Sample records for plate screening tests

  1. [Historical Development of the Wool and Colour Plate Tests for Screening for Colour Vision Deficiencies in German Speaking Countries]. (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, J


    Colour vision is a complex visual function that can be affected by congenital and/or acquired disorders. The frequency of congenital colour vision deficiencies has been investigated in rail and navy staff since the 1870s. Various test methods have been developed. Wool tests, flor contrast tests and colour plate tests have been used. A published colour plate test, based on Stilling's pseudo-isochromatic plates in combination with a flor contrast test, has been a common screening method for colour vision testing in German-speaking countries. This test is intended to detect congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies in a simple and safe manner. More modern options, such as Internet and tablet PC have technical limitations, but will increasingly be used for screening for colour vision deficiencies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Field-based evaluations of horizontal flat-plate fish screens, II: Testing of a unique off-stream channel device - The Farmers Screen (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.


    Screens are installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District (Oregon) developed a unique flat-plate screen (the “Farmers Screen”) that operates passively and may offer reduced installation and operating costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of this screen on fish, we conducted two separate field experiments. First, juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were released over a working version of this screen under a range of inflows (0.02–0.42 m3/s) and diversion flows (0.02–0.34 m3/s) at different water depths. Mean approach velocities ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s and sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 cm and were directly related to inflow. Passage of fish over the screen under these conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality, and no fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface. Second, juvenile coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss were released at the upstream end of a 34-m flume and allowed to volitionally move downstream and pass over a 3.5-m section of the Farmers Screen to determine whether fish would refuse to pass over the screen after encountering its leading edge. For coho salmon, 75–95% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 82–98% passed within 20 min, depending on hydraulic conditions. For steelhead, 47–90% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 79–95% passed within 20 min. Our results indicate that when operated within its design criteria, the Farmers Screen provides safe and efficient downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions.

  3. Interaction between plate make and protein in protein crystallisation screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallisation screening involves the parallel testing of large numbers of candidate conditions with the aim of identifying conditions suitable as a starting point for the production of diffraction quality crystals. Generally, condition screening is performed in 96-well plates. While previous studies have examined the effects of protein construct, protein purity, or crystallisation condition ingredients on protein crystallisation, few have examined the effect of the crystallisation plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a statistically rigorous examination of protein crystallisation, and evaluated interactions between crystallisation success and plate row/column, different plates of same make, different plate makes and different proteins. From our analysis of protein crystallisation, we found a significant interaction between plate make and the specific protein being crystallised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protein crystal structure determination is the principal method for determining protein structure but is limited by the need to produce crystals of the protein under study. Many important proteins are difficult to crystallize, so that identification of factors that assist crystallisation could open up the structure determination of these more challenging targets. Our findings suggest that protein crystallisation success may be improved by matching a protein with its optimal plate make.

  4. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique


    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin...

  5. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  6. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  7. Validation of a Five Plate Test, the STAR protocol, for the screening of antibiotic residues in muscle from different animal species according to European Decision 2002/657/EC. (United States)

    Gaudin, V; Hedou, C; Rault, A; Verdon, E


    The STAR protocol is a Five Plate Test (FPT) developed several years ago at the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) for the screening of antimicrobial residues in milk and muscle. This paper presents the validation of this method according to European Decision 2002/657/EC and to an internal guideline for validation. A validation protocol based on 'simulated tissues' and on a list of 16 representative antimicrobials to be validated was implemented in our laboratory during several months for the STAR protocol. The performance characteristics of the method were determined (specificity, detection capabilities CCbeta, applicability, ruggedness). In conclusion, the STAR protocol is applicable to the broad-spectrum detection of antibiotic residues in muscles of different animal species (pig, cattle, sheep, poultry). The method has good specificity (false-positive rate = 4%). The detection capabilities were determined for 16 antibiotics from different families in relation to their respective maximum residue limit (MRL): beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins 8 MRL) and florfenicol (MRL). The two objectives of this study were met: firstly, to validate the STAR protocol according to European Decision 2002/657/EC, then to demonstrate that the validation guideline developed to implement this decision is applicable to microbiological plate tests even for muscle. The use of simulated tissue appeared a good compromise between spiked discs with antibiotic solutions and incurred tissues. In addition, the choice of a list of representative antibiotics allowed the reduction of the scope of the validation, which was already costly in time and effort.

  8. Irradiation testing of miniature fuel plates for the RERTR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, R L; Martin, M M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)


    An irradiation test facility, which provides a test bed for irradiating a variety of miniature fuel plates miniplates) for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, has been placed into operation. The objective of these tests is to screen various candidate fuel materials as to their suitability for replacing the highly enriched uranium fuel materials currently used by the world's test and research reactors with a lower enrichment fuel material, without significantly degrading reactor operating characteristics and power levels. The use of low uranium enrichment of about 20% {sup 235}U in place of highly enriched fuel for these reactors would reduce the potential for {sup 235}U diversion. Fuel materials currently being evaluated in this first phase of these screening tests include aluminum-base dispersion-type fuel plates with fuel cores of 1) high uranium content U{sup 3}){sup 8}-Al being developed by ORNL, 2) high uranium content UAI{sub x}-Al being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and 3) very high uranium content U{sub 3}Si-Al- being developed by ANL. The miniplates are 115-mm long by 50-mm wide with overall plate thicknesses of 1.27 or 1.52 mm. The fuel core dimensions vary according to overall plate thicknesses with a minimal clad thickness requirement of 0.20 mm. Sixty such miniplates (thirty of each thickness) can be irradiated in one test facility. The irradiation test facility, designated as HFED-1 is operating in core position E-7 in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR), a 30-MW water-moderated reactor. The peak neutron flux measured for this experiment is 1.96 x 10{sup 18} neutrons m{sub -2} s{sub -1}. The various types of miniplates will achieve burnups of up to approximately 2.2x10{sup 27} fissions/m{sup 3} of fuel, which will require approximately eight full power months of irradiation. During reactor shutdown periods, the experiment is removed from the reactor, moved to a special poolside station, disassembled, and inspected

  9. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  10. Multispectral analysis and cone signal modelling of pseudoisochromatic test plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luse, K; Ozolinsh, M; Gutmane, A; Fomins, S


    The aim of the study is to determine the consistency of the desired colour reproduction of the stimuli using calibrated printing technology available to anyone (EpsonStylus Pro 7800 printer was). 24 colour vision assessment plates created in the University of Latvia were analysed right after their fabrication on august 2012 and after intense use for 7 months (colour vision screening on 700 people). Multispectral imagery results indicate that the alignment of the samples after seven months of use has maintained on the CIExy confusion lines of deutan deficiency type, but the shift towards achromatic area in the diagram indicate decrease in the total colour difference (ΔE* ab ) of test background (achromatic) areas and stimuli (chromatic) areas, thus affecting the testing outcome and deficiency severity level classification ability of the plates

  11. Screening Tests for Birth Defects (United States)

    ... that best fit your needs. What are the advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic tests compared with screening ... Us Contact Us Copyright Information Privacy Statement RSS Advertising Opportunities Careers at ACOG Sitemap Website Feedback American ...

  12. Newborn Screening Tests (United States)

    ... don't have enough biotinidase, an enzyme that recycles biotin (a B vitamin) in the body. Biotinidase ... about additional tests: Do you have a family history of an inherited disorder? Have you previously given ...

  13. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.


    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  14. Weigh Station and Grid Plate Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The purpose of this test is to verify that the Shortened Fuel Canister Hook with Certified Scale (i.e. Weigh Station) can be used to weigh an empty canister from the Canister Well and the empty Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) Strainer Basket from the process table. Drawing H-1-84835, ''Canister Handling Hook for Fuel Retrieval System Process Table,'' provides details of the Shortened Fuel Canister Hook. It is also necessary to verify that the grid plate can be lifted and tilted over a canister in the canister well. This testing shall be performed before N Reactor fuel is processed through the FRS in Phase 3. The Phase 3 Test will repeatedly weigh fuel and scrap canisters and the PCM strainer basket containing N Reactor fuel (Pajunen, et. al, 2000). Advance testing of this weigh station will ensure that accurate fuel weight data can be recorded in the Phase 3 Test. This document satisfies the requirements EN-6-031-00, ''Testing Process'' for a test plan, test specification and test procedure

  15. Review of Autism Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani


    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that onset in the first 3 years of life and led to lifelong disability.Despite the early onset of symptoms, diagnosis of thissyndromedoes not happenuntil severalyears later, somany childrenlosethe opportunityfor earlyintervention.There arevarious toolsforscreening anddiagnosis, buttheirdesign, strengths and weaknesses aredifferent. The aim of this study was assess these tools from various aspects to provide a comprehensive view. Materials and methods: This study is a narrative literature review on screeningtoolsof autism. Comprehensive searches of the scientific literature were conducted in textbooks and 8 electronic databases(proquest,wiley,google scholar,SID,Scopus, Web of Science ،Science Direct ، and Medline and Pediatric book. language restriction (Persian and English was applied. The search strategy consisted of keywords and medical subject headings for autism and various screening tests. Result: In this study, 28 screening tests were identified from 1992 to 2014. CHAT is oldest test and the most recent test is CAST The minimum age that can perform the screening is six months that related to ITC. Minimum time of testing was 5 minutes  for CHAT and the maximum time was 90-120 minutes for ASIEP-3.RAADS-R test was the highest specificity and specificity (100% and the lowest specificity was 14% in ESAT test Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that any of the autism screening tools consider specific skill and various aspects of the disease, careful evaluation is need to choose proper test.

  16. Statistical test for the distribution of galaxies on plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lambas, D.


    A statistical test for the distribution of galaxies on plates is presented. We apply the test to synthetic astronomical plates obtained by means of numerical simulation (Garcia Lambas and Sersic 1983) with three different models for the 3-dimensional distribution, comparison with an observational plate, suggest the presence of filamentary structure. (author)

  17. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.


    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60 degrees C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  18. Modification of the Rappaport rapid test in large-scale testing for syphilis. Evaluation of the rapid plate and rapid card tests. (United States)

    Ghinsberg, R; Meir, E; Blumstein, G; Kafeman, R


    The Rappaport rapid (RR) plate and card tests were developed as modifications of the RR tube test to permit rapid and inexpensive screening of large numbers of subjects for the diagnosis of syphilis. More than 2,000 sera were examined in parallel by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test, the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test and the RR plate and card tests. There was complete agreement between the RR plate and card tests and the VDRL slide and RPR card tests in 96.6% of sera. In a selected group of 1,530 sera examined, in addition, by the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, there was agreement between the RR plate and card tests and the FTA-ABS test in 74.3% of sera and between the VDRL and RPR tests and the FTA-ABS test in 73.7% of sera. The RR plate test was found to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of syphilis, although the VDRL slide test is perhaps more sensitive in primary and late latent syphilis. Since the antigen used in the RR tests is colored and stable and the sera do not require inactivation before the test, the tests are easier to perform than the VDRL slide test: the RR plate and card tests could therefore replace the VDRL test as a screening test, with hardly any loss of accuracy.

  19. Ultrasonic Testing of NIF Amplifier FAU Top Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, D.J.; Huber, R.D.; Haskins, J.J.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Souza, P.R.; Le, T.V.


    A key component in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser optic system is the amplifier frame assembly unit (FAU). The cast aluminum top plate that supports the FAU is required to withstand loads that would occur during an earthquake with a recurrence period of 1000 years. The stringent seismic requirements placed on the FAU top plate induced a study of the cast aluminum material used in the top plate. Ultrasonic testing was used to aid in characterizing the aluminum material used in the plates. This report documents the work performed using contact ultrasonic testing to characterize the FAU top plate material. The ultrasonic work reported here had 3 objectives: (1) inspect the plate material before cyclic testing conducted at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER); (2) determine the overall quality of individual plates; and (3) detect large defects in critical areas of individual plates. Section III, ''Pre-cyclic test inspection'', describes work performed in support of Objective 1. Section IV, ''Ultrasonic field measurements'', describes work performed in support of Objectives 2 and 3

  20. Screening and Crystallization Plates for Manual and High-throughput Protein Crystal Growth (United States)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Berejnov, Viatcheslav (Inventor); Kalinin, Yevgeniy (Inventor)


    In one embodiment, a crystallization and screening plate comprises a plurality of cells open at a top and a bottom, a frame that defines the cells in the plate, and at least two films. The first film seals a top of the plate and the second film seals a bottom of the plate. At least one of the films is patterned to strongly pin the contact lines of drops dispensed onto it, fixing their position and shape. The present invention also includes methods and other devices for manual and high-throughput protein crystal growth.

  1. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer (United States)

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  2. C6 plate puncture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangoethem, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordova, Theresa Elena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.

  3. Tokamak fusion test reactor FELIX plate experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.O.; Nygren, R.E.; Turner, L.R.


    For a conducting material exposed to both a time-varying and a static magnetic field, such as a limiter blade in a tokamak, the induced eddy currents and the deflection arising from those eddy currents can be strongly coupled. The coupling effects reduce the currents and deflections markedly, sometimes an order of magnitude, from the values predicted if coupling is neglected. A series of experiments to study current-deflection coupling were performed using the Fusion Electromagnetic Inductance Experiment (FELIX) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness resulting from the coupling are discussed, and analytical expressions for induced eddy current and rigid body rotation in the FELIX plate experiment are compared with the experimental results. Predictions for the degree of coupling based on various parameters are made using the analytical model

  4. Calibration and use of filter test facility orifice plates (United States)

    Fain, D. E.; Selby, T. W.


    There are three official DOE filter test facilities. These test facilities are used by the DOE, and others, to test nuclear grade HEPA filters to provide Quality Assurance that the filters meet the required specifications. The filters are tested for both filter efficiency and pressure drop. In the test equipment, standard orifice plates are used to set the specified flow rates for the tests. There has existed a need to calibrate the orifice plates from the three facilities with a common calibration source to assure that the facilities have comparable tests. A project has been undertaken to calibrate these orifice plates. In addition to reporting the results of the calibrations of the orifice plates, the means for using the calibration results will be discussed. A comparison of the orifice discharge coefficients for the orifice plates used at the seven facilities will be given. The pros and cons for the use of mass flow or volume flow rates for testing will be discussed. It is recommended that volume flow rates be used as a more practical and comparable means of testing filters. The rationale for this recommendation will be discussed.

  5. Fermentation in 24-well plates is an efficient screening platform for filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Hansen, Bjørn; Lübeck, Mette

    Conventional citric acid batch-fermentation by filamentous fungi is often linked with large variations in production levels. The most used citric acid batch-fermentation method described in literature is based on Erlenmeyer flasks with cotton-stoppers in a heated shaker. Our preliminary studies...... using Erlenmeyer flasks in sextuplicates showed a relative standard sample deviation of 54 % citric acid produced with the filamentous fungi Aspergillus carbonarius, thereby confirming these large variations. The objective of this study was to propose a different and more reliable screening method...... for citric acid production from filamentous fungi, using A. carbonarius as test organism in a 24 well plate system. The two systems where run simultaneously with only the mechanical parameters as difference between them. All experiments were performed in sextuplicates to be able to give a higher statistical...

  6. Fuel performance analysis for the HAMP-1 mini plate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byoung Jin; Tahka, Y. W.; Yim, J. S.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    U-7wt%Mo/Al- 5wt%Si dispersion fuel with 8gU/cm{sup 3} is chosen to achieve more efficiency and higher performance than the conventional U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel. As part of the fuel qualification program for the KiJang research reactor (KJRR), three irradiation tests with mini-plates are on the way at the High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO). The first test among three HANARO Mini-Plate Irradiation tests (HAMP-1, 2, 3) has completed. PLATE code has been initially developed to analyze the thermal performance of high density U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates during irradiation [1]. We upgraded the PLATE code with the latest irradiation results which were implemented by corrosion, thermal conductivity and swelling model. Fuel performance analysis for HAMP-1 was conducted with updated PLATE. This paper presents results of performance evaluation of the HAMP-1. Maximum fuel temperature was obtained 136 .deg., which is far below the preset limit of 200 .deg. for the irradiation test. The meat swelling and corrosion thickness was also confirmed that the developed fuel would behave as anticipated.

  7. 46 CFR 57.06-2 - Production test plate interval of testing. (United States)


    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-2 Production test plate interval of testing. (a) At least one... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production test plate interval of testing. 57.06-2... follows: (1) When the extent of welding on a single vessel exceeds 50 lineal feet of either or both...

  8. Use of a Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader in high-throughput screening (United States)

    Groebe, Duncan R.; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha; Hahn, Holly; Warrior, Usha; Traphagen, Linda; Burns, David J.


    High-throughput screening (HTS) efforts at Abbott Laboratories have been greatly facilitated by the use of a Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader. The FLIPR consists of an incubated cabinet with integrated 96-channel pipettor and fluorometer. An argon laser is used to excite fluorophores in a 96-well microtiter plate and the emitted fluorometer. An argon laser is used to excite fluorophores in a 96-well microtiter plate and the emitted fluorescence is imaged by a cooled CCD camera. The image data is downloaded from the camera and processed to average the signal form each well of the microtiter pate for each time point. The data is presented in real time on the computer screen, facilitating interpretation and trouble-shooting. In addition to fluorescence, the camera can also detect luminescence form firefly luciferase.

  9. Testing flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial environment (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Arnett, J. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.


    New qualification tests have been developed for flat plate photovoltaic modules. Temperature cycling, cyclic pressure load, and humidity exposure are especially useful for detecting design and fabrication deficiencies. There is positive correlation between many of the observed field effects, such as power loss, and qualification test induced degradation. The status of research efforts for the development of test methodology for field-related problems is reviewed.

  10. Qualification testing of flat-plate photovoltaic modules (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.


    The placement of photovoltaic modules in various applications, in climates and locations throughout the world, results in different degrees and combinations of environmental and electrical stress. Early detection of module reliability deficiencies via laboratory testing is necessary for achieving long, satisfactory field service. This overview paper describes qualification testing techniques being used in the US Department of Energy's flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic development program in terms of their significance, rationale for specified levels and durations, and test results.

  11. Biological Evaluations of an Off-Stream Channel, Horizontal Flat-Plate Fish Screen-The Farmers Screen (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.


    Screens are commonly installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District in Hood River, Oregon, developed a new flat-plate screen design that offers passive operation and may result in reduced operation and installation costs to irrigators. To evaluate the performance (its biological effect on fish) of this type of screen, two size classes of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch) were released over a small version of this screen in the field-the Herman Creek screen. The performance of the screen was evaluated over a range of inflow [0.02 to 0.42 m3/s (cubic meters per second)] and diversion flows (0.02 to 0.34 m3/s) at different weir wall heights. The mean approach velocities for the screen ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s (centimeters per second) and mean sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 centimeters and were directly related to weir wall height and inflow. Passage of juvenile coho salmon over the screen under a variety of hydraulic conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality. For all fish, the mean percentage of body surface area that was injured after passage over the screen ranged from about 0.4 to 3.0%. This occurred even though many fish contacted the screen surface during passage. No fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface (greater than 1 second contact with the screen). When operated within its design criteria (diversion flows of about 0.28 m3/s), the screen provided safe and effective downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions. However, we do not recommend operating the screen at inflows less than 0.14 m3/s (5 ft3/s) because water depth can get quite shallow and the screen can completely dewater, particularly at very low flows.

  12. Resistive Plate Chambers for hadron calorimetry: Tests with analog readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Gary [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Repond, Jose [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail:; Underwood, David [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Xia, Lei [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are being developed for use in a hadron calorimeter with very fine segmentation of the readout. The design of the chambers and various tests with cosmic rays are described. This paper reports on the measurements with multi-bit (or analog) readout of either a single larger or multiple smaller readout pads.

  13. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni


    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  14. [Generalized neonatal screening based on laboratory tests]. (United States)

    Ardaillou, Raymond; Le Gall, Jean-Yves


    Implementation of a generalized screening program for neonatal diseases must obey precise rules. The disease must be severe, recognizable at an early stage, amenable to an effective treatment, detectable with a non expensive and widely applicable test; it must also be a significant public health problem. Subjects with positive results must be offered immediate treatment or prevention. All screening programs must be regularly evaluated. In France, since 1978, a national screening program has been organized by a private association ("Association française pour le dépistage et la prévention des handicaps de l'enfant") and supervised by the "Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie" and "Direction Générale de la Sante". Five diseases are now included in the screening program: phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease (the latter only in at-risk newborns). Toxoplasmosis is a particular problem because only the children of mothers who were not tested during the pregnancy or who seroconverted are screened. Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria and hypothyrodism is unanimously recommended. Screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia is approved in most countries. Cases of sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis are more complex because--not all children who carry the mutations develop severe forms;--there is no curative treatment;--parents may become anxious, even though the phenotype is sometimes mild or even asymptomatic. Supporters of screening stress the benefits of early diagnosis (which extends the life expectancy of these children, particularly in the case of sickle cell disease), the fact that it opens up the possibility of prenatal screening of future pregnancies, and the utility of informing heterozygous carriers identified by familial screening. Neonatal screening for other diseases is under discussion. Indeed, technical advances such as tandem mass spectrometry make it possible to detect about 50

  15. Correlation potential of a test ion near a strongly charged plate. (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Xing, Xiangjun


    We analytically calculate the correlation potential of a test ion near a strongly charged plate inside a dilute m:-n electrolyte. We do this by calculating the electrostatic Green's function in the presence of a nonlinear background potential, the latter having been obtained using the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We consider the general case where the dielectric constants of the plate and the electrolyte are distinct. The following generic results emerge from our analyses: (1) If the distance to the plate Δz is much larger than a Gouy-Chapman length, the plate surface will behave effectively as an infinitely charged surface, and the dielectric constant of the plate effectively plays no role. (2) If Δz is larger than a Gouy-Chapman length but shorter than a Debye length, the correlation potential can be interpreted in terms of an image charge that is three times larger than the source charge. This behavior is independent of the valences of the ions. (3) The Green's function vanishes inside the plate if the surface charge density is infinitely large; hence the electrostatic potential is constant there. In this respect, a strongly charged plate behaves like a conductor plate. (4) If Δz is smaller than a Gouy-Chapman length, the correlation potential is dominated by the conventional image charge due to the dielectric discontinuity at the interface. (5) If Δz is larger than a Debye length, the leading order behavior of the correlation potential will depend on the valences of the ions in the electrolyte. Furthermore, inside an asymmetric electrolyte, the correlation potential is singly screened, i.e., it undergoes exponential decay with a decay width equal to the Debye length.

  16. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei


    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  17. Reactor operator screening test experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, W.J.; Penkala, J.L.; Witzig, W.F.


    When it became apparent to Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that the throughput of their candidate selection-Phase I training-reactor operator certification sequence was something short of acceptable, the utility decided to ask consultants to make recommendations with respect to candidate selection procedures. The recommendation implemented was to create a Nuclear Training Test that would predict the success of a candidate in completing Phase I training and subsequently qualify for reactor operator certification. The mechanics involved in developing and calibrating the Nuclear Training Test are described. An arbitration decision that resulted when a number of International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers union employees filed a grievance alleging that the selection examination was unfair, invalid, not job related, inappropriate, and discriminatorily evaluated is also discussed. The arbitration decision favored the use of the Nuclear Training Test

  18. A population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.G.


    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 μl of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with 125 I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed. (author)

  19. Characterization and testing of monolithic RERTR fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.; Jue, J.F.; Burkes, D.E. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Monolithic fuel plates are being developed as a LEU (low enrichment uranium) fuel for application in research reactors throughout the world. These fuel plates are comprised of a U-Mo alloy foil encased in aluminum alloy cladding. Three different fabrication techniques have been looked at for producing monolithic fuel plates: hot isostatic pressing (HIP), transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB), and friction stir welding (FSW). Of these three techniques, HIP and FSW are currently being emphasized. As part of the development of these fabrication techniques, fuel plates are characterized and tested to determine properties like hardness and the bond strength at the interface between the fuel and cladding. Testing of HIP-made samples indicates that the foil/cladding interaction behavior depends on the Mo content in the UMo foil, the measured hardness values are quite different for the fuel, cladding, and interaction zone phase and Ti, Zr and Nb are the most effective diffusion barriers. For FSW samples, there is a dependence of the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface on the type of tool that is employed for performing the actual FSW process. (authors)

  20. Environmental testing of flat plate solar cell modules (United States)

    Griffith, J.; Dumas, L.; Hoffman, A.


    Commercially available flat-plate solar cell modules have been subjected to a variety of environmental tests designed to simulate service conditions. Among the tests are those simulating heat and rain, wind-driven rains, humidity and freezing, humidity and heat, humidity with a voltage bias, salt fog, hail impact, and fungus infestation. Tests for optical surface soiling and the combined effects of temperature, humidity and UV irradiation are under development. A correlation has been demonstrated between degradation caused by the qualification tests and such observed field effects as power loss.

  1. Cold Leak Tests of LHC Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Collomb-Patton, C; Jenninger, B; Kos, N


    In order to guide the high energy proton beams inside its two 27 km long vacuum rings, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, makes use of superconducting technology to create the required magnetic fields. More than 4000 beam screens, cooled at 7 20 K, are inserted inside the 1.9 K beam vacuum tubes to intercept beam induced heat loads and to provide dynamic vacuum stability. As extremely high helium leak tightness is required, all beam screens have been leak tested under cold conditions in a dedicated test stand prior to their installation. After describing the beam screen design and its functions, this report focuses on the cold leak test sequence and discusses the results.

  2. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives. (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao


    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  3. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska


    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  4. Containment liner plate anchors and steel embedments test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Lo, P.L.; Johnson, T.E.; Pfeifer, B.W.


    This paper summarizes test data on shear load and deformation capabilities for liner plate line anchors and structural steel embedments in reinforced and prestressed concrete nuclear containments. Reinforced and prestressed nuclear containments designed and constructed in the United States are lined with a minimum of 0.64 cm steel plate. The liner plates are anchored by the use of either studs or structural members (line anchors) which usually run in the vertical direction. This paper will only address line anchors. Static load versus displacement test data is necessary to assure that the design is adequate for the maximum loads. The test program for the liner anchors had the following major objectives: determine load versus displacement data for a variety of anchors considering structural tees and small beams with different weld configurations, from the preceding tests, determine which anchors would lead to an economical and extremely safe design and test these anchors for cyclic loads resulting from thermal fluctuations. Various concrete embeds in the containment and other structures are subjected to loads such as pipe rupture which results in shear. Since many of the loads are transient by nature, it is necessary to know the load-displacement relationship so that the energy absorption can be determined. The test program for the embeds had the following objectives: determine load-displacement relationship for various size anchors from 6.5 cm 2 to 26 cm 2 with maximum capacities of approximately 650 kN; determine the effect of various anchor width-to-thickness ratios for the same shear area

  5. Cancer screening tests for small animals. (United States)

    Schleis, Stephanie E


    Cancer is increasingly more common. Several tests for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in companion animals have been developed. Screening tests discussed include those for lymphoid neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. None of these tests should be used in isolation for diagnosis. Vincristine and doxorubicin are mainstays in the treatment of canine lymphoma. However, it is important and accepted practice to test individuals of predisposed breeds for this mutation before administering these drugs in a lymphoma protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)


    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  7. A hydrogel-based versatile screening platform for specific biomolecular recognition in a well plate format. (United States)

    Beer, Meike V; Rech, Claudia; Diederichs, Sylvia; Hahn, Kathrin; Bruellhoff, Kristina; Möller, Martin; Elling, Lothar; Groll, Jürgen


    Precise determination of biomolecular interactions in high throughput crucially depends on a surface coating technique that allows immobilization of a variety of interaction partners in a non-interacting environment. We present a one-step hydrogel coating system based on isocyanate functional six-arm poly(ethylene oxide)-based star polymers for commercially available 96-well microtiter plates that combines a straightforward and robust coating application with versatile bio-functionalization. This system generates resistance to unspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion, as demonstrated with fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin and primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), and high specificity for the assessment of biomolecular recognition processes when ligands are immobilized on this surface. One particular advantage is the wide range of biomolecules that can be immobilized and convert the per se inert coating into a specifically interacting surface. We here demonstrate the immobilization and quantification of a broad range of biochemically important ligands, such as peptide sequences GRGDS and GRGDSK-biotin, the broadly applicable coupler molecule biocytin, the protein fibronectin, and the carbohydrates N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyllactosamine. A simplified protocol for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established for the detection and quantification of ligands on the coating surface. Cell adhesion on the peptide and protein-modified surfaces was assessed using HDF. All coatings were applied using a one-step preparation technique, including bioactivation, which makes the system suitable for high-throughput screening in a format that is compatible with the most routinely used testing systems.

  8. Systematic test on fast time resolution parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Li Guangwu; Gu Xianbao; Chen Yanchao; Zhang Gang; Zhang Wenhui; Yan Guohong


    Systematic test on each detect unit of parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) used in the fission multi-parameter measurement was performed with a 241 Am α source to get the time resolution and position resolution. The detectors work at 600 Pa flowing isobutane and with-600 V on cathode. The time resolution was got by TOF method and the position resolution was got by delay line method. The time resolution of detect units is better than 400 ps, and the position resolution is 6 mm. The results show that the demand of measurement is fully covered. (authors)

  9. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests. (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P


    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  10. [Mass neonatal screening using biological testing]. (United States)

    Ardaillou, R; Le Gall, J-Y


    Implementation of a generalized screening program for neonatal diseases obeys precise guidelines. The disease must be severe, recognizable at an early stage, accessible to an effective treatment, detected with a non expansive and widely applicable test and it must represent an important health problem. In case of positive results, treatment or prevention shall be offered immediately and any screening program has to be regularly evaluated. There is in France since 1978 a national screening program that depends on a private association ("Association française pour le dépistage et la prévention des handicaps de l'enfant") and is supervised by the "Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie" and the "Direction Générale de la Sante". Presently, five diseases are included in the screening program: phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease, the latter only in at risk newborns. Toxoplasmosis represents a particular problem because screening takes place only in children of mothers that have not been controlled during their pregnancy or in case of seroconversion. Neonatal screening of phenylketonuria and hypothyrodism is unanimously recommended. That of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is approved in most countries. The cases of sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis are more complex because: 1) all the children that carry the mutations are not affected with a severe disease; 2) there is no curative treatment; 3) parents given information are made anxious, sometimes wrongly if the disease is mild or asymptomatic. The supporters of the screening insist on the interest of an early diagnosis which makes longer the life time of these children, the possibility for the parents to utilize prenatal screening in case of a future pregnancy, and the information given to the heterozygous carriers following a familial screening. The question is raised of the extension of neonatal screening to other diseases. This is now

  11. A crack arrest test using a toughness gradient steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, H.; Yagawa, G.; Urabe, Y.; Satoh, M.; Sano, J.


    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is a phenomenon that can occur in the reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with internal pressure and is one of the most severe stress conditions that can be applied to the vessel. Preliminary research has shown that no PTS concern is likely to exist on Japanese RPVs during their design service lives. However, public acceptance of vessel integrity requires analyses and experiment in order to establish an analytical method and a database for life extension of Japanese RPVs. The Japanese PTS integrity study was carried out from FY 1983 to FY 1991 as a national project by Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) under contract with Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in cooperation with LWR utilities and vendors. Here, a crack arrest test was carried out using a toughness gradient steel plate with three layers to study the concept of crack arrest toughness. Four-point bending load with thermal shock was applied to the large flat plate specimen with a surface crack. Five crack initiations and arrests were observed during the test and the propagated crack bifurcated. Finally, cracks were arrested at the boundary of the first and the second layer, except for a small segment of the crack. The first crack initiation took place slightly higher than the lower bound of K Ic data obtained by ITCT specimens. That is, the K IC concept for brittle crack initiation was verified for heavy section steel plates. The first crack arrest took place within the scatter band of K Ia and K Id data for the first layer. That is, the K Ia concept appears applicable for crack arrest of a short crack jump

  12. Effect of nickel plating upon tensile tests of uranium--0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.


    Electrolytic-nickel-plated specimens of uranium-0.75 wt percent titanium alloy were tested in air at 20 and 100 percent relative humidities. Tensile-test ductility values were lowered by a high humidity and also by nickel plating alone. Baking the nickel-plated specimens did not eliminate the ductility degradation. Embrittlement because of nickel plating was also evident in tensile tests at -34 0 C. (U.S.)

  13. Environmental testing of terrestrial flat plate photovoltaic modules (United States)

    Hoffman, A.; Griffith, J.


    The Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has as one objective: the development and implementation of environmental tests for flat plate photovoltaic modules as part of the Department of Energy's terrestrial photovoltaic program. Modules procured under this program have been subjected to a variety of laboratory tests intended to simulate service environments, and the results of these tests have been compared to available data from actual field service. This comparison indicates that certain tests (notably temperature cycling, humidity cycling, and cyclic pressure loading) are effective indicators of some forms of field failures. Other tests have yielded results useful in formulating module design guidelines. Not all effects noted in field service have been successfully reproduced in the laboratory, however, and work is continuing in order to improve the value of the test program as a tool for evaluating module design and workmanship. This paper contains a review of these ongoing efforts and an assessment of significant test results to date.

  14. Multicentre validation of 4-well azole agar plates as a screening method for detection of clinically relevant azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Verweij, Paul E; Mouton, Johan W


    Objectives: Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is emerging worldwide. Reference susceptibility testing methods are technically demanding and no validated commercial susceptibility tests for moulds currently exist. In this multicentre study a 4-well azole-containing screening agar method...... following E.Def 9.3. In-house and commercial 4-well plates containing agars supplemented with 4 mg/L itraconazole, 1 mg/L voriconazole, 0.5 mg/L posaconazole and no antifungal, respectively, were evaluated. Growth was scored (0-3) by two independent observers in three laboratories. Inter-plate, inter...... agreement (no growth versus growth) was excellent (median 95%-100%, range 87%-100%, overall). The overall sensitivity and specificity for the 4-well plate (no growth versus growth) was 99% (range 97%-100%) and 99% (95%-100%), respectively. The sensitivity for simulated WT/mutant specimens was 94% (range 83...

  15. Results of ITER toroidal field coil cover plate welding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Matsui, Kunihiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Hideo; Iijima, Ami; Makino, Yoshinobu


    In ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils, cover plates (CP) are welded to the teeth of the radial plate (RP) to fix conductors in the grooves of the RP. Though the total length of the welds is approximately 1.5 km and the height and width of the RP are 14 and 9 m, respectively, welding deformation of smaller than 1 mm for local out-of-plane distortion and smaller than several millimeters for in-plane deformation is required. Therefore, laser welding is used for CP welding to reduce welding deformation as much as possible. However, the gap in welding joints is expected to be a maximum of 0.5 mm. Thus, a laser welding technique to enable welding of joints with a gap of 0.5 mm in width has been developed. Applying this technology, a CP welding trial using an RP mock-up was successfully performed. The achieved local flatness, that is, the flatness of the cross-section of the RP mock-up, is 0.6 mm. The analysis using inherent strains, which are derived from the welding test using flat plates, also indicates that better local flatness can be achieved if the initial distortion is zero. In addition, the welding deformation of a full-scale RP is evaluated via analysis using the inherent strain. The analytical results show that in-plane deformation is approximately 5 mm and large out-of-plane deformation, consisting of approximately 5 mm-long wave distortion and a twist of approximately 1.5 mm in the RP cross-section, is generated. It is expected that the required profile can be achieved by determining the original geometry of an RP by simulating deformation during welding. It is also expected that the required local flatness of a DP can be achieved, since out-of-plane deformation can be reduced by increasing the number of RPs turned over during CP welding. A more detailed study is required. (author)

  16. Philosophy, design and testing of a uniform applied load flat plate testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, A.; Crook, C.


    The presence of a central crack, and its associated plastic zones may significantly affect distribution of the stress applied by a loading machine, to a test plate. As a result the fracture stress may be affected, usually optimistically. Examples of these effects are discussed. The design of a machine in which the load is uniformly applied to the test specimen is described and preliminary test data presented. (author)

  17. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating the...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420... screening test for gonorrhea. (a) Identification. An oxidase screening test for gonorrhea is an in vitro... of gonorrhea. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval) (transitional device). (c) Date PMA...

  19. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test]. (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A


    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  20. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.G.


    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu α-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four 238 PuO 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s

  1. High-Throughput Lipolysis in 96-Well Plates for Rapid Screening of Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette D; Sassene, Philip J; Mu, Huiling


    The high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis model (HTP) applicable for rapid and low-scale screening of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDSs) was optimized and adjusted as to be conducted in 96-well plates (HTP-96). Three different LbDDSs (I-III) loaded with danazol or cinnarizine were...

  2. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved. (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A


    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  3. Anatomical Thin Titanium Mesh Plate Structural Optimization for Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fracture under Fatigue Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wang


    Full Text Available This study performs a structural optimization of anatomical thin titanium mesh (ATTM plate and optimal designed ATTM plate fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM to verify its stabilization under fatigue testing. Finite element (FE analysis was used to simulate the structural bending resistance of a regular ATTM plate. The Taguchi method was employed to identify the significance of each design factor in controlling the deflection and determine an optimal combination of designed factors. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour was fabricated using AM and applied to a ZMC comminuted fracture to evaluate the resting maxillary micromotion/strain under fatigue testing. The Taguchi analysis found that the ATTM plate required a designed internal hole distance to be 0.9 mm, internal hole diameter to be 1 mm, plate thickness to be 0.8 mm, and plate height to be 10 mm. The designed plate thickness factor primarily dominated the bending resistance up to 78% importance. The averaged micromotion (displacement and strain of the maxillary bone showed that ZMC fracture fixation using the miniplate was significantly higher than those using the AM optimal designed ATTM plate. This study concluded that the optimal designed ATTM plate with enough strength to resist the bending effect can be obtained by combining FE and Taguchi analyses. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour fabricated using AM provides superior stabilization for ZMC comminuted fractured bone segments.

  4. Evaluations of corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr plated and Zn-plated Fe Substrates Using an Electrolytic Corrosion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaebong; Kim, Kyungwook; Park, Minwoo; Song, Taejun; Lee, Chaeseung; Lee, Euijong; Kim, Sangyeol


    An Eectrolytic Corrosion(EC) test method was evaluated by the comparison with Copper Accelerated Acetic Salt Spray(CASS) and Neutral Salt Spray(SS) tests. Those methods were applied in order to evaluate corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr plated and Zn-plated Fe substrates. The correlations between results obtained by different test methods were investigated. Results showed that the electrochemical method such as the EC test method was superior to the conventional methods such as CASS and SS, in terms of the quantitative accuracy and the test-time span. Furthermore, the EC test method provided the useful means to estimate the initiation of corrosion of each layer by monitoring the rest potentials of the coated layers such as Ni, Cr, and Zn on Fe substrate. With regard to test time spans, the EC test provided the 78 times and 182 times faster results than the CASS test in cases of Fe + 5μm Ni + 0.5 μm Cr and Fe + 20 μm Ni + 0.5 μm Cr respectively, while the EC test was 85 times faster results than the Salt Spray test in the case of Fe + 20 g/m 2 Zn. Therefore, the EC test can be the better method to evaluate the resistance to corrosion of coated layers than the conventional methods such as the SS test and the CASS

  5. Development of high-performance X-ray transparent crystallization plates for in situ protein crystal screening and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, Ahmed S. M.; Warkentin, Matthew [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States); Apker, Benjamin [MiTeGen LLC, Ithaca, New York (United States); Thorne, Robert E., E-mail: [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States); MiTeGen LLC, Ithaca, New York (United States)


    An optically, UV and X-ray transparent crystallization plate suitable for in situ analysis has been developed. The plate uses contact line pinning rather than wells to confine the liquids. X-ray transparent crystallization plates based upon a novel drop-pinning technology provide a flexible, simple and inexpensive approach to protein crystallization and screening. The plates consist of open cells sealed top and bottom by thin optically, UV and X-ray transparent films. The plates do not need wells or depressions to contain liquids. Instead, protein drops and reservoir solution are held in place by rings with micrometre dimensions that are patterned onto the bottom film. These rings strongly pin the liquid contact lines, thereby improving drop shape and position uniformity, and thus crystallization reproducibility, and simplifying automated image analysis of drop contents. The same rings effectively pin solutions containing salts, proteins, cryoprotectants, oils, alcohols and detergents. Strong pinning by rings allows the plates to be rotated without liquid mixing to 90° for X-ray data collection or to be inverted for hanging-drop crystallization. The plates have the standard SBS format and are compatible with standard liquid-handling robots.

  6. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira


    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  7. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A screening method for the optimal selection of plate heat exchanger configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto J.M.


    Full Text Available An optimization method for determining the best configuration(s of gasketed plate heat exchangers is presented. The objective is to select the configuration(s with the minimum heat transfer area that still satisfies constraints on the number of channels, the pressure drop of both fluids, the channel flow velocities and the exchanger thermal effectiveness. The configuration of the exchanger is defined by six parameters, which are as follows: the number of channels, the numbers of passes on each side, the fluid locations, the feed positions and the type of flow in the channels. The resulting configuration optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of the exchanger heat transfer area and a screening procedure is proposed for its solution. In this procedure, subsets of constraints are successively applied to eliminate infeasible and nonoptimal solutions. Examples show that the optimization method is able to successfully determine a set of optimal configurations with a minimum number of exchanger evaluations. Approximately 5 % of the pressure drop and channel velocity calculations and 1 % of the thermal simulations are required for the solution.

  9. Test Method for High β Particle Emission Rate of 63Ni Source Plate


    ZHANG Li-feng


    For the problem of measurement difficulties of β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate used for Ni-63 betavoltaic battery, a relative test method of scintillation current method was erected according to the measurement principle of scintillation detector.β particle emission rate of homemade Ni-63 source plate was tested by the method, and the test results were analysed and evaluated, it was initially thought that scintillation current method was a feasible way of testing β particle emi...

  10. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, J.


