in E. coli, which contains the bulk of genes involved in the response. The organization of this operon allows for surprising levels of additional transcriptional control and flexibility. The results discussed here suggest that the components of such signaling systems will only be evolutionarily conserved if the overall functionality of the system can be maintained.

  4. [Role of the kallikrein-kininogen-kinin system in the inflammatory reaction and septic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulot, M; Ers, P; Damas, J; Adam, A

    1984-01-01

    Kinins, which are vasodilatory, permeability-increasing, pain-producing polypeptides, are formed from inactive precursors: kininogens. Their actions make kinins a particularly powerful potential pro-inflammatory factor. However the absence of specific antagonists has so far made it impossible to ascribe them a definite role in inflammation. Two studies of experimental endotoxemia in burns patients, septicemia and septic shock have demonstrated the following facts: activation occurs of specific ( pKK ) and non-specific (plasminogen-plasmin system) kininogenases , K-HMW and K-LMW levels are significantly decreased. Kininogen consumption corresponds to increased BDK production. This would therefore appear to be one of the humoral factors responsible for haemodynamic changes. Though measurement of kininogen levels is still a painstaking process, the development of chromogenic substrates has made pKK and KK measurement simple and fast. Once they have been validated physico-pathologically in a large number of patients, such assays should take their place among the diagnostic weapons of clinical biology at the disposal of clinicians.

  5. Heat Shock Proteins: Old and Novel Roles in Neurodegenerative Diseases in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Johannes M; Bugiani, Marianna; Amor, Sandra

    2016-10-31

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are families of molecular chaperones that play important homeostatic functions in the central nervous system (CNS) by preventing protein misfolding, promoting degradation of improperly folded proteins, and protecting against apoptosis and inflammatory damage especially during hyperthermia, hypoxia, or oxidative stress. Under stress conditions, HSPs are upregulated to protect cells from damage that accumulates during ageing as well as pathological conditions. An important, yet frequently overlooked function of some HSPs is their ability to function as extracellular messengers (also termed chaperokines) that modulate immune responses within the CNS. Given the strong association between protein aggregation, innate immune cell activation and neurodegeneration, the expression and roles of HSPs in the CNS is attracting attention in many neurodegenerative disorders including inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, protein folding diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and genetic white matter diseases. This is especially so since several studies show that HSPs act therapeutically by modulating innate immune activation and may thus serve as neuroprotective agents. Here we review the evidence linking HSPs with neurodegenerative disorders in humans and the experimental animal models of these disorders. We discuss the mechanisms by which HSP protect cells, and how the knowledge of their endogenous functions can be exploited to treat disorders of the CNS.

  6. Impact-induced shock and the formation of natural quasicrystals in the early solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Lincoln S; Bindi, Luca; Yao, Nan; Poirier, Gerald R; Andronicos, Christopher L; MacPherson, Glenn J; Lin, Chaney; Distler, Vadim V; Eddy, Michael P; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M; Yudovskaya, Marina; Eiler, John M; Guan, Yunbin; Clarke, Jamil J; Steinhardt, Paul J

    2014-06-13

    The discovery of a natural quasicrystal, icosahedrite (Al63Cu24Fe13), accompanied by khatyrkite (CuAl2) and cupalite (CuAl) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Khatyrka has posed a mystery as to what extraterrestrial processes led to the formation and preservation of these metal alloys. Here we present a range of evidence, including the discovery of high-pressure phases never observed before in a CV3 chondrite, indicating that an impact shock generated a heterogeneous distribution of pressures and temperatures in which some portions reached at least 5 GPa and 1,200 °C. The conditions were sufficient to melt Al-Cu-bearing minerals, which then rapidly solidified into icosahedrite and other Al-Cu metal phases. The meteorite also contains heretofore unobserved phases of iron-nickel and iron sulphide with substantial amounts of Al and Cu. The presence of these phases in Khatyrka provides further proof that the Al-Cu alloys are natural products of unusual processes that occurred in the early solar system.

  7. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella presented roughly 2-4 weeks later with a clinical syndrome highly suggestive of toxic shock syndrome. Characteristics, complications and therapy. It is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches and rash. It can rapidly progress to severe and intractable hypotension and multisystem dysfunction. Almost every organ system can be involved. Complications of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may include kidney failure, liver failure and even death. Crystalloids and inotropic agents are used to treat the hypovolemic shock aggressively, with close monitoring of the patient’s mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure. An immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock is essential in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Targeted antibiotics are indicated; penicillin or a betalactam antibiotic is used for treating group A streptococci, and clindamycin has emerged as a key portion of the standard treatment.

  8. When Shock Waves Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, P.; Foster, J.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Martinez, D.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. The experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.

  9. Protein expression following heat shock in the nervous system of Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mehrnoush; Xiao, Chengfeng; Money, Tomas G A; Shoemaker, Kelly L; Robertson, R Meldrum

    2011-11-01

    There is a thermal range for the operation of neural circuits beyond which nervous system function is compromised. Locusta migratoria is native to the semiarid regions of the world and provides an excellent model for studying neural phenomena. In this organism previous exposure to sublethal high temperatures (heat shock, HS) can protect neuronal function against future hyperthermia but, unlike many organisms, the profound physiological adaptations are not accompanied by a robust increase of Hsp70 transcript or protein in the nervous system. We compared Hsp70 increase following HS in the tissues of isolated and gregarious locusts to investigate the effect of population density. We also localized Hsp70 in the metathoracic ganglion (MTG) of gregarious locusts to determine if HS affects Hsp70 in specific cell types that could be masked in whole ganglion assays. Our study indicated no evidence of a consistent change in Hsp70 level in the MTG of isolated locusts following HS. Also, Hsp70 was mainly localized in perineurium, neural membranes and glia and prior HS had no effect on its density or distribution. Finally, we applied 2-D gels to study the proteomic profile of MTG in gregarious locusts following HS; although these experiments showed some changes in the level of ATP-synthase β isoforms, the overall amount of this protein was found unchanged following HS. We conclude that the constitutive level of Hsps in the tissues of locusts is high. Also the thermoprotective effect of HS on the nervous system might be mediated by post-translational modifications or protein trafficking.

  10. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Digital Ulcers of Systemic Sclerosis: A Phase 2 Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinichiro; Ishii, Tomonori; Kamogawa, Yukiko; Watanabe, Ryu; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Yoko; Shirota, Yuko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Ito, Kenta; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Harigae, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) often display Raynaud's phenomenon and digital skin ulcers. As these ulcers are not associated with autoimmune factors or abnormal coagulation, conventional immunosuppressive therapies, vasodilators, and anticoagulants are often ineffective. Here, we used extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) to treat these ulcers. Nine SSc patients with new digital ulcers, previously treated with at least one currently available vasodilator or anticoagulant were enrolled. One ESWT session consisted of 100 pulses at 0.08-0.25 mJ/mm(2) in 20 areas on both hands and 15 areas on both feet, totaling 7,000 pulses. Treatment was performed once per week for 9 weeks with observations over 20 weeks. Outcomes were evaluated according to the number and diameter of ulcers, Rodnan skin score, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D), visual analog scale for pain, and the PainVision system. The surface skin temperature of all the fingers was measured using thermography. Ulcers showed signs of healing after one session, and their mean number decreased from 5.4 to 1.1 at 9 weeks. In particular, of the 18 large ulcers (> 5 mm) observed in 7 patients before the treatment, 10 disappeared and the rest became smaller; namely, the mean size decreased from 10.9 mm to 2.5 mm at 20 weeks. The average scores on the HAQ, EQ-5D, and PainVision system also improved. Treatment was minimally invasive and could be repeated without any adverse effects. ESWT may be added to standard treatments for indolent digital ulcers of SSc, as an effective and safe method.

  11. Research on Pressure Shock in Hydraulic System%液压系统中的压力冲击研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌

    2016-01-01

    Based on theoretical calculation and simulation analysis, this paper got the key factor which affect the pressure shock in valve-control hydraulic system. Then concluded how the tube length and valve open-time affect pressure shock in hydraulic system. And the conclusions were verified based on test. It showed that tube length and valve open-time affect pressure shock in hydraulic system directly. The research also showed that shortening tube length and increasing valve open-time properly can reduce pressure shock effectively. All above provide the direction for the layout and design of hydraulic system part/product, and also provide theoretical basis for optimizing hydraulic system.%通过理论计算和仿真分析,研究影响阀控液压系统压力冲击的关键因素,得出阀控液压系统中的压力冲击与管路长度、阀开启时间的关系,并进行试验验证。结果表明,管路长度、阀开启时间直接影响着阀控液压系统中的压力冲击。缩短管路长度和适当延长阀开启时间,都能有效减小阀控系统中的压力冲击。这为飞机液压系统中元部件的布局和设计提供了方向,为飞机液压系统的完善和优化提供了依据。

  12. Symplectic system based analytical solution for bending of rectangular orthotropic plates on Winkler elastic foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-An Yao; Xiao-Fei Hu; Feng Xiao

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the bending of rectangular orthotropic plates on a Winkler elastic foundation.Appropriate definition of symplectic inner product and symplectic space formed by generalized displacements establish dual variables and dual equations in the symplectic space.The operator matrix of the equation set is proven to be a Hamilton operator matrix.Separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion creates a basis for analyzing the bending of rectangular orthotropic plates on Winkler elastic foundation and obtaining solutions for plates having any boundary condition.There is discussion of symplectic eigenvalue problems of orthotropic plates under two typical boundary conditions,with opposite sides simply supported and opposite sides clamped.Transcendental equations of eigenvalues and symplectic eigenvectors in analytical form given.Analytical solutions using two examples are presented to show the use of the new methods described in this paper.To verify the accuracy and convergence,a fully simply supported plate that is fully and simply supported under uniformly distributed load is used to compare the classical Navier method,the Levy method and the new method.Results show that the new technique has good accuracy and better convergence speed than other methods,especially in relation to internal forces.A fully clamped rectangular plate on Winkler foundation is solved to validate application of the new methods,with solutions compared to those produced by the Galerkin method.

  13. A counterexample of the Euler condition:the Appell-Hamel dynamical system on a horizontally moving plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shan-Shan; Li Shu-Min; Berakdax Jamal

    2009-01-01

    As a counterexample of the Euler condition for nonholonomic constraint problems [H.C.Shen,Acta Phys.Sin.54,2468 (2005)],we investigate the Apell-Hamel dynamical system on a horizontally moving plate.The inconsistency of the results with Newton mechanics suggests that the Euler condition is not a universal model for nonlinear nonholonomic systems.This is attributed to the fact that the virtual displacements so obtained are not normal to the constraint forces.

  14. Research on Flow Field Characteristics Affected by Obstacles of Pull-Push Ventilation System of Plating Tanks through Numerical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Hong; Yi Can-nan

    2016-01-01

    Pull-push ventilation system, with high capture efficiency, is universally used to capture contaminants from containment generation where can’t be enclosed and where the working area is large. When there are obstacles between the pull hood and the push hood, the air jet will disperse, leaving contaminants out of control, causing atmosphere polluted. This paper aims to discuss flow filed of pull-push ventilation system, located in some tank of some plating workshop, with obstacles between pull...

  15. Research on Flow Field Characteristics Affected by Obstacles of Pull-Push Ventilation System of Plating Tanks through Numerical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Hong; Yi Can-nan

    2016-01-01

    Pull-push ventilation system, with high capture efficiency, is universally used to capture contaminants from containment generation where can’t be enclosed and where the working area is large. When there are obstacles between the pull hood and the push hood, the air jet will disperse, leaving contaminants out of control, causing atmosphere polluted. This paper aims to discuss flow filed of pull-push ventilation system, located in some tank of some plating workshop, with obstacles between pull...

  16. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Atakan, Kuvvet; Pedersen, Helle; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Sciences: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding the geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS has now started its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP). One of the main challenges during the implementation phase is the integration of multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations

  17. Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-09-01

    Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.

  18. Observation of thermoacoustic shock waves in a resonance tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwa, Tetsushi; Sobata, Kazuya; Otake, Shota; Yazaki, Taichi

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports thermally induced shock waves observed in an acoustic resonance tube. Self-sustained oscillations of a gas column were created by imposing an axial temperature gradient on the short stack of plates installed in the resonance tube filled with air at atmospheric pressure. The tube length and axial position of the stack were examined so as to make the acoustic amplitude of the gas oscillations maximum. The periodic shock wave was observed when the acoustic pressure amplitude reached 8.3 kPa at the fundamental frequency. Measurements of the acoustic intensity show that the energy absorption in the stack region with the temperature gradient tends to prevent the nonlinear excitation of harmonic oscillations, which explains why the shock waves had been unfavorable in the resonance tube thermoacoustic systems.

  19. Evaluation of protection systems for the lower extremity against the shock and blast effects resulting from anti-personnel mines using the Surrogate Lower Leg (SLL)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Surrogate Lower Leg (SLL) accurately represents the behaviour of the Human Lower Leg during anti-personnel blast mine detonations. The SLL also incorporates a Developmental Sensor System capable of measuring shock progression within the SLL...

  20. Analysis of the Thermal Performance of a Solar Water Heating System with Flat Plate Collectors in a Temperate Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Ayompe, Lacour; DUFFY Aidan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal performance of a solar water heating system with 4 m2 flat plate collectors in Dublin, Ireland is presented in this paper. The experimental setup consisted of a commercially available forced circulation domestic scale system fitted with an automated sub‐system that controlled hot water draw‐offs and the operation of an auxiliary immersion heater. The system was tested over a year and the maximum recorded collector outlet fluid temperature was 70.4 oC while the maximum water temper...

  1. Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

  2. Analysis and Performance Improvement of WPT Systems in the Environment of Single Non-Ferromagnetic Metal Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer (WPT is greatly affected when the transmission channel is surrounded by non-ferromagnetic metallic objects and the alternating magnetic field interacts with the metal conductor, which is more of an issue in wirelessly charged electric vehicle (EV applications. This paper analyses the performances of a WPT system in an environment with a non-ferromagnetic metal plate. The impedance model of the WPT system in the metal environment is established. Moreover the variation law of a coil’s equivalent inductance and resistance is deduced when the coil is surrounded by the non-ferromagnetic metal plate. Meanwhile, simulations, theory and experiments all confirm that the model is correct. Finally, since the system performance of a wireless charging system is influenced by non-ferromagnetic metals, this paper puts forward a method to improve the performance, that is, to place ferrite cores between the receiving coil and a metal plate. Experiments are carried out to verify the method, and the desired results are achieved.

  3. Numerical investigation of coalescing plate system to understand the separation of water and oil in water treatment plant of petroleum industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Yayla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely utilized process of produced water treatment is considered to be use of coalescing or corrugated plate systems in the oil industry because these systems have promising results in the acceleration of the separation process. Even use of corrugated plate systems seem to be effective in separation processes, the geometrical parameters of the plate system could greatly influence the performance of separation process. In this study, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model for coalescing plates was developed to investigate Reynolds number and plate hole shape on separation efficiency. Spacing between plates was set to 12 mm while fluid mixture’s Reynolds number varied between 5 and 45 for the computational model. Hole profile and dimensions were determined to be cylindrical, rectangular and ellipse shapes as 10, 15 and 20 mm based on hydraulic diameter definition, respectively. Furthermore, when hole profiles of coalescing plates were chosen to be ellipse and rectangular shapes, separation efficiency nearly stayed constant regardless of hole dimension. The study also reported that change of oil fraction from 5% to 15% caused approximately 30% increase in the separation efficiency. The investigation also revealed Reynolds number of the mixture was inversely proportional to the separation efficiency. It was also found that the highest separation efficiency was obtained for a cylindrical shape with a hole diameter of 15 mm when distance between plates was 12 mm and Reynolds number was 18.

  4. 用于造船的夹层板构件(SPS)%A new concept for a new age Sandwich Plate System (SPS) for shipbuilding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄沛成

    2005-01-01

    The revolutionary Sandwich Plate System (SPS) is superior in every practical way to conventional, stiffened steel plate. A totally new concept in heavy engineering construction, SPS, a steelelastomer-steel structural laminate, is a new-generation building material bringing the shipbuilding and civil engineering industries to the threshold of a new era.

  5. The Use of the String of Pearls Locking Plate System in the Stabilisation of a Comminuted Calcaneal Fracture in a Giant Breed Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Scrimgeour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight-year-old male Pyrenean mountain dog was presented with a comminuted fracture of the right calcaneus following motor vehicle trauma. The fracture was stabilised with a plate-rod construct, using the String of Pearls locking plate system and an intramedullary pin. Healing was uncomplicated.

  6. The Local CNP/GC-B system in growth plate is responsible for physiological endochondral bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Kazumasa; Osawa, Kenji; Yasoda, Akihiro; Yamanaka, Shigeki; Fujii, Toshihito; Kondo, Eri; Koyama, Noriaki; Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Miura, Masako; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2015-05-27

    Recent studies revealed C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor, guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B) are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth. As they exist ubiquitously in body, we investigated the physiological role of the local CNP/GC-B in the growth plate on bone growth using cartilage-specific knockout mice. Bones were severely shorter in cartilage-specific CNP or GC-B knockout mice and the extent was almost the same as that in respective systemic knockout mice. Cartilage-specific GC-B knockout mice were shorter than cartilage-specific CNP knockout mice. Hypertrophic chondrocyte layer of the growth plate was drastically reduced and proliferative chondrocyte layer, along with the proliferation of chondrocytes there, was moderately reduced in either cartilage-specific knockout mice. The survival rate of cartilage-specific CNP knockout mice was comparable to that of systemic CNP knockout mice. The local CNP/GC-B system in growth plate is responsible for physiological endochondral bone growth and might further affect mortality via unknown mechanisms.

  7. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  8. A parallel plate avalanche detector system for the localization of relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgei, R.; Demoulins, M.; Cavata, C.; Fanet, H.; Gosset, J.; Le Merdy, A.; L' Hote, D.; Lucas, B.; Lugol, J.C.; Poitou, J.; Valette, O. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire); Lemaire, M.C. (Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France) CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Recherche Fondamentale (IRF))

    1990-02-15

    Parallel plate avalanche counters have been designed and used for the localization of relativistic heavy ions. They have been tested with alpha particles from a {sup 241}Am source. They have been used with the heavy-ion beams from Saturne in conjunction with the 4{pi} detector Diogene. They provide an accurate measurement of the vertex position with high efficiency. (orig.).

  9. Computerized Ultrasonic System for On-Line Determination of Chromium Thickness During Plating of Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Giordano, Fred Nelson, and John Askew for their cooperation during the shop plating runs; Glen Friar for his encouragement; William Korman for his usual...ATTN: DEPT FOR SCI AND TECH I ATTN: SMCRI-ENM THE PENTAGON ROCK ISLAND, IL 61299-5000 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20310-0103 MIAC/ CINDAS ADMINISTRATOR PURDUE

  10. Accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system in children with septic shock: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhudesai, Sumant; Kanjani, Amruta; Bhagat, Isha; Ravikumar, Karnam G.; Ramachandran, Bala

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to determine the accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in children with septic shock. Subjects and Methods: Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with septic shock were included. A real-time CGMS sensor was used to obtain interstitial glucose readings. CGMS readings were compared statistically with simultaneous laboratory blood glucose (BG). Results: Nineteen children were included, and 235 pairs of BG-CGMS readings were obtained. BG and CGMS had a correlation coefficient of 0.61 (P 180 mg/dL, 44%, 100%, and 76.9% readings were in zones A and B, respectively (P 141 mg/dL predicted hyperglycemia (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 89.6%, AUC = 0.87). Conclusion: CGMS provides a fairly, accurate estimate of BG in children with septic shock. It is unaffected by a variety of clinical variables. The accuracy over extremes of blood sugar may be a concern. We recommend larger studies to evaluate its use for the early detection of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. PMID:26730114

  11. Accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system in children with septic shock: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumant Prabhudesai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to determine the accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS in children with septic shock. Subjects and Methods: Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with septic shock were included. A real-time CGMS sensor was used to obtain interstitial glucose readings. CGMS readings were compared statistically with simultaneous laboratory blood glucose (BG. Results: Nineteen children were included, and 235 pairs of BG-CGMS readings were obtained. BG and CGMS had a correlation coefficient of 0.61 (P 180 mg/dL, 44%, 100%, and 76.9% readings were in zones A and B, respectively (P 141 mg/dL predicted hyperglycemia (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 89.6%, AUC = 0.87. Conclusion: CGMS provides a fairly, accurate estimate of BG in children with septic shock. It is unaffected by a variety of clinical variables. The accuracy over extremes of blood sugar may be a concern. We recommend larger studies to evaluate its use for the early detection of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.

  12. [Cardiogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houegnifioh, Komlanvi Kafui; Gfeller, Etienne; Garcia, Wenceslao; Ribordy, Vincent

    2014-08-13

    Cardiogenic shock, especially when it complicates a myocardial infarction, is still associated with high mortality rate. Emergency department or first care physicians are often the first providers to assess the cardiogenic shock patient, and plays thereby a key role in achieving a timely diagnosis and treatment. This review will detail the actual physiopathology understanding of the cardiogenic shock, its diagnosis and management focusing on the care within the emergency department.

  13. Numerical Investigation of a Tuned Heave Plate Energy-Harvesting System of a Semi-Submersible Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel tuned heave plate energy-harvesting system (THPEH is presented for the motion suppressing and energy harvesting of a semi-submersible platform. This THPEH system is designed based on the principle of a tuned mass damper (TMD and is composed of spring supports, a power take-off system (PTO and four movable heave plates. The permanent magnet linear generators (PMLG are used as the PTO system in this design. A semi-submersible platform operating in the South China Sea is selected as the research subject for investigating the effects of the THPEH system on motion reduction and harvesting energy through numerical simulations. The numerical model of the platform and the THPEH system, which was established based on hydrodynamic analysis, is modified and validated by the results of the flume test of a 1:70 scale model. The effects of the parameters, including the size, the frequency ratio and the damping ratio of the THPEH system, are systematically investigated. The results show that this THPEH system, with proper parameters, could significantly reduce the motions of the semi-submersible platform and generate considerable power under different wave conditions.

  14. 100 Ma: the new frontier for quantitative global models of the coupled brittle-plates/viscous-mantle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Ingo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, Rhodri

    2014-05-01

    Over recent decades the body of geophysical datasets has grown substantially and rapidly. Ocean-floor observations now allow one to unravel past plate motions (for instance, in the North Atlantic and Indian Ocean over the past 20 Myr) at the unprecedented temporal resolution of about 1 Myr; and more data is anticipated in the near future. Similarly, our knowledge of continental evolution has grown due to advances in interpreting the records of orogeny and sedimentation. Altogether, these ever-growing datasets allow us to reconstruct the past evolution of Earth's lithospheric plates in greater detail than previously achieved. This is key to unravel the dynamics of geological processes, because reconstructed plate motions and their temporal changes are a powerful probe into the evolving balance of shallow- and deep-rooted forces. Such progress, however, is not yet matched by the ability to quantitatively model past plate-motion changes and, therefore to test hypotheses on the dominant geological controls. The main technical challenge is simulating the rheological behaviour of the plates/mantle system, which varies significantly from viscous to brittle. Classically, computer models for viscous mantle flow and for the piecewise motions of the brittle lithosphere have been developed separately. In recent years, coupling of these two independent classes of models has been pioneered, but only for neo-tectonic scenarios (i.e. past few Myr), and with some limitations as to accounting for the impact of evolving mantle-flow on plate motions. It is now timely to further advance the technical ability to simulate the coupled plates/mantle system through geological time (for instance throughout the Cenozoic and possibly the Cretaceous), and to use the growing body of geophysical data as a primary constraint on these quantitative models. In this project, we take steps in this direction. We build on previous work aimed at coupling two advanced codes for mantle flow and lithosphere

  15. Numerical and experimental investigations of pseudo-shock systems in a planar nozzle: impact of bypass mass flow due to narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglmaier, M.; Quaatz, J. F.; Gawehn, T.; Gülhan, A.; Adams, N. A.

