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Sample records for plate screening tests

  1. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  2. Interaction between plate make and protein in protein crystallisation screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallisation screening involves the parallel testing of large numbers of candidate conditions with the aim of identifying conditions suitable as a starting point for the production of diffraction quality crystals. Generally, condition screening is performed in 96-well plates. While previous studies have examined the effects of protein construct, protein purity, or crystallisation condition ingredients on protein crystallisation, few have examined the effect of the crystallisation plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a statistically rigorous examination of protein crystallisation, and evaluated interactions between crystallisation success and plate row/column, different plates of same make, different plate makes and different proteins. From our analysis of protein crystallisation, we found a significant interaction between plate make and the specific protein being crystallised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protein crystal structure determination is the principal method for determining protein structure but is limited by the need to produce crystals of the protein under study. Many important proteins are difficult to crystallize, so that identification of factors that assist crystallisation could open up the structure determination of these more challenging targets. Our findings suggest that protein crystallisation success may be improved by matching a protein with its optimal plate make.

  3. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  4. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  5. Short apraxia screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p 3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p 2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.

  6. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  7. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  8. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  9. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  10. TB Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  11. Newborn Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. Made in the bone marrow and the thymus gland, B- and T- lymphocytes are specialized white ... be treated to help prevent problems with that development. previous continue Should I Request Other Tests? If ...

  12. Study on Clinical Screening Value of Oral Test Plate for Helicobacter Pylori in Saliva%口腔唾液幽门螺杆菌测试板的临床筛查价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 徐樨巍; 丁召路; 于飞鸿; 王国丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨唾液幽门螺杆菌(HpS)测试板检测Hp感染的临床筛查价值.方法 对150例临床有消化系统症状的患儿同时行HpS检测和胃镜下胃黏膜组织活检快速尿素酶试验(RUT)检测,并对两者结果进行对比研究.结果 150例患儿中HPS检出阳性65例(43.33%),胃镜RUT检出阳性41例(27.33%),阳性符合率(敏感性)为85.37%,阴性符合率(特异性)为72.48%;阳性预测值为53.85%,阴性预测值为92.94%.结论 HPS具有操作简便、快速、无创、准确等优点,是临床筛查Hp感染的一种很有价值的方法.%Objective To study on the clinical screening value of the test plate in detection of Helicobacter pylori in saliva ( HPS ). Methods HPS test plate was used to detect urease in saliva of 150 children with gastrointestinal symptoms,while rapid urease test ( RUT ) was also used to detect urease in mucosa of stomach under gastroendoscopy. And the results detected by the two methods above were compared. Results In 150 patients,65 cases ( 43.33% ) were detected to be positive by HPS, while 41 cases ( 27.33% )were detected to be positive by RUT. The positive rate matched of HPS with RUT ( sensitivity ) was 85.37% ,while the negative rate matched ( specificity ) was 72.48%. The positivepredictiverate was 53.85 %, while the negative predictive rate was 92.94 %. Conclusion HPS is featured with non-invasive, easily operating, rapid, and accurate, etc. , which is a valuable screening method in detection of Hp infection.

  13. Review of Autism Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that onset in the first 3 years of life and led to lifelong disability.Despite the early onset of symptoms, diagnosis of thissyndromedoes not happenuntil severalyears later, somany childrenlosethe opportunityfor earlyintervention.There arevarious toolsforscreening anddiagnosis, buttheirdesign, strengths and weaknesses aredifferent. The aim of this study was assess these tools from various aspects to provide a comprehensive view. Materials and methods: This study is a narrative literature review on screeningtoolsof autism. Comprehensive searches of the scientific literature were conducted in textbooks and 8 electronic databases(proquest,wiley,google scholar,SID,Scopus, Web of Science ،Science Direct ، and Medline and Pediatric book. language restriction (Persian and English was applied. The search strategy consisted of keywords and medical subject headings for autism and various screening tests. Result: In this study, 28 screening tests were identified from 1992 to 2014. CHAT is oldest test and the most recent test is CAST The minimum age that can perform the screening is six months that related to ITC. Minimum time of testing was 5 minutes  for CHAT and the maximum time was 90-120 minutes for ASIEP-3.RAADS-R test was the highest specificity and specificity (100% and the lowest specificity was 14% in ESAT test Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that any of the autism screening tools consider specific skill and various aspects of the disease, careful evaluation is need to choose proper test.

  14. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • ...

  15. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  16. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  17. Validation of a two-plate microbiological method for screening antibiotic residues in shrimp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pham Kim; Degand, Guy; Danyi, Sophie; Pierret, Gilles; Delahaut, Philippe; Ton, Vu Dinh; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2010-07-05

    Microbiological inhibition screening tests could play an important role to detect residues of antibiotics in the different animal food products, but very few are available for the aquaculture products in general, and for shrimps in particular. A two-plate microbiological method to screen shrimp for residues of the most commonly used antibiotics has been developed and validated according to criteria derived from the European Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Bacillus subtilis was used as a sensitive strain to target antibiotics. Culture conditions on Petri plates (pH of medium) were selected to enhance the capacity of antibiotic detection. Antibiotic residues were extracted from shrimps using acetonitrile/acetone (70/30, v/v) before application on Petri plates seeded with B. subtilis. The method was validated using spiked blank tissues as well as antibiotic treated shrimps with enrofloxacin and tetracycline, two antibiotics often found to be used in shrimp production. For tetracyclines and (fluoro)quinolones, the detection capability was below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while it was around the MRL for sulfonamides. The specificity of the microbiological screening was 100% in all cases while the sensitivity and accuracy was 100% in almost all cases. The capacity of the method to detect contaminated samples was confirmed on antibiotic treated shrimps, analyzed in parallel with a confirmatory method (Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS)).

  18. Plate-based diversity subset screening generation 2: an improved paradigm for high-throughput screening of large compound files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew S; Bradley, Joseph; Everett, Jeremy R; Loesel, Jens; McLoughlin, David; Mills, James; Peakman, Marie-Claire; Sharp, Robert E; Williams, Christine; Zhu, Hongyao

    2016-11-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is an effective method for lead and probe discovery that is widely used in industry and academia to identify novel chemical matter and to initiate the drug discovery process. However, HTS can be time consuming and costly and the use of subsets as an efficient alternative to screening entire compound collections has been investigated. Subsets may be selected on the basis of chemical diversity, molecular properties, biological activity diversity or biological target focus. Previously, we described a novel form of subset screening: plate-based diversity subset (PBDS) screening, in which the screening subset is constructed by plate selection (rather than individual compound cherry-picking), using algorithms that select for compound quality and chemical diversity on a plate basis. In this paper, we describe a second-generation approach to the construction of an updated subset: PBDS2, using both plate and individual compound selection, that has an improved coverage of the chemical space of the screening file, whilst only selecting the same number of plates for screening. We describe the validation of PBDS2 and its successful use in hit and lead discovery. PBDS2 screening became the default mode of singleton (one compound per well) HTS for lead discovery in Pfizer.

  19. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  20. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  1. Tests of a Novel Design of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B; Freund, B; Neubüser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Xia, L

    2015-01-01

    A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications.

  2. Plate screening methods for the detection of polysaccharase-producing microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Hartmans, S.

    2000-01-01

    Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (polysaccharases) are widely applied in industry. One of the sources of these enzymes are polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms. To obtain such microorganisms from enrichment cultures, strain collections or gene libraries, efficient plate screening methods are requ

  3. Quantitative tests for plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaula, W. M.; Phillips, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative comparisons are made between the characteristics of plate tectonics on the earth and those which are possible on Venus. Considerations of the factors influencing rise height and relating the decrease in rise height to plate velocity indicate that the rate of topographic dropoff from spreading centers should be about half that on earth due to greater rock-fluid density contrast and lower temperature differential between the surface and interior. Statistical analyses of Pioneer Venus radar altimetry data and global earth elevation data is used to identify 21,000 km of ridge on Venus and 33,000 km on earth, and reveal Venus ridges to have a less well-defined mode in crest heights and a greater concavity than earth ridges. Comparison of the Venus results with the spreading rates and associated heat flow on earth reveals plate creation rates on Venus to be 0.7 sq km/year or less and indicates that not more than 15% of Venus's energy is delivered to the surface by plate tectonics, in contrast to values of 2.9 sq km a year and 70% for earth.

  4. Stool Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Douglas J; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality and is widely recommended. However, despite the demonstrated benefits of screening and ongoing efforts to improve screening rates, a large percentage of the population remains unscreened. Noninvasive stool based tests offer great opportunity to enhance screening uptake. The evidence supporting the use of both fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNA (sDNA) has been growing rapidly and both tests are now commercially available for use. Other stool biomarkers (eg, RNA and protein based) are also actively under study both for use independently and as adjuncts to the currently available tests. This mini review provides current, state of the art knowledge about noninvasive stool based screening. It includes a more detailed examination of those tests currently in use (ie, FIT and sDNA) but also provides an overview of stool testing options under development (ie, protein and RNA).

  5. The Accuracy of Three Developmental Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page; Byrne, Karen E.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of 3 developmental screening tests administered to 89 young children was compared. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test was more accurate than the Academic Scale of the Developmental Profile-II and the Denver-II, identifying correctly 72% of children with difficulties and 76% of children without diagnoses. (Author/JDD)

  6. Correlation between Agar Plate Screening and Solid-State Fermentation for the Prediction of Cellulase Production by Trichoderma Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Florencio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability of converting biomass into biofuels and chemicals still requires further development towards the reduction of the enzyme production costs. Thus, there is a growing demand for the development of efficient procedures for selection of cellulase-producing microorganisms. This work correlates qualitative screening using agar plate assays with quantitative measurements of cellulase production during cultivation under solid-state fermentation (SSF. The initial screening step consisted of observation of the growth of 78 preselected strains of the genus Trichoderma on plates, using microcrystalline cellulose as carbon source. The 49 strains that were able to grow on this substrate were then subjected to a second screening step using the Congo red test. From this test it was possible to select 10 strains that presented the highest enzymatic indices (EI, with values ranging from 1.51 to 1.90. SSF cultivations using sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran as substrates were performed using selected strains. The CG 104NH strain presented the highest EGase activity (25.93 UI·g−1. The EI results obtained in the screening procedure using plates were compared with cellulase production under SSF. A correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.977 was obtained between the Congo red test and SSF, demonstrating that the two methodologies were in good agreement.

  7. Screening and Crystallization Plates for Manual and High-throughput Protein Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Berejnov, Viatcheslav (Inventor); Kalinin, Yevgeniy (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In one embodiment, a crystallization and screening plate comprises a plurality of cells open at a top and a bottom, a frame that defines the cells in the plate, and at least two films. The first film seals a top of the plate and the second film seals a bottom of the plate. At least one of the films is patterned to strongly pin the contact lines of drops dispensed onto it, fixing their position and shape. The present invention also includes methods and other devices for manual and high-throughput protein crystal growth.

  8. Impact Of Screen Ruling on the Formation of the Printing Elements on the Flexographic Printing Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tomašegović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexography is a printing technique widely used in the packaging production. The main feature of the flexography is the usage of the printing plate which is elastically deformed during the reproduction process. The printing plate is made of elastic material, rubber or nowadays mainly of different types of photopolymer. Elasticity of the plate enables printing on a wide range of printing substrates (papers, foils, board, magazines, hygienic papers etc., which is one of its advantages compared to other printing techniques. On the other hand, deformations of the printing plate in the printing process caused by the pressure between the printing plate and substrate present major limitation of the flexography. Beside functional properties of the printing plate in the printing process, the plate making process including photopolymerization highly influences the value of the halftones on the printing plate, and consequently on the final product.  The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of the screen ruling on the formation of the printing elements and the procedure of the printing plate making process adjustment in order to achieve optimal quality of the printing plate and, therefore, the final product. Results have shown that the usage of different screen ruling is of great significance in processes of printing plate curve adjustment. It was proven that the usage of different screen ruling highly influences the relief depth and a cross-section of the printing elements (3D analysis, which have a significant impact on the final product quality, but cannot be detected in 2D analysis.

  9. Impact Of Screen Ruling on the Formation of the Printing Elements on the Flexographic Printing Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tomašegović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flexography is a printing technique widely used in the packaging production. The main feature of the flexography is the usage of the printing plate which is elastically deformed during the reproduction process. The printing plate is made of elastic material, rubber or nowadays mainly of different types of photopolymer. Elasticity of the plate enables printing on a wide range of printing substrates (papers, foils, board, magazines, hygienic papers etc., which is one of its advantages compared to other printing techniques. On the other hand, deformations of the printing plate in the printing process caused by the pressure between the printing plate and substrate present major limitation of the flexography. Beside functional properties of the printing plate in the printing process, the plate making process including photopolymerization highly influences the value of the halftones on the printing plate, and consequently on the final product. The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of the screen ruling on the formation of the printing elements and the procedure of the printing plate making process adjustment in order to achieve optimal quality of the printing plate and, therefore, the final product.Results have shown that the usage of different screen ruling is of great significance in processes of printing plate curve adjustment. It was proven that the usage of different screen ruling highly influences the relief depth and a cross-section of the printing elements (3D analysis, which have a significant impact on the final product quality, but cannot be detected in 2D analysis.

  10. C6 plate puncture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangoethem, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordova, Theresa Elena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.

  11. Ion channel screening plates: design, construction, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Scott C; Butera, John A; Diller, David J; Dunlop, John; Ellingboe, John; Fan, Kristi Yi; Kaftan, Edward; Mekonnen, Belew; Mobilio, Dominick; Paslay, Jeff; Tawa, Gregory; Vasilyev, Dmitry; Bowlby, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels have provided a diverse set of therapeutic targets across all areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Many companies are pursuing this unique class of targets for areas of unmet medical need such as neuropathic and inflammatory pains. In the past, focused library screening sets had been designed for CNS and kinase targets. Our investigations were aimed at creating a similar dynamic screening set enriched for compounds targeting ion channels to aid screening efforts of this important class of targets. The key advantages of this approach for ion channel targets would be: (1) to identify tool compounds for novel targets and assist in assay validation, (2) to serve as a focused screen for non-384-well adaptable targets, and (3) to jump start a particular program, that is, catch-up to competition for validated, well-known targets.

  12. Screening of a Test Charge in Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; WANG Rong

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear screening of a test charge in plasma by electrons trapped or untrapped is studied. The obtained results are in rigorous estimations mathematically in comparison with the corresponding Debye screening forms.Meanwhile their validity is physically discussed and some confusions in literature are clarified.

  13. Analysis of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, James N.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to validate the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST), the scores were compared with selected demographic, health history, and physical examination variables of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' preschool children in Colorado. (NQ)

  14. 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate' for screening of appropriate antibiotic combinations against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateda, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2006-01-01

    Increase of multiple drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) is becoming a serious problem in the clinical setting. Although the checkerboard method to determine FIC index and synergistic effects of antibiotic combinations is useful, it is not well adapted to a routine test, mainly because of its time-consuming and labor-intensive nature. Here we report 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate', in which breakpoint concentrations, such as 'S' (sensitive) and 'I' (intermediate), were combined in a microtiter plate with 8 antibiotics, including carbapenem, aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone. The results obtained from 12 strains of MDRP demonstrated a strong synergistic effect of some antibiotic combinations at clinically relevant concentrations. Our data suggest a usefulness of 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate' to screen appropriate antibiotic combinations against drug resistant organisms, including MDRP.

  15. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer screening: Should you get a PSA test? Making the decision to have a PSA test depends on a ... make a good decision. By Mayo Clinic Staff Cancer screening tests — including the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test ...

  17. A simple plate-assay for the screening of L-malic acid producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Y; Rokem, J S; Goldberg, I

    1990-02-01

    A simple plate-assay has been developed to screen microorganisms for L-malic acid production. Acid producing organisms were identified, after microbial colony growth on media containing glucose or fumaric acid as sole carbons sources, by formation of a dark halo of formazan. The halo was observed when the plate was covered with a soft agar overlay containing NAD(+)-malate dehydrogenase, NAD+, phenazine methosulfate (PMS) and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The assay developed is simple, specific for L-malic acid and therefore can be used to identify L-malic acid producing filamentous fungi using glucose as carbon source (e.g. Aspergillus strains). The assay is also applicable for screening bacteria with high fumarase activity, able to convert fumaric acid to L-malic acid.

  18. PREMARITAL SCREENING TESTS: AN ISLAMIC VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shammout

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide spread of many diseases, advancements in genetic engineering have led to considerable improvements in diagnosing these diseases. Therefore, pressure on prospective spouses to undergo premarital medical exams has increased significantly. Many Islamic countries have responded to this emerging need by making some premarital screening tests compulsory for a marriage. The adoption of these policies comes from the core message of Islam, which encourages counselling to protect future generations and to guarantee the continuity of worshipping God. However, some people reject the compulsory test, considering them against Islam rules. In this letter to the editor, the authors explore the view of Islam towards premarital medical tests.

  19. Using Cognitive Screening Tests in Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Souza, Pamela E

    2016-12-01

    The population of the United States is aging. Those older adults are living longer than ever and have an increased desire for social participation. As a result, audiologists are likely to see an increased demand for service by older clients whose communication difficulty is caused by a combination of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. For these individuals, early detection of mild cognitive impairment is critical for providing timely medical intervention and social support. This tutorial provides information about cognition of older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive screening tests, with the purpose of assisting audiologists in identifying and appropriately referring potential cases of cognitive impairment. Topics addressed also include how to administer cognitive screening tests on individuals with hearing loss, how to use test results in audiology practice, and the potential of using cognitive screening tests for evaluating the benefit of clinical interventions. As health care professionals who serve the aging population, audiologists are likely to encounter cases of undiagnosed cognitive impairment. In order to provide timely referral for medical assistance as well as an optimized individual outcome of audiologic interventions, audiologists should be trained to recognize an abnormality in older clients' cognitive status.

  20. A 96-well screen filter plate for high-throughput biological sample preparation and LC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sean X; Cousineau, Martin; Juzwin, Stephen J; Ritchie, David M

    2006-01-01

    A novel 96-well screen filter plate (patent pending) has been invented to eliminate a time-consuming and labor-intensive step in preparation of in vivo study samples--to remove blood or plasma clots. These clots plug the pipet tips during a manual or automated sample-transfer step causing inaccurate pipetting or total pipetting failure. Traditionally, these blood and plasma clots are removed by picking them out manually one by one from each sample tube before any sample transfer can be made. This has significantly slowed the sample preparation process and has become a bottleneck for automated high-throughput sample preparation using robotic liquid handlers. Our novel screen filter plate was developed to solve this problem. The 96-well screen filter plate consists of 96 stainless steel wire-mesh screen tubes connected to the 96 openings of a top plate so that the screen filter plate can be readily inserted into a 96-well sample storage plate. Upon insertion, the blood and plasma clots are excluded from entering the screen tube while clear sample solutions flow freely into it. In this way, sample transfer can be easily completed by either manual or automated pipetting methods. In this report, three structurally diverse compounds were selected to evaluate and validate the use of the screen filter plate. The plasma samples of these compounds were transferred and processed in the presence and absence of the screen filter plate and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS methods. Our results showed a good agreement between the samples prepared with and without the screen filter plate, demonstrating the utility and efficiency of this novel device for preparation of blood and plasma samples. The device is simple, easy to use, and reusable. It can be employed for sample preparation of other biological fluids that contain floating particulates or aggregates.

  1. Study on the Holdup and Mass Transfer Performances for Gas-Liquid-Liquid System in a Screen Plate Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gas and dispersed phase holdups and mass transfer coefficients of liquid-iquid were determined for gas-liquid-liquid three phase system in a screen plate column. The flow pattern of gas-liquid-liquid three phase system was studied under different gas velocities. The shape factors showed the geometric properties of screen plates and the corrected drop characteristic velocities were introduced. The phase holdup in two phases was correlated. The research results indicated that mass transfer coefficient for liquid-liquid system in a column with screen plates and gas agitation was found to increase apparently.

  2. PREMARITAL SCREENING TESTS: AN ISLAMIC VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Shammout

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide spread of many diseases, advancements in genetic engineering have led to considerable improvements in diagnosing these diseases. Therefore, pressure on prospective spouses to undergo premarital medical exams has increased significantly. Many Islamic countries have responded to this emerging need by making some premarital screening tests compulsory for a marriage. The adoption of these policies comes from the core message of Islam, which encourages counselling to p...

  3. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  4. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  5. Simple solutions to false results with plate/slide agglutination tests in diagnosis of infectious diseases of man and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Hari Mohan; Chothe, Shubhada; Kaur, Paviter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new Superagglutination test for serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. It differs from conventional plate/slide agglutination tests (PAT/SAT) by three additional steps: prior staining of serum antibody by adding a dye and addition of diluted biotinylated antiglobulin and avidin in sequence after mixing the antigen with the test serum. The new steps circumvent the problems of false positive and false negative results of PAT/SAT. In serodiagnosis of brucellosis, Superagglutination test had higher positive predictive value and specificity than Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and higher negative predictive value and sensitivity than RBPT, STAT, ELISA and Complement Fixation Test (CFT).•Superagglutination is a simple, accurate and economic screening test for infections.•More specificity, sensitivity, positive & negative predictive value than RBPT, STAT.•More sensitivity, negative predictive value than ELISA and Complement Fixation Test.

  6. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  7. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  8. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications.

  9. Endurance test for mini-plate fuel rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Heung June; Yang, Sun Kyu; Park, Jong Man; Kim, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed by KAERI and fabricated by Daewoo Precision Co. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow velocity across the fuel rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 6.78 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the fuel rig ranges from 14 to 19 Hz. RMZ (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 7 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less than 20 {mu}m. Based on the endurance rest results, the appreciable fretting wear for the fuel rig is not observed but the small amount of wear was observed at the interface region between the mini-plates and upper housing cap as well as at the slot regions of a bottom endplate interfacing with the bottom guide arms. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 33 figs.

  10. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  11. Uses and Abuses of Developmental Screening and School Readiness Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the uses and abuses of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Tests and similar tests. First, discusses developmental screening and readiness tests, then focuses on the Gesell tests, specifically addressing their validity and questioning their current uses. Discusses implications of using readiness tests for assigning children to…

  12. 3D high throughput screening and profiling of embryoid bodies in thermoformed microwell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, E J; Espinoza, S; Heilig, M; Kolew, A; Schneider, M; van Blitterswijk, C A; Truckenmüller, R K; Rivron, N C

    2016-02-21

    3D organoids using stem cells to study development and disease are now widespread. These models are powerful to mimic in vivo situations but are currently associated with high variability and low throughput. For biomedical research, platforms are thus necessary to increase reproducibility and allow high-throughput screens (HTS). Here, we introduce a microwell platform, integrated in standard culture plates, for functional HTS. Using micro-thermoforming, we form round-bottom microwell arrays from optically clear cyclic olefin polymer films, and assemble them with bottom-less 96-well plates. We show that embryonic stem cells aggregate faster and more reproducibly (centricity, circularity) as compared to a state-of-the-art microwell array. We then run a screen of a chemical library to direct differentiation into primitive endoderm (PrE) and, using on-chip high content imaging (HCI), we identify molecules, including regulators of the cAMP pathway, regulating tissue size, morphology and PrE gene activity. We propose that this platform will benefit to the systematic study of organogenesis in vitro.

  13. Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... used to screen for breast problems? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • When should I start ...

  14. Health Assessment of School Children II -- Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Victor; Oglesby, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that adequate screening, and the use of expensive diagnostic procedures (such as medical referral) only for children who have failed a screening test, will result in the most effective use of school health time and funds. (Author)

  15. Uptake of faecal immunochemical test screening among nonparticipants in a flexible sigmoidoscopy screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Lieke; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Reijerink, Jaqueline C I Y; Habbema, Dik J F; van Leerdam, Monique E

    2012-05-01

    Screening programmes based on single modality testing may prevent individuals with a preference for a different test from participating. We conducted a population-based trial to determine whether nonparticipants in flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening were willing to attend faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening. In total, 8,407 subjects were invited in a primary FS screening programme. Invitees did not know at the time of FS invitation that nonparticipants would be offered FIT screening. A total of 4,407 nonparticipants of FS screening were invited for FIT screening (cut-off 50 ng haemoglobin/ml). The participation rate to FS screening was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30-32%]. Among the FS nonparticipants 25% (CI: 24-26%) did attended FIT screening. The participation rate of the two-stage recruitment for FS and FIT screening was 45% (CI: 44-46%). FIT screenees were older (p = 0.02), more often women (p < 0.001) and had a lower social economic status (p = 0.01) than FS screenees. The detection rate (DR) for advanced adenoma was 3.5% (CI: 2.5-4.8%), and for colorectal cancer (CRC) it was 0.3% (CI: 0.1-0.8%) among participants to FIT screening. The DR of the two-stage recruitment was 6.1% (n = 202) for an advanced adenoma and 0.5% (n = 16) for a CRC. In conclusion, offering FIT screening to nonparticipants in a FS screening programme increases the overall participation rate considerably, as a quarter of nonparticipants of FS screening was willing to attend FIT screening. The participation rate remains lower for primary FIT screening in the same population (62%). Women in the target population were more likely to refuse FS than FIT screening. Countries introducing FS screening should be aware of these preferences. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  16. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments.

  17. An adjustable parallel-plate capacitor instrument—Test of the theoretical capacitance formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Beau; Baker, Emily; Farwell, Austin; Foster, Harrison; Gao, Xiaohan; Gruber, Benjamin; Jones, Erica; Vu, Dennis; Xu, Sonya; Ye, Jingbo

    2016-09-01

    We describe an adjustable parallel-plate capacitor apparatus designed for use in an undergraduate laboratory that permits precise variation of plate separation distances and overlap area. Two experiments are performed with the device to test the ideal capacitor formula derived from Gauss's Law. After correcting for edge effects and minor plate tilt, the device yields capacitance values within 3% of theoretical values.

  18. Concurrent Validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mary; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study compared the results of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) Screening Test with the Denver Developmental Screening Test-Revised and with the full-scale BDI for 30 handicapped and 35 nonhandicapped children, all aged six months to six years. Major differences were found between the tests and populations identified for follow-up.…

  19. An antibody microarray, in multiwell plate format, for multiplex screening of foodborne pathogenic bacteria and biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intoxication and infection caused by foodborne pathogens are important problems in the United States, and screening tests for multiple pathogen detection have been developed because food producers are known reservoirs of multiple pathogens. We developed a 96-well microplate, multiplex antibody micr...

  20. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collection. Part of the card consists of special absorbent paper used to collect the blood sample. 1 ... blood is taken through a "heel stick." The absorbent portion of the screening card is then placed ...

  1. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  2. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  3. Potential Biases Introduced by Conflating Screening and Diagnostic Testing in Colorectal Cancer Screening Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elizabeth A; Griffith, Derek M; West, Brady T; Janz, Nancy K; Resnicow, Ken; Morris, Arden M

    2015-12-01

    Screening and postsymptomatic diagnostic testing are often conflated in cancer screening surveillance research. We examined the error in estimated colorectal cancer screening prevalence due to the conflation of screening and diagnostic testing. Using data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey, we compared weighted prevalence estimates of the use of all testing (screening and diagnostic) and screening in at-risk adults and calculated the overestimation of screening prevalence across sociodemographic groups. The population screening prevalence was overestimated by 23.3%, and the level of overestimation varied widely across sociodemographic groups (median, 22.6%; mean, 24.8%). The highest levels of overestimation were in non-Hispanic white females (27.4%), adults ages 50-54 years (32.0%), and those with the highest socioeconomic vulnerability [low educational attainment (31.3%), low poverty ratio (32.5%), no usual source of health care (54.4%), and not insured (51.6%); all P colorectal cancer screening prevalence was overestimated, and patterns of overestimation often aligned with social and economic vulnerability. These results are of concern to researchers who use survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess cancer screening behaviors, as it is currently not designed to distinguish diagnostic testing from screening. Surveillance research in cancer screening that does not consider the impetus for testing risks measurement error of screening prevalence, impeding progress toward improving population health. Ultimately, to craft relevant screening benchmarks and interventions, we must look beyond "what" and "when" and include "why." ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. A simple and effective plating method to screen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria under various redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Youngsoon; Chang, Matthew Wook; Holoman, Tracey Pulliam

    2010-09-01

    Agar plates with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) layer have been used to screen for microorganisms that degrade PAHs, leaving clear zones around colonies; however, there are several problems with previous methods such as undesired contamination in the fume hood and difficulty in controlling the amount of PAH on the plates. In this study, we developed a modified screening method to address the drawbacks encountered with previous screening methods. A uniform white layer of PAHs was generated by spreading PAHs dissolved in volatile solvents over a surface of solidified agar medium, followed by the evaporation of the solvents. An inoculation was then performed by spreading a molten agar medium containing microbial samples over the solidified agar medium with a PAH layer. Subsequently, the white PAH layer migrated to the surface of the molten agar medium. This essential modification enabled us not only to solve problems of the previous screening methods but also to prepare an agar plate with a PAH layer without a complicated experimental scheme in the anaerobic chamber. After solidification of the molten agar medium and incubation of the plates, clear zones were successfully detected around colonies with aerobic and anaerobic PAH-degrading microbial cultures.

  5. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

    2014-01-01

    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  6. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:...

  7. Is plate tectonis withstanding the test of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shields

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the theory of plate tectonics was first proposed thirty years ago, some problems have arisen in its practical application. These call into question its fundamental assumptions of horizontal plate motion, hotspot fixity, true polar wander, Panthalassa, and the Earth’s constant size while leaving seafloor spreading and subduction intact. A rapidity expanding earth solves these problems and privides an alternative viewpoint worth reconsidering.

  8. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Lavich; Cordeiro, R S B; Silva,P.M.R.; M.A. Martins

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP) test) to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51ºC and the withdrawal latency for each paw ...

  9. Improvement and scale-down of a Trichoderma reesei shake flask protocol to microtiter plates enables high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Heiner; Kruithof, Paulien; Meier, Kristina; Sieben, Michaela; Antonov, Elena; Hommes, Ronald W J; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, high-throughput screening is essential for determining the best microbial strains and fermentation conditions. Although microtiter plates allow higher throughput in screening than shake flasks, they do not guarantee sufficient oxygen supply if operated at unsuitable conditions. This is especially the case in viscous fermentations, potentially leading to poor liquid movement and surface growth. Therefore, in this study, two aims were pursued. First, an industrial Trichoderma reesei shake flask protocol is improved with respect to oxygen supply and production. Second, this improved shake flask protocol is scaled down into microtiter plate under consideration of similar oxygen supply. For this purpose, the respiration activity monitoring system (RAMOS) was applied. An approach based on a sulfite system was introduced to ensure equal maximum oxygen transfer capacities (OTRmax) in microtiter plates and shake flasks. OTRmax-values of 250 mL shake flasks and 24-well microtiter plates were determined in a wide range of operating conditions. These sulfite datasets were used to identify operating conditions leading to the same oxygen supply for T. reesei in shake flasks and 24-well microtiter plates. For 24-well microtiter plates, the shake flask OTRmax of 20 mmol/L/h of an industrial protocol was obtained under the following optimal operating conditions: 1 mL filling volume per well, 200 rpm shaking frequency and 50 mm shaking diameter. With these conditions almost identical oxygen transfer rates and product concentrations were measured in both scales. The proposed approach is a fast and accurate means to scale-down established screening procedures into microtiter plates to achieve high-throughput.

  10. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  11. Ridge-spotting: A new test for Pacific absolute plate motion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Relative plate motions provide high-resolution descriptions of motions of plates relative to other plates. Yet geodynamically, motions of plates relative to the mantle are required since such motions can be attributed to forces (e.g., slab pull and ridge push) acting upon the plates. Various reference frames have been proposed, such as the hot spot reference frame, to link plate motions to a mantle framework. Unfortunately, both accuracy and precision of absolute plate motion models lag behind those of relative plate motion models. Consequently, it is paramount to use relative plate motions in improving our understanding of absolute plate motions. A new technique called "ridge-spotting" combines absolute and relative plate motions and examines the viability of proposed absolute plate motion models. We test the method on six published Pacific absolute plate motions models, including fixed and moving hot spot models as well as a geodynamically derived model. Ridge-spotting reconstructs the Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Antarctica ridge systems over the last 80 Myr. All six absolute plate motion models predict large amounts of northward migration and monotonic clockwise rotation for the Pacific-Farallon ridge. A geodynamic implication of our ridge migration predictions is that the suggestion that the Pacific-Farallon ridge may have been pinned by a large mantle upwelling is not supported. Unexpected or erratic ridge behaviors may be tied to limitations in the models themselves or (for Indo-Atlantic models) discrepancies in the plate circuits used to project models into the Pacific realm. Ridge-spotting is promising and will be extended to include more plates and other ocean basins.

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal...... level of knowledge for the pregnant women making choices about participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome in order to improve psychological management of test decisions. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  14. A screening method for the optimal selection of plate heat exchanger configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method for determining the best configuration(s of gasketed plate heat exchangers is presented. The objective is to select the configuration(s with the minimum heat transfer area that still satisfies constraints on the number of channels, the pressure drop of both fluids, the channel flow velocities and the exchanger thermal effectiveness. The configuration of the exchanger is defined by six parameters, which are as follows: the number of channels, the numbers of passes on each side, the fluid locations, the feed positions and the type of flow in the channels. The resulting configuration optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of the exchanger heat transfer area and a screening procedure is proposed for its solution. In this procedure, subsets of constraints are successively applied to eliminate infeasible and nonoptimal solutions. Examples show that the optimization method is able to successfully determine a set of optimal configurations with a minimum number of exchanger evaluations. Approximately 5 % of the pressure drop and channel velocity calculations and 1 % of the thermal simulations are required for the solution.

  15. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (pgetting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  17. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check...

  18. Rapid screening of aquatic toxicity of several metal-based nanoparticles using the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Lok R.; Silva, Thilini [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bdubey@uoguelph.ca [Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); El Badawy, Amro M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet M. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Scheuerman, Phillip R. [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Current understanding of potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials to aquatic microorganisms is limited for risk assessment and management. Here we evaluate if the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign test can be used as an effective and rapid screening tool to test for potential aquatic toxicity of various metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). The MetPLATE bioassay is a heavy metal sensitive test based on {beta}-galactosidase activity in Escherichia coli. Five different types of metal-based NPs were screened for toxicity: (1) citrate coated nAg (Citrate-nanosilver), (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone coated nAg (PVP-nAg), (3) uncoated nZnO, (4) uncoated nTiO{sub 2} and (5) 1-Octadecylamine coated CdSe Quantum Dots (CdSe QDs); and compared with their corresponding ionic salt toxicity. Citrate-nAg was further fractionated into clean Citrate-nAg, unclean Citrate-nAg and permeate using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system to eliminate residual ions and impurities from the stock Citrate-nAg suspension and also to differentiate between ionic- versus nano-specific toxicity. Our results showed that nAg, nZnO and CdSe QDs were less toxic than their corresponding ionic salts tested, while nano- or ionic form of TiO{sub 2} was not toxic as high as 2.5 g L{sup -1} to the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bacteria. Although coating-dependent toxicity was noticeable between two types of Ag NPs evaluated, particle size and surface charge were not adequate to explain the observed toxicity; hence, the toxicity appeared to be material-specific. Overall, the toxicity followed the trend: CdCl{sub 2} > AgNO{sub 3} > PVP-nAg > unclean Citrate-nAg > clean Citrate-nAg > ZnSO{sub 4} > nZnO > CdSe QDs > nTiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}. These results indicate that an evaluation of {beta}-galactosidase inhibition in MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign E. coli can be an important consideration for rapid screening of metal-based NP toxicity, and should facilitate ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants. - Highlights

  19. Test Method for High β Particle Emission Rate of 63Ni Source Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of measurement difficulties of β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate used for Ni-63 betavoltaic battery, a relative test method of scintillation current method was erected according to the measurement principle of scintillation detector.β particle emission rate of homemade Ni-63 source plate was tested by the method, and the test results were analysed and evaluated, it was initially thought that scintillation current method was a feasible way of testing β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate with high β particle emission rate.