    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  11. Rapid screening of aquatic toxicity of several metal-based nanoparticles using the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Lok R.; Silva, Thilini [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: [Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); El Badawy, Amro M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet M. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Scheuerman, Phillip R. [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)


    Current understanding of potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials to aquatic microorganisms is limited for risk assessment and management. Here we evaluate if the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign test can be used as an effective and rapid screening tool to test for potential aquatic toxicity of various metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). The MetPLATE bioassay is a heavy metal sensitive test based on {beta}-galactosidase activity in Escherichia coli. Five different types of metal-based NPs were screened for toxicity: (1) citrate coated nAg (Citrate-nanosilver), (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone coated nAg (PVP-nAg), (3) uncoated nZnO, (4) uncoated nTiO{sub 2} and (5) 1-Octadecylamine coated CdSe Quantum Dots (CdSe QDs); and compared with their corresponding ionic salt toxicity. Citrate-nAg was further fractionated into clean Citrate-nAg, unclean Citrate-nAg and permeate using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system to eliminate residual ions and impurities from the stock Citrate-nAg suspension and also to differentiate between ionic- versus nano-specific toxicity. Our results showed that nAg, nZnO and CdSe QDs were less toxic than their corresponding ionic salts tested, while nano- or ionic form of TiO{sub 2} was not toxic as high as 2.5 g L{sup -1} to the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bacteria. Although coating-dependent toxicity was noticeable between two types of Ag NPs evaluated, particle size and surface charge were not adequate to explain the observed toxicity; hence, the toxicity appeared to be material-specific. Overall, the toxicity followed the trend: CdCl{sub 2} > AgNO{sub 3} > PVP-nAg > unclean Citrate-nAg > clean Citrate-nAg > ZnSO{sub 4} > nZnO > CdSe QDs > nTiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}. These results indicate that an evaluation of {beta}-galactosidase inhibition in MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign E. coli can be an important consideration for rapid screening of metal-based NP toxicity, and should facilitate ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants. - Highlights

  12. Destructive examination of test plates 3 and test piece 4 of the defects detection trials (DDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buegers, W.; Crutzen, S.; Pisoni, A.; Violin, F.; Di Piazza, L.; Lock, D.; Sargent, T.


    The evaluation of NDT exercises results has been based on destructive examination of the plates or test blocks used during the exercise. The PISC I Programme has shown that in all cases the indications given by the NDT instrumentation were corresponding to some particular defects or structure aspects in the steel or were explained by particular positions of reflectors. Generally the introduction of defects using techniques such as: - implantation of modules, - introduction of non metallic material, - introduction of poison in the weld, do not produce a final ''detective zone or area'' which is strictly corresponding to the intended defect. The DDT exercise management has thus decided to perform a complete destructive examination of the four plates involved in this exercise because of its experience (the PISC I exercise) and independance of commercial interest, the JRC of the CEC, Ispra Establishment, has been asked to do the work in collaboratione with the Risley Nuclear Power development Laboratories (RNL). A collaboration agreement has been signed between RNL and JRC. Operating Agent of the PISC II programme, is interested in having a direct access to data to be added to those furnished by PISC. The present report describes the results of the destructive examination of the DDT plates 3 and 4

  13. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed to analyse the carbohydrate quantity of the non-standardised breakfast meal test consumed as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal ...

  14. High-throughput screening of cellulase F mutants from multiplexed plasmid sets using an automated plate assay on a functional proteomic robotic workcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Nasib


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of plasmid-based functional proteomics requires the rapid assay of proteins expressed from plasmid libraries. Automation is essential since large sets of mutant open reading frames are being cloned for evaluation. To date no integrated automated platform is available to carry out the entire process including production of plasmid libraries, expression of cloned genes, and functional testing of expressed proteins. Results We used a functional proteomic assay in a multiplexed setting on an integrated plasmid-based robotic workcell for high-throughput screening of mutants of cellulase F, an endoglucanase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2. This allowed us to identify plasmids containing optimized clones expressing mutants with improved activity at lower pH. A plasmid library of mutagenized clones of the celF gene with targeted variations in the last four codons was constructed by site-directed PCR mutagenesis and transformed into Escherichia coli. A robotic picker integrated into the workcell was used to inoculate medium in a 96-well deep well plate, combining the transformants into a multiplexed set in each well, and the plate was incubated on the workcell. Plasmids were prepared from the multiplexed culture on the liquid handler component of the workcell and used for in vitro transcription/translation. The multiplexed expressed recombinant proteins were screened for improved activity and stability in an azo-carboxymethylcellulose plate assay. The multiplexed wells containing mutants with improved activity were identified and linked back to the corresponding multiplexed cultures stored in glycerol. Spread plates were prepared from the glycerol stocks and the workcell was used to pick single colonies from the spread plates, prepare plasmid, produce recombinant protein, and assay for activity. The screening assay and subsequent deconvolution of the multiplexed wells resulted in identification of improved Cel

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.

  16. Preliminary studies of microchannel plate photomultiplier tube neutron detectors for flight test applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.


    Electrical, mechanical, thermal, and neutron response data indicate that microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are viable candidates as miniature, ruggedized neutron detectors for flight test applications in future weapon systems

  17. Uncertainty evaluation in the self-alignment test of the upper plate of a press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, Alexandre S; E Sousa, J Alves


    This paper describes a method to evaluate uncertainty of the self-alignment test of the upper plate of a press according to EN 12390-4:2000. The method, the algorithms and the sources of uncertainty are described

  18. Topics in the Analysis of Shear-Wave Propagation in Oblique-Plate Impact Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheidler, Mike


    This report addresses several topics in the theoretical analysis of shock waves, acceleration waves, and centered simple waves, with emphasis on the propagation of shear waves generated in oblique-plate impact tests...

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. Image quality in conventional film screen system, digital phosphor storage plate mammography in magnification technique and digital mammography in CCD-technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Aichinger, U.; Boehner, C.; Dobritz, M.; Bautz, W.; Saebel, M.


    Purpose: Comparison of image quality between conventional film screen system, digital phosphor storage plate mammography in magnification technique and digital mammography in CCD-technique. Materials and Methods: Radiograms of a RMI-mammography phantom were acquired using a conventional film screen system, two digital storage plate systems and two digital systems in CCD-technique. Additionally, the radiograms of one digital phosphor storage plate system were post-processed emphasizing contrast and included in the comparison. Results: The detectability of details was the best with the digital mammography in CCD-technique in comparison with the conventional film screen technique resp. digital phosphor storage plate in magnification technique. Conclusions: Based on these results there is the possibility to replace the conventional film screen system by further studies - this has to be confirmed. (orig.) [de

  1. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J


    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (ptesting with their healthcare providers were more likely (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=2.00, 3.79) to report getting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth


    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  3. Solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method for screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the cost benefit of screening for sicklecell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Methods. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four ...

  4. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J


    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  5. Testing the Untestable: A Vision Screening Program for Exceptional Children. (United States)

    Bishop, Virginia E.; Godolphin, Vivienne

    Based on a longitudinal study of vision screening techniques for handicapped children at the Chester County (Pennsylvania) Child Development Center, the paper reports on the development of a battery of effective vision screening methods for children with low functioning handicapped children. Specific tests are described, including the Sheridan…

  6. Physician-patient discussions of controversial cancer screening tests. (United States)

    Dunn, A S; Shridharani, K V; Lou, W; Bernstein, J; Horowitz, C R


    Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians' likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians' belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians' intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians' intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians' beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer.

  7. Physician–Patient Discussions of Controversial Cancer Screening Tests (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew S.; Shridharani, Kanan V.; Lou, Wendy; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Carol R.


    Background Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. Methods We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians’ likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. Results For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians’ belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians’ intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians’ intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Conclusions Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians’ beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer. PMID:11165455

  8. Cause and countermeasure for heat up of HTTR core support plate at power rise tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Takada, Eiji; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kawasaki, Kozo; Saikusa, Akio; Kojima, Takao; Iyoku, Tatuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment


    HTTR has carried out many kinds of tests as power rise tests in which reactor power rises step by step after attained the first criticality. In the tests, temperature of a core support plate reached higher than expected at each power level, the temperature was expected to be higher than the maximum working temperature at 100% power level. Therefore, tests under the high temperature test operation mode, in which the core flow rate was different, were carried out to predict the temperature at 100% power precisely, and investigate the cause of the temperature rise. From the investigation, it was clear that the cause was gap flow in the core support structure. Furthermore, it was estimated that the temperature of the core support plate rose locally due to change in gap width between the core support plate and a seal plate due to change in core pressure drop. The maximum working temperature of the core support plate was revised. The integrity of core support plate under the revised maximum working temperature condition was confirmed by stress analyses. (author)

  9. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio


    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  10. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.


    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400 0 C to a target fluence of 5 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel

  11. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests. (United States)


    ... screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: Diabetes... receive the benefit: (1) Hypertension. (2) Dyslipidemia. (3) Obesity, defined as a body mass index greater...

  12. Indicators for monitoring screening programs with primary HPV test. (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo


    following scientific evidence produced in numerous studies, as well as national and international guidelines, organized cervical cancer screening programs in Italy have gradually introduced the HPV test as primary screening test, replacing cytology. As public health interventions, screening programs must ensure equity, improvement in quality of life, and adequate information for the population involved with regards to benefits and possible risks; therefore, it is essential for quality to be constantly checked at every phase of the project.The Italian Cervical Screening Group (Gruppo Italiano per lo Screening Cervicale, GISCi) has written a handbook for the calculation and interpretation of cervical screening program monitoring indicators that take into account the new protocol based on primary HPV test with cytology triage. based on the European guidelines and Italian recommendations on primary HPVbased screening, the working group, which includes professionals from all the fields involved in cervical screening, identified the essential points needed to monitor the screening process, the accuracy of individual tests, and early outcomes, defining a specific indicator for each aspect. The indicators were grouped as follows: baseline indicators, indicators for test repeat after one year, cumulative indicators, and waiting times. For every indicator, the source of data, calculation formula, any standards or critical thresholds, and interpretation were defined. The standards are based on the results of NTCC trials or Italian pilot studies. the main indicators proposed for the organization are the following: number of invitations, compliance with first invitation, with one-year test repeat and with colposcopy; for test and process accuracy, a cohort approach was utilised, where indicators are based on women who must be followed for at least one year, so as to integrate the results obtained after the first HPV test with the outcome of the test's repetition after one year

  13. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.


    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  14. Basic performance tests on vibration of support structure with flexible plates for ITER tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi


    The vibration experiments of the support structures with flexible plates for the ITER major components such as toroidal field coil (TF coil) and vacuum vessel (VV) were performed using small-sized flexible plates aiming to obtain its basic mechanical characteristics such as dependence of the stiffness on the loading angle. The experimental results obtained by the hammering and frequency sweep tests were agreed each other, so that the experimental method is found to be reliable. In addition, the experimental results were compared with the analytical ones in order to estimate an adequate analytical model for ITER support structure with flexible plates. As a result, the bolt connection of the flexible plates on the base plate strongly affected on the stiffness of the flexible plates. After studies of modeling the bolts, it is found that the analytical results modeling the bolts with finite stiffness only in the axial direction and infinite stiffness in the other directions agree well with the experimental ones. Using this adequate model, the stiffness of the support structure with flexible plates for the ITER major components can be calculated precisely in order to estimate the dynamic behaviors such as eigen modes and amplitude of deformation of the major components of the ITER tokamak device. (author)

  15. Pseudoisochromatic test plate colour representation dependence on printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luse, K; Ozolinsh, M; Fomins, S


    The aim of the study is to determine best printing technology for creation of colour vision deficiency tests. Valid tests for protanopia and deuteranopia were created from perceived colour matching experiments from printed colour samples by colour deficient individuals. Calibrated EpsonStylus Pro 7800 printer for ink prints and Noritsu HD 3701 digital printer for photographic prints were used. Multispectral imagery (by tunable liquid crystal filters system CRI Nuance Vis 07) data analysis show that in case of ink prints, the measured pixel colour coordinate dispersion (in the CIExy colour diagram) of similar colour arrays is smaller than in case of photographic printing. The print quality in terms of colour coordinate dispersion for printing methods used is much higher than in case of commercially available colour vision deficiency tests.

  16. Examinations of the irradiation behaviour of U3Si2 test fuel plates with low enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellauer, J.


    Five low-enriched (19.7% 235 U), high-density (4.7 gU/cm/ 3 ) U 3 Si 2 -test fuel plates (miniplates) with different fine grain contents have been qualified under irradiation. During the course of irradiation up to burnup of 63% 235 U depletion, no released fractions of gaseous or solid fission products from the fuel plate to the rig coolant were detected. The measured swelling rate of the fuel zone (meat) is less than 0.45% ΔV/10 20 fissions/cm 3 the blister-threshold temperature of the fuel plates is above 520 0 C. The favourable irradiation behavior of the U 3 Si 2 fuel plates was not influenced by using higher amounts of fine grained particles (40% [de

  17. Tensile Test of Welding Joint Parts for a Plate-type Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Yim, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The tensile tests were performed using an INSTRON 4505 (universal tensile) testing machine. These welding joints are composed of two parts for the soundness of the fuel assembly; one is the side plate with a fixing bar and the other is a side plate with an end fitting. These two joint parts are fabricated by TIG welding method. The tensile tests of the welding joints of a plate-type FA are executed by a tensile test. The fixture configurations for the specimen are very important to obtain the strict test results. The maximum strength has an approximately linear correlation with the unit bonding length of the welding joints. In spite of these results, the maximum strengths of the welding joints are satisfied according to the minimum requirement. These tensile tests of the joint parts for a plate-type fuel assembly (FA) have to be executed to evaluate the structural strength. For the tensile test, the joint parts of a FA used in the test are made of aluminum alloy (Al6061-T6)

  18. Tensile Test of Welding Joint Parts for a Plate-type Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Yim, J. S.


    The tensile tests were performed using an INSTRON 4505 (universal tensile) testing machine. These welding joints are composed of two parts for the soundness of the fuel assembly; one is the side plate with a fixing bar and the other is a side plate with an end fitting. These two joint parts are fabricated by TIG welding method. The tensile tests of the welding joints of a plate-type FA are executed by a tensile test. The fixture configurations for the specimen are very important to obtain the strict test results. The maximum strength has an approximately linear correlation with the unit bonding length of the welding joints. In spite of these results, the maximum strengths of the welding joints are satisfied according to the minimum requirement. These tensile tests of the joint parts for a plate-type fuel assembly (FA) have to be executed to evaluate the structural strength. For the tensile test, the joint parts of a FA used in the test are made of aluminum alloy (Al6061-T6)

  19. Characterization of holding brake friction pad surface after pin-on-plate wear test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, N.; Gonzalez Madruga, D.; De Chiffre, L.


    This article concerns the metrological characterization of the surface on a holding brake friction material pin after a pin-on-plate (POP) wear test. The POP test induces the formation of surface plateaus that affect brake performances such as wear, friction, noise and heat. Three different...

  20. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder


    -on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...

  1. Do doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening? (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; Breyer, Marie; Breyer-Kohansal, Robab; Urban, Matthias; Funk, Georg-Christian


    Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. In a randomized trial 556 doctors (members of the Austrian Respiratory Society) were invited to answer questions regarding lung cancer screening based on online case vignettes. Half of the participants were randomized to the group 'solutions provided' and received the correct solutions in advance. The group 'solutions withheld' had to rely on prior knowledge or estimates. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the estimated number of deaths preventable by screening. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences in the prevalence of lung cancer, prevalence of a positive screening results, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and false negative rate. Estimations were also compared with current data from the literature. The response rate was 29% in both groups. The reduction in the number of deaths due to screening was overestimated six-fold (95% confidence interval CI: 4-8) compared with the actual data, and there was no effect of group allocation. Providing the correct solutions to doctors had no systematic effect on their answers. Doctors poorly understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. Providing the correct solutions in advance did not improve the answers. Continuing education regarding lung cancer screening and the interpretation of test characteristics may be a simple remedy. Clinical trial registered with (NCT02542332).

  2. Reiter haemagglutination test: a screening test for syphilis.


    Al-Qudah, A A; Mostratos, A


    Using an ultrasonicate of the Reiter treponeme as antigen the Reiter haemagglutination test (RHA) was evaluated as a serological test for syphilis. Comparison of the results of the cardiolipin Wassermann reaction, Reiter protein complement-fixation test, the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorbed (FTA-ABS) test, the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) (at dilutions of 1/16 and 1/80), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test with those of the RHA showed that the RHA was...

  3. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation (United States)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul


    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  4. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody]. (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori


    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  5. Tuneable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy hyphenated to chemically derivatized thin-layer chromatography plates for screening histamine in fish. (United States)

    Xie, Zhengjun; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yisheng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Ding, Yunlian; Yang, Na; Wu, Fengfeng


    Reliable screening of histamine in fish was of urgent importance for food safety. This work presented a highly selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method mediated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which was tailored for identification and quantitation of histamine. Following separation and derivatization with fluram, plates were assayed with SERS, jointly using silver nanoparticle and NaCl. The latter dramatically suppressed the masking effect caused by excessive fluram throughout the plate, thus offering clear baseline and intensive Raman fingerprints specific to the analyte. Under optimized conditions, the usability of this method was validated by identifying the structural fingerprints of both targeted and unknown compounds in fish samples. Meanwhile, the quantitative results of this method agreed with those by an HPLC method officially suggested by EU for histamine determination. Showing remarkable cost-efficiency and user-friendliness, this facile TLC-SERS method was indeed screening-oriented and may be more attractive to controlling laboratories of limited resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of the Optical Properties of Screen-Printed and Aerosol-Printed and Plated Fingers of Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Woehl


    Full Text Available One main efficiency loss in industrial solar cells is the shading of the cell caused by the metal front side contacts. With the aerosol-printing technique plus an additional light-induced plating (LIP step, not only is the geometrical contact width narrowed compared to screen-printed contacts but also the shape of the finger changes. In this work, the effective shading of different finger types is analysed with two different measurement methods. The essential parameter for characterising the finger is the effective width which can be reduced drastically compared to the geometrical width due to total internal reflection at the glass-air layer and the reflection from the roundish edges of the contact fingers into the cell. This parameter was determined with different methods. It could be shown that for aerosol-printed fingers the effective (optical width is only 38% of its geometrical width, while for standard screen-printed fingers it is 47%. The measured values are compared to a theoretical model for an aerosol-printed and plated finger and are in good agreement.

  7. Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, Gino; Ganzetti, Alessandra; Martinoli, Carlo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Bodini, Maria; Fiorentino, Carla; Marini, Ugo Paolo; Santini, Dolores


    Purpose: To present the mammographic cases most commonly misinterpreted by the participants in the mammography self-test proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) National Congress in Rimini, Italy, 2002, by analysing the findings responsible for errors, suggesting reasons for the errors, and assessing possible inadequacies in the format of the test. Materials and methods: The self-test was performed on the mammograms of 160 cases (32 positive and 128 negative for cancer as confirmed by histology). The mammograms had been taken in the four standard projections and placed on four multi-panel diaphanoscopes, each displaying a set of 40 cases comprising benign and malignant cases in equal proportions. The participants were given pre-printed forms on which to note down their diagnostic judgement. We evaluated a total of 134 fully-completed forms. Among these, we identified the 23 cases most frequently misread by over 15 participants in percentages varying between 40-90%. Of these cases, 10 were malignancies and 13 were negative mammograms. On review, we also assessed the diagnostic contribution of complementary investigations (not available the participants). The 134 fully-completed forms (all of the 40 cases) yielded a total of 5360 responses, 1180 of which (22.01%) were incorrect. Of these 823 out of the 4288 cases expected to be negative (19.2%) were false positive, and 357 out of the 1072 cases expected to be positive (33.3%) were false negative. As regards the 23 most frequently misread cases, these were 10/32 (31.25%) mammograms positive for malignancy and 13/128 (10.15%) negative mammograms or mammograms showing benign disease. The 10 malignancies included 7 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 1 infiltrating cribriform carcinoma, 1 infiltrating tubular carcinoma, and 1 carcinoma in situ. The 13 cases of benign disease - as established by histology or long-term follow-up - mistaken for malignancies by the test participants were fibrocystic breast

  8. Evaluation of screening tests for colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Bolt, R J


    The following guidelines are proposed for the asymptomatic patient representing for routine examination. Instruct the patient to eat All Bran cereal or a similar product for breakfast for three consecutive days prior to the day of appointment. At the time of appointment the stool obtained from rectal examination or from a spontaneous bowel movement is checked for occult blood using the guaiac method. If the findings are negative, no further tests are recommended. If positive, the patient is given complete dietary instructions in a non-meat, high-residue diet with avoidance of beets, horseradish, vitamins, or aspirin-containing compounds. The patient is then given six Hemoccult or Quikcult slides and is instructed to prepare two fecal slides from each stool specimen daily for three days. If these are all negative when tested, no further studies are necessary. If one or more are positive, however, sigmoidoscopic examination and colon and upper gastrointestinal radiography should be carried out in that order. Evidence that early lesions (Duke A or B) are detected and the cure rate improved with this procedure is quite convincing.

  9. The use of screening tests in aviation medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruge, A.


    Pilots have to submit themselves in regular intervals to medical examinations in order to avoid a sudden incapacitation that could endanger flight safety. In Germany these examinations include screening tests to detect an illness in an early phase and to guide the pilot to keep up his/her health. European Joint Aviation Requirements have no provisions for screening tests. Under Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM flight crews in Germany will have to undergo special medical radiation protection examinations. The introduction of any screening tests that give information about individual reactions to cosmic radiation exposure are very unlikely if results are not kept confidential, as this would limit the choice of profession. Flight crews should be made aware of these tests. (orig.) [de

  10. The history, development and application of a uniformly applied load wide plate testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, A.; Bevitt, E.


    The paper describes early attempts to use a rigid end wide plate testing machine to investigate the behaviour of centre cracked flat plates. Confusing and inconsistent results arising from the above tests lead to a detailed investigation of the loading characteristics of rigid end machines in general and the difficulties which can arise in the interpretation of data obtained by the use of such machines. In order to overcome the above difficulties which stem largely from uneven load distribution, a versatile testing machine was designed which by use of cheap and easily obtainable components allows the application of a uniformly distributed applied load to a centre cracked test plate. The machine which was commissioned in its original form in 1975 was initially capable of testing plate of 820 mm width and 25 or 48 mm thickness up to maximum stress levels of 488 or 254 MPa respectively. The ease of adaptability of the machine has since permitted its capacity to be increased to handle plate up to 2032 mm wide and 76 mm thickness and by use of double-banked hydraulic jacks stress levels up to 350 MPa can be achieved on plate of these dimensions. The configuration of the machine allows adequate access for strain gauging, crack tip observation and measurements, and temperature control, tests having been conducted in the temperature range -40 0 C to 290 0 C. Advantages and potential for further development of the machine are given together with details of two of a number of fracture studies which have been conducted since its commissioning. (orig.)

  11. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard


    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  12. Diagnostic value of serologic tests in celiac screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Saneian


    Conclusions: According to our study results, there is no correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting diarrhea, anorexia, bulimia, and failure to thrive (FFT with celiac. TTG was the best screening test method to diagnose celiac disease and other tests such as AGA and EMA do not have high diagnostic value.

  13. Results from low cycle fatigue testing of 316L plate and weld material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstroem, R.; Josefsson, B.; Haag, Y.


    Specimens for low cycle fatigue testing from the second heat of the CEC reference 316L plate and from Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) weld material have been neutron irradiated near room temperature to a displacement dose of approximately 0.3 dpa. The low cycle fatigue testing of both irradiated and unirradiated specimens was performed at 75, 250 and 450 degrees C, and with strain ranges of 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5%. There is no clear effect of the irradiation on low cycle fatigue properties. For the weld material the endurance is shorter than for plate, and the dependences on temperature and strain range are not clear

  14. Comparison of a new digital KM screen test with conventional Hess and Lees screen tests in the mapping of ocular deviations. (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Rannveig Linda; Sundgren, Johanna; Sheikh, Rafi; Blohmé, Jonas; Hammar, Björn; Kjellström, Sten; Malmsjö, Malin


    To evaluate the digital KM screen computerized ocular motility test and to compare it with conventional nondigital techniques using the Hess and Lees screens. Patients with known ocular deviations and a visual acuity of at least 20/100 underwent testing using the digital KM screen and the Hess and Lees screen tests. The examination duration, the subjectively perceived difficulty, and the patient's method of choice were compared for the three tests. The accuracy of test results was compared using Bland-Altman plots between testing methods. A total of 19 patients were included. Examination with the digital KM screen test was less time-consuming than tests with the Hess and Lees screens (P digital KM screen). Patients found the test with the digital KM screen easier to perform than the Lees screen test (P = 0.009) but of similar difficulty to the Hess screen test (P = 0.203). The majority of the patients (83%) preferred the digital KM screen test to both of the other screen methods (P = 0.008). Bland-Altman plots showed that the results obtained with all three tests were similar. The digital KM screen is accurate and time saving and provides similar results to Lees and Hess screen testing. It also has the advantage of a digital data analysis and registration. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†. (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J


    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Test plan for Tank 241-AW-101 solubility screening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, J.C.


    Tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW) has been identified as one of the early tanks to be for retrieved for low level waste pretreatment and immobilization and retrieval of the tank waste may require dilution. This test is to determine the effects of dilution on the mass of solids and their composition. This test plan gives test instructions, example data sheets, a waste compatibility review, and a waste stream fact sheet. This test Plan is similar to tests on tanks 241-AN-102 (Person 1998a) and 241-AN-107 (Person 1998 b). The 101-AW tests will be done with composites of liquid and solids from grab samples that were taken in 1998 (Benar 1998). Future revisions of the Tank Sampling and Analysis Plan (Benar 1998) may change the details of the work performed under this test plan

  17. Recent advances in seismic non-destructive testing of concrete plate like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, N.; Kristensen, A.; Jovall, O.


    This paper describes recent advances in seismic/acoustic non-destructive testing of concrete containment walls. The presented technique is focused on the characterization of the mean stiffness (seismic velocities) and thickness of the containment wall. The Impact Echo (IE) method is a well-established technique to measure the thickness of concrete plates or to locate defects in concrete plate like structures. The method relies on a good estimate of the mean velocity through the thickness of the plate and a precisely measured thickness resonant frequency. Recently the underlying theory of the IE method has been redefined and improved based on Lamb waves in a free plate. Based on this theory we have developed a new data processing technique where both propagating and standing Lamb waves are analysed in a combined manner using multichannel data. With this approach the mean velocity through the plate thickness is evaluated by using the fundamental mode Lamb wave dispersion curves. The accuracy and detection ability of the measured resonant frequency is improved by utilizing both amplitude and phase information from the multichannel record. The method has been tested on several nuclear power plants in Sweden and Finland and proved to be more robust compared to conventional IE and surface wave measurements

  18. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper


    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  19. Destructive examination of test plates 1 and 2 of the defects detection trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Buergers, W.; Violin, F.; Di Piazza, L.; Cowburn, K.; Sargent, T.


    A further phase of the UKAEA defect detection trials (described previously) with PWR pressure vessel steels is reported. The evaluation of NDT exercise results must be based on destructive examination of the plates used during the exercise. Tests are described and results given. (U.K.)

  20. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost flat plate solar energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A low-cost flat plate solar energy collector has been designed and constructed with locally available materials such as mild steel and black paint of absorptance 0.94. On testing, an average daily efficiency of 55.6% was obtained. The methods are simple and illustrate the fact that construction of efficient collectors are ...

  1. Alkaline phosphatase as a screening test for osteomalacia. (United States)

    Chinoy, Muhammad Amin; Javed, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Alamzeb; Sadruddin, Nooruddin


    Vitamin D deficiency remains common in children and adults in Pakistan despite adequate sunlight exposure. Diagnosis in adults is usually delayed and is made following pathological fractures that result in significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to see whether Serum Alkaline Phosphatase levels could be used as a screening test for osteomalacia. The Study was conducted at Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, Gadap, Karachi, between July 2002 and June 2005. Serum calcium levels are commonly used to screen patients suspected of osteomalacia, and raised serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is considered a diagnostic finding. We used SALP to screen patients who presented with back or non-specific aches and pain of more than six months duration. Three hundred thirty-four (334) patients were screened of which 116 (35%) had raised SALP. Osteomalacia was diagnosed in 92 (79.3%) of these 116 either by plain radiographs, bone biopsy or isotope bone scan. Fifty-four (53.4%) of the 101 cases had a normal level of serum calcium. Osteomalacia is likely to be missed if only serum calcium is used to screen patients. Serum Alkaline Phosphate should be used as the preferred method for screening these patients.

  2. Destructive examination of test plates 1 and 2 of the defects detection trials (DDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Buegers, W.; Violin, F.; Di Piazza, L.; Cowburn, K.; Sargent, T.


    The evaluation of NDT exercises results has been based on destructive examination of the plates or test blocks used during the exercise. The PISC Programme has shown that in all cases the indications given by the NDT instrumentation were corresponding to some particular defects or structure aspects in the steel or were explained by particular positions of reflectors. Generally the introduction of defects do not produce a final ''defective zone or area'' which is strictly corresponding to the intended defect. The DDT exercise management has thus decided to perform a complete destructive examination of the four plates involved in this exercise because of its experience (the PISC I exercise) and independance of commercial interest, the JRC of the CEC Ispra Establishment has been asked to do the work with the Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratories (RNL). The present report describes the results of the destructive examination of the DDT plates 1 and 2

  3. Electromagnetic Acoustic Test of the Artificial Defects for a Plate-type Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Yoon Sang; Cheong, Yong Moo


    Most research and test reactors use the nuclear fuel plates which are consisted of a fuel meat in aluminum alloy. Last year, KAERI signed a deal with the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission to build the research reactor and have to supply the plate-type nuclear fuels. For the demands of world market, KAERI started the research and development of the plate-type fuel elements and endeavored to achieve a localization of the plate-type fuel fabrication. For the inspection of plate-type fuel elements to be used in Research Reactors, an immersion pulse-echo ultrasonic technique was applied. This inspection was done under immersion condition, so a nuclear fuel was immersed to be prone to corrosion and needed to have time and cost due to an additional process. The sample that will be examined is a non-ferromagnetic material such as aluminum with a good acousto-elastic property, which requires an effective inspection of a bond quality for a nuclear fuel under a manufacturing environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) technology for an automated inspection of a nuclear fuel without water

  4. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (United States)

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.


    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  5. Embryotoxicity of Mirtazapine: a study using Chick Embryotoxicity Screening Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňáková, E.; Hubičková, L.; Košťálová, J.; Zemanová, Zdeňka


    Roč. 31, Suppl.2 (2010), s. 8-10 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : embryo toxicity * screening test * mirtazapine Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2010

  6. Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    Elder abuse is recognized as an under-detected and under-reported social problem. Difficulties in detecting elder abuse are compounded by the lack of a standardized, psychometrically valid instrument for case finding. The development of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) followed a larger effort to identify indicators and…

  7. Assessment of the Diagnostic Potential of Clinotech TB Screen Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinotech TB Screen test, a 3rd generation multi-antigen rapid chromatographic immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies in serum against recombinant protein antigens 38kDa, 16kDa and 6kDa, was assessed for its diagnostic potential for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in routine TB control programme in Abia ...

  8. Measurements for testing of fluoroscopic screens, including the photofluorographic units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, R.


    Image quality control measurements for fluoroscopic screens and photofluorographs have shown that both types of equipment have a long operating life, so that constancy and technical performance tests are absolutely necessary. It is recommended to conclude in-service maintenance contracts with the manufacturers. (DG) [de

  9. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011


    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  10. A screening method for β-glucan hydrolase employing Trypan Blue-coupled β-glucan agar plate and β-glucan zymography. (United States)

    Park, Chang-Su; Yang, Hee-Jong; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kang, Dae-Ook; Kim, Min-Soo; Choi, Nack-Shick


    A new screening method for β-(1,3-1,6) glucan hydrolase was developed using a pure β-glucan from Aureobaisidum pullulans by zymography and an LB-agar plate. Paenibacillus sp. was screened as a producer a β-glucan hydrolase on the Trypan Blue-coupled β-glucan LB-agar plate and the activity of the enzyme was analyzed by SDS-β-glucan zymography. The β-glucan was not hydrolyzed by Bacillus spp. strains, which exhibit cellulolytic activity on CMC zymography. The gene, obtaining by shotgun cloning and encoding the β-glucan hydrolase of Paenibacillus sp. was sequenced.

  11. Validation of a telephone screening test for Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Kochhann, Renata; Godinho, Claudia; Costa, Amanda; Chaves, Marcia L


    Financial constraints, mobility issues, medical conditions, crime in local areas can make cognitive assessment difficult for elders and telephone interviews can be a good alternative. This study was carried out to evaluate the reliability, validity and clinical utility of a Brazilian telephone version of the Mini Mental State Examination (Braztel-MMSE) in a community sample of healthy elderly participants and AD patients. The MMSE and the Braztel-MMSE were applied to 66 AD patients and 67 healthy elderly participants. The test-retest reliability was strong and significant (r = .92, p = .01), and the correlation between the Braztel-MMSE and the MMSE were significant (p = .01) and strong (r = .92). The general screening ability of the Braztel-MMSE was high (AUC = 0.982; CI95% = 0.964-1.001). This telephone version can therefore be used as a screening measure for dementia in older adults that need neuropsychological screening and cannot present for an evaluation.

  12. A device for testing the dynamic performance of in situ force plates. (United States)

    East, Rebecca H; Noble, Jonathan J; Arscott, Richard A; Shortland, Adam P


    Force plates are often incorporated into motion capture systems for the calculation of joint kinetic variables and other data. This project aimed to create a system that could be used to check the dynamic performance of force plate in situ. The proposed solution involved the design and development of an eccentrically loaded wheel mounted on a weighted frame. The frame was designed to hold a wheel mounted in two orthogonal positions. The wheel was placed on the force plate and spun. A VICON™ motion analysis system captured the positional data of the markers placed around the rim of the wheel which was used to create a simulated force profile, and the force profile was dependent on spin speed. The root mean square error between the simulated force profile and the force plate measurement was calculated. For nine trials conducted, the root mean square error between the two simultaneous measures of force was calculated. The difference between the force profiles in the x- and y-directions is approximately 2%. The difference in the z-direction was under 0.5%. The eccentrically loaded wheel produced a predictable centripetal force in the plane of the wheel which varied in direction as the wheel was spun and magnitude dependent on the spin speed. There are three important advantages to the eccentrically loaded wheel: (1) it does not rely on force measurements made from other devices, (2) the tests require only 15 min to complete per force plate and (3) the forces exerted on the plate are similar to those of paediatric gait.

  13. Tandem walking as a quick screening test for vestibular disorders. (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J


    Although many screening tests of balance are available, few of them have been well validated for clinical or research uses. The goal of this study was to test an updated version of an old test, Tandem Walking, to determine how useful it is for screening patients with vestibular disorders. Case-control study. Subjects were 90 adult patients with vestibular disorders and 292 healthy adult controls. They were tested on the number of correct tandem steps they could perform with arms crossed and eyes closed in a series of 10 steps. Correct steps could be nonconsecutive. Subjects were given one practice trial with eyes open and three experimental trials with eyes closed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. ROC values, sensitivity, and specificity were, at best, only moderate, no matter how the age range was cut. Even for subjects in the age group with the highest ROC value (i.e., age less than 50 years), ROC = 0.8, sensitivity = 0.77, and specificity = 0.72. These results indicate that 23% of patients will not be identified. Therefore, we recommend that if this test is used for screening patients in the clinic or healthy volunteers, the result should be interpreted with care. 3b Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. A combined disc method with resazurin agar plate assay for early phenotypic screening of KPC, MBL and OXA-48 carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae. (United States)

    Teethaisong, Y; Eumkeb, G; Nakouti, I; Evans, K; Hobbs, G


    To validate a combined disc method along with resazurin chromogenic agar for early screening and differentiation of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, metallo-β-lactamase and OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The combined disc test comprising of meropenem alone and with EDTA, phenylboronic acid or both EDTA and phenylboronic acid, and temocillin alone were evaluated with the resazurin chromogenic agar plate assay against a total of 86 molecularly confirmed Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates (11 metallo-β-lactamases, eight Kl. pneumoniae carbapenemases, 11 OXA-48, 32 AmpC and 15 extended-spectrum-β-lactamase producers and nine co-producers of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase and AmpC). The inhibition zone diameters were measured and interpreted at 7 h for the presence of carbapenemase. All carbapenemase producers were phenotypically distinguished by this assay with 100% sensitivity and specificity. This early phenotypic method is very simple, inexpensive, and reliable in the detection and differentiation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. It could be exploited in any microbiological laboratory for diagnosis of these recalcitrant bacteria. This assay poses excellent performance in discrimination of Kl. pneumoniae carbapenemase, metallo-β-lactamase and OXA-48 carbapenemases within 7 h, which is much faster than conventional disc diffusion methods. The rapid detection could help clinicians screen patients, control infection and provide epidemiological surveillance. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.


    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Seafloor spreading on the Southeast Indian Ridge over the last one million years: a test of the Capricorn plate hypothesis (United States)

    Conder, James A.; Forsyth, Donald W.


    Plate motions in the Indian Ocean are inconsistent with a rigid Indo-Australian plate. An equatorial, diffuse boundary dividing the plate into separate Indian and Australian plates significantly improves the fit of kinematic plate models to the spreading rates, transform azimuths, and earthquake slip vectors on the spreading center boundaries. An additional boundary, further dividing the Australian plate into Australian and Capricorn plates has been proposed to account for much of the remaining inconsistency and the pattern of intraplate earthquakes [J.-Y. Royer, R.G. Gordon, Science 277 (1997) 1268-1274]. The proposed boundary is ˜2000 km wide where it intersects the Southeast Indian Ridge. Several recent geophysical cruises to the Southeast Indian Ridge, including a cruise within the proposed boundary, provide many new data for investigating the validity of the Capricorn plate model. These new observations strongly support the hypothesis that the Capricorn plate exists. Statistical tests of the data from the Southeast Indian Ridge alone are not sufficient to confirm it, but motion about the Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) suggests some non-rigidity in the Antarctica-Australia-Somalia circuit. Inferred deformation with enforced closure about the RTJ leads to an estimate of plate motion consistent with the Capricorn plate model. However, the diffuse Capricorn-Australia boundary does not extend south of the St. Paul Fracture Zone, 800 km narrower than the previously proposed boundary.

  17. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E. (United States)

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W


    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury. (United States)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Myklebust, Grethe; Kallemose, Thomas; Lauridsen, Hanne B; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K


    Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. Sixty-two adolescent female elite football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, Phamstring pre-activity share some common variance during the examined tests. However, a lack of strong correlation suggests that we cannot generalize one risk factor during one test to another test. The present data demonstrate that one-legged horizontal hop and drop vertical jump testing that are commonly used in the clinical setting does not resemble the specific neuromuscular activity patterns known to exist during sidecutting, a well known high risk movement for non-contact ACL injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening of tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C. producing tannery effluent fungal isolates using simple agar plate and SmF process. (United States)

    Murugan, K; Saravanababu, S; Arunachalam, M


    Industrially important tannase producing fungi were isolated from tannery effluent using simple agar plate method. The isolates were screened by submerged fermentation using auto-controlled bioreactor. The colony diameter on the solid surface media shows high correlation with quantitative production of tannase. The isolate Aspergillus niger shows maximum production of both extracellular and intracellular enzyme.

  20. Feasibility of Electromagnetic Acoustic Evaluation for Quality Test of a Plate-type Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Yoon Sang; Cheong, Yong Moo


    Most research and test reactors use the nuclear fuel plates which are consisted of a fuel core in aluminum alloy. Recently KAERI signed a deal with the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission to build the research reactor and have to supply the plate-type nuclear fuels. For the demands of world market, KAERI started the research and development of the plate-type fuel elements and endeavored to achieve a localization of fuel fabrication. For the inspection of plate-type fuel elements to be used in Research Reactors, an immersion pulse-echo ultrasonic technique was applied. This inspection was done with water, so a nuclear fuel was immersed to be prone to corrosion and needed to have time and cost due to an additional process. The sample that will be examined within this paper is a non-ferromagnetic material such as aluminum which has a good acousto-elastic property, for an effective inspection of a bond quality for a nuclear fuel under a manufacturing environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of an EMAT technology for an automated inspection of a nuclear fuel without water

  1. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kistler CE


    Full Text Available Christine E Kistler,1–3 Thomas M Hess,4 Kirsten Howard,5,6 Michael P Pignone,2,3,7 Trisha M Crutchfield,2,3,8 Sarah T Hawley,9 Alison T Brenner,2 Kimberly T Ward,2 Carmen L Lewis10 1Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, 2Cecil G Sheps Center for Health Services Research, 3Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, 4Department of Psychology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 5Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 7Division of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, 8Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 9Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 10Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA Background: Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults.Materials and methods: To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE, a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE

  2. Beam test results of a resistive plate chamber made of Chinese bakelites

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, J; Ban, Y; Liu Hong Tao; Zhu, Z M; Zhu, Z Y; Chen, T; Ma Jing Guo; Qian, S J


    The detailed beam test results of the first Chinese made avalanche mode resistive plate chamber are reported. The experimental set-ups at CERN GIF area are introduced. The detection efficiency, position resolution and time resolution of the chamber fulfil requirements as muon trigger for the future LHC experiments, while the rate capability is not good enough if the chamber is used at forward region. The applicability and the further possible improvements of the chamber are discussed. (12 refs).

  3. Resistive Plate Chamber Performance During the CMS Magnet Test Cosmic Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Trentadue, R


    The CMS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with a redundant muon system based on Drift Tubes Chambers (barrel region) and Cathode Strip Chamber (endcap region), and Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). During the summer and fall 2006 a first integrated test of an entire CMS slice was performed at the SX5 experimental surface hall. The RPC chambers were operated with cosmic rays. The results on the RPC performance are reported.

  4. Serological Testing in Screening for Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Rachel Gillett


    Full Text Available Assays for celiac-related antibodies are becoming widely available, and the present review aims to clarify the use of these investigations in the diagnosis of, management of and screening for adult celiac disease. The sensitivities and specificities of various antibody tests are discussed, along with their clinical use as an adjunct to small bowel biopsy, and as a first-line investigation for patients with atypical symptoms of celiac disease or patients at high risk of developing sprue.