    2014-03-01

    During previous investigations on pseudo-shock systems, we have observed reproducible differences between measurement and simulations for the pressure distribution as well as for size and shape of the pseudo-shock system. A systematic analysis of the deviations leads to the conclusion that small gaps of m between quartz glass side walls and metal contour of the test section are responsible for this mismatch. This paper describes a targeted experimental and numerical study of the bypass mass flow within these gaps and its interaction with the main flow. In detail, we analyze how the pressure distribution within the channel as well as the size, shape and oscillation of the pseudo-shock system are affected by the gap size. Numerical simulations are performed to display the flow inside the gaps and to reproduce and explain the experimental results. Numerical and experimental schlieren images of the pseudo-shock system are in good agreement and show that especially the structure of the primary shock is significantly altered by the presence of small gaps. Extensive unsteady flow simulations of the geometry with gaps reveal that the shear layer between subsonic gap flow and supersonic core flow is subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting in small pressure fluctuations. This leads to a shock oscillation with a frequency of . The corresponding time scale (s) is 16 times higher than the characteristic time scale of the boundary layer given by the ratio of the boundary layer thickness directly ahead of the shock and the undisturbed free stream velocity . To assess the reliability of our numerical investigations, the paper includes a grid study as well as an extensive comparison of several RANS turbulence models and their impact on the predicted shape of pseudo-shock systems.

  16. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  17. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Distributed Data Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Eakins, J.; Hodgkinson, K.; Matykiewicz, J.; Beldyk, M.; Blackman, B.; Boler, F.; Henderson, B.; Hoyt, B.; Lee, E.; Persson, E.; Smith, J.; Torrez, D.; Wright, J.; Jackson, M.; Meertens, C.

    2007-05-01

    EarthScope is an ambitious multi-year project funded by the United States National Science Foundation to explore the structure and dynamics of the North American continent using a wide range of geophysical methods. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), being built by UNAVCO, is the geodetic component of EarthScope, and will comprise 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters; in addition, PBO will manage data for 209 existing GPS stations and 11 GPS stations installed by the USArray segment of EarthScope. As of February 2007, 561 of these stations have been installed. PBO data flow is managed from the PBO Boulder Network Operations Center (NOC), located at UNAVCO Headquarters. Automated systems at the NOC retrieve data from our stations at least daily, monitor the status of the network and alert operators to problems, and pass data on for analysis, archiving, and distribution. Real-time network status can be found at http:pboweb.unavco.org/soh_map. PBO's analysis centers generate high-quality derived data products from PBO raw data. Two centers, at Central Washington University and the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, process raw GPS data to produce initial PBO GPS products including network solutions and station position time series, andthese products are combined by the Analysis Center Coordinator at MIT to produce the official PBO GPS products. Two analysis centers, at UNAVCO's Socorro office and the University of California, San Diego, process data from the PBO borehole and laser strainmeter networks and produce cleaned time series of shear, areal, and linear strain, Earth tides, pore fluid pressure, and other parameters. The UNAVCO Facility archives and distributes all PBO GPS data products and runs a secondary archive offsite; to date, these centers hold more than 2.5 TB of PBO products. The IRIS Data Management Center and Northern California Earthquake Data Center archive and

  18. Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shock Compressed Quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Atomistic non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of shock wave compression of quartz have been performed using the so-called BKS semi-empirical potential of van Beest, Kramer and van Santen to construct the Hugoniot of quartz. Our scheme mimics the real world experimental set up by using a flyer-plate impactor to initiate the shock wave and is the first shock wave simulation that uses a geom- etry optimised system of a polar slab in a 3-dimensional system employing periodic boundary conditions. Our scheme also includes the relaxation of the surface dipole in the polar quartz slab which is an essential pre-requisite to a stable simulation. The original BKS potential is unsuited to shock wave calculations and so we propose a simple modification. With this modification, we find that our calculated Hugoniot is in good agreement with experimental shock wave data up to 25 GPa, but significantly diverges beyond this point. We conclude that our modified BKS potential is suitable for quartz under repres...

  19. Mechanisms of systemic vasodilation by lysozyme-c in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotes, Jose; Kasian, Krika; Jacobs, Hans; Cheng, Zhao-Qin; Mink, Steven N

    2012-02-01

    In septic shock (SS), cardiovascular collapse is caused by the release of inflammatory mediators. We previously found that lysozyme-c (Lzm-S), released from leukocytes, contributed to systemic vasodilation in a canine model of SS. We then delineated the pathway by which this occurs in a canine carotid artery organ bath preparation (CAP). We showed that Lzm-S could intrinsically generate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and that H(2)O(2) subsequently reacted with endogenous catalase to form compound I, an oxidized form of catalase. In turn, compound I led to an increase in cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate to produce vasodilation. However, it was not clear from previous studies whether it is necessary for Lzm-S to bind to the vasculature to cause vasodilation or, alternatively, whether the generation of H(2)O(2) by Lzm-S in the surrounding medium is all that is required. We examined this question in the present study in which we used multiple preparations. In a partitioned CAP, we found that when we added Lzm-S to a partitioned space in which a semipermeable membrane prevented diffusion of Lzm-S to the carotid artery tissue, vasodilation still occurred because of diffusion of H(2)O(2). On the other hand, we found that Lzm-S could accumulate within the vascular smooth muscle layer (VSML) after 7 h of SS in a canine model. We also determined that when Lzm-S was located in close proximity to vascular smooth muscle cells, it could generate H(2)O(2) to produce lengthening in a human cell culture preparation. We conclude that there are two mechanisms by which Lzm-S can cause vasodilation in SS. In one instance, H(2)O(2) generated by Lzm-S in plasma diffuses to the VSML to cause vasodilation. In a second mechanism, Lzm-S directly binds to the VSML, where it generates H(2)O(2) to produce vasodilation.

  20. A Serial Sample Loading System: Interfacing Multi-well plates with Microfluidic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rane, Tushar D.; Zec, Helena; Wang, Jeff Tza-Huei

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for novel high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. The robotic sample handling techniques currently used in these industries, although fast, are still limited to operating in multi-well plates with the sample volumes per reaction in the microliter regime. Digital microfluidics offers an alternative for reduction in sample volume consumption for HTS but lacks a reliable technique for transporting large num...

  1. Pressure shock analyses in a power plant cooling system and a hydraulic stowing system in a potassium mine; Druckstossanalysen am Beispiel eines Kraftwerkskuehlsystems und einer Spuelversatzanlage im Kalibergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H. [Babcock Borsig Power Service GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Pressure shocks in pipeline systems are caused by acceleration or delaying of fluid flow. They depend on the acceleration or delay rate, the medium density, and the local sound velocity with which the pressure waves propagate. Pressure shocks cause dynamic external loads which may cause damage to pipes, connections or supports and should therefore precalculated already in the planning stage in order to prevent damage. The contribution shows how precalculation of the flow data in a complex, meshed pipeline system will help to optimize the sytem and to maintain its integrity in case of pressure shocks. [German] Druckstoesse in Leitungssystemen werden erzeugt, wenn ein Fluid beschleunigt oder abgebremst (verzoegert wird). Die Groesse dieser Druckstoesse haengt von der Verzoegerung (Beschleunigung) deren Mediumsdichte sowie von der oertlichen Schallgeschwindigkeit ab mit der sich diese Druckwellen fortpflanzen. Druckstoesse bewirken nicht nur eine kurzzeitige Druckaenderung im System, sondern erzeugen dynamische aeussere Lasten, die erhebliche Groessen annehmen und fuer diverse Schaeden an Leitungen, Anschluessen oder Unterstuetzungen verantwortlich sein koennen. Daher ist die Berechnung im voraus wuenschenswert und notwendig, um schon in der Planung entsprechende konstruktive Massnahmen einfliessen zu lassen, damit keine Ueberbeanspruchung des Systems eintreten kann. In den vorliegenden Analysen wird gezeigt, dass fuer ein komplexes, vermaschtes Rohrleitungssystem mit Rueckschlagklappen und Pumpen bei Pumpenausfall durch Vorausberechnungen der Stroemungsdaten, wie Massenstroeme, Stroemungsgeschwindigkeiten, Druecke usw., fuer verschiedene Lastfaelle eine Systemoptimierung durchgefuehrt werden kann. Ausserdem wird gezeigt, dass durch geeignete Massnahmen bei einer Spuelversatzanlage der Druckstoss so abgemindert werden kann, dass die Integritaet des Systems gewaehrleistet wird. (orig.)

  2. Synergistic effect of heat-shock and UV-irradiation on mitosis and protein synthesis in G2-phase plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum Schw--reduction in UV-induced mitotic delay in a preheat-shocked system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P R; Nair, R V

    1991-04-01

    The synergistic effect of UV irradiation and heat-shock during the last 3 hr of G2 phase of the cell cycle in the plasmodia of P. polycephalum, in terms of mitotic delay and inhibition of protein synthesis, has been evaluated. The mitotic delay due to both perturbers coordinately increased closer to mitosis. Maximum mitotic delay was obtained in plasmodia heat-shocked after UV irradiation, indicating the presence in this system of either a heat-labile mitogenic substance which is comparatively less susceptible to UV or a substance which is made more susceptible to hyperthermia by UV. A protective role for heat-shock applied before irradiation has been observed in that, radiation-induced mitotic delay is significantly reduced in this combination. There was severe inhibition of translation in all the perturbed classes. Organelle level effects which are independent of major protein synthetic activities or different levels of heat-shock protein production could be the reason for the lack of correlation between percentage inhibition of general protein synthesis and the extent of mitotic delay with respect to the two double-perturbed systems.

  3. Understanding plate-motion changes over the past 100 Myr with quantitative models of the coupled lithosphere/mantle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Ingo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Rhodri Davies, D.

    2015-04-01

    The volume of geophysical datasets has grown substantially over recent decades. Our knowledge of continental evolution has increased due to advances in interpreting the records of orogeny and sedimentation. Ocean-floor observations now allow one to resolve past plate motions (e.g. in the North Atlantic and Indian Ocean over the past 20 Myr) at temporal resolutions of about 1 Myr. Altogether, these ever-growing datasets allow us to reconstruct the past evolution of Earth's lithospheric plates in greater detail. This is key to unravelling the dynamics of geological processes, because plate motions and their temporal changes are powerful probe into the evolving force balance between shallow- and deep-rooted processes. However, such progress is not yet matched by the ability to quantitatively model past plate-motion changes and, therefore, to test hypotheses on the dominant controls. The main technical challenge is simulating the rheological behaviour of the lithosphere/mantle system, which varies significantly from viscous to brittle. Traditionally computer models for viscous mantle flow on the one hand, and for the motions of the brittle lithosphere on the other hand, have been developed separately. Coupling of these two independent classes of models has been accomplished only for neo-tectonic scenarios, without accounting for the impact of time-evolving mantle-flow (e.g. Iaffaldano and Bunge 2009). However, we have built a coupled model to simulate the lithosphere/mantle system (using SHELLS and TERRA, respectively) through geological time, and to exploit the growing body of geophysical data as a primary constraint on these quantitative models. TERRA is a global spherical finite-element code for mantle convection (e.g. Baumgardner 1985, Bunge et al. 1996, Davies et al. 2013), whilst SHELLS is a thin-sheet finite-element code for lithosphere dynamics (e.g. Bird 1998). Our efforts are focused, in particular, on achieving the technical ability to: (i) simulate the

  4. Reentry Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan, You remember the pain of culture and reentry shock; humor me please; let mereview the facts for the sake of the students you are sending here in greater numbers.Culture shock is the emotional pain that people experience when they visit a newcountry and find customs, experiences, smells, and non-verbal communication stylesto be different from their own country.

  5. Variable microstructural response of baddeleyite to shock metamorphism in young basaltic shergottite NWA 5298 and improved U-Pb dating of Solar System events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, James R.; Moser, Desmond E.; Barker, Ivan R.; Tait, Kim T.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Hyde, Brendt C.

    2016-06-01

    The accurate dating of igneous and impact events is vital for the understanding of Solar System evolution, but has been hampered by limited knowledge of how shock metamorphism affects mineral and whole-rock isotopic systems used for geochronology. Baddeleyite (monoclinic ZrO2) is a refractory mineral chronometer of great potential to date these processes due to its widespread occurrence in achondrites and robust U-Pb isotopic systematics, but there is little understanding of shock-effects on this phase. Here we present new nano-structural measurements of baddeleyite grains in a thin-section of the highly-shocked basaltic shergottite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5298, using high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques, to investigate shock-effects and their linkage with U-Pb isotopic disturbance that has previously been documented by in-situ U-Pb isotopic analyses. The shock-altered state of originally igneous baddeleyite grains is highly variable across the thin-section and often within single grains. Analyzed grains range from those that preserve primary (magmatic) twinning and trace-element zonation (baddeleyite shock Group 1), to quasi-amorphous ZrO2 (Group 2) and to recrystallized micro-granular domains of baddeleyite (Group 3). These groups correlate closely with measured U-Pb isotope compositions. Primary igneous features in Group 1 baddeleyites (n = 5) are retained in high shock impedance grain environments, and an average of these grains yields a revised late-Amazonian magmatic crystallization age of 175 ± 30 Ma for this shergottite. The youngest U-Pb dates occur from Group 3 recrystallized nano- to micro-granular baddeleyite grains, indicating that it is post-shock heating and new mineral growth that drives much of the isotopic disturbance, rather than just shock deformation and phase transitions. Our data demonstrate that a systematic multi-stage microstructural evolution in

  6. Radiative effects in radiative shocks in shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. P.; Doss, F. W.; McClarren, R. G.; Adams, M. L.; Amato, N.; Bingham, D.; Chou, C. C.; DiStefano, C.; Fidkowski, K.; Fryxell, B.; Gombosi, T. I.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Holloway, J. P.; van der Holst, B.; Huntington, C. M.; Karni, S.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Larsen, E.; van Leer, B.; Mallick, B.; Marion, D.; Martin, W.; Morel, J. E.; Myra, E. S.; Nair, V.; Powell, K. G.; Rauchwerger, L.; Roe, P.; Rutter, E.; Sokolov, I. V.; Stout, Q.; Torralva, B. R.; Toth, G.; Thornton, K.; Visco, A. J.

    2011-09-01

    Using modern high-energy-density facilities it is straightforward to produce radiative shock waves in which the transfer of energy by radiation controls the hydrodynamic structure of the system. Some of these experiments use shock tubes. This paper discusses such experiments, with an emphasis on the simple physical relations that determine the primary features of such shocks and on the details and impact of radiative energy transfer in such systems. Notable aspects include the creation of high-density shocked layers, the flow of radiative energy toward regions of higher energy density, and the creation of secondary shocks by ablation of the tube walls ahead of the primary shock front. Simulations of one such experimental system are also shown.

  7. Organization of the Indian hedgehog--parathyroid hormone-related protein system in the postnatal growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Michael; Forcinito, Patricia; Andrade, Anenisia C; Hegde, Anita; Ahn, Sohyun; Lui, Julian C; Baron, Jeffrey; Nilsson, Ola

    2011-08-01

    In embryonic growth cartilage, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) participate in a negative feedback loop that regulates chondrocyte differentiation. Postnatally, this region undergoes major structural and functional changes. To explore the organization of the Ihh–PTHrP system in postnatal growth plate, we microdissected growth plates of 7-day-old rats into their constituent zones and assessed expression of genes participating in the h–PTHrP feedback loop. Ihh, Patched 1, Smoothened, Gli1, Gli2, Gli3, and Pthr1 were expressed in regions analogous to the expression domains in embryonic growth cartilage. However, PTHrP was expressed in resting zone cartilage, a site that differs from the embryonic source, the periarticular cells. We then used mice in which lacZ has replaced coding sequences of Gli1 and thus serves as a marker for active hedgehog signaling. At 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of age, lacZ expression was detected in a pattern analogous to that of embryonic cartilage. The findings support the hypothesis that the embryonic Ihh–PTHrP feedback loop is maintained in the postnatal growth plate except that the source of PTHrP has shifted to a more proximal location in the resting zone.

  8. Method and System for Weakening Shock Wave Strength at Leading Edge Surfaces of Vehicle in Supersonic Atmospheric Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Endwell O. (Inventor); Pritchett, Victor E., II (Inventor); Wang, Ten-See (Inventor); Farr, Rebecca Ann (Inventor); Auslender, Aaron Howard (Inventor); Blankson, Isaiah M. (Inventor); Plotkin, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system are provided to weaken shock wave strength at leading edge surfaces of a vehicle in atmospheric flight. One or more flight-related attribute sensed along a vehicle's outer mold line are used to control the injection of a non-heated, non-plasma-producing gas into a local external flowfield of the vehicle from at least one leading-edge surface location along the vehicle's outer mold line. Pressure and/or mass flow rate of the gas so-injected is adjusted in order to cause a Rankine-Hugoniot Jump Condition along the vehicle's outer mold line to be violated.

  9. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  10. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tayeb, A., E-mail: ahmed.khalil@ejust.edu.eg; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F. [Egypt−Japan University of Science and Technology, Chemicals and Petrochemicals Engineering Department (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, A. B. [Egypt−Japan University of Science and Technology, Electronics and Communications Engineering Department (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O{sub 3} in air discharge, O{sub 3} in water, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  11. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tayeb, A.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.; Abdel-Rahman, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O3 in air discharge, O3 in water, and H2O2) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  12. Control Volume Analysis of Boundary Layer Ingesting Propulsion Systems With or Without Shock Wave Ahead of the Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Felder, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance benefit of boundary layer or wake ingestion on marine and air vehicles has been well documented and explored. In this article, a quasi-one-dimensional boundary layer ingestion (BLI) benefit analysis for subsonic and transonic propulsion systems is performed using a control volume of a ducted propulsion system that ingests the boundary layer developed by the external airframe surface. To illustrate the BLI benefit, a relationship between the amount of BLI and the net thrust is established and analyzed for two propulsor types. One propulsor is an electric fan, and the other is a pure turbojet. These engines can be modeled as a turbofan with an infinite bypass ratio for the electric fan, and with a zero bypass ratio for the pure turbojet. The analysis considers two flow processes: a boundary layer being ingested by an aircraft inlet and a shock wave sitting in front of the inlet. Though the two processes are completely unrelated, both represent a loss of total pressure and velocity. In real applications, it is possible to have both processes occurring in front of the inlet of a transonic vehicle. Preliminary analysis indicates that the electrically driven propulsion system benefits most from the boundary layer ingestion and the presence of transonic shock waves, whereas the benefit for the turbojet engine is near zero or negative depending on the amount of total temperature rise across the engine.

  13. Black trivalent chromium plating process in sulfate system at normal temperature%硫酸盐体系三价铬常温电镀黑铬工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 赖奂汶

    2012-01-01

    A novel process called Trich-7677 for black trivalent chromium plating in sulfate system was developed. The deposition rate of the given process reaches 0.031μm/min. The plating bath has advantages of low energy consumption, high stability, simple operation, and easy maintenance. The chromium coating is smooth and gun-black with a thickness of 0.2 μm, does not tarnish after neutral salt spray test for 48 h, and can pass the steady-state damp heat test, cold-heat shock test, and artificial sweat test.%开发了Trich-7677硫酸盐体系三价铬电镀黑铬的新工艺.该工艺在常温下的沉积速率达0.031μm/min,能耗低,镀液性能稳定,操作简单,便于维护.镀层光滑,呈枪黑色,厚度可达0.2μm,中性盐雾试验48h不变色,恒定湿热试验、冷热冲击试验和人造汗液测试均合格.

  14. Short-term effects of phenylephrine on systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with septic shock: a crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Andrea; Lange, Matthias; Ertmer, Christian; Dünser, Martin; Rehberg, Sebastian; Bachetoni, Alessandra; D'Alessandro, Marladomenica; Van Aken, Hugo; Guarracino, Fabio; Pietropaoli, Paolo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Clinical studies evaluating the use of phenylephrine in septic shock are lacking. The present study was designed as a prospective, crossover pilot study to compare the effects of norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine on systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with catecholamine-dependent septic shock. In 15 septic shock patients, NE (0.82 +/- 0.689 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was replaced with phenylephrine (4.39 +/- 5.23 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) titrated to maintain MAP between 65 and 75 mmHg. After 8 h of phenylephrine infusion treatment was switched back to NE. Data from right heart catheterization, acid-base balance, thermo-dye dilution catheter, gastric tonometry, and renal function were obtained before, during, and after replacing NE with phenylephrine. Variables of systemic hemodynamics, global oxygen transport, and acid-base balance remained unchanged after replacing NE with phenylephrine except for a significant decrease in heart rate (phenylephrine, 89 +/- 18 vs. NE, 93 +/- 18 bpm; P < 0.05). However, plasma disappearance rate (phenylephrine, 13.5 +/- 7.1 vs. NE, 16.4 +/- 8.7% x min(-1)) and clearance of indocyanine green (phenylephrine, 330 +/- 197 vs. NE, 380 +/- 227 mL x min(-1) x m(-2)), as well as creatinine clearance (phenylephrine, 81.3 +/- 78.4 vs. NE, 94.3 +/- 93.5 mL x min(-1)) were significantly decreased by phenylephrine infusion (each P < 0.05). In addition, phenylephrine increased arterial lactate concentrations as compared with NE infusion (1.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 1.4 +/- 1.1 mM; P < 0.05). After switching back to NE, all variables returned to values obtained before phenylephrine infusion except creatinine clearance and gastric tonometry values. Our results suggest that for the same MAP, phenylephrine causes a more pronounced hepatosplanchnic vasoconstriction as compared with NE.

  15. Hot spot-derived shock initiation phenomena in heterogeneous nitromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The addition of solid silica particles to gelled nitromethane offers a tractable model system for interrogating the role of impedance mismatches as one type of hot spot 'seed' on the initiation behaviors of explosive formulations. Gas gun-driven plate impact experiments are used to produce well-defined shock inputs into nitromethane-silica mixtures containing size-selected silica beads at 6 wt%. The Pop-plots or relationships between shock input pressure and rundistance (or time)-to-detonation for mixtures containing small (1-4 {micro}m) and large (40 {micro}m) beads are presented. Overall, the addition of beads was found to influence the shock sensitivity of the mixtures, with the smaller beads being more sensitizing than the larger beads, lowering the shock initiation threshold for the same run distance to detonation compared with neat nitromethane. In addition, the use of embedded electromagnetic gauges provides detailed information pertaining to the mechanism of the build-up to detonation and associated reactive flow. Of note, an initiation mechanism characteristic of homogeneous liquid explosives, such as nitromethane, was observed in the nitromethane-40 {micro}m diameter silica samples at high shock input pressures, indicating that the influence of hot spots on the initiation process was minimal under these conditions.

  16. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  17. Isla Guadalupe, a Plate Boundary Observatory Remote GPS System: What's Next in PBO-Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Garcia, J.