  20. Methods for testing Zernike phase plates and a report on silicon-based phase plates with reduced charging and improved ageing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Michael; Meng, Xing; Hsieh, Chyongere; Roussie, James; Striemer, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Imaging with Zernike phase plates is increasingly being used in cryo-TEM tomography and cryo-EM single-particle applications. However, rapid ageing of the phase plates, together with the cost and effort in producing them, present serious obstacles to widespread adoption. We are experimenting with phase plates based on silicon chips that have thin windows; such phase plates could be mass-produced and made available at moderate cost. The windows are coated with conductive layers to reduce charging, and this considerably extends the useful life of the phase plates compared to traditional pure-carbon phase plates. However, a compromise must be reached between robustness and transmission through the phase-plate film. Details are given on testing phase-plate performance by means of imaging an amorphous thin film and evaluating the power spectra of the images.

  1. Efficient Two-Stage Group Testing Algorithms for DNA Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Group testing algorithms are very useful tools for DNA library screening. Building on recent work by Levenshtein (2003) and Tonchev (2008), we construct in this paper new infinite classes of combinatorial structures, the existence of which are essential for attaining the minimum number of individual tests at the second stage of a two-stage disjunctive testing algorithm.

  2. High-throughput screening of cellulase F mutants from multiplexed plasmid sets using an automated plate assay on a functional proteomic robotic workcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Nasib

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of plasmid-based functional proteomics requires the rapid assay of proteins expressed from plasmid libraries. Automation is essential since large sets of mutant open reading frames are being cloned for evaluation. To date no integrated automated platform is available to carry out the entire process including production of plasmid libraries, expression of cloned genes, and functional testing of expressed proteins. Results We used a functional proteomic assay in a multiplexed setting on an integrated plasmid-based robotic workcell for high-throughput screening of mutants of cellulase F, an endoglucanase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2. This allowed us to identify plasmids containing optimized clones expressing mutants with improved activity at lower pH. A plasmid library of mutagenized clones of the celF gene with targeted variations in the last four codons was constructed by site-directed PCR mutagenesis and transformed into Escherichia coli. A robotic picker integrated into the workcell was used to inoculate medium in a 96-well deep well plate, combining the transformants into a multiplexed set in each well, and the plate was incubated on the workcell. Plasmids were prepared from the multiplexed culture on the liquid handler component of the workcell and used for in vitro transcription/translation. The multiplexed expressed recombinant proteins were screened for improved activity and stability in an azo-carboxymethylcellulose plate assay. The multiplexed wells containing mutants with improved activity were identified and linked back to the corresponding multiplexed cultures stored in glycerol. Spread plates were prepared from the glycerol stocks and the workcell was used to pick single colonies from the spread plates, prepare plasmid, produce recombinant protein, and assay for activity. The screening assay and subsequent deconvolution of the multiplexed wells resulted in identification of improved Cel

  3. Rapid Screen for Bacteria Degrading Water-Insoluble, Solid Hydrocarbons on Agar Plates

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A rapid procedure was devised for detecting on solid media bacteria able to degrade water-insoluble, solid hydrocarbons such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons phenanthrene, anthracene, and biphenyl. After Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2 was inoculated on a plate containing mineral salts agar, an ethereal solution of phenanthrene (about 10%, wt/vol) was sprayed on the surface of the plate, and the plate was incubated at 30°C for 2 to 3 days. Colonies showing degradation were surrounded with cl...

  4. Cosmic ray tests of large area Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Kim, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2007-01-01

    We have built Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) with six gas gaps and an active area of . The signals are generated on 2.5 cm wide copper pickup strips; these are read out at each end thus allowing the position of the hit along the strip to be obtained from the time difference. Using three of these chambers we have set up a cosmic tracking system in a similar manner as planned for the Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project. The details of the set-up are presented in this paper. In addition we discuss the time and position resolution of these MRPCs measured using cosmic rays.

  5. Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei; Chen, Jun

    2004-12-01

    The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.

  6. Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, H; Yu, Hongwei; Chen, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single-plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single-plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.

  7. SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2007-07-16

    Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

  8. Screening tests for new teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, R J; Johnson, D W; Dewey, L

    1976-11-01

    Increased use of after-milking teat dips has resulted in the appearance of many new teat dips and a need for methods of evaluation of efficacy. A method was developed for determining the ability of a disinfectant to kill bacteria on the teat ends. Results from several known efficacious products indicated an approximate 95% reduction in bacterial flora. Additional data are presented on some experimental products. This method will provide a measure of effectiveness of a producton teat-skin disinfection. The effect of some changes in the testing procedure on bacterial reduction is demonstrated: 1) Increased times between inoculation and dipping and between dipping and swabbing tended to decrease recoveries on control teats. 2) Saline dips on controls teats provided increased recoveries of test organisms.

  9. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  10. Double Screening Tests of the CMS ECAL Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Britvitch, Ilia; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Musienko, Yuri; Singovsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved.

  11. 78 FR 33132 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test... Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors.'' This guide... plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs). ADDRESSES: Please...

  12. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172

  13. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samp

  14. A Mini-Nitrification Test for Toxicity Screening, Minntox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Dyreborg, Søren; Menck, C.

    1994-01-01

    There is a high demand for a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test for screening of the toxicity of wastewater, polluted groundwater and chemicals in order to protect sewage treatment plants and aquatic and terrestrial recipients. The mini-nitrification test, MINNTOX, presented here, fulfils...

  15. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  16. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study) : results and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Berkhof, J.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Bulk, S.; Verweij, W.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. METHODS: In all, 25 871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based

  17. The Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test as a Language Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Jennifer; Bernthal, John

    1996-01-01

    The validity of using the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) was investigated by testing 199 preschool children (ages 3-4) and reviewing the results 6 months later. Results indicated that the RDDST was an efficient prognostic tool in predicting formal assessment results for children at risk for language impairments. (CR)

  18. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study) : results and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Berkhof, J.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Bulk, S.; Verweij, W.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. METHODS: In all, 25 871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based

  19. Guarded Flat Plate Cryogenic Test Apparatus and Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Johnson, Wesley L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A test apparatus for thermal energy measurement of disk-shaped test specimens has a cold mass assembly locatable within a sealable chamber with a guard vessel having a guard chamber to receive a liquid fluid and a bottom surface to contact a cold side of a test specimen, and a test vessel having a test chamber to receive a liquid fluid and encompassed on one side by a center portion of the bottom surface shared with the guard vessel. A lateral wall assembly of the test vessel is closed by a vessel top, the lateral wall assembly comprising an outer wall and an inner wall having opposing surfaces that define a thermal break including a condensable vapor pocket to inhibit heat transfer through the lateral wall from the guard vessel to the test vessel. A warm boundary temperature surface is in thermal communication with a lower surface of the test specimen.

  20. Economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening test as a national cancer screening program in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangjin; Kim, Youn Hee; Hwang, Jin Sub; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Sang Moo; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is rapidly increasing in Korea and professional societies have requested adding prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing to the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), but this started a controversy in Korea and neutral evidence on this issue is required more than ever. The purpose of this study was to provide economic evidence to the decision makers of the NCSP. A cost-utility analysis was performed on the adoption of PSA screening program among men aged 50-74-years in Korea from the healthcare system perspective. Several data sources were used for the cost-utility analysis, including general health screening data, the Korea Central Cancer Registry, national insurance claims data, and cause of mortality from the National Statistical Office. To solicit the utility index of prostate cancer, a face-to-face interview for typical men aged 40 to 69 was conducted using a Time-Trade Off method. As a result, the increase of effectiveness was estimated to be very low, when adopting PSA screening, and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was analyzed as about 94 million KRW. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the incidence rate, screening rate, cancer stage distribution, utility index, and treatment costs but the results were consistent with the base analysis. Under Korean circumstances with a relatively low incidence rate of prostate cancer, PSA screening is not cost-effective. Therefore, we conclude that adopting national prostate cancer screening would not be beneficial until further evidence is provided in the future.

  1. Are overreferrals on developmental screening tests really a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, F P

    2001-01-01

    Developmental screening tests, even those meeting standards for screening test accuracy, produce numerous false-positive results for 15% to 30% of children. This is thought to produce unnecessary referrals for diagnostic testing or special services and increase the cost of screening programs. To explore whether children who pass screening tests differ in important ways from those who do not and to determine whether children overreferred for testing benefit from the scrutiny of diagnostic testing and treatment planning. Subjects were a national sample of 512 parents and their children (age range of the children, 7 months to 8 years) who participated in validation studies of various screening tests. Psychological examiners adhering to standardized directions obtained informed consent and administered at least 2 developmental screening measures (the Brigance Screens, the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, the Denver-II, and the Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status) and a concurrent battery of diagnostic measures, including tests of intelligence, language, and academic achievement (for children aged 2(1/2) years and older). The performance on diagnostic measures of children who failed screening but were not found to have a disability (false positives) was compared with that of children who passed screening and did not have a disability on diagnostic testing (true negatives). Children with false-positive scores performed significantly (Ptests (95% CI, 3.28-13.50), and 4.9 on academic measures (95% CI, 2.61-9.28). Overall, 151 (70%) of the children with false-positive results scored below the 25th percentile on 1 or more diagnostic measures (the point at which most children have difficulty benefiting from typical classroom instruction) in contrast with 64 (29%) of the children with true-negative scores (odds ratio, 5.6; 95% CI, 3.73-8.49). Children with false-positive scores were also more likely to be nonwhite and to have parents who had not

  2. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  3. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

  4. Growth Plate Flow and Metabolism Screening Using MR: A New Application for Specialized MR Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Rahbek, Ole

    Summary MR Apparent Diffusion Constant and Surface Tension Images can provide an overview of the cell metabolism and flow of the bone growth plate. This is a new application for specialized MR sequences. Introduction Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for studies of joint cartilage...... sequences can be applied to cartilage-like tissue such as growth plate. These sequences provide images that correspond to flow and cell-metabolism. MR imaging provides enough evidence and information about the structure and behavior of the growth plate to propose a standardized protocol for MRI ADC...... as well as bone growth plates. A number of MR derived parameters presents aspects of viability and growth patterns: the apparent diffusion constant (ADC) is dependent on intracellular as well as extracellular water movements and as such related to cell viability and cell apoptosis. The ADC provides early...

  5. Impact Of Screen Ruling on the Formation of the Printing Elements on the Flexographic Printing Plate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Tomašegović; Sanja Mahović Poljaček; Tomislav Cigula

    2012-01-01

    Flexography is a printing technique widely used in the packaging production. The main feature of the flexography is the usage of the printing plate which is elastically deformed during the reproduction process...

  6. Impact Of Screen Ruling on the Formation of the Printing Elements on the Flexographic Printing Plate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Tomašegović; Sanja Mahović Poljaček; Tomislav Cigula

    2013-01-01

    Flexography is a printing technique widely used in the packaging production. The main feature of the flexography is the usage of the printing plate which is elastically deformed during the reproduction process...

  7. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  8. Test Plan for Tank 241-AZ-101 Solubility Screening Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PERSON, J.C.

    1999-12-03

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ) has been identified as one of the early tanks to be retrieved for waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste from other tanks may require dilution. This test is to determine the effects of dilution on the mass of solids and their composition, which can be compared with tanks where dilution is required. This test plan gives test instructions, example data sheets, a waste compatibility review, and a waste stream fact sheet.

  9. A rapid, efficient and sensitive plate assay for detection and screening of l-asparaginase-producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Richi V; Saran, Saurabh; Saxena, Rajendra K; Srivastava, Ayush K

    2013-04-01

    l-Asparaginase-producing microbes are conventionally screened on phenol red l-asparagine-containing plates. However, sometimes the contrast of the zone obtained (between yellow and pink) is not very sharp and distinct. In the present investigation, an improved method for screening of the microorganisms producing extracellular l-asparaginase is reported wherein bromothymol blue (BTB) is incorporated as pH indicator in l-asparagine-containing medium instead of phenol red. Plates containing BTB at acidic pH are yellow and turn dark blue at alkaline pH. Thus, a dense dark blue zone is formed around microbial colonies producing l-asparaginase, differentiating between enzyme producers and non-producers. The present method is more sensitive and accurate than the conventional method for screening of both fungi and bacteria producing extracellular l-asparaginase. Furthermore, BTB gives a transient green colour at neutral pH (7.0) and dark blue colour at higher pH 8.0-9.0, indicating the potency of the microorganism for l-asparaginase production.

  10. Development of nondestructive testing techniques for plated-through holes in multilayer printed circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P. L.; Mcmurtrey, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a nondestructive test with the capability to interrogate plated-through holes as small as 0.51 millimeters inside diameter is discussed. The system can detect defects such as holes, voids, cracks, and thin spots that reduce the current carrying capability of plates-through interconnects by 20 percent or more. Efforts were directed toward the design and fabrication of magnetic circuitry mutual coupling probes and to evaluate the effectiveness of these devices for detecting in multilayer board plated-through holes.

  11. [The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing.

  12. Assembly and tests of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) for the CMS barrel detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Gabriella Pugliese, Bari

    2006-01-01

    The pictures 1-3 show some assembly steps of Resistive Plate Chambers in Bari and their tests with cosmic rays (4-6: moving RPC to the test towers; 7-8 cosmic tests). Pictures 9-10 show assembly and tests in Sofia, 11 shows RPC coupling with drift tubes at ISR and 12-13 tests at the CMS site at CERN.

  13. High-purity Ni electroless plating on screen-printed anodized Al substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Geon; Lee, Youn-Seoung; Rha, Sa-Kyun

    2016-07-01

    By using an electroless plating process with a Ni source solution including dimethylamine borane (DMAB) at pH 6.5 and 65 ◦ C, we obtained a higher purity Ni film (< 1 at.% boron) without damage to the anodized Al substrate. With increasing plating time, the thickness of the film increased gradually, although the average deposition rate of the Ni films decreased steadily. We can infer that the abrupt decrease in sheet resistance (Rs) at the interface region is due to the change in the boron concentration caused by surface reactions, and the gradual decrease in Rs in the bulk region is due mainly to the effect of the saturation of boron's concentration on the thickness. From a boron-distribution viewpoint, this result indicates that the B concentration in the Ni film increases gradually with increasing plating time for plating times ≤ 60 s as a kind of initial stage (that is, interface region), and then saturates uniformly for plating times ≥ 300 s as a kind of bulk region. On the other hand, from an electronic structure viewpoint, this result implies that Ni gains 3d electrons with respect to elemental Ni. The increase in the number of electrons gained by the Ni 3d states may result in an enhancement of the electrical conductivity.

  14. Denver Developmental Screening Test: Cultural Variations in Southeast Asian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Tests (DDST) was administered to 25 Southeast Asian children (one to five years old) and scores of 150 other DDSTs performed on Southeast Asian children were reviewed. Findings suggested that scores may reflect differences in social and cultural experiences between these children and the standardization sample.…

  15. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom performance and…

  16. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  17. The usefulness of the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, F P; Byrne, K E

    1993-05-01

    Recent research supporting the effectiveness of early intervention and laws expanding services have increased the demand for accurate developmental screening tests. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDIST), for children 6 months to 8 years old, has a number of desirable features, including subtests for fine and gross motor, adaptive, personal-social, receptive and expressive language, and cognitive skills; a range cutoff and age-equivalent scores; and national standardization. To assess its accuracy, the BDIST was administered to 104 children 7 to 83 months old, along with several other screening tests and a battery of criterion measures. Tied to 1.5 standard deviations below the mean, BDIST failing scores were moderately sensitive, detecting 75% of the children with developmental problems, such as mental retardation, borderline intelligence, language delays, and learning disabilities. Since 73% of the nonhandicapped children passed the BDIST, the test showed moderate specificity. Children within one month of their birthdays were likely to be over- or underreferred. Although the BDIST needs further research, it is a promising developmental screening instrument. The Receptive Language (RL) subtest, slightly more sensitive than the total BDIST but less specific, takes only a few minutes and thus is useful for prescreening in time-limited settings, such as pediatric practice.

  18. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  19. [Electronic eikonometer: Measurement tests displayed on stereoscopic screen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdy, C; James, Y

    2016-05-01

    We propose the presentation on a stereoscopic screen of the electronic eikonometer tests intended for analysis and measurement of perceptual effects of binocular disparity. These tests, so-called "built-in magnification tests" are constructed according to the same principle as those of preceding eikonometers (disparity variation parameters being included in each test presentation, which allows, for test observation and measurements during the examination, the removing of any intermediate optical system). The images of these tests are presented separately to each eye, according to active or passive stereoscopic screen technology: (1) Ogle Spatial Test to measure aniseikonia; (2) Fixation Disparity test: binocular nonius; (3) retinal correspondence test evaluated by nonius horopter; (4) stereoscopic test using Julesz' random-dot stereograms (RDS). All of these tests, with their variable parameters included, are preprogrammed by means of an associated mini-computer. This new system (a single screen for the presentation of tests for the right eye and left eye) will be much simpler to reproduce and install for all practitioners interested in the functional exploration of binocular vision. We develop the suitable methodology adapted to each type of examination, as well as manipulations to be performed by the operator. We then recall the possibilities for reducing aniseikonia thanks to some theoretical studies previously performed by matrix calculation of the size of the retinal images for different types of eye (emmetropia, axial or conformation anisometropia, aphakia) and for different means of correction (glasses, contact lenses, implants). Software for achieving these different tests is available, on request, at this address: eiconometre.electronique@gmail.com. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Marcellino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  1. Growth Plate Flow and Metabolism Screening Using MR: A New Application for Specialized MR Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Rahbek, Ole

    Introduction Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for studies of joint cartilage as well as bone growth plates. A number of MR derived parameters present aspects of viability and growth patterns: the apparent diffusion constant (ADC) is dependent on intracellular as well as extracellular...... resolution MR images resemble those seen in histological sections. Discussion A number of MR derived sequences can be applied to cartilage-like tissue such as growth plate. These sequences provide images that correspond to flow and cell-metabolism. MR imaging provides enough evidence and information about...... the structure and behavior of the growth plate to propose a standardized protocol for MRI ADC and Tension Surface Images. This should provide more information about growth disturbances causes and characteristics. MR Apparent Diffusion Constant and Surface Tension Images can provide an overview of the cell...

  2. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder

    2014-01-01

    -on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...

  3. Screening for mikroalbuminuri med Micral-Test. En semikvantitativ urinstix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F;

    1993-01-01

    , screening for microalbuminuria is of major importance. A semi-quantitative urinary dipstick method, Micral-Test, has been developed for this purpose. In a urine sample collected overnight from each of 1359 subjects the Micral-Test was evaluated with a quantitative ELISA-method as the standard. Sensitivity......, specificity and diagnostic specificity in detecting microalbuminuria was 92, 58 and 12% respectively. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 5.6%. In conclusion, the Micral-Test is highly sensitive in detecting microalbuminuria, but at the expense of a relatively high number of false positive tests....

  4. Functions for patch test in finite element analysis of the Mindlin plate and the thin cylindrical shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Current patch test for Mindlin plate element only satisfies the zero shear deformation condition.The patch test of non-zero constant shear for Mindlin plate problem cannot be performed.For shell element, the patch test does not even exist.Based on the theory of enhanced patch test proposed by Chen W J (2006),the authors proposed the enhanced patch test function for Mindlin plate and thin cylindrical shell elements.This enhanced patch test function can be used to assess the convergence of the Mindlin plate and cylindrical thin shell elements.

  5. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  6. Tuneable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy hyphenated to chemically derivatized thin-layer chromatography plates for screening histamine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengjun; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yisheng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Ding, Yunlian; Yang, Na; Wu, Fengfeng

    2017-09-01

    Reliable screening of histamine in fish was of urgent importance for food safety. This work presented a highly selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method mediated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which was tailored for identification and quantitation of histamine. Following separation and derivatization with fluram, plates were assayed with SERS, jointly using silver nanoparticle and NaCl. The latter dramatically suppressed the masking effect caused by excessive fluram throughout the plate, thus offering clear baseline and intensive Raman fingerprints specific to the analyte. Under optimized conditions, the usability of this method was validated by identifying the structural fingerprints of both targeted and unknown compounds in fish samples. Meanwhile, the quantitative results of this method agreed with those by an HPLC method officially suggested by EU for histamine determination. Showing remarkable cost-efficiency and user-friendliness, this facile TLC-SERS method was indeed screening-oriented and may be more attractive to controlling laboratories of limited resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the Optical Properties of Screen-Printed and Aerosol-Printed and Plated Fingers of Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Woehl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One main efficiency loss in industrial solar cells is the shading of the cell caused by the metal front side contacts. With the aerosol-printing technique plus an additional light-induced plating (LIP step, not only is the geometrical contact width narrowed compared to screen-printed contacts but also the shape of the finger changes. In this work, the effective shading of different finger types is analysed with two different measurement methods. The essential parameter for characterising the finger is the effective width which can be reduced drastically compared to the geometrical width due to total internal reflection at the glass-air layer and the reflection from the roundish edges of the contact fingers into the cell. This parameter was determined with different methods. It could be shown that for aerosol-printed fingers the effective (optical width is only 38% of its geometrical width, while for standard screen-printed fingers it is 47%. The measured values are compared to a theoretical model for an aerosol-printed and plated finger and are in good agreement.

  8. Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

  9. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada); Huybers, A. [Harris Industrial Testing Services Ltd., Milford, NS (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Environment Canada`s Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. High Velocity Tensile Test for Thin Plate Specimen with One Bar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Masaaki

    In order to design thin-walled impact-resistant structure, for example, an automotive body, dynamic behavior of thin plate is essential. So far, except for laminated composite materials, high velocity tensile test of thin plate specimen did not attract impact researchers' and engineers' attention very much. In this paper, the previous thin plate specimen assembly for the one bar method was improved. The one bar method has been utilized for cylindrical specimens of various solid materials and is known as an effective high velocity tensile testing technique. Unfortunately, the previous assembly introduced a tremendous initial peak on stress-strain curves, even for aluminum alloys. With a new specimen assembly, stress-strain curves for IF (Interstitial-atom Free) steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy obtained by the one bar method were almost equivalent to those obtained by the tensile version of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method.

  11. Industrial Test of High Strength Steel Plates Free Boron Q890D Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Liu, Zetian; Gao, Jun

    The chemistry composition, process parameters and the test results of Q890D free boron high strength steel plate used for engineering machinery was studied. The 16 40 mm thickness steel plates with good mechanical properties that was yield strength of 930 970 MPa, tensile strength of 978 1017 MPa, elongation of 13.5 15%, the average impact energy value of more than 100 J were developed by improving steel purity, adopting the reasonable controlled rolling and cooling process, using reasonable off-line quenching and tempering process. The test plates have good crack resistance in 60 °C preheat temperature condition because of that there are no any cracks in the surfaces, cross-section and roots of welding joints.

  12. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  13. Digitizer of astronomical plates at Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and its performance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Zhao, Jian-Hai; Tang, Zheng-Hong; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Before CCD detectors were widely employed in observational astronomy, the main method of detection was the use of glass astrophotographic plates. Astronomical plates have been used to record information on the position and activity of celestial bodies for more than 100 years. There are about 30 000 astronomical plates in China, and the digitization of astronomical plates is of great significance for permanent preservation and to make full use of these valuable observation data. A digitizer with high precision and high measuring speed is a key piece of equipment for carrying out the task of digitizing these astronomical plates. A digitizer for glass astrophotographic plates was developed jointly by Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and Nishimura Co., Ltd of Japan. The digitizer’s hardware was manufactured by Nishimura Co., Ltd, and the performance test, error corrections as well as image processing of the digitizer were carried out by Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. The main structure and working mode of the digitizer are introduced in this paper. A performance test shows that brightness uniformity of illumination within the measuring area is better than 0.15%, the repeatability of digitized positions is better than 0.2 µm and the repeatability of digitized brightness is better than 0.01 instrumental magnitude. The systematic factors affecting digitized positions, such as lens distortion, the actual optical resolution, non-linearity of guide rails, non-uniformity of linear motors in the mobile platform, deviation of the image mosaic, and non-orthogonality between the direction of scanning and camera linear array, are calibrated and evaluated. Based on an astronomical plate with a size of 300mm × 300mm, which was digitized at different angles, the conversion residuals of positions of common stars on different images were investigated. The results show that the standard deviations of the residuals are better than 0.9 µm and the residual distribution is almost

  14. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F

    1988-10-15

    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  15. Serological Testing in Screening for Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Rachel Gillett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Assays for celiac-related antibodies are becoming widely available, and the present review aims to clarify the use of these investigations in the diagnosis of, management of and screening for adult celiac disease. The sensitivities and specificities of various antibody tests are discussed, along with their clinical use as an adjunct to small bowel biopsy, and as a first-line investigation for patients with atypical symptoms of celiac disease or patients at high risk of developing sprue.

  16. A new screening test for the protein C anticoagulant pathway : the PCP test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, [No Value; Bom, FH; van der Meer, J; van der Schaaf, W

    1999-01-01

    Summ Objective: Evaluation of a new screening test of the Protein C anticoagulant Pathway, the PCP(TM) test. Design: Retrospective. Setting: Universital Hospital. Subjects and Materials: In the PCP(TM) test, the ratio of two phospholipid rich Russel viper venom (PRVV)-initiated clotting times,

  17. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  18. Beam test results on double-gap resistive plate chambers proposed for CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Bruno, G.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Lamanna, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S. P.; Vitulo, P.

    Resistive Plate Chambers were tested in a muon and pion beam to study the performances at different running conditions. Results on a first chamber built without the linseed oil treatment of the bakelite surfaces are presented together with an evaluation of the local effects due to the spacers. These results are extrapolated to the conditions expected at LHC.

  19. Beam Test Results on Resistive Plate Chambers for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Calaeo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lammana, G; Loddo, Flavio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; Natali, Sergio; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Puglise, G; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ratti, Sergio P; Romano, Francesco; Vitulo, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers were tested in a muon and a pion beam to study the performances at different running conditions. Results on a first chamber built without the linseed oil treatment of the bakelite surfaces are presented together with an evaluation of the local effects dut to spacers. These results are extrapolated to the conditions expected at LHC.

  20. 77 FR 16868 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors,'' is temporarily identified... verifying the quality of plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs...

  1. Fermentation in 24-well plates is an efficient screening platform for filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Hansen, Bjørn; Lübeck, Mette

    Conventional citric acid batch-fermentation by filamentous fungi is often linked with large variations in production levels. The most used citric acid batch-fermentation method described in literature is based on Erlenmeyer flasks with cotton-stoppers in a heated shaker. Our preliminary studies...... the replicates in the 24 well plate system was significantly smaller than in the conventional Erlenmeyer flask setup. This allows for a more precise determination of effects caused by for example changing fermentation parameters or making genetic alterations. We therefore conclude that fermentation in 24-well...

  2. Performance test of a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    A plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor that uses the A0-mode leaky Lamb waves has been developed for under-sodium viewing of the reactor core and in-vessel structures in the sodiumcooled fast reactor. A new ultrasonic waveguide sensor that has beryllium (Be) and nickel (Ni) coating layers on its surfaces is proposed for the enhancement of the ultrasonic beam radiation and wetting capabilities in sodium. The sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium test loop has been designed and constructed to carry out the performance test of the developed ultrasonic waveguide sensor in a sodium environment. A 1.7 m long ultrasonic waveguide sensor with beryllium and nickel coating layers was designed and manufactured. The performance tests were carried out to evaluate the ultrasonic beam radiation characteristics and C-scan imaging resolution of the plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium.

  3. Rapid Color Test Identification System for Screening of Counterfeit Fluoroquinolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The protocol of rapid identification system consists of three chemical color reactions; two group tests for fluoroquinolone class and a compound specific test each for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. The group color reactions are based on (a Oxidizing behavior of quinolone and (b Fluorine functional groups, both of which are characteristic of fluoroquinolone class. The compound specific color reactions are developed taking into consideration unique chemical behavior of each compound. The proposed chemical color tests have high selectivity⁄specificity, are ideal for screening purpose. The color of each test was defined by two standard color systems namely CIE lab and Munsell color. A suspected counterfeit tablet of any of the above mentioned drugs can be identified within 10-15 min using this rapid identification system.

  4. A cell-free microtiter plate screen for improved [FeFe] hydrogenases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Stapleton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: [FeFe] hydrogenase enzymes catalyze the production and dissociation of H(2, a potential renewable fuel. Attempts to exploit these catalysts in engineered systems have been hindered by the biotechnologically inconvenient properties of the natural enzymes, including their extreme oxygen sensitivity. Directed evolution has been used to improve the characteristics of a range of natural catalysts, but has been largely unsuccessful for [FeFe] hydrogenases because of a lack of convenient screening platforms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe an in vitro screening technology for oxygen-tolerant and highly active [FeFe] hydrogenases. Despite the complexity of the protocol, we demonstrate a level of reproducibility that allows moderately improved mutants to be isolated. We have used the platform to identify a mutant of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [FeFe] hydrogenase HydA1 with a specific activity approximately 4 times that of the wild-type enzyme. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using the screen presented here for large-scale efforts to identify improved biocatalysts for energy applications. The system is based on our ability to activate these complex enzymes in E. coli cell extracts, which allows unhindered access to the protein maturation and assay environment.

  5. Development of a simple screening test to detect and determine the microbiological quality of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.L.; MacPhee, S.M.; Turner, A.J.; Stuckey, T.; Betts, R.P. [Campden Food and Drink Research Association, Chipping Campden (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    The direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC) method is a recognised technique for the screening of irradiated foods. When the APC of an irradiated sample is compared with the DEFT count on the same sample, the APC is found to be considerably lower than that obtained by the DEFT, thus indicating that the sample could have been irradiated. Since the development of the DEFT/APC screening method, the technique has been tested with a limited range of food products. Previous work has indicated that the storage of irradiated foods can, in certain circumstances, allow microorganisms to grow, and thus compromise the ability of the DEFT/APC method to discriminate between irradiated and unirradiated samples. In some cases the method has been shown to give high DEFT count and low APC with food samples that have not been irradiated. Potentially, foods which have undergone a food processing treatment could give a high DEFT count compared to an APC and be erroneously identified as having been irradiated. The work reported here is aimed at analysing a range of irradiated samples (meat, poultry, fish, seafood, herbs and spices), stored under different conditions, to evaluate the applicability of the screening method for use with such products. The effects of other food processes on the DEFT/APC results were also investigated. (UK).

  6. Apsáalooke women's experiences with Pap test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adina J; Christopher, Suzanne; LaFromboise, Victoria R; Letiecq, Bethany L; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-04-01

    Cervical cancer mortality rates are among the highest in the United States for Northern Plains Native American women compared with white and other Native American women. The aims of Messengers for Health, a community-based participatory research project based on the Apsáalooke (Crow Indian) Reservation, are to decrease cervical cancer screening barriers, improve knowledge regarding screening and prevention, and increase the proportion of women receiving Pap tests. This paper presents results from a survey assessing women's perceptions of the level of comfort and care received by health care providers in their most recent Pap test appointment. A survey assessing patient communication and satisfaction with their health care providers was conducted with a random sample of 101 Apsáalooke women. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to analyze the survey data. Women reported both positive and negative experiences with their provider regarding their Pap test appointments. They noted positive experiences when trust was established and when the provider offered information, reassured or encouraged them, was personable, was familiar or consistent, maintained confidentiality, and was a woman. The women reported negative experiences when the examination was too short, when they did not have a consistent or female provider, and when they did not feel comfortable with the provider's nonverbal communication. Continued work with both providers and patients is necessary to decrease communication barriers and increase satisfaction with Pap test appointments.

  7. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs.

  8. Comparison of Hybrid capture 2 testing at different thresholds with cytology as primary cervical screening test

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Coupé, V M H; Kemenade, van, PM Patricia; Heideman, D A M; Hesselink, A. T.; Verweij, W.; Rozendaal, L; Verheijen, R H; Snijders, P. J. F.; Berkhof, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2010-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the performance of primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing by hybrid capture 2 (HC2) with different thresholds for positivity, in comparison with conventional cytology. Methods: We used data of 25 871 women (aged 30–60 years) from the intervention group of the VUSA-Screen study (VU University Medical Center and Saltro laboratory population-based cervical screening study), who were screened by cytology and hrHPV. Primary outcome measure was the number of...

  9. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Lavich

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP test to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51ºC and the withdrawal latency for each paw was determined simultaneously in measurements performed at 15, 60, 180, and 360 min post-challenge. Plantar stimulation of rats (250 and 500 µg/paw and mice (125-500 µg/paw with carrageenan led to a rapid hyperalgesic response of the ipsilateral paw that reached a plateau from 15 to 360 min after challenge. Pretreatment with indomethacin (4 mg/kg, ip inhibited the phenomenon at all the times analyzed. Similarly, plantar stimulation of rats and mice with prostaglandin E2 (0.5 and 1 µg/paw also resulted in rapid hyperalgesia which was first detected 15 min post-challenge. Finally, we observed that the MHP test was more sensitive than the classical Hargreaves' test, being able to detect about 4- and 10-fold lower doses of prostaglandin E2 and carrageenan, respectively. In conclusion, the MHP test is a simple and sensitive method for detecting peripheral hyperalgesia and analgesia in rats and mice. This test represents a low-cost alternative for the study of inflammatory pain in freely moving animals.

  10. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, T R; Cordeiro, R S B; Silva, P M R; Martins, M A

    2005-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP) test) to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51 degrees C and the withdrawal latency for each paw was determined simultaneously in measurements performed at 15, 60, 180, and 360 min post-challenge. Plantar stimulation of rats (250 and 500 microg/paw) and mice (125-500 microg/paw) with carrageenan led to a rapid hyperalgesic response of the ipsilateral paw that reached a plateau from 15 to 360 min after challenge. Pretreatment with indomethacin (4 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the phenomenon at all the times analyzed. Similarly, plantar stimulation of rats and mice with prostaglandin E2 (0.5 and 1 microg/paw) also resulted in rapid hyperalgesia which was first detected 15 min post-challenge. Finally, we observed that the MHP test was more sensitive than the classical Hargreaves' test, being able to detect about 4- and 10-fold lower doses of prostaglandin E2 and carrageenan, respectively. In conclusion, the MHP test is a simple and sensitive method for detecting peripheral hyperalgesia and analgesia in rats and mice. This test represents a low-cost alternative for the study of inflammatory pain in freely moving animals.