  5. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test


    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar; Mojtaba Habibi; Maryam Falahatpisheh; Musa Arvin


    Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST). Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men) with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. T...

  6. Three-beam interferogram analysis method for surface flatness testing of glass plates and wedges (United States)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof


    When testing transparent plates with high quality flat surfaces and a small angle between them the three-beam interference phenomenon is observed. Since the reference beam and the object beams reflected from both the front and back surface of a sample are detected, the recorded intensity distribution may be regarded as a sum of three fringe patterns. Images of that type cannot be succesfully analyzed with standard interferogram analysis methods. They contain, however, useful information on the tested plate surface flatness and its optical thickness variations. Several methods were elaborated to decode the plate parameters. Our technique represents a competitive solution which allows for retrieval of phase components of the three-beam interferogram. It requires recording two images: a three-beam interferogram and the two-beam one with the reference beam blocked. Mutually subtracting these images leads to the intensity distribution which, under some assumptions, provides access to the two component fringe sets which encode surfaces flatness. At various stages of processing we take advantage of nonlinear operations as well as single-frame interferogram analysis methods. Two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D CWT) is used to separate a particular fringe family from the overall interferogram intensity distribution as well as to estimate the phase distribution from a pattern. We distinguish two processing paths depending on the relative density of fringe sets which is connected with geometry of a sample and optical setup. The proposed method is tested on simulated data.

  7. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale


    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  8. Validation of the Cross-Cultural Alcoholism Screening Test (CCAST). (United States)

    Gorenc, K D; Peredo, S; Pacurucu, S; Llanos, R; Vincente, B; López, R; Abreu, L F; Paez, E


    When screening instruments that are used in the assessment and diagnosis of alcoholism of individuals from different ethnicities, some cultural variables based on norms and societal acceptance of drinking behavior can play an important role in determining the outcome. The accepted diagnostic criteria of current market testing are based on Western standards. In this study, the Munich Alcoholism Test (31 items) was the base instrument applied to subjects from several Hispanic-American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru). After the sample was submitted to several statistical procedures, these 31 items were reduced to a culture-free, 31-item test named the Cross-Cultural Alcohol Screening Test (CCAST). The results of this Hispanic-American sample (n = 2,107) empirically demonstrated that CCAST measures alcoholism with an adequate degree of accuracy when compared to other available cross-cultural tests. CCAST is useful in the diagnosis of alcoholism in Spanish-speaking immigrants living in countries where English is spoken. CCAST can be used in general hospitals, psychiatric wards, emergency services and police stations. The test can be useful for other professionals, such as psychological consultants, researchers, and those conducting expertise appraisal.

  9. Phene Plate (PhP) biochemical fingerprinting. A screening method for epidemiological typing of enterococcal isolates. (United States)

    Saeedi, B; Tärnberg, M; Gill, H; Hällgren, A; Jonasson, J; Nilsson, L E; Isaksson, B; Kühn, I; Hanberger, H


    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently considered the gold standard for genotyping of enterococci. However, PFGE is both expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the PhP system can be used as a reliable clinical screening method for detection of genetically related isolates of enterococci. If so, it should be possible to minimize the number of isolates subjected to PFGE typing, which would save time and money. Ninety-nine clinical enterococcal isolates were analysed by PhP (similarity levels 0.90-0.975) and PFGE (similarity levels PhP also belong to the same cluster according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE)=B(PFGE) * A(PhP)=B(PhP)), and the probability that a pair of isolates of different types according to PhP also belong to different clusters according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE) not equalB(PFGE) * A(PhP) not equalB(PhP)), was relatively high for E. faecalis (0.86 and 0.96, respectively), but was lower for E. faecium (0.51 and 0.77, respectively). The concordance which shows the probability that PhP and PFGE agree on match or mismatch was 86%-93% for E. faecalis and 54%-66% for E. faecium, which indicates that the PhP method may be useful for epidemiological typing of E. faecalis in the current settings but not for E. faecium.

  10. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.


    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  11. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test. (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard


    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  12. Comparison of the results of wide plate tests with the predictions of several fracture concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosezin, H.J.; Dahl, W.


    With the results of wide plate tests on center cracked specimens the concept of the plastic limit load, the Burdekin-Dawes-design-concept, the J-design-curve according to Turner, the estimation proceeding according to Shih and Kumar, the Two-Criteria-Approach and the FAD according to Pellini were examined and the limits of their application exhibited. The maximum loads of wide plate specimens can be estimated by the plastic limit load, if no low-stress-fractures occur. Corresponding to the Pellini-concept no low-stress-fractures occured at test temperatures above NDT, if the NDT-temperature of the region of material was used, in which the crack was located. With the concept according to Shih and Kumar an estimation of the instability loads of wide plate specimens is possible, if the fracture behaviour is fully ductile, but not in all cases conservative predictions were made. A prediction of critical stresses and crack sizes is possible with the other concepts examined, if the evaluations are based on the critical values for the onset of stable or unstable crack growth. (orig.) [de

  13. Development of a simple screening test to detect and determine the microbiological quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; MacPhee, S.M.; Turner, A.J.; Stuckey, T.; Betts, R.P.


    The direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC) method is a recognised technique for the screening of irradiated foods. When the APC of an irradiated sample is compared with the DEFT count on the same sample, the APC is found to be considerably lower than that obtained by the DEFT, thus indicating that the sample could have been irradiated. Since the development of the DEFT/APC screening method, the technique has been tested with a limited range of food products. Previous work has indicated that the storage of irradiated foods can, in certain circumstances, allow microorganisms to grow, and thus compromise the ability of the DEFT/APC method to discriminate between irradiated and unirradiated samples. In some cases the method has been shown to give high DEFT count and low APC with food samples that have not been irradiated. Potentially, foods which have undergone a food processing treatment could give a high DEFT count compared to an APC and be erroneously identified as having been irradiated. The work reported here is aimed at analysing a range of irradiated samples (meat, poultry, fish, seafood, herbs and spices), stored under different conditions, to evaluate the applicability of the screening method for use with such products. The effects of other food processes on the DEFT/APC results were also investigated. (UK)

  14. Summary of HSST wide-plate crack-arrest tests and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Bass, B.R.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Fields, R.J.; DeWit, R.; Low, S.R. III


    Eleven wide-plate crack-arrest tests have been completed to date, seven utilizing specimens fabricated from A533B class 1 material (WP-1 series), and four fabricated from a low upper-shelf base material (WP-2 series). With the exception of one test in the WP-1 series and two tests in the WP-2 series which utilized 152-mm-thick specimens, each test utilized a single-edge notched (SEN) plate specimen 1 by 1 by 0.1 m that was subjected to a linear thermal gradient along the plane of crack propagation. Test results exhibit an increase in crack-arrest toughness with temperature, with the rate of increase becoming greater as the temperature increases. When the wide-place test results are combined with other large-specimen results (Japanese ESSO, thermal-shock experiments and pressurized-thermal-shock experiments) the data show a consistent trend in which the K Ia data extends above the limit provided in ASME Section XI. (author)

  15. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  16. Post-irradiation studies of test plates for low enriched fuel elements for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groos, E.; Buecker, H.J.; Derz, H.; Schroeder, R.


    In developing new fuels for research reactor elements that allow the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) 3 Si 2 , U 3 Si 1.5 , U 3 Si 1.3 and U 3 Si. Even up to high burnup rates (80% fifa) U 3 Si 2 was proved to be a reliable fuel that according to the test results achieved to date complies with all necessary requirements above all with respect to dimensional stability. U 3 Si showed significant changes of the fuel microstructure associated with considerably higher fuel swelling, that will probably exclude its use in research reactor operation. The irradiation of U 3 Si 1.3 and U 3 Si 1.5 plates had to be terminated untimely. Up to a burnup of 40% fifa these plates behaved quite well. An extrapolation to higher burnup rates, however only seems to be possible with reservations. (orig./HP) [de

  17. ^<90>Sr in mammal teeth taken in the Semipalatinsk Test Site measured by imaging plates


    Toyoda, Shin; Pivovarov, Sergey; Hoshi, Masaharu; Seredavina, Tatyana


    The concentrations of 90Sr in mammal teeth taken in north-west part of Semipalatinsk Test Site were measured by using imaging plates. The highest concentration detected in the present study was 13Bq/g, being comparable with the values previously detected in cow teeth from South Ural region. It suggests that, at least locally, the soil in north-west part of the Test Site is possibly highly contaminated. It would be necessary to investigate the source of this high level of contamination, such a...

  18. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction of Remote Phosphor Plates in Solid-State Lighting Applications Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.


    A methodology, based on accelerated degradation testing, is developed to predict the lifetime of remote phosphor plates used in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. Both thermal stress and light intensity are used to accelerate degradation reaction in remote phosphor plates. A reliability model,

  19. Can ultrasound of plantar plate have normal appearance with a positive drawer test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Affiliated Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo (Brazil); Mann, Tania Szejnfeld [Medical Assistant of Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle Group, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Puchnick, Andrea, E-mail: [Professor and Coordinator of Educational and Research Support, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Tertulino, Franklin de Freitas [Postgraduate Physician, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Cannato, Camila Testoni [Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Nery, Caio [Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa [Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil)


    Highlights: •We evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to identify and measure the plantar plate. •We correlate ultrasound findings with those of physical examination and MRI. •Ultrasound and MRI measures of plantar plate were positively correlated. •Ultrasound is efficient in identifying and measuring plantar plate. •Ultrasound may complement physical examination. •Young asymptomatic subjects can present a grade I positive drawer test. -- Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound (US) examination in the identification and measurement of the metatarsophalangeal plantar plate (MTP-PP) in asymptomatic subjects and (2) to establish the correlation of US findings with those of physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), once it is an important tool in the evaluation of the instability syndrome of the second and third rays. Materials and Methods: US examinations of the second and third MTP-PPs were performed in eight asymptomatic volunteers, totaling 32 MTP joints, by three examiners with different levels of experience in musculoskeletal US. Plantar plate dimensions, integrity and echogenicity, the presence of ruptures, and confidence level in terms of structure identification were determined using conventional US. Vascular flow was assessed using power Doppler. US data were correlated with data from physical examination and MRI. Results: MTP-PPs were ultrasonographically identified in 100% of cases, always showing homogeneous hyperechoic features and no detectable vascular flow on power Doppler, with 100% certainty in identification for all examiners. There was excellent US inter-observer agreement for longitudinal measures of second and third toe MTP-PPs and for transverse measures of the second toe MTP-PP. The MTP drawer test was positive for grade 1 MTP instability in 34.4% of joints with normal US results. Transverse MTP-PP measures were significantly higher in individuals with positive

  20. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C


    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  1. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Elbagory


    Full Text Available The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  2. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives. (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo


    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová


    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  4. Co-Testing of Cervical Screening Tests in Detection of High Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana


    Full Text Available Introduction: Co-testing performance for detection of high grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN has not been adequately addressed from Low Resource Countries (LRCs. Where isolated tests do not have adequate performance, further explorations are recommended. Aim: To evaluate the co-testing of conventional cervical screening tests such as Papanicolaou (Pap and Visual Inspection Cervix with Acetic Acid (VIA, with care HPV on Cervical Samples (CHPV or on Vaginal Samples (VHPV in the detection of high grade CIN. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on ever married women of age 30 to 59 years in a rural community of Dadri. Women were screened by CHPV, VHPV, and Pap and VIA methods. Confirmation of screen positives was done by histology. Sensitivity, Specificity and likelihood ratios of different combinations of test determined to evaluate the performance. Results: Total eligible women, 66.2% (5032/7604 responded for screening. Analysis was performed on 4658, after excluding those who did not complete all screenings. Co-testing of CHPV (OR=246 or VHPV (OR=278 with Pap had highest association. Positive likelihood ratios of CHPV and VHPV with Pap in CIN II+ detection rates were 13.0 and 11.8 and in CIN III+ the detection rates were 18.0 and 16.0 respectively. Higher sensitivities and specificities were observed in co-testing for CIN III+ detection as against CIN II+ lesions. Conclusion: Choice of co-testing in a pair of tests for detection of high grade CIN is likely to depend on whether screening is targeted for developed or low resource country. VIA in isolation might not yield optimal results for LRCs.

  5. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST. Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. The DAST Was Used as Instrument. Divergent & Convergent Validity of this Scale Was Assessed with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP and Relapse Prediction Scale (RPS.Results: The DAST after the First Time Factor Structure of Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis Was Confirmed. The DAST Had a Good Internal Consistency (Cranach’s Alpha, and the Reliability of the Test Within a Week, 0.9, 0.8. Also this Scale Had a Positive Correlation with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients and Relapse Prediction Scale (P<0.01.Conclusion: The Overall Results Showed that the Drug Abuse Screening Test in Iranian Society Is Valid. It Can Be Said that Self-Report Scale Tool Is Useful for Research Purposes and Addiction.

  6. Concrete containment tests: Phase 2, Structural elements with liner plates: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, N.W.; Roller, J.J.; Schultz, D.M.; Julien, J.T.; Weinmann, T.L.


    The tests described in this report are part of Phase 2 of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program. The overall objective of the EPRI program is to provide a test-verified analytical method of estimating capacities of concrete reactor containment buildings under internal overpressurization from postulated degraded core accidents. The Phase 2 testing included seven large-scale specimens representing structural elements from reinforced and prestressed concrete reactor containment buildings. Six of the seven test specimens were square wall elements. Of these six specimens, four were used for biaxial tension tests to determine strength, deformation, and leak-rate characteristics of full-scale wall elements representing prestressed concrete containment design. The remaining two square wall elements were used for thermal buckling tests to determine whether buckling of the steel liner plate would occur between anchorages when subjected to a sudden extreme temperature differential. The last of the seven test specimens for Phase 2 represented the region where the wall and the basemat intersect in a prestressed concrete containment building. A multi-directional loading scheme was used to produce high bending moments and shear in the wall/basemat junction region. The objective of this test was to determine if there is potential for liner plate tearing in the junction region. Results presented include observed behavior and extensive measurements of deformations and strains as a function of applied load. The data are being used to confirm analytical models for predicting strength and deformation of containment structures in a separate parallel analytical investigation sponsored by EPRI

  7. Experimental investigation of thermal limits in parallel plate configuration for the future material testing reactor (JHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigitte Noel


    Full text of publication follows: The design of the future material testing reactor, named Jules Horowitz Reactor and dedicated to technological irradiations, will allow very high performances. The JHR will be cooled and moderated by light water. The preliminary core of JHR consists of 46 assemblies, arranged in a triangular lattice inside a rectangular aluminium matrix. It is boarded on two sides by a beryllium reflector. The other two sides are left free in order to introduce mobile irradiation devices. The JHR assembly would be composed of 3 x 6 cylindrical fuel plates maintained by 3 stiffeners. The external diameter of the assembly is close to 8 cm with a 600 mm heated length, coolant channels having a 1.8 mm gap width. The JHR core must be designed to accommodate high power densities using a high coolant mass flux and sub-cooling level at moderate pressure. The JHR core configuration with multi-channels is subject to a potential excursive instability, called flow redistribution, and is distinguished from a true critical heat flux which would occur at a fixed channel flow rate. At thermal-hydraulic conditions applicable to the JHR, the availability of experimental data for both flow redistribution and CHF is very limited. Consequently, a thermal-hydraulic test facility (SULTAN-RJH) was designed and built in CEA-Grenoble to simulate a full-length coolant sub-channel representative of the JHR core, allowing determination of both thermal limits under relevant thermal hydraulics conditions. The SULTAN-RJH test section simulates a single sub-channel in the JHR core with a cross section corresponding to a mean span (∼50 mm) that has a full reactor length (600 mm), the same flow channel gap (1.5 mm) and Inconel plates of 1 mm thickness. The tests with light water flowing vertically upward will investigate a heat flux range of 0-7 MW/m 2 , velocity range of 0.6-18 m/s, exit pressure range of 0.2-1.0 MPa and inlet temperature range of 25-180 deg. C. The test section

  8. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, E


    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  9. Advances in prenatal screening for Down syndrome: II first trimester testing, integrated testing, and future directions. (United States)

    Benn, Peter A


    The acceptability of prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome is dependent, in part, on the gestational age at which the testing is offered. First trimester screening could be advantageous if it has sufficient efficacy and can be effectively delivered. Two first trimester maternal serum screening markers, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), are useful for identifying women at increased risk for fetal Down syndrome. In addition, measurement of an enlarged thickness of the subcutaneous fluid-filled space at the back of the neck of the developing fetus (referred to as nuchal translucency or NT) has been demonstrated to be an indicator for these high-risk pregnancies. When these three parameters are combined, estimates for Down syndrome efficacy exceed those currently attainable in the second trimester. Women who are screen-positive in the first trimester can elect to receive cytogenetic testing of a chorionic villus biopsy. The first trimester tests could also, theoretically, be combined with the second trimester maternal serum screening tests (integrated screening) to obtain even higher levels of efficacy. There are, however, several practical limitations to first trimester and integrated screening. These include scheduling of testing within relatively narrow gestational age intervals, availability of appropriately trained ultrasonographers for NT measurement, risks associated with chorionic villus biopsy, and costs. There is also increasing evidence that an enlarged NT measurement is indicative of a high risk for spontaneous abortion and for fetal abnormalities that are not detectable by cytogenetic analysis. Women whose fetuses show enlarged NT, therefore, need first trimester counseling regarding their Down syndrome risks and the possibility of other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Follow-up ultrasound and fetal echocardiography in the second trimester are also indicated. First trimester

  10. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.


    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  11. Determination of elastic constants of fuels plates based on uranium by ultrasound testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Castro, Martin Ignacio


    Current nuclear reactors use as U-235 U-enriched compounds enriched with U-235, requiring U-alloys that increase the amount of atoms available for nuclear fission in a convenient way. This study was carried out on fuel plates manufactured in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, whose cores are composed of a dispersed mixture Al-U_3Si_2 and Al-U_7Mo, with different densities of uranium, covered by a coating of Al6061. The objective was to characterize elastically and classify the fuel plates analyzed. Specifically, five Al-U_3Si_2 fuel plates with 1.7 gU/cm"3, eight A-U_3Si_2 with 3.4 gU/cm"3, five of A-l U_3Si_2 with 4.8 gU/cm"3 were successfully studied. The apparent elastic constants (Young and Shear modules, and Poisson coefficient) were determined in the area where the fuel is located (MEAT) by means of an ultrasound sampling technique, thus being able to characterize them and classify them according to their composition. The behavior of the elastic constants generally shows a tendency to decrease as the amount of U_3Si_2 particles dispersed in the MEAT zone of the fuel plates increases. In addition, the non-destructive test method used made it possible to detect several differences between the fuel plates analyzed, such as the amount of reduction in rolling, among others. Additionally, six experimental fuel miniplates were analyzed whose meat were formed by a dispersion of the Al-UMo type, specifically: two of Al-U_7Mo with 6.0 gU/cm"3, two of Al-U_7Mo with 7.0 gU/ cm"3 and two of Al-U_7Mo with 8.0 gU/cm"3. The response of the U-Mo fuel miniplates against this technique was not good, so several ideas were proposed to improve this situation

  12. Development of a Pitch Discrimination Screening Test for Preschool Children. (United States)

    Abramson, Maria Kulick; Lloyd, Peter J


    There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content. The PDT used brief speech frequency tones to gather normative data from preschool children aged 3 to 5 yrs. A cross-sectional study was used to gather data regarding the pitch discrimination abilities of a sample of typically developing preschool children, between 3 and 5 yrs of age. The PDT consists of ten trials using two pure tones of 100-msec duration each, and was administered in an AA or AB forced-choice response format. Data from 90 typically developing preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 yrs were used to provide normative data. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-testing was used to examine the effects of age as a continuous variable on pitch discrimination. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the significance of age on performance on the PDT. Spearman rank was used to determine the correlation of age and performance on the PDT. Pitch discrimination of brief tones improved significantly from age 3 yrs to age 4 yrs, as well as from age 3 yrs to the age 4- and 5-yrs group. Results indicated that between ages 3 and 4 yrs, children's auditory discrimination of pitch improved on the PDT. The data showed that children can be screened for auditory discrimination of pitch beginning with age 4 yrs. The PDT proved to be a time efficient, feasible tool for

  13. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen


    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests...

  14. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II.


    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders

  15. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II


    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.


    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry


    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  17. Pain on Functional Movement Screen Tests and Injury Risk. (United States)

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H


    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.

  18. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.


    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  19. Fabrication and testing of U–7Mo monolithic plate fuel with Zircaloy cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, E.E. [Laboratorio de Nanotecnología Nuclear, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Robinson, A.B. [Idaho National Laboratory, P. O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415-6188 (United States); Porter, D.L., E-mail: [Idaho National Laboratory, P. O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415-6188 (United States); Wachs, D.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, P. O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415-6188 (United States); Finlay, M.R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW, 2234 (Australia)


    Nuclear fuel designs are being developed to replace highly enriched fuel used in research and test reactors with fuels of low enrichment. In the most challenging cases, U–(7–10 wt%)Mo monolithic plate fuels are proposed. One of the considered designs includes aluminum-alloy cladding, which provides some challenges in fabrication and fuel/cladding interaction during service. Zircaloy cladding, specifically Zry–4, was investigated as an alternative cladding, and development of a fabrication method was performed by researchers with the Comisión Nacionalde Energia Atómica (CNEA) in Argentina, resulting in test fuel plates (Zry–4 clad U–7Mo) which were subsequently tested in the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Because Zry–4 and U–(7–10)Mo have similar high-temperature mechanical properties, fabrication was simplified in that the fuel foil and cladding could be co-rolled and bonded. The challenge was to prevent a thermal-expansion mismatch, which could destroy the fuel/cladding bond before complete bonding was achieved; the solution was to prevent the composites from cooling significantly during or between roll passes. The final product performed very well in-reactor, showing good bonding, very little fuel/cladding interaction—either from fabrication or in-reactor testing—and little swelling, especially no detectable heterogeneous bubble formation at the fuel/cladding interface tested to a fission density of up to 2.7E+21 (average) fissions/cm{sup 3}, 3.8E+21 (peak).

  20. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia. (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka


    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  1. Testing the tests--an empirical evaluation of screening tests for the detection of cognitive impairment in aviators. (United States)

    Stokes, A F; Banich, M T; Elledge, V C


    The FAA has expressed concern that flight safety could be compromised by undetected cognitive impairment in pilots due to conditions such as substance abuse, mental illness, and neuropsychological problems. Interest has been shown in the possibility of adding a brief "mini-mental exam," or a simple automated test-battery to the standard flight medical to screen for such conditions. The research reported here involved the empirical evaluation of two "mini-mental exams," two paper-and-pencil test batteries, and a prototype version of an automated screening battery. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated for each sub-task in a discriminant study of 54 pilots and 62 individuals from a heterogeneous clinical population. Results suggest that the "mini-mental exams" are poor candidates for a screening test. The automated battery showed the best discrimination performance, in part because of the incorporation of dual-task tests of divided attention performance. These tests appear to be particularly sensitive to otherwise difficult-to-detect cognitive impairments of a mild or subtle nature. The use of an automated battery of tests as a screening instrument does appear to be feasible in principle, but the practical success of a screening program is heavily dependent upon the actual prevalence of cognitive impairment in the medical applicant population.

  2. Film-Screen Mammography versus digital storage plate mammography: Hard copy and monitor display of microcalcifications and focal findings - A retrospective clinical and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wenkel, E.; Aichinger, U.; Tartsch, M.; Kuchar, I.; Bautz, W.


    Purpose: A retrospective clinical-histological study to determine the diagnostic accuracy of mammography using conventional screen-film cassettes (hard copy), high-resolution digital phosphor storage plates (hard copy) and monitor display (soft copy) for microcalcifications and focal lesions (BI-RADS TM category 4 or 5). Materials and methods: From April to November 2001, 76 patients underwent conventional film-screen mammography and, after diagnosis and preoperative wire localization, digital mammography with the same exposure parameters. Five investigators retrospectively determined the diagnosis after the operation from randomly distributed mediolateral views (hard-copy reading) and from the monitor display (soft-copy reading). These results were correlated with the final histology. Results: The accuracy of conventional screen-film mammography, digital mammography and monitor-displayed mammography was 67%, 65% and 68% for all findings, (n = 76), 59%, 59% and 68% for microcalcifications (n = 44) and 75%, 72% and 63% for focal lesions (n = 32). The overall results showed no difference. Conclusions: Our findings indicate equivalence of conventional screen-film mammography, high-resolution digital phosphor storage plate mammography and monitor-displayed mammography. (orig.) [de

  3. Performance test of the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) with cosmic ray (United States)

    Ikeda, Michihiko; Akieda, Tomomi; Tomita, Shoko; Ninomiya, Aki


    MRPC is a gaseous ionization detector, which a good timing resolution has been used practically in the nuclear and particle physics experiment. A mixed gas of SF6 and Fleon 134a was flowed through the gaps between high resistive plates (500 μm thickness glass). A high electric field of ~2 ×106 [V/m] was applied between the plates. A charged particle passes through the MRPC and causes avalanche amplification. We constructed a relatively small MRPC with a readout pad (20 mm × 50 mm). The development is motivated by feasibility study of the MRPC as a photon tagger at the Research Center for Electron Photon Science (ELPH), Tohoku University. The photon tagger needs a good timing resolution (<100 ps), therefore we studied the small size MRPC, while a large sized MRPCs are widely used in nuclear and particle experiments. The MRPC can operate under the strong magnetic field and thus it can be a good candidate as an electron detector placed in the magnet. We tested the HV dependence of time resolution of the MRPC with cosmic rays. The MRPC will be demonstrated at the open campus of the Tohoku University as an example of nuclear experimental detectors. We will measure the zenith angle and velocity distributions of cosmic ray.

  4. Radiographic testing methods for welds of thin titanium plates and thin wall tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This standard stipulates the testing method by X-ray radiography for the welded parts of titanium plates and titanium tubes with thickness not exceeding 8 mm. The other items than those stipulated here shall be in accordance with JIS Z 3107-1973 ''Testing method by radiography for the welded part of titanium and method of grade classification of radiographs''. As the photographing method of radiographs, the performance of the equipment and materials for testing, the direction of X-ray irradiation, the thickness of parent materials and welds, the use of penetrameters, the arrangement for photographing, the requirement for radiographs and the observation of radiographs are specified. The X-ray apparatuses, photo-sensitive materials and the tools for photographing and observation must be such that the radiographs clearly showing the defects in the welds being tested can be taken or observed. The JIS Z 3107 is insufficient for the test of thin materials like titanium, therefore, this standard was set down. As the thickness of welds, the thickness of parent materials was taken. In this standard, the titanium penetrameters were adopted because they can be made and they conform to practical state. If magnified photographing is carried out with microfocus X-ray apparatuses, precise photographing can be made. (Kako, I.)

  5. Electron beam test of an iron/gas calorimeter based on ceramic parallel plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Bencze, Gy.L.; Bizzeti, A.; Choumilov, E.; Civinini, C; Dalla Santa, F.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Fouz, M.C.; Herve, A.; Iglesias, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Josa, M.I.; Maggi, F.; Malinin, A.; Meschini, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Radermacher, E.; Salicio, J.M.


    The baseline option for the very forward calorimetry in the CMS experiment is an iron/gas calorimeter based on parallel plate chambers. A small prototype module of such a calorimeter, has been tested using electrons of 5 to 100 GeV/c momentum with various high voltages and two gases: CO2 (100%) and CF4/CO2 (80/20), at atmospheric pressure. The collected charge has been measured as a function of the high voltage and of the electron energy. The energy resolution has also been measured. Comparisons have been made with Monte-Carlo predictions. Agreement between data an simulation allows to make and estimation of the expected performance of a full size calorimeter. (Author) 23 refs

  6. Electron beam test of an iron/gas calorimeter based on ceramic parallel plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Bencze, G.L.; Bizzeti, A.; choumilov, E.; Civinini, C.; Dalla Santa, F.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Fouz, M.C.; Herve, A.; Iglesias, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Josa, M.I.; Maggi, F.; Malininin, A.; Meschini, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Radermacher, E.; Salicio, J.M.


    The baseline option for the very forward calorimetry in the CMS experiment is an iron/gas calorimeter based on parallel plate chambers. A small prototype module of such a calorimeter, has been tested using electrons of 5 to 100 GeV/c momentum with various high voltages and two gases: CO 2 (100%) and CF 4 /CO 2 (80/20), at atmospheric pressure. The collected charge has been measured as a function of the high voltage and of the electron energy. The energy resolution has also been measured. Comparisons have been made with Monte-Carlo predictions. Agreement between data an simulation allows to make and estimation of the expected performance of a full size calorimeter. (Author)

  7. Testing micro-channel plate detectors for the particle identification upgrade of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo Garcia, L


    The TORCH, Time of internally Reflected Cherenkov Light, is proposed for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHCb experiment. The detector combines Time-of-Flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve positive pi/K/p separation on a >= 3 sigma level in the momentum range below 10 GeV/c. The required time resolution is <= 50 ps for single photon signal. In a preliminary R\\&D phase, we have shown that already commercially available micro-channel plate tubes with 8 x 8 channels fulfil the requirements. Timing properties of the tubes have been investigated with a pulsed laser diode in single photon regime. Key results from these laboratory tests are reported. An excellent timing resolution of <40 ps is achieved with an efficiency of similar to 90\\%. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization of radiographic and ultrasonic testing for an evaluation of plate type fuel elements during manufacturing stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Mucio Jose Drummond de; Silva Junior, Silverio Ferreira da; Messias, Jose Marcos; Braga, Daniel Martins; Paula, Joao Bosco de


    Structural discontinuities can be introduced in the plate type fuel elements during the manufacturing stages due to mechanical processing conditions. The use of nondestructive testing methods to monitoring the fuel elements during the manufacturing stages presents a significant importance, contributing for manufacturing process improvement and cost reducing. This paper describes a procedure to be used detection and evaluation of structural discontinuities in plate type fuel elements during the manufacturing stages using the ultrasonic testing method and the radiographic testing method. The main results obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Testing of multigap Resistive Plate Chambers for Electron Ion Collider Detector Development (United States)

    Hamilton, Hannah; Phenix Collaboration


    Despite decades of research on the subject, some details of the spin structure of the nucleon continues to be unknown. To improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure, the construction of a new collider is needed. This is one of the primary goals of the proposed Electron Ion Collider (EIC). Planned EIC spectrometers will require good particle identification. This can be provided by time of flight (TOF) detectors with excellent timing resolutions of 10 ps. A potential TOF detector that could meet this requirement is a glass multigap resistive plate chamber (mRPC). These mRPCs can provide excellent timing resolution at a low cost. The current glass mRPC prototypes have a total of twenty 0.1 mm thick gas gaps. In order to test the feasibility of this design, a cosmic test stand was assembled. This stand used the coincidence of scintillators as a trigger, and contains fast electronics. The construction, the method of testing, and the test results of the mRPCs will be presented.

  10. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.J.; Ballinger, C.T.; Burger, S.R.; Charache, G.W.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Donovan, T.J.; LoCascio, M.


    The performance of a 1 cm 2 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage

  11. Screens



    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  12. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity. (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A


    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  13. Mechanized toxicological serum tests in screening hospitalized patients. (United States)

    Hallbach, J; Guder, W G


    provided by the EMIT tox test kits. As a consequence, decision limits for all three group tests in serum were lowered to near the detection limit: (table: see text) For quantitative tests the lower limits of quantification were: (table: see text) The working reagents were stable for at least 14 days at 4-8 degrees C. Calibration curves were stable over the expiration period of reconstituted original reagents (6-12 weeks), also when working reagents were prepared in aliquots from stored reconstituted reagents. Application of the newly adapted programme to serum samples of nearly two hundred patients showed it to be suitable for screening patients in which intoxication is suspected or needs to be excluded.

  14. The Experiment Production And Examination Of The U3Si2-AI Mini plates For Irradiation Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo; Boybul; Yowono; Susworo; Permana, S.


    The fuel plates containing U 3 Si 2 -AI dispersion fuel having respective loading of 3.55; 4.20; and 4.80 g/cm 3 were prepared by dispersing certain amount of U 3 Si 2 powder in the AI powder as matrix. The weight ratio of U 3 Si 2 and AI at different loading was chosen based on the 19.23 cm 3 volume basis fuel core calculation. Each fuel mixture was pressed into a fuel core having dimension of 100.20 x 60.35 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm, which was then cut into mini fuel core having dimension of 16 x 8 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm. The mini plates were prepared by picture and frame technique using AIMg2 as cladding material. The mini plates have been tested for blister, homogeneity, white spots, surface defects and their cladding thickness, revealing that out of 74 mini plates, they are ten (10) mini plates that have to be rejected due to blisters and white spots, thus of 64 mini plates can be further fabricated as samples for irradiation test

  15. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.


    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  16. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat


    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  17. The Relationship between Preeclampsia and Quadruple Screening Test in Nuliparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Zand Vakili


    Full Text Available Introduction: Early diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia needs appropriate obstetric care. Preeclampsia predicting methods are important. This study was designed to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and quadruple screening test in the nulliparous. Materials and Methods:  This case - control study was conducted on 54 pregnant women with preeclampsia (case group and 108 healthy pregnant women (control group who referred to health centers in Sanandaj, Iran. Ultrasonography was performed to determine the gestational age by a radiologist. Maternal serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, unconjugated estriol (uE3, and inhibin-A were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test, T-test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results: The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of preeclampsia in pregnant women for hCG were 35.2% and 79.6 respectively. These findings for estriol were 20.4% and 88.9%, for inhibin-A were 38.8% and 88% and for alpha fetoprotein were 38.8% and 74.1%. The positive predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were 46.3%, 47.8%, 61.8% and 42.9% respectively. The negative predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were also 71%, 69.1%, 74.2% and 70.8% respectively. Conclusion: There was a relationship between preeclampsia and high levels of inhibin-A and hCG. Further studies on these markers and evaluating their usefulness in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are recommended.

  18. Evaluation of Electroless-Nickel Plated Polypropylene under Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Ajibola


    Full Text Available The electroless-nickel composite (ENC consisting of bright metallic electroless-nickel (EN and dull electroless-nickel-phosphorus (EN-P were deposited on the polypropylene (PP substrate from the sodium hypophosphite baths. The ENC plated specimens were subjected to abrasive wear-adhesion test of 1750, 3500, 7000 and 14000 cycles; thermal cycle-adhesion tests, and tensile strength and creep tests. The deposition of ENC influenced the strength and creep strain properties of the PP. The maximum stress σ of 118 (MPa was obtained from EN-PP specimen at strain  of 0.1 mm/mm as compared with the PP having stress σ of 36 (MPa at strain  of 0.07 mm/mm before failure The surface appearances and microstructures of ENC film on PP substrates were examined under the higher resolution metallurgical microscope with digital camera and microscopic camera. The composition of ENC film was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (Jeol JSM-7600F Field Emission SEM/EDX, The micrographs and spectra lines data generated were used to interpret the results.

  19. Parallel susceptibility testing of bacteria through culture-quantitative PCR in 96-well plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo


    Full Text Available Objective: The methods combining culture and quantitative PCR(qPCR offer new solutions for rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing(AST. However, the multiple steps of DNA extraction and cold storage of PCR reagents needed make them unsuitable for rapid high throughput AST. In this study, a parallel culture-qPCR method was developed to overcome above problems. Method: In this method, bacteria culture and DNA extraction automatically and simultaneously completed through using a common PCR instrument as a controllable heating device. A lyophilized 16S rDNA targeted qPCR reagent was also developed, which was stable and could be kept at 4 °C for long time and at 37 °C for about two months. Result: Testing of 36 P. aeruginosa isolates and 28 S. aureus isolates showed that the method had good agreements with the standard broth microdilution method, with an overall agreement of 97.22% (95% CI, 85.83–99.51 for P. aeruginosa and 96.43% (95% CI, 79.76–99.81 for S. aureus. This method could test 12 samples against a panel of up to 7 antibiotics simultaneously in two 96-well PCR plates within 4 h, which greatly improves the testing efficiency of the culture-qPCR method. Conclusion: With rapidness to obtain results and the capabilities for automation and multiple-sample testing, the parallel culture-qPCR method would have great potentials in clinical labs. Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility testing, Thermo-cold lysis, Lyophilized qPCR reagent, Quantitative PCR, Bacteria

  20. Screening Applications to Test Cellular Fitness in Transwell® Models After Nanoparticle Treatment. (United States)

    Christ, Bastian; Fey, Christina; Cubukova, Alevtina; Walles, Heike; Dembski, Sofia; Metzger, Marco


    Nanoparticles (NPs) in biotechnology hold great promise for revolutionizing medical treatments and therapies. In order to bring NPs into clinical application there is a number of preclinical in vitro and in vivo tests, which have to be applied before. The initial in vitro evaluation includes a detailed physicochemical characterization as well as biocompatibility tests, among others. For determination of biocompatibility at the cellular level, the correct choice of the in vitro assay as well as NP pretreatment is absolutely essential. There are a variety of assay technologies available that use standard plate readers to measure metabolic markers to estimate the number of viable cells in culture. Each cell viability assay has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the assay method chosen, the major factors critical for reproducibility and success include: (1) choosing the right assay after comparing optical NP properties with the read-out method of the assay, (2) verifying colloidal stability of NPs in cell culture media, (3) preparing a sterile and stable NP dispersion in cell culture media used in the assay, (4) using a tightly controlled and consistent cell model allowing appropriate characterization of NPs. This chapter will briefly summarize these different critical points, which can occur during biocompatibility screening applications of NPs.

  1. Computerized visuo-spatial memory test as a supplementary screening test for dementia. (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu


    To prepare for a super-aging society, effective dementia screening tests are required. The most salient deficit appearing from the early stages of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a deterioration in memory. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-revised (HDS-R) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are widely used in Japan to screen for dementia. Both place an emphasis on memory function, but neither examines visuo-spatial memory (VSM) function, even though VSM deficits are a sensitive marker for the detection of conversion to dementia. Furthermore, brief tests of VSM that are appropriate for screening have not been standardized. Thus, in the present study, we devised a brief, computer-aided short-term VSM test. Sixty-six aged people were evaluated. Using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), it was found that 29 could be considered normal controls (NC; CDR 0), 10 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; CDR 0.5), 15 had mild dementia (CDR 1), and 12 had moderate to severe dementia (CDR 2-3). The VSM test estimated how many locations each subject could memorize. Several numbered circles were shown on a monitor and subjects were required to memorize the location of these circles sequentially. After the numbers on the circles on the screen had disappeared, the subjects were required to indicate the circles in ascending order. A touch panel screen was used for this test to make it easier. The HDS-R was applied to subjects with MCI and dementia. The mean (+/-SD) VSM score in subjects with MCI (5.70 +/- 0.96) was significantly lower than that in NC subjects (6.69 +/- 0.82), but significantly higher than that in subjects classified as CDR 1 (4.67 +/- 0.87). There was no significant difference in VSM scores between subjects classified as CDR 1 and CDR 2-3 (3.80 +/- 0.80). There was a moderate significant correlation between VSM and HDS-R scores. In the present study, the VSM test detected differences in VSM function among NC subjects and subjects with MCI and mild dementia. The

  2. Specifications, Pre-Experimental Predictions, and Test Plate Characterization Information for the Prometheus Critical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ML Zerkle; ME Meyers; SM Tarves; JJ Powers


    This report provides specifications, pre-experimental predictions, and test plate characterization information for a series of molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), rhenium (Re), tantalum (Ta), and baseline critical experiments that were developed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) for the Prometheus space reactor development project. In March 2004, the Naval Reactors program was assigned the responsibility to develop, design, deliver, and operationally support civilian space nuclear reactors for NASA's Project Prometheus. The NRPCT was formed to perform this work and consisted of engineers and scientists from the Naval Reactors (NR) Program prime contractors: Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL), and Bechtel Plant Machinery Inc (BPMI). The NRPCT developed a series of clean benchmark critical experiments to address fundamental uncertainties in the neutron cross section data for Mo, Nb, Re, and Ta in fast, intermediate, and mixed neutron energy spectra. These experiments were to be performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the Planet vertical lift critical assembly machine and were designed with a simple, geometrically clean, cylindrical configuration consisting of alternating layers of test, moderator/reflector, and fuel materials. Based on reprioritization of missions and funding within NASA, Naval Reactors and NASA discontinued their collaboration on Project Prometheus in September 2005. One critical experiment and eighteen subcritical handstacking experiments were completed prior to the termination of work in September 2005. Information on the Prometheus critical experiments and the test plates produced for these experiments are expected to be of value to future space reactor development programs and to integral experiments designed to address the fundamental neutron cross section uncertainties for these refractory metals. This information is being provided as an orderly closeout of NRPCT work on Project

  3. Fluconazole-containing agar Sabouraud dextrose plates are not useful when screening for susceptibility in Candida albicans. (United States)

    Bordallo-Cardona, M A; Marcos-Zambrano, L J; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, E; Escribano, P; Bouza, E; Guinea, J; Cantón, R


    Fluconazole is an alternative for candidemic patients who are not critically ill. Fluconazole is mainly fungistatic and does not completely inhibit visual Candida albicans growth. We studied the usefulness of fluconazole-containing Sabouraud dextrose agar plates for detecting susceptibility to fluconazole in C. albicans. Adjusted inocula of 19 isolates were transferred directly onto fluconazole-containing Sabouraud dextrose plates (concentrations ranging from 0.125 mg/L to 128 mg/L). The fluconazole MIC in fresh isolates and after growth on the fluconazole-containing plate at 128 mg/L was recorded following the EUCAST EDef 7.2 guidelines. Then isolates were classified according to their degree of trailing production, based on microdilution procedure. All isolates were able to grow on all fluconazole-containing plates, even those isolates susceptible to fluconazole. In fact, we selected isolates with different degrees of trailing based on microdilution procedures. 50% of isolates classified as heavy trailers, 35.71% as moderate trailers, and 14.28% as slight trailers. The use of fluconazole-containing Sabouraud dextrose agar plates was not a reliable method to detect fluconazole susceptibility in C. albicans isolates; growth of the isolates was a trailing effect rather than true resistance.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (Luuk); A.H.C. Roon (Aafke); J.C.I.Y. Reijerink (Jacqueline); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)


    textabstractObjective The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if

  5. Does offering prenatal screening influence pregnant women's attitudes regarding prenatal testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinveld, J.H.; van den Berg, M.; van Eijk, J.T.; van Vugt, J.M.G.; van der Wal, G.; Timmermans, D.R.M.