    2003-12-01

    As a join project between scientific and technical personnel from Southern California Integrated GPS Network, the University NAVSTAR Consortium, Nanometrics Inc, and CICESE, we installed a VSAT remote communications on Isla Guadalupe in support of data telemetry from a cluster of GPS, meteorological and seismic instrumentation. This Mexican island located between 28\\deg53' and 29\\deg 11'N and 118\\deg 13' to 118\\deg 22'W, lies too far from the main land to allow regular radio link. The station now in operation (GUAX) is near of the early GEOMEX site (GUAD), which recent GPS survey mode result show, is fully located on the Pacific plate within the prediction (1 mm/yr N and 2 mm/yr E) of both the geophysical (NNR-NUVEL1-A) and geodetic (ITRF2000) Plate Tectonic models. Thus, GUAX serve as an important clue to accurately monitor the plate's motion, as well as a reference for studies of California Borderland deformation. During the last 5 years we have built two more sites in northern Baja California: SPMX (1998) and CORX (2000); these together with the IGS station in Ensenada (CICE established in 1995 and replaced by CIC1 in 1999), became part of SCIGN-SOPAC (http://sopac.ucsd.edu, www.scign.org). In Mexico the major organizations working with GPS are INEGI (15 sites) and UNAM (different groups: 20-25 sites). Other State Universities and agencies are increasingly using permanent GPS stations for diverse purposes. It seems that in order to achieve our commitment for PBO-Mexico we must to follow the PGGA/SCIGN/CSRC waybill.

  18. Transient thermal hydraulic modeling and analysis of ITER divertor plate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: selmorshedy@etrr2-aea.org.eg; Hassanein, Ahmed [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)], E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu

    2009-12-15

    A mathematical model has been developed/updated to simulate the steady state and transient thermal-hydraulics of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor module. The model predicts the thermal response of the armour coating, divertor plate structural materials and coolant channels. The selected heat transfer correlations cover all operating conditions of ITER under both normal and off-normal situations. The model also accounts for the melting, vaporization, and solidification of the armour material. The developed model is to provide a quick benchmark of the HEIGHTS multidimensional comprehensive simulation package. The present model divides the coolant channels into a specified axial regions and the divertor plate into a specified radial zones, then a two-dimensional heat conduction calculation is created to predict the temperature distribution for both steady and transient states. The model is benchmarked against experimental data performed at Sandia National Laboratory for both bare and swirl tape coolant channel mockups. The results show very good agreements with the data for steady and transient states. The model is then used to predict the thermal behavior of the ITER plasma facing and structural materials due to plasma instability event where 60 MJ/m{sup 2} plasma energy is deposited over 500 ms. The results for ITER divertor response is analyzed and compared with HEIGHTS results.

  19. Intelligent Shock Wave Overpressure Test System%智能化冲击波超压测试系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宏彪; 丁永红; 王俊峰

    2015-01-01

    Impact wave overpressure test is an important parameter to measure the damage performance of weapon and ammunition. A new intelligent shock wave pressure measurement system is designed,which is composed of a detection unit,a control unit and a trigger unit. The system has the characteristics of small size,low power consump-tion,anti impact,anti electromagnetic interference,After the shock tube dynamic calibration,the free field experi-ment is applied,and it can record the key signal successfully,and the comparison between the measured data and the empirical formula is proved to be reasonable.%冲击波超压测试是衡量武器弹药毁伤性能的重要参数.设计了一种由探测单元、控制单元、触发单元构成的地面场智能化冲击波超压测试系统.该系统具有体积小、微功耗、抗冲击、抗电磁干扰等特点,通过激波管动态校准后应用于自由场实爆试验,并能成功记录关键信号,将实测数据与经验公式所得数据对比分析,证明了该系统的设计合理性.

  20. A wearable force plate system for the continuous measurement of triaxial ground reaction force in biomechanical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2010-08-01

    The ambulatory measurement of ground reaction force (GRF) and human motion under free-living conditions is convenient, inexpensive and never restricted to gait analysis in a laboratory environment and is therefore much desired by researchers and clinical doctors in biomedical applications. A wearable force plate system was developed by integrating small triaxial force sensors and three-dimensional (3D) inertial sensors for estimating dynamic triaxial GRF in biomechanical applications. The system, in comparison to existent systems, is characterized by being lightweight, thin and easy-to-wear. A six-axial force sensor (Nitta Co., Japan) was used as a verification measurement device to validate the static accuracy of the developed force plate. To evaluate the precision during dynamic gait measurements, we compared the measurements of the triaxial GRF and the center of pressure (CoP) by using the developed system with the reference measurements made using a stationary force plate and an optical motion analysis system. The root mean square (RMS) differences of the two transverse components (x- and y-axes) and the vertical component (z-axis) of the GRF were 4.3 ± 0.9 N, 6.0 ± 1.3 N and 12.1 ± 1.1 N, respectively, corresponding to 5.1 ± 1.1% and 6.5 ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.3 ± 0.2% of the maximum vertical component of GRF. The RMS distance between the two systems' CoP traces was 3.2 ± 0.8 mm, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.3% of the length of the shoe. Moreover, based on the results of the assessment of the influence of the system on natural gait, we found that gait was almost never affected. Therefore, the wearable system as an alternative device can be a potential solution for measuring CoP and triaxial GRF in non-laboratory environments.

  1. Ore—Fluid Systems of Fine Disseminated Gold Deposits Along the Southeastern Margin of the Yangtze Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景荣; 朱恺军; 等

    1995-01-01

    Fine disseminated gold deposits occurring along the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Plate belong to the epithermal type resulting from different systems of ore-forming fluids.According to their sources, the ore-forming fluids can be divided into four systems: a)meteoric water system; b)oil-brine system; c)basin-brine system;and d)magmatic-formation water system.The four hydrothermal systems are responsible for four types of gold deposits, respectively.The meteoric water system produces hot spring gold deposits. The basin-brines,which are derived from fissure water, structural water and absorbed water sealed up in strata, are responsible for the absin-brine-type deposits.The oil-brine system, having the same source as the bain-brines ,is characterized by the involvement of organic matter and is responsible for the oil-brine-type deposits. Inclusion fluid data show that there are obvious differences in chemical composition and carbon, oxygen,hydrogen and sulfur isotopes for these hydrothermal systems.Different metallogenic provinces, in which one of the four systems is dominant, can be recognized in the region.

  2. Prescreening bacterial colonies for bioactive molecules with Janus plates, a SBS standard double-faced microbial culturing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Pascual, Javier; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Martín, Jesús; Kath, Gary S; Sigmund, Janet M; Masurekar, Prakash; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Bills, Gerald F

    2012-08-01

    Despite the availability of many culture-based antibiotic screening methods, the lack of sensitive automated methods to identify functional molecules directly from microbial cells still limits the search for new biologically active compounds. The effectiveness of antibiotic detection is influenced by the solubility of the assayed compounds, indicator strain sensitivity, culture media and assay configuration. We describe a qualitative high throughput screening system for detecting cell-perturbing molecules from bacterial colonies employing two opposed agar layers sequentially formed in prototype Society for Biomolecular Screening (SBS) plates, named Janus plates. Direct assay of microbial colonies against target organisms in opposed agar layers overcomes some of the limitations of agar overlay methods. The system enables the rapid detection of extracellular cell-perturbing molecules, e.g., antibiotics, excreted directly from environmental isolates. The source bacterial colonies remain separate from the target organism. The growth layer is prepared and grown independently, so environmental strains can be grown for longer intervals, at temperatures and in media that favor their growth and metabolite expression, while the assay layer with pathogens, usually requiring nutrient-rich medium and elevated temperatures, are added later. Colonies to be tested can be precisely arrayed on the first agar surface, thus avoiding dispersion and disturbance of potential antibiotic-producing colonies by overlaying agar with the target strain. The rectangular SBS configuration facilitates factorial replication of dense microbial colony arrays for testing with multiple assays and assay conditions employing robotic colony pickers and pin tools. Opposed agar layers only slightly reduced the effectiveness for detecting growth inhibition from pure antibiotics compared to single-layer agar diffusion assays. The Janus plate enabled an automation-assisted workflow where a lone operator can

  3. Systemic Liquidity Shocks and Banking Sector Liquidity Characteristics on the Eve of Liquidity Coverage Ratio Application - The Case of the Czech Republic1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brůna Karel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of the economic and regulatory concept of bank liquidity in the context of systemic liquidity shock. A formal model analysis shows that the application of liquidity coverage ratio (LCR based on Basel III will lead to a significant adaptation of banks liquidity management. LCR causes a change in bank’s liquidity allocation and funding to be less effective and more costly and restrictive for providing credits comparing with economic determinants. It is demonstrated that the application of LCR underestimates actual liquidity position of a bank and leads to allocation ineffectiveness. The empirical part contains simulation of impacts of systemic liquidity shock on the banking sector’s ability to withstand the unfavourable credit shock while solvency is maintained. The results confirm the robustness of the Czech banking system ensuing from the systemic surplus of liquidity, high volume of bank capital and its high profitability. The estimations of the VAR model show that the relations between liquidity characteristics of banks, sources of aggregate liquidity shock, interbank market illiquidity and the credit facilities of the Czech National Bank are relatively weak, supporting the conclusion that the banks face liquidity shocks of non-persistent character.

  4. Novel process for trivalent chromium plating in chloride system and properties of obtained chromium coatings%氯化物体系三价铬电镀新工艺及其镀层性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖奂汶; 郭崇武

    2013-01-01

    开发了Trich-6861氯化物体系三价铬电镀新工艺.通过赫尔槽试验测得不同电流密度下的镀铬速率维持在0.077~0.181 μm/min,且不随电镀时间延长而改变.镀层厚度在0.4 μm以上,表面呈蓝白色,光滑、无裂纹,中性盐雾试验120 h不变色,恒定湿热试验、冷热冲击试验、人造汗液测试和抗化学污染测试均合格.生产实践表明,该工艺镀液性能稳定,操作简单,便于维护,顾客满意度较高.%A novel Trich-6861 process for trivalent chromium plating in chloride system was developed. The deposition rate of the process measured by Hull cell test is 0.077-0.181 μm/min at different current densities, invariable with the extending of plating time. The chromium coating has a thickness of 0.4 μm or above, with blue-white, smooth, and crack-free surface, does not tarnish after neutral salt spray test for 120 h, and can pass the steady-state damp heat test, cold-heat shock test, artificial sweat test, and chemical contamination test. The production practice showed that the plating process has advantages of high bath stability, simple operation, and easy maintenance, and thus has earned a high customer satisfaction.

  5. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality.

  6. [Enhancing resistance of a conventional activated sludge system against shock loading of 2,4-DCP through bioaugmentation with special culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiang-chun; Shi, Han-chang; Lü, Ping-ping; Wang, Jian-long; Qian, Yi

    2004-07-01

    In this study, conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems, which were generally used to treat municipal wastewater, were modeled to receive intermittent 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) shock loadings. The response and stability of the CAS system augmented with special culture and the non-bioaugmented control CAS system under shock loading conditions were compared. The capability of the bioaugmented CAS systems to degrade 2,4-DCP under long-term continuous operation was investigated. Results showed that for the CAS systems with 5% and 15% special culture addition, their degradation of the target pollutants and resistance against shock loadings was enhanced significantly. When 2,4-DCP shock loading occurred within the first 30 days after single inoculation, the bioaugmented CAS systems maintained high degradation ability to the target pollutants. After 70 days continuous operation without 2,4-DCP in feed, when the CAS systems challenged 2,4-DCP again, the effect of bioaugmentation was greatly reduced and the CAS system failed to remove the pollutants and maintain the system stability effectively. Therefore, re-supplementation was needed for further treatment of 2,4-DCP.

  7. Are gauge shocks really shocks?

    CERN Document Server

    Alcubierre, M

    2005-01-01

    The existence of gauge pathologies associated with the Bona-Masso family of generalized harmonic slicing conditions is proven for the case of simple 1+1 relativity. It is shown that these gauge pathologies are true shocks in the sense that the characteristic lines associated with the propagation of the gauge cross, which implies that the name ``gauge shock'' usually given to such pathologies is indeed correct. These gauge shocks are associated with places where the spatial hypersurfaces that determine the foliation of spacetime become non-smooth.

  8. Study of bioadhesion on a flat plate with a yeast/glass model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier-Bonin, M; Ouazzani, K; Schmitz, P; Lorthois, S

    2004-03-15

    The attachment of microorganisms to a surface is a critical first step of biofilm fouling in membrane processes. The shear-induced detachment of baker's yeast in adhesive contact with a plane glass surface was thus experimentally studied, using a specially designed shear stress flow chamber. The yeast was marketed either as rod-shaped pellets (type I yeast) or as spherical pellets (type II yeast). A complete series of experiments for measuring the shear stress necessary to detach a given proportion of individual yeast cells of type I or II was performed under different environmental conditions (ionic strength, contact time). In parallel, the surface physicochemical properties of the cells (surface charge, hydrophobicity, and electron donor and electron acceptor components) were determined. For the first type of yeast cells, which were rather hydrophilic, adhesion to the glass plate was weak. This was due to both electrostatic effects and hydrophilic repulsion. Furthermore, adhesion was not sensitive to any variation of the ionic strength. For yeast of the second type, adhesion was drastically increased. This could be explained by their physicochemical surface properties and especially their hydrophobic and electron acceptor components, which caused strong attractive van der Waals and Lewis acid-base interactions, counterbalancing the electrostatic repulsion. For increasing ionic strengths, adhesion was greater, due to lower electrostatic repulsion. The results were quantified through the definition of a critical wall shear stress ( tau w 50% ) required to detach 50% of the yeast cells initially deposited on the glass surface. The influence of the contact time was also evaluated and it was shown that, whatever the type of yeast, macromolecules such as proteins were released into the extracellular medium due to cell lysis and could contribute to the formation of a conditioning film. As a result, the cells were more strongly stuck to the glass plate.

  9. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS, with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  10. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inbok; Zhang, Aoqi; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee

    2016-12-16

    This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS), with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  11. Analysis and experimental verification of electroacoustic wave energy harvesting in a coupled piezoelectric plate-harvester system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Amir; Leamy, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces an analytical framework for predicting wave energy harvested by a circular piezoelectric disk attached to a thin plate. An harmonic point source excitation generates waves that are then incident on a piezoelectric disk—summing responses due to all such excitation enables general forcing profiles to be considered. The analysis approach decomposes the coupled system into two subdomains, one being the piezoelectric disk, and the other an infinite plate for which a Green's function is readily available. Interaction forces between the two subdomains couple the problems and lead to a closed-form solution for the propagation, transmission, and reflection of waves over the entire domain. In addition, the voltage generated by the harvester is calculated using coupled electromechanical equations. The analysis approach is first validated by comparing predicted response quantities to those computed using numerical simulations, documenting good agreement. The system is then studied in the frequency domain and the optimum harvester resistance is found for generating the most electrical power. Representative experiments are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the analytical approach and verify the harvested power versus resistance trend.

  12. 离合器从动盘平行度检测系统%Clutch Driven Plate Parallelism Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟; 李国欣

    2014-01-01

    Clutch is an indispensable component in automobile mechanical transmission, the clutch driven plate as an important part, its quality directly affects whether the clutch can work normally. So, its parallelism needs measuring after driven plate assembly. From the viewpoint of engineering practice, this paper discusses the method of testing the platen parallelism by using the displacement sensor and the method of data processing, develops the experiment test system with industrial computer as the core and verifies the feasibility and testing accuracy of the testing method through the system.%离合器是汽车机械传动中不可缺少的组成部件,作为离合器重要组成部分的从动盘,其质量好坏直接影响离合器能否正常工作。所以,在从动盘总成之后需要进行平行度测量。本文从工程实践的角度出发,探讨了采用位移传感器对从动盘平行度进行检测的方法以及数据处理的方法,开发了以工控机为核心的实验检测系统,并通过该系统验证了检测方法的可行性和检测精度。

  13. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor%水压轴向柱塞马达配流盘的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 杨曙东

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments. According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components, a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward, whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely. The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig. Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied. The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively. It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching pairs and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs. The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  14. 硫酸盐体系快速镀三价铬工艺%Rapid trivalent chromium plating process in sulfate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 赖奂汶

    2011-01-01

    制定了硫酸盐体系三价铬电镀装饰铬的新工艺.该工艺镀速达到0.057 ~ 0.077 μm/min,且不随时间而变化.镀液性能稳定,操作简单,便于维护.镀层光滑,无裂纹或孔隙,结合力强,厚度可达0.3 μm以上,中性盐雾试验72 h不变色,恒定湿热试验、冷热冲击试验、人造汗液测试及抗化学污染测试均合格.%A technology of decorative trivalent chromium plating based on sulfate bath was established. The chromium deposition rate reaches 0.055-0.075μm/min, and is unvaried with plating time. The plating bath has advantages of high stability, simple operation, and easy maintenance. The chromium coating is smooth, crack/pore-free, and well-adhered, has a thickness greater than 0.3 urn, does not tarnish after neutral salt spray test for 72 h, and can pass the steady-state damp heat test, cold-heat shock test, artificial sweat test, and chemical contamination test.

  15. Distributive shock due to systemic capillary leak syndrome treated with high-dose immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James Robert; Keating, Liza; Chan, Antoni; Walden, Andrew

    2013-04-09

    A female patient in her 60s presented with a history of malaise, chills, headache and vomiting. She was in shock on presentation with a high haematocrit and a low albumin with evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Severe limb and truncal oedema developed with worsening hypotension leading to intensive care unit admission for multiple organ support. Extensive radiological, microbiological and immunological work up was negative with the exception of a monoclonal gammopathy. A review of patient investigations led to a diagnosis of Clarkson's disease. Treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins led to a rapid decline in the creatine kinase (CK) level and vasopressor requirements. The patient was discharged home on long-term terbutaline and has made a good recovery.

  16. Proposal for the implementation of a fiscal rule system for Romania. Estimate for the reaction of the fiscal rule system to the output’s shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SOCOL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides arguments for the need to improve the fiscal rule proposed by the European Commission within the Fiscal Compact, considering the implementation of an augmented growth-based balance rule optimum for Romania. The first part of the paper presents the proposal for the implementation of an integrated system of fiscal rules in Romania. In the second part of this paper, we can find simulations for the reaction of the fiscal rule system proposed for the shocks occurring in the economic growth, these estimates being made by the help of the specialists from the National Forecast Commission

  17. 填充超弹性材料夹层板的抗爆性能研究%Research on anti-shock capability of sandwich plate with hyperelastic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈攀

    2016-01-01

    夹层板是一种比刚度大、比强度高的结构形式,根据文献将典型加筋板等效为最优夹层板,采用非线性数值方法,对爆炸冲击波作用下方形蜂窝夹层板及填充超弹性材料的方形蜂窝夹层板响应进行数值计算,分析填充超弹性材料夹层对夹层板各部位加速度、速度及位移响应的影响,对比不同爆距下夹层板响应,并分析填充超弹性材料对夹层板吸能的影响。从计算结果可知填充超弹性材料可有效减小爆炸载荷作用下夹层板的响应,减小夹层板面、背板间相对变形。%Sandwich plate is a new structural style with high specific stiffness and specific strength, the optimal square hole honeycomb sandwich plate was come from traditional ship stiffened plate according to reference method, the response of square hole honeycomb sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material inside under blast loading were computed by non-linear numerical analysis, the acceleration, velocity and deformation response of of square hole honeycomb sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material were analyzed, the response of sandwich plate under different blast distances were compared, and energy absorption of sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material also were analyzed. Sandwich plate has low response under blast loading with hyperelastic material inside, and has low relative deformation between front panel and back panel.

  18. The research of anti-shock capability of sandwich plate with hyperelastic Material%填充超弹性材料夹层板的抗爆性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈攀

    2016-01-01

    夹层板是一种比刚度大、比强度高的结构形式,根据文献将典型加筋板等效为最优夹层板,采用非线性数值方法,对爆炸冲击波作用下方形蜂窝夹层板及填充超弹性材料的方形蜂窝夹层板响应进行数值计算,分析填充超弹性材料夹层对夹层板各部位加速度、速度及位移响应的影响,对比不同爆距下夹层板响应,并分析填充超弹性材料对夹层板吸能的影响。从计算结果可知填充超弹性材料可有效减小爆炸载荷作用下夹层板的响应,减小夹层板面、背板间相对变形。%Sandwich plate is a new structural style with high specific stiffness and specific strength, the optimal square hole honeycomb sandwich plate was come from traditional ship stiffened plate according to reference method, the response of square hole honeycomb sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material inside under blast loading were computed by non-linear numerical analysis, the acceleration, velocity and deformation response of of square hole honeycomb sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material were analyzed, the response of sandwich plate under different blast distances were compared, and energy absorption of sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material also were analyzed. Sandwich plate has low response under blast loading with hyperelastic material inside, and has low relative deformation between front panel and back panel.

  19. Mathematical equations and system identification models for a portable pneumatic bladder system designed to reduce human exposure to whole body shock and vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ayyad, Ezzat

    A mathematical representation is sought to model the behavior of a portable pneumatic foam bladder designed to mitigate the effects of human exposure to shock and whole body random vibration. Fluid Dynamics principles are used to derive the analytic differential equations used for the physical equations Model. Additionally, combination of Wiener and Hammerstein block oriented representation techniques have been selected to create system identification (SID) block oriented models. A number of algorithms have been iterated to obtain numerical solutions for the system of equations which was found to be coupled and non-linear, with no analytic closed form solution. The purpose is to be able to predict the response of such system due to random vibrations and shock within reasonable margin of error. The constructed models were found to be accurate within accepted confidence level. Beside the analytic set of physical equations model representation, a linear SID model was selected to take advantage of the available vast amount of mathematical tools available to further analyze and redesign the bladder as a dynamic system. Measured field-test and lab test data have been collected from several helicopter and land terrain vehicle experiments. Numerous excitation and response acceleration measurement records were collected and used to prove the agreement with predictions. The estimation of two selected models were later applied to standard metrics in the frequency domain realization and compared with measurement responses. The collected test records are obtained from measured data at the US Army fields and facilities and at UNLV-CMEST environmental lab. The emerged models have been validated for conformity with actual accelerometer measurement responses and found within accepted error tolerance that is in both time and frequency domains. Further, standard metrics have been used to further confirm the confidence in the validation results. When comparing model prediction with

  20. Early results for treatment of three- and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus using the PHILOS plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonot, P; Ashwood, N; Hamlet, M

    2007-09-01

    Secure fixation of displaced proximal fractures of the humerus is a challenging problem. A total of 32 patients with acutely displaced three- or four-part proximal fractures of the humerus were treated by open reduction and internal fixation using the proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) plate. There were 23 women and nine men with a mean age of 59.9 years (18 to 87). Data were collected prospectively and the outcomes were assessed using the Constant score. The mean follow-up was for 11 months (3 to 24). In 31 patients (97%) the fracture united clinically and radiologically at a mean of 10 weeks (8 to 24). The mean Constant score at final review was 66.5 (30 to 92). There was no significant difference in outcome when comparing patients aged more than 60 years (18 patients) with those aged less than 60 years (14 patients) (t-test, p = 0.8443). There was one case each of nonunion, malunion and a broken screw in the elderly population. This plate provides an alternative method of fixation for fractures of the proximal humerus. It provides a stable fixation in young patients with good-quality bone sufficient to permit early mobilisation. Failure of the screws to maintain fixation in the elderly remains a problem.