  11. Are U.S. cancer screening test patterns consistent with guideline recommendations with respect to the age of screening initiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadiyala Srikanth

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. cancer screening guidelines communicate important information regarding the ages for which screening tests are appropriate. Little attention has been given to whether breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test use is responsive to guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Methods The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Social Survey and the 2003 National Health Interview Surveys were used to compute breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test rates by single year of age. Graphical and logistic regression analyses were used to compare screening rates for individuals close to and on either side of the guideline recommended screening initiation ages. Results We identified large discrete shifts in the use of screening tests precisely at the ages where guidelines recommend that screening begin. Mammography screening in the last year increased from 22% [95% CI = 20, 25] at age 39 to 36% [95% CI = 33, 39] at age 40 and 47% [95% CI = 44, 51] at age 41. Adherence to the colorectal cancer screening guidelines within the last year increased from 18% [95% CI = 15, 22] at age 49 to 19% [95% CI = 15, 23] at age 50 and 34% [95% CI = 28, 39] at age 51. Prostate specific antigen screening in the last year increased from 28% [95% CI = 25, 31] at age 49 to 33% [95% CI = 29, 36] and 42% [95% CI = 38, 46] at ages 50 and 51. These results are robust to multivariate analyses that adjust for age, sex, income, education, marital status and health insurance status. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that cancer screening test utilization is consistent with guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Screening test and adherence rates increased by approximately 100% at the breast and colorectal cancer guideline recommended ages compared to only a 50% increase in the screening test rate for prostate cancer screening. Since information regarding the age of cancer screening

  12. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  13. Plate coil thermal test bench for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) carousel cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Montijo, Guillermo; Hauth, David

    2014-08-01

    Analyses have shown that even a white-painted enclosure requires active exterior skin-cooling systems to mitigate dome seeing which is driven by thermal nonuniformities that change the refractive index of the air. For the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Enclosure, this active surface temperature control will take the form of a system of water cooled plate coils integrated into the enclosure cladding system. The main objective of this system is to maintain the surface temperature of the enclosure as close as possible to, but always below, local ambient temperature in order to mitigate this effect. The results of analyses using a multi-layer cladding temperature model were applied to predict the behavior of the plate coil cladding system and ultimately, with safety margins incorporated into the resulting design thermal loads, the detailed designs. Construction drawings and specifications have been produced. Based on these designs and prior to procurement of the system components, a test system was constructed in order to measure actual system behavior. The data collected during seasonal test runs at the DKIST construction site on Haleakalā are used to validate and/or refine the design models and construction documents as appropriate. The test fixture was also used to compare competing hardware, software, components, control strategies, and configurations. This paper outlines the design, construction, test protocols, and results obtained of the plate coil thermal test bench for the DKIST carousel cooling system.

  14. Monobactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy against metallo-beta-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa screened using a 'break-point checkerboard plate'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Takagi, Shinsuke; Matsuno, Naofumi; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Nakano, Nobuaki; Tsuji, Masanori; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Seo, Sachiko; Asano-Mori, Yuki; Uchida, Naoyuki; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2010-03-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR P. aeruginosa) is a cause of life-threatening infections. With parenteral colistin not available in Japan, we treated MDR P. aeruginosa sepsis with monobactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy, with screening using a 'break-point checkerboard plate'.

  15. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was ...

  16. Testing the Corrosion Behaviour of Plated Aluminum Strips for Heat Exchangers Operating in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Marek; Opyrchał, Mieczysław; Kłyszewski, Andrzej; Żelechowski, Janusz

    The automotive industry uses heat exchangers made of aluminum alloys. The radiators for an engine cooling system comprise elements (tubes) in which the coolant flows. These elements are made of AlMn alloys (e.g. AlMn or AlMnCu), while ribs are made from the sheet metal plated with AlSi alloys. While in service, the heat exchangers are exposed to harsh weather conditions, hence the need to ensure that the individual elements of the design are adequately protected from corrosion. One of the ways to obtain this protection is by modification of the chemical composition of aluminum alloys used in the manufacture of radiators. In this study, corrosion tests were carried out to characterise the investigated materials in terms of their corrosive behavior. The experiments included measurements of corrosion potential, testing of corrosion resistance in neutral salt spray, and electrochemical studies of selected plated AlMn alloy strips with different chemical composition.

  17. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The draft guidance document provides revised recommendations for screening and testing of donors and management......

  18. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests is un...

  19. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  20. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  1. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  2. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A., E-mail: ronzhin@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los, S.; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kim, H. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. The time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  3. Application of patch test in meshless analysis of continuously non-homogeneous piezoelectric circular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staňák P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proposed paper presents application of the patch test for meshless analysis of piezoelectric circular plate with functionally graded material properties. Functionally graded materials (FGM are the special class of composite materials with continuous variation of volume fraction of constituents in predominant direction. Patch test analysis is an important tool in numerical methods for addressing the convergence. Meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG method together with moving least-squares (MLS approximation scheme is applied in the analysis. No finite elements are required for approximation or integration of unknown quantities. Circular plate is considered as a 3-D axisymmetric piezoelectric solid. Considering the axial symmetry, the problem is reduced to a 2-dimensinal one. Displacement and electric potential fields are prescribed on the outer boundaries in order to reach the state of constant stress field inside the considered plate as required by the patch test and the governing equations. Values of prescribed mechanical and electrical fields must be determined in order to comply with applied FGM gradation rule. Convergence study is performed to assess the considered meshless approach and several conclusions are finally presented.

  4. Evaluating the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for pesticide hazard screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Padilla, Stephanie; Barron, Mace G

    2016-10-04

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource-intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r(2 ) = 0.28; p zebrafish embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r(2)  = 0.64; p pesticide mode of action was factored into an analysis of covariance. This discrepancy is partly explained by the large number of neurotoxic pesticides in the dataset, supporting previous findings that commonly used fish embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo-based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test for routine pesticide hazard assessment, although embryo testing could be used with other screening tools for testing prioritization. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-6. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  6. Phene Plate (PhP) biochemical fingerprinting. A screening method for epidemiological typing of enterococcal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, B; Tärnberg, M; Gill, H; Hällgren, A; Jonasson, J; Nilsson, L E; Isaksson, B; Kühn, I; Hanberger, H

    2005-09-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently considered the gold standard for genotyping of enterococci. However, PFGE is both expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the PhP system can be used as a reliable clinical screening method for detection of genetically related isolates of enterococci. If so, it should be possible to minimize the number of isolates subjected to PFGE typing, which would save time and money. Ninety-nine clinical enterococcal isolates were analysed by PhP (similarity levels 0.90-0.975) and PFGE (similarity levels PhP also belong to the same cluster according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE)=B(PFGE) * A(PhP)=B(PhP)), and the probability that a pair of isolates of different types according to PhP also belong to different clusters according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE) not equalB(PFGE) * A(PhP) not equalB(PhP)), was relatively high for E. faecalis (0.86 and 0.96, respectively), but was lower for E. faecium (0.51 and 0.77, respectively). The concordance which shows the probability that PhP and PFGE agree on match or mismatch was 86%-93% for E. faecalis and 54%-66% for E. faecium, which indicates that the PhP method may be useful for epidemiological typing of E. faecalis in the current settings but not for E. faecium.

  7. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  8. Lithospheric deformation in the Africa-Iberia plate boundary: Improved neotectonic modeling testing a basal-driven Alboran plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neres, M.; Carafa, M. M. C.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Matias, L.; Duarte, J. C.; Barba, S.; Terrinha, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present an improved neotectonic numerical model of the complex NW Africa-SW Eurasia plate boundary segment that runs from west to east along the Gloria Fault up to the northern Algerian margin. We model the surface velocity field and the ongoing lithospheric deformation using the most recent version of the thin-shell code SHELLS and updated lithospheric model and fault map of the region. To check the presence versus the absence of an independently driven Alboran domain, we develop two alternative plate models: one does not include an Alboran plate; another includes it and determines the basal shear tractions necessary to drive it with known velocities. We also compare two alternative sets of Africa-Eurasia velocity boundary conditions, corresponding to geodetic and geological-scale averages of plate motion. Finally, we perform an extensive parametric study of fault friction coefficient, trench resistance, and velocities imposed in Alboran nodes. The final run comprises 5240 experiments, each scored to geodetic velocities (estimated for 250 stations and here provided), stress direction data, and seismic strain rates. The model with the least discrepancy to the data includes the Alboran plate driven by a basal WSW directed shear traction, slightly oblique to the westward direction of Alboran motion. We provide estimates of long-term strain rates and slip rates for the modeled faults, which can be useful for further hazard studies. Our results support that a mechanism additional to the Africa-Eurasia convergence is required to drive the Alboran domain, which can be related to subduction processes occurring within the mantle.

  9. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  10. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction of Remote Phosphor Plates in Solid-State Lighting Applications Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; Van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology, based on accelerated degradation testing, is developed to predict the lifetime of remote phosphor plates used in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. Both thermal stress and light intensity are used to accelerate degradation reaction in remote phosphor plates. A reliability model,

  11. Can ultrasound of plantar plate have normal appearance with a positive drawer test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Affiliated Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo (Brazil); Mann, Tania Szejnfeld [Medical Assistant of Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle Group, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Puchnick, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ddi@epm.br [Professor and Coordinator of Educational and Research Support, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Tertulino, Franklin de Freitas [Postgraduate Physician, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Cannato, Camila Testoni [Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Nery, Caio [Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa [Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •We evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to identify and measure the plantar plate. •We correlate ultrasound findings with those of physical examination and MRI. •Ultrasound and MRI measures of plantar plate were positively correlated. •Ultrasound is efficient in identifying and measuring plantar plate. •Ultrasound may complement physical examination. •Young asymptomatic subjects can present a grade I positive drawer test. -- Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound (US) examination in the identification and measurement of the metatarsophalangeal plantar plate (MTP-PP) in asymptomatic subjects and (2) to establish the correlation of US findings with those of physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), once it is an important tool in the evaluation of the instability syndrome of the second and third rays. Materials and Methods: US examinations of the second and third MTP-PPs were performed in eight asymptomatic volunteers, totaling 32 MTP joints, by three examiners with different levels of experience in musculoskeletal US. Plantar plate dimensions, integrity and echogenicity, the presence of ruptures, and confidence level in terms of structure identification were determined using conventional US. Vascular flow was assessed using power Doppler. US data were correlated with data from physical examination and MRI. Results: MTP-PPs were ultrasonographically identified in 100% of cases, always showing homogeneous hyperechoic features and no detectable vascular flow on power Doppler, with 100% certainty in identification for all examiners. There was excellent US inter-observer agreement for longitudinal measures of second and third toe MTP-PPs and for transverse measures of the second toe MTP-PP. The MTP drawer test was positive for grade 1 MTP instability in 34.4% of joints with normal US results. Transverse MTP-PP measures were significantly higher in individuals with positive

  12. A test of present-day plate geometries for northeast Asia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Alternative geometries for the present-day configuration of plate boundaries in northeast Asia and Japan are tested using NUVEL-1 and 256 horizontal earthquake slip vectors from the Japan and northern Kuril trenches. Statistical analysis of the slip vectors is used to determine whether the North American, Eurasian, or Okhotsk plate overlies the trench. Along the northern Kuril trench, slip vectors are well-fit by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler pole, but are poorly fit by the Pacific-Eurasia Euler pole. Results for the Japan trench are less conclusive, but suggest that much of Honshu and Hokkaido are also part of the North American plate. The simplest geometry consistent with the trench slip vectors is a geometry in which the North American plate extends south to 41 deg N, and possibly includes northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Although these results imply that the diffuse seismicity that connects the Lena River delta to Sakhalin Island and the eastern Sea of Japan records motion between Eurasia and North America, onshore geologic and seismic data define an additional belt of seismicity in Siberia that cannot be explained with this geometry. Assuming that these two seismic belts constitute evidence for an Okhotsk block, two published kinematic models for motion of the Okhotsk block are tested. The first model, which predicts motion of up to 15 mm/yr relative to North America, is rejected because Kuril and Japan trench slip vectors are fit more poorly than for the simpler geometry described above. The second model gives a good fit to the trench slip vectors, but only if Okhotsk-North America motion is slower than 5 mm/yr.

  13. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: neurodevelopmental screening test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabile Vessoni Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neurodevelopmental functions (cognition, language and motor function of survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. Method Observational cross-sectional study of a total of 67 monochorionic diamniotic twins who underwent fetoscopic laser coagulation (FLC for treatment of TTTS. The study was conducted at the Center for Investigation in Pediatrics (CIPED, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Ages ranged from one month and four days to two years four months. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Screening Test-III, were used for evaluation. Results Most children reached the competent category and were classified as having appropriate performance. The preterm children scored worse than term infants for gross motor subtest (p = 0.036. Conclusion The majority of children reached the expected development according to their age. Despite the good neurodevelopment, children classified at risk should be monitored for development throughout childhood.

  14. Deliverable 4.6: Data of the guided ditching tests for permanent deformation (aluminium and composite plates)

    OpenAIRE

    Iafrati, Alessandro; Olivieri, Flavio; Santos, Victor Hugo; Grizzi, Silvano; Fortunati, Marco; Ortolani, Fabrizio; Mauro, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In the present report the data of the guided ditching tests of the plates which were expected to undergo permanent deformations are presented and discussed briefly. Before going into the details of the data, some aspects of the experimental setup which were specific for tests on the deformable plates are provided. The last section is devoted to the presentation of the data of the DASSAULT specimen tested at the high speed ditching facility.

  15. The Short Anxiety Screening Test in Greek: translation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonopoulou Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Greek translation of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST, for use in primary care settings. The scale consists of 10 items and is a brief clinician rating scale for the detection of anxiety disorder in older people, particularly, in the presence of depression. Methods The study was performed in two rural primary care settings in Crete. The sample consisted of 99 older (76 ± 6.3 years old people, who fulfilled the participating criteria. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach α coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess the reliability of the tool. An exploratory factor analysis using Varimax with Kaiser normalisation (rotation method was used to examine the structure of the instrument, and for the correlation of the items interitem correlation matrix was applied and assessed with Cronbach α. Results Translation and backtranslation did not reveal any specific problems. The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the SAST scale in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was good, the Cronbach α was found to be 0.763 (P 1.0 accounting for 60% of variance, while the Cronbach α was >0.7 for every item. Conclusions The Greek translation of the SAST questionnaire is comparable with that of the original version in terms of reliability, and can be used in primary healthcare research. Its use in clinical practice should be primarily as a screening tool only at this stage, with a follow-up consisting of a detailed interview with the patient, in order to confirm the diagnosis.

  16. Predicting the risk of a false-positive test for women following a mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to provide a simple estimate of the cumulative risk of a false-positive test for women participating in mammography screening. To test the method, we used data from two well-established, organized mammography screening programmes offering biennial...... be calculated in a simple way relatively early after the start of a mammography screening programme....

  17. High-Throughput Lipolysis in 96-Well Plates for Rapid Screening of Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosgaard, Mette D; Sassene, Philip J; Mu, Huiling; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-04-01

    The high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis model (HTP) applicable for rapid and low-scale screening of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDSs) was optimized and adjusted as to be conducted in 96-well plates (HTP-96). Three different LbDDSs (I-III) loaded with danazol or cinnarizine were used as model systems. The distributions of cinnarizine and danazol in the aqueous and precipitated digestion phases generated during lipolysis in HTP-96 were compared with previously published data obtained from HTP. The final HTP-96 setup resulted in the same rank order as the original HTP model with regard to solubilization in the aqueous phase during digestion: LbDDS III > LbDDS II > LbDDS I for danazol and LbDDS III ≈ LbDDS II ≈ LbDDS I for cinnarizine. HTP-96 is a useful model for fast performance assessment of LbDDS in a small scale. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbagory, Abdulrahman M; Cupido, Christopher N; Meyer, Mervin; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2016-11-08

    The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC) for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  19. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Elbagory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  20. Screening tests for intended medication adherence among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raehl, Cynthia L; Bond, C A; Woods, Tresa J; Patry, Roland A; Sleeper, Rebecca B

    2006-05-01

    Medication nonadherence is increasingly recognized as a cause of preventable adverse events, hospitalizations, and poor healthcare outcomes. While comprehensive medication adherence assessment for the elderly is likely to identify and prevent drug-related problems, it is time consuming for patient and healthcare providers alike. To identify screening tools to predict elderly patients' intended medication adherence that are suitable for primary-care settings and community pharmacies. This study evaluated 57 English-speaking persons aged 65 years and older who were from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Intended adherence was quantified, and the relationships to demographic, medical history, socioeconomic, and literacy variables were determined. In a multivariate analysis with the composite MedTake Test (a quantitative measure of each subject's intent to adhere to prescribed oral medications) as the dependent variable, independent predictors of intended adherence included: age, car ownership in the last 10 years, receipt of food assistance in the last 10 years, number of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine). The strongest predictor was the REALM word-recognition pronunciation test (beta = 0.666; R2 = 0.271; p pronunciation test, along with age, number of OTC drugs, and 2 socioeconomic questions, predicted the intent of seniors to correctly take their own prescribed oral medications.

  1. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  2. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  3. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  4. A Comment on the Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, James H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test an easily administered measure of four areas of infant and preschool development, was evaluated using an estimate of the base rate of mental retardation in the screening population. (Author/CL)

  5. Pilot Experimental Tests on Punching Shear Strength of Flat Plates Reinforced with Stirrups Punching Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flat plates are favor structure systems usually used in parking garages and high-rise buildings due to its simplicity for construction. However, flat plates have some inherent structural problems, due to high shear stress surrounding the supporting columns which cause a catastrophic brittle type of failure called "Punching Shear Failure". Several solutions are used to avoid punching shear failure, including the use of drop panels or punching shear reinforcement. The latter is being a more sophisticated solution from the structural ductility, the architectural and the economical point of view. This study aims at investigating the effect of stirrups as shear reinforcement in enhancing the punching strength of interior slab-column connections. A total of four full-scale interior slab-column connections were tested up to failure. All slabs had a side length of 1700 mm and 160 mm thickness with 200 mm x 200 mm square column. The test parameters were the presence of shear reinforcement and stirrups concentration around the supporting column. The test results showed that the distribution of stirrups over the critical punching shear zone was an efficient solution to enhance not only the punching shear capacity but also the ductility of the connection. Furthermore, the concentrating of stirrups shear reinforcement in the vicinity of the column for the tested slabs increases the punching shear capacity by 13 % compared to the uniform distribution at same amount of shear reinforcement.

  6. Uncertainty of pin height measurement for the determination of wear in pin-on-plate test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, Nicola; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Poulios, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    machine (CMM), achieving an expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) better than 1 mm. A simple dedicated fixture adaptable to workshop environment was developed and its metrological capability investigated, estimating an average uncertainty of measurement in the order of 5 mm (k = 2). Fixture......The paper concerns measurement of pin height for the determination of wear in a pin-on-plate (POP) or pin-on-disc (POD) test, where a pin is mounted on a holder that can be fixed on the test rig and removed for measurements. The amount of wear is assessed as difference of pin height before...... and after the test, using the distance between holder plane and pin friction plane as measurand. A series of measurements were performed in connection with POP testing of different friction material pins mounted on an aluminium holder. Pin height measurements were carried out on a coordinate measuring...

  7. Factors associated with completion of bowel cancer screening and the potential effects of simplifying the screening test algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Benjamin; Whyte, Sophie; Seaman, Helen E; Snowball, Julia; Halloran, Stephen P; Butler, Piers; Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Chilcott, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary colorectal cancer screening test in England is a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) interprets tests on six samples on up to three test kits to determine a definitive positive or negative result. However, the test algorithm fails to achieve a definitive result for a significant number of participants because they do not comply with the programme requirements. This study identifies factors associated with failed compliance and modifications to the screening algorithm that will improve the clinical effectiveness of the screening programme. Methods: The BCSP Southern Hub data for screening episodes started in 2006–2012 were analysed for participants aged 60–69 years. The variables included age, sex, level of deprivation, gFOBt results and clinical outcome. Results: The data set included 1 409 335 screening episodes; 95.08% of participants had a definitively normal result on kit 1 (no positive spots). Among participants asked to complete a second or third gFOBt, 5.10% and 4.65%, respectively, failed to return a valid kit. Among participants referred for follow up, 13.80% did not comply. Older age was associated with compliance at repeat testing, but non-compliance at follow up. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with non-compliance at repeat testing and follow up. Modelling a reduction in the threshold for immediate referral led to a small increase in completion of the screening pathway. Conclusions: Reducing the number of positive spots required on the first gFOBt kit for referral for follow-up and targeted measures to improve compliance with follow-up may improve completion of the screening pathway. PMID:26766733

  8. Comparison of Buffered, Acidified Plate Antigen to Standard Serologic Tests for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Elk (Cervus canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P Ryan; Edwards, William H; Hennager, Steven G; Block, Jean F; Yates, Angela M; Ebel, Eric; Knopp, Douglas J; Fuentes-Sanchez, Antonio; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Kientz, Rebecca L; Simunich, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    Brucellosis (caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus) is a zoonotic disease endemic in wild elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, US. Because livestock and humans working with elk or livestock are at risk, validated tests to detect the B. abortus antibody in elk are needed. Using the κ-statistic, we evaluated the buffered, acidified plate antigen (BAPA) assay for agreement with the results of the four serologic tests (card test [card], complement fixation test [CF], rivanol precipitation plate agglutination test [RIV], standard plate agglutination test [SPT]) that are approved by the US Department of Agriculture for the detection of the B. abortus antibody in elk. From 2006 to 2010, serum samples collected from elk within B. abortus-endemic areas (n = 604) and nonendemic areas (n = 707) and from elk culture-positive for B. abortus (n = 36) were split and blind tested by four elk serum diagnostic laboratories. κ-Values showed a high degree of agreement for the card (0.876), RIV (0.84), and CF (0.774) test pairings and moderate agreement for the SPT (0.578). Sensitivities for the BAPA, card, RIV, CF, and SPT were 0.859, 0.839, 0.899, 1.00, and 0.813, whereas specificities were 0.986, 0.993, 0.986, 0.98, and 0.968, respectively. The positive predictive values and the negative predictive values were calculated for 2.6%, 8.8%, and 16.2% prevalence levels. These findings suggest the BAPA test is a suitable screening test for the B. abortus antibodies in elk.

  9. Evaluation of screening tests for the detection of antistreptolysin O antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lue, Y. A.; Nicolas, C.; Kemawikasit, P.; Pierre, A.; McLean, T I; Simms, D H

    1983-01-01

    The accuracy of two screening tests, one utilizing serum and the other utilizing whole blood, was compared with the accuracy of the conventional macrotitration method for the detection of antistreptolysin O antibodies. Of the 569 specimens tested with the serum screening procedure and the macrotitration method, 235 and 282, respectively, were positive for antistreptolysin O antibodies. Comparative testing of 200 specimens with the peripheral blood screening test and the macrotitration method ...

  10. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, E

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  11. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini, E.; EEE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  12. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  14. Rapid screening of purification strategies for the capture of a human recombinant F(ab')2 expressed in baculovirus-infected cells using a micro-plate approach and SELDI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, J; Brenac Brochier, V; Barrouillet, M P; Cerruti, M; Clofent-Sanchez, G; Schapman, A; Topol, A; Robert, R; Cabanne, C; Cerruti, P; Santarelli, X

    2009-08-15

    The development of a capture step of a human recombinant F(ab')(2) produced and expressed in baculovirus-infected cells was investigated by screening three mixed-mode chromatography sorbents (HEA HyperCel, PPA HyperCel and MEP HyperCel) and two ion exchangers (Q Ceramic HyperD F, S Ceramic HyperD F) sorbents using a 96-well plate format and SELDI-MS. HEA HyperCel gave the best separation performance therefore the conditions tested in micro-plate were transferred to laboratory scale chromatographic experiments, confirming that the recombinant F(ab')(2) was effectively captured on the mixed-mode sorbent without any pre-treatment of the crude extract with a 82% recovery and a 39-fold purification.

  15. Characterization tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber for use in electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonato, Fernanda B. C.; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; da Cruz, José Carlos; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2014-11-01

    Linear accelerators with electron beams are used in several Brazilian hospitals. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for parallel-plate ionization chambers, to be utilized for dosimetry of electron beams. In Brazil, the commercial ionization chambers utilized are imported. The ionization chambers have usually a simple construction, using different materials and geometries. A homemade ionization chamber was developed to be used in electron beams of linear accelerator. The ionization chamber body is made of acrylic and the collecting electrode is painted with graphite powder mixed with nail polish. Several tests were applied, and the results showed values better than the limits established by the international recommendations, except for the polarity effect test, but the response of the developed ionization chamber, for this test, is similar in relation to the response of other commercial ionization chambers from the literature.

  16. The Relationship between Preeclampsia and Quadruple Screening Test in Nuliparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Zand Vakili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia needs appropriate obstetric care. Preeclampsia predicting methods are important. This study was designed to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and quadruple screening test in the nulliparous. Materials and Methods:  This case - control study was conducted on 54 pregnant women with preeclampsia (case group and 108 healthy pregnant women (control group who referred to health centers in Sanandaj, Iran. Ultrasonography was performed to determine the gestational age by a radiologist. Maternal serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, unconjugated estriol (uE3, and inhibin-A were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test, T-test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results: The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of preeclampsia in pregnant women for hCG were 35.2% and 79.6 respectively. These findings for estriol were 20.4% and 88.9%, for inhibin-A were 38.8% and 88% and for alpha fetoprotein were 38.8% and 74.1%. The positive predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were 46.3%, 47.8%, 61.8% and 42.9% respectively. The negative predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were also 71%, 69.1%, 74.2% and 70.8% respectively. Conclusion: There was a relationship between preeclampsia and high levels of inhibin-A and hCG. Further studies on these markers and evaluating their usefulness in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are recommended.

  17. Fabrication and testing of U-7Mo monolithic plate fuel with Zircaloy cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, E. E.; Robinson, A. B.; Porter, D. L.; Wachs, D. M.; Finlay, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear fuel designs are being developed to replace highly enriched fuel used in research and test reactors with fuels of low enrichment. In the most challenging cases, U-(7-10 wt%)Mo monolithic plate fuels are proposed. One of the considered designs includes aluminum-alloy cladding, which provides some challenges in fabrication and fuel/cladding interaction during service. Zircaloy cladding, specifically Zry-4, was investigated as an alternative cladding, and development of a fabrication method was performed by researchers with the Comisión Nacionalde Energia Atómica (CNEA) in Argentina, resulting in test fuel plates (Zry-4 clad U-7Mo) which were subsequently tested in the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Because Zry-4 and U-(7-10)Mo have similar high-temperature mechanical properties, fabrication was simplified in that the fuel foil and cladding could be co-rolled and bonded. The challenge was to prevent a thermal-expansion mismatch, which could destroy the fuel/cladding bond before complete bonding was achieved; the solution was to prevent the composites from cooling significantly during or between roll passes. The final product performed very well in-reactor, showing good bonding, very little fuel/cladding interaction-either from fabrication or in-reactor testing-and little swelling, especially no detectable heterogeneous bubble formation at the fuel/cladding interface tested to a fission density of up to 2.7E+21 (average) fissions/cm3, 3.8E+21 (peak).

  18. Early Adoption of a Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Robert M; Wilson, Patrick M; Jacobson, Debra J; Fan, Chun; Kisiel, John B; Sweetser, Seth; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M; St Sauver, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015. We used electronic Current Procedure Terminology and Health Care Common Procedure codes to evaluate early adoption of the MT-sDNA screening test in this population and to test whether early adoption varies by age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior. Overall, 2193 (8.1%) and 974 (3.6%) individuals were screened by colonoscopy and MT-sDNA, respectively. Age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior were significantly and independently associated with MT-sDNA screening use compared with colonoscopy use after adjustment for all other variables (Pscreening increased over time and were highest in those aged 50 to 54 years, women, whites, and those who had a history of screening. The use of the MT-sDNA screening test varied predictably by insurance coverage. The rates of colonoscopy decreased over time, whereas overall CRC screening rates remained steady. The results of the present study are generally consistent with predictions derived from prior research and the diffusion of innovation framework, pointing to increasing use of the new screening test over time and early adoption by younger patients, women, whites, and those with prior CRC screening. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, E; Holst, B

    2013-11-01

    The identification of bast fibre samples, in particular, bast fibres used in textiles, is an important issue in archaeology, criminology and other scientific fields. One of the characteristic features of bast fibres is their fibrillar orientation, referred to as Z- or S twist (or alternatively right- and left-handed fibres). An empirical test for determining the fibrillar orientation using polarized light microscopy has been known in the community for many years. It is referred to as the modified Herzog test or red plate test. The test has the reputation for never producing false results, but also for occasionally not working. However, so far, no proper justification has been provided in the literature that the 'no false results' assumption is really correct and it has also not been clear up till now, why the method sometimes does not work. In this paper, we present an analytical model for the modified Herzog test, which explains why the test never gives a false result. We also provide an explanation for why the Herzog test sometimes does not work: According to our model, the Herzog test will not work if none of the three distinct layers in the secondary cell wall is significantly thicker than the others.

  20. Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAUGAN, E; HOLST, B

    2013-01-01

    The identification of bast fibre samples, in particular, bast fibres used in textiles, is an important issue in archaeology, criminology and other scientific fields. One of the characteristic features of bast fibres is their fibrillar orientation, referred to as Z- or S twist (or alternatively right- and left-handed fibres). An empirical test for determining the fibrillar orientation using polarized light microscopy has been known in the community for many years. It is referred to as the modified Herzog test or red plate test. The test has the reputation for never producing false results, but also for occasionally not working. However, so far, no proper justification has been provided in the literature that the ‘no false results’ assumption is really correct and it has also not been clear up till now, why the method sometimes does not work. In this paper, we present an analytical model for the modified Herzog test, which explains why the test never gives a false result. We also provide an explanation for why the Herzog test sometimes does not work: According to our model, the Herzog test will not work if none of the three distinct layers in the secondary cell wall is significantly thicker than the others. PMID:24020614

  1. Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R E

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.

  2. Postoperative bleeding in a patient with normal screening coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Eva; Anvari, Reza; D'cunha, Nicholas; Thaxton, Lauren; Malik, Asim; Nugent, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A 54-year-old man was brought to the emergency room after a head-on collision. He had multiple fractures in his lower extremities and required immediate surgery. After surgery, the patient had a persistent drop in hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets despite red blood cell transfusions. Laboratory studies included normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, normal plasminogen functional activity, negative antiplatelet antibodies, normal platelet functional analysis and negative disseminated intravascular coagulation screen. Factor XIII antigen levels were 25% of predicted, and the diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency was made. The patient was treated with cryoprecipitate, and the bleeding stopped. Patients with factor XIII deficiency have either a rare congenital or acquired coagulation disorder. Both presentations have normal standard laboratory clotting tests, and the diagnosis requires an assay measuring factor XIII activity or antigen levels. The usual treatment includes cryoprecipitate, fresh-frozen plasma or recombinant factor XIII. This deficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained spontaneous, traumatic or postoperative bleeding.

  3. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  4. Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Battery (ASVAB) Content, Structure, and Scor ing The ASVAB is a multiple aptitude battery of nine tests administered by the MEPCOM. Most military...Technical Report 1306 Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim Report Deirdre J...to) August 2009 to May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim

  5. Screening for Saponins Using the Blood Hemolysis Test. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheeswaran, Subramaniam

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for undergraduate chemistry laboratories involving a chemical found in plants and some sea animals. Discusses collection and identification of material, a hemolysis test, preparation of blood-coated agar plates, and application of samples. (CW)

  6. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  7. An Intelligent Tap Test as AN Inspection Tool for Corrosion in Chequer Plate Floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. M.; Smith, J. W.

    2002-11-01

    The "coin-tap" test has the ability to indicate damage in a structural element due to a localized change of stiffness or damping. The change in vibration signature may be detected by ear or more precisely by measurement of the dynamic contact force. A method for discriminating between measurements made on sound and damaged structures is presented. An unsupervised neural network algorithm is used for recognizing the differences between contact force patterns. The method is used for non-destructive inspection of corrosion damage to steel chequer plate floors in industrial buildings. It is shown that the intelligent tap test is a useful and practical diagnostic tool for detecting localized damage in structures.

  8. Combined Plate Microbial Assay (CPMA): a 6-plate-method for simultaneous first and second level screening of antibacterial residues in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Aureli, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved high throughput microbial method for the simultaneous performance of first and second level screening for antibacterial residues in meat. It is based on growth inhibition of B. subtilis on agar medium pH 6, 7.2 and 8, of B. cereus on agar medium pH 5.9, of M. luteus on agar medium pH 8 and of E. coli on agar medium pH 7.2 (research or first level screening) and on the use of confirmatory solutions (Pase, Paba, MgSO4) for the identification or second level screening. In kidney control samples, dialysis membranes were interposed between samples and the agar surface to both prevent the action of lysozyme and reduce false positive results. The proposed method detects beta-lactams, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and quinolones at MRL concentrations and reliably indicates the inhibitor family. Results are obtained in 18-24 h.

  9. Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EDSTAC Report was developed through a deliberative process that encouraged the development of consensus solutions to complex problems and issues related to developing an Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

  10. Evaluation of glycerin as preserving agent of chicken serum for plate agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum is widely used for the purpose of monitoring and diagnosis support for most of poultry diseases. In the case of the serum plate agglutination test (SPA, commonly used to detect antibodies for Salmonella Pullorum (SP, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, serum cannot be frozen because it may result in false positive. Without freezing, serum can last only for a few days. In this experiment, glycerin was evaluated as a serum preservering agent. About 50 samples for each disease and analyzed by SPA test previously were separated. Glycerin was added to serum from commercial chickens, with and without antibodies for SP, MG and MS, in the proportion of 1:1 (serum:glycerin and kept at refrigerated conditions (2 to 8 ºC. For four years they were tested by the SPA, initially weekly, afterward monthly and then annually. The results show that serum with glycerin give consistent and valid results according to the kind of antibodies present for the period tested. Sera that glycerin was not added to, the results were valid only for the first week. From the second week on, microbial growth affected the test results of the sera without glycerin. Our investigation shows that glycerin can be used to preserve chicken serum for SPA under refrigerated conditions. It is an easy, simple and cheap procedure that can extend serum shelf life, useful mainly for control sera.

  11. Prevalence of Subclinical Caprine Mastitis in Bangladesh Based on Parallel Interpretation of Three Screening Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Aminul Islam; Abdus Samad; AKM Anisur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of subclinical caprine mastitis based on parallel interpretation of results of three screening test. A total of 462 milk samples from 231 lactating Black Bengal goats comprises of three organized goat farms in Bangladesh were collected and were screened for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT), White Side Test (WST) and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) simultaneously. Integrated test results yield the preval...

  12. High-throughput system for screening of high L-lactic acid-productivity strains in deep-well microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiangyun; Song, Jiali; Yu, Bo; Liu, Huilan; Li, Chao; Zhuang, Yingping; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-11-01

    For strain improvement, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems as well as simple and rapid high-throughput detection methods are crucial. However, most of the screening methods for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were conducted in shake flasks and detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), making the screening program laborious, time-consuming and costly. In this study, an integrated strategy for high-throughput screening of high L-lactic acid-productivity strains by Bacillus coagulans in deep-well microtiter plates (MTPs) was developed. The good agreement of fermentation results obtained in the MTPs platform with shake flasks confirmed that 24-well U-bottom MTPs could well alternate shake flasks for cell cultivation as a scale-down tool. The high-throughput pH indicator (bromocresol green) and L-lactate oxidase (LOD) assays were subsequently developed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze L-lactic acid concentration. Together with the color halos method, the pH indicator assay and LOD assay, the newly developed three-step screening strategy has greatly accelerated the screening process for LAB strains with low cost. As a result, two high L-lactic acid-productivity mutants, IH6 and IIIB5, were successfully screened out, which presented, respectively, 42.75 and 46.10 % higher productivities than that of the parent strain in a 5-L bioreactor.