    Objectives: This study aims to find out whether offering prenatal screening for Down syndrome and neural tube defects influences pregnant women's attitudes toward having a screening test. Methods: Women were randomised into a group that was offered prenatal screening and a group that was not offered

  6. Colon cancer screening (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  7. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R


    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS: Questionnai......AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... as a routine procedure. Most women (92%) underwent serum screening and most (86%) found the decision to participate or not easy. In almost every aspect of presentation and participation studied, serum and ultrasound screening differed from each other. 85% of respondents to ultrasound screening answered...... in screening and with intentions about selective termination, women's perceptions of lives of the disabled should receive more attention in future studies....

  8. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  9. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study. (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J


    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  10. An Automated Method for High-Throughput Screening of Arabidopsis Rosette Growth in Multi-Well Plates and Its Validation in Stress Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Diego, N.; Fürst, T.; Humplík, Jan; Ugena, L.; Podlešáková, K.; Spíchal, L.


    Roč. 8, OCT 4 (2017), č. článku 1702. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : salt stress * chlorophyll fluorescence * salinity tolerance * plant-responses * cold-tolerance * water-deficit * thaliana * selection * platform * reveals * high-throughput screening assay * Arabidopsis * multi-well plates * rosette growth * stress conditions Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  11. Studies on upgrading quality of zircon concentrate to meet the standard for frit by a combination of using a screen plate electrostatic separator and other beneficiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Hung


    In the present work, researches on qualitative upgrade of zircon concentrate in order to meet the standard for frit were carried out by combinations of a screen plate type electrostatic separator with other physical beneficiation methods such as magnetic separation, flotation, gravity by air-table along with chemical treatment on laboratory scale was itself manufactured for studied scopes, after that zircon concentrate about 63.9-64.8% of ZrO 2 , less than 0.13% of TiO 2 and 0.128% of Fe 2 O 3 values were recovered. (NDH)

  12. Development of an SH Wave Magnetostrictive Transducer Module for Guided Wave Testing of Plate Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Park, Jae Ha; Kwon Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok


    Recently much attention has been paid to a guided wave due to its effective applicability to long range and fast inspection of structures. In guided wave based NDE, the appropriate selection of wave modes is one of important factors since the test performance is highly dependent on which mode of guided waves is employed. As far as plate-like structures are concerned, so far, SH guided wave has not been frequently applied compared to Lamb waves, which is mostly caused by the lack of proper and convenient transducers to generate and measure the SH waves. In this investigation, a new small-sized SH guided wave transducer based on magnetostriction is proposed. The present transducer was designed to be modular and be used with shear couplant to avoid the inconvenience of the existing magnetostrictive patch transducers, which comprises the ferromagnetic patch tightly bonded to a structure. The wave transduction mechanism and the detailed configuration of the present transducer are presented. Experimental verification is also conducted on test specimens and the results confirm the good performance of the present transducer module

  13. Development of an SH Wave Magnetostrictive Transducer Module for Guided Wave Testing of Plate Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Park, Jae Ha; Kwon Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently much attention has been paid to a guided wave due to its effective applicability to long range and fast inspection of structures. In guided wave based NDE, the appropriate selection of wave modes is one of important factors since the test performance is highly dependent on which mode of guided waves is employed. As far as plate-like structures are concerned, so far, SH guided wave has not been frequently applied compared to Lamb waves, which is mostly caused by the lack of proper and convenient transducers to generate and measure the SH waves. In this investigation, a new small-sized SH guided wave transducer based on magnetostriction is proposed. The present transducer was designed to be modular and be used with shear couplant to avoid the inconvenience of the existing magnetostrictive patch transducers, which comprises the ferromagnetic patch tightly bonded to a structure. The wave transduction mechanism and the detailed configuration of the present transducer are presented. Experimental verification is also conducted on test specimens and the results confirm the good performance of the present transducer module

  14. Characterization of holding brake friction pad surface after pin-on-plate wear test (United States)

    Drago, N.; Gonzalez Madruga, D.; De Chiffre, L.


    This article concerns the metrological characterization of the surface on a holding brake friction material pin after a pin-on-plate (POP) wear test. The POP test induces the formation of surface plateaus that affect brake performances such as wear, friction, noise and heat. Three different materials’ surfaces have been characterized after wear from data obtained with a focus variation 3D microscope. A new surface characterization approach with plateau identification is proposed, using the number of plateau on the surface, equivalent diameter, length and breadth as measurands. The identification method is based on determining and imposing ISO 27158-2 lower plateau limit (LPL) in material probability curves; and on applying a combined criterion of height segmentation threshold and equivalent diameter threshold. The method determines the criterion thresholds for each material since LPL appears typical by material. The proposed method has allowed quantifying the surface topography at two different levels of wear. An expanded measurement uncertainty of 3.5 µm for plateau dimensions in the range 50–2000 µm and one of 0.15 µm for plateau heights up to 10 µm have been documented.

  15. Testing of a resistive plate chamber using NINO-ASIC based front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, M.; Saini, J.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Ganai, R.; Barai, C.


    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has shown promising results while testing with the NINO FEE board. It has shown ∼ 80% efficiency in detecting cosmic muons with a noise rate of ∼ 40 Hz/cm 2 . The low threshold in the NINO board may be a possible reason for high noise rate. We plan to test the RPC for different gas mixtures to achieve an efficiency above 95%. The calibration of the NINO onboard threshold with input pulse amplitude need to be done. The time resolution of RPC is ∼ 2.66 ns at 12 kV for avalanche mode gas mixture. The minimum time resolution of the RPC has to determined by measuring the time spectra over the full plateau region of voltages. The signal charge has to be measured by time over- threshold for slewing correction. As J7 input of the board was not working properly, efficiency and noise rate data for the particular input has not been measured

  16. The study of fix composite panel and steel plates on testing stand (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Wachna, M.


    In this paper the practical possibilities of strength verification analysis of composite materials used in the manufacture of selected components of railway wagons are presented. Real laboratory stand for measurements in a scale controlled by PLC controller were made. The study of different types of connections of composite materials with sheet metal is presented. In one of the chapter of this paper principles construction of testing stand with pneumatic cylinder were presented. Mainly checking of displacements and stresses generated on the sheet as a result of pneumatic actuators load for composite boards was carried out. The use of the controller with operating panel allows to easy programming testing cycle. The user can define the force generated by the actuator by change of air pressure in cylinder. Additionally the location of acting cylinders and their jump can be changed by operator. The examination of the volume displacements was done by displacement sensor, and the tensile strain gauge. All parameters are written in CatmanEasy - data acquisition software. This article presents the study of stresses and displacements in the composite plates joined with sheet metal, in summary of this article, the authors compare the obtained results with the computer simulation results in the article: "Simulation of stresses in an innovative combination of composite with sheet".

  17. Biomechanical testing of a hybrid locking plate fixation of equine sesamoid osteotomies. (United States)

    Almeida da Silveira, E; Levasseur, A; Lacourt, M; Elce, Y; Petit, Y


    To compare the biomechanical properties of a hybrid locking compression plate (LCP) construct with the compression screw technique as a treatment for transverse mid-body proximal sesamoid bone fractures. Ten paired forelimbs from abattoir horses were used. The medial proximal sesamoid bone of each limb was osteotomized transversely and randomly assigned, to either repair with a two-hole 3.5 mm LCP or a 4.5 mm cortical screw placed in lag fashion. Each limb was tested biomechanically by axial loading in single cycle until failure. The point of failure was evaluated from the load-displacement curves. Then a gross evaluation and radiographs were performed to identify the mode of failure. The loads to failure of limbs repaired with the hybrid LCP construct (4968 N ± 2167) and the limbs repaired with the screw technique (3009 N ± 1091) were significantly different (p fracture of the apical fragment of the proximal sesamoid bone. The LCP technique has potential to achieve a better fracture stability and healing when applied to mid-body fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone. Further testing, particularly fatigue resistance is required to corroborate its potential as a treatment option for mid-body fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone.

  18. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang


    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  19. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C.; Freitas, P.M.C.; Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S.


    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. (United States)


    ... developmental defects should not be used. Healthy virgin animals, not subjected to previous experimental..., except legal holidays. (1) OECD (1995). Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, OECD 421...

  1. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.


    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  2. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing: Increased Cervical Cancer Screening Participation and Incorporation in International Screening Programs (United States)

    Gupta, Sarah; Palmer, Christina; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Cardenas, Juan P.; Nuñez, Harold; Kraal, Laurens; Bird, Sara W.; Bowers, Jennie; Smith, Alison; Walton, Nathaniel A.; Goddard, Audrey D.; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Zneimer, Susan; Richman, Jessica; Apte, Zachary S.


    In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general. PMID:29686981

  3. Comparison of the automated vision screening test to the Snellen test. (United States)

    Gofin, R; Falk, M


    The comparison of an automatic vision screening machine using the Landolt rings and the usual Snellen Chart was carried out among 123 second grade and 149 fifth grade students in an elementary school in Jerusalem. The sensitivity of the test for a cut-off point of greater than or equal to 6/12 according to the Snellen test was 41.7% (CI = 16.5-71.4) and the specificity was 86.5% (CI 78.1-92.2) for second graders. For fifth graders the values were 50.0% (CI = 20.1-79.9) and 90.6% (CI 83.7-94.8) respectively. Diagnosis by a specialist decreased the number of 'false negatives' and confirmed the pathological cases. The automatic test was well accepted by the children. Though more time is needed for assessment using the automatic test, its advantage is that no professional staff are required.

  4. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm


    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...... will probably replace cytology in future primary cervical screening. However, HPV testing is associated with more frequent false-positive tests compared to cytology. False-positive tests are defined as positive screening tests which are not subsequently confirmed with high-grade CIN. Several authors have...

  5. HV Test of the CTS Edgeless Silicon Detector in Vacuum and Close to a Grounded Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Ruggiero, Gennaro


    The TOTEM Roman Pot Silicon sensors will be operated in vacuum to minimise the mechanical stress of the thin metal window which separates the detector package from the ultra high vacuum of the beam. To approach the beam axis as close as possible the detectors will be mounted with their edge at a distance of the order 100 - 200 um from the thin metal window. As the detectors will be run in overdepletion mode to allow the full charge collection within the shaping time of the readout electronics, there will be a potential drop of more than 100 V across their edge. Moreover this potential drop might need to be further increased with the accumulated radiation dose. The main goals of the tests described in this note are: - Characterisation of the voltage-current characteristics when the detector edge is in the direct vicinity of a grounded metal plate which simulates the above mentioned vacuum window; - Demonstration of the detector operation in vacuum at different pressures.

  6. Elevated-temperature benchmark tests of simply supported beams and circular plates subjected to time-varying loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.; Richardson, M.; Clinard, J.A.


    This report presents the measured elastic-plastic-creep responses of eight simply supported type 304 stainless steel beams and circular plates that were subjected to time-varying loadings at elevated temperature. The tests were performed to provide experimental benchmark problem data suitable for assessing inelastic analysis methods and for validating computer programs. Beams and plates exhibit the essential features of inelastic structural behavior; yet they are relatively simple and the experimental results are generally easy to interpret. The stress fields are largely uniaxial in beams, while multiaxial effects are introduced in plates. The specimens tested were laterally loaded at the center and subjected to either a prescribed load or a center deflection history. The specimens were machined from a common well-characterized heat of material, and all the tests were performed at a temperature of 593 0 C (1100 0 F). Test results are presented in terms of the load and center deflection behaviors, which typify the overall structural behavior. Additional deflection data, as well as strain gage results and mechanical properties data for the beam and plate material, are provided in the appendices

  7. Analysis of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method with optimal test functions for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending model

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.; Collier, Nathan; Niemi, Antti H.


    We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable

  8. Validity of Forced Eyelid Closure Test: A Novel Clinical Screening Test for Ocular Myasthenia Gravis. (United States)

    Apinyawasisuk, Supanut; Zhou, Xinkai; Tian, Jack J; Garcia, Giancarlo A; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A


    Forced eyelid closure test (FECT) is a clinical screening test developed from the original Cogan lid twitch (CLT) sign to assist in the diagnosis of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of FECT compared with CLT and benchmarked to standard diagnostic tests. This study was a retrospective chart review of 48 patients using electronic medical records of those that presented with ptosis and/or diplopia at Doheny Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles between February 2015 and April 2016. Patients without FECT testing were excluded. FECT and CLT results, and final diagnosis were recorded. To perform FECT, the patient was asked to squeeze his or her eyelids shut for 5-10 seconds then open quickly and fixate in primary position. The excessive upward overshoot of eyelids movement indicated a positive FECT. The test was performed by a neuro-ophthalmologist before establishing the diagnosis. Patients who had equivocal test results and/or inconclusive final diagnosis were excluded. Of the 48 patients studied, 18 patients (37.5%) had positive FECT; 15 of whom had a final diagnosis of OMG (83.3%). Of the 30 patients with negative FECT, 1 had OMG (3.3%). Of the 48 patients, 35 patients also had a documented CLT result (72.9%). CLT was positive in 11 of these 35 patients (31.4%), and 9 of these 11 had OMG (81.8%). Of the 24 patients with negative CLT, 2 of them had OMG (8.3%). Sensitivity and specificity of FECT were 94% and 91% (joint 95% confidence region: sensitivity × specificity = [0.70, 1] × [0.75, 1]). The relative true-positive fraction (rTPF) between FECT and CLT was 1.15; the relative false-positive fraction was 1.31. FECT is a simple clinical screening test with good sensitivity and specificity for OMG.

  9. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali


    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  10. Experiences with a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists: lessons learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J. M. H.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; Pijnappel, R. M.; Broeders, M. J. M.; den Heeten, G. J.


    To evaluate a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists introduced as part of the national quality assurance programme. A total of 144 radiologists were invited to complete a test-set of 60 screening mammograms (20 malignancies). Participants assigned findings such as location, lesion type

  11. 77 FR 4544 - CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods (United States)


    ... Screening and Testing Methods AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... symposium on phthalates screening and testing methods. The symposium will be held at the CPSC's National... submit comments, identified by Docket No. CPSC-2012-0008, by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  12. Willingness to take a screening test for colorectal cancer: a community-based survey in Malaysia. (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Jun, Yip Kar; Yee, Wai Mun; Waqiyuddin, Syazana J D B T; Lui, Lau Chiew; Shaung, Ooi Yin; Haw, Fong Jenn


    The aims of the study were (i) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of colorectal cancer (CRC), (ii) to explore the willingness of the study population to take a screening test for CRC, and (iii) to identify factors affecting the willingness to take a screening test for CRC. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a semiurban town in Malaysia using a pretested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were determined for all important variables. A binary logistic regression model was introduced to identify independent predictors of the willingness to take a screening test. Factors influencing willingness were explored according to the constructs of the health belief model. Of the 256 respondents who had heard about CRC, the majority were aware of altered bowel habits (67.3%) or the presence of blood in stool or rectal bleeding (63.4%) as the warning symptoms. Although 38% of the respondents knew of colonoscopy as the screening test, 22% were not aware of any screening test for CRC. A majority (77.4%) showed willingness to take a screening test for CRC. In the multivariate analysis, 'having family or friends with history of CRC' and 'self-perceived risk' were the two significant variables for predicting the acceptance of CRC screening among the study population. Findings suggested that the respondents' knowledge of the CRC screening test was inadequate, albeit a high proportion expressed their intention to take screening tests. Health education on the CRC addressing available screening tests and the benefits of early screening for CRC should be scaled up.

  13. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs. (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A


    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  14. The King–Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle F. Leong


    Conclusions: The data show worsening of K–D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K–D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion.

  15. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In current literature both universal and selective screening are still ... One of the central issues that has received less attention is the ... The recorded information included the type of food, ... Body mass index (BMI) at booking > 40 kg/m2.

  16. Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems (United States)

    ... young age; and a history of high-risk breast biopsy results. Women without these risk factors are at ... on when and how often you will have breast screening. Glossary Benign: Not cancer. Biopsy: A minor surgical procedure to remove a small ...

  17. Validating a dance-specific screening test for balance: preliminary results from multisite testing. (United States)

    Batson, Glenna


    Few dance-specific screening tools adequately capture balance. The aim of this study was to administer and modify the Star Excursion Balance Test (oSEBT) to examine its utility as a balance screen for dancers. The oSEBT involves standing on one leg while lightly targeting with the opposite foot to the farthest distance along eight spokes of a star-shaped grid. This task simulates dance in the spatial pattern and movement quality of the gesturing limb. The oSEBT was validated for distance on athletes with history of ankle sprain. Thirty-three dancers (age 20.1 +/- 1.4 yrs) participated from two contemporary dance conservatories (UK and US), with or without a history of lower extremity injury. Dancers were verbally instructed (without physical demonstration) to execute the oSEBT and four modifications (mSEBT): timed (speed), timed with cognitive interference (answering questions aloud), and sensory disadvantaging (foam mat). Stepping strategies were tracked and performance strategies video-recorded. Unlike the oSEBT results, distances reached were not significant statistically (p = 0.05) or descriptively (i.e., shorter) for either group. Performance styles varied widely, despite sample homogeneity and instructions to control for strategy. Descriptive analysis of mSEBT showed an increased number of near-falls and decreased timing on the injured limb. Dancers appeared to employ variable strategies to keep balance during this test. Quantitative analysis is warranted to define balance strategies for further validation of SEBT modifications to determine its utility as a balance screening tool.

  18. Development and validation of a new cognitive screening test: The Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC). (United States)

    Chiu, Helen F K; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Leung, Tony; Li, S W; Chow, Paulina; Tsoh, Joshua; Yan, Connie; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wong, Mike


    To develop and examine the validity of a new brief cognitive test with less educational bias for screening cognitive impairment. A new cognitive test, Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC), was developed based on review of the literature, as well as the views of an expert panel. Three groups of subjects aged 65 or above were recruited after written consent: normal older people recruited in elderly centres, people with mild NCD (neurocognitive disorder), and people with major NCD. The brief cognitive test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), were administered to the subjects. The performance of HKBC in differentiating subjects with major NCD, mild NCD, and normal older people were compared with the clinical diagnosis, as well as the MMSE and MoCA scores. In total, 359 subjects were recruited, with 99 normal controls, 132 subjects with major NCD, and 128 with mild NCD. The mean MMSE, MoCA, and HKBC scores showed significant differences among the 3 groups of subjects. In the receiving operating characteristic curve analysis of the HKBC in differentiating normal subjects from those with cognitive impairment (mild NCD + major NCD), the area under the curve was 0.955 with an optimal cut-off score of 21/22. The performances of MMSE and MoCA in differentiating normal from cognitively impaired subjects are slightly inferior to the HKBC. The HKBC is a brief instrument useful for screening cognitive impairment in older adults and is also useful in populations with low educational level. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Elevated-temperature tests of simply-supported beams and circular plates subjected to time-varying loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.; Richardson, M.


    The measured elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic-creep responses of a number of simply-supported type 304 stainless steel beams and circular plates are presented. Beams and plates exhibit the essential features of inelastic structural behavior; yet they are relatively simple. In beams, the stress fields are largely uniaxial, while multiaxial effects are introduced in plates. The specimens were laterally loaded at the center, and the tests were performed by subjecting the specimens to either a prescribed load or center-deflection history. The specimens were machined from a common, well-characterized heat of material, and all of the tests were performed at a temperature of 1100 F. The elastic-plastic tests consisted of short-time cycling of the center load, or deflection, between fixed limits. In the elastic-plastic-creep tests the center load, or deflection, was held constant for periods of time, but was periodically subjected to a step increase or decrease, including reversals. The test results are presented in terms of the load and center-deflection behaviors, which typify the overall structural behavior. (U.S.)

  20. Development of Plate Reader and On-Line Microfluidic Screening to Identify Ligands of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Binding Protein in Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka A. Otvos


    Full Text Available The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which is expressed in the nervous system. Its antagonists are used clinically for treatment of postoperative- and radiotherapy-induced emesis and irritable bowel syndrome. In order to better understand the structure and function of the 5-HT3 receptor, and to allow for compound screening at this receptor, recently a serotonin binding protein (5HTBP was engineered with the Acetylcholine Binding Protein as template. In this study, a fluorescence enhancement assay for 5HTBP ligands was developed in plate-reader format and subsequently used in an on-line microfluidic format. Both assay types were validated using an existing radioligand binding assay. The on-line microfluidic assay was coupled to HPLC via a post-column split which allowed parallel coupling to a mass spectrometer to collect MS data. This high-resolution screening (HRS system is well suitable for compound mixture analysis. As a proof of principle, the venoms of Dendroapsis polylepis, Pseudonaja affinis and Pseudonaja inframacula snakes were screened and the accurate masses of the found bioactives were established. To demonstrate the subsequent workflow towards structural identification of bioactive proteins and peptides, the partial amino acid sequence of one of the bioactives from the Pseudonaja affinis venom was determined using a bottom-up proteomics approach.

  1. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activities of enaminone compounds on the formalin and hot plate tests in mice (United States)

    Masocha, Willias; Kombian, Samuel B.; Edafiogho, Ivan O.


    Recently, we found that methyl 4-(4‧-bromophenyl)aminocyclohex-3-en-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-oate (E139), an anticonvulsant enaminone, has antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test. In this study we evaluated the antinociceptive activity of five anilino enaminones E139, ethyl 4-(4‧-chlorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E121), ethyl 4-(4‧-bromophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E122), methyl 4-(4‧-chlorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E138) and ethyl 4-(4‧-fluorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (BRG 19) using the formalin and hot plate tests. E139 has been reported to exert its effects via enhancement of extracellular GABA levels, thus tiagabine, a GABA transporter inhibitor, was evaluated as a control together with indomethacin. Tiagabine had antinociceptive activity in both phase 1 (neurogenic pain) and phase 2 (inflammatory pain) of the formalin test, whereas indomethacin had activity only in phase 2. E139 and E138 had antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test, whereas E121 had activity only in phase 1 and BRG 19 had activity only in phase 2. E122 had no significant activity in either phase. In the hot plate test only E139 had antinociceptive activity. Administration of either bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or CGP 35348, a GABAB receptor antagonist, blocked the antinociceptive activity of E139. In conclusion our results indicate that E139 has antinociceptive activity in the formalin and hot plate tests that are dependent on GABA receptors.

  2. Determination of mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy plates by tensile stress test (United States)

    Bere, Paul; Krolczyk, Jolanta B.


    The polymeric composite materials used in aerospace, military, medical or racing cars manufacturing end up being used in our daily life Whether we refer to the performing vehicles, subassemblies or parts for aircrafts, wind, telegraph poles, or medical prostheses they all are present in our lives and they are made of composite materials (CM). This paper presents research regarding three different composite materials, plates by carbon fiber, in epoxy matrix. Starting with materials presentation, manufacturing methodology and determination of mechanical properties at carbon fiber/epoxy were done. Vacuum bag technology to obtain the composite structure offer opportunity to get a very compact and homogeny composite structure. For the moment this technology are adequate for high performances pieces. The mechanical characteristics of plates made of composite materials reinforced presented indicates closed value like metal materials. Based on the results, a comparative study between the reinforced materials typically used to manufacture the plates of CM is carried out.

  3. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain (United States)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  4. Autofluorescence: A screening test for mycotic infection in tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee


    Full Text Available Fungal infection is a major health concern as the clinical features are not very distinctive. Lack of rapid diagnostic techniques results in delay in diagnosis, which may even culminate in a fatal outcome. The fact that many pathogenic fungal organisms autofluoresce in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E-stained sections under ultraviolet illumination led us to evaluate the role of autofluorescence as a rapid screening technique for fungal infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of autofluorescence as a screening method for detecting fungi on tissue sections and to compare the results of autofluorescence with conventional histochemical stains for fungi. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides of mycotic lesions were examined under fluorescent microscope and the findings were compared with results of Gomori′s methenamine silver and periodic acid-Schiff stains. We found fungal autofluorescence in 63 out of 64 cases studied, with a sensitivity of 97.8% and specificity of 100% in comparison with fungal stains. This was statistically significant (P < 0.05. We conclude that autofluorescence can be used as a rapid screening method for identification of fungi in tissue sections as it does not require any other specialized staining procedure

  5. Experimental investigations of image quality in X-ray mammography with conventional screen film system (SFS), digital phosphor storage plate in/without magnification technique (CR) and digital CCD-technique (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Aichinger, U.; Boehner, C.; Dobritz, M.; Wenkel, E.; Bautz, W.; Saebel, M.


    Comparison of image quality in X-ray mammography between conventional film screen film system (SFS), digital phosphor storage plate in and without magnification technique (CR) and digital CCD-technique (CCD). Radiograms of an RMI-mammography phantom were acquired using a conventional screen film system, three digital storage plate systems and two digital systems in CCD-technique. Additionally the radiograms of one digital phosphor storage plate system were post-processed regarding contrast and included in the comparison. The detectability of details was best with the digital mammography in CCD-technique. After confirming these promising results in clinical studies, digital mammography should be able to replace conventional screen film technique. (orig.)

  6. Requirements and testing methods for surfaces of metallic bipolar plates for low-temperature PEM fuel cells (United States)

    Jendras, P.; Lötsch, K.; von Unwerth, T.


    To reduce emissions and to substitute combustion engines automotive manufacturers, legislature and first users aspire hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Up to now the focus of research was set on ensuring functionality and increasing durability of fuel cell components. Therefore, expensive materials were used. Contemporary research and development try to substitute these substances by more cost-effective material combinations. The bipolar plate is a key component with the greatest influence on volume and mass of a fuel cell stack and they have to meet complex requirements. They support bending sensitive components of stack, spread reactants over active cell area and form the electrical contact to another cell. Furthermore, bipolar plates dissipate heat of reaction and separate one cell gastight from the other. Consequently, they need a low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) to the gas diffusion layer, high flexural strength, good thermal conductivity and a high durability. To reduce costs stainless steel is a favoured material for bipolar plates in automotive applications. Steel is characterized by good electrical and thermal conductivity but the acid environment requires a high chemical durability against corrosion as well. On the one hand formation of a passivating oxide layer increasing ICR should be inhibited. On the other hand pitting corrosion leading to increased permeation rate may not occur. Therefore, a suitable substrate lamination combination is wanted. In this study material testing methods for bipolar plates are considered.

  7. Synthesis of Rh/Macro-Porous Alumina Over Micro-Channel Plate and Its Catalytic Activity Tests for Diesel Reforming. (United States)

    Seong, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Jin


    Macro-porous Al2O3 as the catalytic support material was synthesized using colloidal polystyrene spheres over a micro-channel plate. The colloidal polystyrene spheres were used as a template for the production of an ordered macro porous material using an alumina nitrate solution as the precursor for Al2O3. The close-packed colloidal crystal array template method was applied to the formulation of ordered macro-porous Al2O3 used as a catalytic support material over a micro-channel plate. The solvent in the mixture solution, which also contained the colloidal polystyrene solution, aluminum nitrate solution and the precursor of the catalytic active materials (Rh), was evaporated in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. The ordered polystyrene spheres and aluminum salt of the solid state were deposited over a micro channel plate, and macro-porous Al2O3 was formed after calcination at 600 degrees C to remove the polystyrene spheres. The catalytic activity of the Rh/macro-porous alumina supported over the micro-channel plate was tested for diesel reforming.

  8. Knowledge and attitude of women regarding breast cancer screening tests in Eastern Iran. (United States)

    Izanloo, Azra; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran; Khoshroo, Fahimeh; Erfani Haghiri, Maryam; Izanloo, Sara; Samiee, Mohadeseh; Tabatabaei, Alireza; Mirshahi, Azadeh; Fakoor, Morteza; Moghadam, Najmeh Jafari; Sadrzadeh, Sayyed Majid


    According to recent statistics, there has been a rapid growth of breast cancer in developing countries. Thus, early detection is essential. This study is based on the perception of people in the Northeast of Iran regarding breast cancer screening. In a cross-sectional study, 1469 women were selected randomly in the period from April to November 2016. The study population consisted of women or their companions referring to outpatient clinics or people in public urban areas who filled out a breast cancer screening questionnaire in an interview. The patients' age was in the range of 14 to 84 years (mean = 38.8). More than 84% of interviewees were not informed of breast cancer and screening tests. The main reasons mentioned by patients for their failure to do screening tests was 'absence of any symptom or problem' and 'they did not think it was necessary'.There was not a significant difference between income level, marital status and knowledge of people about breast cancer screening tests (P > 0.05). However, employment, education level and family history had a positive effect on people's awareness of breast cancer and its screening tests (P economic classes was the main barrier to breast cancer screening. In this regard, organizing training programs by physicians and the media can help raise screening rates.

  9. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo


    that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening. (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein


    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  11. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis. (United States)

    Felix, Juan C; Lacey, Michael J; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha


    Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates seeking cost-effective cervical cancer screening

  12. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating (United States)


    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  13. Evaluation of the base/subgrade soil under repeated loading : phase II, in-box and ALF cyclic plate load tests. (United States)


    This research study aims at evaluating the performance of base and subgrade soil in flexible pavements under repeated loading test conditions. For this purpose, an indoor cyclic plate load testing equipment was developed and used to conduct a series ...

  14. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.; Ko, K.


    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image

  15. A virtual test of screening technology based on the AGEIA PhysX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai-min Li; Rui-ling Lv; Chu-sheng Liu [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering


    The authors have created a virtual test of vibration particle-screening using Autodesk's 3ds Max software, the MAXScript scripting language and the AGEIA PhysX physics processing unit (PPU). The affect of various parameters on screening efficiency were modeled. The parameters included vibration amplitude, frequency and direction. The length and inclination of the vibrating surface were also varied. The virtual experiment is in basic agreement with results predicted from screening theory. This shows that the virtual screener can be used for preliminary investigations and the results used to evaluate screen design. In addition it can help with theoretical research. 11 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. On the Estimation of Disease Prevalence by Latent Class Models for Screening Studies Using Two Screening Tests with Categorical Disease Status Verified in Test Positives Only (United States)

    Chu, Haitao; Zhou, Yijie; Cole, Stephen R.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.


    Summary To evaluate the probabilities of a disease state, ideally all subjects in a study should be diagnosed by a definitive diagnostic or gold standard test. However, since definitive diagnostic tests are often invasive and expensive, it is generally unethical to apply them to subjects whose screening tests are negative. In this article, we consider latent class models for screening studies with two imperfect binary diagnostic tests and a definitive categorical disease status measured only for those with at least one positive screening test. Specifically, we discuss a conditional independent and three homogeneous conditional dependent latent class models and assess the impact of misspecification of the dependence structure on the estimation of disease category probabilities using frequentist and Bayesian approaches. Interestingly, the three homogeneous dependent models can provide identical goodness-of-fit but substantively different estimates for a given study. However, the parametric form of the assumed dependence structure itself is not “testable” from the data, and thus the dependence structure modeling considered here can only be viewed as a sensitivity analysis concerning a more complicated non-identifiable model potentially involving heterogeneous dependence structure. Furthermore, we discuss Bayesian model averaging together with its limitations as an alternative way to partially address this particularly challenging problem. The methods are applied to two cancer screening studies, and simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of these methods. In summary, further research is needed to reduce the impact of model misspecification on the estimation of disease prevalence in such settings. PMID:20191614

  17. Immunochemical faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review. (United States)

    Syful Azlie, M F; Hassan, M R; Junainah, S; Rugayah, B


    A systematic review on the effectiveness and costeffectiveness of Immunochemical faecal occult IFOBT for CRC screening was carried out. A total of 450 relevant titles were identified, 41 abstracts were screened and 18 articles were included in the results. There was fair level of retrievable evidence to suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of IFOBT varies with the cut-off point of haemoglobin, whereas the diagnostic accuracy performance was influenced by high temperature and haemoglobin stability. A screening programme using IFOBT can be effective for prevention of advanced CRC and reduced mortality. There was also evidence to suggest that IFOBT is cost-effective in comparison with no screening, whereby a two-day faecal collection method was found to be costeffective as a means of screening for CRC. Based on the review, quantitative IFOBT method can be used in Malaysia as a screening test for CRC. The use of fully automated IFOBT assay would be highly desirable.

  18. Clinical experience from Thailand noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manotaya, S.; Xu, H.; Uerpairojkit, B.


    -risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including...... testing (NIPT) has enabled efficient and accurate screening for T21, T18 and T13. Various professional societies suggested that NIPT could be considered as a second-tier screening test for women at high risk for aneuploidy. What does this study add? This study reports the performance of NIPT...

  19. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener


    well-being respectively worries in pregnancy. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with 6,427 pregnant women consecutively included before the time of a nuchal translucency scan. Participants were recruited from three Danish obstetric departments offering prenatal screening free of charge....... The results presented are based on 4,111 pregnant women (64%). Knowledge was measured by 15 knowledge questions. The primary outcomes were measured by use of pre-existing validated scales i.e. The Decisional Conflict Scale, the WHO well-being index, and the Cambridge Worry Scale. Associations were analysed...... associated with higher levels of well-being (adjusted linear coefficient 0.51 (0.26 to 0.75), p


    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  1. Fretting corrosion tests on orthopedic plates and screws made of ASTM F138 stainless steel


    Santos,Claudio Teodoro dos; Barbosa,Cássio; Monteiro,Maurício de Jesus; Abud,Ibrahim de Cerqueira; Caminha,Ieda Maria Vieira; Roesler,Carlos Rodrigo de Mello


    Introduction Although there has been significant progress in the design of implants for osteosynthesis, the occurrence of failures in these medical devices are still frequent. These implants are prone to suffer from fretting corrosion due to micromotion that takes place between the screw heads and plate holes. Consequently, fretting corrosion has been the subject of research in order to understand its influence on the structural integrity of osteosynthesis implants. The aim of this paper is t...

  2. Evaluating the evidence: direct-to-consumer screening tests advertised online. (United States)

    Lovett, Kimberly M; Mackey, Timothy K; Liang, Bryan A


    Unsupervised online direct-to-consumer (DTC) access to medical services has rapidly expanded to medical screening tests, which have not been critically evaluated for their evidence basis. The objective of this study is to identify the scope of online-advertised DTC screening tests, outline the evidence for use of available DTC testing and suggest regulatory reform to address the relevant issues. An observational study of website advertisements, testing services and counselling/follow-up services for DTC testing was conducted. Data were collected from websites between 4 April and 1 June 2011. Each website was assessed for tests offered, advertised indications and availability of counselling/follow-up services. Advertised testing indications were compared with US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations and/or specialty guidelines and categorized as Supported, Against, Insufficient Evidence or No Guidance. Of 20 companies identified as offering DTC screening tests, 95% (19/20) do not clearly offer pretest counselling, post-test counselling and/or test follow-up. One hundred and twenty-seven different tests were identified. Only 19/127 (15%) could be Supported for screening in a target group selected for testing; 38/127 (30%) were given recommendations to avoid use in specific target group(s) selected for testing ('Against recommendations'); 29/127 (23%) had Insufficient Evidence of value, and for 64/127 (50%) No Guidance could be given. Only 4/127 (3%) tests were Supported for general screening use. Virtually all identified medical tests advertised and offered DTC are not recommended for use in screening by evidence-based guidelines. Limited oversight may lead to inaccurate self-diagnosis, treatment and wasted health resources.

  3. Detection of lung cancer through low-dose CT screening (NELSON): a prespecified analysis of screening test performance and interval cancers. (United States)

    Horeweg, Nanda; Scholten, Ernst Th; de Jong, Pim A; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Weenink, Carla; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; ten Haaf, Kevin; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Thunnissen, Erik; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem; de Koning, Harry J


    Low-dose CT screening is recommended for individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. However, CT screening does not detect all lung cancers: some might be missed at screening, and others can develop in the interval between screens. The NELSON trial is a randomised trial to assess the effect of screening with increasing screening intervals on lung cancer mortality. In this prespecified analysis, we aimed to assess screening test performance, and the epidemiological, radiological, and clinical characteristics of interval cancers in NELSON trial participants assigned to the screening group. Eligible participants in the NELSON trial were those aged 50-75 years, who had smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day for more than 25 years or ten or more cigarettes for more than 30 years, and were still smoking or had quit less than 10 years ago. We included all participants assigned to the screening group who had attended at least one round of screening. Screening test results were based on volumetry using a two-step approach. Initially, screening test results were classified as negative, indeterminate, or positive based on nodule presence and volume. Subsequently, participants with an initial indeterminate result underwent follow-up screening to classify their final screening test result as negative or positive, based on nodule volume doubling time. We obtained information about all lung cancer diagnoses made during the first three rounds of screening, plus an additional 2 years of follow-up from the national cancer registry. We determined epidemiological, radiological, participant, and tumour characteristics by reassessing medical files, screening CTs, and clinical CTs. The NELSON trial is registered at, number ISRCTN63545820. 15,822 participants were enrolled in the NELSON trial, of whom 7915 were assigned to low-dose CT screening with increasing interval between screens, and 7907 to no screening. We included 7155 participants in our study, with

  4. Fatigue test results of flat plate specimens with surface cracks and evaluation of crack growth in structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Norio; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro


    Part-through surface cracks are most frequently observed in the inspection of structural components, and it is one of the important subjects in the assessment of safety to evaluate appropriately the growth of such cracks during the service life of structural components. Due to the complexity of the stress at the front free surface, the crack growth at the surface shows a different behavior from the other part. Besides, an effect of interaction is caused in the growth of multiple surface cracks. These effects should be included in the growth analysis of surface part-through cracks. Authors have carried out a series of fatigue tests on some kinds of pipes with multiple cracks in the inner surface, and subsequently the fatigue test of flat plate specimens, made of Type 304L stainless steel, with a single or double surface cracks was carried out to study the basic characteristics in the growth of multiple surface cracks. Based on the results of the flat plate test. the correction factors for the front free surface (Cs) and interaction (Ci) of surface cracks were derived quantitatively by the following empirical expressions; Cs = 0.824. Ci = (0.227(a/b) 2 (sec(PI X/2) - 1) + 1)sup(1/m). Using these two correction factors, a procedure to predict the growth of surface cracks was developed by applying the crack growth formula to both the thickness and surface directions. Besides, the crack growth predictions based on the procedure of ASME Code Sex. XI, and the above procedure without the correction of the free surface and interactions on the crack growth behaviors were compared with the test results of flat plate specimens. The crack growth behavior predicted by the procedure described in this report showed the best agreement with the test results in respects of the crack growth life and the change in the crack shape. The criteria of the ASME Code did not agree with the test results. (author)

  5. Screening for mikroalbuminuri med Micral-Test. En semikvantitativ urinstix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F


    , specificity and diagnostic specificity in detecting microalbuminuria was 92, 58 and 12% respectively. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 5.6%. In conclusion, the Micral-Test is highly sensitive in detecting microalbuminuria, but at the expense of a relatively high number of false positive tests....

  6. Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)


    Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available.

  7. Evaluation of the Sensititre MycoTB plate for susceptibility testing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex against first- and second-line agents. (United States)

    Hall, Leslie; Jude, Kurt P; Clark, Shirley L; Dionne, Kim; Merson, Ryan; Boyer, Ana; Parrish, Nicole M; Wengenack, Nancy L


    The Sensititre MycoTB plate (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) uses a microtiter plate MIC format for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates against first- and second-line antituberculosis agents. Categorical agreement versus the agar proportion method for 122 M. tuberculosis complex isolates was 94% to 100%.

  8. Perceived effectiveness of HPV test as a primary screening modality among US providers. (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Saraiya, Mona


    The human papillomavirus (HPV) test, administered alone without the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, was recently recognized as a cervical cancer screening option in the United States by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the Food and Drug Administration has approved an HPV test for primary screening. Surveys of US internists, family practitioners, nurse practitioners, and obstetrician-gynecologists were conducted in 2009 and 2012 to investigate providers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the HPV test administered alone as a population-based screening modality (2009: N=1040, 141-494 per provider group; 2012: N=1039, 155-435 per provider group). The majority in each provider group agreed that the HPV test administered alone is an effective screening modality in 2009 (75.3%-86.1%) and 2012 (79.5%-91.8%), and agreement rose significantly during this time period among family practitioners (χ(2)=15.26, df=1, ptest administered alone is an effective cervical cancer screening modality was widespread among providers in both 2009 and 2012, however implementation of guidelines for screening with the HPV test may be influenced by many other factors including reimbursement and patient preferences. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening... (United States)


    ... the selection criteria for endocrine testing under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). EPA has no...) because the chemicals meet the selection criteria. EPA has no plans to issue further test orders for the... Screening Program (EDSP) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). In response to the test...

  10. Comparison of accuracy measures of two screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marsha; Zweers, Egbert J. K.; Opmeer, Brent C.; van Ballegooie, Evert; ter Brugge, Henk G.; de Valk, Harold W.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy measures of the random glucose test and the 50-g glucose challenge test as screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, pregnant women without preexisting diabetes in two perinatal centers

  11. Results from the Dutch speech-in-noise screening test by telephone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.H.M.; Houtgast, T.