  1. Buckling analysis of laminated plates using the extended Kantorovich method and a system of first-order differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhatanadgid, Pairod; Jommalai, Panupan [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-05-15

    The extended Kantorovich method using multi-term displacement functions is applied to the buckling problem of laminated plates with various boundary conditions. The out-of-plane displacement of the buckled plate is written as a series of products of functions of parameter x and functions of parameter y. With known functions in parameter x or parameter y, a set of governing equations and a set of boundary conditions are obtained after applying the variational principle to the total potential energy of the system. The higher order differential equations are then transformed into a set of first-order differential equations and solved for the buckling load and mode. Since the governing equations are first-order differential equations, solutions can be obtained analytically with the out-of-plane displacement written in the form of an exponential function. The solutions from the proposed technique are verified with solutions from the literature and FEM solutions. The bucking loads correspond very well to other available solutions in most of the comparisons. The buckling modes also compare very well with the finite element solutions. The proposed solution technique transforms higher-order differential equations to first-order differential equations, and they are analytically solved for out-of-plane displacement in the form of an exponential function. Therefore, the proposed solution technique yields a solution which can be considered as an analytical solution.

  2. Outdoor Performance Comparison of Concentrator Photovoltaic and Flat Plate Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidaka Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Output characteristics of tracking type concentrator photovoltaic (CPV system, multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si PV system, CIGS PV system, and amorphous silicon (a-Si PV system were analyzed in the data period of a year from August 2013 to July 2014. In this study, we analyzed the influence of environmental factors using average photon energy (APE and temperature of solar cell (Tcell. The characteristics of 14 kW CPV system, 50 kW mc-Si PV system, 60 kW CIGS PV system, 1.35 kW a-Si PV system were evaluated and compared. As a result, the output performance of CPV was highest between the four systems at the most frequent conditions in the outdoor environment.

  3. Shock compression of simulated adobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us =2.26up+0.37) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement.

  4. Shock Compression of Simulated Adobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us = 2.26up + 0.33) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement. The research was funded by DSTL through a WSTC contract.

  5. Biomechanical evaluation of fracture fixation constructs using a variable-angle locked periprosthetic femur plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin F; Burgers, Travis A; Mason, James J; Williams, Bart O; Sietsema, Debra L; Jones, Clifford B

    2014-07-01

    In the United States there are more than 230,000 total hip replacements annually, and periprosthetic femoral fractures occur in 0.1-4.5% of those patients. The majority of these fractures occur at the tip of the stem (Vancouver type B1). The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanically stability and strength of three fixation constructs and identify the most desirable construct. Fifteen medium adult synthetic femurs were implanted with a hip prosthesis and were osteotomized in an oblique plane at the level of the implant tip to simulate a Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic fracture. Fractures were fixed with a non-contact bridging periprosthetic proximal femur plate (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN). Three proximal fixation methods were used: Group 1, bicortical screws; Group 2, unicortical screws and one cerclage cable; and Group 3, three cerclage cables. Distally, all groups had bicortical screws. Biomechanical testing was performed using an axial-torsional testing machine in three different loading modalities (axial compression, lateral bending, and torsional/sagittal bending), next in axial cyclic loading to 10,000 cycles, again in the three loading modalities, and finally to failure in torsional/sagittal bending. Group 1 had significantly greater load to failure and was significantly stiffer in torsional/sagittal bending than Groups 2 and 3. After cyclic loading, Group 2 had significantly greater axial stiffness than Groups 1 and 3. There was no difference between the three groups in lateral bending stiffness. The average energy absorbed during cyclic loading was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Groups 1 and 3. Bicortical screw placement achieved the highest load to failure and the highest torsional/sagittal bending stiffness. Additional unicortical screws improved axial stiffness when using cable fixation. Lateral bending was not influenced by differences in proximal fixation. To treat periprosthetic fractures, bicortical screw placement should be

  6. Systemic cytokine response in moribund mice of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsumasa; Kajiwara, Hideko; Iida, Ken-ichiro; Hoshina, Takayuki; Kusuhara, Koichi; Hara, Toshiro; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2011-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes severe invasive disease in humans, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). We previously reported a mouse model that is similar to human STSS. When mice were infected intramuscularly with 10(7) CFU of S. pyogenes, all of them survived acute phase of infection. After 20 or more days of infection, a number of them died suddenly accompanied by S. pyogenes bacteremia. We call this phenomenon "delayed death". We analyzed the serum cytokine levels of mice with delayed death, and compared them with those of mice who died in the acute phase of intravenous S. pyogenes infection. The serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in mice of delayed death were more than 100 times higher than those in acute death mice. IL-10 and IL-12, which were not detected in acute death, were also significantly higher in mice of delayed death. IL-6 and MCP-1 (CCL-2) were elevated in both groups of mice. It was noteworthy that not only pro-inflammatory cytokines but also anti-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in delayed death. We also found that intravenous TNF-α injection accelerated delayed death, suggesting that an increase of serum TNF-α induced S. pyogenes bacteremia in our mouse model.

  7. The shock and spall response of AA 7010-T7651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Painter, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Aluminium alloys are used extensively in armour. Their use as armour materials is primarily due to their relatively low densities and their high strength characteristics. The aerospace-grade 7000-series alloy Al7010-T7651 is one possible contender for armour. In this study a series of plate-impact experiments were undertaken to investigate the behaviour of this alloy under shock. Manganin stress gauges and a heterodyne velocimeter system were used to interrogate both strength and dynamic tensile failure (spall) respectively; with microscopic analysis of recovered samples providing insight into the development of failure in the material.

  8. Dynamic buckling of stiffened plates subjected to explosion impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Guo, J.; Yao, X. L.; Zhang, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic buckling characteristics and criteria of a ship's structural stiffened plate subjected to underwater explosion impact loads are investigated in this study. Using the structural deformations observed in the experiments of underwater explosions against a plated grillage model, the mode shapes of the dynamic buckling were obtained. Through the construction of a computational model of stiffened plates subjected to an underwater explosion shock wave, the impact load was theoretically calculated and transformed into a rectangular pulse. According to the different response patterns of stiffened plates under different impact loads, a dynamic buckling criterion for the stiffened plates subjected to an explosion shock wave was proposed. Additionally, the static buckling phenomenon in the stiffened plates was analysed based on the minimum excess principle. In combination with the dynamic buckling criterion, the effects of various stiffening configurations on the dynamic and static buckling loads are discussed. The calculation results show that when the equivalent rectangular pulse is 2-3 times that of the static buckling load, the responses of the stiffened plates under the original shock load and the equivalent rectangular pulse are virtually identical. The impact load amplitude is the primary influencing factor in the dynamic buckling of stiffened plates subjected to underwater explosive impact loads. The stiffened plate aspect ratio has a substantial influence on the dynamic load factor. The analytical method and results are presented, which can be used to design stiffened optimum hull structures to enhance the dynamic load carrying capacity to withstand underwater shock damage.

  9. Unsteady Hydromagnetic Natural Convection Flow past an Impulsively Moving Vertical Plate with Newtonian Heating in a Rotating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shanker Seth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting and heat absorbing fluid past an impulsively moving vertical plate with Newtonian heating embedded in a porous medium in a rotating system is carried out. The governing partial differential equations are first subjected to Laplace transformation and then inverted numerically using INVLAP routine of Matlab. The governing partial differential equations are also solved numerically by Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference scheme and a comparison has been provided between the two solutions. The numerical solution for fluid velocity and fluid temperature are depicted graphically whereas the numerical values of skin friction and Nusselt number are presented in tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters. Present solution in special case is compared with previously obtained solution and is found to be in excellent agreement.

  10. A Comparison of the Thermodynamic Efficiency of Vacuum Tube and Flat Plate Solar Collector Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Bielskus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents simulation based exergy analysis used for comparing solar thermal systems applied for preparing domestic hot water. The simulation of flat and vacuum tube solar collector systems was performed in TRNSYS simulation environment. A period of one year under Lithuanian climate conditions was chosen. Simulation was performed on 6 min time step resolution by calculating energy and exergy flows and creating balance calculation. Assessment results at system and element levels have been presented as monthly variation in efficiency. The conducted analysis has revealed that the systems designed to cover equal heat energy demand operates in different exergetic efficiencies.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Efficient activation of gene expression using a heat-shock inducible Gal4/Vp16-UAS system in medaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittbrodt Joachim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic interference by DNA, mRNA or morpholino injection is a widely used approach to study gene function in developmental biology. However, the lack of temporal control over the activity of interfering molecules often hampers investigation of gene function required during later stages of embryogenesis. To elucidate the roles of genes during embryogenesis a precise temporal control of transgene expression levels in the developing organism is on demand. Results We have generated a transgenic Gal4/Vp16 activator line that is heat-shock inducible, thereby providing a tool to drive the expression of specific effector genes via Gal4/Vp16. Merging the Gal4/Vp16-UAS system with the I-SceI meganuclease and the Sleeping Beauty transposon system allows inducible gene expression in an entirely uniform manner without the need to generate transgenic effector lines. Combination of this system with fluorescent protein reporters furthermore facilitates the direct visualization of transgene expressing cells in live embryos. Conclusion The combinatorial properties of this expression system provide a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function during embryonic and larval development in fish by ectopic expression of gene products.

  12. Nosography of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in internal medicine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Spoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is defined by the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria associated with an infection microbiologically or clinically evidenced. In Italy sepsis is responsible for 80,000 hospital admissions per year and, in the last decades, severe sepsis and septic shock cases are increasing, in correlation with the increased prevalence of multi-drugresistant microbial strains. The predominant etiologic agents are Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but sepsis caused by fungi is increasing. The host response with both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes is responsible for organic failures, which complicate the syndrome, and for the susceptibility to secondary infections. The impairment of one or more organs or systems may be the onset clinical presentation. The organ dysfunctions complicating sepsis involve mainly cardiorespiratory system, kidneys, hemostatis and central nervous system. Fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis or leukopenia, elevated blood levels of lactate and procalcitonin, hypotension are diagnostically sensitive findings for sepsis. Definitive diagnosis requires isolation of the pathogen from blood sample or from the focus of infection. Therapeutic success against sepsis depends on the appropriate use of antibiotics, on the treatment of hemodynamic and respiratory disorder and on general supportive care. In some cases the use of activated protein C is to take in consideration.

  13. Upper plate deformation and seismic barrier in front of Nazca subduction zone: The Chololo Fault System and active tectonics along the Coastal Cordillera, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audin, Laurence; Lacan, Pierre; Tavera, Hernando; Bondoux, Francis

    2008-11-01

    The South America plate boundary is one of the most active subduction zone. The recent Mw = 8.4 Arequipa 2001 earthquake ruptured the subduction plane toward the south over 400 km and stopped abruptly on the Ilo Peninsula. In this exact region, the subduction seismic crisis induced the reactivation of continental fault systems in the coastal area. We studied the main reactivated fault system that trends perpendicular to the trench by detailed mapping of fault related-geomorphic features. Also, at a longer time scale, a recurrent Quaternary transtensive tectonic activity of the CFS is expressed by offset river gullies and alluvial fans. The presence of such extensional fault systems trending orthogonal to the trench along the Coastal Cordillera in southern Peru is interpreted to reflect a strong coupling between the two plates. In this particular case, stress transfer to the upper plate, at least along the coastal fringe, appears to have induced crustal seismic events that were initiated mainly during and after the 2001 earthquake. The seafloor roughness of the subducting plate is usually thought to be a cause of segmentation along subduction zones. However, after comparing and discussing the role of inherited structures within the upper plate to the subduction zone segmentation in southern Peru, we suggest that the continental structure itself may exert some feedback control on the segmentation of the subduction zone and thus participate to define the rupture pattern of major subduction earthquakes along the southern Peru continental margin.

  14. Modeling and numerical simulation of shock response for a planar multi-rigid-flexible-body system%一种面向平面多刚柔系统的冲击响应建模和计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺少华; 谢最伟; 吴新跃

    2011-01-01

    A new method was proposed for shock response modeling and computing for a planar multi-rigid-flexible body system by integrating the transfer matrix technique with its flexibility and higher computational efficiency.Adopting Newmark-β algorithm to linearize higher order terms in dynamic equations and modal shapes to express flexible body deformation, extended transfer matrixes of general rigid-bodies and special rigid bodies ( rigid homogeneous rectangular plate, rectangular sheet plate with elastic supports), general flexible-bodies and special flexible bodies ( Euler-Bernouui beam) in systems under base-transferred shock were established.The shock excitations included both translational and rotational components.Numerical iterative algorithm program based on Newmark-β method was also given.With an engineering example, the accuracy of this proposed method was verified by finite element method.The results show that the contribution of the rotational components of shock to the overall response can not be ignored.Although the objective of this study was a planar multi-rigid-flexible system, the proposed method could easily be extended to three-dimensional cases.%结合传递矩阵方法建模灵活和计算效率高的优点,提出了一种基于"传递矩阵"概念的多体系统冲击响应建模和计算方法.以受基础冲击的平面多刚柔系统为研究对象,采用Newmark-β法对元件的方程高阶项进行线性化,用模态方法处理柔体的变形,建立了一般刚体和典型刚体(刚性均质矩形板、带弹性支撑的刚性均质矩形薄板)、一般柔体和典型柔体(Euler-Bernouni梁)的冲击扩展传递矩阵,冲击激励包含平动和转动两种成分,给出了基于Newmark-β法的系统响应数值迭代求解算法程序.用一个工程实例,通过与有限元方法的对比,验证了方法的准确性,得出了转动冲击激励成分对总体响应的贡献不能忽略的结论.方法的研究对象虽然只是平面多

  15. Effect of leading edge sweep on shock-shock interference at Mach 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Christopher E.; Wieting, Allan R.; Holden, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    These Mach 8 experimental results are applicable to the details of a shock-shock interference that may occur on an engine inlet of a hypersonic vehicle from a swept forebody shock interacting with a swept cowl leading edge bow shock or from a swept splitter plate shock interacting with a swept fuel injection strut bow shock. Peak surface pressure and heat transfer rate on the cylinder were about 10 and 30 times the undisturbed flow stagnation point value, respectively, for the 0 deg sweep test. A comparison of the 15 deg and 30 deg swept results with the 0 deg swept results shows that peak pressure was reduced about 13 percent and 44 percent, respectively, and peak heat transfer rate was reduced about 7 percent and 27 percent, respectively.

  16. Static/dynamic Analysis of Functionally Graded and Layered Magneto-electro-elastic Plate/pipe under Hamiltonian System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Haitao; Cheng Wei; Li Mingzhi

    2008-01-01

    The 3-dimensional couple equations of magneto-electro-elastic structures are derived under Hamiltonian system based on the Hamilton principle. The problem of single sort of variables is converted into the problem of double sorts of variables, and the Hamilton canonical equations are established. The 3-dimensional problem of magneto-electro-elastic structure which is investigated in Euclidean space commonly is converted into symplectic system. At the same time the Lagrange system is converted into Hamiltonlan system. As an example, the dynamic characteristics of the simply supported functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic material (FGMM) plate and pipe are investigated. Finally, the problem is solved by symplectic algorithm. The results show that the physical quantifies of displace-ment, electric potential and magnetic potential etc. change continuously at the interfaces between layers under the transverse pressure while some other physical quantifies such as the stress, electric and magnetic displacement are not continuous. The dynamic stiffness is increased by the piezoelectric effect while decreased by the piezomagnetic effect.

  17. Active tectonic deformation of the western Indian plate boundary: A case study from the Chaman Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupa, Wanda E.; Khan, Shuhab D.; Huang, Jingqiu; Khan, Abdul S.; Kasi, Aimal

    2017-10-01

    Collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in two spatially offset subduction zones, the Makran subduction zone to the south and the Himalayan convergent margin to the north. These zones are linked by a system of left-lateral strike-slip faults known as the Chaman Fault System, ∼1200 km, which spans along western Pakistan. Although this is one of the greatest strike-slip faults, yet temporal and spatial variation in displacement has not been adequately defined along this fault system. This study conducted geomorphic and geodetic investigations along the Chaman Fault in a search for evidence of spatial variations in motion. Four study areas were selected over the span of the Chaman Fault: (1) Tarnak-Rud area over the Tarnak-Rud valley, (2) Spinatizha area over the Spinatizha Mountain Range, (3) Nushki area over the Nushki basin, and (4) Kharan area over the northern tip of the Central Makran Mountains. Remote sensing data allowed for in depth mapping of different components and faults within the Kohjak group. Wind and water gap pairs along with offset rivers were identified using high-resolution imagery and digital-elevation models to show displacement for the four study areas. The mountain-front-sinuosity ratio, valley height-to-width-ratio, and the stream-length-gradient index were calculated and used to determine the relative tectonic activity of each area. These geomorphic indices suggest that the Kharan area is the most active and the Tarnak-Rud area is the least active. GPS data were processed into a stable Indian plate reference frame and analyzed. Fault parallel velocity versus fault normal distance yielded a ∼8-10 mm/yr displacement rate along the Chaman Fault just north of the Spinatizha area. InSAR data were also integrated to assess displacement rates along the fault system. Geodetic data support that ultra-slow earthquakes similar to those that strike along other major strike-slip faults, such as the San Andreas Fault System, are

  18. Effect of power-law fluid damping in a shock isolation system%幂律流体阻尼的隔冲特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春辉; 汪玉; 杜俭业; 温肇东

    2015-01-01

    基于幂律流体阻尼特性,建立了单自由度冲击隔离系统数学模型,分析了幂律流体的分段阻尼力特性与隔冲耗能特性,并讨论了速度相关指数、固有频率、冲击载荷幅值等因素对系统隔冲性能的影响。研究结果表明:当激励信号产生的流体相对速度较小时,剪切稀化流体的隔冲性能优于线性阻尼和剪切稠化流体阻尼,流体相对速度较大时,剪切稠化流体的隔冲性能优于线性阻尼和剪切稀化流体。幂律流体的参数影响分析为幂律流体阻尼器的设计和实际应用提供了一定的参考。%Based on damping characteristics of power-law fluid, a mathematical model of single-freedom shock isolation system was established. Segmental damping force characteristics and absorption character-istics of power-law fluid were analyzed. Besides, the numerical analysis related to the effects of these pa-rameters (velocity index, natural frequency and shock excitation amplitude) on shock isolation performance was carried out. The results show that the impact resistance performance of shear thinning fluid shock iso-lation system is better than the linear damping and shear thickening fluid shock system at the lesser rela-tive velocity. The impact resistance performance of shear thickening fluid shock isolation system is better than the linear damping and shear thinning fluid shock system at the biggist relative velocity. The paramet-ric influence analyses of the power-law fluid provide a feasible theoretical basis for the design and appli-cation of the power-law fluid damper.

  19. Magnetic field amplification by collisionless shocks in partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study shock structures of collisionless shocks in partially ionized plasmas by means of two-dimensional hybrid simulations, where the shock is a perpendicular shock with shock velocity Vsh ~ 40 Va ~ 1333 km/s and the upstream ionization fraction is 0.5. We find that large density fluctuations and large magnetic fields fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the velocity distribution of downstream hydrogen atoms has three components. Observed shock structures suggest that diffusive shock acceleration can operate at perpendicular shocks propagating into partially ionized plasmas in real three-dimensional systems.

  20. Integration of Design Patterns and Mobile Applications in a Management System for Monitoring Maintenance Cathode Plates of Mining Company Quebrada Blanca SA

    CERN Document Server

    Carlos, Oscar Sandoval

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the integration of design patterns and mobile applications, in the development of software management of plates (SIGEP) that allows to support in the solutions to problematics that they appear in the process of maintaining of plates copper cathodes of a Mining Company, in our case for Quebrada Blanca S.A. (CMQB S.A.). These problematics mainly are related to the little control over the tasks carried out in the maintaining to the cathodic plates, and the lack of information that leads to this practice, originates a deficient management and it does not allow to make opportune decisions referring to these elements, and therefore it does to project and to administer the life utility of the plates of cathodes, generating lifted costs associated to this process. As the process of maintaining a cathode plates constantly changing process, with respect to maintenance strategies in the system design SIGEP recognizing the flexibility and reuse in the design of system components, this achieved thro...

  1. 基于单摆的自动平板控制系统%Automatic Plate Control System Based on the Single Pendulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建行; 李莉莉; 刘娟意

    2012-01-01

    According to the motion characteristics of pendulum in large angle, it is imperative to take a deeply quantitative analysis for relationship between swing angle and plate movement, as to make sure of the reliable movement stability for the plate fixed with pendulum. With the MCU MC9S12XS128 as the core and angle sensor for data collection, a automatic plate control system is designed using an advanced couple stepper motor to realize plate angle control. Performance test indicate that this system can achieve excellent precision and determination, the stability of plate motion has been greatly improved.%根据单摆大角度运动的特点,为保证单摆上固定的平板运动的稳定性,定量分析摆角与平板运动的关系,设计以MC9S12XS128为核心的自动平板控制系统,利用角度传感器采集摆角信息,采用先进的二项步进电机进行平板角度控制,系统控制精度高,经测定,平板运动稳定性大大提高。

  2. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  3. Systemic and microcirculatory effects of blood transfusion in experimental hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Gonzalo; Edul, Vanina S Kanoore; Canales, Héctor S; Martins, Enrique; Canullán, Carlos; Murias, Gastón; Pozo, Mario O; Caminos Eguillor, Juan F; Buscetti, María G; Ince, Can; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2017-12-01

    The microvascular reperfusion injury after retransfusion has not been completely characterized. Specifically, the question of heterogeneity among different microvascular beds needs to be addressed. In addition, the identification of anaerobic metabolism is elusive. The venoarterial PCO2 to arteriovenous oxygen content difference ratio (Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2) might be a surrogate for respiratory quotient, but this has not been validated. Therefore, our goal was to characterize sublingual and intestinal (mucosal and serosal) microvascular injury after blood resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock and its relation with O2 and CO2 metabolism. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep were assigned to stepwise bleeding and blood retransfusion (n = 10) and sham (n = 7) groups. We performed analysis of expired gases, arterial and mixed venous blood gases, and intestinal and sublingual videomicroscopy. In the bleeding group during the last step of hemorrhage, and compared to the sham group, there were decreases in oxygen consumption (3.7 [2.8-4.6] vs. 6.8 [5.8-8.0] mL min(-1) kg(-1), P < 0.001) and increases in respiratory quotient (0.96 [0.91-1.06] vs. 0.72 [0.69-0.77], P < 0.001). Retransfusion normalized these variables. The Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 increased in the last step of bleeding (2.4 [2.0-2.8] vs. 1.1 [1.0-1.3], P < 0.001) and remained elevated after retransfusion, compared to the sham group (1.8 [1.5-2.0] vs. 1.1 [0.9-1.3], P < 0.001). Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 had a weak correlation with respiratory quotient (Spearman R = 0.42, P < 0.001). All the intestinal and sublingual microcirculatory variables were affected during hemorrhage and improved after retransfusion. The recovery was only complete for intestinal red blood cell velocity and sublingual total and perfused vascular densities. Although there were some minor differences, intestinal and sublingual microcirculation behaved similarly. Therefore, sublingual mucosa might be an adequate window to

  4. Research on Flow Field Characteristics Affected by Obstacles of Pull-Push Ventilation System of Plating Tanks through Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pull-push ventilation system, with high capture efficiency, is universally used to capture contaminants from containment generation where can’t be enclosed and where the working area is large. When there are obstacles between the pull hood and the push hood, the air jet will disperse, leaving contaminants out of control, causing atmosphere polluted. This paper aims to discuss flow filed of pull-push ventilation system, located in some tank of some plating workshop, with obstacles between pull hood and push hood. Mathematical model, involving physical model, assumptions, governing equations, boundary conditions and grid separation is established. By CFD code FLUENT, flow field, containing velocity field and concentration field, is achieved. To verify the simulation models, velocity field for simulation results is compared with the theory results, while concentration field for simulation results with experimental results. The comparison results show that the results matches well and that mathematical model proposed in this paper is reasonable, helpful and realistic significant in designing this kind exhaust ventilation systems where obstacles presence.