  13. The time is now to implement HPV testing for primary screening in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Denny, Lynette

    2017-05-01

    Unacceptable disparities in cervical cancer between richer and poorer countries persist and serve as reminders of gross disparities in access to and quality of screening services. HPV testing is well-suited to address some of the barriers to implementing adequate screening programs in low resource settings. HPV testing has considerably better sensitivity than cytology providing the same extent of safety with fewer rounds of screening. New robust HPV testing platforms require little to no skill by laboratory workers and some can be used at the point-of-care. This allows for a round of screening to be accomplished in one or two visits, reducing costs and the inevitable attrition that occurs when women need to be recalled to obtain their results. HPV testing is ideal for incorporating into the new "screen-and-treat" approaches designed to overcome limitations of conventional, multi-visit, colposcopy-based approaches to screening. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is the screening test that has been used most widely in screen-and-treat programs to date but the performance characteristics of this test are poor. HPV-based screen-and-treat is more effective in reducing disease in the population and reduces over-treatment intrinsic to this approach. HPV testing can be adapted or combined with other molecular tests to improve treatment algorithms. Infrastructure established to support VIA-based screen-and-treat can effectively incorporate HPV testing. We are poised at a critical juncture in public health history to implement HPV testing as part of primary screening and thereby improve women's health in low resource settings.

  14. Evaluation of protective ensemble thermal characteristics through sweating hot plate, sweating thermal manikin, and human tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Powell, Jeffery B; Roberge, Raymond J; Shepherd, Angie; Coca, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive capability of fabric Total Heat Loss (THL) values on thermal stress that Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ensemble wearers may encounter while performing work. A series of three tests, consisting of the Sweating Hot Plate (SHP) test on two sample fabrics and the Sweating Thermal Manikin (STM) and human performance tests on two single-layer encapsulating ensembles (fabric/ensemble A = low THL and B = high THL), was conducted to compare THL values between SHP and STM methods along with human thermophysiological responses to wearing the ensembles. In human testing, ten male subjects performed a treadmill exercise at 4.8 km and 3% incline for 60 min in two environmental conditions (mild = 22°C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and hot/humid = 35°C, 65% RH). The thermal and evaporative resistances were significantly higher on a fabric level as measured in the SHP test than on the ensemble level as measured in the STM test. Consequently the THL values were also significantly different for both fabric types (SHP vs. STM: 191.3 vs. 81.5 W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble A, and 909.3 vs. 149.9 W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble B (p values are significantly different from the actual THL potential of the PPE ensemble tested on STM, (2) physiological benefits from wearing a more breathable PPE ensemble may not be feasible with incremental THL values (SHP test) less than approximately 150-200 W·m(2), and (3) the effects of thermal environments on a level of heat stress in PPE ensemble wearers are greater than ensemble thermal characteristics.

  15. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  16. Testing micro-channel plate detectors for the particle identification upgrade of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo Garcia, L

    2012-01-01

    The TORCH, Time of internally Reflected Cherenkov Light, is proposed for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHCb experiment. The detector combines Time-of-Flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve positive pi/K/p separation on a >= 3 sigma level in the momentum range below 10 GeV/c. The required time resolution is <= 50 ps for single photon signal. In a preliminary R\\&D phase, we have shown that already commercially available micro-channel plate tubes with 8 x 8 channels fulfil the requirements. Timing properties of the tubes have been investigated with a pulsed laser diode in single photon regime. Key results from these laboratory tests are reported. An excellent timing resolution of <40 ps is achieved with an efficiency of similar to 90\\%. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apresyan, A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Los, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Pena, C.; Presutti, F. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  18. Conclusions and recommendations for the testing of flat-plate solar collector thermal performance and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksman, D.; Thomas, W. C.

    1984-12-01

    The results of studies, by the National Bureau of Standards, of the reliability and durability of eight different types of flat plate solar collectors representative of equipment available in 1977 are reported. The installations were made in four sites believed to typify various U.S. climates. The stability of the thermal performance and material properties was tracked, and measured again after moving the units inside for exposure to artificial sunlight. The stagnation measurement techniques employed to evaluate the collectors were judged adequate, provided the tests are made on-site and out of doors. It is noted that the instrumentation used to gather sufficient data for valid analyses may experience performance decrements due to the necessarily long monitoring intervals, i.e., several years.

  19. Hypothesis testing in high-throughput screening for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prummer, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Following the success of small-molecule high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, other large-scale screening techniques are currently revolutionizing the biological sciences. Powerful new statistical tools have been developed to analyze the vast amounts of data in DNA chip studies, but have not yet found their way into compound screening. In HTS, characterization of single-point hit lists is often done only in retrospect after the results of confirmation experiments are available. However, for prioritization, for optimal use of resources, for quality control, and for comparison of screens it would be extremely valuable to predict the rates of false positives and false negatives directly from the primary screening results. Making full use of the available information about compounds and controls contained in HTS results and replicated pilot runs, the Z score and from it the p value can be estimated for each measurement. Based on this consideration, we have applied the concept of p-value distribution analysis (PVDA), which was originally developed for gene expression studies, to HTS data. PVDA allowed prediction of all relevant error rates as well as the rate of true inactives, and excellent agreement with confirmation experiments was found.

  20. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  1. Pilot Testing a New Short Screen for the Assessment of Older Women's PTSD Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Schuitevoerder, Sage

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult for busy health care providers to perform routine screening for older women's posttraumatic stress symptomatology. This difficulty is due, at least partially, to a paucity of instruments specifically tested on such a population. To address this issue, in this preliminary study we tested an abbreviated screen from the set of 20…

  2. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  3. [Detection of cancer, sensitivity of the test and sensitivity of the screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launoy, G; Duffy, S W; Prevost, T C; Bouvier, V

    1998-11-01

    In assessment of screening for cancer, no distinction is usually made between the sensitivity of the screening test (St) and the sensitivity of the screening program (Sp). This paper was aimed to distinguish meaning, method for assessment and interest for each of them, and to determine their relationship. Sensitivity of the screening program can be directly assessed with data from on-going trials whilst assessment of sensitivity of screening test requires modelisation techniques, especially for assessing the mean duration of the preclinical phase of cancer. Assuming an exponential distribution of this duration, lambda as the time parameter, a mathematical relation between St and Sp is suggested as follows: [formula: see text] with r being the interval between two screening tests. The implementation of this equation with data from a mass-screening program for colorectal cancer in the department of Calvados allowed us to investigate the influence of the mean preclinical phase and the interval between two screening tests on the value of the sensitivity of the screening procedure. Such a modelisation could be useful in the development of a rational screening policy.

  4. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS: Questionnai...... in screening and with intentions about selective termination, women's perceptions of lives of the disabled should receive more attention in future studies.......AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...

  5. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  6. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  7. Validating a dance-specific screening test for balance: preliminary results from multisite testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna

    2010-09-01

    Few dance-specific screening tools adequately capture balance. The aim of this study was to administer and modify the Star Excursion Balance Test (oSEBT) to examine its utility as a balance screen for dancers. The oSEBT involves standing on one leg while lightly targeting with the opposite foot to the farthest distance along eight spokes of a star-shaped grid. This task simulates dance in the spatial pattern and movement quality of the gesturing limb. The oSEBT was validated for distance on athletes with history of ankle sprain. Thirty-three dancers (age 20.1 +/- 1.4 yrs) participated from two contemporary dance conservatories (UK and US), with or without a history of lower extremity injury. Dancers were verbally instructed (without physical demonstration) to execute the oSEBT and four modifications (mSEBT): timed (speed), timed with cognitive interference (answering questions aloud), and sensory disadvantaging (foam mat). Stepping strategies were tracked and performance strategies video-recorded. Unlike the oSEBT results, distances reached were not significant statistically (p = 0.05) or descriptively (i.e., shorter) for either group. Performance styles varied widely, despite sample homogeneity and instructions to control for strategy. Descriptive analysis of mSEBT showed an increased number of near-falls and decreased timing on the injured limb. Dancers appeared to employ variable strategies to keep balance during this test. Quantitative analysis is warranted to define balance strategies for further validation of SEBT modifications to determine its utility as a balance screening tool.

  8. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  9. Bias in estimating accuracy of a binary screening test with differential disease verification

    OpenAIRE

    Alonzo, Todd A.; Brinton, John T; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value are typically used to quantify the accuracy of a binary screening test. In some studies it may not be ethical or feasible to obtain definitive disease ascertainment for all subjects using a gold standard test. When a gold standard test cannot be used an imperfect reference test that is less than 100% sensitive and specific may be used instead. In breast cancer screening, for example, follow-up for cancer diagnosis is used as an ...

  10. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  11. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-11-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  12. Evaluation of Electroless-Nickel Plated Polypropylene under Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Ajibola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electroless-nickel composite (ENC consisting of bright metallic electroless-nickel (EN and dull electroless-nickel-phosphorus (EN-P were deposited on the polypropylene (PP substrate from the sodium hypophosphite baths. The ENC plated specimens were subjected to abrasive wear-adhesion test of 1750, 3500, 7000 and 14000 cycles; thermal cycle-adhesion tests, and tensile strength and creep tests. The deposition of ENC influenced the strength and creep strain properties of the PP. The maximum stress σ of 118 (MPa was obtained from EN-PP specimen at strain  of 0.1 mm/mm as compared with the PP having stress σ of 36 (MPa at strain  of 0.07 mm/mm before failure The surface appearances and microstructures of ENC film on PP substrates were examined under the higher resolution metallurgical microscope with digital camera and microscopic camera. The composition of ENC film was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (Jeol JSM-7600F Field Emission SEM/EDX, The micrographs and spectra lines data generated were used to interpret the results.

  13. Bearing Capacity of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE Reinforced Sand Using Plate Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Aly K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a study to examine the improvement in bearing capacity of coastal sand of Trivandrum, Kerala, India using high density polyethylene (HDPE /woven fabric as reinforcement in discrete layers. The bearing capacity was evaluated using plate load test. The effect of reinforcement configurations like sheet reinforcement (sanded with adhesive, with adhesive and sheet alone and strip reinforcement (single and grid pattern are investigated. The test parameters chosen for the present study are, depth of topmost layer of reinforcement layer below footing, compacted density and number of layers of reinforcement etc. From the tests, it has been observed that sheet reinforcement is more effective than sheet sanded with adhesive and strip reinforcements. It is found that the synthetic adhesive gives no binding action at the interface of the reinforcement and soil. But it is to be noted that the sheet with adhesive dried has a marked influence on the bearing capacity especially at lower densities. The strip reinforcements in single pattern is considered to be a favorable choice for minimum reinforcement. The strip reinforcement in single or grid pattern gives sufficient improvement in strength.

  14. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  15. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal Clinic at Tygerberg Academic ... on the changing diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes.1–4 ... (quantity and type) is the main determining factor of the post- .... In a 'designed' breakfast with 75 g of carbohydrate, the fat should.

  16. Alternative multi-user interaction screen: initial ergonomic test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Adrew C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate a potentially low-cost multi-user computer pointing interface. Given a choice of four targets arranged on the screen, the authors looked at what the user’s preference is in visiting the targets with a hand-held light source...

  17. Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, intended for use with handicapped and nonhandicapped children ages 0-8, are examined. The instruments measure personal-social, adaptive, motor, communication, and cognitive skills, for use in screening, diagnosis, identification, assessment, and program evaluation. The paper discusses test…

  18. Predictive Validity Test of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory (ADSI) to identify adolescents at high risk of substance use. Method: The sampling frame consisted of 26,781 surveys, and a secondary analysis was conducted. A random 25% sample was used, leaving 6,661 cases. Binary logistic regressions were run to determine the predictive…

  19. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  20. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  1. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer

  2. The Application of Eddy Current Transducer for Testing Movement Locus of Shaker Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Pingyu; Lao Chuanjun; Zhang Wei; Li Xuejun

    2007-01-01

    Shaker screen is one of important equipments in the industry of oil, metallurgy, coal and timbering. The movement locus of shaker screen affects the capacity and efficiency of shaker screen to split the solid particle from crude ore directly .To test movement of shaker locus, two eddy current transducers are employed. A discussion of the usage of these eddy current transducer to test and acceleration sensors will be made. The experiment results from a real elliptic shaker screen have good agree with the design requirements.

  3. Skin test screening for tuberculosis among healthcare students: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, G B; Antoniozzi, T; Ortis, M; Pippia, V; Sernia, S

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to document the baseline prevalence of healthcare students positive to tuberculosis skin tests screening. Between 2008-2010, students admitted to healthcare courses (medicine, nursing, physiotherapy...) at Sapienza university in Rome were requested to carry out personal tuberculosis skin test screening in their local district or town healthcare centers according to the italian guidelines. At the time interferongamma release assays (IGRA) testing was not adopted for large screening. Demographic characteristics, tuberculosis screening results, healthcare course, tuberculosis vaccination status were recorded. A cohort of 2,500 university healthcare students were screened by several Italian Hygiene Offices using tuberculin skin test and Tine test. Overall 131 (5.2%) healthcare students resulted positive to some tuberculosis skin test screening. Tuberculin skin test was carried out on 2,029 students (81.2%) and conversion was observed in 107 (5.3%), whereas Tine test was carried out on 498 students (19.9%) and positive result was observed in 24 (4.8%). The Tine test use and non optimal (skin tests was related mostly to some healthcare centers in Lazio and Campania regions. Previous BCG vaccination was reported by 27 healthcare students (1.1%), and only two of them showed tuberculin skin test conversion, whereas the large majority 105 (98.1%) of Mantoux positives had not been vaccinated. In univariate analysis positive tuberculin skin test was associated to growing students age (29.2 ± 10.3 vs. 23.1 ± 6.0; pskin test was recorded in 25 (20.3%) foreign and 82 (4.3%) italian students showing a higher risk for International students (RR 4.72; 95%CI 3.14 - 7.11; pskin test rate for tuberculosis among healthcare students in their first university year, showing a higher risk for the international group and revealed some problematic screening practices which need to be improved in the future screening programs.

  4. Identification and Validation of a Brief Test Anxiety Screening Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Segool, Natasha; Putwain, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of test-based accountability policies around the world has increased the pressure placed on students to perform well on state achievement tests. Educational researchers have begun taking a closer look at the reciprocal effects of test anxiety and high-stakes testing. However, existing test anxiety assessments lack efficiency and…

  5. The study of fix composite panel and steel plates on testing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Wachna, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the practical possibilities of strength verification analysis of composite materials used in the manufacture of selected components of railway wagons are presented. Real laboratory stand for measurements in a scale controlled by PLC controller were made. The study of different types of connections of composite materials with sheet metal is presented. In one of the chapter of this paper principles construction of testing stand with pneumatic cylinder were presented. Mainly checking of displacements and stresses generated on the sheet as a result of pneumatic actuators load for composite boards was carried out. The use of the controller with operating panel allows to easy programming testing cycle. The user can define the force generated by the actuator by change of air pressure in cylinder. Additionally the location of acting cylinders and their jump can be changed by operator. The examination of the volume displacements was done by displacement sensor, and the tensile strain gauge. All parameters are written in CatmanEasy - data acquisition software. This article presents the study of stresses and displacements in the composite plates joined with sheet metal, in summary of this article, the authors compare the obtained results with the computer simulation results in the article: "Simulation of stresses in an innovative combination of composite with sheet".

  6. A study of ground-structure interaction in dynamic plate load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzina, Bojan B.; Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain

    2002-10-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented for the forced vertical vibration of a padded annular footing on a layered viscoelastic half-space. On assuming a depth-independent stress distribution for the interfacial buffer, the set of triple integral equations stemming from the problem is reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The solution method, which is tailored to capture the stress concentrations beneath footing edges, is highlighted. To cater to small-scale geophysical applications, the model is used to investigate the near-field effects of ground-loading system interaction in dynamic geotechnical and pavement testing. Numerical results indicate that the uniform-pressure assumption for the contact load between the composite disc and the ground which is customary in dynamic plate load testing may lead to significant errors in the diagnosis of subsurface soil and pavement conditions. Beyond its direct application to non-intrusive site characterization, the proposed solution can be used in the seismic analysis of a variety of structures involving annular foundation geometries.

  7. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  8. Development and Testing of a 3-Item Screening Tool for Problematic Internet Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Selkie, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    To develop and validate the Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS)-3 screening scale, a short scale to screen for Problematic Internet Use. This scale development study applied standard processes using separate samples for training and testing datasets. We recruited participants from schools and colleges in 6 states and 2 countries. We selected 3 initial versions of a PRIUSS-3 using correlation to the PRIUSS-18 score. We evaluated these 3 potential screening scales for conceptual coherence, factor loading, sensitivity, and specificity. We selected a 3-item screening tool and evaluated it in 2 separate testing sets using receiver operating curves. Our study sample included 1079 adolescents and young adults. The PRIUSS-3 included items addressing anxiety when away from the Internet, loss of motivation when on the Internet, and feelings of withdrawal when away from the Internet. This screening scale had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 69%. A score of ≥3 on the PRIUSS-3 was the threshold to follow up with the PRIUSS-18. Similar to other clinical screening tools, the PRIUSS-3 can be administered quickly in a clinical or research setting. Positive screens should be followed by administering the full PRIUSS-18. Given the pervasive presence of the Internet in youth's lives, screening and counseling for Problematic Internet Use can be facilitated by use of this validated screening tool. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yvonne N; Bishai, David M; Lorincz, Attila; Shah, Keerti V; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández, Mauricio; Granados-García, Víctor; Pérez, Ruth; Salmerón, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. Screening women between the ages of 30-80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program.

  10. Universal screening test based on analysis of circulating organ-enriched microRNAs: a novel approach to diagnostic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinerman, Kira S; Umansky, Samuil

    2015-03-01

    Early disease detection leads to more effective and cost-efficient treatment. It is especially important for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, because progression of these pathologies leads to significant and frequently irreversible changes in underlying pathophysiological processes. At the same time, the development of specific screening tests for detection of each of the hundreds of human pathologies in asymptomatic stage may be impractical. Here, we discuss a recently proposed concept: the development of minimally invasive Universal Screening Test (UST) based on analysis of organ-enriched microRNAs in plasma and other bodily fluids. The UST is designed to detect the presence of a pathology in particular organ systems, organs, tissues or cell types without diagnosing a specific disease. Once the pathology is detected, more specific, and if necessary invasive and expensive, tests can be administered to precisely define the nature of the disease. Here, we discuss recent studies and analyze the data supporting the UST approach.

  11. Improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of remote optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance. Keywords: Calibration, radiometry, remote sensing, source.

  12. Whole-cell microtiter plate screening assay for terminal hydroxylation of fatty acids by P450s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenborn, Martin J; Notonier, Sandra; Lang, Sarah-Luise; Otte, Konrad B; Herter, Susanne; Turner, Nicholas J; Flitsch, Sabine L; Hauer, Bernhard

    2016-05-04

    A readily available galactose oxidase (GOase) variant was used to develop a whole cell screening assay. This endpoint detection system was applied in a proof-of-concept approach by screening a focussed mutant library. This led to the discovery of the thus far most active P450 Marinobacter aquaeolei mutant catalysing the terminal hydroxylation of fatty acids.

  13. The Statistical Precision of Medical Screening Procedures: Application to Polygraph and AIDS Antibodies Test Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gastwirth, Joseph L.

    1987-01-01

    The increased use of screening tests for drug use or antibodies to the HTLV-III (AIDS) virus, as well as pre-employment polygraph testing, has raised concerns about the reliability of the results of these procedures. This paper reviews the mathematical model underlying the analysis of data from screening tests. In addition to the known formulas for the proportion of positive (negative) classifications that are correct, we provide a large sample approximation to their standard errors. The resu...

  14. Assessment of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV testing in primary screening for cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The introduction of a screening programme for cervical carcinoma in Germany has led to a significant reduction in incidence of the disease. To date, however, diagnosis in Germany has been based solely on cervical cytology, which has been criticised because of a low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Because an infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV previously was found to be a necessary aetiological factor in the development of cervical cancer, there has been some discussion that HPV testing should be included in cervical cancer screening. Objectives: How do HPV tests compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what are the effects of screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of HPV testing into national screening programms? Methods: A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared the HPV test to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CIN 2+ (CIN=Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyze cost-effectiveness in the German setting. Results: A total of 24 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One study consisted of three substudies. Hence, results of 26 comparisons of HPV and cytology are reported. In 25 of these, the HPV test was more sensitive than cytology, whereas cytology had better specificity in 21 studies. The combination of HPV test and cytology increased sensitivity. Variability in results was considerably larger for cytology than for HPV testing. Results of the economic meta-analysis suggest that in health care settings with already established PAP screening programms, cost-effectiveness strongly depends on screening intervals. In analyses comparing HPV screening to conventional PAP screening with two-yearly intervals, only 25

  15. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  16. Improving the Sensitivity of the Language Sector of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances P.; Borowitz, Kathleen C.

    1988-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and an expressive language measure were administered to 114 children (aged 24 to 74 months) suspected of developmental difficulties. The DDST did not identify the majority of children who failed the expressive language screening, even after cutoff scores were made more rigorous. (Author/JDD)

  17. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides and pests. Dated: February 17, 2012. Lois Rossi, Director, Registration... AGENCY Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program... EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  18. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages.

  19. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products for Infection With... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and... ``Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...

  20. HV Test of the CTS Edgeless Silicon Detector in Vacuum and Close to a Grounded Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    The TOTEM Roman Pot Silicon sensors will be operated in vacuum to minimise the mechanical stress of the thin metal window which separates the detector package from the ultra high vacuum of the beam. To approach the beam axis as close as possible the detectors will be mounted with their edge at a distance of the order 100 - 200 um from the thin metal window. As the detectors will be run in overdepletion mode to allow the full charge collection within the shaping time of the readout electronics, there will be a potential drop of more than 100 V across their edge. Moreover this potential drop might need to be further increased with the accumulated radiation dose. The main goals of the tests described in this note are: - Characterisation of the voltage-current characteristics when the detector edge is in the direct vicinity of a grounded metal plate which simulates the above mentioned vacuum window; - Demonstration of the detector operation in vacuum at different pressures.

  1. A PREDICTIVE SCREENING TEST FOR CHILDREN WITH ARTICULATORY SPEECH DEFECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN RIPER, CHARLES

    THE CONSTRUCTION OF A TEST TO IDENTIFY DEFECTIVE ARTICULATION IN FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN WAS REPORTED. THE "EMPIRICAL SCALE DERIVATION METHOD" WAS SELECTED AS THE MOST APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUE TO SEEK TEST ITEMS FOR THE PREDICTION OF ARTICULATORY MATUARATION. AFTER SELECTION AND REDUCTION TO 135 TEST ITEMS, AN EXPERIMENTAL ITEM POOL WAS…

  2. Testing Absolute Plate Reference Frames and the Implications for the Generation of Geodynamic Mantle Heterogeneity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, G. E.; Bunge, H.; Schuberth, B. S.; Müller, D.; Talsma, A.; Moder, C.

    2010-12-01

    Several absolute reference frames for Cretaceous-Tertiary plate tectonic reconstructions have been proposed over the last decade. They include reference frames based on hotspot tracks displaying age progression, and assuming either fixed or moving hotspots, as well as palaeomagnetically-based reference frames, a subduction reference frame and hybrid reference frames. All these alternative reference frames imply a particular history of the location of subduction zones through time, the associated subduction history, and the evolution of mantle heterogeneity via the mixing of subducted slab material with the mantle. Therefore it is possible to evaluate the observed distribution of subducted slab material in the mantle versus that predicted by a forward geodynamic model in which the plate kinematic history given by a particular absolute plate is coupled with a mantle convection model. We present a comparison of five alternative absolute plate motion models in terms of their consequences for global deep mantle structure by utilizing the 3-D spherical finite element mantle convection code TERRA, coupled with the global plate tectonic reconstruction software GPlates. We impose global palaeo-plate boundaries and plate velocities back to 140 Ma as surface boundary conditions for each absolute rotation model and forward model the associated subduction history. The correlation of seismic tomography with the predicted present-day mantle structure from each of plate models is then assessed using well-imaged slabs. We will present and discuss a comparison of geodynamically predicted mantle heterogeneity and seismic tomography to infer the robustness of each absolute reference frame through time, thus providing additional constraints for the integration of plate tectonics and mantle dynamics.

  3. Bias in estimating accuracy of a binary screening test with differential disease verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Todd A; Brinton, John T; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H

    2011-07-10

    Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value are typically used to quantify the accuracy of a binary screening test. In some studies, it may not be ethical or feasible to obtain definitive disease ascertainment for all subjects using a gold standard test. When a gold standard test cannot be used, an imperfect reference test that is less than 100 per cent sensitive and specific may be used instead. In breast cancer screening, for example, follow-up for cancer diagnosis is used as an imperfect reference test for women where it is not possible to obtain gold standard results. This incomplete ascertainment of true disease, or differential disease verification, can result in biased estimates of accuracy. In this paper, we derive the apparent accuracy values for studies subject to differential verification. We determine how the bias is affected by the accuracy of the imperfect reference test, the percent who receive the imperfect reference standard test not receiving the gold standard, the prevalence of the disease, and the correlation between the results for the screening test and the imperfect reference test. It is shown that designs with differential disease verification can yield biased estimates of accuracy. Estimates of sensitivity in cancer screening trials may be substantially biased. However, careful design decisions, including selection of the imperfect reference test, can help to minimize bias. A hypothetical breast cancer screening study is used to illustrate the problem.

  4. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  5. Novel Treponema pallidum Serologic Tests: A Paradigm Shift in Syphilis Screening for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arlene C. Seña; Becky L. White; P. Frederick Sparling

    2010-01-01

    .... Although most of these newer tests are not yet cleared for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration, their performance and ease of automation have promoted their application for syphilis screening...

  6. NSGC practice guideline: prenatal screening and diagnostic testing options for chromosome aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K L; Czerwinski, J L; Hoskovec, J M; Noblin, S J; Sullivan, C M; Harbison, A; Campion, M W; Devary, K; Devers, P; Singletary, C N

    2013-02-01

    The BUN and FASTER studies, two prospective multicenter trials in the United States, validated the accuracy and detection rates of first and second trimester screening previously reported abroad. These studies, coupled with the 2007 release of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletin that endorsed first trimester screening as an alternative to traditional second trimester multiple marker screening, led to an explosion of screening options available to pregnant women. ACOG also recommended that invasive diagnostic testing for chromosome aneuploidy be made available to all women regardless of maternal age. More recently, another option known as Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) became available to screen for chromosome aneuploidy. While screening and testing options may be limited due to a variety of factors, healthcare providers need to be aware of the options in their area in order to provide their patients with accurate and reliable information. If not presented clearly, patients may feel overwhelmed at the number of choices available. The following guideline includes recommendations for healthcare providers regarding which screening or diagnostic test should be offered based on availability, insurance coverage, and timing of a patient's entry into prenatal care, as well as a triage assessment so that a general process can be adapted to unique situations.

  7. Screening for ovarian cancer in women with varying levels of risk, using annual tests, results in high recall for repeat screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobbenhuis Marielle AE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed ovarian cancer screening outcomes in women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer divided into a low-, moderate- or high-risk group for development of ovarian cancer. Methods 545 women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer referred to the Ovarian Screening Service at the Royal Marsden Hospital, London from January 2000- December 2008 were included. They were stratified into three risk-groups according to family history (high-, moderate- and low-risk of developing ovarian cancer and offered annual serum CA 125 and transvaginal ultrasound screening. The high-risk group was offered genetic testing. Results The median age at entry was 44 years. The number of women in the high, moderate and low-risk groups was 397, 112, and 36, respectively. During 2266 women years of follow-up two ovarian cancer cases were found: one advanced stage at her fourth annual screening, and one early stage at prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO. Prophylactic BSO was performed in 138 women (25.3%. Forty-three women had an abnormal CA125, resulting in 59 repeat tests. The re-call rate in the high, moderate and low-risk group was 14%, 3% and 6%. Equivocal transvaginal ultrasound results required 108 recalls in 71 women. The re-call rate in the high, moderate, and low-risk group was 25%, 6% and 17%. Conclusion No early stage ovarian cancer was picked up at annual screening and a significant number of re-calls for repeat screening tests was identified.

  8. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  9. Development of a Titanium Plate for Mandibular Angle Fractures with a Bone Defect in the Lower Border: Finite Element Analysis and Mechanical Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rangel Goulart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop a plate to treat mandibular angle fractures using the finite element method and mechanical testing. Material and Methods: A three-dimensional model of a fractured mandible was generated using Rhinoceros 4.0 software. The models were exported to ANSYS®, in which a static application of displacement (3 mm was performed in the first molar region. Three groups were assessed according to the method of internal fixation (2 mm system: two non-locking plates; two locking plates and a new design locking plate. The computational model was transferred to an in vitro experiment with polyurethane mandibles. Each group contained five samples and was subjected to a linear loading test in a universal testing machine. Results: A balanced distribution of stress was associated with the new plate design. This plate modified the mechanical behavior of the fractured region, with less displacement between the fractured segments. In the mechanical test, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater resistance to the 3 mm displacement, with a statistically significant difference when compared with the new plate group (ANOVA, P = 0.016. Conclusions: The new plate exhibited a more balanced distribution of stress. However, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater mechanical resistance.

  10. Predictive Properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test within Samples from Two Treatment Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Madhabi

    The predictive properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRT) were examined, taking into account the stated purposes of the test and the context of test use. Two samples were used: (1) a control sample of 55 students (21 males and 34 females) whose GSRT scores were not used for placement or tracking; and (2) a treatment sample of…

  11. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, ME van den Akker-v; Ballegooijen, van M.; Rozendaal, L.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Habbema, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV test have a st

  12. Comparison of accuracy measures of two screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marsha; Zweers, Egbert J. K.; Opmeer, Brent C.; van Ballegooie, Evert; ter Brugge, Henk G.; de Valk, Harold W.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To compare the accuracy measures of the random glucose test and the 50-g glucose challenge test as screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESION AND METHODS - in this prospective cohort study, pregnant women without preexisting diabetes in two perinatal centers

  13. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Carrier Conducts Screening § 1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform... test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air carrier must ensure...

  14. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator...

  15. ARTISTIC: a randomised trial of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, H C; Almonte, M; Gilham, C; Dowie, R; Stoykova, B; Sargent, A; Roberts, C; Desai, M; Peto, J

    2009-11-01

    Primary cervical screening uses cytology to detect cancer precursor lesions [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 3 or beyond (CIN3+)]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could add sensitivity as an adjunct to cytology or as a first test, reserving cytology for HPV-positive women. This study addresses the questions: Does the combination of cytology and HPV testing achieve a reduction in incident CIN3+?; Is HPV testing cost-effective in primary cervical screening?; Is its use associated with adverse psychosocial or psychosexual effects?; and How would it perform as an initial screening test followed by cytology for HPV positivity? ARTISTIC was a randomised trial of cervical cytology versus cervical cytology plus HPV testing, evaluated over two screening rounds, 3 years apart. Round 1 would detect prevalent disease and round 2 a combination of incident and undetected disease from round 1. Women undergoing routine cervical screening in the NHS programme in Greater Manchester. In total 24,510 women aged 20-64 years were enrolled between July 2001 and September 2003. HPV testing was performed on the liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample obtained at screening. Women were randomised in a ratio of 3:1 to have the HPV test result revealed and acted upon if persistently positive in cytology-negative cases or concealed. A detailed health economic evaluation and a psychosocial and psychosexual assessment were also performed. The primary outcome was CIN3+ in round 2. Secondary outcomes included an economic assessment and psychosocial effects. A large HPV genotyping study was also conducted. In round 1 there were 313 CIN3+ lesions, representing a prevalence in the revealed and concealed arms of 1.27% and 1.31% respectively (p = 0.81). Round 2 (30-48 months) involved 14,230 (58.1%) of the women screened in round 1 and only 31 CIN3+ were detected; the CIN3 rate was not significantly different between the revealed and concealed arms. A less restrictive definition of round 2 (26

  16. Sequential pathways of testing after first-trimester screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lawrence D; Greene, Naomi; Johnson, Anthony; Zachary, Julia; Thom, Elizabeth; Krantz, David; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Silver, Richard K; Snijders, Rosalinde J M; Goetzl, Laura; Pergament, Eugene; Filkins, Karen; Mahoney, Maurice J; Hogge, W Allen; Wilson, R Douglas; Mohide, Patrick; Hershey, Douglas; MacGregor, Scott; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Jackson, Laird G; Wapner, Ronald

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the performance and use of second-trimester multiple-marker maternal serum screening for trisomy 21 by women who had previously undergone first-trimester combined screening (nuchal translucency, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and free beta-hCG), with disclosure of risk estimates. In a multicenter, first-trimester screening study sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, multiple-marker maternal serum screening with alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, and total hCG was performed in 4,145 (7 with trisomy 21) of 7,392 (9 with trisomy 21) women who were first-trimester screen-negative and 180 (7 with trisomy 21) of 813 (52 with trisomy 21) who were first-trimester screen-positive. Second-trimester risks were calculated using multiples of the median and a standardized risk algorithm with a cutoff risk of 1:270. Among the first-trimester screen-negative cohort, 6 of 7 (86%) trisomy 21 cases were detected by second-trimester multiple-marker maternal serum screening with a false-positive rate of 8.9%. Among the first-trimester screen-positive cohort, all 7 trisomy 21 cases were also detected in the second trimester, albeit with a 38.7% false-positive rate. Our data demonstrate that a sequential screening program that provides patients with first-trimester results and offers the option for early invasive testing or additional serum screening in the second trimester can detect 98% of trisomy 21-affected pregnancies. However, such an approach will result in 17% of patients being considered at risk and, hence, potentially having an invasive test. II-2

  17. Attitudes of families affected by adrenoleukodystrophy toward prenatal diagnosis, presymptomatic and carrier testing, and newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jean; Moser, Hugo; Begleiter, Michael L; Edwards, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Families affected by adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) were surveyed to elicit attitudes toward prenatal, presymptomatic and carrier testing, and newborn screening in order to determine the level of support that these families have for current and future genetic testing protocols. Identifying attitudes toward genetic testing, including newborn screening, is especially important because of new data regarding therapeutic options and the possible addition of ALD to newborn screening regimens. The Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI) database identified 327 prospective participants. Families that were willing to participate in the study received an anonymous questionnaire for completion. Frequencies were generated using SPSS software for Windows. Questionnaires were returned from 128 families for a response rate of 39%. Sons who were at risk for inheriting the ALD gene would be tested by 93% of respondents, and 89.3% would ideally have this testing performed prenatally or in the newborn period. Eighty-nine percent would test an at-risk daughter and 51.2% would ideally have this testing performed prenatally or shortly after birth. ALD newborn screening for males and females was supported by 90% of respondents. If newborn screening for ALD/AMN commences, or there is a new diagnosis of ALD, genetic professionals need to be prepared to have extensive conversations with families regarding the benefits and limitations of current therapeutic and genetic testing options.

  18. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50, tests should include an annual fasting blood sugar check for diabetes and also the following for early diagnoses and treatments: regular colonoscopy for cancer of the colon, serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) ...

  19. Adaptation of high-throughput screening in drug discovery-toxicological screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound's toxicity having only 1-3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study.

  20. Adaptation of High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery—Toxicological Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szymański

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound’s toxicity having only 1–3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study.