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to implement a previously developed automatic speech-in-noise screening test by telephone (Smits, Kapteyn, & Houtgast, 2004), introduce it nationwide as a self-test, and analyze the results. DESIGN: The test was implemented on an interactive voice response

  12. Discrimination indices as screening tests for beta-thalassemic trait. (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Chatzinikolaou, Anastasia; Saouli, Zoi; Girtovitis, Fotios; Tsapanidou, Maria; Kaiafa, Georgia; Kontoninas, Zisis; Nikolaidou, Androula; Savopoulos, Christos; Pidonia, Ifigenia; Alexiou-Daniel, Stiliani


    The two most frequent microcytic anemias are beta-thalassemic trait (beta-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Several discrimination indices have been proposed to distinguish between these two conditions. These indices are derived from several simple red blood cell indices, like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean cell volume, and RBC distribution width (RDW), as these are provided by electronic cell counters. The purpose of the study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of six discrimination indices in the differentiation between IDA and beta-TT. The six discrimination indices that were examined were as follows: Mentzer Index (MI), Green & King Index (G&K), RDW Index (RDWI), England & Fraser Index (E&F), RDW, and RBC count. We calculated these indices on 373 patients (205 men, 168 women) with beta-TT and 120 patients (50 men, 70 women) with IDA, as well as their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value, efficiency, and Youden's index (YI). G&K shows the highest reliability, followed by E&F, RBC count, MI, and RDWI. On the contrary, RDW completely failed to differentiate between IDA and beta-TT. G&K proved to be the most reliable index as it had the highest sensitivity (75.06%), efficiency (80.12%), and YI (70.86%) for the detection of beta-TT. These six discrimination indices cannot be relied on for a safe differential diagnosis between beta-TT and IDA. They do have high specificity, but their sensitivity for the detection of beta-TT is not satisfactory. Consequently, they cannot be used neither as a screening tool for beta-TT because they could result in a significant number of false negative results.

  13. Postirradiation examination of high-U-loaded, low-enriched U3O8, UAl2, and U3Si test fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Morando, R.; Perez, E.E.; Giorsetti, D.R.; Copeland, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.


    The scope of this work is to present an evaluation of the postirradiation examination of the second set of high-U-loaded, low-enriched U 3 O 8 , UAl 2 and U 3 Si miniature plates manufactured by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina, and irradiated and examined, within the framework of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory. This paper includes fabrication details of the plates, their irradiation history and the results of postirradiation examination which are compared to those of the previous test and to present results from other laboratories participating in the RERTR Program. Postirradiation examination of these plates showed satisfactory performance for the oxides, aluminides and silicides (except for the highest-loaded U 3 Si plate) with the only indication of detrimental behavior being the slight bowing of some plates at about 80% burnup

  14. Postirradiation examination of high-U-loaded, low-enriched U3O8, UAl2, and U3Si test fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Morando, R.; Perez, E.E.; Giorsetti, D.R.; Copeland, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.


    The scope of this work is to present an evaluation of the postirradiation examination of the second set of high-U-loaded, low-enriched U 3 O 8 , UAl 2 and U 3 Si miniature plates manufactured by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina, and irradiated and examined, within the framework of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory. This paper includes fabrication details of the plates, their irradiation history and the results of postirradiation examination which are compared to those of the previous test and to present results from other laboratories participating in the REM Program. Postirradiation examination of these plates showed satisfactory performance for the oxides, aluminides and silicides (except for the highest-loaded U 3 Si plate) with the only indication of detrimental behavior being the slight bowing of some plates at about 80% burnup. (author)

  15. Postirradiation examination of high-U-loaded low-enriched U3O8, UAl2, and U3Si test fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Morando, R.; Perez, E.E.; Giorsetti, D.R.; Copeland, G.L.; Hofmann, G.; Snelgrove, J.L.


    The scope of this work is to present an evaluation of the postirradiation examination of the second set of high-U-loaded low-enriched U 3 O 8 , UAl 2 and U 3 Si miniature plates manufactured by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina, and irradiated and examinated, within the framework of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory. This paper includes fabrication details of the plates, their irradiation history and the results of postirradiation examination which are compared to those of the previous test and to present results from other laboratories participating in the RERTR Program. Postirradiation examination of these plates showed satisfactory poerformance for the oxides, aluminides and silicides (except for the highest-loaded U 3 Si plate) with the only indication of detrimental behavior during the slight bowing of some plates at about 80% burnup

  16. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide Hazard Screening (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more reso...

  17. Quantiferon test for tuberculosis screening in sarcoidosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Søborg, Bolette; Svendsen, Claus Bo


    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of refractory sarcoidosis. These biologics may reactivate latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Despite its known limitations, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is currently used for the diagnosis of LTBI in Danish...

  18. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  19. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)


    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  20. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.


    The Charpy-V (C V ) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288 degree C (550 degree F) irradiated (I), 288 degree C (550 degree F) irradiated + 454 degree C (850 degree F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288 degree C (550 degree F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 x 10 19 n/cm 2 and 4.18 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C V upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C V 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C V transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared

  1. Impact on colorectal cancer mortality of screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test. (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedeli, Ugo; Schievano, Elena; Bovo, Emanuela; Guzzinati, Stefano; Baracco, Susanna; Fedato, Chiara; Saugo, Mario; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) reduce CRC-specific mortality. Several studies have shown higher sensitivity with the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) compared with gFOBT. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the impact of FIT-based screening programmes on CRC mortality. In the Veneto Region (Italy), biennial FIT-based screening programmes that invited 50-69-year-old residents were introduced in different areas between 2002 and 2009. We compared CRC mortality rates from 1995 to 2011 between the areas where screening started in 2002-2004 (early screening areas (ESA)) and areas that introduced the screening in 2008-2009 (late screening areas (LSA)) using Poisson regression models. We also compared available data on CRC incidence rates (1995-2007) and surgical resection rates (2001-2012). Before the introduction of screening, CRC mortality and incidence rates in the two areas were similar. Compared with 1995-2000, 2006-2011 mortality rates were 22% lower in the ESA than in the LSA (rate ratio (RR)=0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89). The reduction was larger in women (RR=0.64; CI 0.51 to 0.80) than in men (RR=0.87; CI 0.73 to 1.04). In the ESA, incidence and surgery rates peaked during the introduction of the screening programme and then returned to the baseline (2006-2007 incidence) or dropped below initial values (surgery after 2007). FIT-based screening programmes were associated with a significant reduction in CRC mortality. This effect took place much earlier than reported by gFOBT-based trials and observational studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Marcia M.


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo, which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. RESULTS: Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4% had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58% did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great

  3. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humza J Tahir

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  4. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing. (United States)

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M


    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  5. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy. (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel


    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  6. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro M. Obaid


    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  7. [Web-based analysis of Stilling's color plates]. (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, J


    Color vision tests with pseudoisochromatic plates currently represent the most common procedure for the screening of congenital color vision deficiencies. By means of a web-based color vision test, new and old color plates can be tested for diagnostic quality without major effort. A total of 16 digitized Stilling's color plates of the 11th edition from 1907 were included in a web-based color vision test ( The χ(2)-test was used to check whether the Stilling color plates showed similar results to the nine previously evaluated Ishihara color plates. A total of 518 subjects including101 (19.5 %) female subjects with a mean age of 34.6 ± 17 years, took the web-based test with the 25 plates. For all participants the range for the correctly recognized plates was between 5.2 % (n = 27) and 97.7 % (n = 506) for the Stilling color plates and between 64.9 % (n = 336) and 100 % (n = 518) for the Ishihara color plates. For participants with more than 5 errors (n = 247), the range for correctly recognized plates was between 2.0 % (n = 5) and 98.0 % (n = 242) for the Stilling plates and between 42.5 % (n = 105) and 100 % (n = 247) for the Ishihara plates. Taking all color plates and all participants into account there was a significantly higher incidence of erroneous recognition of the Stilling color plates (3038 false and 5250 true answers) compared to the Ishihara color plates (1511 false and 3151 true answers) (p plates could be used for the test edition of the Velhagen/Broschmann/Kuchenbecker color plates from 2014. Overall, the Stilling color plates were recognized with a higher incidence of error by all participants in the web-based test compared to the utilized Ishihara color plates, which in most cases was attributable to ambiguity of some symbols.

  8. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies. (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi


    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  9. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German


    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  10. Long-term comparison of temperature measurements by the multi-plate shield and Czech-Slovak thermometer screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozny, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Hajkova, Lenka; Bares, Daniel [Doksany Observatory, Doksany (Czech Republic). Czech Hydrometeorological Inst.; Trnka, Mirek [Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Global Change Research Centre; Zalud, Zdenek; Semeradova, Daniela [Mendel Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Agrosystems and Bioclimatology; Koznarova, Vera [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Agroecology and Biometeorology


    Differences between measurements taken with the Czech-Slovak thermometer screen (TS) and the multiplate radiation shield (MRS) should not be neglected. The average difference between the TS and the MRS measurements varied between 0.3 and 2.8 C during suitable weather conditions (wind speed less than 3 m/s, bright and sunny day) throughout the year, during both daytime and nighttime hours. A 10-year time series of comparative measurements in Doksany, Czech Republic, showed that relative to TS, measurements from MRS yielded average and minimum air temperatures that were lower in the winter and higher in the summer. Daily maximum air temperatures were lower for MRS than TS throughout the year. The greatest differences were observed in the maximum air temperatures; only 62 % of all differences between the TS and MRS were less than 0.5 C, and 70 % were less than 1 C. Among minimum air temperatures, 60 % of differences were less than 0.5 C, and 79 % were less than 1 C. In contrast, 74 % of all differences in average daily temperature were less than 0.5 C, and 97 % were less than 1 C. The use of temperature measurements from multiple equipments may negatively affect inference from climate and hydro-meteorological models. Irregular temperature data could be corrected using a simulation of temperature differences (SITEDI) model, which incorporates differences between the MRS and the TS. It is important to consider whether temperature data in the Czech Republic and Slovakia come from the TS or the MRS when analyzing and modeling temperature in Central Europe. (orig.)

  11. Correlation of Michigan neuropathy screening instrument, United Kingdom screening test and electrodiagnosis for early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. (United States)

    Fateh, Hamid R; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher


    Almost half of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathies (DPNs) are symptom-free. Methods including questionnaires and electrodiagnosis (EDx) can be fruitful for easy reach to early diagnosis, correct treatments of diabetic neuropathy, and so decline of complications for instance diabetic foot ulcer and prevention of high costs. The goal of our study was to compare effectiveness of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST) and electrophysiological evaluation in confirming diabetic peripheral neuropathy. One hundred twenty five known diabetes mellitus male and female subjects older than 18 with or without symptoms of neuropathy comprised in this research. All of them were interviewed in terms of demographic data, lipid profile, HbA1C, duration of disease, and history of retinopathy, so examined by Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST), and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software 18. One hundred twenty five diabetic patients (70 female, 55 male) were recruited in this study with a mean age of 58.7 ± 10.2, and mean duration of diabetes was 10.17 ± 6.9 years. The mean neuropathy score of MNSI and UKST were 2.3 (1.7) and 4.16 (2.9), respectively. Each instrument detected the peripheral neuropathy in 78 (69 %) and 91 (73 %) of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of neuropathies and mean of diabetes duration and development of retinopathy in both questionnaire evaluations and NCS. By nerve conduction study, neuropathy was detected in 121 (97 %) diabetic patients were reported in order 15 (12 %) mononeuropathy (as 33 % sensory and 67 % motor neuropathy) and 106 (85 %) polyneuropathy (as 31 % motor and 69 % sensorimotor neuropathy). As regards NCS is an objective, simple, and non-invasive tool and also can determine level of damage and regeneration in peripheral nerves, this study

  12. Cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA primary screening test: Results of a population-based screening programme in central Italy. (United States)

    Passamonti, Basilio; Gustinucci, Daniela; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Cesarini, Elena; Bulletti, Simonetta; Carlani, Angela; Martinelli, Nadia; Broccolini, Massimo; D'Angelo, Valentina; D'Amico, Maria Rosaria; Di Dato, Eugenio; Galeazzi, Paola; Malaspina, Morena; Spita, Nicoletta; Tintori, Beatrice; Giaimo, Maria Donata


    Objective To present the results of the first and second round human papilloma virus (HPV)-based screening programme in the Umbria region after three years. Methods From August 2010 to November 2011, the entire female population aged 35-64 in a local health district was invited for HPV testing (HPV-DNA cobas4800 on a liquid-based cytology sample). HPV-negative women were re-invited after three years. For HPV-positive women, a slide was prepared and interpreted. Positive cytologies were referred to colposcopy; negatives were referred to repeat HPV after one year. If HPV was persistently positive, women were referred to colposcopy; if negative, to normal screening. Indicators of the first and second round are compared with those of cytology screening in the same area in the preceding three years. Results Participation was 56.5%, the same as cytology (56.6%). HPV-positivity was 6.4% (396/6272), cytology triage positivity was 35.6%; 251 cytology negative women were referred to one-year HPV retesting, 84.1% complied, and 55.5% were positive. Total colposcopy referral was 4.1%, and for cytology 1%. The detection rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe was 10‰, compared with 3.7‰ using cytology. After three years, HPV-positivity was 3.4% (129/3831), overall colposcopy referral was 2.3% (most at one-year follow-up), and detection rate was 0.5/1000. Conclusions The first round detection rate was more than twice that of cytology screening, while colposcopy referral increased fourfold. At the second round, the detection rate decreased dramatically, showing that longer interval and more conservative protocols are needed.

  13. Detection of complex hemoglobinopathies: recommendations on screening and DNA testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baysal


    Full Text Available The following recommendations should be taken into account during the evaluation and elucidation of the complex hemoglobinopathies: a in complex hemoglobinopathies performing DNA studies on all family members might be essential; b complex gene-gene interactions offer major diagnostic challenges both at the technical and clinical level; c hematological & DNA analyses must be run in parallel. Some cases may be straight forward but others may require indepth DNA work-up; d co-inheritance of a-thalassemia offers added challenge as it may affect phenotype significantly; e sickle cell anemia (SS, co-inherited with a-thal, can be a phenocopy of Sβ0-thal. The HbA2 increase can be mistaken for Sβ-thal. DNA Sequencing is imperative; f only a selected number of normal MCV, MCH, borderline HbA2 cases must be referred for DNA analysis. However, in certain cases, following hematological and family evaluation, the β and d genes may need to be sequenced; g DNA Sequencing will increasingly become the method of choice for screening and DNA mutation analysis. However, new methods like MLPA-which analyzes gene dosage- must be used more commonly to rule out deletion mutants to avoid false negative sequencing results; h these recommendations should be reviewed every 2-3 years reflecting new methods, new findings and new findings from ethnic groups. 诊断和说明复杂血红蛋白病时,建议考虑以下几点: a)针对复杂的血红蛋白病,有必要对所有家庭成员开展DNA研究;b 复杂的基因-基因交互作用可能使诊断在技术和临床层面上颇受挑战;c 血液和DNA分析须同时进行。 有些病例简单,但另外一些病例可能需要开展深层次的DNA检查;d 由于α型地中海贫血可能严重影响表型,α型地中海贫血的共同继承特征更具挑战;e 共同继承α型地中海贫血的镰状细胞贫血(SS),可以作为Sβ0型地中海贫血的显型。 HbA2增

  14. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women. (United States)

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H


    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  15. Estimation of diagnostic performance of dementia screening tests: Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing test and Ascertain Dementia 8 questionnaire. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Yan, Jing; Jin, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yu; Yu, Wei; Xu, Shanhu; Wu, Haibin; Xu, Ying; Liu, Caixia


    Dementia is one of the leading causes of dependence in the elderly. This study was conducted to estimate diagnostic performance of dementia screening tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Ascertain Dementia 8 questionnaire (AD8) by Bayesian models. A total of 2015 participants aged 65 years or more in eastern China were enrolled. The four screening tests were administered and scored by specifically trained psychiatrists. The prior information of sensitivity and specificity of every screening test was updated via Bayes' theorem to a posterior distribution. Then the results were compared with the estimation based on National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria (NIA-AA). The diagnostic characteristics of Mini-Cog, including sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, especially the Youden index, performed well, even better than the combinations of several screening tests. The Mini-Cog with excellent screening characteristics, spending less time, could be considered to be used as a screening test to help to screen patients with cognitive impairment or dementia early. And Bayesian method was shown to be a suitable tool for evaluating dementia screening tests. The Mini-Cog with excellent screening characteristics, spending less time, could be considered to be used as a screening test to help to screen patients with cognitive impairment or dementia early. And Bayesian method was shown to be a suitable tool for evaluating dementia screening tests.

  16. [An experimental proficiency test for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products]. (United States)

    Tsumura, Yukari; Ishimitsu, Susumu; Otaki, Kayo; Uchimi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Daba, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Tetsu; Ukyo, Masaho; Tonogai, Yasuhide


    An experimental proficiency test program for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products has been conducted. Eight Japanese laboratories joined the program. Items tested in the present study were limit of detection, internal proficiency test (self spike) and external proficiency test (blind spike). All 104 pesticides were well detected and recovered from agricultural foods in the internal proficiency test. However, the results of the external proficiency test did not completely agree with those of the internal proficiency tests. After 5 rounds of the blind spike test, the ratio of the number of correctly detected pesticides to that of actually contained ones (49 total) ranged from 65% to 100% among laboratories. The numbers of mistakenly detected pesticides by a laboratory were 0 to 15. Thus, there was a great difference among the laboratories in the ability to screen multiresidual pesticides.

  17. Dynamic tests and adaptive control of a bottoming organic Rankine cycle of IC engine using swash-plate expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Galindo, J.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.; Haller, R.; Melis, J.


    Highlights: • An experimental testing of a bottoming Rankine Cycle is presented and applied to a 2 l turbocharged gasoline engine. • Both stationary and transient tests were performed, including the NEDC cycle. • Indicated diagrams of the swash-plate expander during these transients were presented and analyzed. - Abstract: This paper deals with the experimental testing of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 l turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Both steady and transient tests were performed in three engine operating points to understand the behavior and inertia of the system. Pressure-Volume diagram during these transients were presented and analyzed. Operating parameters of the expander, such as expander speed and boiler power, were shifted. The objective of these tests is to understand the inertia of the system and to have a robust control in all the possible transient tests. New European Driving Cycle was tested with and without the expander because it is supposed to represent the typical usage of a car in Europe. It was used to validate the control of the ORC in realistic dynamic conditions of the engine. The importance of each parameter was analyzed by fixing all the parameters, changing each time one specific value. The main result of this paper is that using a slightly simple and robust control based on adaptive PIDs, the two dynamic effects of an ORC could be taken into account, i.e. high inertia effects (boiler and condenser) and low inertia effects (pump and volumetric expander).

  18. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Hestehave; Munro, Gordon; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina


    the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (Peffects were not as marked......Researchers performing experiments on animals should always strive towards the refinement of experiments, minimization of stress and provision of better animal welfare. An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve post-operative recovery and welfare in laboratory rats and mice....... In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing...

  19. Experimental testing and theoretical analysis of samples of a divertor plate proposed for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, F.; Federici, G.; Renda, V.; Papa, L.


    This paper presents the JRC-Ispra effort to support the design of a divertor concept for future reactors. The reference frame used in this work, i.e. divertor geometry and wall loading, is that of the NET (Next European Torus) reactor, which constitutes the European collaboration in the fusion reactor technology Program. Because of its main function of plasma impurity control, the divertor is submitted to high thermal fluxes, severe sputtering rates and electromagnetic forces. The present proposal for the divertor plate is the following: 1) W-5Re for the armour; 2) Cu for the heat sink. This choice is due to the low sputtering rate and favourable high temperature mechanical properties of the W-5Re, and the high thermal conductivity of copper

  20. [Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening at a public health service of Santiago, Chile]. (United States)

    Terrazas, Solana; Ibáñez, Carolina; Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Brañes, Jorge; Barriga, María Isabel; Cartagena, Jaime; Núñez, Felipe; González, Francisca; Cook, Paz; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Ferreccio, Catterina


    Molecular techniques for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection have a good performance as screening tests and could be included in cervical cancer early detection programs. We conducted a population-based trial comparing HPV detection and Papanicolaou as primary screening tests, in a public health service in Santiago, Chile. To describe the experience of implementing this new molecular test and present the main results of the study. Women aged 25 to 64 enrolled in three public health centers were invited to participate. In all women, samples were collected for Papanicolaou and HPV DNA testing, and naked-eye visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid was performed. Women with any positive screening test were referred to the local area hospital for diagnostic confirmation with colposcopy and biopsy of suspicious lesions. Screening results were obtained for 8265 women, of whom 931 (11.3%) were positive to any test. The prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was 1.1%; nine women had invasive cervical cancer. Sensitivities for the detection of CIN2+ were 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 16.4-29.2) for Papanicolaou and 92.7% (95% CI 84.4-96.8) for HPV testing; specificities were 98.9% (95% CI 98.7-99.0) and 92.0% (95% CI 91.4-92.6) respectively. This experience showed that the implementation of a molecular test for cervical cancer screening is not a major challenge in Chile: it was well accepted by both the health team and the participants, and it may improve the effectiveness of the screening program.

  1. Assessment of Prospective Memory – a Validity Study of Memory for Intentions Screening Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdicek, O.; Raskin, S.A.; Altgassen, A.M.; Ruzicka, E.


    Aim: The goal of the present study was to validate the Czech version of the Memory for Intentions (Screening) Test (MIST, 2010). We included standardized testing material, translation of administration and scoring, and assessment of normative data for the MIST in the Czech population. Introduction:

  2. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth


    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem...

  3. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests (United States)

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew


    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  4. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen


    Non-invasive prenatal testing is a breakthrough in prenatal screening Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very...

  5. Cross-sectional evaluation of an internet-based hearing screening test in an occupational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh Rashid, Marya; Leensen, Monique Cj; de Laat, Jan Apm; Dreschler, Wouter A.


    Objectives The Occupational Earcheck (OEC) is an online internet test to detect high-frequency hearing loss for the purposes of occupational hearing screening. In this study, we evaluated the OEC in an occupational setting in order to assess test sensitivity, specificity, and validity. Methods A

  6. Elevated phenylalanine on newborn screening: follow-up testing may reveal undiagnosed galactosaemia. (United States)

    Shakespeare, Lynette; Downing, Melanie; Allen, Joyce; Casbolt, Ann-Marie; Ellin, Sheila; Maloney, Martin; Race, Gillian; Bonham, Jim


    Introduction Newborn screening for phenylketonuria (PKU) can reveal other conditions which lead to an increased blood spot phenylalanine (Phe) concentration. We have investigated the proportion of blood spot samples that gave a positive screen due to clinically significant conditions other than PKU, compared the positive predictive value (PPV) of our referral Phe cut-off with that recommended by the UK Newborn Screening Programme Centre (UKNSPC) (>210 and >240 μmol/L, respectively) and evaluated the effectiveness of reflex testing for galactosaemia using a lower blood spot Phe cut-off concentration of 130 μmol/L. All blood spot samples that screened positive, for an increased Phe concentration, between April 2001 and March 2008, were identified from the records of the Sheffield Newborn Screening Laboratory and the diagnoses noted. In addition, all cases of galactosaemia detected in or notified to our screening laboratory within this time were also examined and the screened Phe concentrations compared. Out of 438,674 babies who were screened, 67 had Phe concentration >210 μmol/L (15 per 100,000). Of these, 40 had PKU or persistent hyperphenylalaninaemia with a Phe concentration identified by screening between 270 and 2350 μmol/L. A further 11 were diagnosed with another clinically significant disorder: galactosaemia (n = 8), biopterin defects (n = 2), tyrosinaemia Type 1 (n = 1). In addition, 16 had transient elevations in Phe. In total, nine cases of galactosaemia were identified, of whom, three had Phe concentrations 240 μmol/L) will not affect the detection rate of classical PKU, but will improve the PPV from 76% to 80%. The use of a lower cut-off (130 μmol/L) for reflex galactosaemia testing enables the timely identification of asymptomatic cases that benefit particularly from early treatment, without prompting any unnecessary clinical referrals or delaying any referrals. This intervention may reduce mortality in this vulnerable group.

  7. Low upper-shelf toughness, high transition temperature test insert in HSST [Heavy Section Steel Technology] PTSE-2 [Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiment-2] vessel and wide plate test specimens: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.


    A piece of A387, Grade 22 Class 2 (2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo) steel plate specially heat treated to produce low upper-shelf (LUS) toughness and high transition temperature was installed in the side wall of Heavy Section Steel Technology (HHST) vessel V-8. This vessel is to be tested by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiment-2 (PTSE-2) project of the HSST program. Comparable pieces of the plate were made into six wide plate specimens and other samples. These samples underwent tensile tests, Charpy tests, and J-integral tests. The results of these tests are given in this report

  8. Captopril renal scan - a noninvasive screening test for renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, M.S.


    Captopril renal scan is simple, noninvasive and cost-effective test for the initial diagnosis with the sensitivity of 98%. Renal scan with Tc-99m DTPA was performed on the suspected patient one hour after oral intake of 25 mg of captopril. Relative renal function, renogram curves and GFR for both the kidneys were calculated by computer software. Right kidney was small in size, showed relative renal function of 12% and the GFR was 9.64 ml/min. The left organ revealed relative function of 88% and the GFR was 72.12 ml/min. There was marked difference in renogram peaks. On baseline study, the right kidney showed marked improvement of renogram curve peak and the renal function improved to 23% while the GFR showed rise to 19 ml/min. In comparison with baseline findings, the right kidney, in response to ACE inhibitor showed deterioration of renogram peak, 47.8% deterioration of relative renal function and 49.2% fall in GFR. Major criteria for renovascular cause was fulfilled and the patient was labeled for having high probability for renal artery stenosis. Renal angiography, later on confirmed the diagnosis. (author)

  9. The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Reynolds


    Full Text Available Tim ReynoldsClinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin. These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.Keywords: pregnancy, screening test, antenatal, Down syndrome

  10. Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance? A systematic review. (United States)

    Cooper, Grace C; Harvie, Michelle N; French, David P


    It has been suggested that receiving a negative screening test result may cause false reassurance or have a 'certificate of health effect'. False reassurance in those receiving a negative screening test result may result in them wrongly believing themselves to be at lower risk of the disease, and consequently less likely to engage in health-related behaviours that would lower their risk. The present systematic review aimed to identify the evidence regarding false reassurance effects due to negative screening test results in adults (over 18 years) screened for the presence of a disease or its precursors, where disease or precursors are linked to lifestyle behaviours. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for trials that compared a group who had received negative screening results to an unscreened control group. The following outcomes were considered as markers of false reassurance: perceived risk of disease; anxiety and worry about disease; health-related behaviours or intention to change health-related behaviours (i.e., smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption); self-rated health status. Nine unique studies were identified, reporting 55 measures in relation to the outcomes considered. Outcomes were measured at various time points from immediately following screening to up to 11 years after screening. Despite considerable variation in outcome measures used and timing of measurements, effect sizes for comparisons between participants who received negative screening test results and control participants were typically small with few statistically significant differences. There was evidence of high risk of bias, and measures of behaviours employed were often not valid. The limited evidence base provided little evidence of false reassurance following a negative screening test results on any of four outcomes examined. False reassurance should not be considered a significant harm of screening, but further research is warranted. Statement of contribution

  11. A focus group study of consumer attitudes toward genetic testing and newborn screening for deafness. (United States)

    Burton, Sarah K; Withrow, Kara; Arnos, Kathleen S; Kalfoglou, Andrea L; Pandya, Arti


    Progress in identifying genes for deafness together with implementation of universal audiologic screening of newborns has provided the opportunity for more widespread use of molecular tests to detect genetic forms of hearing loss. Efforts to assess consumer attitudes toward these advances have lagged behind. Consumer focus groups were held to explore attitudes toward genetic advances and technologies for hearing loss, views about newborn hearing screening, and reactions to the idea of adding molecular screening for hearing loss at birth. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. Five focus groups with 44 participants including hearing parents of deaf children, deaf parents and young deaf adults were held. Focus group participants supported the use of genetic tests to identify the etiology of hearing loss but were concerned that genetic information might influence reproductive decisions. Molecular newborn screening was advocated by some; however, others expressed concern about its effectiveness. Documenting the attitudes of parents and other consumers toward genetic technologies establishes the framework for discussions on the appropriateness of molecular newborn screening for hearing loss and informs specialists about potential areas of public education necessary prior to the implementation of such screening.

  12. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.


    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  13. Speech-in-noise screening tests by internet, part 3: test sensitivity for uncontrolled parameters in domestic usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C. J.; Dreschler, Wouter A.


    The online speech-in-noise test 'Earcheck' is sensitive for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This study investigates effects of uncontrollable parameters in domestic self-screening, such as presentation level and transducer type, on speech reception thresholds (SRTs) obtained with Earcheck.

  14. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation. (United States)

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune


    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO 2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth


    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore......, but determinants varied across countries and test settings. There was no systematic variation in participation across age groups. CONCLUSION: The participation pattern depends in part on local circumstances, which makes it difficult to point to a general strategy for increasing the uptake in FOBT screening...

  16. Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R


    The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questions...... in three different cross-sectional postal surveys between October 1996 and April 1998 in Finland. Target groups were physicians (study base n=772, response rate 74%, including gynaecologists, paediatricians, general practitioners and clinical geneticists), midwives and public health nurses (collectively...

  17. Imaging evaluation of infants with neuroblastoma detected by VMA screening spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, M.; Saiki, N.; Aihara, T.; Yamamoto, K.


    In the Saitama Prefecture in Japan, VMA (vanillyl manderic acid) screening spot test for detection of neuroblastoma has been performed in 173,046 infants in the years 1981-1986 and 15 infants were found to have neuroblastoma. Two infants had mediastinal tumors and the remainder, 13, had intraabdominal tumors. Only 7 infants had palpable masses. Although CT was documented to be the best imaging procedure to provide sufficient information for treatment, conventional radiographic examinations of the chest and abdomen, and abdominal ultrasonography were able, as initial imaging procedures, to detect reasonably small neuroblastomas in infants with a positive VMA screening test. (orig.)

  18. Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain (United States)


    determined that shielding the screen from solar gains was the best way to avoid monitor failure. In order to accomplish this Hot Mirror glass from...side of the monitor in order to shield the monitor from the solar loading. 2.7 Test 7 – Bench Test with a 250 W Heat Lamp and Hot Mirror Glass , 1 Inch...method to shield the screen from solar loading. The Hot Mirror glass uses a glass substrate with a coating on 1 side that passes visible light, but

  19. Beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Jun; Ban Yong; Ye Yanlin; Cai Jianxin; Qian Sijin; Wang Quanjin; Liu Hongtao


    The authors reported the muon beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). The bakelite surface is treated using a special technology without oil to make it smooth enough. The full scale RE 1/2 RPC with honeycomb supporting frame is strong and thin enough to be fitted to the limited space of CMS design for the inner Forward RPC. The muon beam test was performed at CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The detection efficiency of this full scale RPC prototype is >95% even at very high irradiation background. The time resolution (less than 1.2 ns) and spatial resolution are satisfactory for the muon trigger device in future CMS experiments. The noise rate is also calculated and discussed

  20. Analysis of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method with optimal test functions for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending model

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.


    We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable) with a thickness-dependent constant in a norm encompassing the L2-norms of the bending moment, the shear force, the transverse deflection and the rotation vector. We then construct a numerical solution scheme based on quadrilateral scalar and vector finite elements of degree p. We show that for affine meshes the discretization inherits the stability of the continuous formulation provided that the optimal test functions are approximated by polynomials of degree p+3. We prove a theoretical error estimate in terms of the mesh size h and polynomial degree p and demonstrate numerical convergence on affine as well as non-affine mesh sequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders. (United States)


    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  2. Attitudes towards colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening tests among elderly Malay patients. (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Al-Kubaisy, Waqar; Yap, Bee W; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Osman, Muhamed T


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in Malaysia, where data are limited regarding knowledge and barriers in regard to CRC and screening tests. The aim of the study was to assess these parameters among Malaysians. The questionnaires were distributed in the Umra Private Hospital in Selangor. The questionnaire had four parts and covered social-demographic questions, respondent knowledge about CRC and colorectal tests, attitude towards CRC and respondentaction regarding CRC. More than half of Malay participants (total n=187) were female (57.2%) and 36.9% of them were working as professionals. The majority of the participants (93.6%) never had a CRC screening test. The study found that only 10.2% of the study participants did not consider that their chances of getting CRC were high. A high percentage of the participants (43.3%) believed that they would have good chance of survival if the cancer would be found early. About one third of the respondents did not want to do screening because of fear of cancer, and concerns of embarrassment during the procedure adversely affected attitude to CRC screening as well. Age, gender, income, family history of CRC, vegetable intake and physical activity were found to be significant determinants of knowledge on CRC. The major barriers identified towards CRC screening identified in our study were fear of pain and embarrassment. The findings have implications for understanding of similarities and differences in attitude to CRC amongst elderly patients in other cultural/ geographic regions.

  3. A single-question screening test for drug use in primary care. (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard


    Drug use (illicit drug use and nonmedical use of prescription drugs) is common but underrecognized in primary care settings. We validated a single-question screening test for drug use and drug use disorders in primary care. Adult patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms were asked the single screening question, "How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for nonmedical reasons?" A response of at least 1 time was considered positive for drug use. They were also asked the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10). The reference standard was the presence or absence of current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence) as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview. Drug use was also determined by oral fluid testing for common drugs of abuse. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single screening question was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.6%-100%) and 73.5% specific (95% CI, 67.7%-78.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was less sensitive for the detection of self-reported current drug use (92.9%; 95% CI, 86.1%-96.5%) and drug use detected by oral fluid testing or self-report (81.8%; 95% CI, 72.5%-88.5%). Test characteristics were similar to those of the DAST-10 and were affected very little by participant demographic characteristics. The single screening question accurately identified drug use in this sample of primary care patients, supporting the usefulness of this brief screen in primary care.

  4. Titer plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors for high throughput applications: fabrication and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Chen, Pin-Chuan; You, Byoung Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Soper, Steven A; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E; Murphy, Michael C; Datta, Proyag; Desta, Yohannes


    A high throughput, multi-well (96) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform, based on a continuous flow (CF) mode of operation, was developed. Each CFPCR device was confined to a footprint of 8 × 8 mm 2 , matching the footprint of a well on a standard micro-titer plate. While several CFPCR devices have been demonstrated, this is the first example of a high-throughput multi-well continuous flow thermal reactor configuration. Verification of the feasibility of the multi-well CFPCR device was carried out at each stage of development from manufacturing to demonstrating sample amplification. The multi-well CFPCR devices were fabricated by micro-replication in polymers, polycarbonate to accommodate the peak temperatures during thermal cycling in this case, using double-sided hot embossing. One side of the substrate contained the thermal reactors and the opposite side was patterned with structures to enhance thermal isolation of the closely packed constant temperature zones. A 99 bp target from a λ-DNA template was successfully amplified in a prototype multi-well CFPCR device with a total reaction time as low as ∼5 min at a flow velocity of 3 mm s −1 (15.3 s cycle −1 ) and a relatively low amplification efficiency compared to a bench-top thermal cycler for a 20-cycle device; reducing the flow velocity to 1 mm s −1 (46.2 s cycle −1 ) gave a seven-fold improvement in amplification efficiency. Amplification efficiencies increased at all flow velocities for 25-cycle devices with the same configuration.

  5. Evaluation of the localization auditory screening test in children 6-18 months of age. (United States)

    Tillis, C H; Grimm, W A


    The present paper is a report of a project to develop an automated auditory screening test for infants six to 18 months of age. The first year of the project was devoted to developing equipment and test procedures; the second year was concerned with testing the effectiveness of the equipment and procedures on an actual population of six to 18 month old infants. Two-hundred and fifty infants were screened auditorily as part of a county health department child development clinic. The pass/fail results of the screening test were evaluated in terms of physical and developmental examination following the screening and by means of a case review of the child's previous history. The results indicate that the procedure under investigation can be used to differentiate the normal hearing infant from the infant with possible hearing problems. It is shown by the test environment in which this study was conducted that the procedure reported can be successfully incorporated into a public health program, i.e., child development clinics or EPSDT programs.

  6. Screening Tests (United States)

    ... hazardous or risky drinking. Two instruments in particular, the AUDIT and the CAGE, are cited throughout this issue— ... drinking in a very specific population—pregnant women. The AUDIT, CAGE, and T-ACE are presented here in ...

  7. Toward Joint Hypothesis-Tests Seismic Event Screening Analysis: Ms|mb and Event Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Selby, Neil [AWE Blacknest


    Well established theory can be used to combine single-phenomenology hypothesis tests into a multi-phenomenology event screening hypothesis test (Fisher's and Tippett's tests). Commonly used standard error in Ms:mb event screening hypothesis test is not fully consistent with physical basis. Improved standard error - Better agreement with physical basis, and correctly partitions error to include Model Error as a component of variance, correctly reduces station noise variance through network averaging. For 2009 DPRK test - Commonly used standard error 'rejects' H0 even with better scaling slope ({beta} = 1, Selby et al.), improved standard error 'fails to rejects' H0.

  8. Patient Preferences Regarding Colorectal Cancer Screening: Test Features and Cost Willing to Pay Out of Pocket. (United States)

    Moreno, Courtney C; Weiss, Paul S; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Mittal, Pardeep K; Votaw, John R


    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether test features would make an individual more or less likely to undergo colorectal cancer screening and how much an individual would be willing to pay out of pocket for a screening test. The methods include an administration of a survey to consecutive adult patients of a general medicine clinic. The survey consisted of Likert-scale questions assessing the patients' likelihood of choosing a screening test based on various test characteristics. Additional questions measured the patients' age, race, gender, and maximum out-of-pocket cost they would be willing to pay. Chi-square tests were used to assess the associations between the likelihood questions and the various demographic characteristics. In results, survey response rate was 88.8% (213 of 240). Respondents were 48.4% female (103 of 213), 51.6% male (110 of 213), 82.6% White (176 of 213), 11.3% African-American (24 of 213), and 6.1% other (13 of 213). Risk of internal injury and light exposure to radiation were the least desirable test features. Light sedation was the only test feature that most respondents (54.8%) indicated would make them likely or very likely to undergo a colorectal cancer screening test. The vast majority of respondents (86.8%) were willing to pay less than $200 out of pocket for a colorectal cancer screening test. There was no statistically significant difference in the responses of males and females, or in the responses of individuals of different races or different ages regarding test features, or the amount individuals were willing to pay for a screening test. To conclude, survey results suggest that patient education emphasizing the low complication rate of computed tomographic colonography (CTC), the minimal risks associated with the low-level radiation exposure resulting from CTC, and the benefits of a sedation-free test (eg, no risk of sedation-related complication and no need for a driver) may increase patient acceptance of

  9. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup


    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  10. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet. (United States)

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette


    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. Study of Lamb Waves for Non-Destructive Testing Behind Screens (United States)

    Kauffmann, P.; Ploix, M.-A.; Chaix, J.-F.; Gueudré, C.; Corneloup, G.; Baqué, F. AF(; )


    The inspection and control of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) is a major issue for the nuclear industry. Ultrasonic solutions are under study because of the opacity of liquid sodium. In this paper, the use of leaky Lamb waves is considered for non-destructive testing (NDT) on parallel and immersed structures assimilated as plates. The first phase of our approach involved studying the propagation properties of leaky Lamb waves. Equations that model the propagation of Lamb waves in an immersed plate were solved numerically. The phase velocity can be experimentally measured using a two dimensional Fourier transform. The group velocity can be experimentally measured using a short-time Fourier transform technique. Attenuation of leaky Lamb waves is mostly due to the re-emission of energy into the surrounding fluid, and it can be measured by these two techniques.

  12. SUMA Technology and Newborn Screening Tests for Inherited Metabolic Diseases in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Carlos González Reyes PhD


    Full Text Available The ultramicroanalytic system (SUMA, created in the 1980s, is a complete system of reagents and instrumentation to perform ultramicroassays combining the sensitivity of the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests with the use of ultramicrovolumes. This technology permitted establishing large-scale newborn screening programs (NSPs for metabolic and endocrine disorders in Cuba. This article summarizes the main results of the implementation during the 30 years of SUMA technology in NSP for 5 inherited metabolic diseases, using ultramicroassays developed at the Department of Newborn Screening at the Immunoassay Center. Since 1986, SUMA technology has been used in the Cuban NSP for congenital hypothyroidism, initially studying thyroid hormone in cord serum samples. In 2000, a decentralized program for the detection of hyperphenylalaninemias using heel dried blood samples was initiated. These successful experiences permitted including protocols for screening congenital adrenal hyperplasia, galactosemia, and biotinidase deficiency in 2005. A program for the newborn screening of CH using the thyroid-stimulating hormone Neonatal ultramicro-ELISA was fully implemented in 2010. Nowadays, the NSP is supported by a network of 175 SUMA laboratories. After 30 years, more than 3.8 million Cuban newborns have been screened, and 1002 affected children have been detected. Moreover, SUMA technology has been presented in Latin America for over 2 decades and has contributed to screen around 17 million newborns. These results prove that developing countries can develop appropriate diagnostic technologies for making health care accessible to all.

  13. Validity of Commonly Used Clinical Tests to Diagnose and Screen for Spinal Pain in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise


    , the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.60 to 0.65. None of the selected tests could predict incidence cases of neck pain, mid back pain, or low back pain. CONCLUSION: Clinical tests commonly used in spinal screening in adolescents could not detect present spinal pain...... under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated for evaluation of all tests combined. RESULTS: The sensitivity was low, and specificity was high for all tests at both baseline (age, 11-13 years) and follow-up (age, 13-15 years). When all tests were evaluated collectively in 1 model...

  14. Two-Dimensional Mapping of the Calculated Fission Power for the Full-Size Fuel Plate Experiment Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (United States)

    Chang, G. S.; Lillo, M. A.