  5. Real-time ArcGIS and heterotrophic plate count based chloramine disinfectant control in water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhi, Xinghua; Zhu, Huifeng; Meng, Mingqun; Zhang, Mingde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of chloramine residual on bacteria growth and regrowth and the relationship between heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) and the concentration of chloramine residual in the Shanghai drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this study, models to control HPCs in the water distribution system and consumer taps are also developed. Real-time ArcGIS was applied to show the distribution and changed results of the chloramine residual concentration in the pipe system by using these models. Residual regression analysis was used to get a reasonable range of the threshold values that allows the chloramine residual to efficiently inhibit bacteria growth in the Shanghai DWDS; the threshold values should be between 0.45 and 0.5 mg/L in pipe water and 0.2 and 0.25 mg/L in tap water. The low residual chloramine value (0.05 mg/L) of the Chinese drinking water quality standard may pose a potential health risk for microorganisms that should be improved. Disinfection by-products (DBPs) were detected, but no health risk was identified.

  6. Studies on blast traumatic brain injury using in-vitro model with shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Peethambaran; Spadaro, John; John, Jennifer; Gharavi, Robert B; Bentley, Timothy B; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2011-06-11

    One of the major limitations in studying the mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) or screening therapeutics for protection is the lack of suitable laboratory model systems that can closely mimic the complex blast exposure. Although animal models of bTBI that use shock tubes to mimic blast exposure are available, no high throughput shock tube-based in-vitro models have been reported. Here, we report an in-vitro bTBI model using a compressed air-driven shock tube and mouse neuroblastoma/rat glioblastoma hybrid cells (NG108-15) or SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in tissue culture plates. Our data showed significant neurobiological effects with decreased adenosine triphosphate levels, increased cellular injury, lactate dehydrogenase release, and reactive oxygen species formation after blast exposure.

  7. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Cunningham, Dickson; Straathof, Gijsbert B.; Ganerød, Morgan; Hendriks, Bart W H; Dijkstra, Arjan H.

    2015-01-01

    The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we document field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region

  8. Protection from leakage and electric shocks from electrical systems on excavators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shutskii, V.I.; Zhidkov, V.O.; Shur, N.A.

    1982-05-01

    This paper discusses a protection system developed by the VostNII Institute. System operation reduces hazards associated with leakage currents. General requirements for safety systems used on bucket wheel excavators in coal surface mines are analyzed. Electrical systems of the following excavators are characterized: the EhKG-4.6, EhKG-8I, EhKG-4I, EhKG-6.3Us, EhSh-10/60, EhSh-10/70, EhSh-14/75 and the EhSh-15/90. The ABEhK-1 protection system developed by VostNII controls electrical insulation and safety systems of alternating current systems and direct current systems. Protection system for alternating current is based on the principle of protective shunting which consists in joining a phase in which a leakage occurred with earth by means of a relatively low resistance. Two block schemes of the ABEhK-1 protective system are given. Design and specifications of the control system are discussed. The setting of system operation for single phase leakage ranges from 4 to 15 kiloohm, for three phase from 3.3 to 10 kiloohm, for direct current it does not exceed 60 kiloohm. Operating time for 1 kiloohm resistance of single phase leakage is not higher than 0.1 s, for ineffective shunting, not higher than 0.5 s. Dimensions of the system are: block 200 x 100 x 250 mm, control measuring block 700 x 200 x 500 mm. Economic benefit associated with operation of the ABEhK-1 control system on a bucket wheel excavator amounts to 6300 rubles/year.

  9. A powerful double radio relic system discovered in PSZ1 G108.18-11.53: evidence for a shock with non-uniform Mach number?

    CERN Document Server

    de Gasperin, F; van Weeren, R J; Dawson, W A; Golovich, N; Wittman, D; Bonafede, A; Bruggen, M

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse radio emission in the form of radio halos and relics has been found in a number of merging galaxy clusters. These structures indicate that shock and turbulence associated with the merger accelerate electrons to relativistic energies. We report the discovery of a radio relic + radio halo system in PSZ1 G108.18-11.53 (z=0.335). This cluster hosts the second most powerful double radio relic system ever discovered. We observed PSZ1 G108.18-11.53 with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We obtained radio maps at 147, 323, 607 and 1380 MHz. We also observed the cluster with the Keck telescope, obtaining the spectroscopic redshift for 42 cluster members. From the injection index we obtained the Mach number of the shocks generating the two radio relics. For the southern shock we found M = 2.33^{+0.19}_{-0.26}, while the northern shock Mach number goes from M = 2.20^{+0.07}_{-0.14} in the north part down to M = 2.00^{+0.03}_{-0.08} in the southern reg...

  10. Design optimization of gating and feeding system through simulation technique for sand casting of wear plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin L. Nimbulkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Casting is a manufacturing process to make complex shapes of metal materials; during mass production, we may experience many defects, such as gas porosity, pin holes, blow holes, shrinkages and incomplete filling that may occur in sand casting. Porosity is one of the defects most frequently encountered in ductile iron casting. Porosity impacts cost by scrap loss and limits the use of cast parts in critical high strength applications. The amount of porosity is closely related to the parameter of sand casting process. The gating/riser system design plays a very important role for improving casting quality. Many researchers reported that 90% of the defects in casting are obtained only because of improper design of gating and feeding system. The main objectives were to study the existing design of gating and feeding system, to optimize the gating and feeding system using Auto-CAST X1 casting simulation software, to prepare the sand mold and cast the part, to compare the simulated result and experimental results, to reduce rejection rate and to enable the company to again start the production.

  11. Front-End Control and Monitoring System for the Resistive Plate Chambers at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Thyssen, Filip

    2011-01-01

    An online control and monitoring system has recently been developed to automatically configure and continuously monitor FEB parameters. A fine-grained software model of hardware and detector components, organized in a dual hierarchical tree structure, facilitates command and data flow. A novel web-based user-interface allows control of an...

  12. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faical Ramdani; Omar Kettani; Benaissa Tadili

    2015-06-01

    Seismic triggering at plate boundaries has a very complex nature that includes seismic events at varying distances. The spatial orientation of triggering cannot be reduced to sequences from the main shocks. Seismic waves propagate at all times in all directions, particularly in highly active zones. No direct evidence can be obtained regarding which earthquakes trigger the shocks. The first approach is to determine the potential linked zones where triggering may occur. The second step is to determine the causality between the events and their triggered shocks. The spatial orientation of the links between events is established from pre-ordered networks and the adapted dependence of the spatio-temporal occurrence of earthquakes. Based on a coefficient of synchronous seismic activity to grid couples, we derive a network link by each threshold. The links of high thresholds are tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  13. Simulation of systems for shock wave/compression waves damping in technological plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumskoi, S. I.; Sverchkov, A. M.; Lisanov, M. V.; Egorov, A. F.

    2016-09-01

    At work of pipeline systems, flow velocity decrease can take place in the pipeline as a result of the pumps stop, the valves shutdown. As a result, compression waves appear in the pipeline systems. These waves can propagate in the pipeline system, leading to its destruction. This phenomenon is called water hammer (water hammer flow). The most dangerous situations occur when the flow is stopped quickly. Such urgent flow cutoff often takes place in an emergency situation when liquid hydrocarbons are being loaded into sea tankers. To prevent environment pollution it is necessary to stop the hydrocarbon loading urgently. The flow in this case is cut off within few seconds. To prevent an increase in pressure in a pipeline system during water hammer flow, special protective systems (pressure relief systems) are installed. The approaches to systems of protection against water hammer (pressure relief systems) modeling are described in this paper. A model of certain pressure relief system is considered. It is shown that in case of an increase in the intensity of hydrocarbons loading at a sea tanker, presence of the pressure relief system allows to organize safe mode of loading.

  14. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  15. Culture Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文玲

    2004-01-01

    Specialists say that it is not easy to get used to life in a new culture.“Culture shock”is the term these specialists use when talking about the feelings that people have in a new environment.There are three stages of culture shock,say the specialists.In the first stage,the newcomers like their new environment,Then when the fresh experience

  16. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  17. Fatal Candida septic shock during systemic chemotherapy in lung cancer patient receiving corticosteroid replacement therapy for hypopituitarism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morichika, Daisuke; Sato-Hisamoto, Akiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Iwaki, Noriko; Uchida, Koji; Minami, Daisuke; Kubo, Toshio; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Invasive candidiasis has increased as nosocomial infection recently in cancer patients who receive systemic chemotherapy, and the timely risk assessment for developing such specific infection is crucial. Especially in those concomitantly with hypopituitarism, febrile neutropenia with candidiasis can cause severe stress and lead potentially to sudden fatal outcome when the temporal steroid coverage for the adrenal insufficiency is not fully administered. We report a 72-year-old male case diagnosed as non-small-cell lung cancer, Stage IIIA. He had received a steroid replacement therapy for the prior history of hypophysectomy due to pituitary adenoma with hydrocortisone of 3.3 mg/day, equivalent to prednisolone of 0.8 mg/day. This very small dosage of steroid was hardly supposed to weaken his immune system, but rather potentially led to an inappropriate supplementation of his adrenal function, assuming that the serum sodium and chlorine levels decreased. On Day 6 of second cycle of chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, he developed sudden febrile neutropenia, septic shock and ileus, leading to death. After his death, the venous blood culture on Day 7 detected Candida albicans. Autopsy findings showed a massive necrotizing enterocolitis with extensive Candida invasion into submucous tissue. In conclusion, this case may suggest that (i) immediate initiation of antifungal therapy soon after the careful risk assessment of Candida infection and (ii) adequate administration of both basal steroid replacement therapy and temporal steroid coverage for febrile neutropenia might have improved his fatal outcome.

  18. Cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance: Clinical assessment compared with a noninvasive objective measurement in children with shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Asma; Newth, Christopher J L; Khemani, Robinder G; Beltramo, Fernando; Ross, Patrick A

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate physician assessment of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in patients with shock compared with an ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM). To explore potential changes in therapy decisions if USCOM data were available using physician intervention answers. Double-blinded, prospective, observational study in a tertiary hospital pediatric intensive care unit. Forty children (resistance, categorizing them as high, normal, or low. An investigator simultaneously measured cardiac index (CI) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) with USCOM categorized as high, normal, or low. Overall agreement between physician and USCOM for CI (48.5% [κ = 0.18]) and SVRI (45.9% [κ = 0.16]) was poor. Interobserver agreement was also poor for CI (58.7% [κ = 0.33]) and SVRI (52.3% [κ = 0.28]). Comparing theoretical physician interventions to "acceptable" or "unacceptable" clinical interventions, based on USCOM measurement, 56 (21%) physician interventions were found to be "unacceptable." There is poor agreement between physician-assessed CI and SVRI and USCOM, with significant interobserver variability among physicians. Objective measurement of CI and SVRI may reduce variability and improve diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the Mediterranean region in the framework of polarized plate tectonics

    CERN Document Server

    Raykova, Reneta Blagoeva; Doglioni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Velocity structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, to the depth of about 350 km, is obtained for almost 400 cells, sized 1 degree by 1 degree in the Mediterranean region. The models are obtained by the following sequence of methods and tools: surface-wave dispersion measurements and collection; 2D tomography of dispersion relations; non-linear inversion of cellular dispersion relations; smoothing optimization method to select a preferred model for each cell. The 3D velocity model, that satisfies Occam razor principle, is obtained as a juxtaposition of selected cellular models. The reconstructed picture of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system evidences the, globally well known, asymmetry between the W- and E-directed subduction zones, attributed to the westward drift of the lithosphere relative to the mantle. Different relationship between slabs and mantle dynamics cause strong compositional differences in the upper mantle, as shown by large variations of seismic waves velocity, consistent with Polari...

  20. Trigger and data link system for CMS Resistive Plate Chambers at the LHC accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Banzuzi, Kukka; Tuuva, Tuure

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to realize a high-speed digital data transfer system for RPC muon chambers in the CMS experiment on CERN’s new LHC accelerator. This large scale system took many years and many stages of prototyping to develop, and required the participation of tens of people. The system interfaces to Frontend Boards (FEB) at the 200,000-channel detector and to the trigger and readout electronics in the control room of the experiment. The distance between these two is about 80 metres and the speed required for the optic links was pushing the limits of available technology when the project was started. Here, as in many other aspects of the design, it was assumed that the features of readily available commercial components would develop in the course of the design work, just as they did. By choosing a high speed it was possible to multiplex the data from some the chambers into the same fibres to reduce the number of links needed. Further reduction was achieved by employing zero suppression and data...

  1. High-Throughput Lipolysis in 96-Well Plates for Rapid Screening of Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosgaard, Mette D; Sassene, Philip J; Mu, Huiling; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-04-01

    The high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis model (HTP) applicable for rapid and low-scale screening of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDSs) was optimized and adjusted as to be conducted in 96-well plates (HTP-96). Three different LbDDSs (I-III) loaded with danazol or cinnarizine were used as model systems. The distributions of cinnarizine and danazol in the aqueous and precipitated digestion phases generated during lipolysis in HTP-96 were compared with previously published data obtained from HTP. The final HTP-96 setup resulted in the same rank order as the original HTP model with regard to solubilization in the aqueous phase during digestion: LbDDS III > LbDDS II > LbDDS I for danazol and LbDDS III ≈ LbDDS II ≈ LbDDS I for cinnarizine. HTP-96 is a useful model for fast performance assessment of LbDDS in a small scale. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SIMULATION OF SOLAR LITHIUM BROMIDE–WATER ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM WITH DOUBLE GLAZED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR FOR ADRAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML CHOUGUI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrar is a city in the Sahara desert, in southern Algeria known for its hot and dry climate, where a huge amount of energy is used for air conditioning. The aim of this research is to simulate a single effect lithium bromide–water absorption chiller coupled to a double-glazed flat plate collector to supply the cooling loads for a house of 200m2 in Adrar. The thermal energy is stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system was designed to cover a cooling load of 10.39KW for design day of July. Thermodynamic model was established to simulate the absorption cycle. The results have shown that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 65.3 m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF ULTRASONIC OSCILLATORY SYSTEM FOR HARDENING OF SPRING PLATE BILLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tomilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various schemes of ultrasonic oscillatory system are developed: with a «force nonsensitive» support, with a «force sensitive» support, with the deforming steel balls in bulk. Results of the ultrasonic treatment showed that hardening of a surface of the samples took place when the vibration amplitude of a radiator exceeds a certain level. The level of hardening increases with increase in amplitude of fluctuations of a radiator. Higher level of hardening is registered when the surface is treated by steel balls.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  5. Free convective heat transfer with hall effects, heat absorption and chemical reaction over an accelerated moving plate in a rotating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S. M.; Jain, J.; Seth, G. S.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The unsteady MHD free convective heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous and incompressible fluid over an accelerated moving vertical plate in the presence of heat absorption and chemical reaction with ramped temperature and ramped surface concentration through a porous medium in a rotating system is studied, taking Hall effects into account. The governing equations are solved analytically with the help of Laplace transform technique. The unified closed-form expressions are obtained for fluid velocity, fluid temperature, species concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers. The effects of various parameters on fluid velocity, fluid temperature and species concentration are discussed by graphs whereas numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented in tabular form for different values of pertinent flow parameters. The numerical results are also compared with free convective flow near ramped temperature plate with ramped surface concentration with the corresponding flow near isothermal plate with uniform surface concentration.

  6. Imaging at soft X-ray wavelengths with high-gain microchannel plate detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn

    1986-01-01

    Multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with formats of 256 x 1024 pixels and active areas of 6 x 26 mm are now under evaluation at visible, UV and soft X-ray wavelengths. Very-large-format versions of the MAMA detectors with formats of 2048 x 2048 pixels and active areas of 52 x 52 mm are under development for use in the NASA Goddard Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). Open-structure versions of these detectors with Cs I photocathodes can provide a high-resolution imaging capability at EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths and can deliver a maximum count rate from each array in excess of 10 to the 6th counts/s. In addition, these detector systems have the unique capability to determine the arrival time of a detected photon to an accuracy of 100 ns or better. The construction, mode of operation, and performance characteristics of the MAMA detectors are described, and the program for the development of the very-large-format detectors is outlined.

  7. Culture shock and travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  8. Two-dimensional laser servoing for precision motion control of an ODV robotic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Moore, Kevin L.; Chen, YangQuan; Bahl, Vikas

    2003-09-01

    As an outgrowth of series of projects focused on mobility of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV), an omni-directional (ODV), multi-robot, autonomous mobile parking security system has been developed. The system has two types of robots: the low-profile Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS), which can be used for under-vehicle inspections, and the mid-sized T4 robot, which serves as a ``marsupial mothership'' for the ODIS vehicles and performs coarse resolution inspection. A key task for the T4 robot is license plate recognition (LPR). For a successful LPR task without compromising the recognition rate, the robot must be able to identify the bumper locations of vehicles in the parking area and then precisely position the LPR camera relative to the bumper. This paper describes a 2D-laser scanner based approach to bumper identification and laser servoing for the T4 robot. The system uses a gimbal-mounted scanning laser. As the T4 robot travels down a row of parking stalls, data is collected from the laser every 100ms. For each parking stall in the range of the laser during the scan, the data is matched to a ``bumper box'' corresponding to where a car bumper is expected, resulting in a point cloud of data corresponding to a vehicle bumper for each stall. Next, recursive line-fitting algorithms are used to determine a line for the data in each stall's ``bumper box.'' The fitting technique uses Hough based transforms, which are robust against segmentation problems and fast enough for real-time line fitting. Once a bumper line is fitted with an acceptable confidence, the bumper location is passed to the T4 motion controller, which moves to position the LPR camera properly relative to the bumper. The paper includes examples and results that show the effectiveness of the technique, including its ability to work in real-time.

  9. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  10. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  11. Systemic over-release of interleukin-17 in acute kidney injury after septic shock: Clinical and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravitsa, Panagiota; Adamopoulou, Maria; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Netea, Mihai G; Louis, Konstantinos; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2016-10-01

    In order to investigate the role of T-helper 17 (Th17) cell activation in acute kidney injury (AKI) after septic shock, a two-stage approach was used. Firstly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD4-lymphocytes were isolated the first 24h after septic shock from 26 patients with AKI and 18 patients with chronic renal disease (CRD) without AKI and stimulated for the release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17, IL-22 and interferon-gamma (IFNγ). Results were compared with 15 healthy volunteers and 13 patients with uncomplicated sepsis. Secondly, a murine model of multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) complicated with AKI and bacterial gut translocation was studied, and IL-10, IL-17, IL-22 and IFNγ were measured in kidney homogenates. IL-17 was the only cytokine produced at greater quantities from PBMCs and CD4-lymphocytes of patients with septic shock and AKI than comparators. When PBMCs of patients with septic shock and AKI were ex-vivo stimulated, intracellular staining for IL-17 was greater in CD3(+)/CD4(+)/CD196(+) cells compared to patients with septic shock and CRD. IL-17 was released at greater amounts from PBMCs of non-survivors by septic shock and AKI but not of septic shock and CRD. In the murine model of MODS, a gradual decrease of IL-17, but not of IL-10, IL-22 and IFNγ, of kidney homogenates was found indicating over-consumption. These results suggest that AKI after septic shock is driven through IL-17 release by Th17 cells; this is gradually consumed in the kidney.

  12. [Definition of shock types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles.

  13. Role of heat shock protein Hsp25 in the response of the orofacial nuclei motor system to physiological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Talebian, S.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Although expression of the small heat shock protein family member Hsp25 has been previously observed in the central nervous system (CNS), both constitutively and upon induction, its function in the CNS remains far from clear. In the present study we have characterized the spatial pattern of expression of Hsp25 in the normal adult mouse brain as well as the changes in expression patterns induced by subjecting mice to experimental hyperthermia or hypoxia. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a surprisingly restricted pattern of constitutive expression of Hsp25 in the brain, limited to the facial, trigeminal, ambiguus, hypoglossal and vagal motor nuclei of the brainstem. After hyperthermia or hypoxia treatment, significant increases in the levels of Hsp25 were observed in these same areas and also in fibers of the facial and trigeminal nerve tracts. Immunoblot analysis of protein lysates from brainstem also showed the same pattern of induction of Hsp25. Surprisingly, no other area in the brain showed expression of Hsp25, in either control or stressed animals. The highly restricted expression of Hsp25 implies that this protein may have a specific physiological role in the orofacial motor nuclei, which govern precise coordination between muscles of mastication and the pharynx, larynx, and face. Its rapid induction after stress further suggests that Hsp25 may serve as a specific molecular chaperone in the lower cholinergic motor neurons and along their fibers under conditions of stress or injury. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Role of heat shock protein Hsp25 in the response of the orofacial nuclei motor system to physiological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Talebian, S.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Although expression of the small heat shock protein family member Hsp25 has been previously observed in the central nervous system (CNS), both constitutively and upon induction, its function in the CNS remains far from clear. In the present study we have characterized the spatial pattern of expression of Hsp25 in the normal adult mouse brain as well as the changes in expression patterns induced by subjecting mice to experimental hyperthermia or hypoxia. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a surprisingly restricted pattern of constitutive expression of Hsp25 in the brain, limited to the facial, trigeminal, ambiguus, hypoglossal and vagal motor nuclei of the brainstem. After hyperthermia or hypoxia treatment, significant increases in the levels of Hsp25 were observed in these same areas and also in fibers of the facial and trigeminal nerve tracts. Immunoblot analysis of protein lysates from brainstem also showed the same pattern of induction of Hsp25. Surprisingly, no other area in the brain showed expression of Hsp25, in either control or stressed animals. The highly restricted expression of Hsp25 implies that this protein may have a specific physiological role in the orofacial motor nuclei, which govern precise coordination between muscles of mastication and the pharynx, larynx, and face. Its rapid induction after stress further suggests that Hsp25 may serve as a specific molecular chaperone in the lower cholinergic motor neurons and along their fibers under conditions of stress or injury. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Effects of shock wave therapy in the skin of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Amelio, Ernesto; Marangoni, Elettra; Guerra, Claudio; Puccetti, Antonio; Codella, Orazio Michele; Simeoni, Sara; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; Montagnana, Martina; Adani, Roberto; Corrocher, Roberto; Lunardi, Claudio

    2011-05-01

    Vasculopathy, immunological abnormalities, and excessive tissue fibrosis are key elements in the pathogenesis of progressive systemic sclerosis (SSc). Extracorporeal shock waves (ESW) have anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects on different tissues. We hypothesized that ESW can reduce endothelial cell damage and skin fibrosis in patients with SSc. We enrolled 30 patients affected by SSc, 29 females and 1 male. Rodnan Skin Score (RSS) and Visuo-Analogical Scale (VAS) for skin wellness were performed before and immediately after ESW therapy (ESWT) and at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the treatment. Sonographic examination of the patients' arms was performed before and 7, 30, 60, 90 days after treatment. Blood samples were obtained before and 30 and 60 days after treatment to measure serological levels of von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) were determined at the same time points. After ESWT we observed a rapid and persistent reduction of RSS and decrease of VAS. There was no difference in skin thickness before and after ESWT; however, we observed a more regular skin structure and an improvement in skin vascularization 90 days after treatment. EPCs and CECs increased 60 and 90 days after treatment, while serological biomarkers showed no variation before and after therapy. In conclusion, ESWT resulted in an improvement of VAS, RSS, and of skin vascular score, and in an increase of CECs and EPCs.

  16. Diffusive Acceleration of Ions at Interplanetary Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Baring, Matthew G.; Summerlin, Errol J.