  1. The Study of Analgesic Effects of Leonurus cardiaca L. in Mice by Formalin, Tail Flick and Hot Plate Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee-Asl, Masoume; Sabour, Mandana; Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Leonurus cardiaca, commonly known as motherwort, is a member of the Lamiaceae family. It has a number of interesting biological activities, for example, sedative and hypotensive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of alcoholic extract of aerial part of Leonurus cardiaca on nociceptive response using formalin, tail flick, and hot plate tests in mice. The acute treatment of mice with an ethanolic extract at doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration produced a significant antinociceptive in the first and second phases of formalin test, respectively. The hot plate and tail flick tests showed an increase in the antinociceptive effect at dose 500 mg/kg. These results suggest that Leonurus cardiaca possesses central and peripheral antinociceptive actions.

  2. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Flat Plate Solar Collectors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of flat plate solar collectors to water penetration when water is applied to their outer surfaces with a static air pressure at the outer surface higher than the pressure at the interior of the collector. 1.2 This test method is applicable to any flat plate solar collector. 1.3 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure and deflection measurement. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary information is contained in Section 6.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFICACY OF ROSE BENGAL PLATE TEST (I{BPT AND SERUM AGGLUTINATION TEST (SAT FOR DETECTING THE INCIDENE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN BUFFALOES (Bubolus bubolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid, Ishtiaq Ahmad and Umer Hayat

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT were applied for the diagnosis of brucellosis in 240 buffaloes maintained at organized livestock farms in Punjab, to measure their comparative efficacy. Based on RBPT and SAT, 11.25 (n=27 and 10.42 percent (n=25 buffaloes were found seropositive, 11.67 (n 28 and 4.58 percent (n= 11 animals showed doubtful results, while 77.08 (n= 185 and 85 percept (n= 204 animals were found seronegative, respectively. Rose Bengal Plate Test detected higher percentages of seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases than those detected by Serum Agglutination Test, which showed lower percentages or seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases. This study indicated that SAT is more sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for the detection of Brucella aborlus, antibodies in buffaloes.

  4. DEM analyses of the whole failure process of shallow foundation in plate load test on dense sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Jiang, M. J.; Li, T.; Chen, S. L.

    2015-09-01

    Shallow foundations are widely used in civil engineering practice, but the instability mechanism is still unclear yet. Previously, the Finite Element Method (FEM) was commonly used to analyze the failure process of shallow foundations, but it meets difficulty in properly simulating the whole failure process of shallow foundation on the strain-softening material. Hence, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is employed in this paper to study the instability mechanism of the shallow foundation via numerical plate load test with focus on the microscopic features evolution during vertical loading. In the simulation, an amplified gravity was applied to a dense granular ground to reproduce a gravity stress state at a large scale. Then, a plate was put on the granular ground to simulate the plate load test. Deformation pattern, particle velocity and distribution of void ratio in the ground were examined to illustrate the microscopic features in the whole failure process of the granular ground. The results show that: 1) There are a marked peak value and a settlement softening branch in the stress-settlement relationship. 2) The grids close to the edge of the plate are peculiarly extended and twisted. 3) Four particle motion patterns were observed in the velocity fields and the percentage of each motion pattern changes during loading. 4) The void ratio field varies during loading, and the distinguishing interface tends to be similar to Terzaghi's shear failure surface.

  5. Three-contrast, metal test pattern (Snellen E-plate) in evaluation of imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.

    A metal test pattern based on a minified Snellen-type E-plate was evaluated in testing six imaging techniques for chest radiography. The device consisted of three contrast zones and it was attached to the patient's back over the right lung during chest radiography. The values for visual detectability of the E-figures were compared with the film scores obtained by grading the radiographs with respect to visibility of diagnostically important anatomic details. The test plate proved to be a simple, quick and reproducible tool for testing several imaging techniques at the same time. The E-plate results were similar to those of the visual grading analysis in most respects. A few discrepancies existed, which were probably due to the inability of the test pattern to fully consider the effect of motion unsharpness and varying scattering conditions within the human thorax, as well as to great differences in roentgen ray absorption properties between Au and tissues. (orig.).

  6. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol-Hofstad, I; Driessen-Van Lankveld, W; Tomassen, M; De Jong, J; Van Egmond, H

    2008-12-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samples was carried out to verify the performance characteristics. The detection level for tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin, expressed in microbiological activity, was 1 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 3, 0, and 6%, respectively). Avoparcin could be detected at 1 mg kg(-1) in feed in general (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 0%). However, in calf feed the sensitivity was lower. The percentages of false-negatives were found to be 12%, 7%, and 0% at 1, 3, and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively (false-positives, 4%). The limit of detection for zinc bacitracin was 3-5 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 5-10%; false-negatives, 77% at 1 mg kg(-1), 45% at 2 mg kg(-1), 12% at 3 mg kg(-1), and 4% at 5 mg kg(-1)). The method allowed for a distinction to be made between the groups of antibiotics: avoparcin/zinc bacitracin versus tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin. This definitely gives added value to the method in the framework of a follow-up of positive screening results by post-screening and confirmatory analysis.

  7. Development of Plate Reader and On-Line Microfluidic Screening to Identify Ligands of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Binding Protein in Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka A. Otvos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which is expressed in the nervous system. Its antagonists are used clinically for treatment of postoperative- and radiotherapy-induced emesis and irritable bowel syndrome. In order to better understand the structure and function of the 5-HT3 receptor, and to allow for compound screening at this receptor, recently a serotonin binding protein (5HTBP was engineered with the Acetylcholine Binding Protein as template. In this study, a fluorescence enhancement assay for 5HTBP ligands was developed in plate-reader format and subsequently used in an on-line microfluidic format. Both assay types were validated using an existing radioligand binding assay. The on-line microfluidic assay was coupled to HPLC via a post-column split which allowed parallel coupling to a mass spectrometer to collect MS data. This high-resolution screening (HRS system is well suitable for compound mixture analysis. As a proof of principle, the venoms of Dendroapsis polylepis, Pseudonaja affinis and Pseudonaja inframacula snakes were screened and the accurate masses of the found bioactives were established. To demonstrate the subsequent workflow towards structural identification of bioactive proteins and peptides, the partial amino acid sequence of one of the bioactives from the Pseudonaja affinis venom was determined using a bottom-up proteomics approach.

  8. Screening and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: an attempt at test reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragu, P; Alpérovitch, A; Patois, E

    1979-09-01

    A sequencial strategy for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been prospectively appraised on 410 patients using a pocket calculator-aided diagnostic system. It was found that for 64% of the patients final diagnosis could be established from nine clinical signs, ankle jerk time and free thyroxin index. For the 36% of doubtful subjects, T3 determination permitted the reduction of uncertainty to 9%. No misdiagnosis was observed. By comparing this strategy with the physician's usual diagnosis process, in which all clinical signs and several thyroid function tests were used, it appeared that the number of tests was reduced by 65% for T3 requests and by 70% for other tests (99mTc uptake and TRH). The cost-saving was estimated to be about 28%. The interest of this calculator-aided decision model resides in the possibility for the general practitioner to refer only doubtful and hyperthyroid subjects to a thyroid unit.

  9. Development and pilot testing of a vitiligo screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Vaneeta M; Gunasekera, Nicole S; Silwal, Sujeeta; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-01-01

    Studies aimed at understanding the pathology, genetics, and therapeutic response of vitiligo rely on asking a single question about 'physician-diagnosed' vitiligo on surveys to identify subjects for research. However, this type of self-reporting is not sufficient. Our objective was to determine if the patient-administered Vitiligo Screening Tool (VISTO) is a sensitive and specific instrument for the detection of vitiligo in an adult population. The VISTO consists of eight closed-ended questions to assess whether the survey participant has ever been diagnosed with vitiligo by a healthcare worker and uses characteristic pictures and descriptions to inquire about the subtype and extent of any skin lesions. 159 patients at the Brigham and Women's Hospital dermatology clinic with or without a diagnosis of vitiligo were recruited. A board-certified dermatologist confirmed or excluded the diagnosis of vitiligo in each subject. 147 completed questionnaires were analyzed, 47 cases and 100 controls. The pictorial question showed 97.9% sensitivity and 98% specificity for diagnosis of vitiligo. Answering "yes" to being diagnosed with vitiligo by a dermatologist and choosing one photographic representation of vitiligo showed 95.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of vitiligo. We conclude that VISTO is a highly sensitive and specific, low-burden, self-administered tool for identifying vitiligo among adult English speakers. We believe this tool will provide a simple, cost-effective way to confirm vitiligo prior to enrollment in clinical trials as well as for gathering large-scale epidemiologic data in remote populations. Future work to refine the VISTO is needed prior to use in genotype-phenotype correlation studies.

  10. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Materials and Methods: Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. Results: The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Conclusions: Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  11. From Down syndrome screening to noninvasive prenatal testing: 20 years' experience in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S W Steven; Chen, Chih-Ping; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2013-12-01

    Down syndrome is the most common autosomal chromosome aneuploidy. The prenatal Down syndrome screening protocol has been known in Taiwan for the past 20 years. The maternal serum double markers required for the screening test was first implemented into the general prenatal check-up back in 1994, where it had around a 60% detection rate at a 5% false positive rate. The first trimester combined test was started in 2005, and the maternal serum quadruple test was introduced in 2008 to replace the previous double test. The overall detection rate for the current screening strategies (first trimester combined or second trimester quadruple test) in Taiwan ranges between 80% and 85% at a fixed 5% false positive rate. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is the latest powerful fetal aneuploidy detection method and has become commercially available in Taiwan starting from 2013. The sensitivity and specificity for NIPT are very high (both over 99%) according to large worldwide studies. Our preliminary data for NIPT from 11 medical centers in Taiwan have also shown a 100% detection rate for Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome, respectively. Invasive chromosome studies such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling cannot be replaced by NIPT, and all prenatal screening and NIPT results require confirmation using invasive testing. This review discusses the Down syndrome screening method assessments and the progress of NIPT in Taiwan.

  12. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R.; Patel, Palka R.; Noli, Maria P.; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F.; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2017-01-01

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings. PMID:28367971

  13. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Bineeta; Sagar, Tanu; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  14. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method; Avaliacao de combustiveis nucleares tipo placa pelo metodo de correntes parasitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  15. Comparison and evaluation of three screening tests of hereditary spherocytosis in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi-feng; Deng, Zeng-fu; Liao, Lin; Qiu, Yu-ling; Chen, Wen-qiang; Lin, Fa-quan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the diagnostic value of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) by three screening tests, comparing mean spherical corpuscular volume (MSCV) to mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and flow cytometric osmotic fragility test. Peripheral blood was collected from 237 participators diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, including 56 hereditary spherocytosis patients, 86 thalassemia patients, and 95 healthy people. The samples were examined by three tests, and the three screening tests were evaluated by the sensitivity and specificity of tests. The sensitivity was only 41.07%, and specificity was 94.47% when using MCHC >355 g/L as diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity was 89.28%, and specificity was 96.14% when using MSCV spherocytosis (HS) laboratory screening method.

  16. The Double Knee Swing Test - a practical example of The Performance Matrix Movement Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Warrick

    2014-07-01

    Movement screens have been suggested as an appropriate tool to identify 'uncontrolled movement' within the human neuromusculoskeletal system. Movement screens test the Central Nervous System along with the muscular system, for their combined ability to successfully control low threshold forces, such as those affecting posture and alignment, or, high threshold forces, such as those requiring muscular strength to control. Further information such as the identification of an anatomical site and direction of a potential uncontrolled movement can be elicited by this type of testing. This paper describes a low threshold, movement screen test, designed to be part of a battery of tests, which when used as a whole, can identify injury risk or factors affecting performance limitations. The testing is suggested to be a suitable assessment tool for Pilates Teachers working in a rehabilitative environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  18. Li-Ion Cell Lot Testing and Flight Screening Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    than \\c7<. Results arc shown in Table 4. Table 4 Moli-Energ) Li-Ion Cell Weights Alter Vaeuun Leak Tesi Initial Final Final Weight Weight...All tested cells were within 95 *5! o\\ their initial capacity. Note: Cells C009 and C023 were misplaced following being weighed after the vac- uum

  19. Quantiferon test for tuberculosis screening in sarcoidosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Søborg, Bolette; Svendsen, Claus Bo

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of refractory sarcoidosis. These biologics may reactivate latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Despite its known limitations, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is currently used for the diagnosis of LTBI in Danish...

  20. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  1. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humza J Tahir

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  2. Detection of plating defects using ultrasonic and eddy current test methods; Nachweis von Plattierungsfehlern mit Ultraschall- und Wirbelstromverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidele, H.; Knoch, P. [MPA, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gersinska, R. [BfS Salzgitter (Germany); Brenner, W.; Seidenkranz, T. [TUeV Sued (Germany); Csapo, G.; Just, T. [TUeV Nord (Germany); Weiss, R. [IzfP Saarbruecken (Germany); Rathgeb, W. [IntelligeNDT, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The validity of ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels was investigated in the context of a project funded by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). In the first phase, test specimens with natural defects were fabricated at MPA Stuttgart; in the second phase, plating defects were introduced in a MPA large-size vessel. Measurements showed that most plating defects will be detected by standard ultrasonic testing. The highest accuracy was achieved by a combination of ultrasonic and eddy current testing. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz gefoerderten Vorhabens wurde die Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern untersucht. In der ersten Phase des Vorhabens wurden an der MPA Stuttgart Testkoerper mit natuerlichen Fehlern im Plattierungsbereich gefertigt, in einer zweiten Phase wurden Plattierungsfehler in den MPA-Grossbehaelter eingebracht. Die Messungen haben gezeigt, dass die meisten Plattierungsfehler mit Ultraschall-Standardprueftechniken nachweisbar sind, wobei die groesste Aussagekraft bei einer Kombination von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung gegeben ist. (orig.)

  3. Predicting School Problems from Preschool Developmental Screening: A Four-Year Follow-Up of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Role of Parent Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1987-01-01

    The Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and parental reports of developmental concerns were compared for effectiveness in predicting school problems four years after a preschool screening program. Results suggested the test accurately identified only those children later found to have severe learning problems. (Author/DB)

  4. Displacement analysis of a bend plate test with mechanical loading and laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.

    1997-09-01

    The surface displacment of a steel plate caused by a permanent deformation as a result of local yielding was modeled by a finite element analysis. The local yielding occurs when a small area of the plate is heated by a laser beam. The calculated displacments are in good agreement with the preliminary experimental data obtained using a bend specimen with laser heating at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. It has been shown computuationally and optically that the relative displacments are less than 1mm near the laser heated area of the specimen. The results demonstrate that the experimental approach is a feasible technique for determining the residual stress under multiaxial stress field.

  5. Clinical evaluation of children testing positive in screening tests for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skounti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Screening tests are of great diagnostic value in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, however final diagnosis relies on a clinical examination by an expert. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate children who had been screened positive for ADHD through both a parent and a teacher questionnaire. Methods: Parent interview and child behavior checklist and clinical assessment were used to confirm the preliminary diagnosis in 42 children aged 8 years, who have been screened positive for ADHD out of 1,708 children, in a large, two-setting screening study conducted in Crete, Greece. Results: The diagnosis of ADHD was confirmed for 31 children (74%. In the remaining 11 children, ADHD manifestations were attributed to other primary disorders. None of the 42 children was classified as lacking symptoms suggesting ADHD. Among the 31 children with confirmed ADHD, only 2 had been diagnosed prior to the screening test. Conclusions: Although clinical evaluation is the golden standard for diagnosis of ADHD, two-setting screening questionnaires by parent and teacher are useful tools in identifying children who need further investigation and intervention.

  6. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  7. Using liver enzymes as screening tests to predict mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Michael; Stout, Robert L; Dolan, Vera F

    2008-01-01

    Determine the relationship between liver function test results (GGT, alkaline phosphatase, AST, and ALT) and all-cause mortality in life insurance applicants. By use of the Social Security Master Death File, mortality was examined in 1,905,664 insurance applicants for whom blood samples were submitted to the Clinical Reference Laboratory. There were 50,174 deaths observed in this study population. Results were stratified by 3 age/sex groups: females, age <60; males, age <60; and all, age 60+. Liver function test values were grouped using percentiles of their distribution in these 3 age/sex groups, as well as ranges of actual values. Using the risk of the middle 50% of the population by distribution as a reference, relative mortality observed for GGT and alkaline phosphatase was linear with a steep slope from very low to relatively high values. Relative mortality was increased at lower values for both AST and ALT. ALT did not predict mortality for values above the middle 50% of its distribution. GGT and alkaline phosphatase are significant predictors of mortality risk for all values. ALT is still useful for triggering further testing for hepatitis, but AST should be used instead to assess mortality risk linked with transaminases.

  8. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  9. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German; Reid, Stewart E

    2015-02-01

    To improve the Zambia Prisons Service's implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia's prisons. In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100,000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere.

  10. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  11. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  12. Synthesis of Rh/Macro-Porous Alumina Over Micro-Channel Plate and Its Catalytic Activity Tests for Diesel Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Jin

    2015-11-01

    Macro-porous Al2O3 as the catalytic support material was synthesized using colloidal polystyrene spheres over a micro-channel plate. The colloidal polystyrene spheres were used as a template for the production of an ordered macro porous material using an alumina nitrate solution as the precursor for Al2O3. The close-packed colloidal crystal array template method was applied to the formulation of ordered macro-porous Al2O3 used as a catalytic support material over a micro-channel plate. The solvent in the mixture solution, which also contained the colloidal polystyrene solution, aluminum nitrate solution and the precursor of the catalytic active materials (Rh), was evaporated in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. The ordered polystyrene spheres and aluminum salt of the solid state were deposited over a micro channel plate, and macro-porous Al2O3 was formed after calcination at 600 degrees C to remove the polystyrene spheres. The catalytic activity of the Rh/macro-porous alumina supported over the micro-channel plate was tested for diesel reforming.

  13. Requirements and testing methods for surfaces of metallic bipolar plates for low-temperature PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendras, P.; Lötsch, K.; von Unwerth, T.

    2017-03-01

    To reduce emissions and to substitute combustion engines automotive manufacturers, legislature and first users aspire hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Up to now the focus of research was set on ensuring functionality and increasing durability of fuel cell components. Therefore, expensive materials were used. Contemporary research and development try to substitute these substances by more cost-effective material combinations. The bipolar plate is a key component with the greatest influence on volume and mass of a fuel cell stack and they have to meet complex requirements. They support bending sensitive components of stack, spread reactants over active cell area and form the electrical contact to another cell. Furthermore, bipolar plates dissipate heat of reaction and separate one cell gastight from the other. Consequently, they need a low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) to the gas diffusion layer, high flexural strength, good thermal conductivity and a high durability. To reduce costs stainless steel is a favoured material for bipolar plates in automotive applications. Steel is characterized by good electrical and thermal conductivity but the acid environment requires a high chemical durability against corrosion as well. On the one hand formation of a passivating oxide layer increasing ICR should be inhibited. On the other hand pitting corrosion leading to increased permeation rate may not occur. Therefore, a suitable substrate lamination combination is wanted. In this study material testing methods for bipolar plates are considered.

  14. Detection of complex hemoglobinopathies: recommendations on screening and DNA testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baysal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following recommendations should be taken into account during the evaluation and elucidation of the complex hemoglobinopathies: a in complex hemoglobinopathies performing DNA studies on all family members might be essential; b complex gene-gene interactions offer major diagnostic challenges both at the technical and clinical level; c hematological & DNA analyses must be run in parallel. Some cases may be straight forward but others may require indepth DNA work-up; d co-inheritance of a-thalassemia offers added challenge as it may affect phenotype significantly; e sickle cell anemia (SS, co-inherited with a-thal, can be a phenocopy of Sβ0-thal. The HbA2 increase can be mistaken for Sβ-thal. DNA Sequencing is imperative; f only a selected number of normal MCV, MCH, borderline HbA2 cases must be referred for DNA analysis. However, in certain cases, following hematological and family evaluation, the β and d genes may need to be sequenced; g DNA Sequencing will increasingly become the method of choice for screening and DNA mutation analysis. However, new methods like MLPA-which analyzes gene dosage- must be used more commonly to rule out deletion mutants to avoid false negative sequencing results; h these recommendations should be reviewed every 2-3 years reflecting new methods, new findings and new findings from ethnic groups. 诊断和说明复杂血红蛋白病时,建议考虑以下几点: a)针对复杂的血红蛋白病,有必要对所有家庭成员开展DNA研究;b 复杂的基因-基因交互作用可能使诊断在技术和临床层面上颇受挑战;c 血液和DNA分析须同时进行。 有些病例简单,但另外一些病例可能需要开展深层次的DNA检查;d 由于α型地中海贫血可能严重影响表型,α型地中海贫血的共同继承特征更具挑战;e 共同继承α型地中海贫血的镰状细胞贫血(SS),可以作为Sβ0型地中海贫血的显型。 HbA2增

  15. Screening colonoscopy tests in acromegaly patients – authors’ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Elżbieta Malicka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . The prevalence of adenomas which cause acromegaly is estimated at 50–70 mln people. They secrete excess of growth hormone and increase the risk of benign and malignant tumours. Intestinal tumours are considered the most common types of lesion. In order to diagnose them early, a colonoscopic examination should be performed every 2–3 years. Objectives. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of the performed colonoscopies in acromegaly patients, and to assess their applicability in the detection of neoplastic lesions of the colon. Material and methods . The study involved 69 patients with acromegaly (26 M, 43 F, aged 26–83 years (mean 58.9 ± 11.0. The authors analyzed medical records and the results of additional tests. Results . Colonoscopy was performed in 30 patients (43.5% of cases, was well tolerated and without serious complications. 70% of colonoscopies revealed polyps of the colon and 6.7% revealed colon carcinoma. In 9 patients (30% of conducted studies colonoscopy examination showed no pathological changes. Only in 4 cases the test was performed more than once. Conclusions . Current recommendations regarding colonoscopic examinations in all acromegaly patients are implemented in less than half of the cases. Recommendations relating to colonoscopy being repeated every 2–3 years are followed occasionally. Colonoscopy is a diagnostic test of great significance. In 70% of cases it enables the detection and removal of pathological lesions of the colon. As a low-invasive, safe and well-tolerated examination it should be performed in all patients. GPs should make acromegaly patients aware of the importance of colonoscopy and refer them for periodic follow-up examinations.

  16. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the...

  17. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after...... tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts...

  18. Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questions...... referred to as midwives in the following; n=800, response rate 79%), and lay people (n=2000, response rate 62%). Midwives were more worried about the consequences of genetic testing and stressed the autonomy of the customer more strongly than lay people did. Furthermore, professionals considered that lay...

  19. [History of the development of screening tests for cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Yelda A; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the best known malignancies. Currently, it is accepted that the etiological factor is persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Even before the identification of its etiological factors, methods such as Pap cytology and colposcopy were developed as tools for early diagnosis on CC and its precursor lesions. At the time when such tests were being developed, they were not fully accepted by the scientific community of the time; however, as time went by, the dissemination of knowledge, and more extensive application, these tests were finally included within the international guidelines. The implementation of programs with adequate coverage and quality allowed a significant reduction in the incidence and mortality of CC. However this did not occur widely, and CC is still a public health problem in developing countries. From the epidemiological and molecular viewpoint, knowledge on HPVs laid the foundations for the development of new prevention strategies based on vaccination and molecular detection of the causal agent, currently accepted as strategies for primary and secondary prevention. It is expected that the implementation of these strategies will have a greater impact on the control on CC and other malignancies associated with HPV infection.

  20. Screening by VDRL test to detect hidden cases of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N; Gautam, V; Sehgal, R; Gill, P S; Arora, D R

    2003-01-01

    A total of 59,450 sera from January 1996 to December 2000 were subjected to VDRL testing. Overall VDRL positivity rate was 3.2% and downward trend was observed in the recent years, 1999 and 2000. Majority of the samples were from Gynaecology department, out of which 1.57% were VDRL positive. Out of 30,045 samples from antenatal females, 517(1.47%) were positive, while 304(1.8%) were positive out of 16,980 samples obtained from couples. Out of 304 samples from couples found positive, 17.4% wives had titre >R16; 27.9% wives had titre R1 to R8, out of which 15.3% husbands had titre of >R16. Also, 166 wives with nonreactive VDRL had 19.3% husbands with titre > R16. Thus, couple VDRL test plays an important role in detection of hidden cases of syphilis in the community and early detection and treatment of such cases will further reduce the perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  1. Screening by VDRL test to detect hidden cases of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta N

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 59,450 sera from January 1996 to December 2000 were subjected to VDRL testing. Overall VDRL positivity rate was 3.2% and downward trend was observed in the recent years, 1999 and 2000. Majority of the samples were from Gynaecology department, out of which 1.57% were VDRL positive. Out of 30,045 samples from antenatal females, 517(1.47% were positive, while 304(1.8% were positive out of 16,980 samples obtained from couples. Out of 304 samples from couples found positive, 17.4% wives had titre >R16; 27.9% wives had titre R1 to R8, out of which 15.3% husbands had titre of >R16. Also, 166 wives with nonreactive VDRL had 19.3% husbands with titre > R16. Thus, couple VDRL test plays an important role in detection of hidden cases of syphilis in the community and early detection and treatment of such cases will further reduce the perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  2. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, N A; Mehta, P R; Bande, R N; Paranjpe, S M; Wanjare, S W

    2010-01-01

    Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC) provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people who do not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively) were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  3. Primer towards an in vitro test for screening irritant potency of compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebriel RJ; Machielsen A; Bakker K; van Loveren H; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Het vaststellen van de allergene potentie van stoffen wordt in het algemeen uitgevoerd met behulp van de 'Buehler occluded patch test' en de 'guinea pig maximization test', terwijl de auriculaire lymfkliertest gebruikt wordt voor screening. Deze testen hebben veel informatie opg

  4. Effectiveness of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test in Identifying Children at Risk for Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1990-01-01

    Findings from a 5-year follow-up study of 78 kindergartners suggest that while the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) accurately predicts academic achievement and standardized test performance, it consistently misclassifies as normal the performance of a significant number of children who require special help in their early…

  5. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem....

  6. Psychometric Characteristics and Appropriate Use of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the adequacy of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) to gauge 46 kindergartners' readiness. Found agreement between GSRST and teacher assessments of student readiness. Test-retest and interrater reliability were below acceptable levels, and lower than figures yielded by a quantitative scoring method. Concluded that GSRST…

  7. Manual for the Deaf-Blind Program and Ability Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, J.; And Others

    Presented are a manual and a screening test to assist teachers and professionals to determine the functional ability level and individual program needs of deaf blind and multiply handicapped children. It is noted that the individually administered 10-minute test, based on Gesell's developmental theory, consists of items in seven basic…

  8. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In microbiological surveys, false negative results in detection tests precluding the enumeration by MPN may occur. The objective of this study was to illustrate the impact of screening test failure on the probability distribution of Salmonella concentrations in pork using a Bayesian method. A tot...

  9. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Van Den Akker-van Marie (M.); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); L. Rozendaal (Lawrence); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV te

  10. The validity of cognitive testing in screening for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, P; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Billig, N

    1998-02-01

    The concept of "cognitive impairment," as an indicator of dementia, defined in 1980 as a loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning, is the model which has been adopted for a condition, which has recently been reclassified from an "organic" to a "cognitive disorder." Data derived from the assessment of a sample of older people demonstrated the extreme sensitivity of a widely employed cognitive assessment instrument to all levels of educational experience, and educational correlates, notably level of physical disability, were identified as other independent predictors of test performance. The analyses raise questions with regard to the reinterpretation of "lack of education," from a confounding factor in prevalence estimates of cognitive impairment to a "risk factor" for dementia, and support those who have questioned the validity of the one-dimensional "cognitive paradigm," and the trend to diagnosis based upon objective assessment with standardized instruments.

  11. Comparison of the HeLa DNA-synthesis inhibition test and the Ames test for screening of mutagenic carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, R.B.; Howard, R.

    1978-01-01

    The action of most mutagens is mediated by damage to DNA, which causes at least a temporary inhibition of DNA syntesis in mammalian cells. Assays for mammalian DNA-synthesis inhibition, both in vivo (mouse testes) and in vitro (HeLa cells), have been proposed as possible screening tests for mutagenic carcinogens. The mouse system has recently been chekced with 100 chemicals; of 88 known carcinogens and/or mutagens in this group, 76 were positive. The most generally used non-animal screening procedure is the Ames test, which uses auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium to measure mutagenesis. In this communication we summarize our results with 19 chemicals tested in HeLa cells and show that they correlate very well with the results obtained in the Ames test. Most of these chemicals act by alkylation, but an intercalator (adriamycin) is included among them as well as aflatoxin B/sub 1/, whose action is not established.

  12. First trimester combined test for Down syndrome screening in unselected pregnancies — A report of a 13-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Kung Lee

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The first trimester combined test is an effective screening tool for Down syndrome detection with an acceptable low false positive rate. The best timing of screening will be between 11 and 12 weeks' gestation.

  13. The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tim ReynoldsClinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin. These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.Keywords: pregnancy, screening test, antenatal, Down syndrome

  14. Combined screening test for trisomy 21 - is it as efficient as we believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechec, Marcin; Nocun, Agnieszka; Knafel, Anna; Wiercinska, Ewa; Sonek, Jiri; Rozmus-Warcholinska, Wioletta; Orzechowski, Maciej; Stettner, Dominika; Plevak, Petr

    2017-02-01

    To compare two first-trimester screening strategies: traditional combined screening and the one based on ultrasound markers only. We investigated the effect of maternal age (MA) on the screening performance of both of these strategies. This was a prospective observational study based on a non-selected mixed-risk population of 11,653 women referred for first-trimester screening. The study population was divided in two groups: combined screening (CS) and ultrasound-based screening (US). Absolute risk was calculated to determine the influence of MA on screening performance. The CS arm comprised 5145 subjects including 51 cases of trisomy 21 (T21), and the US arm comprised 5733 subjects including 87 subjects with T21. Seven hundred and seventy-five subjects were excluded from the study. For a false positive rate (FPR) of 3%, the detection rate (DR) of T21 in CS arm was 78% vs. 90% in US arm. For 5% FPR, DR was 84% and 94% in CS and US arm, respectively. MA had an influence on DR positive rates in CS: both DR and FPR for T21 increased with advance in MA. The US protocol showed higher DR of T21 compared to the CS one. It may be considered as a viable alternative to CS for T21 where access to biochemical testing is limited.

  15. The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Takeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods. 154 senior persons participated in the research: 55 with very mild AD, 45 with aMCI, and 54 control group. The TTCC, which was a colored cards configuration memory task, was examined for sensitivity and specificity. Results. The sensitivity of the TTCC was 76% and 47% for the very mild AD and aMCI groups, and the specificity was 83%. Conducting TTCC (including instruction and evaluation was accomplished within 2 minutes for all subjects. Conclusion. The TTCC is useful screening test for early detection of AD. Furthermore, administration time is short and requires no special training or skills. Thus, we believe the TTCC shows great potential for use as an AD screening test by a general practitioner in communities worldwide.

  16. Gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed with single test glucose screening test and its outcome in a tertiary hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Single test GST is a patient friendly and effective approach to screen women for GDM especially in high risk ethnic population. Timely and aggressive management helps improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and also decrease the future risk of development of diabetes both in the mother and the fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1979-1983

  17. A 96-well microtiter plate assay for high-throughput screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dTDP-d-glucose 4,6-dehydratase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Sha, Shanshan; Liu, Likun; Li, Xin; Ma, Yufang

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis dTDP-d-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB) is the second enzyme for the biosynthesis of dTDP-l-rhamnose, which is a sugar donor to the synthesis of the cell wall linker, d-N-acetylglucosamine-l-rhamnose. RmlB is essential to mycobacterial growth and is not found in humans; therefore, it is a potential target for developing new anti-tuberculosis drugs. So far, there has been no suitable method for high-throughput screening of RmlB inhibitors. Here, the recombinant M. tuberculosis RmlB was purified and an absorbance-based microtiter plate assay was developed for RmlB activity. It could be used for high-throughput screening of RmlB inhibitors. The kinetic properties of M. tuberculosis RmlB, including optimal pH, optimal temperature, the effect of metal ions, and the kinetic parameters, were determined with this assay. The inhibitory effects of dTTP and dTDP on M. tuberculosis RmlB were also studied with the assay.

  18. Modelling the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Smith, Robert A

    2010-10-01

    The goal of a screening test is to reduce morbidity and mortality through the early detection of disease; but the benefits of screening must be weighed against potential harms, such as false-positive (FP) results, which may lead to increased healthcare costs, patient anxiety, and other adverse outcomes associated with diagnostic follow-up procedures. Accurate estimation of the cumulative risk of an FP test after multiple screening rounds is important for program evaluation and goal setting, as well as informing individuals undergoing screening what they should expect from testing over time. Estimation of the cumulative FP risk is complicated by the existence of censoring and possible dependence of the censoring time on the event history. Current statistical methods for estimating the cumulative FP risk from censored data follow two distinct approaches, either conditioning on the number of screening tests observed or marginalizing over this random variable. We review these current methods, identify their limitations and possibly unrealistic assumptions, and propose simple extensions to address some of these limitations. We discuss areas where additional extensions may be useful. We illustrate methods for estimating the cumulative FP recall risk of screening mammography and investigate the appropriateness of modelling assumptions using 13 years of data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). In the BCSC data we found evidence of violations of modelling assumptions of both classes of statistical methods. The estimated risk of an FP recall after 10 screening mammograms varied between 58% and 77% depending on the approach used, with an estimate of 63% based on what we feel are the most reasonable modelling assumptions.

  19. HPV testing in routine cervical screening: cross sectional data from the ARTISTIC trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, H C; Almonte, M; Wheeler, P; Desai, M; Gilham, C; Bailey, A; Sargent, A; Peto, J

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening. This was a cross-sectional study from the recruitment phase of a prospective randomised trial. Women were screened for HPV in addition to routine cervical cytology testing. Greater Manchester, attendees at routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme. In all, 24 510 women aged 20–64 screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC) and HPV testing at entry. HPV testing in primary cervical screening. Type-specific HPV prevalence rates are presented in relation to age as well as cytological and histological findings at entry. In all, 24 510 women had adequate cytology and HPV results. Cytology results at entry were: 87% normal, 11% borderline or mild, 1.1% moderate and 0.6% severe dyskaryosis or worse. Prevalence of HPV decreased sharply with age, from 40% at age 20–24 to 12% at 35–39 and 7% or less above age 50. It increased with cytological grade, from 10% of normal cytology and 31% of borderline to 70% mild, 86% moderate, and 96% of severe dyskaryosis or worse. HPV 16 or HPV 18 accounted for 64% of infections in women with severe or worse cytology, and one or both were found in 61% of women with severe dyskaryosis but in only 2.2% of those with normal cytology. The majority of young women in Greater Manchester have been infected with a high-risk HPV by the age of 30. HPV testing is practicable as a primary routine screening test, but in women aged under 30 years, this would lead to a substantial increase in retesting and referral rates. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are more predictive of underlying disease, but other HPV types account for 30% of high-grade disease. PMID:16773068

  20. Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT: third round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegeman Inge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the most common cancer in Europe with a mortality rate of almost 50%. The prognosis of patients is largely determined by the clinical and pathological stage at the time of diagnosis. Population screening has been shown to reduce CRC-related mortality rate. Most screening programs worldwide rely on fecal immunochemical testing (FIT. The effectiveness of a FIT screening program is not only influenced by initial participation rate, but also by program adherence during consecutive screening rounds. We aim to evaluate the participation rate in and yield of a third CRC screening round using FIT. Methods and design Four years after the first screening round and two years after the second round, a total number of approximately 11,000 average risk individuals (50 to 75 years of age will be invited to participate in a third round of FIT-based CRC screening. We will select individuals in the same target area as in the previous screening rounds, using the electronic database of the regional municipal administration registrations. We will invite all FIT-negatives and all non-participants in previous screening rounds, as well as eligible first time invitees who have moved into the area or have become 50 years of age. FITs will be analyzed in the special technique laboratory of the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam. All FIT-positives will be invited for a consultation at the outpatient clinic. In the absence of contra-indications, a colonoscopy will follow at the Academic Medical Center or at the Flevohospital. The primary outcome measures are the participation rate, defined as the proportion of invitees that return a FIT in this third round of FIT-screening, and the diagnostic yield of the program. Implications This study will provide precise data on the participation in later FIT screening rounds. This enables to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening programs that rely on repeated

  1. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore...... it is important to understand the barriers to FOBT screening. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search through PUBMED, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO in order to identify studies that provide information on socio-demographic determinants of participation in FOBT screening. RESULTS: FOBT participation varied...... considerably across countries, but they have rarely been above 60%. The use of other health-care services was in most studies a strong determinant for participation in screening with FOBT. There was a tendency to higher participation among women than among men and among married as opposed to not married...