    The National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program assigned to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the responsibility of developing and demonstrating high uranium density research reactor fuel forms to enable the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) in research and test reactors around the world. A series of full-size fuel plate experiments have been proposed for irradiation testing in the center flux trap (CFT) position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These full-size fuel plate tests are designated as the AFIP tests. The AFIP nominal fuel zone is rectangular in shape having a designed length of 21.5-in (54.61-cm), width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), and uniform thickness of 0.014-in (0.03556-cm). This gives a nominal fuel zone volume of 0.482 in3 (7.89 cm3) per fuel plate. The AFIP test assembly has two test positions. Each test position is designed to hold 2 full-size plates, for a total of 4 full-size plates per test assembly. The AFIP test plates will be irradiated at a peak surface heat flux of about 350 W/cm2 and discharged at a peak U-235 burn-up of about 70 at.%. Based on limited irradiation testing of the monolithic (U-10Mo) fuel form, it is desirable to keep the peak fuel temperature below 250°C to achieve this, it will be necessary to keep plate heat fluxes below 500 W/cm2. Due to the heavy U-235 loading and a plate width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), the neutron self-shielding will increase the local-to-average-ratio (L2AR) fission power near the sides of the fuel plates. To demonstrate that the AFIP experiment will meet the ATR safety requirements, a very detailed 2-dimensional (2D) Y-Z fission power profile was evaluated in order to best predict the fuel plate temperature distribution. The ability to accurately predict fuel plate power and burnup are essential to both the design of the AFIP tests as well as evaluation of the irradiated fuel performance. To support this need, a detailed MCNP Y

  15. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina


    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  16. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli


    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  17. Mutagenicity Evaluation of Ammonium Picrate in the Ames Salmonella/Microsome Plate Test. Segment Report, (United States)


    used by the I study director, and any % ppendices . All test and control results presented in this report are suppreted by raw data .which are permanently...dosage selection results are presented in Table 1. The acute and subchronic test results have been collected from raw data sheets and tabulated in...breakage in bone marrow cells of mice following oral exposure (per os). Both acute and subchronic dosing schedules were employed in this assay. Results

  18. Screening test recommendations for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance practices: A cost-minimization analysis. (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Curtis, Donna J; Atherly, Adam J; Bradley, Cathy J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Campbell, Jonathan D


    To mitigate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, intensive care units (ICUs) conduct surveillance through screening patients upon admission followed by adhering to isolation precautions. Two surveillance approaches commonly implemented are universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation of only MRSA-positive patients. Decision analysis was used to calculate the total cost of universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation. The screening test used as part of the surveillance practice was varied to identify which screening test minimized inappropriate and total costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the range of total costs resulting from variation in inputs. The total cost of the universal preemptive isolation surveillance practice was minimized when a polymerase chain reaction screening test was used ($82.51 per patient). Costs were $207.60 more per patient when a conventional culture was used due to the longer turnaround time and thus higher isolation costs. The total cost of the targeted isolation surveillance practice was minimized when chromogenic agar 24-hour testing was used ($8.54 per patient). Costs were $22.41 more per patient when polymerase chain reaction was used. For ICUs that preemptively isolate all patients, the use of a polymerase chain reaction screening test is recommended because it can minimize total costs by reducing inappropriate isolation costs. For ICUs that only isolate MRSA-positive patients, the use of chromogenic agar 24-hour testing is recommended to minimize total costs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can the Bruckner test be used as a rapid screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Mihir


    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the suitability of Brückner test as a screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children. Materials and Methods: A pediatric ophthalmologist prospectively observed the size and location of pupillary crescent on Brückner test as hyperopic, myopic or astigmatic. This was compared with the cycloplegic refraction. Detailed ophthalmic examination was done for all. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Brückner test were determined for the defined cutoff levels of ametropia. Results: Ninety-six subjects were examined. Mean age was 8.6 years (range 1 to 16 years. Brückner test could be completed for all; the time taken to complete this test was 10 seconds per subject. The ophthalmologist identified 131 eyes as ametropic, 61 as emmetropic. The Brückner test had sensitivity 91%, specificity 72.8%, positive predictive value 85.5% and negative predictive value 83.6%. Of 10 false negatives four had compound hypermetropic astigmatism and three had myopia. Conclusions: Brückner test can be used to rapidly screen the children for significant refractive errors. The potential benefits from such use may be maximized if programs use the test with lower crescent measurement cutoffs, a crescent measurement ruler and a distance fixation target.

  20. Influence of test reliability on the screening performance of frequency-doubling perimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, GP; Jansonius, NM

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of test reliability on the screening performance of frequency,doubling perimetry (FDT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: FDT sensitivity and specificity were calculated three times using three different strategies for handling unreliable (that is, > 0

  1. Individual differences in aversion to ambiguity regarding medical tests and treatments: association with cancer screening cognitions. (United States)

    Han, Paul K J; Williams, Andrew E; Haskins, Amy; Gutheil, Caitlin; Lucas, F Lee; Klein, William M P; Mazor, Kathleen M


    Aversion to "ambiguity"-uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of information-about medical tests and treatments is an important psychological response that varies among individuals, but little is known about its nature and extent. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual-level ambiguity aversion relates to important health cognitions related to different cancer screening tests. A survey of 1,074 adults, ages 40 to 70 years, was conducted in four integrated U.S. healthcare systems. The Ambiguity Aversion in Medicine (AA-Med) scale, a measure of individual differences in aversion to ambiguity (AA) about medical tests and treatments, was administered along with measures of several cancer screening-related cognitions: perceived benefits and harms of colonoscopy, mammography, and PSA screening, and ambivalence and future intentions regarding these tests. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the associations between AA-Med scores and cancer screening cognitions. Individual-level AA as assessed by the AA-Med scale was significantly associated (P ambiguity. Individual-level AA constitutes a measurable, wide-ranging cognitive bias against medical intervention, and more research is needed to elucidate its mechanisms and effects. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My


    women experiencing a negative screening test, regardless of whether the false positive statement was given following assessment or following surgery. The benign to malignant biopsy ratio, comparing the type B false positives to the true positives, was by the fifth round well below the desirable level...

  3. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen


    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  4. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.


    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of

  5. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen


    OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2 ...

  6. Contribution to the study for an optimum choice of filter and screens in radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillieret, V.; Peix, G.; Babot, D.; Lormand, G.


    In order to optimize the choices of screens and filter in steel specimens radiographic testing with iridium 192 and cobalt 60, we started a theoretical and experimental study of their actions on radiative and latent images formation. Theoretical modelisation of photons interactions in steel and experimental apparatus for spectral analysis are described

  7. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan


    OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of postnatal screening for toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA. SETTING: Ten centres in three European countries. METHODS: We compared results of the first postnatal IgM or IgA test in infants with infected mothers identified by prenatal screeni...

  8. Spectrum of patients with hypermethioninemia based on neonatal screening tests over 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jung Oh


    Full Text Available Purpose : The neonatal screening test for homocystinuria primarily measures methionine by using a dried blood specimen. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of homocystinuria, isolated hypermethioninemia, and transient hypermethioninemia among patients with hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test. Methods : We performed a retrospective study of 58 patients transferred to Shoonchunhyang Hospital because of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test between January 1996 and August 2009. We analyzed the level of amino acid from plasma and urine, as well as blood homocysteine. Results : Almost half of the 58 patients were identified as normal. Whereas only 3 (5.1% patients were identified as having homocystinuria, about 20.7% (12 cases of the patients had isolated hypermethioninemia. The ages of these two groups at initial detection of hypermethioninemia on plasma amino acid analysis were 50.0¡?#?2.5; days and 34.9¡?#?3.5; days, respectively. Both groups were put on diets, and they showed a normal developmental course as a result of early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion : Hypermethioninemia without homocystinuria, referred to as isolated hypermethioninemia, was also detected. Thus, the impact of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test should be carefully evaluated through analysis of amino acid levels from blood and urine, and we need to detect and treat an early stage of isolated hypermethioninemia as well as homocystinuria.

  9. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating (United States)

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.


    Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658

  10. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine


    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  11. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz


    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  12. Investigation of Thermal Performance of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tubular Solar Collectors According to a New Dynamic Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua


    obtain fluid thermal capacitance in data processing. Then theoretical analysis and experimental verification are carried out to investigate influencing factors of obtaining accurate and stable second order term. A flat plate and ETC solar collector are compared using both the new dynamic method......A new dynamic test method is introduced. This so called improved transfer function method features on two new collector parameters. One is time term which can indicate solar collector's inner heat transfer ability and the other is a second order term of collector mean fluid temperature which can...... and a standard method. The results show that the improved function method can accurately and robustly estimate these two kinds of solar collectors....

  13. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N


    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  14. Awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests in Spain. (United States)

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentın; Lopez de Andres, Ana; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Gallardo Pino, Carmen; Jimenez-Garcıa, Rodrigo


    We aim to describe levels of awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests and to analyze the association to socio-demographic and health-related variables. Population-based cross-sectional study conducted using a home-based personal interview survey on a nationwide representative sample (n = 7938) of population aged ≥18 years (Oncobarometro Survey). Awareness was assessed by asking participants: Now I am going to mention several medical tests for cancer detection, please tell me if you already know about them or if this is the first time you have heard of them? The tests mentioned were faecal occult blood test (FOBT), mammography, Pap smear and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Cancer screening uptake was assessed by asking participants whether they had received tests within the previous 2 years. Awareness rates of 38.55% for FOBT, 95.03% for mammography, 70.84% for Pap smears and 54.72% for PSA were found. Uptake mammography was 74.46%, Pap smears 65.57%, PSA 35.19% and FOBT 9.40%. Factors such as immigration status, lower educational level or income and not suffering from chronic conditions are negative predictors for uptake. Awareness and uptake results showed acceptable figures for mammography, moderate for Pap smears and unacceptably low for FOBT. Inequalities exist in uptake of cancer screening. It is necessary to develop public health educational programmes, especially for the vulnerable populations, aiming to inform and motivate them to use screening services on a regular basis. Our data suggest that although PSA is not recommended, this opportunistic screening is frequently used in Spain.

  15. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis


    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan


    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  16. Application of direct agglutination test (DAT) and fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Eduardo S.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Gontijo, Celia M. F.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Pacheco, Raquel S.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.


    The direct agglutination test (DAT) has proved to be a very important sero-diagnostic tool combining high levels of intrinsic validity and ease of performance. Otherwise, fast agglutination screening test (FAST) utilises only one serum dilution making the test very suitable for the screening of

  17. Activity of two strobilurin fungicides against three species of decay fungi in agar plate tests (United States)

    Juliet D. Tang; Tina Ciaramitaro; Maria Tomaso-Peterson; Susan V. Diehl


    The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of strobilurin fungicides against wood decay fungi in order to assess their potential to act as a co-biocide for copper-based wood protection. Two strobilurin fungicides, Heritage (50% azoxystrobin active ingredient) and Insignia (20% pyraclostrobin active ingredients), and copper sulfate pentahydrate were tested...

  18. Defect Localization Capabilities of a Global Detection Scheme: Spatial Pattern Recognition Using Full-field Vibration Test Data in Plates (United States)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Prabhu, M.; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)


    Recently, a conceptually simple approach, based on the notion of defect energy in material space has been developed and extensively studied (from the theoretical and computational standpoints). The present study focuses on its evaluation from the viewpoint of damage localization capabilities in case of two-dimensional plates; i.e., spatial pattern recognition on surfaces. To this end, two different experimental modal test results are utilized; i.e., (1) conventional modal testing using (white noise) excitation and accelerometer-type sensors and (2) pattern recognition using Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a full field method capable of analyzing the mechanical vibration of complex structures. Unlike the conventional modal testing technique (using contacting accelerometers), these emerging ESPI technologies operate in a non-contacting mode, can be used even under hazardous conditions with minimal or no presence of noise and can simultaneously provide measurements for both translations and rotations. Results obtained have clearly demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the global NDE scheme developed. The vectorial character of the indices used, which enabled the extraction of distinct patterns for localizing damages proved very useful. In the context of the targeted pattern recognition paradigm, two algorithms were developed for the interrogation of test measurements; i.e., intensity contour maps for the damaged index, and the associated defect energy vector field plots.

  19. Correlation Between Screening Mammography Interpretive Performance on a Test Set and Performance in Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Ichikawa, Laura; Smith, Robert A; Buist, Diana S M; Carney, Patricia A; Geller, Berta; Monsees, Barbara; Onega, Tracy; Rosenberg, Robert; Sickles, Edward A; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Kerlikowske, Karla


    Evidence is inconsistent about whether radiologists' interpretive performance on a screening mammography test set reflects their performance in clinical practice. This study aimed to estimate the correlation between test set and clinical performance and determine if the correlation is influenced by cancer prevalence or lesion difficulty in the test set. This institutional review board-approved study randomized 83 radiologists from six Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries to assess one of four test sets of 109 screening mammograms each; 48 radiologists completed a fifth test set of 110 mammograms 2 years later. Test sets differed in number of cancer cases and difficulty of lesion detection. Test set sensitivity and specificity were estimated using woman-level and breast-level recall with cancer status and expert opinion as gold standards. Clinical performance was estimated using women-level recall with cancer status as the gold standard. Spearman rank correlations between test set and clinical performance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. For test sets with fewer cancers (N = 15) that were more difficult to detect, correlations were weak to moderate for sensitivity (woman level = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.69; breast level = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.61) and weak for specificity (0.24, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.45) relative to expert recall. Correlations for test sets with more cancers (N = 30) were close to 0 and not statistically significant. Correlations between screening performance on a test set and performance in clinical practice are not strong. Test set performance more accurately reflects performance in clinical practice if cancer prevalence is low and lesions are challenging to detect. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances. (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata


    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  1. Uptake of a colorectal cancer screening blood test in people with elevated risk for cancer who cannot or will not complete a faecal occult blood test. (United States)

    Symonds, Erin L; Cock, Charles; Meng, Rosie; Cole, Stephen R; Fraser, Robert J L; Young, Graeme P


    Participation rates in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) are low. Nonparticipation is commonly attributed to psychosocial factors, but some medical conditions also prevent screening. These barriers might be partially overcome if a blood test for CRC screening was available. This study determined whether people who had always declined screening by FOBT would participate if offered a blood test. An audit of registrants within a personalized CRC screening programme was undertaken to determine the reasons for regular nonparticipation in FOBT. Consistent nonparticipants (n=240) were randomly selected and invited for CRC screening with a blood test. Demographic characteristics and the reasons for prior FOBT nonparticipation were collected by means of a questionnaire. Nonparticipation in the screening programme could be classified as either behavioural (8.6%), with consistent noncompliance, or due to medical contraindications (8.5%), which included chronic rectal bleeding, being deemed unsuitable by a health professional, and needing personal assistance. Blood test uptake was 25%, with participation in the medical contraindications group greater than that in the behavioural group (43 vs. 12%, Pprocrastination and dislike of the test, but these were not associated with blood test uptake (P>0.05). There is a subgroup of the community who have medical reasons for nonparticipation in CRC screening with FOBT but will participate if offered a blood test. The option of a blood test does not, however, improve uptake in those who admit to behavioural reasons for noncompliance with screening.

  2. RBC Antibody Screen (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  3. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto


    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  4. Analysis of steam explosions in plate-type, uranium-aluminum fuel test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.


    The concern over steam explosions in nuclear reactors can be traced to prompt critical nuclear excursions in aluminum-clad/fueled test reactors, as well as to explosive events in aluminum, pulp, and paper industries. The Reactor Safety Study prompted an extensive analytical and experimental effort for over a decade. This has led to significant improvements in their understanding of the steam explosion issue for commercial light water reactors. However, little progress has been made toward applying the lessons learned from this effort to the understanding and modeling of steam explosion phenomena in aluminum-clad/fueled research and test reactors. The purposes of this paper are to (a) provide a preliminary analysis of the destructive events in test reactors, based on current understandings of steam explosions; (b) provide a proposed approach for determining the likelihood of a steam explosion event under scenarios in which molten U-Al fuel drops into a water-filled cavity; and (c) present a benchmarking study conducted to estimate peak pressure pulse magnitudes

  5. The Clock Drawing Test versus Mini-mental Status Examination as a Screening Tool for Dementia: A Clinical Comparison (United States)

    Palsetia, Delnaz; Rao, G. Prasad; Tiwari, Sarvada C.; Lodha, Pragya; De Sousa, Avinash


    There is a growing incidence of dementia patients in the community, and with this growth, there is need for rapid, valid, and easily administrable tests for the screening of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in the community. This review looks at the two most commonly used tests in dementia screening, namely, the clock drawing test (CDT) and the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Both these tests have been used in dementia screening over the past three decades and have been the subject of scrutiny of various studies, reviews, and meta-analysis. Both these tests are analyzed on their ability to assess dementia and screen for it in the community, general practice and general hospital settings. The methods of administration and scoring of each test are discussed, and their advantages and disadvantages are explained. There is also a direct comparison made between the MMSE and CDT in dementia screening. Future research needs with these tests are also elucidated. PMID:29403122

  6. The Clock Drawing Test versus Mini-mental Status Examination as a Screening Tool for Dementia: A Clinical Comparison. (United States)

    Palsetia, Delnaz; Rao, G Prasad; Tiwari, Sarvada C; Lodha, Pragya; De Sousa, Avinash


    There is a growing incidence of dementia patients in the community, and with this growth, there is need for rapid, valid, and easily administrable tests for the screening of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in the community. This review looks at the two most commonly used tests in dementia screening, namely, the clock drawing test (CDT) and the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Both these tests have been used in dementia screening over the past three decades and have been the subject of scrutiny of various studies, reviews, and meta-analysis. Both these tests are analyzed on their ability to assess dementia and screen for it in the community, general practice and general hospital settings. The methods of administration and scoring of each test are discussed, and their advantages and disadvantages are explained. There is also a direct comparison made between the MMSE and CDT in dementia screening. Future research needs with these tests are also elucidated.

  7. Method for screening the Nevada Test Site and contiguous areas for nuclear waste repository locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Neal, J.T.; Stephens, H.P.; Hartway, B.L.; Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM)


    This paper outlines the general concepts of a technical method for systematic screening of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for potentially suitable nuclear waste repository locations. After a general discussion of the organization and the purpose of the current screening activity, the paper addresses the steps of the screening method. These steps include: hierarchically organizing technical objectives for repository performance (an objectives tree); identifying and mapping pertinent physical characteristics of a site and its setting (physical attributes); relating the physical conditions to the objectives (favorability curves); identifying alternative locations and numerically evaluating their relative merits; investigating the effects of subjective judgments on the evaluations (sensitivity analyses); documenting the assumptions, logic, and results of the method. 19 references, 10 figures

  8. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution (United States)

    Johnson, S.


    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  9. Smartphone-based audiometric test for screening hearing loss in the elderly. (United States)

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Handzel, Ophir; Ness, Lior; Ben-Artzi-Blima, Miri; Fait-Ghelbendorf, Karin; Himmelfarb, Mordechai


    Hearing loss is widespread among the elderly. One of the main obstacles to rehabilitation is identifying individuals with potentially correctable hearing loss. Smartphone-based hearing tests can be administered at home, thus greatly facilitating access to screening. This study evaluates the use of a smartphone application as a screening tool for hearing loss in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Twenty-six subjects aged 84.4 ± 6.73 years (mean ± SD) were recruited. Pure-tone audiometry was administered by both a smartphone application (uHear for iPhone, v1.0 Unitron, Canada) and a standard portable audiometer by trained personnel. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their hearing. Pure-tone thresholds were compared between the two testing modalities and correlated with the questionnaire results. The cutoff point for failing screening tests was a pure tone average of 40 dB for the frequencies 250-6,000 Hz. The smartphone application's pure tone thresholds were higher (poorer hearing) than the audiometric thresholds, with a significant difference in all frequencies but 2,000 Hz. The application and the audiometric values were in agreement for 24 subjects (92 %). The application had a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 60 % for screening compared with the audiometer. The questionnaire was significantly less accurate, having assigned a passing score to three participants who failed both the application and audiometric tests. While a smartphone application may not be able to accurately determine the level of hearing impairment, it is useful as a highly accessible portable audiometer substitute for screening for hearing loss in elderly populations.

  10. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Muhammad; Xiu Yun, Zhu; Rong, Pan


    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact

  11. Fabrication and mechanical test data for the four 6-inch-thick intermediate test vessels made from steel plate for the Heavy Section Steel Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, C.E.


    The HSST Program has among its goals the objective of demonstrating the capability to predict safe behavior of thick-walled pressure vessels containing flaws of known dimensions under frangible, transitional, and tough loading regimes. To accomplish these objectives the program is conducting a series of tests involving 6-in.-thick pressure vessels which will serve as test specimens for assisting in the characterization of failure under these loading conditions. Among the vessels a number of parameters, such as weld type, weld location, flaw size and shape, and test temperature and pressure, will be selectively varied to show that a rationale exists for dealing with the varied stress and metallurgical states which normally exist in commercial nuclear reactor vessels. Each vessel will serve as a go, no-go determination of critical flaw size for a specific set of test parameters. Item 4 of the previous issues in this series covers the fabrication details of the first six 6-in.-thick test vessels, which were fabricated from ASTM A-508 Cl 2 forging materials. This report covers the fabrication details of four additional 6-in.-thick intermediate test vessels having shell courses fabricated from ASTM A-533 Gr B Cl 1 plate. The remaining components were made from forgings. Essentially this report is a continuation of ORNL-TM-4351; it describes the manufacturing details of the individual parts and their ultimate assembly into finished vessels. Details concerning chemical composition and mechanical and nondestructive test data are presented

  12. Primary care validation of a single-question alcohol screening test. (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard


    Unhealthy alcohol use is prevalent but under-diagnosed in primary care settings. To validate, in primary care, a single-item screening test for unhealthy alcohol use recommended by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Cross-sectional study. Adult English-speaking patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms. Participants were asked the single screening question, “How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?”, where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of 1 or greater [corrected] is considered positive. Unhealthy alcohol use was defined as the presence of an alcohol use disorder, as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview, or risky consumption, as determined using a validated 30-day calendar method. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single-question screen was 81.8% sensitive (95% confidence interval (CI) 72.5% to 88.5%) and 79.3% specific (95% CI 73.1% to 84.4%) for the detection of unhealthy alcohol use. It was slightly more sensitive (87.9%, 95% CI 72.7% to 95.2%) but was less specific (66.8%, 95% CI 60.8% to 72.3%) for the detection of a current alcohol use disorder. Test characteristics were similar to that of a commonly used three-item screen, and were affected very little by subject demographic characteristics. The single screening question recommended by the NIAAA accurately identified unhealthy alcohol use in this sample of primary care patients. These findings support the use of this brief screen in primary care.

  13. Testing the reliability of the Fall Risk Screening Tool in an elderly ambulatory population. (United States)

    Fielding, Susan J; McKay, Michael; Hyrkas, Kristiina


    To identify and test the reliability of a fall risk screening tool in an ambulatory outpatient clinic. The Fall Risk Screening Tool (Albert Lea Medical Center, MN, USA) was scripted for an interview format. Two interviewers separately screened a convenience sample of 111 patients (age ≥ 65 years) in an ambulatory outpatient clinic in a northeastern US city. The interviewers' scoring of fall risk categories was similar. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.834-0.889) and inter-rater reliability [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.824-0.881] for total, Risk Factor and Client's Health Status subscales. The Physical Environment scores indicated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.742) and adequate reliability (ICC = 0.688). Two Physical Environment items (furniture and medical equipment condition) had low reliabilities [Kappa (K) = 0.323, P = 0.08; K = -0.078, P = 0.648), respectively. The scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool demonstrated good reliability in this sample. Rewording two Physical Environment items will be considered. A reliable instrument such as the scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool provides a standardised assessment for identifying high fall risk patients. This tool is especially useful because it assesses personal, behavioural and environmental factors specific to community-dwelling patients; the interview format also facilitates patient-provider interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Forward Genetic Screening Using Behavioral Tests in Zebrafish: A Proof of Concept Analysis of Mutants. (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert; Poshusta, Tanya L; Rampersad, Mindy; Fernandes, Yohaan; Greenwood, Tammy M; Cousin, Margot A; Klee, Eric W; Clark, Karl J


    The zebrafish enjoys several advantages over other model organisms. It is small, easy to maintain, prolific, and numerous genetic tools are available for it. For example, forward genetic screens have allowed investigators to identify important genes potentially involved in a variety of functions from embryogenesis to cancer. However, despite its sophisticated behavioral repertoire, behavioral methods have rarely been utilized in forward genetic screens. Here, we employ a two-tiered strategy, a proof of concept study, to explore the feasibility of behavioral screens. We generated mutant lines using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis, allowing us to bias mutant selection with target genes expressed within the brain. Furthermore, we employed an efficient and fast behavioral pre-selection in which we investigated the locomotory response of 5-day post-fertilization old larval fish to hyperosmotic shock. Based on this assay, we selected five lines for our lower throughput secondary adult behavioral screen. The latter screen utilized tests in which computer animated image presentation and video-tracking-based automated quantification of behavior allowed us to compare heterozygous zebrafish with their wild-type siblings on their responses to a variety of stimuli. We found significant mutation induced adult behavioral alterations in 4 out of the 5 lines analyzed, including changes in response to social or fear inducing stimuli, to handling and novelty, or in habituation to novelty. We discuss the pros and cons of behavioral phenotyping and of the use of different forward genetic methods in biomedical research with zebrafish.

  15. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study. (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A


    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department. (United States)

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques S


    Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years ( M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r -values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent

  17. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.


    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  18. Utility of quick oculomotor tests for screening the vestibular system in the subacute and chronic populations. (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J


    The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of some widely used, easily administered clinical tests. Simple tests of oculomotor function have become widely used for clinical screening of patients suspected of having vestibular disorders despite a paucity of evidence showing good statistical support for their use in this highly variable population. Healthy controls with no history of otologic or neurologic disorders (n = 291) were compared to patients with known vestibular disorders (n = 62). All subjects performed passive and active head shaking, un-instrumented head impulse tests (HT), and video head impulse tests (vHIT) recorded with infrared video-oculography. For both passive and active head shaking, using presence/absence of vertigo and of nystagmus, sensitivity was low (<0.40). Sensitivity of presence/absence of saccades on HT was even lower (<0.15). On vHIT, gains were all approximately = 1.0, so sensitivity was very low (approximately 0.15-0.35). Sensitivity and specificity for presence/absence of saccades were moderately poor (less than 0.70). None of these tests are adequate for screening patients in the out-patient clinic for vestibular disorders or for screening people in epidemiologic studies to determine the prevalence of vestibular disorders.

  19. The Clock Drawing Test A review of its accuracy in screening for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    Full Text Available Abstract The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple neuropsychometric instrument that can be easily applied to assess several cognitive functions. Over the past 20 years, the CDT has aroused considerable interest in its role for the early screening of cognitive impairment, especially in dementia. Although the CDT is considered an accurate test for dementia screening, recent studies including comparisons with structured batteries such as the CAMCOG have shown mixed results. Objectives: To investigate the importance of the CDT compared to other commonly used tests, in the diagnosis of dementia in the elderly; (2 to evaluate the reliability and correlation between available CDT scoring scales from recent studies. Methods: A systematic search in the literature was conducted in September 2008 for studies comparing CDT scoring systems and comparing the CDT with neuropsychiatric batteries. Results: Twelve studies were selected for analyses. Seven of these studies compared CDT scoring scales while five compared the CDT against the CAMCOG and the MMSE. Eight studies found good correlation and reliability between the scales and the other tests. Conclusion: Despite the mixed results in these studies, the CDT appears to be a good screening test for dementia.

  20. Theoretical and experimental study on unstable fracture for type 304 stainless steel plates with a soft tensile testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Takahashi, Y.; Ando, Y.


    The object of this paper is to show experimental results on stable as well as unstable fractures for Type 304 stainless steel plates with a central crack using a soft tensile testing machine. The test machine was installed specially for the safety study of nuclear piping systems and its maximum loading capacity and maximum displacement are 600 ton and 500 mm, respectively. The compliance of the machine is 1.0 x 10 -4 (mm/N). The transition points from the stable to the unstable crack growth observed in the test were theoretically determined by using three methods. In the first method, the 'applied' value of T was calculated with the simple expression based on the dimensional analysis. In the second method, the fully-plastic solutions were used to calculate the nonlinear value of J, which was added to the linear value of J, thus the 'applied' values of T was determined by differentiating the total value of J, which was obtained for the material with the Ramberg-Osgood type stress-strain relation. In the final method, the finite element method was fully utilized to determine the 'applied' value of T. The value of J in the finite element method was obtained with the use of the path-integral. (orig./GL)

  1. DEPIVIH 2: Use of three HIV testing methods in French primary care settings - ELISA laboratory screening versus two rapid point-of-care HIV tests. (United States)

    Papadima, D; Gauthier, R; Prévoteau du Clary, F; Bouée, S; Conort, G; Livrozet, J-M; Taulera, O; Wajsbrot, A; Majerholc, C; Peter, J-M; Aubert, J-P


    The primary endpoint was to evaluate the use of HIV testing methods by French primary care providers: Elisa laboratory screening, instant result HIV diagnostic test and rapid result HIV diagnostic test. The secondary endpoints were the population screening rate of unknown HIV status consulting during the study period, reasons for screening and for choosing the specific screening method, the investigators' satisfaction with the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and problems encountered. National prospective interventional study with French family physicians (FP) from December 2013 to December 2014. FPs enrolled all consenting adults consulting for an HIV screening test during a 6-month period: the choice was an Elisa laboratory test or one of the two RDTs. During the study period, 43 FPs included 981 patients. HIV screening was performed for the first time for 31.6% of patients; 767 (78.2%) Elisa laboratory test prescriptions and 214 (21.8%) RDTs were performed, leading to a screening rate of 1.3%. For 120 (15.7%) of the Elisa laboratory tests, the result was not reported and six RDTs were not valid. Nine patients were diagnosed as HIV-infected (0.9%): five with Elisa laboratory test and four with RDT. Almost 90% of FPs were willing to keep on using RDTs in their daily practice. In general practice, RDTs may be an important additional tool to traditional HIV screening. They could account for one in five tests prescribed in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  3. An analysis of the duplicate testing strategy of an Irish immunochemical FOBT colorectal cancer screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelley, Leanne


    AIM: This study examined the relevance of using a two sample quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT or FIT) at a high cut off stringency by the first population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) pilot screening programme in Ireland. METHOD: Approximately ten thousand individuals between the ages of 50-74 years were invited to perform two consecutive FITs. These were analysed in tandem using the OC-Sensor and participants with at least one positive result with a haemoglobin cut off for positivity at 100 ng\\/ml were offered colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 5023 (52%) (2177 (43%) male; 2846 (57%) female) individuals with a median age of 64 years participated. At least one positive FIT test was detected from 514 (10%) individuals. From the 419 (82%) patients who proceeded to colonoscopy 17 (4%) had CRC and 132(33%) had an advanced adenoma. The detection rate for these screen relevant lesions was 3% (95% CIs = 2.5% - 3.5%) and the FIT positive + colonoscopy detection rate was 36% (95% CI = 31% - 40%). The numbers needed to colonoscope to find an advanced lesion was 2.8. The two test system detected four (23.5%) additional patients with CRC and 37 (28%) with an advanced adenoma compared with a single test. CONCLUSION: The CRC miss rate estimated for a single test (23.5%) was unacceptably high when the goal was to maximize the discovery of advanced lesions in the initial screening round. We conclude that the two test protocol at a high cut off threshold is suitable to optimize FIT screening in Ireland. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge of parents regarding newborn screening test, after accessing the website “Babies’ Portal” - Heel prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Antonelli Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the knowledge of mothers about the heel prick test, develop contents on this test to make it available on the "Babies’ Portal" website, evaluate and validate the informative material developed. Methods: this study was conducted in three stages, that is, the first stage which is about a descriptive study involving 105 mothers of newborn children before performing the neonatal screening "Heel Prick Test", the second one consisting in the development of the website "Babies’ Portal", and the third stage, the evaluation and validation of this material carried out by 20 parents of children between zero and 36 months old, who underwent the neonatal screening Heel Prick Test by accessing the website “Babies’ Portal”. Results: although the interviewed mothers knew that their children had the right to be tested, they showed no knowledge of the diseases that can be prevented, time of diagnosis, nor the consequences arising from the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. The website creation and validation gathered basic information about the Heel Prick Test, and the participants regarded the content from satisfactory to excellent. Conclusion: it is necessary that families know not only about the procedures their children will undergo, but also the reason they are performed and the consequences of failing in doing so.

  5. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  6. Testing of Ni-plated ferritic steel interconnect in SOFC stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dinesen, A.R.; Korcakova, L.


    heating to 1,030 °C. During this time, 20–70 μm thick surface layers of austenitic steel were formed, which were covered by a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the anode side and by a layer of mixed Cr-Fe-Ni-spinels over a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the cathode side. The microstructure and composition...... of the protective scale on the cathode side was susceptible to pitting-type corrosion patterns, which may limit the life expectancy to less than 2,000 hours for the 200 μm thick interconnect tested. The initial area-specific resistances (ASR) at the interconnect/cathode current collector interface...

  7. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate (United States)

    Domack, M. S.


    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  8. [Costs of Chagas' disease screening test in blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015]. (United States)

    Alvis, Nelson José; Díaz, Diana Patricia; Castillo, Liliana; Alvis, Nelson Rafael; Bermúdez, María Isabel; Berrío, Olga Maritza; Beltrán, Mauricio; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés


    Transfusion is a mechanism of transmission of Chagas' disease. There are no studies on the costs of the screening test in Colombian blood banks. To estimate the costs of the screening test for Chagas' disease among blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015. We conducted a micro-costing study from the perspective of the health care provider to estimate the cost of Chagas' disease testing in two blood banks, Banco de Sangre de la Cruz Roja, Seccional Bolívar, and Banco de Sangre del Hospital de Yopal, Casanare, taking into account four cost categories: 1) Administrative costs: public services and insurance costs were calculated based on the blood bank area in square meters; 2) capital costs: building and equipment costs that were annualized using a 3% discount rate and a lifespan of 20 years for building and five for equipment; 3) costs of Chagas' disease test materials and reagents adjusted by blood bank production level, and 4) costs of staff in charge of Chagas' disease test processing. The costs of transfusion bagsand immunohematology tests are also reported. The cost of Chagas' disease test in the blood bank of Seccional Bolívar was COP$ 37,804 (USD$ 12), and the blood bag and immunohematology test costs were COP$ 25,941 (USD$ 8.2) and COP$ 6,800 (USD$ 2.2), respectively. In the blood bank of Yopal, Casanare, the costs were COP$ 77,384 (USD$ 24.6), COP$ 30,141 (USD$ 9.6) and COP$ 12,627 (USD$ 4), respectively. Personnel cost accounted for the highest percentage of the total cost for both blood banks (47.5% in Seccional Bolívar, and 55.7% in Yopal, Casanare). Our results are an important input for the planning of services and cost-effectiveness studies for screening tests for Chagas' disease in Colombian blood banks.

  9. The King-Devick test as a concussion screening tool administered by sports parents. (United States)

    Leong, D F; Balcer, L J; Galetta, S L; Liu, Z; Master, C L


    Sports-related concussion has received increasing awareness due to short- and long-term neurologic sequelae seen among athletes. The King-Devick (K-D) test captures impairment of eye movements and other correlates of suboptimal brain function. We investigated the K-D test as a screening for concussion when administered by layperson sports parents in a cohort of amateur boxers. The K-D test was administered pre-fight and post-fight by laypersons masked to the head trauma status of each athlete. Matches were watched over by a ringside physician and boxing trainer. Athletes with suspected head trauma received testing with the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) by the ringside physician to determine concussion status. Athletes sustaining concussion were compared to the athletes screened using the K-D test. Post-fight K-D scores were lower (better) than the best baseline score (41 vs. 39.3 s, P=0.34, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), in the absence of concussion. One boxer sustained a concussion as determined by the ringside physician. This boxer was accurately identified by the layperson K-D testers due to a worsening in K-D test compared to baseline (3.2 seconds) and an increased number of errors. High levels of test-retest reliability were observed (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.90 [95% CI 0.84-0.97]). Additionally, 6 boxers who participated in multiple bouts showed no worsening of their K-D times further supporting that scores are not affected by the fatigue associated with sparring. The K-D test is a rapid sideline screening tool for concussion that can be effectively administered by non-medically trained laypersons.

  10. Automated Cervical Screening and Triage, Based on HPV Testing and Computer-Interpreted Cytology. (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Hyun, Noorie; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Zhang, Han; Stamps, Robin E; Poitras, Nancy E; Wheeler, William; Befano, Brian; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark


    State-of-the-art cervical cancer prevention includes human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents and screening/treatment of cervical precancer (CIN3/AIS and, less strictly, CIN2) among adults. HPV testing provides sensitive detection of precancer but, to reduce overtreatment, secondary "triage" is needed to predict women at highest risk. Those with the highest-risk HPV types or abnormal cytology are commonly referred to colposcopy; however, expert cytology services are critically lacking in many regions. To permit completely automatable cervical screening/triage, we designed and validated a novel triage method, a cytologic risk score algorithm based on computer-scanned liquid-based slide features (FocalPoint, BD, Burlington, NC). We compared it with abnormal cytology in predicting precancer among 1839 women testing HPV positive (HC2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in 2010 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Precancer outcomes were ascertained by record linkage. As additional validation, we compared the algorithm prospectively with cytology results among 243 807 women screened at KPNC (2016-2017). All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, the algorithm matched the triage performance of abnormal cytology. Combined with HPV16/18/45 typing (Onclarity, BD, Sparks, MD), the automatable strategy referred 91.7% of HPV-positive CIN3/AIS cases to immediate colposcopy while deferring 38.4% of all HPV-positive women to one-year retesting (compared with 89.1% and 37.4%, respectively, for typing and cytology triage). In the 2016-2017 validation, the predicted risk scores strongly correlated with cytology (P < .001). High-quality cervical screening and triage performance is achievable using this completely automated approach. Automated technology could permit extension of high-quality cervical screening/triage coverage to currently underserved regions.

  11. Geo-energy Test Beds: part of the European Plate Observing System (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael; Schofield, David; Luton, Christopher; Haslinger, Florian; Henninges, Jan; Giardini, Domenico


    For 2020, the EU has committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and further cuts are being decided for 2050. This commitment is one of the headline targets of the Europe 2020 growth strategy and is being implemented through binding legislation. This decarbonisation of the EU economy is one dimension of an overall EU energy and climate framework that is mutually interlinked with the need to ensure energy security, promote a fully integrated energy market, promote energy efficiency and promote research innovation and competitiveness. Power generation will have to take a particularly large part in emissions reductions (-54 to -68% by 2030 and -93 to -99% by 2050), mainly by focussing on increasing surface renewables (wind, tidal and solar) but also on carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel and biofuel power plants, shale gas, nuclear and geothermal power. All the above generation technologies share common geological challenges around containment, safety and environmental sustainability. In a densely populated continent, this means that high levels of subsurface management are needed to fully realise the energy potential. In response to this need, across Europe, public and private sector funded, experimental test and monitoring facilities and infrastructures (Geo-energy Test Beds, GETB) are being developed. These GETB investigate the processes, technology and practices that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of Geo-energy resources and are of intense interest to the public and regulators alike. The vision of EPOS IP Work Package 17 (wp17) is to promote research and innovation in Geo-energy that reflects core European energy priorities through provision of virtual access to data and protocols and trans-national access to GETB experiments. This will be achieved through provision of access to continuous strategic observations, promotion of the integrated use of data and models from European GETB, development of underpinning research

  12. HPV testing for primary cervical screening: Laboratory issues and evolving requirements for robust quality assurance. (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Cuschieri, Kate; Frayle, Helena; Sani, Cristina; Burroni, Elena


    This review aims to highlight the importance of Quality Assurance for Laboratories performing HPV test for Cervical Cancer Screening. An HPV test, to be used as primary screening test, must be validated according to international criteria, based on comparison of its clinical accuracy to HC2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA tests. The number of validated platforms is increasing and appropriate Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) which can interrogate longitudinal robustness and quality are paramount. This document describes the following topics: (1) the characteristics of an HPV laboratory and the personnel training needs, to ensure an elevated quality of the entire process and the optimal use of the resources; (2) the Quality Assurance, as both internal (IQA) and external quality assessment (EQA) systems, to be implemented and performed, and the description of the existing EQAs, including limitations; (3) general considerations for an optimal EQA program for hrHPV primary screening Due to the importance of Quality Assurance for this field, international efforts are necessary to improve QA International Collaboration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Easier operation and similar power of 10 g monofilament test for screening diabetic peripheral neuropathy. (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Yi, Na; Liu, Siying; Zheng, Hangping; Qiao, Xiaona; Xiong, Qian; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Shuo; Wen, Jie; Ye, Hongying; Zhou, Linuo; Li, Yiming; Hu, Renming; Lu, Bin


    Objective The 10 g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament evaluation (SWME) of 4 sites on each foot is recommended for distal symmetric polyneuropathy screening and diagnosis. A similar method has been proposed to diagnose 'high-risk' (for ulceration) feet, using 3 sites per foot. This study compared the effectiveness of SWME for testing 3, 4 and 10 sites per foot to identify patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods We included 3497 subjects in a SWME of 10 sites; records from the 10-site SWME were used for a SWME of 3 and 4 sites. Neuropathy symptom scores and neuropathy deficit scores were evaluated to identify patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Results The sensitivities of the 10 g SWME for 3, 4 and 10 sites were 17.8%, 19.0% and 22.4%, respectively. The Kappa coefficients for the SWME tests of 3, 4 and 10 sites were high (range: 0.78-0.93). Conclusions There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of 3-, 4- and 10-site SWME testing for diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening. SWME testing of 3 sites on each foot may be sufficient to screen for diabetic neuropathy.