    2005-01-01

    Heliospheric shocks are excellent systems for testing theories of particle acceleration in their environs. These generally fall into two classes: (1) interplanetary shocks that are linear in their ion acceleration characteristics, with the non-thermal ions serving as test particles, and (2) non-linear systems such as the Earth's bow shock and the solar wind termination shock, where the accelerated ions strongly influence the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the shock. This paper explores the modelling of diffusive acceleration at a particular interplanetary shock, with an emphasis on explaining in situ measurements of ion distribution functions. The observational data for this event was acquired on day 292 of 1991 by the Ulysses mission. The modeling is performed using a well-known kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, which has yielded good agreement with observations at several heliospheric shocks, as have other theoretical techniques, namely hybrid plasma simulations, and numerical solution of the diffusion-conv...

  17. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Machinery Dynamics, System Identification and Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    lung system and then to the spine through the costo -vertebral and costo -transverse joints [9, 12 and 14]., The development of the HSM required the...abdominal wall kij = kI + k2 6 (7) system; the costo -vertebral, costo -transverse and costo -sternal joints and the intercondral where k1 and k2 are...pp. 303- "" 309, 1974 21. Schultz, A., Benson, D. and Hirsch, C., "Force-Deformation Properties of Human Costo -Sternal and Costo -Vertebral Arti

  18. Heat Shock Factor-1 and Nuclear Factor-kappaB Are Systemically Activated in Human Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A O’Reilly

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Context :Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB is a transcription factor for a wide range of proinflammatory mediators while heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1 transcribes stress proteins that protect against cellular damage. Both are attractive therapeutic targets, undergoing investigation in other acute inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis. Objective :To evaluate the role of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and HSF-1 in human acute pancreatitis and their relationship to cytokine/chemokine production, disease severity and outcome. Patients :Twenty-four patients with acute pancreatitis and 12 healthy controls. Main outcome measures :Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. NF-kappaB and HSF-1 were measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor II and interleukin-8 were measured by ELISA. Acute physiology scores (APS, APACHE II scores and final Atlanta designations of severity were also determined. Results: Systemic NF-kappaB activation occurs in acute pancreatitis compared to healthy controls (P=0.004. However, there was no significant difference between those with mild and severe disease (P=0.685. Systemic activation of HSF-1 was observed in acute pancreatitis compared to healthy controls although this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.053. Activation, however, was greatest in those who had a final Atlanta designation of mild pancreatitis compared to those who had a severe attack of acute pancreatitis (P=0.036. Furthermore, HSF-1 was inversely correlated with acute physiology score (APS; r=-0.49, P=0.019 and APACHE II score (r=-0.47, P=0.026. Conclusions: Both NF-kappaB and HSF-1 are systemically activated in human acute pancreatitis. HSF-1 activation may protect against severity of pancreatitis

  19. THE CLOSE T TAURI BINARY SYSTEM V4046 Sgr: ROTATIONALLY MODULATED X-RAY EMISSION FROM ACCRETION SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiroffi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Maggio, A.; Damiani, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Montmerle, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis bd Arago, FR-75014 Paris (France); Huenemoerder, D. P. [MIT, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Alecian, E. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, 5, place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Audard, M. [ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, Ch. d' Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Bouvier, J. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041, Grenoble (France); Donati, J.-F. [IRAP-UMR 5277, CNRS and Universite de Toulouse, 14 Av. E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Gregory, S. G. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guedel, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Trkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Hussain, G. A. J. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Kastner, J. H.; Sacco, G. G., E-mail: argi@astropa.unipa.it [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We report initial results from a quasi-simultaneous X-ray/optical observing campaign targeting V4046 Sgr, a close, synchronous-rotating classical T Tauri star (CTTS) binary in which both components are actively accreting. V4046 Sgr is a strong X-ray source, with the X-rays mainly arising from high-density (n{sub e}{approx} 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}) plasma at temperatures of 3-4 MK. Our multi-wavelength campaign aims to simultaneously constrain the properties of this X-ray-emitting plasma, the large-scale magnetic field, and the accretion geometry. In this paper, we present key results obtained via time-resolved X-ray-grating spectra, gathered in a 360 ks XMM-Newton observation that covered 2.2 system rotations. We find that the emission lines produced by this high-density plasma display periodic flux variations with a measured period, 1.22 {+-} 0.01 d, that is precisely half that of the binary star system (2.42 d). The observed rotational modulation can be explained assuming that the high-density plasma occupies small portions of the stellar surfaces, corotating with the stars, and that the high-density plasma is not azimuthally symmetrically distributed with respect to the rotational axis of each star. These results strongly support models in which high-density, X-ray-emitting CTTS plasma is material heated in accretion shocks, located at the base of accretion flows tied to the system by magnetic field lines.

  20. Comparative evaluation of image quality in computed radiology systems using imaging plates with different usage time; Avaliacao comparativa da qualidade da imagem em sistemas de radiologia computadorizada utilizando Imaging Plates com diferentes tempos de uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, M.V.; Luz, R.M. da; Capaverde, A.S., E-mail: marcos.lazzaro@acad.pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, A.M. Marques da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica

    2015-04-15

    Computed Radiology (CR) systems use imaging plates (IPs) for latent image acquisition. Taking into account the quality control (QC) of these systems, imaging plates usage time is undetermined. Different recommendations and publications on the subject suggest tests to evaluate these systems. The objective of this study is to compare the image quality of IPs of a CR system, in a mammography service, considering the usage time and consistency of assessments. 8 IPs were used divided into two groups: the first group included 4 IPs with 3 years of use (Group A); the second group consisted of 4 new IPs with no previous exposure (Group B). The tests used to assess the IP's quality were: Uniformity, Differential Signal to Noise Ratio (SDNR), Ghost Effect and Figure of Merit (FOM). Statistical results show that the proposed tests are shown efficient in assessing the conditions of image quality obtained in CR systems in mammography and can be used as determining factors for the replacement of IP's. Moreover, comparing the two sets of IP, results led to the replacement of all the set of IP’s with 3 years of use. This work demonstrates the importance of an efficient quality control, not only with regard to the quality of IP's used, but in the acquisition system as a whole. From this work, these tests will be conducted on an annual basis, already targeting as future work, monitoring the wear of IP's Group B and the creation of a baseline for analysis and future replacements. (author)

  1. Design and performance of the detector control system of the ATLAS resistive-plate-chamber muon spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.polini@bo.infn.it [INFN Bologna (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    Muon detection plays a key role at the Large Hadron Collider. Resistive plate chambers (RPC) provide the barrel region of the ATLAS detector with an independent muon trigger as well as a two-coordinate measurement. The chambers, arranged in three concentric layers, are operated in a strong magnetic toroidal field and cover a surface area of about 4000 m{sup 2}. The RPC detector control system (DCS) is required to monitor and safely operate tens of thousand of channels, distributed on several subsystems, including low and high voltage power supplies, trigger electronics, currents and thresholds monitoring, environmental sensors and gas and electronic infrastructure. The DCS is also required to provide a level of abstraction for ease of operation as well as specific tools allowing expert actions and detailed analysis of archived data. The hardware architecture and the software solutions adopted are shown in detail along with a few results from the commissioning and first running phases. The material presented here can be used in future test facilities and projects.

  2. Detection system for inclusion defects in hot-rolled steel plates using MFLT with two different magnetizing strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsuji, Junichi; Koshihara, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    Recently, steel can manufacturing requires higher quality because otherwise minute non-metallic inclusions in thin sheets cause cracks and result in a burst during pressurization after the pressing process. Quality testing systems have already been installed in the final process in steel plants, but if there were another inspection in an earlier step, for example, at the hot strip mill, the mass manufacture of nonconforming products could be avoided and maintaining quality control would be more efficient. In order to detect inclusion defects in hot-rolled steel plates, the authors developed a new technique for MFLT (Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing) using different magnetizing forces. According to an analysis of the noise factors in MFLT, it was found that the signals generated from the scale layer on a steel surface are dominant. A different magnetizing force method is the used to decrease this overpowering noise level in MFLT. In this paper, it was confirmed that inclusions larger than 160μm in diameter and less than 0.45mm in depth can be detected utilizing this method.

  3. Titanium plating system with autologous rib graft sternoplasty in the treatment of thoracic inlet compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrowing of the thoracic inlet leading to airway compression is a rare and challenging condition in the pediatric population. Reports in the literature have described this variant related to multiple conditions including double crush phenomenon following repair of pectus excavatum, anterior spinal displacement, and straight back syndrome. Underlying genetic conditions such as Marfan's Syndrome and Hurler's Syndrome have also been reported to contribute to clinically significant airway compression independent of dynamic tracheal collapse such as tracheomalacia. The borders of the thoracic inlet are anatomically bound by the body of the first thoracic vertebrae (T1 posteriorly, the posterior surface of the manubrium anteriorly, and the medial aspects of the first ribs on either side laterally. Relief of tracheal compression in this location is complicated by the rigidity of the boney thoracic inlet and limited space for lifting procedures such as anterior aortopexy. Several operative approaches to treat this condition have been described including manubrial/sternal resection, first rib resection, and reconstruction of the thoracic inlet. Described here are three patients where successful reconstruction of the thoracic inlet was achieved using autologous rib graft sternoplasty and a titanium sternal plating system to widen the thoracic inlet and eliminate external compression on the trachea.

  4. A Shock to the System: How can Land Value Taxation change the Face of Cities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Tsaples, G.; Kovari, A.; Vasilopoulos, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with implementing land value taxation in a city. The System Dynamics method is used to gain insights regarding the consequences such a policy would have on the city’s growth. The hypothesis that when all taxes except for the land-value tax are suddenly eliminated the construction of

  5. Study of the Nonlinear Dropping Shock Response of Expanded Foam Packaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-xin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The variational iteration method-2 (VIM-2 is applied to obtain approximate analytical solutions of EPS foam cushioning packaging system. The first-order frequency solution of the equation of motion was obtained and compared with the numerical simulation solution solved by the Runge-Kutta algorithm. The results showed the high accuracy of this VIM with convenient calculation.

  6. A Shock Mitigation of Pedestrian-Vehicle Impact Using Active Hood Lift System: Deploying Time Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the deploying time (or response time of an active hood lift system (AHLS of a passenger vehicle activated by gunpowder actuator. In this work, this is accomplished by changing principal design parameters of the latch part mechanism of the hood system. After briefly introducing the working principle of the AHLS operated by the gunpowder actuator, the governing equations of the AHLS are formulated for each different deploying motion. Subsequently, using the governing equations, the response time for deploying the hold lift system is determined by changing several geometric distances such as the distance from the rotational center of the pop-up guide to the point of the latch in the axial and vertical directions. Then, a comparison is made of the total response time to completely deploy the hood lift system with the existing conventional AHLS and proposed AHLS. In addition, the workable driving speed of the proposed AHLS is compared with the conventional one by changing the powder volume of the actuator.

  7. Planetary Bow Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Treumann, R A

    2008-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the properties of the various planetary bow shocks is briefly reviewed. We do not follow the astronomical ordering of the planets. We rather distinguish between magnetised and unmagnetised planets which groups Mercury and Earth with the outer giant planets of the solar system, Mars and Moon in a separate group lacking magnetic fields and dense atmospheres, and Venus together with the comets as the atmospheric celestial objects exposed to the solar wind. Asteroids would, in this classification, fall into the group together with the Moon and should behave similarly though being much smaller. Extrasolar planets are not considered as we have only remote information about their behaviour. The presentation is brief in the sense that our in situ knowledge is rather sporadic yet, depending on just a countable number of bow shock crossings from which just some basic conclusions can be drawn about size, stationarity, shape and nature of the respective shock. The only bow shock of which we have ...

  8. 爆炸冲击隔震系统实验研究%Tests for a damping system under blast shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宜晨虹; 陈石勇; 胡八一; 汤铁钢

    2013-01-01

    实验研究了由钢丝绳隔震器组成的爆炸冲击隔震系统在爆炸冲击下的响应及破坏机理,得到了爆炸冲击隔震系统的破坏模式;通过对比实验得到隔震系统效果的定量认识;最后用快速傅里叶变换对结果进行分析.结果表明:隔震系统能够比较显著地减弱低频振动的幅值,这对于结构减振有积极的意义,可以在爆炸塔等爆炸试验场所推广应用.%The response and failure mechanism of a PGG damping system was studied with tests. According to test results, the failure pattern of the system and the quantitative cognition for the shock absorption effect of the system were found. At last, the test results were analyzed in frequency domain with FFT. The results indicated that the damping system is very effective for shock absorption in structures under blast shock.

  9. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  10. Study on detecting spatial distribution of neutrons and gamma rays using a multi-imaging plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun

    2014-06-01

    In order to measure the spatial distributions of neutrons and gamma rays separately using the imaging plate, the requirement for the converter to enhance specific component was investigated with the PHITS code. Consequently, enhancing fast neutrons using recoil protons from epoxy resin was not effective due to high sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma rays. However, the converter of epoxy resin doped with (10)B was found to have potential for thermal and epithermal neutrons, and graphite for gamma rays.

  11. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  12. Near Fault Observatories (NFO) services and integration plan for European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2016-04-01

    the services provided by other Thematic Core Services for the standard data (e.g. seismic and geodetic) and on the direct access to the e-infrastructures of individual NFOs via the Integrated Core Services web services for access and distribution of non standard data (e.g. strain- and tilt-meters, geochemical and electro- magneto-telluric data). We will collaborate with the other groups possessing the same data on data harmonization in terms of both format and metadata description to optimise and facilitate the integration and interoperability processes. The services will include a Virtual Laboratory, novel visualization tools for data and products describing the anatomy of active faults and the physical processes governing earthquake generation. VL is an online engagement and knowledge sharing initiative for communicating to the other scientists, stockholders and the public the state of scientific knowledge concerning earthquake source and tectonic processes generating catastrophic events. The availability of real-time data provides the unique opportunity of observing all phases of the earthquake rupture. It is thus of crucial importance developing methodologies to follow in real-time the evolution of the event (e.g. Earthquake Early Warning systems). NFOs are ideal infrastructures for hosting testing centers where a variety of scientific algorithms for real-time monitoring can be independently evaluated. Besides the interest for fundamental science, such developments have a societal impact and can attract new stakeholders such as industry partners who are interested in adopting in such (e.g. EEW) technologies.

  13. Blast Loading of Epoxy Panels Using a Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Mark; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett

    2010-01-01

    The high strain rate mechanical response of thin polymer plates has been studied using a modified shock tube. Diagnostics include the pressure-time history of the incident and reflected pulses and the use of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques to extract the time-history of the out-of-plane displacement distribution. Additionally, finite element models have been developed to understand the plate response and to validate and modify plate material constitutive models that have been proposed.

  14. Upper plate deformation and seismic barrier in front of Nazca subduction zone : the Chololo Fault System and active tectonics along the Coastal Cordillera, southern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Audin, Laurence; Lacan, P.; Tavera, H.; Bondoux, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The South America plate boundary is one of the most active subduction zone. The recent Mw=8.4 Arequipa 2001 earthquake ruptured the subduction plane toward the south over 400 km and stopped abruptly on the Ilo Peninsula. In this exact region, the subduction seismic crisis induced the reactivation of continental fault systems in the coastal area. We studied the main reactivated fault system that trends perpendicular to the trench by detailed mapping of fault related-geomorphic features. Also, ...

  15. Is this septic shock? A rare case of distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Fior, Alberto; Santos, Ana; Reis, Luís; Bento, Luís

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of shock in a patient without significant clinical history, admitted to the intensive care unit for suspected septic shock. The patient was initially treated with fluid therapy without improvement. A hypothesis of systemic capillary leak syndrome was postulated following the confirmation of severe hypoalbuminemia, hypotension, and hemoconcentration--a combination of three symptoms typical of the disease. The authors discussed the differential diagnosis and also conducted a review of the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  16. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endogenous antioxidant systems and heat shock proteins in response to endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Kristoffer T; Raastad, Truls; Holden, Geir; Bastani, Nasser E; Schneeberger, Damaris; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Mercatelli, Neri; Ostgaard, Hege N; Ugelstad, Ingrid; Caporossi, Daniela; Blomhoff, Rune; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are important signal molecules for adaptations to training. Due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C and E, supplementation has been shown to blunt adaptations to endurance training. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation and endurance training on adaptations in endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSP). Thirty seven males and females were randomly assigned to receive Vitamin C and E (C + E; C: 1000 mg, E: 235 mg daily) or placebo (PLA), and underwent endurance training for 11 weeks. After 5 weeks, a subgroup conducted a high intensity interval session to investigate acute stress responses. Muscle and blood samples were obtained to investigate changes in proteins and mRNA related to the antioxidant and HSP system. The acute response to the interval session revealed no effects of C + E supplementation on NFκB activation. However, higher stress responses to exercise in C + E group was indicated by larger translocation of HSPs and a more pronounced gene expression compared to PLA. Eleven weeks of endurance training decreased muscle GPx1, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, while mnSOD, HSP70 and GSH remained unchanged, with no influence of supplementation. Plasma GSH increased in both groups, while uric acid decreased in the C + E group only. Our results showed that C + E did not affect long-term training adaptations in the antioxidant- and HSP systems. However, the greater stress responses to exercise in the C + E group might indicate that long-term adaptations occurs through different mechanisms in the two groups. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. The development of 8 inch roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography (8-R2P-NIL) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lai Seng; Mohamed, Khairudin; Ooi, Su Guan

    2017-07-01

    Growth in semiconductor and integrated circuit industry was observed in the past decennium of years for industrial technology which followed Moore's law. The line width of nanostructure to be exposed was influenced by the essential technology of photolithography. Thus, it is crucial to have a low cost and high throughput manufacturing process for nanostructures. Nanoimprint Lithography technique invented by Stephen Y. Chou was considered as major nanolithography process to be used in future integrated circuit and integrated optics. The drawbacks of high imprint pressure, high imprint temperature, air bubbles formation, resist sticking to mold and low throughput of thermal nanoimprint lithography on silicon wafer have yet to be solved. Thus, the objectives of this work is to develop a high throughput, low imprint force, room temperature UV assisted 8 inch roll to plate nanoimprint lithography system capable of imprinting nanostructures on 200 mm silicon wafer using roller imprint with flexible mold. A piece of resist spin coated silicon wafer was placed onto vacuum chuck drives forward by a stepper motor. A quartz roller wrapped with a piece of transparent flexible mold was used as imprint roller. The imprinted nanostructures were cured by 10 W, 365 nm UV LED which situated inside the quartz roller. Heat generated by UV LED was dissipated by micro heat pipe. The flexible mold detaches from imprinted nanostructures in a 'line peeling' pattern and imprint pressure was measured by ultra-thin force sensors. This system has imprinting speed capability ranging from 0.19 mm/s to 5.65 mm/s, equivalent to imprinting capability of 3 to 20 pieces of 8 inch wafers per hour. Speed synchronization between imprint roller and vacuum chuck was achieved by controlling pulse rate supplied to stepper motor which drive the vacuum chuck. The speed different ranging from 2 nm/s to 98 nm/s is achievable. Vacuum chuck height was controlled by stepper motor with displacement of 5 nm/step.

  18. MONETARY POLICY SHOCKS AND ISLAMIC BANKS DEPOSITS IN INDONESIAN DUAL BANKING SYSTEM AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Affandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of riba (usury in the economic system remained a key factor that led to financial crisis since theinception of modern economy in the late of 17th century. Implementation of interest based monetary policystipulated rampant speculation as common practices in the global financial sector. Although Islamic bankingwas governed by syariah (Divine Law, which was assumed to be resilient from distress, the volatility ofinterest movement would generally affect Islamic banks operations in a dual banking system. This paperwould look at this issue and would empirically explore the dynamic inter-relationships between deposits ofIslamic banks with monetary policy variables in Indonesia. In terms of market share, as of 2009, Islamicbanking asset in Indonesia was a meager 2%. The industry had been affected by few monetary policy shockson its deposits and financing. The study would employ vector auto regression model (VAR to explore thedynamics between the variables. The study would focus on data from 2004 to 2008 or performance after theAsian financial crisis. The results from these tests determined that shariah based deposits played significantrole in transmitting monetary policy effects to the economy. This study found that Islamic banking depositsin Indonesia were not sensitive to monetary policy changes. This study also concluded that IndonesianIslamic banks were resilient to financial crisis.

  19. Evaluating shock absorption behavior of small-sized systems under programmable electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Piyush; Kumar, Praveen

    2014-11-01

    A simple ball-drop impact tester is developed for studying the dynamic response of hierarchical, complex, small-sized systems and materials. The developed algorithm and set-up have provisions for applying programmable potential difference along the height of a test specimen during an impact loading; this enables us to conduct experiments on various materials and smart structures whose mechanical behavior is sensitive to electric field. The software-hardware system allows not only acquisition of dynamic force-time data at very fast sampling rate (up to 2 × 10(6) samples/s), but also application of a pre-set potential difference (up to ±10 V) across a test specimen for a duration determined by feedback from the force-time data. We illustrate the functioning of the set-up by studying the effect of electric field on the energy absorption capability of carbon nanotube foams of 5 × 5 × 1.2 mm(3) size under impact conditions.

  20. One-dimensional plate impact experiments on the cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) based explosive EDC32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Malcolm J.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Bartram, Brian D.

    2012-09-01

    Eight one-dimensional plate impact experiments have been performed to study both the Shock to Detonation Transition and Hugoniot state in the cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) based explosive EDC32. The experiments covered shock pressures ranging from 0.59 to 7.5 GPa with sustained shocks, double shocks, and short pulse shocks. Experiments were instrumented with embedded magnetic particle velocity gauges. Results include; (1) wave profiles of particle velocity vs. time vs. depth in the explosive, (2) time-distance coordinates for onset of detonation vs. initial shock pressure (aka the Pop-plot), (3) a reactants Hugoniot, and (4) measurement of the Hugoniot Elastic Limit of 0.22.GPa.

  1. Initial conditions of radiative shock experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, University of Michigan, Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics, 2455 Hayward Dr., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Bingham, D.; Goh, J. [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Boehly, T. R.; Sorce, A. T. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We performed experiments at the Omega Laser Facility to characterize the initial, laser-driven state of a radiative shock experiment. These experiments aimed to measure the shock breakout time from a thin, laser-irradiated Be disk. The data are then used to inform a range of valid model parameters, such as electron flux limiter and polytropic γ, used when simulating radiative shock experiments using radiation hydrodynamics codes. The characterization experiment and the radiative shock experiment use a laser irradiance of ∼7 × 10{sup 14} W cm{sup −2} to launch a shock in the Be disk. A velocity interferometer and a streaked optical pyrometer were used to infer the amount of time for the shock to move through the Be disk. The experimental results were compared with simulation results from the Hyades code, which can be used to model the initial conditions of a radiative shock system using the CRASH code.

  2. Impact on plate waste of switching from a tray to a trayless delivery system in a university dining hall and employee response to the switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajah, Krisha; Getty, Victoria M

    2013-01-01

    A potential strategy for decreasing food waste in foodservice operations is trayless dining. The objective of this 2010 study was to compare the impact of using a tray vs a trayless system on plate waste and on employees' attitudes. To test the hypothesis that going trayless would reduce waste, liquid and solid plate waste were measured for 1 week with the then-existing tray system and again after a new trayless system was implemented in a buffet-style university dining hall serving roughly1,000 meals a day. Foodservice staff were invited to participate in a focus group about the impact on their jobs. The investigators calculated plate waste per patron under the two systems and used an independent samples t test to examine the significance of the difference. Comments from the focus group were analyzed for themes. A significant decrease in solid waste per patron (0.81 oz; P=0.001) was observed in switching from the tray to the trayless system (4.39 ± 0.24 oz vs 3.58 ± 0.08 oz per patron). A nonsignificant reduction was observed with liquid waste (49.77 ± 2.62 mL vs 46.36 ± 4.51 mL; P=0.18). Most of the employees preferred the trayless system as long as it did reduce waste, but felt that increased breakage of dishware and increased need to wipe down tables were possible concerns resulting from the switch. This study demonstrates that trayless dining can reduce plate waste, and that employees can be supportive of the change.