  2. Test of a four-gap resistive plate chamber with cosmic muons and high-rate gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.K.; Shin, S.S.; Hong, B.; Jhang, G.; Jeong, M.S.; Jo, M.; Cho, S.W.; Joo, E.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.C. [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.S., E-mail: kslee0421@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S.K.; Lim, J.K.; Moon, D.H.; Shim, H.H.; Sim, K.S. [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-11

    We report a new development of a phenolic four-gap resistive plate chamber (RPC) for use as a high-rate particle trigger in high-energy physics experiments. In the current study, a prototype RPC equipped with four 1-mm-thick gaps made from high-pressure-laminated (HPL) resistive plates has been designed and built. The current detector R and D aims to reduce the probability of radiation-induced degradation of the core detector components of the RPCs, the gas gaps, as well as to improve the detection rate capability. The detector characteristics of the four-gap RPC were obtained though a series of tests with cosmic muons and gamma rays and were compared with those of the typical 2-mm thick double-gap RPCs currently used in the CMS experiment at the LHC and in the PHENIX experiment at the RHIC.

  3. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Population Screening for Colorectal Cancer Means Getting FIT: The Past, Present, and Future of Colorectal Cancer Screening Using the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Hemoglobin (FIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G.; Halloran, Stephen P.; Young, Graeme P.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin (FIT) are changing the manner in which colorectal cancer (CRC) is screened. Although these tests are being performed worldwide, why is this test different from its predecessors? What evidence supports its adoption? How can this evidence best be used? This review addresses these questions and provides an understanding of FIT theory and practices to expedite international efforts to implement the use of FIT in CRC screening. PMID:24672652

  5. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    -up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... follow-up, or because of organizational aspects of the screening program, where communication regarding test results can fail either in content or with delay.This study will evaluate two interventions designed to increase follow-up: 1) A letter with the test result and potential recommendation for follow...

  6. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2...... (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and three authors extracted data from included studies. For each inter...

  7. Evaluation of the blue formazan spot test for screening glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, A; Lewis, M; Salvati, A M; Miwa, S; Fujii, H; Zarza, R; Alvarez, R; Rull, E; Corrons, J L

    1999-06-01

    Several screening tests for glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have been reported thus far, and a standardized method of testing was proposed by the International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH). The screening test used in any particular laboratory depends upon a number of factors such as cost, time required, temperature, humidity, and availability of reagents. In this study, a direct comparison between three different G6PD screening methods has been undertaken. In 71 cases (50 hematologically normal volunteers, 9 hemizygous G6PD-deficient males, and 12 heterozygous deficient females), the blue formazan spot test (BFST) was compared with the conventional methemoglobin reduction test (HiRT) and the ICSH-recommended fluorescent spot test (FST-ICSH). In all cases, the results obtained with the three screening tests were correlated with the enzyme activity assayed spectrophotometrically. In hemizygous G6PD-deficient males, all cases were equally detected with the three methods: BFST (4.7-6.64, controls: 11.1-13.4), BMRT (score +3 in all 9 cases), and FST (no fluorescence in 9 cases). In heterozygous G6PD-deficient females, two methods detected 7 out of 12 cases (BFST: 8.71-11.75, controls: 11.1-13.4; and BMRT: score +3 in 7 cases), whereas the FST-ICSH missed all 12 cases that presented a variable degree of fluorescence. Although the sensitivity for G6PD-deficient carrier detection is the same for the BMRT and the BFST, the latter has the advantage of being semiquantitative and not merely qualitative. Unfortunately, none of the three screening tests compared here allowed the detection of the 100% heterozygote carrier state of G6PD deficiency.

  8. Cognitive screening for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in assisted living: comparison of 3 tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Daniel I; Williams, Christianna S; Braaten, Alyssa J; Gill, Karminder; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D

    2008-10-01

    Compare diagnostic characteristics of brief cognitive screening tests in residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents. Cross-sectional study involving a comprehensive clinical examination to ascertain a consensus diagnosis of probable dementia, no significant cognitive impairment, or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), including both amnestic and non-amnestic subtypes. Fourteen RC/AL facilities in North Carolina. Participants were 146 RC/AL residents, aged 65 years or older, who did not have diagnosed cognitive impairment. Diagnostic characteristics of the Mini-Cog, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and a new 50-point test based on expanding selected MMSE items (MMX). Overall, 55/146 (38%) participants were diagnosed with probable dementia, and 76 (52%) met criteria for MCI (most non-amnestic). Both the Mini-Cog and the MMSE showed high sensitivity and negative predictive value for dementia, but had relatively low sensitivity and negative predictive value for MCI. The Mini-Cog had low specificity and was less accurate as a dementia screen than either the MMSE or MMX. Reliability and validity data for the MMX were satisfactory, and it performed better as a screening test for MCI than either the MMSE or Mini-Cog. Although the MMSE and Mini-Cog are both sensitive to dementia, modest specificity and positive predictive value may limit their utility as screening tools. Preliminary MMX data suggest it improves screening for MCI compared to the Mini-Cog or MMSE, while providing a similar level of screening for dementia. Further work is needed to identify suitable instruments for cognitive screening across the range of MCI and dementia.

  9. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  10. Performance of Parabolic and Diffusive OTR Screens at the CLIC Test Facility 3

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegaard, M; Bravin, E; Burger, S; Dabrowski, A; Lefevre, T; Welsch, C P

    2011-01-01

    At the CLIC Test Facility 3, OTR screens are commonly used in beam imaging systems for energy and energy spread characterization in dedicated spectrometer lines. In these lines the horizontal beam size is typically of the order of one centimeter. Already in 2005 a limitation was observed resulting from a strong dependence of the intensity of the light captured by the camera, on the position on the screen (vignetting). The severity of this effect increases with the electron energy, as the aperture of the optical system is finite and the OTR photons are emitted in a small cone of 1/γ angle. To mitigate this effect, different shapes and surface polishing of the screens were investigated. Parabolic and diffusive OTR radiators were tested in several spectrometer lines all along the CTF3 complex. The results are presented in this paper.

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  12. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hazardous or risky drinking. Two instruments in particular, the AUDIT and the CAGE, are cited throughout this issue— ... drinking in a very specific population—pregnant women. The AUDIT, CAGE, and T-ACE are presented here in ...

  13. Clinician and Patient Acceptability of Self-Collected Human Papillomavirus Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Constance; Kulasingam, Shalini L; Whitham, Hilary K; Hawes, Stephen E; Lin, John; Kiviat, Nancy B

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate clinician and patient attitudes toward home self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Women aged 21-65 years were recruited for a randomized trial comparing home self-collected HPV testing to standard clinician-collected Pap screening. Participants were surveyed about their attitudes toward self-collected HPV testing. Clinicians performing cervical cancer screening in University of Washington medical clinics were also surveyed to determine their acceptability of self-collected HPV testing. Over half (59.1%) of the 1,769 women surveyed preferred self-collected HPV testing to clinician-collected tests. Reasons most often cited were convenience or time saving (82.7%), and avoiding embarrassment or discomfort associated with pelvic exam (38.1%). Women who did not prefer self-collected HPV testing reported greater faith in clinician-collected samples (56.7%) or a desire for a clinic visit to address other issues (42.4%). One hundred eighteen (49.6%) of 238 physicians and midlevel providers surveyed completed the survey. The majority (78.0%) reported that they would recommend a self-collected HPV test if the test had qualities such as high sensitivity and cost effectiveness. Provider concerns mirrored those of patients, namely ensuring adequate sample collection and the opportunity to address other health concerns. Patients and clinicians are supportive of self-collected HPV testing. However, concerns regarding adequacy of samples that are self collected and the desire to see a provider in a clinic setting for other health needs highlight areas that need to be addressed if self collection proves to be a viable option for cervical cancer screening.

  14. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  15. Receipt of a false positive test result during routine screening for ovarian cancer: a teachable moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Andrea; Steffens, Rachel F; Pavlik, Edward; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    The term "teachable moment" (TM) has been used to describe a life transition or event which motivates an individual to change a behavior or presents an opportunity to intervene to prompt behavior change. We examined whether receipt of a false positive ovarian cancer (OC) screening result may represent a TM. 403 women participating in an OC screening program completed questionnaires assessing demographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial information. The TM was operationalized as expressed interest in receiving health-related information. We hypothesized that among women receiving a false positive screening test result, those women who had experienced greater personal perceived risk for OC as well as distress would be more interested in receiving health-related information than women receiving a normal result. Analyses revealed that women receiving a false positive screening result were less interested in receiving health-related information than women receiving a normal screening result. For women receiving a false positive result, expressed interest in receipt of health-related information was only modestly related to distress and related even less to perceptions of OC risk. Our data do not support viewing a false positive OC screening result as a TM. Potential explanations for the current findings as well as recommendations for future research investigating the TM are discussed.

  16. SUMA Technology and Newborn Screening Tests for Inherited Metabolic Diseases in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Carlos González Reyes PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultramicroanalytic system (SUMA, created in the 1980s, is a complete system of reagents and instrumentation to perform ultramicroassays combining the sensitivity of the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests with the use of ultramicrovolumes. This technology permitted establishing large-scale newborn screening programs (NSPs for metabolic and endocrine disorders in Cuba. This article summarizes the main results of the implementation during the 30 years of SUMA technology in NSP for 5 inherited metabolic diseases, using ultramicroassays developed at the Department of Newborn Screening at the Immunoassay Center. Since 1986, SUMA technology has been used in the Cuban NSP for congenital hypothyroidism, initially studying thyroid hormone in cord serum samples. In 2000, a decentralized program for the detection of hyperphenylalaninemias using heel dried blood samples was initiated. These successful experiences permitted including protocols for screening congenital adrenal hyperplasia, galactosemia, and biotinidase deficiency in 2005. A program for the newborn screening of CH using the thyroid-stimulating hormone Neonatal ultramicro-ELISA was fully implemented in 2010. Nowadays, the NSP is supported by a network of 175 SUMA laboratories. After 30 years, more than 3.8 million Cuban newborns have been screened, and 1002 affected children have been detected. Moreover, SUMA technology has been presented in Latin America for over 2 decades and has contributed to screen around 17 million newborns. These results prove that developing countries can develop appropriate diagnostic technologies for making health care accessible to all.

  17. Prevalence of major risk factors and use of screening tests for cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-04-01

    Much of the suffering and death from cancer could be prevented by more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use, improve diet, increase physical activity, reduce obesity, and expand the use of established screening tests. Monitoring the prevalence of cancer risk factors and screening is important to measure progress and strengthen cancer prevention and early detection efforts. In this review article, we provide recent prevalence estimates for several cancer risk factors, including tobacco, obesity, physical activity, nutrition, ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccination coverage and cancer screening prevalence in the United States. In 2013, cigarette smoking prevalence was 17.8% among adults nationally, but ranged from 10.3% in Utah to 27.3% in West Virginia. In addition, 15.7% of U.S. high school students were current smokers. In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was high among both adults (34.9%) and adolescents (20.5%), but has leveled off since 2002. About 20.2% of high school girls were users of indoor tanning devices, compared with 5.3% of boys. In 2013, cancer screening prevalence ranged from 58.6% for colorectal cancer to 80.8% for cervical cancer and remains low among the uninsured, particularly for colorectal cancer screening where only 21.9% of eligible adults received recommended colorectal cancer screening. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  19. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina;

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  20. Should antibody to hepatitis B core antigen be tested in routine screening of donor corneas for transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, R M; Cavanagh, H D

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature on transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases shows that antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is not presently viewed as helpful for hepatitis C or hepatitis non-ABC screening of blood donors. Its utility as a screen for hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is controversial among experts. We compare relevant aspects of the screening of blood donations and the screening of cornea transplant donors to assess implications for the screening of donor corneas. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to warrant introducing anti-HBc as a routine screening test for cornea donors.

  1. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test.

  2. TBI Assessment of Readiness Using a Gait Evaluation Test (TARGET): Development of a Portable mTBI Screening Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation Test (TARGET): Development of a Portable mTBI Screening Device 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0094 5c. PROGRAM ...determine the validity and reliability of an Android device-based mTBI (mild traumatic brain injury) screening test app for assessing motor function. The...deployment. This study seeks to determine the validity and reliability of an Android device-based mTBI (mild traumatic brain injury) screening test app

  3. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub V}) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated (I), 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated + 454{degree}C (850{degree}F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub V} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub V} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub V} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  4. Development of three dimensional Eulerian numerical procedure toward plate-mantle simulation: accuracy test by the fluid rope coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, M.; Kameyama, M.; Kageyama, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reproducing a realistic plate tectonics with mantle convection simulation is one of the greatest challenges in computational geophysics. We have developed a three dimensional Eulerian numerical procedure toward plate-mantle simulation, which includes a finite deformation of the plate in the mantle convection. Our method, combined with CIP-CSLR (Constrained Interpolation Profile method-Conservative Semi-Lagrangian advection scheme with Rational function) and ACuTE method, enables us to solve advection and force balance equations even with a large and sharp viscosity jump, which marks the interface between the plates and surrounding upper mantle materials. One of the typical phenomena represented by our method is a fluid rope coiling event, where a stream of viscous fluid is poured onto the bottom plane from a certain height. This coiling motion is due to delicate balances between bending, twisting and stretching motions of fluid rope. In the framework of the Eulerian scheme, the fluid rope and surrounding air are treated as a viscosity profile which differs by several orders of magnitude. Our method solves the complex force balances of the fluid rope and air, by a multigrid iteration technique of ACuTE algorithm. In addition, the CIP-CSLR advection scheme allows us to obtain a deforming shape of the fluid rope, as a low diffusive solution in the Eulerian frame of reference. In this presentation, we will show the simulation result of the fluid rope coiling as an accuracy test for our simulation scheme, by comparing with the simplified numerical solution for thin viscous jet.

  5. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgia Vlachonikolou; Paraskevas Gkolfakis; Athanasios D Sioulas; Ioannis S Papanikolaou; Anastasia Melissaratou; Giannis-Aimant Moustafa; Eleni Xanthopoulou; Gerasimos Tsilimidos; Ioanna Tsironi; Paraskevas Filippidis; Chrysoula Malli; George D Dimitriadis; Konstantinos Triantafyllou

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer(CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test(FIT).METHODS: All employees of "Attikon" University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT(DyoniFOB~ Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test.RESULTS: Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59(27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41(19.4%) and 24(11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation(P = 0.005) and test completion- first and second round-(P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Phy sician’s(13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates(7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated(25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round(19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later.CONCLUSION: Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians.

  6. Study duration and earnings: A test in relation to the human capital versus screening debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Oosterbeek

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simple test in relation to the human capital versus screening debate. It is argued that these theories lead to different predictions with respect to the earnings effects of deviations between actual and nominal durations of a study. Earnings and study duration equations ar

  7. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests : A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berm, Elizabeth J J; Looff, Margot de; Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; van Boven, Job FM; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between

  8. Spectrum of patients with hypermethioninemia based on neonatal screening tests over 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jung Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The neonatal screening test for homocystinuria primarily measures methionine by using a dried blood specimen. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of homocystinuria, isolated hypermethioninemia, and transient hypermethioninemia among patients with hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test. Methods : We performed a retrospective study of 58 patients transferred to Shoonchunhyang Hospital because of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test between January 1996 and August 2009. We analyzed the level of amino acid from plasma and urine, as well as blood homocysteine. Results : Almost half of the 58 patients were identified as normal. Whereas only 3 (5.1% patients were identified as having homocystinuria, about 20.7% (12 cases of the patients had isolated hypermethioninemia. The ages of these two groups at initial detection of hypermethioninemia on plasma amino acid analysis were 50.0¡?#?2.5; days and 34.9¡?#?3.5; days, respectively. Both groups were put on diets, and they showed a normal developmental course as a result of early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion : Hypermethioninemia without homocystinuria, referred to as isolated hypermethioninemia, was also detected. Thus, the impact of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test should be carefully evaluated through analysis of amino acid levels from blood and urine, and we need to detect and treat an early stage of isolated hypermethioninemia as well as homocystinuria.

  9. Cross-Validation of a Predictive Screening Test for Children with Articulatory Speech Defects. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Charles; Erickson, Robert

    To determine the accuracy with which the 47-item Predictive Screening Test of Articulation (PSTA) is able to identify first grade children who will master their articulation errors without speech therapy by the time they enter third grade, two groups of children were studied who were deficient enough in speech to be enrolled in therapy, but had no…

  10. The Use of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in Infant Welfare Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a single Denver Developmental Screening Test performance on 823 infants attending maternal and child health centers were compared with developmental information recorded by public health nurses during routine well baby care of these same infants. Journal Avaliability: J.B. Lippincott Co; E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  11. Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test on Infants from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Hope C.

    1982-01-01

    Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) on 288 babies raning in age from two to 54 weeks in Yucatan, Mexico, yielded such findings as that subtest scores increased with age, and that the DDST failed to identify a "questionable" 16 or 17 babies with borderline scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. (Author/MC)

  12. Performance of children with phenylketonuria in the Developmental Screening Test--Denver II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Greyce Kelly da; Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin

    2010-01-01

    phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the mutation of a gene located in chromosome 12q22-24.1. to describe the performance of children with classic phenylketonuria, who were diagnosed and treated early, in the Development Screening Test Denver - II. participants were 20 children with phenylketonuria, ranging in age from 3 and 6 years, and 10 children with typical language development, paired by gender, age and socioeconomic level to the research group. The plasmatic phenylalanine measure and the neurological, psychological and social information were gathered in the data base of the Neonatal Screening Programs for Metabolic disorder. Assessment consisted on the application of the Development Screening Test Denver II. A descriptive statistical analysis and the Mann Whitney test were used in order to characterize the tested skills. For the measurements of the plasmatic phenylalanine blood levels the values considered for analysis were: below 2 mg/dL, above 4 mg/dL, reference values between 2 and 4 mg/dL, of all exams performed during the participants'lives; maximum and minimum values and values obtained on the day of the screening application. comparison between the groups indicated statistically significant differences for the personal-social and language areas. children who were diagnosed and treated early for phenylketonuria present deficits in the personal-social and language areas. Also, even when receiving follow-up and undergoing treatment, these children presented difficulties in maintaining normal plasmatic phenylalanine levels.

  13. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate concerning possible disadvantages of mammography screening, one being the consequence of receiving a false positive test-result. It is argued that receiving a false positive answer may have short- and/or long-term adverse psychological effects on women, bu...

  14. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of pla

  15. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen;

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  16. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen;

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  17. The whispered voice: The best test for screening for hearing impairment in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhof, J.A.H.; Bock, G.H. de; Laat, J.A.P.M. de; Dap, R.; Schaapveld, K.; Springer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    Hearling loss is an important health problem in the elderly which sometimes leads to social isolation. In a study with 62 patients, the diagnostic value of four simple tests for screening for hearing loss in general practice was examined. When paying attention to the loudness of the whispering, the

  18. False negative fecal occult blood tests due to delayed sample return in colorectal cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, L.G.M. van; Rijn, A.F. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Delayed return of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) samples to a laboratory might cause false negatives because of hemoglobin degradation. Quantitative iFOBT's became increasingly more accepted in colorectal cancer screening. Therefore, we studied the effects of delay between sampling a

  19. Indicator cell lines for the detection of hidden mycoplasma contamination, using an adenosine phosphorylase screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, G.T.; Polak-Vogelzang, A.A.; Bast, B.J.E. G.

    Mycoplasmas are a major cause of cell culture contamination and are especially troublesome during HAT selection. The enzyme adenosine phosphorylase (adoP) is present in all common mycoplasma species but is considered to have a low activity in mammalian cells. However, using an adoP screening test,

  20. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. METHOD: 78 patients with mild AD...

  1. Switch from cytology-based to human papillomavirus test-based cervical screening: implications for colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Carolina; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Rodríguez, Ana C; Morales, Jorge; Burk, Robert D; Alfaro, Mario; Hutchinson, Martha; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Sherman, Mark E; Wacholder, Sholom; Solomon, Diane; Schiffman, Mark

    2012-04-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology; some cervical cancer prevention programs will switch from cytology to carcinogenic HPV test-based screening. The objective of our study is to evaluate the clinical implications of a switch to HPV test-based screening on performance and workload of colposcopy. Women in the population-based, 7-year Guanacaste cohort study were screened at enrollment using cytology. We also took another specimen for HPV DNA testing and collected magnified cervical photographic images (cervigrams). A final case diagnosis (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 3, CIN2, lesions at referral to colposcopy and the sensitivity versus specificity trade-off of the colposcopic impressions would be similar to programs using cytology (≥ atypical squamous cells of unknown significance [ASCUS]) for referral. The major concern with switching from cytology to more sensitive HPV screening is management of the many HPV-positive women, including those with still nonvisible ≥CIN2 lesions. Our data support the need for a nonvisual diagnostic method to guide management and treatment of HPV-positive women. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  2. Testing public health ethics: why the CDC's HIV screening recommendations may violate the least infringement principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; King, Elizabeth J; Wyckoff, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    The CDC's HIV screening recommendations for health care settings advocate abandoning two important autonomy protections: (1) pretest counseling and (2) the requirement that providers obtain affirmative agreement from patients prior to testing. The recommendations may violate the least infringement principle because there is insufficient evidence to conclude that abandoning pretest counseling or affirmative agreement requirements will further the CDC's stated public health goals.

  3. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. 799.9355 Section 799.9355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... developmental defects should not be used. Healthy virgin animals, not subjected to previous...

  4. Experimental testing of various heat transfer structures in a flat plate thermal energy storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maike; Fiß, Michael; Klemm, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    For solar process heat applications with steam as the working fluid and varying application parameters, a novel latent heat storage concept has been developed using an adaptation of a flat plate heat exchanger as the storage concept. Since the pressure level in these applications usually does not exceed 30 bar, an adaptation with storage material chambers arranged between heat transfer medium chambers is possible. Phase change materials are used as the storage medium, so that the isothermal evaporation of steam during discharging of the storage is paired with the isothermal solidification of the storage material. Heat transfer structures can be inserted into the chambers to adjust the power level for a given application. By combining the required number of flat plate heat exchanger compartments and inserting the appropriate heat transfer structure, the design can easily be adjusted for the required power level and capacity for a specific application. Within this work, the technical feasibility of this concept is proven. The dependence of the operating characteristics on the geometry of the heat exchanger is identified. A focus is on varying the power density by integrating conductive heat structures in the PCM.

  5. Tests detecting biomarkers for screening of colorectal cancer: What is on the horizon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalguni, Angaja

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify new and emerging screening tests for colorectal cancer (CRC that involves detection of various biomarkers like blood, DNA and RNA in samples of faeces, tissue or blood. Current practice: Screening for CRC can be done by bowel visualisation techniques and tests that measure biomarkers. The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP in England uses a guaiac faecal occult blood test. Methods: The strategy was to search available literature, identify developers and contact them for relevant information. Advice from experts was sought on potential utility and likely impact of identified technologies on the BCSP.Results: Ninety-three companies and five research groups were contacted. Sixty-nine relevant tests were identified. Detailed information was available for 48 tests, of these 73% were CE marked and the remainder were considered as emerging. Forty-nine tests use immunochemical methods to detect occult blood in faeces. Eight, four and two tests detect biomarkers in a sample of blood, or exfoliated cells either shed in faeces or collected from rectal mucosa respectively. Six tests were grouped as ‘other tests’. Most of the identified tests are performed manually and give qualitative detection of biomarkers. Conclusion: Variation in test performance and characteristics was observed amongst the 69 identified tests. Automated, quantitative FIT with a variable cut off are the preferred approach in the BSCP. However the units used to report FITs results do not enable comparison across products. Tests detecting biomarkers other than occult blood are more specific to neoplasms but have limited sensitivity due to the heterogeneity of cancer. Research is ongoing to identify an optimal panel of biomarkers, simplifying and automating the test, and reducing the cost.

  6. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  7. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  8. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  9. Synergistic interaction of gabapentin with tiagabine in the hot-plate test in mice: an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Kołacz, Agnieszka; Wojda, Ewa; Czuczwar, Mirosław; Przesmycki, Krzysztof; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the analgesic effect of gabapentin and tiagabine, two antiepileptic drugs that were administered alone and in combination at a fixed ratio of 1:1, in the acute thermal pain model (hot-plate test) in mice. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the dose-response relationships between logarithms of antiepileptic drug doses and their resultant maximum possible antinociceptive effects in the mouse hot-plate test. From linear equations, we calculated doses that increased the antinociceptive effect by 50% (ED(50) values) for gabapentin, tiagabine and their combination. The type of interaction between gabapentin and tiagabine was assessed using the isobolographic analysis. Results indicated that both antiepileptic drugs produced the definite antinociceptive effect, and the experimentally derived ED(50) values for gabapentin and tiagabine, when applied alone, were 504.4 mg/kg and 5.67 mg/kg, respectively. With isobolography, the experimentally derived ED(50 mix) value for the fixed ratio combination of 1:1 was 139.31 mg/kg and significantly differed from the theoretically calculated ED(50 add) value, which was 255.04 mg/kg (p < 0.05), indicating the synergistic interaction between gabapentin and tiagabine in the hot-plate test in mice. In conclusion, the combination of tiagabine with gabapentin at a fixed ratio of 1:1 exerted a synergistic interaction in the mouse model of nociceptive pain. If the results from this study could be extrapolated to clinical settings, the combination of tiagabine with gabapentin might be beneficial for pain relief in humans.

  10. Performance testing of a long-strip two-end readout multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Bin; WANG Yi; LUO Ming; LI Yuan-Jing; CHENG Jian-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a new generation of gas detector with good tim-ing and spacial resolution, whose technique is widely applied in some recent high energy (nuclear) physics experiments. In this letter, we report a long-strip two-end readout MRPC and its test beam performance. The measurements show that the long-strip performs a transmission line characteristic and the impedance is independent of the length of strip. The MRPC module we developed is presented to gain a timing resolution of~80 ps and a spacial resolution of ~6.4 mm. The possible application of the MRPC is also discussed.

  11. Evaluation of false positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics in goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rueda, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Goat milk is primarily destined for the production of fermented products, in particular cheese. Therefore, the control of antibiotic residues in milk is of great importance, since these could have negative repercussions on technological properties of the milk as well as on the health of consumers. In milk quality control programs, microbial inhibitor tests are widely applied to detect antibiotics during the screening stage. However, tests are non-specific and may be affected...

  12. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  13. Evaluation of carbapenemase screening and confirmation tests with Enterobacteriaceae and development of a practical diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Florian P; Castelberg, Claudio; Quiblier, Chantal; Bloemberg, Guido V; Hombach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Reliable identification of carbapenemase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is necessary to limit their spread. This study aimed to develop a diagnostic flow chart using phenotypic screening and confirmation tests that is suitable for implementation in different types of clinical laboratories. A total of 334 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates genetically characterized with respect to carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and AmpC genes were analyzed. A total of 142/334 isolates (42.2%) were suspected of carbapenemase production, i.e., intermediate or resistant to ertapenem (ETP) and/or meropenem (MEM) and/or imipenem (IPM) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoints (CBPs). A group of 193/334 isolates (57.8%) showing susceptibility to ETP, MEM, and IPM was considered the negative-control group in this study. CLSI and EUCAST carbapenem CBPs and the new EUCAST MEM screening cutoff were evaluated as screening parameters. ETP, MEM, and IPM with or without aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) or EDTA combined-disk tests (CDTs) and the Carba NP-II test were evaluated as confirmation assays. EUCAST temocillin cutoffs were evaluated for OXA-48 detection. The EUCAST MEM screening cutoff (carbapenemase confirmation. ETP and MEM EDTA CDTs showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class B carbapenemases. Temocillin zone diameters/MIC testing on MH-CLX was highly specific for OXA-48 producers. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Carba NP-II test were 78.9, 100, 100, and 98.7%, respectively. Combining the EUCAST MEM carbapenemase screening cutoff (carbapenemase detection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Development of tin-plated regenerator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. Y.; Morie, T.; Tsuchiya, A.

    2017-02-01

    To improve the efficiency of a cryocooler, it is vital to improve the regenerator. In general, the heat capacity of materials decreases as temperature decreases. Thus, when temperature is below 50 K, lead spheres are often used as a regenerator material. However, the pressure drop through a sphere regenerator is larger than that through a screen regenerator. To overcome this dilemma, a new, low pressure loss tin-plated screen is proposed. A comparison test was performed with a two-stage GM cryocooler by replacing part of the first stage regenerator material, bronze screens with tin-plated screens. Compared to a regenerator filled with bronze screens, the cooling capacity of the first stage increased by about 14% at 40 K and 90% at 30 K with such tin-plated screens. The ratio of the wire diameter before and after the deposition was also optimized. An optimum cooling capacity of 53.5 W at 40 K was obtained at a diameter ratio of about 1.4. The detailed experimental results are reported in this paper.

  15. Long-term comparison of temperature measurements by the multi-plate shield and Czech-Slovak thermometer screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozny, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Hajkova, Lenka; Bares, Daniel [Doksany Observatory, Doksany (Czech Republic). Czech Hydrometeorological Inst.; Trnka, Mirek [Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Global Change Research Centre; Zalud, Zdenek; Semeradova, Daniela [Mendel Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Agrosystems and Bioclimatology; Koznarova, Vera [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Agroecology and Biometeorology

    2012-04-15

    Differences between measurements taken with the Czech-Slovak thermometer screen (TS) and the multiplate radiation shield (MRS) should not be neglected. The average difference between the TS and the MRS measurements varied between 0.3 and 2.8 C during suitable weather conditions (wind speed less than 3 m/s, bright and sunny day) throughout the year, during both daytime and nighttime hours. A 10-year time series of comparative measurements in Doksany, Czech Republic, showed that relative to TS, measurements from MRS yielded average and minimum air temperatures that were lower in the winter and higher in the summer. Daily maximum air temperatures were lower for MRS than TS throughout the year. The greatest differences were observed in the maximum air temperatures; only 62 % of all differences between the TS and MRS were less than 0.5 C, and 70 % were less than 1 C. Among minimum air temperatures, 60 % of differences were less than 0.5 C, and 79 % were less than 1 C. In contrast, 74 % of all differences in average daily temperature were less than 0.5 C, and 97 % were less than 1 C. The use of temperature measurements from multiple equipments may negatively affect inference from climate and hydro-meteorological models. Irregular temperature data could be corrected using a simulation of temperature differences (SITEDI) model, which incorporates differences between the MRS and the TS. It is important to consider whether temperature data in the Czech Republic and Slovakia come from the TS or the MRS when analyzing and modeling temperature in Central Europe. (orig.)

  16. Two-stage first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by ultrasound assessment and biochemical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Staboulidou, I; Cruz, J; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2010-11-01

    This study was carried out to examine the performance of a contingent policy in first-trimester screening for trisomy 21, in which the estimated risk was first derived by a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, presence/absence of the nasal bone, blood flow in the ductus venosus or flow across the tricuspid valve, and biochemical testing was carried out only in those who were found to have an intermediate risk. We also examined the performance of a policy in which the estimated risk was first derived by a combination of maternal age and biochemical testing, and ultrasound examination was carried out only in those with an intermediate risk. The data for this study were derived from prospective screening for trisomy 21 in singleton pregnancies, using, as markers, a combination of maternal age, fetal NT thickness and maternal-serum free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), in a one-stop clinic for first-trimester assessment of risk at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. Assessment of the fetal nasal bone, ductus venosus flow and tricuspid flow were also routinely performed by appropriately trained sonographers. The performance of different screening policies was examined. The study population consisted of 19 614 pregnancies with a normal karyotype or delivery of a phenotypically normal baby (euploid group) and 122 cases of trisomy 21. The best performance was achieved by a contingent policy in which first-stage screening was based on maternal age, fetal NT thickness and either tricuspid valve or ductus venosus blood flow, followed by biochemical testing only those with an intermediate risk, of 1 in 51 to 1 in 1000 (which constituted about 20% of the total). The performance of contingent screening in which first-stage testing relies on biochemistry was poorer than when first-stage screening was performed by ultrasound examination because, in order to achieve the same detection

  17. [Measurement of evoked acoustic otoemissions: an early screening test of neonatal deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgon, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Every child born with deafness displays a pathological language development. An early and specific approach is mandatory, hence requiring an universal hearing screening. Available evidence indicate that performing acoustic otoemissions prior to six months of age is the most reliable method. The recording of the AOE is performed successfully from the 30th week of conceptual age. To obtain AOE in the newborn, one needs to wait until the 3rd day post delivery in 98% of cases. The reliability of the test, the socio-economical cost, the consequences of the screening and the role of the family have to be discussed.

  18. Evaluation of five screening tests licensed in Argentina for detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ré

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare among the most recent generation of five screening tests licensed in Argentina, in order to evaluate which of the tests has the best sensitivity for detection of antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV. The tests analyzed were: Detect-HCV™ (3.0 Biochem ImmunoSystems, Canada; Hepatitis C EIA Wiener Lab., Argentina; Equipar HCV Ab, Italy; Murex HCV 4.0, UK and Serodia-HCV particles agglutination test, Japan. The results obtained showed high discrepancy between the different kits used and show that some of the tests assessed have a low sensitivity for anti-HCV detection in both chronic infections and early seroconversion, and indicate that among the commercially available kits in Argentina, Murex HCV 4.0 (UK and Serodia-HCV particles agglutination test (Japan have the best sensitivity for HCV screening. Although the sensitivity of the assays is the first parameter to be considered for blood screening, more studies should be carried out to assess the specificity of such assays.