  14. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García P


    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  15. Development of ultrasonic testing technique with the large transducer to inspect the containment vessel plates of nuclear power plant embedded in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Kurozumi, Yasuo; Kaneshima, Yoshiari


    The containment vessel plates embedded in concrete on Pressurized Water Reactors are inaccessible to inspect directly. Therefore, it is advisable to prepare inspection technology to detect existence and a location of corrosion on the embedded plates indirectly. In order to establish ultrasonic testing technique to be able to inspect the containment vessel plates embedded in concrete widely at the accessible point, experiments to detect artificial hollows simulating corrosion on a surface of a carbon steel plate mock-up covered with concrete simulating the embedded containment vessel plates were carried out with newly made ultrasonic transducers. We made newly low frequency (0.3 MHz and 0.5 MHz) surface shear horizontal (SH) wave transducers combined with three large active elements, which were equivalent to a 120mm width element. As a result of the experiments, the surface SH transducers could detect clearly the echo from the hollows with a depth of 9.5 mm and 19 mm at a distance of 1500mm from the transducers on the surface of the mock-up covered with concrete. Therefore, we evaluate that it is possible to detect the defects such as corrosion on the plates embedded in concrete with the newly made low frequency surface SH transducers with large elements. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem... (United States)


    ..., free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. 862.1055 Section 862.1055 Food and... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  17. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)


    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  18. De item-reeks van de cognitieve screening test vergeleken met die van de mini-mental state examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Deelman, B. G.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.


    The items of the ¿mini-mental state examination' (MMSE) and a Dutch dementia screening instrument, the ¿cognitive screening test' (CST), as well as the ¿geriatric mental status schedule' (GMS) and the ¿Dutch adult reading test' (DART), were administered to 4051 elderly people aged 65 to 84 years.

  19. Comparison among single-phase test, automated screening method and GC/MS for the traceability of ketamine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Visione


    CONCLUSION Following the law indications, ketamine is not searched: this limit does not make the authorities able to apply the penalties expected for road laws violations. The automation is essential to guarantee the reliability of toxicological screening tests, especially to medico-legal significance. This results highlight the absolutely necessity of the execution of the confirmation test, successively to screening analysis.

  20. How many cervical cancer cases can potentially be prevented using a more sensitive screening test at young age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten); C. Penning (Corine); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)


    textabstractThe human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test has higher sensitivity than cytology for cervical cancer screening. Therefore, cervical cancer cases that are missed by cytology could potentially be identified if we use primary HPV testing. Studies showed that HPV screening is the preferred

  1. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong


    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  2. Hybrid method for consistent model of the Pacific absolute plate motion and a test for inter-hotspot motion since 70Ma (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Wessel, P.; Sterling, A.; Kroenke, L.


    Inter-hotspot motion within the Pacific plate is one of the most controversial issues in recent geophysical studies. However, it is a fact that many geophysical and geological data including ages and positions of seamount chains in the Pacific plate can largely be explained by a simple model of absolute motion derived from assumptions of rigid plates and fixed hotspots. Therefore we take the stand that if a model of plate motion can explain the ages and positions of Pacific hotspot tracks, inter-hotspot motion would not be justified. On the other hand, if any discrepancies between the model and observations are found, the inter-hotspot motion may then be estimated from these discrepancies. To make an accurate model of the absolute motion of the Pacific plate, we combined two different approaches: the polygonal finite rotation method (PFRM) by Harada and Hamano (2000) and the hot-spotting technique developed by Wessel and Kroenke (1997). The PFRM can determine accurate positions of finite rotation poles for the Pacific plate if the present positions of hotspots are known. On the other hand, the hot-spotting technique can predict present positions of hotspots if the absolute plate motion is given. Therefore we can undertake iterative calculations using the two methods. This hybrid method enables us to determine accurate finite rotation poles for the Pacific plate solely from geometry of Hawaii, Louisville and Easter(Crough)-Line hotspot tracks from around 70 Ma to present. Information of ages can be independently assigned to the model after the poles and rotation angles are determined. We did not detect any inter-hotspot motion from the geometry of these Pacific hotspot tracks using this method. The Ar-Ar ages of Pacific seamounts including new age data of ODP Leg 197 are used to test the newly determined model of the Pacific plate motion. The ages of Hawaii, Louisville, Easter(Crough)-Line, and Cobb hotspot tracks are quite consistent with each other from 70 Ma to

  3. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening. (United States)

    Mioshi, Eneida; Dawson, Kate; Mitchell, Joanna; Arnold, Robert; Hodges, John R


    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments as evidenced by the popularity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). We aimed to validate an improved revision (the ACE-R) which incorporates five sub-domain scores (orientation/attention, memory, verbal fluency, language and visuo-spatial). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 241 subjects participated in this study (Alzheimer's disease=67, frontotemporal dementia=55, dementia of Lewy Bodies=20; mild cognitive impairment-MCI=36; controls=63). Reliability of the ACE-R was very good (alpha coefficient=0.8). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Scale was significant (r=-0.321, pcognitive dysfunction. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis


    phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. METHODS: Sixty-two adolescent female elite......BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular...... football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored...

  5. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær


    Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... up will be sent to the women (RCT). The intention is to ensure that all women will be notified about the test result, quickly, homogenously and in layman’s written language, still with the opportunity to contact or be contacted by the GP, if there is special needs. Furthermore, it is assumed that GP...

  6. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.


    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  7. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon


    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  8. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. (United States)

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T


    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  9. Primary care visit use after positive fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening. (United States)

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Jensen, Christopher D; Zhao, Wei K; Neugut, Alfred I; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tiro, Jasmin A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Corley, Douglas A


    For some patients, positive cancer screening test results can be a stressful experience that can affect future screening compliance and increase the use of health care services unrelated to medically indicated follow-up. Among 483,216 individuals aged 50 to 75 years who completed a fecal immunochemical test to screen for colorectal cancer at a large integrated health care setting between 2007 and 2011, the authors evaluated whether a positive test was associated with a net change in outpatient primary care visit use within the year after screening. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between test result group and net changes in primary care visits after fecal immunochemical testing. In the year after the fecal immunochemical test, use increased by 0.60 clinic visits for patients with true-positive results. The absolute change in visits was largest (3.00) among individuals with positive test results who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but significant small increases also were found for patients treated with polypectomy and who had no neoplasia (0.36) and those with a normal examination and no polypectomy performed (0.17). Groups of patients who demonstrated an increase in net visit use compared with the true-negative group included patients with true-positive results (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54-1.66), and positive groups with a colorectal cancer diagnosis (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.12-8.44), polypectomy/no neoplasia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.48), and normal examination/no polypectomy (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30). Given the large size of outreach programs, these small changes can cumulatively generate thousands of excess visits and have a substantial impact on total health care use. Therefore, these changes should be included in colorectal cancer screening cost models and their causes investigated further. Cancer 2017;123:3744-3753. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M


    Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace...... cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management....... Selection criteria Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Data collection and analysis Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form...

  11. Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, E


    Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.

  12. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy. (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y


    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC.

  13. In Vitro Screening of Environmental Chemicals for Targeted Testing Prioritization: The ToxCast Project


    Judson, Richard S.; Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Martin, Matthew T.; Mortensen, Holly M.; Reif, David M.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Shah, Imran; Richard, Ann M.; Dix, David J.


    Background Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches. Objectives This project aims to evaluate the use of in vitro assays for understanding the ty...

  14. Do Men and Women Need to Be Screened Differently with Fecal Immunochemical Testing? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. (United States)

    Meulen, Miriam P van der; Kapidzic, Atija; Leerdam, Monique E van; van der Steen, Alex; Kuipers, Ernst J; Spaander, Manon C W; de Koning, Harry J; Hol, Lieke; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris


    Background: Several studies suggest that test characteristics for the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) differ by gender, triggering a debate on whether men and women should be screened differently. We used the microsimulation model MISCAN-Colon to evaluate whether screening stratified by gender is cost-effective. Methods: We estimated gender-specific FIT characteristics based on first-round positivity and detection rates observed in a FIT screening pilot (CORERO-1). Subsequently, we used the model to estimate harms, benefits, and costs of 480 gender-specific FIT screening strategies and compared them with uniform screening. Results: Biennial FIT screening from ages 50 to 75 was less effective in women than men [35.7 vs. 49.0 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, respectively] at higher costs (€42,161 vs. -€5,471, respectively). However, the incremental QALYs gained and costs of annual screening compared with biennial screening were more similar for both genders (8.7 QALYs gained and €26,394 for women vs. 6.7 QALYs gained and €20,863 for men). Considering all evaluated screening strategies, optimal gender-based screening yielded at most 7% more QALYs gained than optimal uniform screening and even resulted in equal costs and QALYs gained from a willingness-to-pay threshold of €1,300. Conclusions: FIT screening is less effective in women, but the incremental cost-effectiveness is similar in men and women. Consequently, screening stratified by gender is not more cost-effective than uniform FIT screening. Impact: Our conclusions support the current policy of uniform FIT screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1328-36. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Screening for cognitive impairment in older individuals. Validation study of a computer-based test. (United States)

    Green, R C; Green, J; Harrison, J M; Kutner, M H


    This study examined the validity of a computer-based cognitive test that was recently designed to screen the elderly for cognitive impairment. Criterion-related validity was examined by comparing test scores of impaired patients and normal control subjects. Construct-related validity was computed through correlations between computer-based subtests and related conventional neuropsychological subtests. University center for memory disorders. Fifty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment by strict clinical criteria and 50 unimpaired, age- and education-matched control subjects. Control subjects were rigorously screened by neurological, neuropsychological, imaging, and electrophysiological criteria to identify and exclude individuals with occult abnormalities. Using a cut-off total score of 126, this computer-based instrument had a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.96. Using a prevalence estimate of 10%, predictive values, positive and negative, were 0.70 and 0.96, respectively. Computer-based subtests correlated significantly with conventional neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive domains. Thirteen (17.8%) of 73 volunteers with normal medical histories were excluded from the control group, with unsuspected abnormalities on standard neuropsychological tests, electroencephalograms, or magnetic resonance imaging scans. Computer-based testing is a valid screening methodology for the detection of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly, although this particular test has important limitations. Broader applications of computer-based testing will require extensive population-based validation. Future studies should recognize that normal control subjects without a history of disease who are typically used in validation studies may have a high incidence of unsuspected abnormalities on neurodiagnostic studies.

  16. Patient experience of CT colonography and colonoscopy after fecal occult blood test in a national screening programme


    Plumb, Andrew A.; Ghanouni, Alex; Rees, Colin J.; Hewitson, Paul; Nickerson, Claire; Wright, Suzanne; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve; von Wagner, Christian


    Objective To investigate patient experience of CT colonography (CTC) and colonoscopy in a national screening programme. Methods Retrospective analysis of patient experience postal questionnaires. We included screenees from a fecal occult blood test (FOBt) based screening programme, where CTC was performed when colonoscopy was incomplete or deemed unsuitable. We analyzed questionnaire responses concerning communication of test risks, test-related discomfort and post-test pain, as well as compl...

  17. Patient experience of CT colonography and colonoscopy after fecal occult blood test in a national screening programme


    Plumb, A. A.; Ghanouni, A.; Rees, C. J.; Hewitson, P.; Nickerson, C.; Wright, S.; Taylor, S. A.; Halligan, S.; von Wagner, C.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient experience of CT colonography (CTC) and colonoscopy in a national screening programme. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patient experience postal questionnaires. We included screenees from a fecal occult blood test (FOBt) based screening programme, where CTC was performed when colonoscopy was incomplete or deemed unsuitable. We analyzed questionnaire responses concerning communication of test risks, test-related discomfort and post-test pain, as well as com...

  18. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus From Organ Donors Despite Nucleic Acid Test Screening. (United States)

    Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A


    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Susana; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Nogueira, Antonio J.A.


    To assess soil quality and risk assessment, bioassays can be useful tools to gauge the potential toxicity of contaminants focusing on their bioavailable fraction. A rapid and sublethal avoidance behaviour test was used as a screening tool with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus, where organisms were exposed during 48 h to several chemicals (lindane, dimethoate and copper sulphate, for isopods and carbendazim, benomyl, dimethoate and copper sulphate for earthworms). Both species were also exposed to soils from an abandoned mine. For all bioassays a statistical approach was used to derive EC 50 values. Isopods and earthworms were able to perceive the presence of toxic compounds and escaping from contaminated to clean soil. Furthermore the behaviour parameter was equally or more sensitive then other sublethal parameters (e.g. reproduction or growth), expressing the advantages of Avoidance Behaviour Tests as screening tools in ERA. - Avoidance Behaviour Tests with earthworms and isopods can be used as screening tools in the evaluation of soil contamination

  20. Changes in screening behaviors and attitudes toward screening from pre-test genetic counseling to post-disclosure in Lynch syndrome families (United States)

    Burton-Chase, Allison M.; Hovick, Shelly R.; Peterson, Susan K.; Marani, Salma K.; Vernon, Sally W.; Amos, Christopher I.; Frazier, Marsha L.; Lynch, Patrick M.; Gritz, Ellen R.


    Purpose This study examined colonoscopy adherence and attitudes towards colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in individuals who underwent Lynch syndrome genetic counseling and testing. Methods We evaluated changes in colonoscopy adherence and CRC screening attitudes in 78 cancer-unaffected relatives of Lynch syndrome mutation carriers before pre-test genetic counseling (baseline) and at 6 and 12 months post-disclosure of test results (52 mutation-negative, 26 mutation-positive). Results While both groups were similar at baseline, at 12 months post-disclosure, a greater number of mutation-positive individuals had had a colonoscopy compared with mutation-negative individuals. From baseline to 12 months post-disclosure, the mutation-positive group demonstrated an increase in mean scores on measures of colonoscopy commitment, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits of CRC screening, and a decrease in mean scores for perceived barriers to CRC screening. Mean scores on colonoscopy commitment decreased from baseline to 6 months in the mutation-negative group. Conclusion Adherence to risk-appropriate guidelines for CRC surveillance improved after genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome. Mutation-positive individuals reported increasingly positive attitudes toward CRC screening after receiving genetic test results, potentially reinforcing longer term colonoscopy adherence. PMID:23414081

  1. Complex Approach to Thyroid Screening In Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Zh.Sh.; Musinov, D.R.; Vasikovsky, G.G.; Bobokhidze, D.A.; Zhigitaev, T.K.; Abisheva, G.N.


    It has been well documented that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive of organs, especially when exposure occurs during childhood. It is known as well that childhood exposure to radioactive iodine increases thyroid cancer risk. Conducting thyroid screening in regions adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) area is very important for medical examination, data management and thyroid dose reconstruction. Our experience of thyroid screening based on our screening projects in Kurchatov and several regions adjacent to STS (more than 4,000 screened patients) allowed to work out the most appropriate screening protocol. A retrospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment of the 7,271 patients with thyroid abnormalities in the Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan and study the histological staging of 7,271 surgically removed thyroid glands was preceded by our thyroid screening projects. Ours is the first study in the Semipalatinsk region that covers the period 1966-1998.Taking into account the onset of population effective doses during 1962, it was decided to distinguish 6 periods of observation. It is known that basic effective equivalent doses for the majority of the region's population were established by radioactive events in the period 1949-1962. This explains our focus on the year 1962, but thyroid dose reconstruction matter as well as other radiation related problems are still in the progress. We need to get the accurate dosimetry data. Selection of study subjects based on the appropriate criteria needed to be adjusted and clarified in accordance with the main goal of the project and radiation related information. All specialists involved in the thyroid screening project, data management, data analyses and interpretation of the results must be trained and must be highly qualified specialists in this field of science and practice. The experiences in Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Chernobyl, and discussions with

  2. The King-Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football. (United States)

    Leong, Danielle F; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L; Evans, Greg; Gimre, Matthew; Watt, David


    Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a result of neurologic sequelae seen among athletes, highlighting the need for a validated, rapid screening tool. The King-Devick (K-D) test requires vision, eye movements, language function and attention in order to perform and has been proposed as a promising tool for assessment of concussion. We investigated the K-D test as a sideline screening tool in a collegiate cohort to determine the effect of concussion. Athletes (n=127, mean age 19.6±1.2 years) from the Wheaton College football and men's and women's basketball teams underwent baseline K-D testing at pre-season physicals for the 2012-2013 season. K-D testing was administered immediately on the sidelines for football players with suspected head injury during regular games and changes compared to baseline were determined. Post-season testing was also performed to compare non-concussed athletes' test performance. Concussed athletes (n=11) displayed sideline K-D scores that were significantly higher (worse) than baseline (36.5±5.6s vs. 31.3±4.5s, pWilcoxon signed-rank test). Post-season testing demonstrated improvement of scores and was consistent with known learning effects (35.1±5.2s vs. 34.4±5.0s, pWilcoxon signed-rank test). Test-retest reliability was analyzed between baseline and post-season administrations of the K-D test resulting in high levels of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.95 [95% Confidence Interval 0.85-1.05]). The data show worsening of K-D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K-D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of rest time after Li plating on safety behavior—ARC tests with commercial high-energy 18650 Li-ion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret


    During charging at low temperatures, metallic Lithium can be deposited on the surface of graphite anodes of Li-ion cells. This Li plating does not only lead to fast capacity fade, it can also impair the safety behavior. The present study observes the effect of rest periods between Li plating and subsequent accelerated rate calorimetry (ARC) tests. As an example, commercial 3.25 Ah 18650-type cells with graphite anodes and NCA cathodes are cycled at 0 °C to provoke Li plating. It is found that the rest period at 25 °C between Li plating and the ARC tests has a significant influence on the onset temperature of exothermic reactions (T SH ), the onset temperature of thermal runaway (T TR ), the maximum temperature, the self-heating rate, and on damage patterns of 18650 cells. The results are discussed in terms of chemical intercalation of Li plating into adjacent graphite particles during the rest period. The exponential increase of capacity recovery and T SH as a function of time suggests a reaction of 1st order for the relaxation process.

  4. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease with the clock drawing test. (United States)

    Terwindt, Paul W; Hubers, Anna A M; Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Rose C; van Duijn, Erik


    The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of the clock drawing test as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD) mutation carriers. The performance of the clock drawing test was assessed in 65 mutation carriers using the Shulman and the Freund scoring systems. The mini-mental state examination, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, and the Stroop tests were used as comparisons for the evaluation of cognitive functioning. Correlations of the clock drawing test with various cognitive tests (convergent validity), neuropsychiatric characteristics (divergent validity) and clinical characteristics were analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Receiver-operator characteristic analyses were performed for the clock drawing test against both the mini-mental state examination and against a composite variable for executive cognitive functioning to assess optimal cut-off scores. Inter-rater reliability was high for both the Shulman and Freund scoring systems (ICC = 0.95 and ICC = 0.90 respectively). The clock drawing tests showed moderate to high correlations with the composite variable for executive cognitive functioning (mean ρ = 0.75) and weaker correlations with the mini-mental state examination (mean ρ = 0.62). Mean sensitivity of the clock drawing tests was 0.82 and mean specificity was 0.79, whereas the mean positive predictive value was 0.66 and the mean negative predictive value was 0.87. The clock drawing test is a suitable screening instrument for cognitive dysfunction in HD, because it was shown to be accurate, particularly so with respect to executive cognitive functioning, and is easy and quick to use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis


    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  6. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised as a potential screening test for elderly drivers. (United States)

    Ferreira, Inês S; Simões, Mário R; Marôco, João


    Considerable research has shown that neuropsychological tests are predictive of real-world driving ability. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a brief cognitive test that has been commonly used in the assessment of older drivers. However, this test has inherent problems that limit its validity to evaluate cognitive abilities related to driving and to screen for driving impairments in non-demented people. Therefore, it is useful to test new screening instruments that may predict potential unsafe drivers who require an in-depth neuropsychological assessment in a specialised centre. To date, the utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) as an indicator of driving ability has not been established. In the current study, fifty older drivers (mean age=73.1 years) who were referred for a psychological assessment, the protocol of which included the ACE-R, underwent an on-road driving test. Using linear discriminant analyses, the results highlighted the higher classification accuracy of the ACE-R compared to the MMSE score, particularly for detecting unsafe drivers. Measures of visuospatial and executive functions, which are not incorporated in the MMSE score, had an incremental value in the prediction of driving ability. This emerging brief cognitive test may warrant additional study for use in the fitness to drive assessment of older adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats. (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela


    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  8. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine


    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  9. Evaluation of the Lumipulse G TP-N Chemiluminescent Immunoassay as a Syphilis Screening Test. (United States)

    Ortiz, Daniel A; Loeffelholz, Michael J


    A syphilis diagnosis is often aided by the detection of treponemal and nontreponemal antibodies. Automated treponemal antibody detection systems enable high-volume clinical laboratories to perform syphilis screening at a faster pace with lower labor costs. The Lumipulse G TP-N chemiluminescent immunoassay is an automated system that qualitatively detects IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum antigens in human serum and plasma. To assess performance characteristics and workflow efficiency, the Lumipulse G TP-N assay was compared to the Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG multiplex flow immunoassay. Among the 4,134 routine and HIV samples tested by the two automated assays, the percentage of agreement was excellent at 99.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.6% to 99.2%; κ, 0.89), with the Lumipulse G TP-N having a shorter time to first and subsequent results. All specimens with reactive syphilis screening results were further tested by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP·PA) testing ( n = 231). The results from the RPR-reactive samples ( n = 82) showed complete concordance with the two automated assays, while the TP·PA assay displayed some discrepancies. The positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) between the TP·PA test and the Lumipulse G TP-N test were 98.9% and 77.3%, respectively. The Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG immunoassay displayed a similar PPA (100%) but a substantially lower NPA (15.9%). Patient chart reviews of discrepant results suggested that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay produced 27 fewer falsely reactive results and can reduce the amount of additional confirmatory RPR and TP·PA testing needed. The analogous performance characteristics of the two automated systems indicate that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay is suitable for high-throughput syphilis screening. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. alpha2-Adrenergic agonists antagonise the anxiolytic-like effect of antidepressants in the four-plate test in mice. (United States)

    Massé, Fabienne; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel


    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) has been reported to be efficient in anxiety disorders. Some animal models have demonstrated an anxiolytic-like effect following acute administration, however, it is not yet known how noradrenergic receptors are implicated in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants (ADs) in anxiety. The effects of two alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (clonidine, guanabenz) on anxiolytic-like effect of two SSRIs (paroxetine and citalopram) and two SNRIs (venlafaxine and milnacipran) were evaluated in the four-plate test (FPT) in mice. Paroxetine (4 mg/kg), citalopram (8 mg/kg), venlafaxine (8 mg/kg), and milnacipran (8 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) increased the number of punishments accepted by mice in the FPT. Clonidine (0.0039-0.5 mg/kg) and guanabenz (0.03-0.5mg/kg) had no effect on the number of punishments accepted by mice. Clonidine (0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg) and guanabenz (0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg) (i.p. -45 min) reversed the anti-punishment effect of paroxetine, citalopram, venlafaxine and milnacipran (i.p. -30 min). But if the antidepressants are administered 45 min before the test and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists 30 min before the test, alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists failed to alter the anti-punishment effect of antidepressants. The results of this present study indicate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists antagonise the anxiolytic-like effect of antidepressants in mice when they are administered 15 min before the administration of antidepressant suggesting a close inter-regulation between noradrenergic and serotoninergic system in the mechanism of SSRIs and SNRIs in anxiety-like behaviour.

  11. Flow induced deformation and collapse of a thin rectangular plate with application to the Engineering Test Reactor nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.D.


    This work examines a single flat fuel plate bounded by two channels and determines static plate deflections, resultant forces and bending stresses due to pressure differential and hydrodynamic loadings. The classical then reactangular plate equations are used to model the fuel plate. These equations contain as an input the hydrodynamic loading function for modeling the fluid-structural interaction. Two models of the channel flow are developed. One assumes the accelerating potential core flow is laminar with developing two-dimensional laminar boundary layers being formed on the channel walls. The Schlichting entry length solution for developing laminar flow is found to be valid the entire length of the channel. The second model assumes the core flow is fully-developed turbulent the entire length of the channel. Hydrodynamic loading functions are developed for both flow models containing parameters for fluid density, fluid velocity, Reynolds number and channel and plate dimensions. Hence the effects of each parameter can be examined independently. A criterion is developed for predicting ETR fuel plate collapse at high channel flow velocities, 1067 cm/s (420 in/sec) (R/sub e/ = 60,000). The criterion predicts that in order to prevent ETR plate collapse the inlet velocities between channels must not differ by more than 2%

  12. [Utilization of self-sampling kits for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening - pilot study]. (United States)

    Ondryášová, H; Koudeláková, V; Drábek, J; Vaněk, P; Slavkovský, R; Hajdúch, M


    To get initial experience with alternative sampling (self-sampling) for HPV testing as the means of cervical cancer screening program. Original work. Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc. Based on expression of interest, 215 self-sampling kits were posted to women. Evalyn(®) Brush Vaginal swabs obtained by self-sampling were analyzed for the presence of HPV infection by Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche) followed by genotyping using PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening (Greiner Bio-One). Sixty women randomly chosen from our sample were sent a questionnaire focused on their experience with self-sampling. One hundred seventy-four of 215 (81%) distributed self-sampling devices have been delivered to analysis. All cervicovaginal swabs were sampled correctly and it was possible to analyze them by Cobas 4800 HPV test. Similarly, 98% (171/174) samples were analyzable by PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening.One hundred twenty-five (72%) of 174 tested samples were HPV negative. Low risk HPV infection was detected only in 7 samples (4%), and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection was present in 42 samples (24%). The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes were HPV16 (11/42; 26%) and HPV53 (6/42; 14%). HrHPV co-infection was detected in 10 cases, in 5 of them lrHPV infection was find also.Of the 60 questionnaires, 48 (80%) were returned. From this group, 47 (98%) women rated their experience with self-sampling device as good to excellent. User manual of self-sampling device was considered good to excellent by all women (100%). All women also rated the convenience of self-sampling device using as good to excellent. As expected, most of the women (n = 42 [88%]) preferred self-sampling to physician sampling. Cervicovaginal self-sampling leads to valid results of HPV screening using two molecular genetics methods and was accepted by Czech women very well. The self-sampling as an opportunity to participate in cervical cancer

  13. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test. (United States)

    Trongsakul, Supaporn; Lambert, Rod; Clark, Allan; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Cross, Jane


    Cognitive impairment, such as dementia, has emerged as the leading public health problem among the elderly. Therefore, early detection of the disorder and providing appropriate healthcare and management is important, particularly, for the patients with comorbid diabetes who require long-term treatment strategies. In Thailand, because of a large number of elderly patients with diabetes, and time constraints in primary care settings, a short and effective cognitive screening test is required. The Mini-Cog is a short and valid cognitive screening test that was specifically designed for use in primary care settings. The present study translated the English language version into a Thai language version, and then measured the interrater reliability and concurrent validity. The processes of cross-language translation were carried out to develop a Thai language version of the Mini-Cog. A total of 21 Thai older adults with type 2 diabetes with a mean aged of 69 ± 7 years were recruited into a study investigating the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Mini-Cog Thai version in one primary care center in Thailand. The Mini-Cog Thai version showed a good interrater reliability (K = 0.80, P validity (r = 0.47, P = 0.007, 95% CI 0.37,0.55) with the Mini-Mental State Examination Thai 2002. The findings show that the Thai version of the Mini-Cog is a reliable, performance-based tool in the screening for cognitive function in primary care settings in Thailand. It is recommended that it could be used as a new cognitive screening test for the aging population in the Thai community. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia. (United States)

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R


    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The minimum test battery to screen for binocular vision anomalies: report 3 of the BAND study. (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; George, Ronnie; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar


    This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted. In the receiver operating characteristic phase of the study, children between nine and 17 years of age were screened in two schools in the rural arm using the minimum test battery, and the prevalence estimates with the minimum test battery were found. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that near point of convergence with penlight and red filter (> 7.5 cm), monocular accommodative facility ( 1.25 prism dioptres) were significant factors with cut-off values for best sensitivity and specificity. This minimum test battery was applied to a cohort of 305 children. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 12.7 (two) years with 121 males and 184 females. Using the minimum battery of tests obtained through the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the prevalence of NSBVAs was found to be 26 per cent. Near point of convergence with penlight and red filter > 10 cm was found to have the highest sensitivity (80 per cent) and specificity (73 per cent) for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. For the diagnosis of accommodative infacility, monocular accommodative facility with a cut-off of less than seven cycles per minute was the best predictor for screening (92 per cent sensitivity and 90 per cent specificity). The minimum test battery of near point of convergence with penlight and red filter, difference between distance and near

  16. Armor Plate Ballistic Testing (United States)


    inclusi ~ve 1 75 mm AP m72 Over 3 1/41." to 4." inclusive 90 AP477 Over 4"to řŕ inclusives 𔃻 8.20. ’W+ +1 ~ 1 U 1 ¶ W1 W" W ’ "•’• ’• 1 Ip.W, ’rTI

  17. Activity Tests of Macro-Meso Porous Catalysts over Metal Foam Plate for Steam Reforming of Bio-Ethanol. (United States)

    Park, No-Kuk; Jeong, Yong Han; Kang, Misook; Lee, Tae Jin


    The catalytic activity of a macro-mesoporous catalyst coated on a metal foam plate in the reforming of bio-ethanol to synthesis gas was investigated. The catalysts were prepared by coating a support with a noble metal and transition metal. The catalytic activity for the production of synthetic gas by the reforming of bio-ethanol was compared according to the support material, reaction temperature, and steam/carbon ratio. The catalysts coated on the metal foams were prepared using a template method, in which macro-pores and meso-pores were formed by mixing polymer beads. In particular, the thermodynamic equilibrium composition of bio-ethanol reforming with the reaction temperature and steam/carbon ratio to produce synthetic gas was examined using the HSC (Enthalpy-Entropy-Heat capacity) chemistry program in this study. The composition of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the reformate gas produced by steam reforming over the Rh/Ni-Ce-Zr/Al2O3-based pellet type catalysts and metal foam catalysts that had been coated with the Rh/Al-Ce-Zr-based catalysts was investigated by experimental activity tests. The activity of the metal foam catalyst was higher than that of the pellet type catalyst.

  18. Test of freonless operation of resistive plate chambers with glass electrodes--1 mm gas gap vs 2 mm gas gap

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaue, H; Takahashi, T; Teramoto, Y


    Non-freon gas mixtures (Ar/iso-C sub 4 H sub 1 sub 0) were tested as the chamber gas for 1 and 2 mm gas gap Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with float glass as the resistive electrodes, operated in the streamer mode. With the narrower (1 mm) gas gap, streamer charge is reduced (approx 1/3), which reduces the dead time (and dead area), associated with each streamer, improving the detection efficiency. The best performance was obtained for two cases: Ar/iso-C sub 4 H sub 1 sub 0 =50/50 and 60/40. For the 50/50 mixture, a detection efficiency of better than 98% was obtained for the 1 mm gap RPC, while the efficiency was 95% for the 2 mm gap RPC, each operated as a double-gap RPC. The measured time resolution (rms) was 1.45+-0.05 (2.52+-0.09) ns for the 1 (2) mm gap RPC for the 50/50 mixture.

  19. Implementation of the non-destructive ultrasound testing by immersion through the transmission technique, applied to the quality control of nuclear fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Jofre, David Christian


    Within the framework of global development, which seeks to reduce the enrichment of U 235 in nuclear fuels for research reactors, the Fuel Elements Plant (PEC) of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) has worked with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL-USA), for the fabrication of high density fuel plates based on the dispersion of Uranium-Molybdenum alloy powders (UMo), which are subjected to inspections and tests to qualify as a compliant product for use in nuclear research reactors. It is in this matter where the Non Destructive Test (NDT) of immersion ultrasound used in both facilities differs in its acceptance criteria, when is used different testing techniques; On the one hand, the PEC uses the pulse-echo technique, while the INL uses the transmission technique. Therefore, the present work is focused on the implementation of the ultrasound by immersion using the transmission technique. During the development of the work, the physical and virtual configuration of the ultrasound equipment was possible and elaborate an operation procedure, which allows to inspect through this technique, a series of fuel plates based on UMo and U 3 Si 2 powders, with different characteristics. The results allow to characterize the signals obtained in fuel plates according to the nuclear fuel material used. There is an inverse relationship between the uranium load per unit volume (uranium density, gU/cm 3 ) used in the fuel plate and the transmittance of the ultrasonic beam through the areas where there is nuclear fuel material (meat); the effect produced by a dispersed combustible material is observed and it is possible to identify discontinuities that may be present in the fuel plate. Finally, an inspection technical instruction for U 3 Si 2 fuel plates is elaborated, where acceptance and rejection criteria are defined

  20. Is the Screening Test of the French Version of the Dementia Quality of Life Questionnaire Indispensable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wolak


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the screening questions in the French version of the Dementia Quality of Life (DQoL questionnaire. To assess the psychometric properties of the French DQoL, 155 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia were recruited. Here, we compared the psychometric properties of the instrument between patients who passed the screening test (n = 109 and the whole study population (n = 155. The French DQoL version showed a good test-retest reliability at a 2-week interval (0.95 ≤ intraclass correlation coefficients ≤ 1.0, and an average internal consistency (0.58 ≤ Cronbach’s α ≤ 0.87 for the 2 study groups. Significant differences were observed in the 2 groups for 4 dimensions of the DQoL regarding dementia severity (Cornell scale, and for 3 dimensions evaluating depression (MMSE. Convergent validity with the Duke Health Profile revealed many significant correlations between dimensions not only in the 109 patients, but also in the whole study population. Our study demonstrated that patients who failed the screening procedure nonetheless seemed to be able to answer the DQoL questionnaire, the whole study group showing acceptable psychometric properties.

  1. Elevated serum CA 19-9 at screening tests: underlying conditions and role of abdominopelvic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yang [University of Louisville, Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging Research Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bundang CHA Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)


    To investigate underlying conditions of patients with elevated CA 19-9 at screening tests and to evaluate diagnostic performance of abdominopelvic CT. One hundred and thirteen patients with elevated CA 19-9 (>37 U/ml) who underwent abdominopelvic CT in a screening program were selected. Underlying conditions were determined by reviewing all available data and follow-up records. Patients were categorized into malignancy, benign, and normal/non-related disease groups. Their mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity of CT for detecting underlying conditions of elevated CA 19-9 was analysed. Seventeen patients (17/113, 15 %) had 17 elevated CA 19-9-related malignancies, and 55 patients (55/113, 48.7 %) had 70 benign diseases. Mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml in the malignancy group were significantly higher than in the two other groups. CT detected all except one malignant lesion with a detection sensitivity of 94.1 % (16/17). Of 70 CA 19-9-related benign diseases, CT detected 34 benign diseases (48.6 %) providing an alternative diagnosis for elevated CA 19-9. Abdominopelvic CT is not only useful in detecting malignancies, but can also diagnose alternative benign causes of elevated CA 19-9 in asymptomatic screening tests. (orig.)

  2. Type 2 Diabetes Screening Test by Means of a Pulse Oximeter. (United States)

    Moreno, Enrique Monte; Lujan, Maria Jose Anyo; Rusinol, Montse Torrres; Fernandez, Paqui Juarez; Manrique, Pilar Nunez; Trivino, Cristina Aragon; Miquel, Magda Pedrosa; Rodriguez, Marife Alvarez; Burguillos, M Jose Gonzalez


    In this paper, we propose a method for screening for the presence of type 2 diabetes by means of the signal obtained from a pulse oximeter. The screening system consists of two parts: the first analyzes the signal obtained from the pulse oximeter, and the second consists of a machine-learning module. The system consists of a front end that extracts a set of features form the pulse oximeter signal. These features are based on physiological considerations. The set of features were the input of a machine-learning algorithm that determined the class of the input sample, i.e., whether the subject had diabetes or not. The machine-learning algorithms were random forests, gradient boosting, and linear discriminant analysis as benchmark. The system was tested on a database of [Formula: see text] subjects (two samples per subject) collected from five community health centers. The mean receiver operating characteristic area found was [Formula: see text]% (median value [Formula: see text]% and range [Formula: see text]%), with a specificity =  [Formula: see text]% for a threshold that gave a sensitivity = [Formula: see text]%. We present a screening method for detecting diabetes that has a performance comparable to the glycated haemoglobin (haemoglobin A1c HbA1c) test, does not require blood extraction, and yields results in less than 5 min.

  3. A method of multi-crack shape identification from eddy current testing signals of steam generator tubes including support plates as noise sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Endo, Hisashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya


    This paper deals with identifying multiple cracks from eddy current testing (ECT) signals obtained in a steam generator tube with a support plate and deposits. Assume two-dimensionally scanned ECT signals to be a picture image, then the signal processing by a multi-frequency technique eliminates noise caused by the support plate and deposits. A template matching with help of genetic algorithms detects number and positions of cracks from the image after the signal processing. Inverse analysis estimates the crack profile based on the predicted position of cracks. The number and positions of the cracks are sufficiently well predicted. Crack shape reconstructions are achieved with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. (author)

  4. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J J Berm

    Full Text Available Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature.A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies' overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES instrument.We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing.Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests' efficacy remains of utmost importance.

  5. A virtual reality test battery for assessment and screening of spatial neglect. (United States)

    Fordell, H; Bodin, K; Bucht, G; Malm, J


    There is a need for improved screening methods for spatial neglect. To construct a VR-test battery and evaluate its accuracy and usability in patients with acute stroke. VR-DiSTRO consists of a standard desktop computer, a CRT monitor and eye shutter stereoscopic glasses, a force feedback interface, and software, developed to create an interactive and immersive 3D experience. VR-tests were developed and validated to the conventional Star Cancellation test, Line bisection, Baking Tray Task (BTT), and Visual Extinction test. A construct validation to The Rivermead Behavioral Inattention Test, used as criterion of visuospatial neglect, was made. Usability was assessed according to ISO 9241-11. Thirty-one patients with stroke were included, 9/31 patients had neglect. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 82% for the VR-DiSTRO to correctly identify neglect. VR-BTT and VR-Extinction had the highest correlation (r² = 0.64 and 0.78), as well as high sensitivity and specificity. The kappa values describing the agreement between traditional neglect tests and the corresponding virtual reality test were between 0.47-0.85. Usability was assessed by a questionnaire; 77% reported that the VR-DiSTRO was 'easy' to use. Eighty-eight percent reported that they felt 'focused', 'pleased' or 'alert'. No patient had adverse symptoms. The test session took 15 min. The VR-DiSTRO quickly and with a high accuracy identified visuospatial neglect in patients with stroke in this construct validation. The usability among elderly patients with stroke was high. This VR-test battery has the potential to become an important screening instrument for neglect and a valuable adjunct to the neuropsychological assessment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records. (United States)

    Press, Anne; DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne; Conigliaro, Joseph


    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient's visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade "1" for the statement, "I would like to use this system frequently" during the first round of testing but a "5" during the second round of analysis. The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size of MOAs that participated. The results may have been biased to

  7. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.


    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  8. Diagnostic dilemma of the single screening test used in the diagnosis of syphilis in Nepal. (United States)

    Dumre, S P; Shakya, G; Acharya, D; Malla, S; Adhikari, N


    Syphilis screening by the nontreponemal rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is not usually followed up by specific treponemal tests in most of the resource poor healthcare settings of Nepal. We analyzed serum specimens of 504 suspected syphilis cases at the immunology department of the national reference laboratory in Nepal during 2007-2009 using RPR test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). In overall, 35.7% were positive by both methods (combination) while 13.1% were RPR positive and TPHA negative, 8.7% were positive by TPHA only and 42.5% were negative by both methods. Among the RPR reactive (n = 246), 73.2% were positive by TPHA. Non-specific agglutination in RPR testing was relatively higher (26.8%) compared to TPHA (19.6%). Although TPHA was found more specific than RPR test, either of the single tests produced inaccurate diagnosis. Since the single RPR testing for syphilis may yield false positive results, specific treponemal test should be routinely used as confirmatory test to rule out false RPR positive cases. More attention needs to be paid on formulation of strict policy on the implementation of the existing guidelines throughout the country to prevent misdiagnosis in syphilis with the use of single RPR test.

  9. Migration of mineral oil from party plates of recycled paperboard into foods: 1. Is recycled paperboard fit for the purpose? 2. Adequate testing procedure. (United States)

    Dima, Giovanna; Verzera, Antonella; Grob, Koni


    Party plates made of recycled paperboard with a polyolefin film on the food contact surface (more often polypropylene than polyethylene) were tested for migration of mineral oil into various foods applying reasonable worst case conditions. The worst case was identified as a slice of fried meat placed onto the plate while hot and allowed to cool for 1 h. As it caused the acceptable daily intake (ADI) specified by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) to be exceeded, it is concluded that recycled paperboard is generally acceptable for party plates only when separated from the food by a functional barrier. Migration data obtained with oil as simulant at 70°C was compared to the migration into foods. A contact time of 30 min was found to reasonably cover the worst case determined in food.

  10. Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci. (United States)

    Stepanović, Srdjan; Vuković, Dragana; Hola, Veronika; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Djukić, Slobodanka; Cirković, Ivana; Ruzicka, Filip


    The details of all steps involved in the quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates are described. The presented protocol incorporates information on assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci, gained both by direct experience as well as by analysis of methods for assaying biofilm production. The obtained results should simplify quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates, and make it more reliable and comparable among different laboratories.

  11. Screening health care workers with interferon-γ release assay versus tuberculin skin test: impact on costs and adherence to testing (the SWITCH study). (United States)

    Wrighton-Smith, Peter; Sneed, Laurie; Humphrey, Frances; Tao, Xuguang; Bernacki, Edward


    To determine the price point at which an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) is less costly than a tuberculin skin test (TST) for health care employee tuberculosis screening. A multidecision tree-based cost model incorporating inputs gathered from time-motion studies and parallel testing by IGRA and TST was conducted in a subset of our employees. Administering a TST testing program costs $73.20 per person screened, $90.80 per new hire, and $63.42 per annual screen. Use of an IGRA for employee health testing is cost saving at an IGRA test cost of $54.83 or less per test and resulted in higher completion rates because of the elimination of the need for a second visit to interpret the TST. Using an IGRA for employee health screening can be an institutional cost saving and results in higher compliance rates.

  12. Preseason Functional Movement Screen Component Tests Predict Severe Contact Injuries in Professional Rugby Union Players. (United States)

    Tee, Jason C; Klingbiel, Jannie F G; Collins, Robert; Lambert, Mike I; Coopoo, Yoga


    Tee, JC, Klingbiel, JFG, Collins, R, Lambert, MI, and Coopoo, Y. Preseason Functional Movement Screen component tests predict severe contact injuries in professional rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3194-3203, 2016-Rugby union is a collision sport with a relatively high risk of injury. The ability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) or its component tests to predict the occurrence of severe (≥28 days) injuries in professional players was assessed. Ninety FMS test observations from 62 players across 4 different time periods were compared with severe injuries sustained during 6 months after FMS testing. Mean composite FMS scores were significantly lower in players who sustained severe injury (injured 13.2 ± 1.5 vs. noninjured 14.5 ± 1.4, Effect Size = 0.83, large) because of differences in in-line lunge (ILL) and active straight leg raise scores (ASLR). Receiver-operated characteristic curves and 2 × 2 contingency tables were used to determine that ASLR (cut-off 2/3) was the injury predictor with the greatest sensitivity (0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-1.0). Adding the ILL in combination with ASLR (ILL + ASLR) improved the specificity of the injury prediction model (ASLR specificity = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.18-0.43 vs. ASLR + ILL specificity = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.66, p ≤ 0.05). Further analysis was performed to determine whether FMS tests could predict contact and noncontact injuries. The FMS composite score and various combinations of component tests (deep squat [DS] + ILL, ILL + ASLR, and DS + ILL + ASLR) were all significant predictors of contact injury. The FMS composite score also predicted noncontact injury, but no component test or combination thereof produced a similar result. These findings indicate that low scores on various FMS component tests are risk factors for injury in professional rugby players.

  13. The usefulness of esophagography as a screening test for laryngopharyngeal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Chung, Phil Sang


    There are many articles about the role of barium esophagography for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are only rare articles reporting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of performing esophagography with the water-siphon test as an initial screening test for patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux. From October 2002 to December 2004, barium esophagography with the water-siphon test was performed for 707 patients who had the typical symptoms and telescopic findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux. The results of the 707 esophagograms (the group with laryngopharyngeal reflux) were compared with those of 122 patients who were confirmed as having gastroesophageal reflux upon performing pH-metry (the group with gastroesophageal reflux) and the 324 patients without laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms (the control group). The results of the water-siphon test were classified into normal, mild, moderate and severe degrees of gastroesophageal reflux. On the water-siphon test for the laryngopharyneal reflux group patients, 71 patients had normal (10.0%), 207 had mild (29.2%), 201 had moderate (28.4%) and 228 had severe (32.2%) degrees of reflux. The positive rates of the water-siphon test were 90.0%, 89.3% and 54.6% for the groups with laryngopharyngeal reflux, gastroesophageal reflux and the control group, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between the group with laryngopharyngeal reflux and the control group, and between the group with gastroesophageal reflux and the control group, respectively (ρ < 0.05). Esophagography with the water-siphon test is useful as an initial screening test for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease

  14. Budget impact analysis of chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan. (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Saito, Chie; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Konta, Tsuneo; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kimura, Kenjiro; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi


    Our recently published cost-effectiveness study on chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan evaluated the use of dipstick test, serum creatinine (Cr) assay or both in specific health checkup (SHC). Mandating the use of serum Cr assay additionally, or the continuation of current policy mandating dipstick test only was found cost-effective. This study aims to examine the affordability of previously suggested reforms. Budget impact analysis was conducted assuming the economic model would be good for 15 years and applying a population projection. Costs expended by social insurers without discounting were counted as budgets. Annual budget impacts of mass screening compared with do-nothing scenario were calculated as ¥79-¥-1,067 million for dipstick test only, ¥2,505-¥9,235 million for serum Cr assay only and ¥2,517-¥9,251 million for the use of both during a 15-year period. Annual budget impacts associated with the reforms were calculated as ¥975-¥4,129 million for mandating serum Cr assay in addition to the currently used mandatory dipstick test, and ¥963-¥4,113 million for mandating serum Cr assay only and abandoning dipstick test. Estimated values associated with the reform from ¥963-¥4,129 million per year over 15 years are considerable amounts of money under limited resources. The most impressive finding of this study is the decreasing additional expenditures in dipstick test only scenario. This suggests that current policy which mandates dipstick test only would contain medical care expenditure.

  15. The usefulness of esophagography as a screening test for laryngopharyngeal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Chung, Phil Sang [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    There are many articles about the role of barium esophagography for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are only rare articles reporting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of performing esophagography with the water-siphon test as an initial screening test for patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux. From October 2002 to December 2004, barium esophagography with the water-siphon test was performed for 707 patients who had the typical symptoms and telescopic findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux. The results of the 707 esophagograms (the group with laryngopharyngeal reflux) were compared with those of 122 patients who were confirmed as having gastroesophageal reflux upon performing pH-metry (the group with gastroesophageal reflux) and the 324 patients without laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms (the control group). The results of the water-siphon test were classified into normal, mild, moderate and severe degrees of gastroesophageal reflux. On the water-siphon test for the laryngopharyneal reflux group patients, 71 patients had normal (10.0%), 207 had mild (29.2%), 201 had moderate (28.4%) and 228 had severe (32.2%) degrees of reflux. The positive rates of the water-siphon test were 90.0%, 89.3% and 54.6% for the groups with laryngopharyngeal reflux, gastroesophageal reflux and the control group, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between the group with laryngopharyngeal reflux and the control group, and between the group with gastroesophageal reflux and the control group, respectively ({rho} < 0.05). Esophagography with the water-siphon test is useful as an initial screening test for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

  16. Implementation of a Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing and Modification. (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A


    The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F3,1276=25.44, PUsability testing revealed several critical

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the optimal threshold of an automated immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening: performances of immunochemical colorectal cancer screening. (United States)

    Berchi, Célia; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Launoy, Guy


    Most industrialized countries, including France, have undertaken to generalize colorectal cancer screening using guaiac fecal occult blood tests (G-FOBT). However, recent researches demonstrate that immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (I-FOBT) are more effective than G-FOBT. Moreover, new generation I-FOBT benefits from a quantitative reading technique allowing the positivity threshold to be chosen, hence offering the best balance between effectiveness and cost. We aimed at comparing the cost and the clinical performance of one round of screening using I-FOBT at different positivity thresholds to those obtained with G-FOBT to determine the optimal cut-off for I-FOBT. Data were derived from an experiment conducted from June 2004 to December 2005 in Calvados (France) where 20,322 inhabitants aged 50-74 years performed both I-FOBT and G-FOBT. Clinical performance was assessed by the number of advanced tumors screened, including large adenomas and cancers. Costs were assessed by the French Social Security Board and included only direct costs. Screening using I-FOBT resulted in better health outcomes and lower costs than screening using G-FOBT for thresholds comprised between 75 and 93 ng/ml. I-FOBT at 55 ng/ml also offers a satisfactory alternative to G-FOBT, because it is 1.8-fold more effective than G-FOBT, without increasing the number of unnecessary colonoscopies, and at an extra cost of 2,519 euros per advanced tumor screened. The use of an automated I-FOBT at 75 ng/ml would guarantee more efficient screening than currently used G-FOBT. Health authorities in industrialized countries should consider the replacement of G-FOBT by an automated I-FOBT test in the near future.

  18. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students. (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel


    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  19. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic. (United States)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild


    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening test developed to detect dementia. It has been validated in several countries. Validation studies have predominantly included patients with various degrees of dementia and healthy controls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. 78 patients with mild AD (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. The cut-off points for optimal trade-off between sensitivity and specificity for ACE were 85/86 (sensitivity 0.99, specificity 0.94). When these cut-off points were applied to the group of depressive patients, the specificity dropped to 0.64, indicating a great overlap in individual test scores for demented and depressed patients. The optimal cut-off points for ACE found in this Danish study were close to what is reported in most other European studies. The great overlap in ACE scores for demented and depressed patients emphasize that test scores must be interpreted with great caution when used in diagnostic work-up.

  20. Genetic screening and testing in an episode-based payment model: preserving patient autonomy. (United States)

    Sutherland, Sharon; Farrell, Ruth M; Lockwood, Charles


    The State of Ohio is implementing an episode-based payment model for perinatal care. All costs of care will be tabulated for each live birth and assigned to the delivering provider, creating a three-tiered model for reimbursement for care. Providers will be reimbursed as usual for care that is average in cost and quality, while instituting rewards or penalties for those outside the expected range in either domain. There are few exclusions, and all methods of genetic screening and diagnostic testing are included in the episode cost calculation as proposed. Prenatal ultrasonography, genetic screening, and diagnostic testing are critical components of the delivery of high-quality, evidence-based prenatal care. These tests provide pregnant women with key information about the pregnancy, which, in turn, allows them to work closely with their health care provider to determine optimal prenatal care. The concepts of informed consent and decision-making, cornerstones of the ethical practice of medicine, are founded on the principles of autonomy and respect for persons. These principles recognize that patients' rights to make choices and take actions are based on their personal beliefs and values. Given the personal nature of such decisions, it is critical that patients have unbarred access to prenatal genetic tests if they elect to use them as part of their prenatal care. The proposed restructuring of reimbursement creates a clear conflict between patient autonomy and physician financial incentives.

  1. Performance of the Pentagon Drawing test for the screening of older adults with Alzheimer's dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pentagon Drawing Test (PDT is a common cognitive screening test. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate performance properties of a specific PDT scoring scale in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD and healthy controls. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 390 elderly patients, aged 60 years or older with at least two years of education was conducted. All participants completed clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, including the Cambridge Cognitive Examination, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Clock Drawing Test. All PDT were blindly scored with the scale of Bourke et al. Results: PDT analyses of the binary score on the MMSE (0 or 1 point did not discriminate AD from controls (p = 0.839. However, when PDT was analyzed using the Bourke et al. scale, the two groups could be distinguished (p <0.001. PDT was not affected by education, showed sensitivity of 85.5% and specificity of 66.9%, discriminated different clinical stages of dementia, and correlated with the other cognitive tests (p <0.001. A 1-point difference on the Bourke et al. scale was associated with an odds ratio of 3.46 for AD. Conclusion: PDT can be used as a cognitive screen for suspected cases of dementia, especially AD, irrespective of educational level.

  2. [Faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: high quality for a good price]. (United States)

    van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Bonfrer, J M G Hans; Kuipers, Ernst J


    The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) awarded the immunochemical faecal occult blood test (IFOBT) to FOB Gold of Sentinel following a European call for tenders. The contract-awarding procedure included the application of quality knock-out criteria, which were met by two suppliers. The decisive factor was the best price/quality ratio. A recent review indicated that, at present, no single IFOBT is better than any other. The decision to opt for a test manufactured by a different supplier than was used in the previous screening pilots made it necessary to re-determine the cut-off value. This value has now been set (88 ng/ml) and is confirmed by a laboratory test. Colonoscopy-related capacity planning, as well as its diagnostic yield, depends on numerous factors; therefore, the RIVM is currently monitoring the referral percentage and number of adenomas detected and is collaborating on quality terms. Any necessary adjustments are to be made during the introduction of the screening test.

  3. A Chinese version of the Language Screening Test (CLAST for early-stage stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yang

    Full Text Available There is a severe lack of aphasia screening tools for bedside use in Chinese. A number of aphasia assessment tools have recently been developed abroad, but some of these scales were not suitable for patients with acute stroke. The Language Screening Test (which includes two parallel versions [a/b] in French has been proven to be an effective and time-saving aphasia screening scale for early-stage stroke patients. Therefore, we worked out a Chinese version of the LAST taking into consideration Chinese language and culture. Two preliminary parallel versions (a/b were tested on 154 patients with stroke at acute phase and 107 patients with stroke at non-acute phase, with the Western Aphasia Battery serving as a gold standard. The equivalence between the two parallel versions and the reliability/validity of each version were assessed. The median time to complete one preliminary Chinese version (each had some item redundancy was 98 seconds. Two final parallel versions were established after adjustment/elimination of the redundant items and were found to be equivalent (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.991. Internal consistency is(Cronbach α for each version [a/b] was 0.956 and 0.965, respectively good. Internal validity was fine: (a no floor or ceiling effect/item redundancy; (b construct validity revealed a 1-dimension structure, just like the French version. The higher educated subjects scored higher than their lower educated counterparts (p<0.01. The external validity: at the optimum cut-off point where the score of version a/b <14 in higher educated group(<13 in lower: the specificity of each version was 0.878/0.902(1/1 in lower and sensitivity was 0.972/0.944(0.944/0.944 in lower. Inter-rater equivalence (intra-class correlation coefficient was 1. The Chinese version of the Language Screening Test was proved to be an efficient and time-saving bedside aphasia screening tool for stroke patients at acute phase and can be used by an average

  4. Opportunistic testing versus organized prostate-specific antigen screening: outcome after 18 years in the Göteborg randomized population-based prostate cancer screening trial. (United States)

    Arnsrud Godtman, Rebecka; Holmberg, Erik; Lilja, Hans; Stranne, Johan; Hugosson, Jonas


    It has been shown that organized screening decreases prostate cancer (PC) mortality, but the effect of opportunistic screening is largely unknown. To compare the ability to reduce PC mortality and the risk of overdiagnosis between organized and opportunistic screening. The Göteborg screening study invited 10 000 randomly selected men for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing every 2 yr since 1995, with a prostate biopsy recommended for men with PSA ≥2.5 ng/ml. The control group of 10 000 men not invited has been exposed to a previously reported increased rate of opportunistic PSA testing. Both groups were followed until December 31, 2012. Observed cumulative PC incidence and mortality rates in both groups were calculated using the actuarial method. Using historical data from 1990-1994 (pre-PSA era), we calculated expected PC incidence and mortality rates in the absence of any PSA testing. The number needed to invite (NNI) and the number needed to diagnose (NND) were calculated by comparing the expected versus observed incidence and mortality rates. At 18 yr, 1396 men were diagnosed with PC and 79 men died of PC in the screening group, compared to 962 and 122, respectively, in the control group. In the screening group, the observed cumulative PC incidence/mortality was 16%/0.98% compared to expected values of 6.8%/1.7%. The corresponding values for the control group were 11%/1.5% and 6.9%/1.7%. Organized screening was associated with an absolute PC-specific mortality reduction of 0.72% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.94%) and relative risk reduction of 42% (95% CI 28-54%). There was an absolute reduction in PC deaths of 0.20% (95% CI -0.06% to 0.47%) and a relative risk reduction of 12% (95% CI -5 to 26%) associated with opportunistic PSA testing. NNI and NND were 139 (95% CI 107-200) and 13 for organized biennial screening and 493 (95% CI 213- -1563) and 23 for opportunistic screening. The extent of opportunistic screening could not be measured

  5. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Maria E.


    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  6. Impact of gender on decisions to participate in faecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Gallagher, Pamela; Kearney, Patricia M; McNamara, Deirdre; Sharp, Linda


    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are increasingly being used in population-based colorectal cancer-screening programmes. Uptake of FIT is lower in men than women; however, the reasons for this are not well understood. We aimed to explore gender differences in influences on decisions to participate in FIT screening. This is a qualitative study using in-depth face-to-face interviews of four groups of screening invitees (male and female screening users and male and female screening non-users), purposively sampled from the database of a population-based FIT screening programme. Recruitment continued until saturation was reached. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis using the framework approach was employed with the theoretical domains framework guiding analysis. Forty-seven screening invitees were interviewed. Six theoretical domains influenced screening uptake: 'environmental context and resources', 'beliefs about capabilities', 'beliefs about consequences', 'emotions', 'social influences' and 'knowledge'. Male non-users were often fatalistic, less knowledgeable and misinformed about cancer and FIT screening compared with other groups. Female non-users expressed negative attitudes, beliefs and emotions towards FIT screening, cancer, social influences and the medical profession and were over-confident about their health. Negative attitudes and emotions to screening dominated non-user decision-making but differed by gender. Opportunities to improve uptake in men and women exist. Greater national discussions on the benefits of FIT screening, and development of screening materials tackling negative attitudes and beliefs while recognising male/female differences, may improve screening uptake. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information (United States)

    ... Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an RBC Antibody Screen? An RBC (red blood cell) antibody screen ...

  8. Verification testing of the compression performance of the HEVC screen content coding extensions (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Baroncini, Vittorio A.; Yu, Haoping; Joshi, Rajan L.; Liu, Shan; Xiu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jizheng


    This paper reports on verification testing of the coding performance of the screen content coding (SCC) extensions of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard (Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 MPEG-H Part 2). The coding performance of HEVC screen content model (SCM) reference software is compared with that of the HEVC test model (HM) without the SCC extensions, as well as with the Advanced Video Coding (AVC) joint model (JM) reference software, for both lossy and mathematically lossless compression using All-Intra (AI), Random Access (RA), and Lowdelay B (LB) encoding structures and using similar encoding techniques. Video test sequences in 1920×1080 RGB 4:4:4, YCbCr 4:4:4, and YCbCr 4:2:0 colour sampling formats with 8 bits per sample are tested in two categories: "text and graphics with motion" (TGM) and "mixed" content. For lossless coding, the encodings are evaluated in terms of relative bit-rate savings. For lossy compression, subjective testing was conducted at 4 quality levels for each coding case, and the test results are presented through mean opinion score (MOS) curves. The relative coding performance is also evaluated in terms of Bjøntegaard-delta (BD) bit-rate savings for equal PSNR quality. The perceptual tests and objective metric measurements show a very substantial benefit in coding efficiency for the SCC extensions, and provided consistent results with a high degree of confidence. For TGM video, the estimated bit-rate savings ranged from 60-90% relative to the JM and 40-80% relative to the HM, depending on the AI/RA/LB configuration category and colour sampling format.

  9. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaini Mohd Zohdi; Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan


    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC 50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC 50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC 50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC 50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC 50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  10. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype (United States)


    developed, pilot tested, and in its Beta form. Findings or Results The subset of NCAPS traits that demonstrated statistically significant prediction for...development and initial pilot testing of the Prototype Marine ATC Cognitive Test. Method The validation approach chosen for this project was a criterion... multitasking ability, and 5) inductive reasoning ability. A working memory capacity test was developed because working memory has been linked to

  11. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)


    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  12. Development of a fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Schoone, G. J.; Beijer, E. G. M.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Hommers, M.; Ozbel, Y.; Ozensoy, S.; da Silva, E. S.; Cardoso, L. M.; da Silva, E. D.


    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishinania antibodies in serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmamosis was developed. The test is based on the direct agglutination test (DAT), but combines a higher parasite concentration with a smaller test volume. In

  13. Personal values that support and counteract utilization of a screening test for prostate cancer. (United States)

    Aavik, Toivo; Aavik, Anu; Punab, Margus


    The main aim of the current research was to discover the personal values that may support men's prostate cancer screening decisions in the future. We asked for participants' past behavior and future behavioral intentions, and also considered their real-life behavior. The sample consisted of 371 men, of which 93 were first-time patients at the Andrology Unit. The results show that Security value was related to past participation, while Achievement, Stimulation, and Traditions counteracted this. Present prostate-testing behavior was related only to higher Security values. Predictors of future behavioral intentions were Security, Self-direction, and Benevolence, which described 21% of the total variability. Considering informed decision-making processes, our results suggest that men who hold Security, Self-direction, and Benevolence values are more likely to participate in office-based initial screening. The study indicates the need to offer office-based initial screening to those age-eligible men whose values do not support participation.

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  16. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions? (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J


    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  17. The Q* Index: A Useful Global Measure of Dementia Screening Test Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Larner


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Single, global or unitary, indicators of test diagnostic performance have intuitive appeal for clinicians. The Q* index, the point in receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve space closest to the ideal top left-hand corner and where test sensitivity and specificity are equal, is one such measure. Methods: Datasets from four pragmatic accuracy studies which examined the Mini-Mental State Examination, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Test Your Memory test, and Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination were examined to calculate and compare the Q* index, the maximal correct classification accuracy, and the maximal Youden index, as well as the sensitivity and specificity at these cutoffs. Results: Tests ranked similarly for the Q* index and the area under the ROC curve (AUC ROC. The Q* index cutoff was more sensitive (and less specific than the maximal correct classification accuracy cutoff, and less sensitive (and more specific than the maximal Youden index cutoff. Conclusion: The Q* index may be a useful global parameter summarising the test accuracy of cognitive screening instruments, facilitating comparison between tests, and defining a possible test cutoff value. As the point of equal sensitivity and specificity, its use may be more intuitive and appealing for clinicians than AUC ROC.

  18. Significance of Intratracheal Instillation Tests for the Screening of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanomaterials. (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Yuri; Fujita, Katsuhide

    Inhalation tests are the gold standard test for the estimation of the pulmonary toxicity of respirable materials. Intratracheal instillation tests have been used widely, but they yield limited evidence of the harmful effects of respirable materials. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation tests for estimating the hazards of nanomaterials, mainly using research papers featuring intratracheal instillation and inhalation tests centered on a Japanese national project. Compared to inhalation tests, intratracheal instillation tests induced more acute inflammatory responses in the animal lung due to a bolus effect regardless of the toxicity of the nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials with high toxicity induced persistent inflammation in the chronic phase, and nanomaterials with low toxicity induced only transient inflammation. Therefore, in order to estimate the harmful effects of a nanomaterial, an observation period of 3 months or 6 months following intratracheal instillation is necessary. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, cell count and percentage of neutrophil, chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, and oxidative stress markers are considered most important. These markers show persistent and transient responses in the lung from nanomaterials with high and low toxicity, respectively. If the evaluation of the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials is performed in not only the acute but also the chronic phase in order to avoid the bolus effect of intratracheal instillation and inflammatory-related factors that are used as endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, we speculate that intratracheal instillation tests can be useful for screening for the identification of the hazard of nanomaterials through pulmonary inflammation.

  19. Jaw-opening force test to screen for Dysphagia: preliminary results. (United States)

    Hara, Koji; Tohara, Haruka; Wada, Satoko; Iida, Takatoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Ansai, Toshihiro


    To assess the jaw-opening force test (JOFT) for dysphagia screening. Criterion standard. University dental hospital. Patients complaining of dysphagia (N=95) and with symptoms of dysphagia with chronic underlying causes (mean age ± SD, 79.3±9.61y; range, 50-94y; men: n=49; mean age ± SD, 77.03±9.81y; range, 50-94y; women: n=46; mean age ± SD, 75.42±9.73y; range, 51-93y) admitted for treatment between May 2011 and December 2012 were included. None. All patients were administered the JOFT and underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The mean jaw-opening strength was compared with aspiration (ASP) and pharyngeal residue observations of the FEES, which was used as the criterion standard. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Forces of ≤3.2kg for men and ≤4kg for women were appropriate cutoff values for predicting ASP with a sensitivity and specificity of .57 and .79 for men and .93 and .52 for women, respectively. Based on the ROC analyses for predicting pharyngeal residue, forces of ≤5.3kg in men and ≤3.9kg in women were appropriate cutoff values, with a sensitivity and specificity of .80 and .88 for men and .83 and .81 for women, respectively. The JOFT could be a useful screening tool for predicting pharyngeal residue and could provide useful information to aid in the referral of patients for further diagnostic imaging testing. However, given its low sensitivity to ASP the JOFT should be paired with other screening tests that predict ASP. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hematuria screening test for urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in cervical cancer. (United States)

    Chuttiangtum, Ayuth; Udomthavornsuk, Banchong; Chumworathayi, Bandit


    To determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria as a screening test for urinary bladder infiltration in cervical cancer patients with a prospective study design. Newly diagnosed cervical cancer patients at Srinagarind hospital from 14 June 2011 to 30 April 2012 were enrolled in this study. We collected midstream urine samples for urinalysis from every patient before routine cystoscopic exam for clinical staging. The presence of 3 or more red blood cells (RBCs) per high power field was defined as positive for hematuria. A two-by-two table was used to determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration using cystoscopy and biopsy as the gold standard. A total of 130 were patients included, 54 of which (41.5%) had hematuria. Of these, four patients (3.08%) had pathological report from cystoscopic biopsy confirmed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of hematuria as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer were 100%, 60.3%, 7.4%, 100%, and 61.5%, respectively. There was no single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in patients initially staged less than stage III. Hematuria can be used as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer. This can reduce the number of cervical cancer patients who really need to undergo cystoscopy as a staging procedure to less than half and to less than 20% if stage III or more were included without missing a single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration.

  1. Six years of vision screening tests in pre-school children in kindergartens of Wroclaw (United States)

    Szmigiel, Marta; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Ireneusz


    Detection of vision defects of a child without professional knowledge is not easy. Very often, the parents of a small child does not know that their child sees incorrect. Also the youngster, not knowing any other way of seeing, does not know that it is not the best. While the vision of a small child is not yet fully formed, it is worth checking them very early. Defects detected early gives opportunity for the correction of anomalies, which might give the effect of the normal development of vision. According to the indications, the American Optometric Association (AOA) control eye examination should be performed between the ages of 6 months to 3 years, before going to school and then every two years. Members of SPIE Student Chapter, in cooperation with the Visual Optics Group working on the Department of Optics and Photonics (Faculty of Fundamental Problems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology) for 6 years offer selected kindergartens of Wroclaw participation in project "Screening vision tests in pre-school children". Depending on the number of involved members of the student chapter and willing to cooperate students of Ophthalmology and Optometry, vision screening test was carried out in up to eight kindergartens every year. The basic purpose of screening vision test is to detect visual defects to start the correction so early in life as possible, while increasing the efficiency of the child's visual potential. The surrounding community is in fact more than enough examples of late diagnose vision problems, which resulted in lack of opportunity or treatment failure

  2. Results of screening NCI/NTP nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens with the ke test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.; Bakale, G.; McCreary, R.D.


    The interdependence of the electrophilic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals that was demonstrated two decades ago rekindled interest in the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Interest in this theory grew with the development of a reverse-mutation bacterial assay in the laboratory of B.N. Ames that permitted the mutagenic properties of the chemicals to be determined quickly and yielded results which indicated that ''carcinogens are mutagens.'' Subsequent validation studies of this bioassay, the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome or ''Ames test,'' by Ames' group and others provided additional support for the correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity which led to the worldwide deployment of the Ames test in thousands of laboratories and to the development of more than 100 other short-term tests that continue to be used to identify potential carcinogens via various end-points of genotoxicity. This document discusses electrophilicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity relationships as well as carcinogen-screening of chemicals. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Reasons for never and intermittent completion of colorectal cancer screening after receiving multiple rounds of mailed fecal tests. (United States)

    Green, Beverly B; BlueSpruce, June; Tuzzio, Leah; Vernon, Sally W; Aubree Shay, L; Catz, Sheryl L


    Long-term adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is particularly important for fecal testing. Some U.S. studies report that only 25% of individuals repeat fecal testing annually. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify barriers and facilitators reported by patients with suboptimal screening adherence to refine interventions for starting ongoing adherence to CRC screening. We also explored whether participants, particularly never screeners, would be willing to do a CRC screening blood test. Forty-one patients who previously enrolled in the Systems of Support to Increase CRC Screening (SOS) trial were interviewed 4-5 years later. Participants were purposively selected to include men and women with diverse race/ethnicities who had either been inconsistent screeners or had never screened during the first three years of SOS despite receiving at least two rounds of mailed fecal tests. Two interviewers conducted 30-min telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. An iterative thematic analysis approach was used. Themes related to screening barriers were more pervasive among never screeners including: (1) Avoidance (inattention, procrastination) (2) Concerns about handling stool; (3) Health concerns; (4) Fear of a cancer diagnosis or positive test results. Themes related to screening facilitators were more often mentioned by participants who screened at least once including: (1) Use of a simpler 1-sample fecal test; (2) Convenience of mailings and doing the test at home; (3) Salience of prevention, especially as one got older; and (4) Influence of recommendations from providers, family and friends. Participants had diverse preferences for the number (3 on average) and types (phone, mail, text) of screening reminders. Some participants did not prefer e-mail links to the patient shared electronic health record because of difficulties remembering their password. It was acceptable for a nurse or medical assistant not from their clinic to

  4. Using Relative Statistics and Approximate Disease Prevalence to Compare Screening Tests. (United States)

    Samuelson, Frank; Abbey, Craig


    Schatzkin et al. and other authors demonstrated that the ratios of some conditional statistics such as the true positive fraction are equal to the ratios of unconditional statistics, such as disease detection rates, and therefore we can calculate these ratios between two screening tests on the same population even if negative test patients are not followed with a reference procedure and the true and false negative rates are unknown. We demonstrate that this same property applies to an expected utility metric. We also demonstrate that while simple estimates of relative specificities and relative areas under ROC curves (AUC) do depend on the unknown negative rates, we can write these ratios in terms of disease prevalence, and the dependence of these ratios on a posited prevalence is often weak particularly if that prevalence is small or the performance of the two screening tests is similar. Therefore we can estimate relative specificity or AUC with little loss of accuracy, if we use an approximate value of disease prevalence.

  5. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis. (United States)

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan


    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. A multicenter family practitioners' research on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease screening using the COPD Assessment Test. (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Eniste, Koncuy; Basaran, Ebru Onuker; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Tuna, Sumeyye


    Spirometry is known to be a gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an eight-item questionnaire currently in use to evaluate patients with COPD. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate if CAT is an adequate tool for screening COPD. In total, 600 persons aging ⩾40 years old were randomly selected from three different family practice units located in the city center. CAT was asked to the participants and a spirometry was used to assess pulmonary obstruction. Pulmonary obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in first second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)COPD diagnosis was confirmed with the reversibility test. The relationship between CAT results and pulmonary function test values was evaluated. In this sampling, the prevalence of COPD was 4.2%. Reliability of the CAT in the study group was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.84). The CAT scores was significantly higher in patients with COPD (PCOPD. CAT is a reliable questionnaire and there is an apparent relationship between the total CAT scores and COPD. However, CAT's ability to screen COPD is limited since it may miss the symptom-free cases.

  7. The Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET as a Cancer Screening Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Doo Heun; Choi, Joon Young; Song, Yun Mi; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Moon Kyu [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects. The subjects were 1,762 men and 259 women who voluntarily underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET for cancer screening as a part of a routine health examination. Final diagnosis was decided by other diagnostic studies, pathological results or clinical follow-up for 1 year. Of 2,021 subjects, 40 (2.0%) were finally proved to have cancer. Abnormal focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake suggesting malignancy was found in 102 subjects (5.0%). Among them, 21 subjects (1.0%) were proved to have cancer. Other tests in the routine health examination could not find 9 of 21 cancers (42.9%) detected by PET. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET for cancer screening were 52.5%, 95.9%, 20.6%, and 99.0%, respectively. Pathologies of cancers missed on PET were adenocarcinoma (n=9; 3 colon cancers, 3 prostate cancers, 2 stomach cancers, and 1 rectal cancer), differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n=6), bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma (n=2), urinary bladder cancer (n=1), and melanoma (n=1). More than half of cancers which were not detected by PET were smaller than 1 cm in diameter. {sup 18}F-FDG PET might be useful for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects due to its high specificity and negative predictive value and play a supplementary role to the conventional health check-up, but it could not replace due to limited sensitivity for urological cancers, small-sized tumors and some hypometaboic cancers.

  8. The Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET as a Cancer Screening Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Doo Heun; Choi, Joon Young; Song, Yun Mi; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Moon Kyu


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects. The subjects were 1,762 men and 259 women who voluntarily underwent 18 F-FDG PET for cancer screening as a part of a routine health examination. Final diagnosis was decided by other diagnostic studies, pathological results or clinical follow-up for 1 year. Of 2,021 subjects, 40 (2.0%) were finally proved to have cancer. Abnormal focal 18 F-FDG uptake suggesting malignancy was found in 102 subjects (5.0%). Among them, 21 subjects (1.0%) were proved to have cancer. Other tests in the routine health examination could not find 9 of 21 cancers (42.9%) detected by PET. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET for cancer screening were 52.5%, 95.9%, 20.6%, and 99.0%, respectively. Pathologies of cancers missed on PET were adenocarcinoma (n=9; 3 colon cancers, 3 prostate cancers, 2 stomach cancers, and 1 rectal cancer), differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n=6), bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma (n=2), urinary bladder cancer (n=1), and melanoma (n=1). More than half of cancers which were not detected by PET were smaller than 1 cm in diameter. 18 F-FDG PET might be useful for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects due to its high specificity and negative predictive value and play a supplementary role to the conventional health check-up, but it could not replace due to limited sensitivity for urological cancers, small-sized tumors and some hypometaboic cancers

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of a two-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-2). (United States)

    Tiet, Quyen Q; Leyva, Yani E; Moos, Rudolf H; Smith, Brandy


    Drug use is prevalent and costly to society, but individuals with drug use disorders (DUDs) are under-diagnosed and under-treated, particularly in primary care (PC) settings. Drug screening instruments have been developed to identify patients with DUDs and facilitate treatment. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is one of the most well-known drug screening instruments. However, similar to many such instruments, it is too long for routine use in busy PC settings. This study developed and validated a briefer and more practical DAST for busy PC settings. We recruited 1300 PC patients in two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics. Participants responded to a structured diagnostic interview. We randomly selected half of the sample to develop and the other half to validate the new instrument. We employed signal detection techniques to select the best DAST items to identify DUDs (based on the MINI) and negative consequences of drug use (measured by the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences). Performance indicators were calculated. The two-item DAST (DAST-2) was 97% sensitive and 91% specific for DUDs in the development sample and 95% sensitive and 89% specific in the validation sample. It was highly sensitive and specific for DUD and negative consequences of drug use in subgroups of patients, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational level, and posttraumatic stress disorder status. The DAST-2 is an appropriate drug screening instrument for routine use in PC settings in the VA and may be applicable in broader range of PC clinics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter


    BACKGROUND: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening test developed to detect dementia. It has been validated in several countries. Validation studies have predominantly included patients with various degrees of dementia and healthy controls. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. RESULTS: The cut...

  11. Sweat conductivity and coulometric quantitative test in neonatal cystic fibrosis screening. (United States)

    Domingos, Mouseline Torquato; Magdalena, Neiva Isabel Rodrigues; Cat, Mônica Nunes Lima; Watanabe, Alexandra Mitiru; Rosário Filho, Nelson Augusto


    To compare the results obtained with the sweat test using the conductivity method and coulometric measurement of sweat chloride in newborns (NBs) with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF) in the neonatal screening program. The sweat test was performed simultaneously by both methods in children with and without CF. The cutoff values to confirm CF were >50 mmol/L in the conductivity and >60 mmol/L in the coulometric test. There were 444 infants without CF (185 males, 234 females, and 24 unreported) submitted to the sweat test through conductivity and coulometric measurement simultaneously, obtaining median results of 32 mmol/L and 12 mmol/L, respectively. For 90 infants with CF, the median values of conductivity and coulometric measurement were 108 mmol/L and 97 mmol/L, respectively. The false positive rate for conductivity was 16.7%, and was higher than 50 mmol/L in all patients with CF, which gives this method a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), specificity of 96.2% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), positive predictive value of 83.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.1), negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90.5-109.4), and 9.8% accuracy. The correlation between the methods was r=0.97 (p>0.001). The best suggested cutoff value was 69.0 mmol/L, with a kappa coefficient=0.89. The conductivity test showed excellent correlation with the quantitative coulometric test, high sensitivity and specificity, and can be used in the diagnosis of CF in children detected through newborn screening. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening for Elder Abuse among Turkish Older People: Validity of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S "East") (United States)

    Özmete, Emine; Megahead, Hamido A.


    Objective: This study aims to adapt "The Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S "East")" (Neale, Hwalek, Scott, Sengstock, & Stahl, 1991) to Turkish and to assess its validity and reliability while determining the factors that affect elder abuse. Method: The sample of the study is composed of 465 elderly women and…

  13. Evaluation of functional color vision requirements and current color vision screening tests for air traffic control specialists. (United States)


    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the relation of type and degree of color vision deficiency and aeromedical color vision screening test scores to performance of color-dependent tasks of Air Traffic Control Specialists. The subjects included 37...

  14. AA, beam stopper with scintillator screen

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    An insertable steel-plate beam stopper was located after nearly a full turn downstream of the injection point. It was fitted with a scintillator screen, a thin plate of Cr-doped alumina, imprinted with a grid and reference points. The screen was illuminated through a window and observed with a highly sensitive TV camera plus image intensifier. This allowed observation of beam position and size of a proton test beam and of the beam from the target, which consisted not only of antiprotons but contained as well electrons, pions and muons of the same momentum.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of 3M Petrifilms and University of Minnesota Bi-plates as potential on-farm tests for clinical mastitis. (United States)

    McCarron, J L; Keefe, G P; McKenna, S L B; Dohoo, I R; Poole, D E


    The objective was to determine test characteristics and compare 2 potential on-farm culture systems for clinical mastitis, the Minnesota Easy Culture System II Bi-plate and Petrifilm. The tests were evaluated using clinically positive mastitic milk samples (n = 282) to determine their ability to differentiate appropriate treatment groups; all cases that had gram-positive growth were considered treatment candidates (n = 161), whereas cases that grew gram-negative organisms only or yielded no bacterial growth were classified as no treatment (n = 121). For Petrifilm, both undiluted and 1:10 diluted milk samples were used. To create treatment categories, 2 types of Petrifilms were used, Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC). Both Bi-plates and Petrifilms were read after 24 h of incubation. Analysis was conducted at various colony count thresholds for the Petrifilm test system. The combination of Petrifilms that had the highest sensitivity classified a case as gram-negative if there were > or =20 colonies present on the CC. If there were 5 colonies present on the AC, a case would be classified as gram-positive. The Bi-plate had a sensitivity of 97.9% and a specificity of 68.6%. The Petrifilm test system had a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 70.1%. There was no significant difference in the sensitivities between the tests. All Bi-plates and Petrifilms were read by a laboratory technician and a group of masked readers with limited microbiology training. Kappa values for the masked readers were 0.75 for Bi-plates and 0.84 and 0.86 for AC and CC Petrifilms, respectively. The Bi-plate and Petrifilm were able to successfully categorize clinical cases of mastitis into 2 treatments based on their ability to detect the presence of a gram-positive organism. Neither method had the ability to determine if a sample was contaminated. The results of this study indicate that both tests were able to appropriately categorize cases, which could potentially result in a

  16. Long-term performance of colorectal cancer screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test. (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Hassan, Cesare; Capodaglio, Giulia; Fedato, Chiara; Montaguti, Adriana; Turrin, Anna; Rosano, Alberto; Monetti, Daniele; Stocco, Carmen; Baracco, Susanna; Russo, Francesca; Repici, Alessandro; Rugge, Massimo


    The long-term performance of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on a 2-year faecal immunochemical test (FIT) is still unclear. In a sample of 50 to 69-year-olds repeatedly screened with the FIT (OC-Hemodia latex agglutination test; cut-off: 20 µg haemoglobin/g faeces), we examined: (1) the FIT positivity rate, the CRC and advanced adenoma detection rate and the FIT's positive predictive value (PPV) for advanced neoplasia, at each round of screening and (2) the cumulative CRC and advanced adenoma detection rate after five rounds of FIT. Over 12 years (2002-2014), 123 347 individuals were administered the FIT up to six times, and 781 CRCs and 4713 advanced adenomas were diagnosed. The CRC and advanced adenoma detection rates declined substantially from the first to the third (rate ratio (RR) 0.25, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.32) and second (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.56) rounds, respectively, and then remained stable. The PPV for advanced neoplasia dropped by 18% in the second round (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89), with no further reduction thereafter due to a concomitant decline in the FIT positivity rate (RR first to sixth rounds: 0.56, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.60).The cumulative CRC and advanced adenoma detection rates over five consecutive rounds were 8.5‰ (95% CI 7.8 to 9.2), and 58.9‰ (95% CI 56.9 to 61.0), respectively. Repeated FIT significantly reduces the burden of colorectal disease while facilitating an efficient use of colonoscopy resources. The cumulative detection rate after five rounds of FIT is similar to primary screening with colonoscopy, supporting the need to account for the cumulative sensitivity of repeated FITs when evaluating the test's efficacy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Criterion and convergent validity of the Montreal cognitive assessment with screening and standardized neuropsychological testing. (United States)

    Lam, Benjamin; Middleton, Laura E; Masellis, Mario; Stuss, Donald T; Harry, Robin D; Kiss, Alex; Black, Sandra E


    To compare the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) with the criterion standard of standardized neuropsychological testing and to compare the convergent validity of the MoCA with that of existing screening tools and global measures of cognition. Cross-sectional observational study. Tertiary care hospital-based cognitive neurology subspecialty clinic. A convenience sample of 107 individuals with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=75) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=32) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. In addition to the MoCA, all participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and detailed neuropsychological testing. Convergent validity was supported, with MoCA scores correlating well with the MMSE (correlation coefficient (r)=0.66, Pvalidity was supported, with MoCA subscores according to cognitive domain correlating well with analogous neuropsychological tests and, in the case of memory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.86), executive (AUC=0.79), and visuospatial function (AUC=0.79), being reasonably sensitive to impairment in those domains. The MoCA is a valid assessment of cognition that shows good agreement with existing screening tools and global measures (convergent validity) and was superior to the MMSE in this regard. The MoCA domain-specific subscores align with performance on more-detailed neuropsychological tests, suggesting not only good criterion validity for the MoCA, but also that it may be useful in guiding further neuropsychological testing. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, L.S.


    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  19. [Test and programme sensitivities of screening for colorectal cancer in Reggio Emilia]. (United States)

    Campari, Cinzia; Sassatelli, Romano; Paterlini, Luisa; Camellini, Lorenzo; Menozzi, Patrizia; Cattani, Antonella


    to estimate the sensitivity of the immunochemical test for faecal occult blood (FOBT) and the sensitivity of the colorectal tumour screening programme in the province of Reggio Emilia. retrospective cohort study, including a sample of 80,357 people of both genders, aged 50-69, who underwent FOBT, during the first round of the screening programme in the province of Reggio Emilia, from April 2005 to December 2007. incidence of interval cancer. The proportional incidence method was used to estimate the sensitivity of FOBT and of the screening programme. Data were stratified according to gender, age and year of interval. the overall sensitivity of FOBT was 73.2% (95%IC 63.8-80.7). The sensitivity of FOBT was lower in females (70.5% vs 75.1%), higher in the 50-59 a