  3. Basic Shock Physiology and Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brian K

    2016-05-01

    Veterinarians practicing emergency medicine and/or working with exotic animals must be well versed in the pathophysiology of shock because many exotic pets present with an acute crisis or an acute manifestation of a chronic process causing poor organ perfusion. This article discusses the pathophysiology of shock and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which may lead to organ dysfunction, organ failure, sepsis, and death. The physiology of perfusion, perfusion measurements, categories of shock, and altered function of the immune system, gastrointestinal barrier, and coagulation system are discussed. Veterinarians providing emergency care to patients with shock must also be aware of comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Large-scale right-slip displacement on the East San Francisco Bay Region fault system, California: Implications for location of late Miocene to Pliocene Pacific plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sliter, W.V.; Sorg, D.H.; Russell, P.C.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    A belt of northwardly younging Neogene and Quaternary volcanic rocks and hydrothermal vein systems, together with a distinctive Cretaceous terrane of the Franciscan Complex (the Permanente terrane), exhibits about 160 to 170 km of cumulative dextral offset across faults of the East San Francisco Bay Region (ESFBR) fault system. The offset hydrothermal veins and volcanic rocks range in age from .01 Ma at the northwest end to about 17.6 Ma at the southeast end. In the fault block between the San Andreas and ESFBR fault systems, where volcanic rocks are scarce, hydrothermal vein system ages clearly indicate that the northward younging thermal overprint affected these rocks beginning about 18 Ma. The age progression of these volcanic rocks and hydrothermal vein systems is consistent with previously proposed models that relate northward propagation of the San Andreas transform to the opening of an asthenospheric window beneath the North American plate margin in the wake of subducting lithosphere. The similarity in the amount of offset of the Permanente terrane across the ESFBR fault system to that derived by restoring continuity in the northward younging age progression of volcanic rocks and hydrothermal veins suggests a model in which 80-110 km of offset are taken up 8 to 6 Ma on a fault aligned with the Bloomfield-Tolay-Franklin-Concord-Sunol-Calaveras faults. An additional 50-70 km of cumulative slip are taken up ??? 6 Ma by the Rogers Creek-Hayward and Concord-Franklin-Sunol-Calaveras faults. An alternative model in which the Permanente terrane is offset about 80 km by pre-Miocene faults does not adequately restore the distribution of 8-12 Ma volcanic rocks and hydrothermal veins to a single northwardly younging age trend. If 80-110 km of slip was taken up by the ESFBR fault system between 8 and 6 Ma, dextral slip rates were 40-55 mm/yr. Such high rates might occur if the ESFBR fault system rather than the San Andreas fault acted as the transform margin at this time

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Solar Dryer with Finny, Perforated Absorber Plate Collector Equipped with an Air Temperature Control System for Dill Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Razmipour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dill is one of the most important plants in the world because of its medicinal properties and it is widely used as a vegetable in the most parts of Iran. In the present study a new solar dryer with finny, perforated absorber plate collector was utilized to dry fresh dill. The dryer was comprised of a solar collector, a product container, a fan and a drying air temperature controller. The temperature controller was used as a control system to regulate the drying air temperature. Thermal performance of the dryer with finny, perforated solar collector was compared with that of a simple flat plate solar collector at different airflow rates. The effect of drying air temperature at three levels (45, 55 and 65 °C, the product size at three lengths (3, 5 and 7 cm and two different modes of drying (mixed and indirect on the dryer performance was investigated. The results showed that the finny, perforated absorber plate solar collector could improve the thermal efficiency about 11% in comparison with the flat plate collector and the highest thermal efficiency was achieved at the maximum airflow rate. Meanwhile, increasing the air temperature and decreasing the product size caused a significant reduction in energy consumption. Solar fraction reduced by increasing the air temperature. Finally a maximum dryer efficiency of 70% was observed at air temperature of 65 oC, product size of 3 cm with mixed mode drying.

  6. A bio-artificial renal epithelial cell system conveys survival advantage in a porcine model of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Angela J; Buffington, Deborah A; Johnston, Kimberly A; Smith, Peter L; Pino, Christopher J; Humes, H David

    2017-03-01

    Renal cell therapy using the hollow fiber based renal assist device (RAD) improved survival time in an animal model of septic shock (SS) through the amelioration of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Safety and ability of the RAD to improve clinical outcomes was demonstrated in a Phase II clinical trial, in which patients had high prevalence of sepsis. Even with these promising results, clinical delivery of cell therapy is hampered by manufacturing hurdles, including cell sourcing, large-scale device manufacture, storage and delivery. To address these limitations, the bioartificial renal epithelial cell system (BRECS) was developed. The BRECS contains human renal tubule epithelial cells derived from adult progenitor cells using enhanced propagation techniques. Cells were seeded onto trabeculated disks of niobium-coated carbon, held within cryopreservable, perfusable, injection-moulded polycarbonate housing. The study objective was to evaluate the BRECS in a porcine model of SS to establish conservation of efficacy after necessary cell sourcing and design modifications; a pre-clinical requirement to move back into clinical trials. SS was incited by peritoneal injection of E. coli simultaneous to insertion of BRECS (n=10) or control (n=15), into the ultrafiltrate biofeedback component of an extracorporeal circuit. Comparable to RAD, prolonged survival of the BRECS cohort was conveyed through stabilization of cardiac output and vascular leak. In conclusion, the demonstration of conserved efficacy with BRECS therapy in a porcine SS model represents a crucial step toward returning renal cell therapy to the clinical setting, initially targeting ICU patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species.

  8. A shock tube with a high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometer for investigations of complex reaction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrstein, Steffen H.; Aghsaee, Mohammad; Jerig, Ludger; Fikri, Mustapha; Schulz, Christof

    2011-08-01

    A conventional membrane-type stainless steel shock tube has been coupled to a high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HRR-TOF-MS) to be used to study complex reaction systems such as the formation of pollutants in combustion processes or formation of nanoparticles from metal containing organic compounds. Opposed to other TOF-MS shock tubes, our instrument is equipped with a modular sampling unit that allows to sample with or without a skimmer. The skimmer unit can be mounted or removed in less than 10 min. Thus, it is possible to adjust the sampling procedure, namely, the mass flux into the ionization chamber of the HRR-TOF-MS, to the experimental situation imposed by species-specific ionization cross sections and vapor pressures. The whole sampling section was optimized with respect to a minimal distance between the nozzle tip inside the shock tube and the ion source inside the TOF-MS. The design of the apparatus is presented and the influence of the skimmer on the measured spectra is demonstrated by comparing data from both operation modes for conditions typical for chemical kinetics experiments. The well-studied thermal decomposition of acetylene has been used as a test system to validate the new setup against kinetics mechanisms reported in literature.

  9. A shock tube with a high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometer for investigations of complex reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrstein, Steffen H; Aghsaee, Mohammad; Jerig, Ludger; Fikri, Mustapha; Schulz, Christof

    2011-08-01

    A conventional membrane-type stainless steel shock tube has been coupled to a high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HRR-TOF-MS) to be used to study complex reaction systems such as the formation of pollutants in combustion processes or formation of nanoparticles from metal containing organic compounds. Opposed to other TOF-MS shock tubes, our instrument is equipped with a modular sampling unit that allows to sample with or without a skimmer. The skimmer unit can be mounted or removed in less than 10 min. Thus, it is possible to adjust the sampling procedure, namely, the mass flux into the ionization chamber of the HRR-TOF-MS, to the experimental situation imposed by species-specific ionization cross sections and vapor pressures. The whole sampling section was optimized with respect to a minimal distance between the nozzle tip inside the shock tube and the ion source inside the TOF-MS. The design of the apparatus is presented and the influence of the skimmer on the measured spectra is demonstrated by comparing data from both operation modes for conditions typical for chemical kinetics experiments. The well-studied thermal decomposition of acetylene has been used as a test system to validate the new setup against kinetics mechanisms reported in literature.

  10. Use of the PiCCO system in critically ill patients with septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhongheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodynamic monitoring is very important in critically ill patients with shock or acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS. The PiCCO (Pulse index Contour Continuous Cardiac Output, Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany system has been developed and used in critical care settings for several years. However, its impact on clinical outcomes remains unknown. Methods/design The study is a randomized controlled multi-center trial. A total of 708 patients with ARDS, septic shock or both will be included from January 2012 to January 2014. Subjects will be randomized to receive PiCCO monitoring or not. Our primary end point is 30-day mortality, and secondary outcome measures include ICU length of stay, days on mechanical ventilation, days of vasoactive agent support, ICU-free survival days during a 30-day period, mechanical-ventilation-free survival days during a 30-day period, and maximum SOFA score during the first 7 days. Discussion We investigate whether the use of PiCCO monitoring will improve patient outcomes in critically ill patients with ARDS or septic shock. This will provide additional data on hemodynamic monitoring and help clinicians to make decisions on the use of PiCCO. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01526382

  11. Student Misconceptions: A Qualitative Study of Conceptual Barriers in Plate Tectonics and in the Solar System among Upper Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, L. M.; Corrigan, S.

    2010-12-01

    Constructivist theory points to the importance of recognizing student conceptions and the need to address them if students are going to move from their first conceptions to scientifically accepted understandings. Research into students’ conceptions has therefore been conducted in the disciplines of physics, biology and chemistry, but so far has been limited in the earth sciences. In addition to this gap in the literature, there is a growing interest in making such research more accessible and useful to practitioners. Helpful to both of these needs are recent efforts to describe a particular class of students’ geoscience misconceptions termed “conceptual barriers”. Conceptual barriers are foundational or fundamental misconceptions in the sense that they bare relationships with many other concepts in a domain and stand to seriously impede students’ conceptual understanding. Rather than investigating discrete misconceptions, studies of conceptual barriers investigate the ramifications of such fundamental misconceptions for students’ understanding and reasoning throughout a topic. Where examples of students’ ill- or misconceived patterns of reasoning can be generated, they stand to aid practitioners in not only diagnosing students misconceptions but also in responding to them. We have conducted interviews with over twenty upper elementary and middle school students in order to investigate and describe conceptual barriers to student understanding in the earth sciences - specifically plate tectonics and gravity in the solar system. Student interviews were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Through this work we have been able to identify several possible conceptual barriers in students’ understandings and to describe the ways these barriers impact students’ understanding of related phenomena.

  12. An application of Global Positioning System data from the Plate Boundary Observatory for deformation monitoring purposes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Liu, Z.; Segall, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) represents a major step forward in Global Positioning System (GPS) coverage for the western United States by increasing the spatial density of stations, generating daily position estimates, and providing the infrastructure for high-rate and real-time positioning. In addition to producing vital input for a wide range of crustal deformation studies, PBO significantly expands opportunities for monitoring and event response. This presentation will focus on one such effort. Data from large continuous GPS networks like PBO should be monitored for temporal changes, be they tectonic, volcanic, hydrologic, anthropogenic, or instrumental in origin. Since it is not feasible to review time series by eye on a daily basis, automated approaches are required. Here we apply a Kalman filtering based method, termed the Network Inversion Filter (Segall and Matthews, 1997; McGuire and Segall, 2003), to monitor daily GPS data for deformation-related transient signals. This approach relies on the spatial coherence of signals due to transient sources such as fault slip in order to separate them from spatially-localized time-dependent noise. The dense GPS coverage provided by PBO has augmented pre-existing continuous GPS networks making it now feasible to test this method in California. Results from synthetic tests using the >400 station southern California continuous GPS network configuration demonstrate this approach can extract fault slip signals from data contaminated by plausible noise processes. We will present results using real data from the San Francisco Bay Area and discuss the role and limitations of this methodology in hazard monitoring.

  13. Improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of remote optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance. Keywords: Calibration, radiometry, remote sensing, source.

  14. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  15. 新型OxyPlateTM厌氧系统隔离眼部厌氧菌的评估%Evaluation of the new OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System for the isolation of ocular anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emily K. Deschler; Paul P. Thompson; Regis Paul Kowalski

    2013-01-01

    目的:厌氧细菌可引起眼部感染,我们测试OxyPlateTM厌氧系统(OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System,OXY)隔离可引起眼部疾病的厌氧细菌.方法:OXY不需要直接的厌氧条件(比如厌氧袋,罐),将其与常规的厌氧袋培养基相比.琼脂培养基上眼部厌氧细菌菌株在好氧和厌氧条件下(厌氧袋)行标准的菌落计数:(1)OXY(好氧);(2)5%羊血(sheep blood,SB);(3)巧克力琼脂;(4)Schaedler琼脂.测试的眼部体外培养细菌来自眼内炎,泪囊炎,包括10个丙酸杆菌和3个放线菌种类.在每个培养条件下,每个细菌菌落计数隔离,排名从大到小,并在非参数比较下确定最佳的培养条件.结果:所有的厌氧条件对于厌氧菌株呈阳性反应.厌氧菌在有氧条件下的SB和Schaedler的琼脂中无法增长.痤疮丙酸杆菌在巧克力琼脂中生长稀疏.作为一种厌氧系统,在厌氧袋SB分离比OXY(P=0.0028)和巧克力琼脂(P=0.0028)分离出更多的菌落数.结论:虽然OXY经测试并没比其他的厌氧系统更高效,它似乎是一个合理隔离厌氧细菌的替代方法.其琼脂培养基在一个专门设计的盘并不需要厌氧袋使得OXY优于其他厌氧系统.%AIM: Anaerobic bacteria can cause ocular infections. We tested the OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System (OXY) to isolate pertinent anaerobic bacteria that can cause ocular disease.METHODS: OXY, which does not require direct anaerobic conditions (i.e. bags, jars), was compared to conventional isolation of incubating culture media in anaerobic bags. Standard colonies counts were performed on anaerobic ocular bacterial isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions (anaerobic bags) using agar media: 1) OXY (aerobic only), 2) 5% sheep blood (SB), 3) Chocolate, and 4) Schaedler. The bacteria tested were de-identified ocular isolates cultured from endophthalmitis and dacryocystitis that include 10 Propionibacterium acnes and 3 Actinomyces species. The colony counts for each bacteria isolate, on each

  16. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.779 Plate, top. A metal plate secured to a locking bracket to prevent the cross locking from being forced out of the...

  17. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  18. Non-uniform, axisymmetric misfit strain: in thin films bonded on plate substrates/substrate systems: the relation between non-uniform film stresses and system curvatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonggang Huang; D. Ngo; A.J. Rosakis

    2005-01-01

    Current methodologies used for the inference of thin film stress through curvature measurements are strictly restricted to stress and curvature states which are assumed to remain uniform over the entire film/substrate system. By considering a circular thin film/substrate system subject to non-uniform, but axisymmetric misfit strain distributions in the thin film, we derived relations between the film stresses and the misfit strain, and between the plate system's curvatures and the misfit strain. These relations feature a "local"part which involves a direct dependence of the stress or curvature components on the misfit strain at the same point, and a "non-local" part which reflects the effect of misfit strain of other points on the location of scrutiny. Most notably, we also derived relations between the polar components of the film stress and those of system curvatures which allow for the experimental inference of such stresses from full-field curvature measurements in the presence of arbitrary radial non-uniformities. These relations also feature a "non-local"dependence on curvatures making a full-field measurement a necessity. Finally, it is shown that the interfacial shear tractions between the film and the substrate are proportional to the radial gradients of the first curvature invariant and can also be inferred experimentally.

  19. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  20. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele;

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway....

  1. Shock and Detonation Physics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-22

    WX-9 serves the Laboratory and the Nation by delivering quality technical results, serving customers that include the Nuclear Weapons Program (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense, the Department of Homeland Security and other government agencies. The scientific expertise of the group encompasses equations-of-state, shock compression science, phase transformations, detonation physics including explosives initiation, detonation propagation, and reaction rates, spectroscopic methods and velocimetry, and detonation and equation-of-state theory. We are also internationally-recognized in ultra-fast laser shock methods and associated diagnostics, and are active in the area of ultra-sensitive explosives detection. The facility capital enabling the group to fulfill its missions include a number of laser systems, both for laser-driven shocks, and spectroscopic analysis, high pressure gas-driven guns and powder guns for high velocity plate impact experiments, explosively-driven techniques, static high pressure devices including diamond anvil cells and dilatometers coupled with spectroscopic probes, and machine shops and target fabrication facilities.

  2. Novel pedicle screw and plate system provides superior stability in unilateral fixation for minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: an in vitro biomechanical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the biomechanical properties of the novel pedicle screw and plate system with the traditional rod system in asymmetrical posterior stabilization for minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF. We compared the immediate stabilizing effects of fusion segment and the strain distribution on the vertebral body.Seven fresh calf lumbar spines (L3-L6 were tested. Flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were induced by pure moments of ± 5.0 Nm and the range of motion (ROM was recorded. Strain gauges were instrumented at L4 and L5 vertebral body to record the strain distribution under flexion and lateral bending (LB. After intact kinematic analysis, a right sided TLIF was performed at L4-L5. Then each specimen was tested for the following constructs: unilateral pedicle screw and rod (UR; unilateral pedicle screw and plate (UP; UR and transfacet pedicle screw (TFS; UP and TFS; UP and UR.All instrumented constructs significantly reduced ROM in all motion compared with the intact specimen, except the UR construct in axial rotation. Unilateral fixation (UR or UP reduced ROM less compared with the bilateral fixation (UP/UR+TFS, UP+UR. The plate system resulted in more reduction in ROM compared with the rod system, especially in axial rotation. UP construct provided more stability in axial rotation compared with UR construct. The strain distribution on the left and right side of L4 vertebral body was significantly different from UR and UR+TFS construct under flexion motion. The strain distribution on L4 vertebral body was significantly influenced by different fixation constructs.The novel plate could provide sufficient segmental stability in axial rotation. The UR construct exhibits weak stability and asymmetrical strain distribution in fusion segment, while the UP construct is a good alternative choice for unilateral posterior fixation of MI-TLIF.

  3. Structure of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere System Beneath the Juan de Fuca Plate: Results of Body Wave Imaging Using Cascadia Initiative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Toomey, D. R.; Hooft, E. E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The plate-scale deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) as part of the Cascadia Initiative (CI) of NSF provides a unique opportunity to study the structure and dynamics of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath an entire oceanic plate, from its birth at a spreading center to its subduction beneath a continent. Here we present tomographic images of the seismic structure of oceanic upper mantle beneath the Juan de Fuca (JdF) and Gorda plates derived from body wave delay times. The results constrain structural anomalies beneath the JdF and Gorda spreading centers, the Blanco and Mendocino transform faults, near ridge hotspots such as Axial Seamount, and the upper mantle structure beneath the subducting oceanic lithosphere. We measured delay times of teleseismic P and S wave phases for the first two years of the CI. Our tomographic analysis assumes both isotropic and anisotropic starting models and accounts for finite-frequency effects and three-dimensional ray bending. Preliminary results indicate that the upper mantle structure beneath the JdF spreading center is asymmetric, with lower shear wave velocities beneath the Pacific plate (also the direction of ridge migration). On a regional scale, regions of lower seismic velocities beneath the JdF and Gorda spreading centers correlate with shallower ridge depths. Beneath the southern Gorda plate a low velocity anomaly is detected, which is absent to the north; this anomaly is bounded to the south by the Mendocino transform. Ongoing work includes analysis of the third year of CI data, which will improve resolution of structure and allow better definition of anomalies in the vicinity of the Blanco transform. In addition, we will combine ocean and continental data to obtain images of the Cascadia subduction zone.

  4. Effects of dexmedetomidine and esmolol on systemic hemodynamics and exogenous lactate clearance in early experimental septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández,Glenn; Tapia, Pablo; Alegría, Leyla; Soto, Dagoberto; Luengo, Cecilia; Gomez, Jussara; Jarufe, Nicolas; Achurra, Pablo; Rebolledo, Rolando; Bruhn, Alejandro; Castro, Ricardo; Kattan, Eduardo; Ospina-Tascón, Gustavo; Bakker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent hyperlactatemia during septic shock is multifactorial. Hypoperfusion-related anaerobic production and adrenergic-driven aerobic generation together with impaired lactate clearance have been implicated. An excessive adrenergic response could contribute to persistent hyperlactatemia and adrenergic modulation might be beneficial. We assessed the effects of dexmedetomidine and esmolol on hemodynamics, lactate generation, and exogenous lactate clearance during endotoxin-induc...

  5. Stationary levitation and vibration transmission characteristic in a superconducting seismic isolation device with a permanent magnet system and a copper plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S., E-mail: s.sasaki@ecei.tohoku.ac.j [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Shimada, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T. [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Kawai, N.; Yasui, K. [Okumura Corporation, 5-6-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 180-8381 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We have devised a magnetic levitation type superconducting seismic isolation device taking advantage of the specific characteristic of HTS bulk that the HTS bulk returns to its original position by restoring force against a horizontal displacement. The superconducting seismic isolation device is composed of HTS bulks and permanent magnets (PM rails). The PMs are fixed on an iron plate to realize the same polarities in the longitudinal direction and the different polarities in the transverse direction. The superconducting seismic isolation device can theoretically remove any horizontal vibrations completely. Therefore, the vibration transmissibility in the longitudinal direction of the PM rail becomes zero in theory. The zero vibration transmissibility and the stationary levitation, however, cannot be achieved in the real device because a uniform magnetic field distribution in the longitudinal direction of PM rail cannot be realized due to the individual difference of the PMs. Therefore, to achieve stationary levitation in the real device we adopted a PM-PM system that the different polarities are faced each other. The stationary levitation could be achieved by the magnetic interaction between the PMs in the PM-PM system, while the vibration transmitted to the seismic isolation object due to the magnetic interaction. We adopted a copper plate between the PMs to reduce the vibration transmissibility. The PM-PM system with the copper plate is very useful for realizing the stationary levitation and reducing the vibration transmissibility.

  6. [Evaluation of the API ZYM system and RPMI agar plates supplemented with Tween 40 for detection of lipolytic enzymes of Candida spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Wróblewska, Joanna; Białucha, Agata; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Lipolytic activity of 40 strains of Candida spp. was tested on API ZYM system and on RPMI agar plates supplemented with 1% Tween 40. Lipolytic activity was indicated by opaque zones around the inoculum cylindrical holes were punched in the medium. Clearing of the medium around the bacterial colonies indicated that an isolate produce lipase. Only 4 (21.1%) strains of C. albicans, and 3 (14.1%) strains of non-C. albicans which hydrolyzed 2-naftylomirystylan by use of the API ZYM system was observed. In contrast, 16 (78.9%) strains of C. albicans and 17 (80.7%) strains of non-C. albicans produced lipases on the agar plate using RPMI agar plates supplemented with 1.0% Tween 40. Determination oflipase activities with the API ZYM system were in no agreement with lipase tests in RPMI supplemented with Tween 40. Our study verify greater usefulness of RPMI supplemented with Tween 40 for detection of lipolytic enzymes of Candida species in comparison to the API ZYM.

  7. Simulating Single-Effect Absorption Cooling Lithium Bromide A Solar System With Flat Plate Collector And Contribute To An Office Building

    OpenAIRE

    MIRI, Mohadaseh

    2015-01-01

    Use solar energy to provide hot water consumption, space heating and cooling in recent decades is considered. In this article a model varies with time, a solar adsorption cooling system consists of a single effect lithium bromide absorption system, a flat plate collector and a storage tank or linear or parabolic simulated separately. The system for cooling an office building for hours of operation from 7 am to 18 pm is considered.About 7 kW peak cooling load occurs in July. Results obtained s...

  8. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  9. Design of Vehicle License Plate Recognition System Based on SOPC%基于SOPC的汽车车牌识别系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔萌达

    2012-01-01

    介绍一种基于SOPC的车牌识别系统的设计方案,利用SOPC Builder创建和配置Nios Ⅱ软核处理器及其外围设备,实现对图像传感器输出数据的采集、存储和显示;在Nios IDE软件开发平台上设计本系统图像处理的程序流程,通过对车牌图像进行定位、字符分割、字符识别等操作,完成对车牌号的处理.这种基于SOPC技术的车牌识别系统降低系统软硬件设计的难度,缩短开发周期,并提高设计的可靠性,具有较高的实用价值和应用前景.%A design of vehicle license plate recognition system based on SOPC is introduced, use SOPC Builder to create and configure the Nios II soft core processor? And its peripheral equipment to realize the image sensor output data collection, storage and display* the program flow of image processing of the system is designed on the Nios IDE software development platform, through the positioning plate image, character segmentation, character recognition and other operations to complete the processing of license plate number. This kind of vehicle license plate recognition system based on SOPC technology has reduced the difficulty of systematic soft and hardware design, shortened development cycle, raised the reliability of design, and had higher practical value and application prospect.

  10. 用ObjectARX开发板翅式换热器参数化CAD系统%evelopment of CAD System for Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger with ObjectARX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹群彩; 凌祥; 涂善东

    2001-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of plate-fin heat exchangers,a CAD system was developed with parametric technique and ObjectARX combined with programming language Visual C++,which has integrated the following two advantages-one is powerful image displaying and compiling functions under AutoCAD ambient,the other is object-oriented programming and high efficiency of Visual C++.Thus,the rapid innovation of plate-fin heat exchanger can be realized by this system in conjunction with heat calculation module and rapid pricing system of plate-fin heat exchanger formerly proposed by the authors.

  11. Ultramicroband array electrode. 1. Analysis of mercury in contaminated soils and flue gas exposed samples using a gold-plated iridium portable system by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Dietze, William; Nyasulu, Frazier; Mibeck, Blaise A F

    2006-07-15

    The applicability of a gold-plated iridium Nano-Band array ultramicroelectrode (6 microm by 0.2 microm, 64-microm interspacing, 100 electrode bands) in the analysis of mercury using a portable system is demonstrated by anodic stripping voltammetry in real-life samples. Optimized measurement parameters, 0.1 M HCl electrolyte, plating potential of 0 mV, and staircase scan mode were identified. The dynamic linear range is 10-180 ppb at 5-s deposition time with 1.5 microC of gold plated. The experimental detection limit for Hg2+ in 0.1 M HCl was 0.5 ppb at a deposition time of 4 min and a scan rate of 10 V/s. Real-life samples, such as flue gas exposed samples from flue gas simulators could be analyzed within 5 min using the method of standard additions. We identified a field-portable extraction procedure for soil samples using 1:1 concentrated HNO3/30% H2O2 mixture, compatible with ASV and the iridium electrode. The detection limit for soils is 1 ppm. The results obtained using ASV are in good agreement with reference values using cold vapor atomic absorption for the sample matrixes studied here. To our knowledge, this is the first mercury application using a reusable iridium array ultramicroelectrode. The portable potentiostat is less than 500 g, and together with the portable digestion method, makes the Nano-Band Explorer system field applicable.

  12. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  13. Finite Element Modeling of Material Fatigue and Cracking Problems for Steam Power System HP Devices Exposed to Thermal Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlicki Jakub

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the material damaging process due to low-cycle fatigue and subsequent crack growth under thermal shocks and high pressure. Finite Element Method (FEM model of a high pressure (HP by-pass valve body and a steam turbine rotor shaft (used in a coal power plant is presented. The main damaging factor in both cases is fatigue due to cycles of rapid temperature changes. The crack initiation, occurring at a relatively low number of load cycles, depends on alternating or alternating-incremental changes in plastic strains. The crack propagation is determined by the classic fracture mechanics, based on finite element models and the most dangerous case of brittle fracture. This example shows the adaptation of the structure to work in the ultimate conditions of high pressure, thermal shocks and cracking.

  14. Design and Simulation of a Hybrid Intelligent Shock Absorption System%混合式智能减震系统的设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马驰; 李光林; 宋杰; 李小云

    2016-01-01

    为提高摩托车在较差路况下的减震效率,增加行驶的平稳性和乘坐人员的舒适性,设计研究了一种混合式智能减震系统.该系统以弹簧、电磁铁为基础,空气阻尼为耗损振动能介质,利用压力传感器实时检测振动力的变换,自动调节电磁作用力,使系统具有自适应调整减震的能力.通过ANSYS对系统电磁部分进行性能仿真,分析该系统的力学性能和电磁性能,并阐述了系统设计方案.仿真分析表明,在相同载荷和冲击力条件下,混合式智能减震系统与一般筒式液压减震系统相比,不仅减震性能好,同时具备自动化柔性减震功能,能够满足较差路况的减震需求,使摩托车行驶更加平稳.能耗分析表明,在连续振动冲击下,使用7Ah蓄电池给系统供电,系统能够有效工作5.4h,完全能够满足实际使用需要.%A hybrid intelligent shock absorption system that uses spring and electromagnet as the basis and air damping as the vibration loss medium is designed to improve the shock absorption efficiency under poor road conditions and to increase smooth driving and riding comfort .A pressure sensor is used to realize a re‐al‐time test of vibration change and automatically regulate the electromagnetic force to get a self‐adapting shock absorbing system .The electromagnetics performance of the system is simulated through ANSYS to analyze its mechanical property and electromagnetic performance and to expound the system design scheme .The simulation analysis indicates that with the same load and impact ,the hybrid intelligent shock absorption system shows better performance and excellences than the commonly used cylindrical hydraulic shock absorbers ,and it has automatic flexible shock absorption to meet the need of smooth driving under poor road conditions .The energy consumption analysis indicates that this system can work effectively for 11 h under a

  15. Neutralization of Bacterial Aerosols by Aerodynamic Shocks in a Novel Impactor System: An Integrated Computational and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    the upstream impactor pressure at 1 atm. Nebulization The phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (BP2438-4, Fisher Scientific) suspension con- taining the...shocks on spores which are more relevant as bioterrorism threats. In laboratory settings, Bacillus subtilis var niger , reclassified as Bacillus...deceleration tube (see Fig. 5.1; parts 4 k. 5) is filled with 600 fiL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution (BP2438-4, Fisher Scientific), which keeps

  16. Measuring the efficacy of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for lame sows using a GAITFour pressure mat and an embedded microcomputer-based force plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M D; Johnson, A K; Abell, C A; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Millman, S T; Stalder, K J

    2015-05-01

    Pain associated with lameness on farm is a negative affective state and has a detrimental impact on individual farm animal welfare. Animal pain can be managed utilizing husbandry tools and through pharmacological approaches. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including meloxicam and flunixin meglumine are compounds used in many species for pain management because they are easy to administer, long lasting, and cost-effective. Assessing an animal's biomechanical parameters using such tools as the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system provides an objective, sensitive, and precise means to detect animals in lame states. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine for pain mitigation in lame sows using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Lameness was induced in 24 mature mixed-parity sows using a chemical synovitis model and compared 3 treatments: meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg per os), flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intramuscular) and sterile saline (intramuscular). Weight distribution (kg) for each foot was collected twice per second for a total of 5 min for each time point using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system. Stride time, stride length, maximum pressure, activated sensors, and stance time were collected using 3 quality walks (readings) for each time point using the GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Sows administered flunixin meglumine or meloxicam tolerated more weight on their lame leg compared with saline sows (P meloxicam had smaller differences in stance time, maximum pressure, and activated sensors between the sound and lame legs compared with saline-treated sows between 37 and 60 h after lameness induction (P meloxicam administration mitigated pain sensitivity in sows after lameness induction when pain sensitivity was evaluated with the embedded

  17. A simulation study of a dual-plate in-room PET system for dose verification in carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ze; Hu, Zheng-Guo; Chen, Jin-Da; Zhang, Xiu-Ling; Guo, Zhong-Yan; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Wen-Xue; Wang, Jian-Song

    2014-08-01

    During carbon ion therapy, lots of positron emitters such as 11C, 15O, 10C are generated in irradiated tissues by nuclear reactions, and can be used to track the carbon beam in the tissue by a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. In this study, an dual-plate in-room PET scanner has been designed and evaluated based on the GATE simulation platform to monitor patient dose in carbon ion therapy. The dual-plate PET is designed to avoid interference with the carbon beamline and with patient positioning. Its performance was compared with that of four-head and full-ring PET scanners. The dual-plate, four-head and full-ring PET scanners consisted of 30, 60, 60 detector modules, respectively, with a 36 cm distance between directly opposite detector modules for dose deposition measurements. Each detector module consisted of a 24×24 array of 2 mm×2 mm×18 mm LYSO pixels coupled to a Hamamatsu H8500 PMT. To estimate the production yield of positron emitters, a 10 cm×15 cm×15 cm cuboid PMMA phantom was irradiated with 172, 200, 250 MeV/u 12C beams. 3D images of the activity distribution measured by the three types of scanner are produced by an iterative reconstruction algorithm. By comparing the longitudinal profile of positron emitters along the carbon beam path, it is indicated that use of the dual-plate PET scanner is feasible for monitoring the dose distribution in carbon ion therapy.

  18. In vitro maturation system for individual culture of bovine oocytes using micro-volume multi-well plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Masashi; Kang, Sung-Sik; Koyama, Keisuke; Huang, Weiping; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    As a preliminary study for the development of individual in vitro maturation (IVM) culture of bovine oocytes, a multi-well (MW) plate was used. Maturation, fertilization and development to blastocysts were examined and compared with those of IVM oocytes cultured in 50-microl droplets in groups and in 10-microl droplets individually. The maturation rates were similar in all experimental groups. Normal fertilization rates in MW and 50-microl droplets were similar, but lower in 10-microl droplets (p culture.

  19. Numerical simulation analysis on protective performance of sandwich plate system%船用夹层板系统水下防护性能数值仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昆; 包杰; 王自力; 唐文勇

    2015-01-01

    Sandwich plate system (SPS) has superior mechanical performance, it can be applied to ship protective structure design to improve the protective performance. In this paper, the nonlinear finite element software ABAQUS is used to analyze the mechanical behavior of SPS such as structure damage deforma-tion, energy absorbing, the speed of movement and acceleration under the underwater explosion, and com-pared with the traditional hull stiffened plates. Then, the protective performance of SPS under the different explosion conditions is studied, and the influence of structure parameter to protective performance is dis-cussed. The results show that SPS has an effect of buffer and unloading for the shock wave load; with the increasing of the impulsive factor, the stress and plastic strain of mid elements on SPS panels and ener-gy absorption are increased, the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the mid points on SPS panels present the approximate linear increasing trend;the optimal structure matching problem of SPS is existed, so the structural size optimization needs to be carried out in the further study.%夹层板系统(SPS)具有优越的力学性能,可应用于船舶防护结构设计中,提高其防护性能。文章基于非线性有限元软件ABAQUS,分析了SPS在水下爆炸冲击载荷下的结构损伤变形模式、吸能、速度、加速度响应等力学行为,并与传统船体加筋板架结构的防护性能进行对比分析;然后系统研究了不同冲击波工况下SPS的防护性能,并讨论了SPS结构参数对其防护性能的影响。研究结构表明,SPS对冲击波载荷具有较好缓冲及卸载效果;随着冲击因子的增大,SPS上下面板中心单元的应力和应变以及结构吸能都在相应增大,其中心点位移、速度和加速度也呈现出近似线性增长趋势;SPS存在最优结构匹配问题,需要进一步开展结构尺寸优化。

  20. A simulation study of a dual-plate in-room PET system for dose verification in carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ze; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Chen, Jin-Da; Zhang, Xiu-Ling; Guo, Zhong-Yan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Wen-Xue; Wang, Jian-Song

    2013-01-01

    Carbon ion therapy have the ability to overcome the limitation of convertional radiotherapy due to its most energy deposition in selective depth, usually called Bragg peak, which results in increased biological effectiness. During carbon ion therapy, lots positron emitters such as $^{11}$C, $^{15}$O, $^{10}$C are generated in irradiated tissues by nuclear reactions. Immediately after patient irradiation, PET scanners can be used to measure the spatial distribution of positron emitters, which can track the carbon beam to the tissue. In this study, we designed and evaluated an dual-plate in-room PET scanner to monitor patient dose in carbon ion therapy, which is based on GATE simulation platform. A dual-plate PET is designed to avoid interference with the carbon beam line and with patient positioning. Its performance was compared with that of four-head and full-ring PET scanners. The dual-plate, four-head and full-ring PET scanners consisted of 30, 60, 60 detector modules, respectively, with a 36 cm distance be...

  1. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  2. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  3. Supervision system for the plate mill reheating furnaces at Companhia Siderurgica Paulista; Sistema supervisor dos fornos de placas da linha de chapas grossas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Abner Cordeiro; Rother, Ariovaldo; Texeira, Aloisio; Ramos, Carlos; Masulo, Mario Donato [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista, SP (Brazil); Dias, Ronaldo Freitas [TSE Automacao Industrial, XX (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Quality Assurance System required by customers from several industrial branches are forcing suppliers to spend more and more money on technological improvements. COSIPA`s Plate Mill, following this tendency, has just installed a Supervisor System for its Reheating Furnaces, which allows the acquisition and retrieving of operational data. This information makes feasible the development of studies and projects for the continuous improvement of the reheating process. This system is reliable, shows low operational coast and has easy maintenance. Finally, last but not least, t has direct data communication with the mainframe as well, enabling interaction with furnace control and, in such way, this system can determine the reheating temperatures and rolling pitch according to the production schedule. This system has also available special software for the generation of production reports according to the QAS (Quality Assurance System) and other standards. (author) 15 figs.

  4. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  5. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  6. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend ...

  7. Shock finding on a moving-mesh - II. Hydrodynamic shocks in the Illustris universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Kevin; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodynamical shocks are a manifestation of the non-linearity of the Euler equations and play a fundamental role in cosmological gas dynamics. In this work, we identify and analyse shocks in the Illustris simulation, and contrast the results with those of non-radiative runs. We show that simulations with more comprehensive physical models of galaxy formation pose new challenges for shock finding algorithms due to radiative cooling and star-forming processes, prompting us to develop a number of methodology improvements. We find in Illustris a total shock surface area which is about 1.4 times larger at the present epoch compared to non-radiative runs, and an energy dissipation rate at shocks which is higher by a factor of around 7. Remarkably, shocks with Mach numbers above and below mathcal {M}≈ 10 contribute about equally to the total dissipation across cosmic time. This is in sharp contrast to non-radiative simulations, and we demonstrate that a large part of the difference arises due to strong black hole radio-mode feedback in Illustris. We also provide an overview of the large diversity of shock morphologies, which includes complex networks of halo-internal shocks, shocks on to cosmic sheets, feedback shocks due to black holes and galactic winds, as well as ubiquitous accretion shocks. In high-redshift systems more massive than 1012 M⊙, we discover the existence of a double accretion shock pattern in haloes. They are created when gas streams along filaments without being shocked at the outer accretion shock, but then forms a second, roughly spherical accretion shock further inside.

  8. Entropy Production and Admissibility of Shocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-Ping Liu; Tommaso Ruggeri

    2003-01-01

    In shock wave theory there are two considerations in selecting the physically relevant shock waves.There is the admissibility criterion for the well-posedness of hyperbolic conservation laws. Another consideration concerns the entropy production across the shocks. The latter is natural from the physical point of view, but is not sufficient in its straightforward formulation, if the system is not genuinely nonlinear. In this paper we propose the principles of increasing entropy production and that of the superposition of shocks. These principles are shown to be equivalent to the admissibility criterion.

  9. The "Volcano Observations" Thematic Core Service of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): status of the implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The European volcanological community contributes to implementation of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) by making operational an integrated platform to guarantee a seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. To achieve this objective, the Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) will implement a Thematic Core Services (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; as university departments, laboratories, etc.); both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) over which to build the TCS. Currently, the networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). In Europe also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), and almost continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS is addressing technical and management issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state of the art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the frame of the VO and VRI is now too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure, thus the main effort planned in the frame of the EPOS-IP is focused to create services aimed at

  10. The contribution of the Volcano Observations Work Package to the implementation of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The overall aim of the implementation phase of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to make the integrated platform operational in order to guarantee seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. The Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) contributes to this objective by implementing a Thematic Core Service (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.). Both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) which the TCS will integrate. Currently, monitoring networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). Across Europe several laboratories provide sample characterization (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), quasi-continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing facilities. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS will address technical as well as managerial issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state-of-the-art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the current arrangement of individual VO and VRI is considered too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort in the framework of the EPOS

  11. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen; Dickson Cunningham; Gijsbert B. Straathof; Morgan Ganerød; Bart W.H. Hendriks; Arjan H. Dijkstra

    2015-01-01

    The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we docu-ment field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region from the Triassic to the present. To this end, we provide detailed mapping of the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern flanks of Mt. Ih Bogd that contains the widest variety of rock-time units in the area. We carry out geochronological analysis of basaltic lavas and basement granite in the area. We demonstrate that a crystalline basement with a 502 ? 8 Ma granitoid (U/Pb) underwent two phases of basin formation in the Mesozoic, which we date with new 40Ar/39Ar lava ages of 218.5 ? 1.5, 123.2 ? 0.7 and 124.8 ? 1.2 Ma, respectively. Both phases are linked to deposition of fluvio-lacustrine sediments and trap-like basaltic volcanics, with cumulative thicknesses of 1000e1500 m. Both basins were likely north-facing half-gra-bens that developed under wNeS extension, but were subsequently overthrusted by Paleozoic and older crystalline basement during a less well constrained, but likely mid-Cretaceous phase of NeS shortening and basin inversion. Our results are consistent with recent seismic imaging of rift basins w100 km to the NE of the study area where a similar history was reconstructed. The multiple phases of intra-plate deformation appear to have parallel structural trends, most likely due to reactivated Paleozoic base-ment structures created during the original terrane amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt continental crust. This strong basement heterogeneity may predispose it to reactivation, and make it sensitive to changes in the overall stress field of the Eurasian plate driven by forces at its margins and base. Detailed study of Mongolia’s multi-stage tectonic history may thus provide a key proxy for the long-term dynamics of the Eurasian plate. In

  12. Effect of Shock Compression Method on the Defect Substructure in Monocrystalline Copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, B Y; Meyers, M A; Lassila, D H; Schneider, M S; Kad, B K; Huang, C X; Xu, Y B; Kalantar, D H; Remington, B A

    2005-02-17

    Monocrystalline copper samples with orientations of [001] and [221] were shocked at pressures ranging from 20 GPa to 60 GPa using two techniques: direct drive lasers and explosively driven flyer plates. The pulse duration for these techniques differed substantially: 2 ns for the laser experiments and 1.1-1.4 {micro}s for the flyer-plate experiments. The residual microstructures were dependent on orientation, pressure, and shocking method. The much shorter pulse duration in laser shock yielded recovery microstructures with no or limited dislocation motion. For the flyer-plate experiments, the longer pulse duration allow shock-generated defects to reorganize into lower energy configurations. Calculations show that the post shock cooling occurs in a time scale of 0.2 s for laser shock and 1000 s for plate-impact shock, propitiating recovery and recrystallization conditions for the latter. At the higher pressure level extensive recrystallization was observed in the plate-impact samples, while it was absent in laser shock. An effect that is proposed to contribute significantly to the formation of recrystallized regions is the existence of micro-shearbands, which increase the local temperature.

  13. Advanced and Exploratory Shock Sensing Mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsen, Nicholas; Kolb, James; Kulkarni, Akshay; Sorscher, Zachary; Habing, Clayton; Mathis, Allen; Beller, Zachary

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical component response to shock environments must be predictable in order to ensure reliability and safety. Whether the shock input results from accidental drops during transportation to projectile impact scenarios, the system must irreversibly transition into a safe state that is incapable of triggering the component . With this critical need in mind, the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Summer Product Realization Institute (NW SPRINT) program objective sought the design of a passive shock failsafe with emphasis on additively manufactured (AM) components. Team Advanced and Exploratory (A&E) responded to the challenge by designing and delivering multiple passive shock sensing mech anisms that activate within a prescribed mechanical shock threshold. These AM failsafe designs were tuned and validated using analytical and computational techniques including the shock response spectrum (SRS) and finite element analysis (FEA). After rapid prototyping, the devices experienced physical shock tests conducted on Sandia drop tables to experimentally verify performance. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, dynamic system, failsafe, finite element analysis, mechanical shock, NW SPRINT, shock respon se spectrum

  14. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  15. Orion锁定型颈椎前路钢板系统的临床应用%Clinical application of Orion anterior cervical locking plate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭澄水; 蒋学金; 陈新良; 韩国华; 孔祥飞

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of Orion anterior cervical locking plate system in cervical injuries and cervical spondylous myelopathy. Methods 3 cervical spinal fractures and 2 cervical spondylous myelopathy were treated by anterior decompression, autografting and Orion plate fixation. Results 5 cases were followed up for 4~12 months. Bone graft was completely fused without complications of broken plate or loosening screw. Conclusion Orion plate can offer cervical stability after anterior decompression and bone grafting. It is easy to apply and suitable for the treatment of cervical fractures with spinal cord injuries.%目的探讨Orion锁定型颈椎前路钢板系统对颈椎骨折和脊髓型颈椎病手术固定的效果。方法对3例颈椎骨折合并高位截瘫和2例脊髓型颈椎病患者施行颈椎前路减压植骨融合及Orion钢板内固定。结果术后随访4~12个月,植骨已完全融合,无钢板断裂、螺钉松动等情况发生。结论 Orion锁定型颈椎前路钢板系统方法简单、容易掌握,内固定牢固,尤其适用于颈椎骨折伴高位截瘫患者的内固定治疗。

  16. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  17. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  18. Historic Food Production Shocks: Quantifying the Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aled W. Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding global food production trends is vital for ensuring food security and to allow the world to develop appropriate policies to manage the food system. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing attention on the global food system, particularly after the extreme shocks seen in food prices after 2007. Several papers and working groups have explored the links between food production and various societal impacts however they often categorise production shocks in different ways even to the extent of identifying different levels, countries and timings for shocks. In this paper we present a simple method to quantify and categorise cereal production shocks at a country level. This method can be used as a baseline for other studies that examine the impact of these production shocks on the global food system.

  19. 33 CFR 183.584 - Shock test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shock test. 183.584 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.584 Shock test. A fuel tank is tested by... surface of the tank. The duration of each vertical acceleration pulse is measured at the base of the...

  20. Shock Tube as an Impulsive Application Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ranjan Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations solely focus on application of an impulse facility in diverse area of high-speed aerodynamics and structural mechanics. Shock tube, the fundamental impulse facility, is specially designed and calibrated for present objectives. Force measurement experiments are performed on a hemispherical test model integrated with the stress wave force balance. Similar test model is considered for heat transfer measurements using coaxial thermocouple. Force and heat transfer experiments demonstrated that the strain gauge and thermocouple have lag time of 11.5 and 9 microseconds, respectively. Response time of these sensors in measuring the peak load is also measured successfully using shock tube facility. As an outcome, these sensors are found to be suitable for impulse testing. Lastly, the response of aluminum plates subjected to impulsive loading is analyzed by measuring the in-plane strain produced during deformation. Thus, possibility of forming tests in shock is also confirmed.