  19. Developmental Validation of the ParaDNA® Screening System - A presumptive test for the detection of DNA on forensic evidence items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawnay, Nick; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Moore, Dave; Blackman, Stephen; Rendell, Paul; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Nagy, Randy; Wells, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Current assessment of whether a forensic evidence item should be submitted for STR profiling is largely based on the personal experience of the Crime Scene Investigator (CSI) and the submissions policy of the law enforcement authority involved. While there are chemical tests that can infer the presence of DNA through the detection of biological stains, the process remains mostly subjective and leads to many samples being submitted that give no profile or not being submitted although DNA is present. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System was developed to address this issue. It consists of a sampling device, pre-loaded reaction plates and detection instrument. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon™ detection of PCR amplicons to identify the presence and relative amount of DNA on an evidence item and also provides a gender identification result in approximately 75 minutes. This simple-to-use design allows objective data to be acquired by both DNA analyst and non-specialist personnel, to enable a more informed submission decision to be made. The developmental validation study described here tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Screening System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrates that the ParaDNA Screening System identifies the presence of DNA on a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva and touch DNA items. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Andrés-Beltrán, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; Güeita-Rodríguez, Javier; Lambeck, Johan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II in a population of Spanish children. Two hundred children ranging from 9 month to 6 years were grouped into two samples (healthy/with psychomotor delay) and screened in order to check whether they suffered from psychomotor delay. Children from three Early Intervention Centres and three schools participated in this study. Criterion validity was calculated by the method of extreme groups, comparing healthy children to those with development delay. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated using Cohen Kappa coefficient, and internal consistency was calculated via the Kuder-Richardson coefficient. The scale demonstrated 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, a positive predicted value of 91% and a negative predicted value of 89%, whereas the positive and negative likelihood ratio was 11.12 and 0.12, respectively. Intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.662 to 1, and interobserver reliability ranged from 0.886 to 1. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient values ranged from 87.5 to 97.6%. The Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II was found to have a good criterion validity, reliability and internal consistency and is a suitable screening test for use in a population of Spanish children.

  1. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestehave, Sara; Munro, Gordon; Pedersen, Tina Brønnum; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-09-27

    Researchers performing experiments on animals should always strive towards the refinement of experiments, minimization of stress and provision of better animal welfare. An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve post-operative recovery and welfare in laboratory rats and mice. In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (P Nutella® in a 10-fold higher dose, as well as approximately 60 min earlier, than with the more commonly employed subcutaneous route of administration.

  2. Topography of Venus and earth - A test for the presence of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.

  3. Topography of Venus and earth - A test for the presence of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.

  4. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  5. Adhesion characteristics of silver tracks screen-printed on polyimide with an environmental reliability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Seok; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-07-01

    Printable and flexible electronics are increasingly being used in numerous applications that are miniaturized, multi-functional and lightweight. Simultaneously, reliability issues of the printed and flexible electronic devices are getting more attention. The adhesion of screen-printed silver (Ag) tracks on a polyimide (PI) film was investigated after two kinds of the environmental reliability test: a constant-temperature storage test, and a steady-state temperature and humidity storage test. Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) was adopted on the PI film surface to improve the poor adhesion derived from the inherent hydrophobicity. The Ag tracks constructed via screen printing were sintered at 250 degrees C for 30 min in air using a box-type muffle furnace. Some samples were exposed under 85 degrees C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for various durations (24, 72, 168 and 500 h), and others were aged at 85 degrees C with same durations to compare the influence of moisture on the adhesion. The adhesion of the screen-printed Ag tracks was evaluated by a roll-type 90 degrees peel test. The peel strength of the screen-printed Ag tracks decreased by 76.74% and 69.88% after 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test, and the aging test, respectively. The weakest adhesion was 4.98 gf/mm after the 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test. To demonstrate these experimental results, the microstructural evolution and chemical bonding states of the interfacial surfaces were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), respectively.

  6. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    texting shorthand phrases and complicated replies); they did not want messages that contain bad news or test results. They wanted the ability to choose alternative options such as email or phone calls. Conclusions Older adults are receptive to receiving cancer screening text messages from health care providers. Sharing sample messages with patients may increase acceptance of this tool in the clinic setting. Supportive tailored text messaging reminders could enhance uptake of colorectal cancer screening by enhancing patient self-efficacy and providing cues to action to complete colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing. PMID:26537553

  7. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... will be of great importance to the future organisation of cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes in Denmark, but will also have international interest because of their similar challenges....

  8. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide.

  9. The impact of national guidance for anomaly screening and invasive testing: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberry, M; Hassan, W A; Goodburn, S; Brockelsby, J; Wladimiroff, J; Nash, R; Lees, C

    2014-01-01

    Recent guidance from the UK National Screening Committee (NSC) and the Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme (FASP) has led to important changes in prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and invasive testing. These relate to prenatal ultrasound investigation of what were previously known as 'soft markers' for Down's syndrome at the time of the detailed anomaly scan and as to whether full karyotype or FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridisation)/QFPCR (quantitative fluorescence PCR) testing for trisomies should be carried out when an invasive test is performed. Neither recommendation is directly related to the other but both in combination could have profound implications for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities other than trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome). In the light of two cases recently managed in one regional fetal medicine unit, we retrospectively reviewed cases where, with correct application of the NSC and FASP recommendations, non-lethal and clinically important chromosomal abnormalities would most likely not have been detected.

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Tong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003. Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management.In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016. In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset.Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations.Materials and methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at eight-hour intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED.Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M=81 years, SD=7 participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values between 0.5 and 0

  11. Evaluation of the LIAISON ANA screen assay for antinuclear antibody testing in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghillani, P; Rouquette, A M; Desgruelles, C; Hauguel, N; Le Pendeven, C; Piette, J C; Musset, L

    2007-08-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are widely detected by immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells in patients with connective tissue diseases and other pathological conditions. We evaluated the first-automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of ANA (LIAISON ANA screen, DiaSorin). This study was carried out simultaneously in two laboratories by testing 327 patient samples with clinically defined connective diseases, 273 routine samples for ANA screening, and 300 blood donors. A total of 268 out of 337 IIF-positive sera were positive with LIAISON ANA screen (79.5% of agreement) and 240 out of 263 IIF-negative sera were negative with LIAISON ANA screen (91.2% of agreement). After resolution of discrepant results, the concordance reached, respectively, 94.9% and 98.8%. The specificity was 99.3% and the sensitivity was 94%. Unlike results obtained by other ANA screening assays, we observed acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Despite the presence of HEp-2 cell extract, we failed to detect some antibodies as antinucleolar, antinuclear envelope, and antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen. This automated assay allows quick process to results and exhibits satisfactory sensitivity for the detection of the main ANA specificities of connective tissue diseases.

  12. The Clock Drawing Test A review of its accuracy in screening for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    Full Text Available Abstract The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple neuropsychometric instrument that can be easily applied to assess several cognitive functions. Over the past 20 years, the CDT has aroused considerable interest in its role for the early screening of cognitive impairment, especially in dementia. Although the CDT is considered an accurate test for dementia screening, recent studies including comparisons with structured batteries such as the CAMCOG have shown mixed results. Objectives: To investigate the importance of the CDT compared to other commonly used tests, in the diagnosis of dementia in the elderly; (2 to evaluate the reliability and correlation between available CDT scoring scales from recent studies. Methods: A systematic search in the literature was conducted in September 2008 for studies comparing CDT scoring systems and comparing the CDT with neuropsychiatric batteries. Results: Twelve studies were selected for analyses. Seven of these studies compared CDT scoring scales while five compared the CDT against the CAMCOG and the MMSE. Eight studies found good correlation and reliability between the scales and the other tests. Conclusion: Despite the mixed results in these studies, the CDT appears to be a good screening test for dementia.

  13. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function.

  14. Evaluation of adjunctive tests for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatla Neerja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual inspection of cervix after application of acetic acid (VIA is an effective screening tool for cervical cancer in low resource settings, but its low specificity leads to high referral rates. Adjunctive testing may overcome this drawback. Aims: This pilot study was aimed to assess test performances of VIA, human papillomavirus (HPV testing and Pap smear, individually and in simulated combinations, to determine the probable best screening option. Setting and Design: Gynecology outpatient department (OPD; cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: One hundred women with complaints of irregular vaginal bleeding or discharge, post coital bleeding or unhealthy cervix on examination underwent Pap smear, HPV testing, VIA, colposcopy and biopsy, if indicated, in this screening order. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for each of the tests with a biopsy result of ≥HSIL taken as the gold standard. Simulated parallel and sequential combinations for VIA/Pap, VIA/HPV and HPV/Pap were calculated and compared with individual test performance. Results: Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 5%, VIA positive 51% and HPV positive 16%. Sensitivity and specificity of VIA were 100% and 53.3% respectively. For HPV and Pap tests corresponding figures were 85.7%, 89.7% and 50%, 98.9% respectively. The best simulated combination with a balance of sensitivity and specificity was of VIA followed by HPV testing (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 95.4%. Conclusion: Addition of HPV testing to VIA can increase the specificity of VIA, thereby reducing the referral rates without compromising the sensitivity of the test.

  15. POPULATION BASED COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING: COMPARISON OF TWO FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  16. An analysis of the duplicate testing strategy of an Irish immunochemical FOBT colorectal cancer screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelley, Leanne

    2013-06-10

    AIM: This study examined the relevance of using a two sample quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT or FIT) at a high cut off stringency by the first population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) pilot screening programme in Ireland. METHOD: Approximately ten thousand individuals between the ages of 50-74 years were invited to perform two consecutive FITs. These were analysed in tandem using the OC-Sensor and participants with at least one positive result with a haemoglobin cut off for positivity at 100 ng\\/ml were offered colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 5023 (52%) (2177 (43%) male; 2846 (57%) female) individuals with a median age of 64 years participated. At least one positive FIT test was detected from 514 (10%) individuals. From the 419 (82%) patients who proceeded to colonoscopy 17 (4%) had CRC and 132(33%) had an advanced adenoma. The detection rate for these screen relevant lesions was 3% (95% CIs = 2.5% - 3.5%) and the FIT positive + colonoscopy detection rate was 36% (95% CI = 31% - 40%). The numbers needed to colonoscope to find an advanced lesion was 2.8. The two test system detected four (23.5%) additional patients with CRC and 37 (28%) with an advanced adenoma compared with a single test. CONCLUSION: The CRC miss rate estimated for a single test (23.5%) was unacceptably high when the goal was to maximize the discovery of advanced lesions in the initial screening round. We conclude that the two test protocol at a high cut off threshold is suitable to optimize FIT screening in Ireland. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  18. A comparison of the korean-ages and stages questionnaires and denver developmental delay screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ga, Hyo-Yun; Kwon, Jeong Yi

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate concurrent validity between the Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaires (K-ASQ) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST II), and to evaluate the validity of the K-ASQ as a screening tool for detecting developmental delay of Korean children. A retrospective chart review was done to examine concurrent validity of the screening potentials for developmental delay between the K-ASQ and the DDST II (n=226). We examined validity of the K-ASQ compared with Capute scale (n=141) and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=69) as a gold standard of developmental delay. Correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between tests. A fair to good strength relationship (k=0.442, ptest characteristics of the K-ASQ were sensitivity 76.3-90.2%, specificity 62.5-76.5%, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 2.41-3.40, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.16-0.32. Evidence of concurrent validity of the K-ASQ with DDST II was found. K-ASQ can be used for screening of developmental delay.

  19. Attitudes Regarding Participation in a Diabetes Screening Test among an Assyrian Immigrant Population in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Andersson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants from the Middle East have higher prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D compared with native Swedes. The aim of the study was to describe and understand health beliefs in relation to T2D as well as attitudes regarding participation in a screening process in a local group of Assyrian immigrants living in Sweden. A qualitative and quantitative method was chosen in which 43 individuals participated in a health check-up and 13 agreed to be interviewed. Interviews were conducted, anthropometric measurements and blood tests were collected, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. In total, 13 of the 43 participants were diagnosed with impaired glucose metabolism, 4 of these 13 had TD2. The interviewed participants perceived that screening was an opportunity to discover more about their health and to care for themselves and their families. Nevertheless, they were not necessarily committed to taking action as a consequence of the screening. Instead, they professed that their health was not solely in their own hands and that they felt safe that God would provide for them. Assyrians’ background and religion affect their health beliefs and willingness to participate in screening for TD2.

  20. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  1. HPV testing for primary cervical screening: Laboratory issues and evolving requirements for robust quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Cuschieri, Kate; Frayle, Helena; Sani, Cristina; Burroni, Elena

    2016-03-01

    This review aims to highlight the importance of Quality Assurance for Laboratories performing HPV test for Cervical Cancer Screening. An HPV test, to be used as primary screening test, must be validated according to international criteria, based on comparison of its clinical accuracy to HC2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA tests. The number of validated platforms is increasing and appropriate Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) which can interrogate longitudinal robustness and quality are paramount. This document describes the following topics: (1) the characteristics of an HPV laboratory and the personnel training needs, to ensure an elevated quality of the entire process and the optimal use of the resources; (2) the Quality Assurance, as both internal (IQA) and external quality assessment (EQA) systems, to be implemented and performed, and the description of the existing EQAs, including limitations; (3) general considerations for an optimal EQA program for hrHPV primary screening Due to the importance of Quality Assurance for this field, international efforts are necessary to improve QA International Collaboration.

  2. A study of the impact of adding HPV types to cervical cancer screening and triage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Khan, Michelle J; Solomon, Diane; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Bratti, Maria C; Wheeler, Cosette M; Burk, Robert D

    2005-01-19

    Use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical cancer prevention is increasing rapidly. A DNA test for 13 HPV types that can cause cervical cancer is approved in the United States for co-screening with cytology of women >or=30 years old and for triage of women of all ages with equivocal cytology. However, most infections with HPV are benign. We evaluated trade-offs between specificity and sensitivity for approximately 40 HPV types in predicting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and cancer in two prospective studies: a population-based screening study that followed 6196 women aged 30-94 years from Costa Rica for 7 years and a triage study that followed 3363 women aged 18-90 years with equivocal cytology in four U.S. centers for 2 years. For both screening and triage, testing for more than about 10 HPV types decreased specificity more than it increased sensitivity. The minimal increases in sensitivity and in negative predictive value achieved by adding HPV types to DNA tests must be weighed against the projected burden to thousands of women falsely labeled as being at high risk of cervical cancer.

  3. Analysis of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method with optimal test functions for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending model

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable) with a thickness-dependent constant in a norm encompassing the L2-norms of the bending moment, the shear force, the transverse deflection and the rotation vector. We then construct a numerical solution scheme based on quadrilateral scalar and vector finite elements of degree p. We show that for affine meshes the discretization inherits the stability of the continuous formulation provided that the optimal test functions are approximated by polynomials of degree p+3. We prove a theoretical error estimate in terms of the mesh size h and polynomial degree p and demonstrate numerical convergence on affine as well as non-affine mesh sequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  5. Comparison among single-phase test, automated screening method and GC/MS for the traceability of ketamine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Visione

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION Following the law indications, ketamine is not searched: this limit does not make the authorities able to apply the penalties expected for road laws violations. The automation is essential to guarantee the reliability of toxicological screening tests, especially to medico-legal significance. This results highlight the absolutely necessity of the execution of the confirmation test, successively to screening analysis.

  6. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Neck Tornado Test as a New Screening Test in Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyeon; Park, Woo Young; Hong, Seungbae; An, Jiwon; Koh, Jae Chul; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    The Spurling test, although a highly specific provocative test of the cervical spine in cervical radiculopathy (CR), has low to moderate sensitivity. Thus, we introduced the neck tornado test (NTT) to examine the neck and the cervical spine in CR. The aim of this study was to introduce a new provocative test, the NTT, and compare the diagnostic accuracy with a widely accepted provocative test, the Spurling test. Retrospective study. Medical records of 135 subjects with neck pain (CR, n = 67; without CR, n = 68) who had undergone cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging and been referred to the pain clinic between September 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed. Both the Spurling test and NTT were performed in all patients by expert examiners. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared for both the Spurling test and the NTT. The sensitivity of the Spurling test and the NTT was 55.22% and 85.07% (P < 0.0001); specificity, 98.53% and 86.76% (P = 0.0026); accuracy, 77.04% and 85.93% (P = 0.0423), respectively. The NTT is more sensitive with superior diagnostic accuracy for CR diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging than the Spurling test.

  8. Invited article: a test-facility for large-area microchannel plate detector assemblies using a pulsed sub-picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard; Chollet, Matthieu; Elagin, Andrey; Oberla, Eric; Vostrikov, Alexander; Wetstein, Matthew; Obaid, Razib; Webster, Preston

    2013-06-01

    The Large Area Picosecond Photodetector Collaboration is developing large-area fast photodetectors with time resolution tests on bare 8 in.-square MCP plates or into a smaller chamber for tests on 33-mm circular substrates. We present the experimental setup, detector calibration, data acquisition, analysis tools, and typical results demonstrating the performance of the test facility.

  9. Five-Year Cervical (Pre)Cancer Risk of Women Screened by HPV and Cytology Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Van Kemenade, Folkert J; Van Den Haselkamp, Sander; Witte, Birgit I; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-06-01

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical screening will be introduced in the Netherlands in 2016. We assessed the 5-year cervical (pre)cancer risk of women with different combinations of HPV and cytology test results. Special attention was paid to risks for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and 2 or more (CIN3+/2+) of HPV-positive women with a negative triage test, because this determines the safety of a 5-year screening interval for HPV-positive, triage test-negative women. In addition, age-related effects were studied. A total of 25,553 women were screened by HPV testing and cytology in a screening setting. Women were managed on the presence of HPV and/or abnormal cytology. Five-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+/2+ were calculated. Five-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 10.0% (17.7%) among HPV-positive women. When stratified by cytology, the CIN3+(CIN2+) risk was 7.9% (12.9%) for women with normal cytology and 22.2% (45.3%) for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal (i.e., BMD) cytology. For HPV-negative women, the 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 0.09% (0.21%). Additional triage of HPV-positive women with normal cytology by repeat cytology at 12 months showed a 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk of 4.1% (7.0%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal cytology at baseline had comparable risks of 3.5% (7.9%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal baseline cytology and normal repeat cytology had a 5-year CIN3+ risk of 0.42%. No age-related effects were detected. In conclusion, HPV-positive women with normal cytology and a negative triage test, either repeat cytology after 12 months or baseline HPV 16/18 genotyping, develop a non-negligible CIN3+ risk over 5 years. Therefore, extension of the screening interval over 5 years only seems possible for HPV screen-negative women. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Diagnostic performance and costs of contingent screening models for trisomy 21 incorporating non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah; O'Leary, Peter; Dickinson, Jan E; Suthers, Graeme K

    2017-08-01

    Contingent screening for trisomy 21 using non-invasive prenatal testing has the potential to reduce invasive diagnostic testing and increase the detection of trisomy 21. To describe the diagnostic and economic performance of prenatal screening models for trisomy 21 that use non-invasive prenatal testing as a contingent screen across a range of combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs from a public health system perspective. Using a hypothetical cohort of 300 000 pregnancies, we modelled the outcomes of 25 contingent non-invasive prenatal testing screening models and compared these to conventional screening, offering women with a high-risk (1 > 300) combined first trimester screening result an invasive test. The 25 models used a range of risk cut-offs. High-risk women were offered invasive testing. Intermediate-risk women were offered non-invasive prenatal testing. We report the cost of each model, detection rate, costs per diagnosis, invasive tests per diagnosis and the number of fetal losses per diagnosis. The cost per prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 using the conventional model was $51 876 compared to the contingent models which varied from $49 309-66 686. The number of diagnoses and cost per diagnosis increased as the intermediate-risk threshold was lowered. Results were sensitive to trisomy 21 incidence, uptake of testing and cost of non-invasive prenatal testing. Contingent non-invasive prenatal testing models using more sensitive combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs than conventional screening improved the detection rate of trisomy 21, reduced procedure-related fetal loss and could potentially be provided at a lower cost per diagnosis than conventional screening. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Development of Taiwan Smell Identification Test: a quick office-based smell screening test for Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ning-I; Lai, Jen-Tsung; Shen, Ping-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Objective smell tests not only identify levels of smelling ability but also provide information on changes in olfaction after treatment. Odor identification is strongly socially and culturally dependent; therefore, the odorants used in a smell identification test should be familiar to the test population. We developed this smell test for Taiwanese populations with two aims: the test odors should be familiar to Taiwanese and the test should be easily and quickly administered in a busy clinic. Additives that are familiar to Taiwanese people were selected for this smell identification test. Subsequently, the test was validated with the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (TC-UPSIT). Finally, this Taiwan Smell Identification Test (TWSIT) was implemented in daily clinical use, and cut-off points of "normosmia," "hyposmia," and "anosmia" were established. A total of 1000 subjects were included in the market survey to identify commonly recognized odors. Eight odorants with identification rate greater than 95% were selected. The TWSIT is an array of multiple-choice questions to select the odor. In addition, patient also reported the strength of the odor. The full score was 48. Thirty-seven patients simultaneously received both TWSIT and TC-UPSIT, and the correlation was high (r = 0.874). Based on the testing results of an additional 187 subjects, we concluded that scores of 47-48, 15-44, and 2-12 corresponded to normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia, respectively. Patients with scores falling in the gaps require retesting at a later time. The TWSIT is a quick, office-based, and useful odor identification tool for Taiwanese. The experience of developing a culturally specific olfaction test like the TWSIT can be applied in different countries and cultures.

  12. Evaluation of a new rapid plasma reagin card test as a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    This study evaluates the American Dade (Biokit Laboratories) rapid plasma reagin (Dade RPR) card test, currently used in Spain for the diagnosis of syphilis, which has been recently released to the U.S. market. Used as a basis for comparison with the Dade card test were the 18-mm standard rapid plasma reagin (standard RPR) card test and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test, using both fresh sera obtained from 505 individuals and paired serum-plasma specimens from 174 ind...

  13. Developmental neurotoxicity testing: recommendations for developing alternative methods for the screening and prioritization of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Kevin M; Mundy, William R; Lein, Pamela J; Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Seiler, Andrea E M; Knaut, Holger; Buzanska, Leonora; Goldberg, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemicals. This document provides recommendations for developing alternative DNT approaches that will generate the type of data required for evaluating and comparing predictive capacity and efficiency across test methods and laboratories. These recommendations were originally drafted to stimulate and focus discussions of alternative testing methods and models for DNT at the TestSmart DNT II meeting (http://caat.jhsph.edu/programs/workshops/dnt2.html) and this document reflects critical feedback from all stakeholders that participated in this meeting. The intent of this document is to serve as a catalyst for engaging the research community in the development of DNT alternatives and it is expected that these recommendations will continue to evolve with the science.

  14. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management......Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace....... Selection criteria Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Data collection and analysis Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form...

  15. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  16. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  17. Thermal Testing and Analysis of an Efficient High-Temperature Multi-Screen Internal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Stefan; Handrick, Karin; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2007-01-01

    Conventional multi-layer insulations exhibit excellent insulation performance but they are limited to the temperature range to which their components reflective foils and spacer materials are compatible. For high temperature applications, the internal multi-screen insulation IMI has been developed that utilizes unique ceramic material technology to produce reflective screens with high temperature stability. For analytical insulation sizing a parametric material model is developed that includes the main contributors for heat flow which are radiation and conduction. The adaptation of model-parameters based on effective steady-state thermal conductivity measurements performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) allows for extrapolation to arbitrary stack configurations and temperature ranges beyond the ones that were covered in the conductivity measurements. Experimental validation of the parametric material model was performed during the thermal qualification test of the X-38 Chin-panel, where test results and predictions showed a good agreement.

  18. A comparison of fasting plasma glucose and glucose challenge test for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poomalar, G K; Rangaswamy, V

    2013-07-01

    Glucose challenge test (GCT) has been used as an effective screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though it has its own limitations. Hence, we assessed the effectiveness of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a simpler alternative procedure. A prospective study was done in 500 pregnant women with gestational age between 22 and 37 weeks. FPG, GCT and GTT were performed in all patients using the glucose oxidase/peroxidase method. The overall sensitivity and specificity of GCT were 75.0% and 92.0%, respectively and the corresponding values for FPG were 88.8% and 95.2%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 42.2% and 97.9% for GCT and 59.2% and 99.1% for FPG, respectively. We conclude that FPG can be used as an effective screening tool for gestational diabetes mellitus.

  19. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O. [Aquateam-Norwegian Water Technology Centre A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  20. CITRUS, cervical cancer screening trial by randomization of HPV testing intervention for upcoming screening: Design, methods and baseline data of 18,471 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisada, Tohru; Teramoto, Katsuhiro; Takano, Hirokuni; Sakamoto, Ikuko; Nishio, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takashi; Hashi, Akihiko; Katoh, Ryohei; Okamoto, Aikou; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Aoki, Daisuke

    2017-08-14

    To assess the efficacy of screening with concurrent liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for primary cervical cancer screening, we initiated a randomized trial entitled CervIcal cancer screening Trial by Randomization of HPV testing intervention for Upcoming Screening (CITRUS). Between June 2013 and March 2015, women aged 30-64 years of age who participated in a regular cervical cancer screening program (every 2 years) were invited to enrollment of our study. After giving their informed consent, 18,402 women were randomly assigned to liquid-based cytology as the control group (n=9145) or to HPV DNA testing with liquid-based cytology as the intervention group (n=9257). We subsequently compared the incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the rate of false positive tests and the rate of overdiagnosis, as well as assessing the risks and benefits of receiving screening for women in both groups. The primary outcome of our study was the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) during the study period of around 6 years. In the control group, 97.9% of women were NILM, and 2.06% ASC-US or worse (ASC-US+). In the intervention group, 87.13% of women were NILM/HPV negative, 0.72% ASC-US/HPV negative, 10.34% NILM/HPV positive, 0.69% ASC-US/HPV positive, 0.90% worse than ASC-US/either HPV. Positive HPV testing was not linearly related to age in our study. Insights from CITRUS will provide future prospects for cervical cancer screening focused on the use of HPV testing in Japan. NCT01895517, UMIN000010843, TRIUC1312. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening della disfagia nei pazienti con stroke acuto: l’introduzione sistematica del GUSS test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Migliorini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. La disfagia è presente nel 42-67% dei pazienti con stroke acuto e può determinare gravi complicanze, tra cui la polmonite da aspirazione. Esistono numerosi test per lo screening della disfagia nei pazienti con stroke in fase acuta. Nel maggio 2009 presso la stroke unit del Dipartimento di Neuroscienze dell’Azienda ULSS 18 di Rovigo è stato avviato un progetto per implementare il Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS test, strumento validato per lo screening della disfagia. Obiettivi. Introdurre il GUSS test nella pratica infermieristica per gestire il paziente disfagico con stroke acuto con una procedura condivisa da tutti i professionisti; verificare se lo screening della disfagia riduce le complicanze e il ricorso inappropriato al sondino naso-gastrico (SNG. Metodi. Un gruppo di lavoro multiprofessionale ha identificato dall’analisi della letteratura lo strumento di valutazione da adottare: il GUSS test è un metodo rapido ed affidabile per identificare i pazienti con disfagia a rischio di aspirazione, permette una valutazione graduale delle capacità di deglutizione del paziente, misura la gravità della disfagia e consente di identificare le raccomandazioni dietetiche. Sono stati raccolti i seguenti dati: numero di pazienti ricoverati, numero di test effettuati, episodi di polmonite da aspirazione, modalità di alimentazione dei pazienti, eventuale posizionamento del SNG. Risultati. Lo studio è stato condotto dal maggio 2009 a dicembre 2011. Nel periodo maggio-dicembre 2009 il test è stato somministrato a 129 pazienti: 12 pazienti (9,3% hanno manifestato disfagia ai liquidi e in 24 pazienti (18,6% è stato posizionato il SNG. Nel 2010 il test è stato somministrato a 202 pazienti: in 16 (8% è stata riscontrata disfagia ai liquidi, il SNG è stato posizionato in 30 pazienti (14,8%. Nel 2011 il test è stato somministrato a 219 pazienti: la disfagia ai liquidi è stata identificata in 17 pazienti (7,8% e sono stati posizionati

  2. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Riaz Ahmad; chatton,Anne; Nallet, Audrey; Broers, Barbara; Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Poznyak, Vladimir; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed to detect substance use disorders. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in various clinical groups with different levels of substance use. Methods: 150 subjects were recruited from clients attending primary health care, psychiatric and addiction treatment facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (...

  3. SUMA Technology and Newborn Screening Tests for Inherited Metabolic Diseases in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Carlos González Reyes PhD; Elisa M. Castells MSc; Amarilys Frómeta MSc; Ana Luisa Arteaga MD; Lesley Del Río MSc; Yileidis Tejeda MSc; Pedro L. Pérez LT; Mary Triny Segura BSc; Pedro Almenares MSc; Yenitse Perea MSc; Niurka M. Carlos MSc; René Robaina MD, PhD; José L. Fernández-Yero MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    The ultramicroanalytic system (SUMA), created in the 1980s, is a complete system of reagents and instrumentation to perform ultramicroassays combining the sensitivity of the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests with the use of ultramicrovolumes. This technology permitted establishing large-scale newborn screening programs (NSPs) for metabolic and endocrine disorders in Cuba. This article summarizes the main results of the implementation during the 30 years of SUMA technology ...

  4. Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig: Woven screen and metal felt results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, D.; Wood, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    We present correlating expressions, in terms of Reynolds or Peclet numbers, for friction factors, Nusselt numbers, enhanced axial conduction ratios, and overall heat flux ratios in four porous regenerator samples representative of stirling cycle regenerators: two woven screen samples and two random wire samples. Error estimates and comparison of data with others suggest our correlations are reliable, but we need to test more samples over a range of porosities before our results will become generally useful.

  5. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  6. Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quant, Hayley S; Friedman, Alexander M; Wang, Eileen; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-03-01

    To determine the test characteristics of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study evaluated the distance from the placental edge to the internal os (placenta-cervix distance) through both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography during the anatomic survey. Patients were recruited in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Ultrasound Unit at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, an urban tertiary care center. Transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs with high sensitivity for detection of previa and low-lying placenta were identified, and test characteristics were calculated. Follow-up ultrasound data, pregnancy, and delivery outcomes for those with second-trimester previa or low-lying placenta were obtained. One thousand two hundred fourteen women were included in the analysis. A transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoff of 4.2 cm was 93.3% sensitive and 76.7% specific for detection of previa with a 99.8% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 25.0%. A cutoff of 2.8 cm was 86.7% sensitive and 90.5% specific with a 99.6% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 11.4%. Only 9.8% (four of 41) of previas and low-lying placentas persisted through delivery. Transabdominal ultrasonography is an effective screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. At centers not performing universal transvaginal ultrasonography at the time of the anatomic survey, evidence-based transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs can optimize the identification of patients who require further surveillance for previa.

  7. Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, E

    2009-06-01

    Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.

  8. Analysis of Second Trimester Maternal Quadruple Screening Test for Trisomy 21 and Trisomy 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Bricelj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The second trimester quadruple screening test for foetal chromosomal abnormalities has been carried out in Slovenia since 2006. Our objective was to analyse the quadruple test results, define sensibility and specificity, the positive and negative predictive value of the screening test for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 and the influence of some maternal clinical parameters on risk calculation. Methods: Retrospectively collected results of 3,719 maternal blood samples were analysed in the period from February 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2009 at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. We obtained information on maternal age, body weight and smoking (habits?, karyotyping of foetuses and clinical data on newborns.Results: The sensitivity of the test for trisomy 21 was 50%, specificity 95%, positive predictive value 2.3% and negative predictive value 99.8%.  Specificity for trisomy 18 was 98%, sensitivity 100% and the positive and negative predictive value 1.4% and 100% respectively.. False positive results in trisomy 21 were influenced by maternal weight (OR=1.034; p=0.00 and age (OR=0.832; p=0.00. It was influenced by maternal age (OR=0.924; p=0.17 and smoking (OR=0.396; p=0.006 in the case of trisomy 18.Conclusions: A quadruple test has an appropriate specificity for detecting foetuses with trisomy 21; however, it displays a low sensibility as well as a low positive predictive value. The test reveals high specificity and sensibility for the detection of foetal trisomy 18, and has a high negative predictive value, yet its positive predictive value remains low. Therefore, the test is primarily intended for pregnant women who, for various reasons, missed out on screening opportunities in the first trimester of their pregnancy.

  9. DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER MG. AS THE TEST-OBJECT FOR SCREENING XENOBIOTICS ON ACARICIDAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokon S.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of new effective test systems for screening xenobiotics on biological activity, including its possible harmful influence on the organism is the modern challenge. Test systems of eukaryotic origin are needed for testing of xenobiotics on their gonadotoxical, embryotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. Such testing should include the monitoring of genetic effects of bioactive compounds and the possible mutagenic effect. The Drosophila melanogaster Mg. is very convenient test object as a classical genetics object, for which the genome is fully sequenced. It is convenient and easy to find out the frequency of crossingover in different parts of the genome, and study the key indicators of vitality and ontogenetic adaptation (fertility, longevity, survival under stress conditions, etc. on Drosophila. The crossover frequency, in our opinion, can be an integral factor for the general state of genotype.so we could use the mark of genetic recombination frequency as one of the indicators of the impact of xenobiotics. In this study we examined the possibility of using Drosophila melanogaster Mg. (Diptera, Drosophilidae as a test object for screening xenobiotics on acaricidal activity. Sensitivity of flies to acaricides piridaben (Sanmayt and proparhit (Omayt was studied by their fitness, longevity, fertility, and frequency of meiotic recombination in the area b-vg second chromosome. It was found that the studied compounds - piridaben and proparhit have significant influence on vitality of D. melanogaster. The presence of these acaricides in the nutrition of flies testifies the harmful influence on their crossingover and reduced fecundity and longevity. We suggested to use the D. melanogaster as a test object for screening xenobiotics on acaricidal activity.

  10. Screened test-charge - test-charge interaction in the two-dimensional electron gas: bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Ghazali, A.

    1997-08-01

    We study the test-charge - test-charge interaction when screening effects of a two-dimensional electron gas are taken into account. The Schrödinger equation is solved in the momentum space by diagonalizing the corresponding matrix and the results are compared with variational calculations. For two positive (or negative) test-charges bound states are obtained for low electron densities when many-body effects are incorporated in the screening function. For a density larger than a critical density, 0953-8984/9/32/011/img5 (0953-8984/9/32/011/img6 is the Wigner - Seitz parameter), no bound states are found. Below the critical density, 0953-8984/9/32/011/img7, the number of bound states and their energy increase with decreasing density and the ground-state binding energy saturates near 0953-8984/9/32/011/img8. Finite-width effects for quantum wells are also discussed. We present new results for bound states between a positive and a negative test charge and we discuss effects of exchange and correlation on the binding energies.

  11. The King-Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Danielle F; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L; Evans, Greg; Gimre, Matthew; Watt, David

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a result of neurologic sequelae seen among athletes, highlighting the need for a validated, rapid screening tool. The King-Devick (K-D) test requires vision, eye movements, language function and attention in order to perform and has been proposed as a promising tool for assessment of concussion. We investigated the K-D test as a sideline screening tool in a collegiate cohort to determine the effect of concussion. Athletes (n=127, mean age 19.6±1.2 years) from the Wheaton College football and men's and women's basketball teams underwent baseline K-D testing at pre-season physicals for the 2012-2013 season. K-D testing was administered immediately on the sidelines for football players with suspected head injury during regular games and changes compared to baseline were determined. Post-season testing was also performed to compare non-concussed athletes' test performance. Concussed athletes (n=11) displayed sideline K-D scores that were significantly higher (worse) than baseline (36.5±5.6s vs. 31.3±4.5s, p<0.005, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Post-season testing demonstrated improvement of scores and was consistent with known learning effects (35.1±5.2s vs. 34.4±5.0s, p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Test-retest reliability was analyzed between baseline and post-season administrations of the K-D test resulting in high levels of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.95 [95% Confidence Interval 0.85-1.05]). The data show worsening of K-D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K-D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy on maternal serum screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, G G; Timur, H; Yilmaz, Z; Kirbas, A; Daglar, K; Tokmak, A; Uygur, D; Danişman, N

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the changes in the first and second trimester maternal serum biochemical markers used for prenatal screening are associated with euploid pregnancies complicated by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). A total of 94 pregnant women were included in this retrospective comparative study. Thirty-seven women whose pregnancy was complicated with ICP constituted the study group whereas 57 of them constituted the control group. All hospital records were examined in terms of combined first trimester screening test and second trimester triple test parameters. Perinatal outcomes were also recorded. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in term of age, BMI, and obstetric history (all p > 0.05). Mean serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum bile acid concentrations in the study group were significantly higher than in the controls (p pregnancies complicated by ICP and healthy pregnancies in terms of first and second trimester maternal serum screening test results.

  13. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongsakul, Supaporn; Lambert, Rod; Clark, Allan; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Cross, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment, such as dementia, has emerged as the leading public health problem among the elderly. Therefore, early detection of the disorder and providing appropriate healthcare and management is important, particularly, for the patients with comorbid diabetes who require long-term treatment strategies. In Thailand, because of a large number of elderly patients with diabetes, and time constraints in primary care settings, a short and effective cognitive screening test is required. The Mini-Cog is a short and valid cognitive screening test that was specifically designed for use in primary care settings. The present study translated the English language version into a Thai language version, and then measured the interrater reliability and concurrent validity. The processes of cross-language translation were carried out to develop a Thai language version of the Mini-Cog. A total of 21 Thai older adults with type 2 diabetes with a mean aged of 69 ± 7 years were recruited into a study investigating the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Mini-Cog Thai version in one primary care center in Thailand. The Mini-Cog Thai version showed a good interrater reliability (K = 0.80, P cognitive function in primary care settings in Thailand. It is recommended that it could be used as a new cognitive screening test for the aging population in the Thai community. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. A simple sarcopenia screening test predicts future adverse events in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Yoshiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Hanatani, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Tomoko; Yamamura, Satoru; Kimura, Yuichi; Araki, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Hokimoto, Seiji

    2016-07-15

    Progressive loss of skeletal muscle termed "sarcopenia" is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. A simple screening test that can identify sarcopenia using three variables (age, grip strength and calf circumference) was recently developed. We evaluated the clinical utility of this screening test in patients with heart failure (HF). HF patients were divided into the sarcopenia (n=82) and non-sarcopenia (n=37) groups based on the sarcopenia score. Circulating BNP and high-sensitive cardiac troponin T levels were significantly higher, and left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in the sarcopenia group than non-sarcopenia group. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that HF event-free survival rate was significantly lower in the sarcopenia group. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified BNP (ln[BNP]) (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09-2.29, p=0.02), hs-CRP (ln[CRP]) (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.23-2.68; psarcopenia score (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, psarcopenia score to BNP levels increased an area under the curve for future HF events (sarcopenia score alone, 0.77; BNP alone, 0.82; combination, 0.89). The sarcopenia screening test can be used to predict future adverse events in patients with HF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening for Type 2 Diabetes in a High-Risk Population : Effects of a Negative Screening Test After 4 Years Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Julie I.; Otto, Suzie J.; Klijs, Bart; de Koning, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    A negative diabetes screening test may unintentionally provide reassurance, resulting in reduced incentive to follow a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study is to assess negative test result effects on lifestyle and risk perception at 4 years follow-up. Risk perception and changes in smoking,

  16. Two-Dimensional Mapping of the Calculated Fission Power for the Full-Size Fuel Plate Experiment Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G. S.; Lillo, M. A.

    2009-08-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program assigned to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the responsibility of developing and demonstrating high uranium density research reactor fuel forms to enable the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) in research and test reactors around the world. A series of full-size fuel plate experiments have been proposed for irradiation testing in the center flux trap (CFT) position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These full-size fuel plate tests are designated as the AFIP tests. The AFIP nominal fuel zone is rectangular in shape having a designed length of 21.5-in (54.61-cm), width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), and uniform thickness of 0.014-in (0.03556-cm). This gives a nominal fuel zone volume of 0.482 in3 (7.89 cm3) per fuel plate. The AFIP test assembly has two test positions. Each test position is designed to hold 2 full-size plates, for a total of 4 full-size plates per test assembly. The AFIP test plates will be irradiated at a peak surface heat flux of about 350 W/cm2 and discharged at a peak U-235 burn-up of about 70 at.%. Based on limited irradiation testing of the monolithic (U-10Mo) fuel form, it is desirable to keep the peak fuel temperature below 250°C to achieve this, it will be necessary to keep plate heat fluxes below 500 W/cm2. Due to the heavy U-235 loading and a plate width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), the neutron self-shielding will increase the local-to-average-ratio (L2AR) fission power near the sides of the fuel plates. To demonstrate that the AFIP experiment will meet the ATR safety requirements, a very detailed 2-dimensional (2D) Y-Z fission power profile was evaluated in order to best predict the fuel plate temperature distribution. The ability to accurately predict fuel plate power and burnup are essential to both the design of the AFIP tests as well as evaluation of the irradiated fuel performance. To support this need, a detailed MCNP Y

  17. New Screening Test Developed for the Blanching Resistance of Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's extensive efforts towards more efficient, safer, and more affordable space transportation include the development of new thrust-cell liner materials with improved capabilities and longer lives. For rocket engines fueled with liquid hydrogen, an important metric of liner performance is resistance to blanching, a phenomenon of localized wastage by cycles of oxidation-reduction due to local imbalance in the oxygen-fuel ratio. The current liner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine combustion chamber, a Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy (NARloy-Z) is degraded in service by blanching. Heretofore, evaluating a liner material for blanching resistance involved elaborate and expensive hot-fire tests performed on rocket test stands. To simplify that evaluation, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed a screening test that uses simple, in situ oxidation-reduction cycling in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The principle behind this test is that resistance to oxidation or to the reduction of oxide, or both, implies resistance to blanching. Using this test as a preliminary tool to screen alloys for blanching resistance can improve reliability and save time and money. In this test a small polished coupon is hung in a TGA furnace at the desired (service) temperature. Oxidizing and reducing gases are introduced cyclically, in programmed amounts. Cycle durations are chosen by calibration, such that all copper oxides formed by oxidation are fully reduced in the next reduction interval. The sample weight is continuously acquired by the TGA as usual.

  18. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A. The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS. The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters.

  19. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease.Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT.Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums.Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative.Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  20. Slug tests in wells screened across the water table: some additional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of slug tests done at sites of shallow groundwater contamination are performed in wells screened across the water table and are affected by mechanisms beyond those considered in the standard slug-test models. These additional mechanisms give rise to a number of practical issues that are yet to be fully resolved; four of these are addressed here. The wells in which slug tests are performed were rarely installed for that purpose, so the well design can result in problematic (small signal to noise ratio) test data. The suitability of a particular well design should thus always be assessed prior to field testing. In slug tests of short duration, it can be difficult to identify which portion of the test represents filter-pack drainage and which represents formation response; application of a mass balance can help confirm that test phases have been correctly identified. A key parameter required for all slug test models is the casing radius. However, in this setting, the effective casing radius (borehole radius corrected for filter-pack porosity), not the nominal well radius, is required; this effective radius is best estimated directly from test data. Finally, although conventional slug-test models do not consider filter-pack drainage, these models will yield reasonable hydraulic conductivity estimates when applied to the formation-response phase of a test from an appropriately developed well.

  1. Prevalence of positive tuberculosis skin tests during 5 years of screening in a Swiss remand prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Elger, B S

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening in prisons is recommended, but the appropriate methods remain controversial. Studies evaluating screening in remand prisons are scarce. Between 1997 and 2001, voluntary screening based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) was offered to all prisoners on entry into the largest remand prison in Switzerland. Prisoners with positive results underwent chest X-rays. We analysed this information collected in an anonymous database. A total of 4890 prisoners entered the prison and were eligible for screening; 3779 (77.3%) had TST performed on average 9 days after arrival: 46.9% were positive (induration ≥ 10 mm). Positive TST rates were similar over the 5 years. Women were more likely to have a negative TST (60.4%) than men (47.7%; P < 0.001, Pearson's (2) 16.5). Positive TSTs varied according to the prisoner's country of origin (64% for sub-Saharan Africa, 57% for Eastern Europe, 56% for North Africa, 51% for Asia and 34% for North and West Europe). The percentage of TST-positive subjects was high, and most did not receive preventive treatment for latent TB. The usefulness of systematic TST for all prisoners on entry is limited, as diagnosis of TB disease usually remains the priority in prisons.

  2. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  3. Tests and Evaluation of Upgraded Flat-Plate and Waffle-Slab Floor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    tested in the LBLG. The LBLG (Figure 2.J9) is a large, three-dimensional device designed pri- marily to test underground protective structures...34 Report AIWL-TR-74-102, Octo- ber 1974, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex . 9. M. E. Criswell; "Strength and Behavior of...35th St. Commander, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, AFSC Chicago, Ill. 60616 ATTN: SUL, Technical Library Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex . 87117 Director

  4. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  5. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  6. Male Partners’ Involvement Towards Prenatal Screening And Diagnostic Testing For Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Kusumaningrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Now, male partners’ involvement in prenatal screening and diagnostic testing for Down syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized as well to ensure that parents are well informed of the risks and benefits of screening. The aim of study was to understand the degree of male partners’ involvement during pregnancy in Singapore population. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of male partners’ attending prenatal counseling was performed. The instrument used to measure the level of involvement is a self-assessment questionnaire that identifies the role of male partners with a Likert scale. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data gained. Result: A total of 107 participants completed the questionnaire. Sixty-seven percent of male partners were found to have a highlevel of involvement while 32.7% was found to have a medium level of involvement. Most of them stated that women can pursue prenatal testing without their permission. Male partners found it more important for them to accompany their spouse to amniocentesis or CVS than to the Down syndrome screening test. When participants were asked about how much information about Down syndrome they sought prior to the appointment, how much discussion they had with their spouse about Down syndrome testing, and about whether they or their spouse should be the first person to receive test results, most stated that they were undecided. Conclusion: These results revealed that male partners were very well involved in the Down syndrome testing during pregnancy and future studies should assess possible underlying factors that influence male partners’ involvement.

  7. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance.

  8. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    B. A., Baas, M., Wolsink, I., & Roskes, M. (2012). Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through...three types of sequences (made up of spatial, verbal , or numeric stimuli) that you must commit to memory N P R S T Response Grid • After you...the ATC MOS. MATC-ST implementation can improve the Marine vii ATC screening process through better schoolhouse performance, better operating forces

  9. Room Temperature Bubble Point Tests on Porous Screens: Implications for Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason; Mann, J. Adin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for room temperature bubble point tests conducted at the Cedar Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Cell 7 (CCL-7) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the performance of three different fine mesh screens in room temperature liquids to provide pretest predictions in cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and hydrogen (LH2) as part of NASA's microgravity LAD technology development program. Bench type tests based on the maximum bubble point method were conducted for a 325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, and 510 x 3600 mesh sample in pure room temperature liquid methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, water, and mixtures of methanol and water to cover the intermediate to upper surface tension range. A theoretical model for the bubble point pressure is derived from the Young-LaPlace equation for the pressure drop across a curved interface. Governing equations are reduced in complexity through a set of simplifying assumptions to permit direct comparison with the experimental data. Screen pore sizes are estimated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to make pretest predictions. Pore sizes based on SEM analysis are compared with historical data available in the literature for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 screens as well with data obtained from bubble point tests conducted in this work. Experimental results show that bubble point pressure is proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. We show that there is excellent agreement between data and model for pure fluids when the data is corrected for non-zero contact angle measured on the screens using a modified Sessile Drop technique. SEM image analysis of the three meshes indicated that bubble point pressure would be a maximum for the finest mesh screen. The pore diameters based on SEM analysis and experimental data obtained here are in excellent agreement for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 meshes, but not for the finest 510 x 3600 mesh. Therefore the simplified model

  10. Outcomes of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England after the first 1 million tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Coleman, Lynn; Rutter, Matt D; von Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England began operating in 2006 with the aim of full roll out across England by December 2009. Subjects aged 60–69 are being invited to complete three guaiac faecal occult blood tests (6 windows) every 2 years. The programme aims to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer by 16% in those invited for screening. Methods All subjects eligible for screening in the National Health Service in England are included on one database, which is populated from National Health Service registration data covering about 98% of the population of England. This analysis is only of subjects invited to participate in the first (prevalent) round of screening. Results By October 2008 almost 2.1 million had been invited to participate, with tests being returned by 49.6% of men and 54.4% of women invited. Uptake ranged between 55–60% across the four provincial hubs which administer the programme but was lower in the London hub (40%). Of the 1.08 million returning tests 2.5% of men and 1.5% of women had an abnormal test. 17 518 (10 608 M, 6910 F) underwent investigation, with 98% having a colonoscopy as their first investigation. Cancer (n=1772) and higher risk adenomas (n=6543) were found in 11.6% and 43% of men and 7.8% and 29% of women investigated, respectively. 71% of cancers were ‘early’ (10% polyp cancer, 32% Dukes A, 30% Dukes B) and 77% were left-sided (29% rectal, 45% sigmoid) with only 14% being right-sided compared with expected figures of 67% and 24% for left and right side from UK cancer registration. Conclusion In this first round of screening in England uptake and fecal occult blood test positivity was in line with that from the pilot and the original European trials. Although there was the expected improvement in cancer stage at diagnosis, the proportion with left-sided cancers was higher than expected. PMID:22156981

  11. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Stoop, Esther M; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M

    2013-11-15

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is related to differences in FIT sensitivity and specificity or to differences in prior CRC risk. Randomly selected, asymptomatic individuals were invited to undergo colonoscopy. Participants were asked to undergo one sample FIT and to complete a risk questionnaire. We identified patient characteristics associated with a false negative and false positive FIT results using logistic regression. We focused on statistically significant differences as well as on variables influencing the false positive or negative risk for which the odds ratio exceeded 1.25. Of the 1,426 screening participants, 1,112 (78%) completed FIT and the questionnaire; 101 (9.1%) had advanced neoplasia. 102 Individuals were FIT positive, 65 (64%) had a false negative FIT result and 66 (65%) a false positive FIT result. Participants at higher age and smokers had a significantly higher risk of a false negative FIT result. Males were at increased risk of a false positive result, so were smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in females. Specificity was lower for males, smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in women. FIT specificity was lower in males, smokers and regular NSAID users. Our results can be used for further evidence based individualization of screening strategies.

  12. Development and Validation of a High Throughput Screen for Compounds with Antiviral Activity Against Encephalitic Alphaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    determined the compounds as cytotoxic if the viability is less than 85% in the screening. 1. Single dose study A. Small library screening We have...run on two independent days and the results are shown below (Table 8). The assay metrics meet the requirement for a successful HTS assay for a library ... screening . The assay performance was ascertained by testing plate-to-plate variation (data not shown). Table 8. Assay performance of the assay

  13. Clinical experience from Thailand noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manotaya, S.; Uerpairojkit, B.; Chen, F.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this article is to report the clinical experience and performance of massively parallel sequencing-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a screening method in detecting trisomy 21, 18, and 13 (T21/T18/T13) in a mixed-risk population in Thailand. MethodsIn a 30-month...... period, 121 medical centers in Thailand offered NIPT as clinical screening tests for fetal T21, T18, and T13 in the mixed-risk population. All NIPT-positive cases were recommended to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. ResultsA total of 4736 participants received the NIPT test, including 2840 high...... 36T21, 19T18, and 8T13; 82.5% (52/63) took prenatal diagnosis, and 11.5% (6/52) false-positive cases were observed. The positive predictive values for the detection of T21, T18, and T13 were 94.4%, 79.0%, and 87.5%, respectively. ConclusionWith stringent protocol, our prospective large...

  14. Investigation of Thermal Performance of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tubular Solar Collectors According to a New Dynamic Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua;

    2012-01-01

    obtain fluid thermal capacitance in data processing. Then theoretical analysis and experimental verification are carried out to investigate influencing factors of obtaining accurate and stable second order term. A flat plate and ETC solar collector are compared using both the new dynamic method......A new dynamic test method is introduced. This so called improved transfer function method features on two new collector parameters. One is time term which can indicate solar collector's inner heat transfer ability and the other is a second order term of collector mean fluid temperature which can...... and a standard method. The results show that the improved function method can accurately and robustly estimate these two kinds of solar collectors....

  15. Defect Localization Capabilities of a Global Detection Scheme: Spatial Pattern Recognition Using Full-field Vibration Test Data in Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Prabhu, M.; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a conceptually simple approach, based on the notion of defect energy in material space has been developed and extensively studied (from the theoretical and computational standpoints). The present study focuses on its evaluation from the viewpoint of damage localization capabilities in case of two-dimensional plates; i.e., spatial pattern recognition on surfaces. To this end, two different experimental modal test results are utilized; i.e., (1) conventional modal testing using (white noise) excitation and accelerometer-type sensors and (2) pattern recognition using Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a full field method capable of analyzing the mechanical vibration of complex structures. Unlike the conventional modal testing technique (using contacting accelerometers), these emerging ESPI technologies operate in a non-contacting mode, can be used even under hazardous conditions with minimal or no presence of noise and can simultaneously provide measurements for both translations and rotations. Results obtained have clearly demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the global NDE scheme developed. The vectorial character of the indices used, which enabled the extraction of distinct patterns for localizing damages proved very useful. In the context of the targeted pattern recognition paradigm, two algorithms were developed for the interrogation of test measurements; i.e., intensity contour maps for the damaged index, and the associated defect energy vector field plots.

  16. Elevated serum CA 19-9 at screening tests: underlying conditions and role of abdominopelvic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yang [University of Louisville, Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging Research Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bundang CHA Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate underlying conditions of patients with elevated CA 19-9 at screening tests and to evaluate diagnostic performance of abdominopelvic CT. One hundred and thirteen patients with elevated CA 19-9 (>37 U/ml) who underwent abdominopelvic CT in a screening program were selected. Underlying conditions were determined by reviewing all available data and follow-up records. Patients were categorized into malignancy, benign, and normal/non-related disease groups. Their mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity of CT for detecting underlying conditions of elevated CA 19-9 was analysed. Seventeen patients (17/113, 15 %) had 17 elevated CA 19-9-related malignancies, and 55 patients (55/113, 48.7 %) had 70 benign diseases. Mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml in the malignancy group were significantly higher than in the two other groups. CT detected all except one malignant lesion with a detection sensitivity of 94.1 % (16/17). Of 70 CA 19-9-related benign diseases, CT detected 34 benign diseases (48.6 %) providing an alternative diagnosis for elevated CA 19-9. Abdominopelvic CT is not only useful in detecting malignancies, but can also diagnose alternative benign causes of elevated CA 19-9 in asymptomatic screening tests. (orig.)

  17. Is the Screening Test of the French Version of the Dementia Quality of Life Questionnaire Indispensable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wolak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the screening questions in the French version of the Dementia Quality of Life (DQoL questionnaire. To assess the psychometric properties of the French DQoL, 155 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia were recruited. Here, we compared the psychometric properties of the instrument between patients who passed the screening test (n = 109 and the whole study population (n = 155. The French DQoL version showed a good test-retest reliability at a 2-week interval (0.95 ≤ intraclass correlation coefficients ≤ 1.0, and an average internal consistency (0.58 ≤ Cronbach’s α ≤ 0.87 for the 2 study groups. Significant differences were observed in the 2 groups for 4 dimensions of the DQoL regarding dementia severity (Cornell scale, and for 3 dimensions evaluating depression (MMSE. Convergent validity with the Duke Health Profile revealed many significant correlations between dimensions not only in the 109 patients, but also in the whole study population. Our study demonstrated that patients who failed the screening procedure nonetheless seemed to be able to answer the DQoL questionnaire, the whole study group showing acceptable psychometric properties.

  18. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J J Berm

    Full Text Available Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature.A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies' overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES instrument.We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing.Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests' efficacy remains of utmost importance.

  19. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berm, Elizabeth J J; Looff, Margot de; Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; Boven, Job F M van; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies' overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing. Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests' efficacy remains of utmost importance.

  20. Acceptability, benefit and costs of early screening for hearing disability: a study of potential screening tests and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A; Smith, P; Ferguson, M; Stephens, D; Gianopoulos, I

    2007-10-01

    To show that hearing loss has such a high prevalence in the older population to justify screening, if effective and acceptable methods are available; and that population take-up and benefit can make a measurable outcome difference in quality of life. A population study of people aged 55-74 years was undertaken. A clinical effectiveness study of differently organised screening programmes was carried out using a controlled trial to identify those who might benefit from intervention (and the extent of the benefit). A retrospective case-control study examined the very long-term (more than 10 years) compliance of patients in using their hearing aids after early identification and determined the extent to which early-identified hearing-impaired people have better outcomes than equivalent people identified later. An examination of the costs and cost-effectiveness of different potential screening programmes was also undertaken. A population study was designed in the UK, with specific stages being conducted in more depth on a sample of people from Nottingham and Southampton. The clinical effectiveness study was conducted in general practices in Nottingham and Bath using a systematic or opportunistic screen. The retrospective case-control study compared a group of early-identified hearing aid users, with control matched for age, gender and occupation, in Cardiff, Glasgow and Manchester. In Great Britain responses were obtained for 34,362 individuals from the postal questionnaire as part of a population study, 506 were interviewed, 351 were assessed for benefit from amplification and 87 were fitted with a hearing aid. The clinical effectiveness study received 1461 replies from the first-stage questionnaire screen, with 306 people assessed in the clinic, of whom 156 were fitted with hearing aids. The retrospective case-control study traced 116 previously fitted hearing aid users, who had been identified by a screen, and then conducted a case-control using 50 of these for whom

  1. Cytology versus HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, George; Nyaga, Victoria N; Santesso, Nancy; Bryant, Andrew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre Pl; Mustafa, Reem A; Schünemann, Holger; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-08-10

    Cervical cancer screening has traditionally been based on cervical cytology. Given the aetiological relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical carcinogenesis, HPV testing has been proposed as an alternative screening test. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of HPV testing for detecting histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+), including adenocarcinoma in situ, in women participating in primary cervical cancer screening; and how it compares to the accuracy of cytological testing (liquid-based and conventional) at various thresholds. We performed a systematic literature search of articles in MEDLINE and Embase (1992 to November 2015) containing quantitative data and handsearched the reference lists of retrieved articles. We included comparative test accuracy studies if all women received both HPV testing and cervical cytology followed by verification of the disease status with the reference standard, if positive for at least one screening test. The studies had to include women participating in a cervical cancer screening programme who were not being followed up for previous cytological abnormalities. We completed a 2 x 2 table with the number of true positives (TP), false positives (FP), true negatives (TN), and false negatives for each screening test (HPV test and cytology) used in each study. We calculated the absolute and relative sensitivities and the specificities of the tests for the detection of CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ at various thresholds and computed sensitivity (TP/(TP + TN) and specificity (TN/ (TN + FP) for each test separately. Relative sensitivity and specificity of one test compared to another test were defined as sensitivity of test-1 over sensitivity of test-2 and specificity of test-1 over specificity of test-2, respectively. To assess bias in the studies, we used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic test Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. We used a bivariate random

  2. A semiparametric censoring bias model for estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test under dependent censoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    False-positive test results are among the most common harms of screening tests and may lead to more invasive and expensive diagnostic testing procedures. Estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test result after repeat screening rounds is, therefore, important for evaluating potential screening regimens. Existing estimators of the cumulative false-positive risk are limited by strong assumptions about censoring mechanisms and parametric assumptions about variation in risk across screening rounds. To address these limitations, we propose a semiparametric censoring bias model for cumulative false-positive risk that allows for dependent censoring without specifying a fixed functional form for variation in risk across screening rounds. Simulation studies demonstrated that the censoring bias model performs similarly to existing models under independent censoring and can largely eliminate bias under dependent censoring. We used the existing and newly proposed models to estimate the cumulative false-positive risk and variation in risk as a function of baseline age and family history of breast cancer after 10 years of annual screening mammography using data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Ignoring potential dependent censoring in this context leads to underestimation of the cumulative risk of false-positive results. Models that provide accurate estimates under dependent censoring are critical for providing appropriate information for evaluating screening tests.

  3. Comparison of Hybrid capture 2 testing at different thresholds with cytology as primary cervical screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Coupe, V. M. H.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Hesselink, A. T.; Verweij, W.; Rozendaal, L.; Verheijen, R. H.; Snijders, P. J.; Berkhof, J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing by hybrid capture 2 (HC2) with different thresholds for positivity, in comparison with conventional cytology. METHODS: We used data of 25 871 women (aged 30-60 years) from the intervention group of the

  4. Comparison of Hybrid capture 2 testing at different thresholds with cytology as primary cervical screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Coupe, V. M. H.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Hesselink, A. T.; Verweij, W.; Rozendaal, L.; Verheijen, R. H.; Snijders, P. J.; Berkhof, J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing by hybrid capture 2 (HC2) with different thresholds for positivity, in comparison with conventional cytology. METHODS: We used data of 25 871 women (aged 30-60 years) from the intervention group of the

  5. Similar fecal immunochemical test results in screening and referral colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sietze T van Turenhout; Leo GM van Rossum; Frank A Oort; Robert JF Laheij; Anne F van Rijn; Jochim S Terhaar sive Droste; Paul Fockens

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To improve the interpretation of fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results in colorectal cancer (CRC)cases from screening and referral cohorts.METHODS:In this comparative observational study,two prospective cohorts of CRC cases were compared.The first cohort was obtained from 10 322 average risk subjects invited for CRC screening with FIT,of which,only subjects with a positive FIT were referred for colonoscopy.The second cohort was obtained from 3637subjects scheduled for elective colonoscopy with a positive FIT result.The same FIT and positivity threshold (OC sensor; ≥ 50 ng/mL) was used in both cohorts.Colonoscopy was performed in all referral subjects and in FIT positive screening subjects.All CRC cases were selected from both cohorts.Outcome measurements were mean FIT results and FIT scores per tissue tumor stage (T stage).RESULTS:One hundred and eighteen patients with CRC were included in the present study:28 cases obtained from the screening cohort (64% male; mean age 65 years,SD 6.5) and 90 cases obtained from the referral cohort (58% male; mean age 69 years,SD 9.8).The mean FIT results found were higher in the referral cohort (829 ± 302 ng/mL vs 613 ± 368 ng/mL,P =0.02).Tissue tumor stage (T stage) distribution was different between both populations [screening population:13 (46%) T1,eight (29%) T2,six (21%) T3,one (4%)T4 carcinoma; referral population:12 (13%) T1,22(24%) T2,52 (58%) T3,four (4%) T4 carcinoma],and higher T stage was significantly associated with higher FIT results (P < 0.001).Per tumor stage,no significant difference in mean F1T results was observed (screening vs referral:T1 498 ± 382 ng/mL vs 725 ± 374 ng/mL,P =0.22; T2 787 ± 303 ng/mL vs 794 ± 341 ng/mL,P=0.79; T3 563 ± 368 ng/mL vs 870 ± 258 ng/mL,P =0.13; T4 not available).Alter correction for T stage in logistic regression analysis,no significant differences in mean FIT results were observed between both types of cohorts (P =0.10).CONCLUSION

  6. Diagnostic dilemma of the single screening test used in the diagnosis of syphilis in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumre, S P; Shakya, G; Acharya, D; Malla, S; Adhikari, N

    2011-12-01

    Syphilis screening by the nontreponemal rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is not usually followed up by specific treponemal tests in most of the resource poor healthcare settings of Nepal. We analyzed serum specimens of 504 suspected syphilis cases at the immunology department of the national reference laboratory in Nepal during 2007-2009 using RPR test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). In overall, 35.7% were positive by both methods (combination) while 13.1% were RPR positive and TPHA negative, 8.7% were positive by TPHA only and 42.5% were negative by both methods. Among the RPR reactive (n = 246), 73.2% were positive by TPHA. Non-specific agglutination in RPR testing was relatively higher (26.8%) compared to TPHA (19.6%). Although TPHA was found more specific than RPR test, either of the single tests produced inaccurate diagnosis. Since the single RPR testing for syphilis may yield false positive results, specific treponemal test should be routinely used as confirmatory test to rule out false RPR positive cases. More attention needs to be paid on formulation of strict policy on the implementation of the existing guidelines throughout the country to prevent misdiagnosis in syphilis with the use of single RPR test.

  7. Self-administered tests as a screening procedure for pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Gutke, Annelie; Elden, Helen; Nordenman, Charlotte; Fabricius, Lina; Gravesen, Melissa; Lind, Anette; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity and specificity of self-administrated tests aimed at pain provocation of posterior and/or anterior pelvis pain and to investigate pain intensity during and after palpation of the symphysis. A total of 175 women participated in the study, 100 pregnant women with and 25 pregnant women without lumbopelvic back pain and 50 non-pregnant women. Standard pain provocation tests were compared with self assessed tests. All women were asked to estimate pain during and after palpation of the symphysis. For posterior pelvic pain, the self-test of P4 and Bridging test had the highest sensitivity of 0.90 versus 0.97 and specificity of 0.92 and 0.87. Highest sensitivity for self-test for anterior pelvic pain was pulling a mat 0.85. Palpation of symphysis was painful and persistency of pain was the longest among women who fulfilled the criteria for symphyseal pain. There were overall significant differences between the groups concerning intensity and persistency of pain (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that pregnant women can perform a screening by provocation of posterior pelvic pain by self-tests with the new P4 self-test and the Bridging test. Palpation of the symphysis is painful and should only be used as a complement to history taking, pain drawing and pulling a MAT-test.

  8. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  9. Laboratory Test for Measurement of Adhesion Strength of Spray Ice to Coated Flat Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    became trapped within the ice. After the by test group 612 during icing due to nozzle freezeup sprayer was turned off, the unfrozen water became and the...indicated if and when nozzle freezeup occurred. Short and the push block increased as the block moved for- duration peaks in the nozzle temperature occurred...either nozzle freezeup and conse- bond strength of each sample. Notice, in Figure 2 1. the quent efforts to thaw, the application of more insulation

  10. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  11. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.sadiq@pnra.org [Center for Nuclear Safety (CNS), Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), PO Box 1912, Islamabad (Pakistan); Xiu Yun, Zhu, E-mail: lyzhuxiuyun@163.com [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NSC), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Beijing (China); Rong, Pan, E-mail: panrong@chinansc.cn [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NSC), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact.

  12. Efficacy of crystallization test for screening of oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinico-pathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin C Sarode

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the efficacy of crystallization test for screening oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC with clinico-pathologic correlation. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of OSCC and 30 healthy individuals were selected. One drop of blood was collected into 1 cc of doubled distilled water at room temperature to give a final dilution of 6% hemolyzed blood. 0.1 to 0.2 cc of blood sample was then subjected to crystallization test using 10% cupric chloride solution. Results: In healthy control group, the typical pattern was an eccentrically placed center of gravity with needles arranged in radiating fashion, while in OSCC group, there was ′transverse form′ (TF formation. The sensitivity and specificity of this test was found to be 96% and 96.66%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 97.96% and 98.55%, respectively. The mean TF frequency was found to be increasing from grade I (3.20 ± 1.5% to grade II (653 ± 2.23% and difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0001. However, there was no correlation between mean TF frequency and TNM stages of OSCC. Conclusion: Crystallization test is a simple, reliable, economical, less time-consuming, and less invasive screening procedure, which can be used for early detection of OSCC.

  13. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  14. An alternative in vitro drug screening test using Leishmania amazonensis transfected with red fluorescent protein✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcele N.; Corrêa, Célia M.; Melo, Maria N.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Madureira, Ana Paula; Soares, Rodrigo P.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent and colorimetric reporter genes are valuable tools for drug screening models, since microscopy is labor intensive and subject to observer variation. In this work, we propose a fluorimetric method for drug screening using red fluorescent parasites. Fluorescent Leishmania amazonensis were developed after transfection with integration plasmids containing either red (RFP) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes. After transfection, wild-type (LaWT) and transfected (LaGFP and LaRFP) parasites were subjected to flow cytometry, macrophage infection, and tests of susceptibility to current antileishmanial agents and propranolol derivatives previously shown to be active against Trypanosoma cruzi. Flow cytometry analysis discriminated LaWT from LaRFP and LaGFP parasites, without affecting cell size or granulosity. With microscopy, transfection with antibiotic resistant genes was not shown to affect macrophage infectivity and susceptibility to amphotericin B and propranolol derivatives. Retention of fluorescence remained in the intracellular amastigotes in both LaGFP and LaRFP transfectants. However, detection of intracellular RFP parasites was only achieved in the fluorimeter. Murine BALB/c macrophages were infected with LaRFP parasites, exposed to standard (meglumine antimoniate, amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and allopurinol) and tested molecules. Although it was possible to determine IC50 values for 4 propranolol derivatives (1, 2b, 3, and 4b), all compounds were considered inactive. This study is the first to develop a fluorimetric drug screening test for L. amazonensis RFP. The fluorimetric test was comparable to microscopy with the advantage of being faster and not requiring manual counting. PMID:23312610

  15. Interpreting positive signs of the supraspinatus test in screening for torn rotator cuff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Eugene

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the supraspinatus test as a screening test for detecting torn rotator cuff and to determine what its valuable positive signs were. Both the empty-can test and full-can test were performed on 200 shoulders diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-and in some cases, surgical findings-to have full-thickness or partial-thickness torn rotator cuff s, or no tear in the rotator cuff . During the maneuver, the presence of pain or weakness or both pain and weakness were recorded as positive signs, and the distribution of these signs were analyzed according to the degree of tear. The predictive values were calculated in 2 ways by considering (1 only full-thickness tears as tears and (2 both full- and partial-thickness tears as tears. The 2 tests and the 2 ways of considering partial-thickness tears were compared. Pain and weakness were severity-dependent, and the empty-can test had a higher incidence of pain. The sensitivities of the 2 supraspinatus tests in all positive signs were higher when including partial-thickness tears in the tear group ; however, their specificities were higher when excluding partial-thickness tears. Both pain and weakness were interpretive for the supraspinatus test, and both tests were sensitive to full- and partial- thickness tears and specific for full-thickness tears.

  16. Developmental screening in context: adaptation and standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II) for Sri Lankan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedasa, D

    2012-11-01

    Developmental problems in children can be alleviated to a great extent with early detection and intervention through periodic screening for developmental delays during pre-school ages. Currently, there is no established system for developmental screening of children in Sri Lanka. Although some developmental norms, which are similar to those of Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II), have been introduced into the Sri Lankan Child Health Developmental Record (CHDR), those norms have not been standardized to the Sri Lankan child population. The aim of this research was to establish Sri Lankan norms for DDST-II and to test the universal and regional applicability of developmental screening tests by comparing the Sri Lankan norms with the norms of DDST-II and DDST-Singapore norms, the geographically nearest standardization of DDST-II. The norms were also compared with the milestones already available in the CHDR. DDST-II was adapted and standardized on a sample of 4251 Sri Lankan children aged 0-80 months. Thirteen public health nursing sisters were trained to collect the data as part of their routine work. The 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile ages of acquiring each developmental milestone were then calculated using logistic regression. The Denver Developmental Screening Test for Sri Lankan Children (DDST-SL) was created. Most of the established DDST-SL norms were different to the comparable norms in DDST-II, DDST-Singapore and the CHDR. In view of the results of the study, it is imperative that developmental screening tests are used in context and are adapted and standardized to the populations in question before utilization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Usefulness of the Denver Developmental Screening Test to Predict Kindergarten Problems in a General Community Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) was administered to 2569 children prior to starting kindergarten. At the end of the school year, teachers rated each child. Results suggest that because of its low sensitivity and modest predictive value, the DDST is relatively inefficient for a school entry screening program in a general population.…

  18. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernandez

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  19. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Maria E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  20. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M.; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrat