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Sample records for plate method hektoen

  1. Clinical and economic evaluation of BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment to CHROMSal and Hektoen enteric agars to detect enteric Salmonella in a large regional microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L; Emshey, Diana; Lloyd, Tracie; Pitout, Johann

    2010-09-01

    Stool culture for enteric pathogens is one of the most labor-intensive clinical microbiology procedures. Direct plating of stool to BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment (Sel) to CHROMSal (Sel-CHROMSal) and Hektoen enteric agar (Sel-Hek) (PML Microbiologicals, Eugene, OR) to detect Salmonella were compared. The number of colony picks and biochemical/serotyping tests per plate was recorded. A cost comparison was done. Fifty-one of 2999 (1.7%) stools yielded Salmonella sp., and 80% of isolates grew on CHROMSal by 24 h. CHROMSal demonstrated much less false-positive growth compared to Sel-Hek (P < 0.0001), which reduced biochemical and serotyping tests by 85% and 20%, respectively. Sel-CHROMSal and CHROMSal versus Sel-Hek improved enteric Salmonella detection when compared to a true positive "gold standard" (i.e., recovery by any culture method) with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% and 94.12%, 100% and 99.97%, 100% and 97.96%, and 100% and 99.90%, respectively. CHROMSal use would result in substantial cost and labor savings.

  2. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  3. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  4. Multiregional Evaluation of the SimPlate Heterotrophic Plate Count Method Compared to the Standard Plate Count Agar Pour Plate Method in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  5. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  6. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  7. How to optimize the drop plate method for enumerating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, B; Hamilton, M; Heersink, J

    2001-03-01

    The drop plate (DP) method can be used to determine the number of viable suspended bacteria in a known beaker volume. The drop plate method has some advantages over the spread plate (SP) method. Less time and effort are required to dispense the drops onto an agar plate than to spread an equivalent total sample volume into the agar. By distributing the sample in drops, colony counting can be done faster and perhaps more accurately. Even though it has been present in the laboratory for many years, the drop plate method has not been standardized. Some technicians use 10-fold dilutions, others use twofold. Some technicians plate a total volume of 0.1 ml, others plate 0.2 ml. The optimal combination of such factors would be useful to know when performing the drop plate method. This investigation was conducted to determine (i) the standard deviation of the bacterial density estimate, (ii) the cost of performing the drop plate procedure, (iii) the optimal drop plate design, and (iv) the advantages of the drop plate method in comparison to the standard spread plate method. The optimal design is the combination of factor settings that achieves the smallest standard deviation for a fixed cost. Computer simulation techniques and regression analysis were used to express the standard deviation as a function of the beaker volume, dilution factor, and volume plated. The standard deviation expression is also applicable to the spread plate method.

  8. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, C.P. Jr.; Boerstler, R.W.; Steinbeck, J.; Winn, D.R.

    2000-04-04

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  9. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P. (New Milford, CT); Boerstler, Robert W. (Woodbury, CT); Steinbeck, John (Fitzwilliam, NH); Winn, David R. (Wilton, CT)

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  10. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.; Steinbeck, John; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  11. Collaborative study comparing the spiral plate and aerobic plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, J E; Donnelly, C B; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1977-07-01

    The spiral plate count method is a semiautomated plating technique that greatly reduces manpower and material costs normally associated with the pour plating technique. In this collaborative study, 8 laboratories compared the spiral and pour plating techniques, using 4 samples each of 3 products: frozen pumpkin pie, frozen chicken pot pie, and shampoo. The results show that 10 of the 12 comparisons of means of the pour and spiral methods were not significantly different; 2 values were significant at alpha = 0.01. Overall, the components of variance were less than that of the current milk standard, and the replicate per cent coefficient of variation was satisfactory. This study indicates that the spiral plate method is an acceptable alternative to the pour plate method; the spiral plate method has been adopted as official first action.

  12. Application of Shape Lock-on Method in Plate Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-lei; WANG Jun; WANG Zhao-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2004-01-01

    AGC system can improve the plate gauge precision, and damage the plate shape if the shape control loop is left quite open. This damage will cause wave during rolling wide-thin plate. A control strategy named shape lock-on method is afforded for plate shape control. This method requires APC instead of AGC at last one or two passes during rolling wide-thin plate. Approved by theory and on-line application, this method is good for the plate shape and crown control with small effect on gauge control.

  13. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  14. Methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyyssola, A.; Heshof, R.; Haarmann, T.; Eidner, J.; Westerholm-Parvinen, A.; Langfelder, K.; Kruus, K.; Graaff, de L.H.; Buchert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. Both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. A positive result was also achieved using the beta-carotene bleaching

  15. Numerical results for extended field method applications. [thin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, B. K.; Chander, S.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical results obtained when a new method of analysis, called the extended field method, was applied to several thin plate problems including one with non-rectangular geometry, and one problem involving both beams and a plate. The numerical results show that the quality of the single plate solutions was satisfactory for all cases except those involving a freely deflecting plate corner. The results for the beam and plate structure were satisfactory even though the structure had a freely deflecting corner.

  16. A plating method for metal coating of fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Li; Hua Zhang; Yan Feng; Gang Peng

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for metal coating optical fiber and in-fiber Bragg grating. The technology process which is based on electroless plating and electroplating method is described in detail. The fiber is firstly coated with a thin copper or nickel plate with electroless plating method. Then, a thicker nickel plate is coated on the surface of the conductive layer. Under the optimum conditions, the surfaces of chemical plating and electroplating coatings are all smooth and compact. There is no visible defect found in the cross-section. Using this two-step metallization method, the in-fiber Bragg grating can be well protected and its thermal sensitivity can be enhanced. After the metallization process, the fiber sensor is successfully embedded in the 42CrMo steel by brazing method. Thus a smart metal structure is achieved. The embedding results show that the plating method for metallization protection of in-fiber Bragg grating is effective.

  17. Solution of non-rectangular plates with macroelement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyavskyy, Mykhaylo; Rosinski, Krystian

    2017-03-01

    New approach to static analysis of thin non-rectangular arbitrarily loaded plates, called the macroelement method, has been developed in this paper. Macroelement is a rectangular plate which entirely contains real plate. The mathematical model of macroelement was built. The equilibrium equations are performed for macroelement and boundary conditions are written on the line corresponding to contour of real plate in the nodes which are zero points of trigonometric functions, included in the macroelement model. The load is applied only to separate nodes on the surface of real plate, whereas the complement of a plate to macroelement is unloaded. Analysis of construction is reduced to solving a system of linear algebraic equations. The method provides better accuracy compared to finite element method and requires less equations. There is trapeze plate clamped at inclined edge and simply supported at opposite one considered in this paper. The other edges of the plate are free. Uniformly distributed load on the surface of real plate is taken into account.

  18. Vibration Analysis of Plates by MLS-Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Xiang, Y.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel numerical method, the moving least square element (MLS-element) method for the free vibration analysis of plates based on the Mindlin shear deformable plate theory. In the MLS-element method, a plate can be first divided into multiple elements which are connected through selected nodal points on the interfaces of the elements. An element can be of any shape and the size of the element varies dependent on the problem at hand. The shape functions of the element for the transverse displacement and the rotations are derived based on the MLS interpolation technique. The convergence and accuracy of the method can be controlled by either increasing the number of elements or by increasing the number of MLS interpolation points within elements. Two selected examples for vibration of a simply supported square Mindlin plate and a clamped L-shaped Mindlin plate are studied to illustrate the versatility and accuracy of the proposed method. It shows that the proposed method is highly accurate and flexible for the vibration analysis of plate problems. The method can be further developed to bridge the existing meshless method and the powerful finite element method in dealing with various engineering computational problems, such as large deformation and crack propagation in solid mechanics.

  19. FRACTURE CALCULATION OF BENDING PLATES BY BOUNDARY COLLOCATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元汉; 伍佑伦; 余飞

    2003-01-01

    Fracture of Kirchhoff plates is analyzed by the theory of complex variables and boundary collocation method. The deflections, moments and shearing forces of the plates are assumed to be the functions of complex variables. The functions can satisfy a series of basic equations and governing conditions, such as the equilibrium equations in the domain, the boundary conditions on the crack surfaces and stress singularity at the crack tips. Thus, it ts only necessary to consider the boundary conditions on the external boundaries of the plate, which can be approximately satisfied by the collocation method and least square technique. Different boundary conditions and loading cases of the cracked plates are analyzed and calculated. Compared to other methods, the numerical examples show that the present method has many advantages such as good accuracy and less computer time This is an effective semi-analytical and semi-numerical method.

  20. A spectroscopic method for determining thickness of quartz wave plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Feng; Lihuang Lin; Ligang Chen; Huafeng Zhu; Ruxin Li; Zhizhan Xu

    2006-01-01

    A spectroscopic method to determine thickness of quartz wave plate is presented. The method is based on chromatic polarization interferometry. With the polarization-resolved transmission spectrum (PRTS)curve, the phase retardation of quartz wave plate can be determined at a wide spectral range from 200 to2000 nm obviously. Through accurate judgment of extreme points of PRTS curve at long-wave band, the physical thickness of quartz wave plates can be obtained exactly. We give a measuring example and the error analysis. It is found that the measuring precision of thickness is mainly determined by the spectral resolution of spectrometer.

  1. A lumped mass finite element method for vibration analysis of elastic plate-plate structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The fully discrete lumped mass finite element method is proposed for vibration analysis of elastic plate-plate structures.In the space directions,the longitudinal displacements on plates are discretized by conforming linear elements,and the transverse displacements are discretized by the Morley element.By means of the second order central difference for discretizing the time derivative and the technique of lumped masses,a fully discrete lumped mass finite element method is obtained,and two approaches to choosing the initial functions are also introduced.The error analysis for the method in the energy norm is established,and some numerical examples are included to validate the theoretical analysis.

  2. Study on the Hinge-joined Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify and perfect the theory of hinge-joined plate method and make it serve the bridge design better, this paper was written based on an actual bridge, and the ANSYS finite element model was established. Compared the hinge-joined plate method results with the analysis results and through the investigation and data analysis, it could be found that the assumption that the hinge-joined plate theory for the board lateral force transmission is reasonable, but the assuming hinge joints that only withstand shear stress and just have the shear checking is unreasonable. At the same time, this paper also proved that the strength reduction getting from the old and new concrete interface should be taken into account when using the hinge-joined plate method to calculate the transverse distribution coefficient and the effects on overall stiffness that the joint depth and thickness of deck pavement to the beam bridge.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Thin Plates Using the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, G. K.; Iu, V. P.; Liu, X. L.

    2010-05-01

    The isotropic thermal plate is analyzed with finite element method. The solution procedure is presented. The elementary stiffness matrix and loading vector are derived rigorously with variation principle and the principle of minimum potential energy. Numerical results are obtained based on the derived equations and tested with available exact solutions. The problems in the finite element analysis are figured out. It is found that the finite element solutions can not converge as the number of elements increases around the corners of the plate. The derived equations presented in this paper are fundamental for our further study on more complicated thermal plate analysis.

  4. SPLITTING MODULUS FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ORTHOGONAL ANISOTROPIC PLATE BENGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党发宁; 荣廷玉; 孙训方

    2001-01-01

    Splitting modulus variational principle in linear theory of solid mechanics was introduced, the principle for thin plate was derived, and splitting modulus finite element method of thin plate was established too. The distinctive feature of the splitting model is that its functional contains one or more arbitrary additional parameters, called splitting factors,so stiffness of the model can be adjusted by properly selecting the splitting factors. Examples show that splitting modulus method has high precision and the ability to conquer some illconditioned problems in usual finite elements. The cause why the new method could transform the ill-conditioned problems into well-conditioned problem, is analyzed finally.

  5. Method for conducting electroless metal-plating processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, George S.; Wright, Ralph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved method for conducting electroless metal-plating processes in a metal tank which is exposed to the plating bath. The invention solves a problem commonly encountered in such processes: how to determine when it is advisable to shutdown the process in order to clean and/or re-passivate the tank. The new method comprises contacting the bath with a current-conducting, non-catalytic probe and, during plating operations, monitoring the gradually changing difference in electropotential between the probe and tank. It has been found that the value of this voltage is indicative of the extent to which nickel-bearing decomposition products accumulate on the tank. By utilizing the voltage to determine when shutdown for cleaning is advisable, the operator can avoid premature shutdown and at the same time avoid prolonging operations to the point that spontaneous decomposition occurs.

  6. A COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-xiao Zhou; Xiao-ping Xie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a combined hybrid method is applied to finite element discretization ofplate bending problems. It is shown that the resultant schemes are stabilized, i.e., theconvergence of the schemes is independent of inf-sup conditions and any other patch test.Based on this, two new series of plate elements are proposed.

  7. Novel boundary element method for resolving plate bending problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颂英; 王乐勤; 焦磊

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the boundary contour method for resolving plate bending problems. The exploitation of the integrand divergence free property of the plate bending boundary integral equation based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis and a very useful application of Stokes' Theorem are presented to convert surface integrals on boundary elements to the computation of bending potential functions on the discretized boundary points, even for curved surface elements of arbitrary shape. Singularity and treatment of the discontinued corner point are not needed at all. The evaluation of the physics variant at internal points is also shown in this article. Numerical results are presented for some plate bending problems and compared against analytical and previous solutions.

  8. Methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyyssölä, Antti; Heshof, Ruud; Haarmann, Thomas; Eidner, Jasmin; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Langfelder, Kim; Kruus, Kristiina; de Graaff, Leo; Buchert, Johanna

    2012-03-26

    Plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. Both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. A positive result was also achieved using the β-carotene bleaching method, but the sensitivity of this method was lower than the other two methods. The potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were also applied for detecting lipoxygenase production by Trichoderma reesei and Pichia pastoris transformants expressing the lipoxygenase gene of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis. In both cases lipoxygenase production in the transformants could be identified. For detection of the G. graminis lipoxygenase produced by Aspergillus nidulans the potassium iodide-starch method was successful. When Escherichia coli was grown on agar and soybean lipoxygenase was applied on the culture lipoxygenase activity could clearly be detected by the indamine dye formation method. This suggests that the method has potential for screening of metagenomic libraries in E. coli for lipoxygenase activity.

  9. Application of optical diffraction method in designing phase plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ze-Min; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Lv, Feng-Nian; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Xing-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Continuous phase plate (CPP), which has a function of beam shaping in laser systems, is one kind of important diffractive optics. Based on the Fourier transform of the Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) algorithm for designing CPP, we proposed an optical diffraction method according to the real system conditions. A thin lens can complete the Fourier transform of the input signal and the inverse propagation of light can be implemented in a program. Using both of the two functions can realize the iteration process to calculate the near-field distribution of light and the far-field repeatedly, which is similar to the G-S algorithm. The results show that using the optical diffraction method can design a CPP for a complicated laser system, and make the CPP have abilities of beam shaping and phase compensation for the phase aberration of the system. The method can improve the adaptation of the phase plate in systems with phase aberrations.

  10. Methodical Specifics of Thermal Experiments with Thin Carbon Reinforced Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Denisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composite materials (CM are widely used in creation of large space constructions, especially reflectors of space antennas. Composite materials should provide high level of specific stiffness and strength for space structures. Thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane is a significant factor in case of irregular heating space antennas. Nowadays, data on CM reinforcement plane thermal conductivity are limited and existing methods of its defining are imperfect. Basically, traditional methods allow us to define thermal conductivity in perpendicular direction towards the reinforcement plane on the samples of round or rectangular plate. In addition, the thickness of standard samples is larger than space antenna thickness. Consequently, new methods are required. Method of contact heating, which was developed by BMSTU specialists with long hollow carbon beam, could be a perspective way. This article is devoted to the experimental method of contact heating on the thin carbon plates.Thermal tests were supposed to provide a non-stationary temperature field with a gradient being co-directional with the plane reinforcement in the material sample. Experiments were conducted in vacuum chamber to prevent unstructured convection. Experimental thermo-grams processing were calculated by 1-d thermal model for a thin plate. Influence of uncertainty of experimental parameters, such as (radiation emission coefficients of sample surface, glue, temperature sensors and uncertainty of sensors placement on the result of defined thermal conductivity has been estimated. New data on the thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane were obtained within 295 - 375 K temperature range, which can be used to design and develop reflectors of precision space antennas. In the future it is expedient to conduct tests of thin-wall plates from carbon fiber-reinforced plastic in wide temperature range, especially in the low-range temperatures.

  11. Numerical Methods for Plate Forming by Line Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik Bisgaard

    2000-01-01

    Line heating is the process of forming originally flat plates into a desired shape by means of heat treatment. Parameter studies are carried out on a finite element model to provide knowledge of how the process behaves with varying heating conditions. For verification purposes, experiments are ca...... are carried out; one set of experiments investigates the actual heat flux distribution from a gas torch and another verifies the validty of the FE calculations. Finally, a method to predict the heating pattern is described....

  12. Combination cellulose plate (non-agar solid support) and agar plate method improves isolation of fungi from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kenichi; Todaka, Nemuri; Ōmura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro

    2014-11-01

    This is the first report describing the improved isolation of common filamentous fungi via a method combining cellulose plate and agar plate system. A cellulose plate is a porous plate made of nanofibrous crystaline cellulose. Isolating fungi from soils using these types of media separately resulted in the number of fungal colonies appearing on cellulose plates being lower than that on agar plates. However, the number of actual fungal species isolated using cellulose plates alone was more or less the same as that found using agar plates. Significantly, the diversity of isolates using a combination of the two media was greater than using each media individually. As a result, numerous new or rare fungal species with potential, including previously proposed new species, were isolated successfully in this way. All fungal colonies, including the Penicillium species, that appeared on the cellulose plate penetrated in potato dextrose were either white or yellow. Cultivation on cellulose plates with added copper ion overcomes the change in coloration, the colonies appearing as they do following cultivation on potato dextrose agar.

  13. DAFS measurements using the image-plate Weissenberg method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugioka, N.; Matsumoto, K.; Sasaki, S. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Materials and Structures Lab., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Mori, T. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Photon Factory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    An instrumental technique for DAFS measurements which can provide site-specific information is proposed. The approach uses (i) focusing optics with parabolic mirrors and a double-crystal monochromator, (ii) the Laue and Bragg settings and (iii) data collection by the image-plate Weissenberg method. Six image exposures are recorded per plate at five intrinsic energies and one reference energy. The single-crystal measurements were performed at the Co K-absorption edge, and the 200, 220 and 311 reflections of CoO and 511 and 911 reflections of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were used for analysis. The regression analysis of {chi}(k), Fourier transforms of k{sup 3}{chi}(k) and back-Fourier filtering have been performed. 20 refs.

  14. DAFS measurements using the image-plate Weissenberg method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, N; Matsumoto, K; Tanaka, M; Mori, T; Sasaki, S

    1998-05-01

    An instrumental technique for DAFS measurements which can provide site-specific information is proposed. The approach uses (i) focusing optics with parabolic mirrors and a double-crystal monochromator, (ii) the Laue and Bragg settings and (iii) data collection by the image-plate Weissenberg method. Six image exposures are recorded per plate at five intrinsic energies and one reference energy. The single-crystal measurements were performed at the Co K-absorption edge, and the 200, 220 and 311 reflections of CoO and 511 and 911 reflections of Co(3)O(4) were used for analysis. The regression analysis of chi(k), Fourier transforms of k(3)chi(k) and back-Fourier filtering have been performed.

  15. Finite strip method combined with other numerical methods for the analysis of plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M. S.; Li, Wenchang

    1992-09-01

    Finite plate strips are combined with finite elements or boundary elements in the analysis of rectangular plates with some minor irregularities such as openings, skew edges, etc. The plate is divided into regular and irregular regions. The regular region is analyzed by the finite strip method while the irregular one is analyzed by the finite element or boundary element method. A special transition element and strip are developed in order to connect the both regions. Numerical examples will show the accuracy and efficiency of this combined analysis.

  16. Simulation of Lamb wave reflections at plate edges using the semi-analytical finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z A B; Gabbert, U

    2012-09-01

    In typical Lamb wave simulation practices, effects of plate edge reflections are often not considered in order to simplify the wave signal interpretations. Methods that are based on infinite plates such as the semi-analytical finite element method is effective in simulating Lamb waves as it excludes the effect of plate edges. However, the inclusion of plate edges in a finite plate could render this method inapplicable, especially for transient response simulations. Here, by applying the ratio of Lamb mode reflections at plate edges, and representing the reflection at plate edges using infinite plate solutions, the semi-analytical finite element method can be applied for transient response simulation, even when the plate is no longer infinite.

  17. Enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods by SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator methods and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip T; Leung, Stephanie C; Lienau, Andrew H; Mui, Linda A; Townsend, David E

    2003-01-01

    The relative efficacy of the SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI) method (SimPlate 35 degrees C) was compared with the AOAC Official Method 966.23 (AOAC 35 degrees C) for enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods. The SimPlate TPC-CI method, incubated at 30 degrees C (SimPlate 30 degrees C), was also compared with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833 method (ISO 30 degrees C). Six food types were analyzed: ground black pepper, flour, nut meats, frozen hamburger patties, frozen fruits, and fresh vegetables. All foods tested were naturally contaminated. Nineteen laboratories throughout North America and Europe participated in the study. Three method comparisons were conducted. In general, there was count difference in recovery among the SimPlate methods and their corresponding reference methods. Mean log counts between the 2 reference methods were also very similar. Repeatability (Sr) and reproducibility (SR) standard deviations were similar among the 3 method comparisons. The SimPlate method (35 degrees C) and the AOAC method were comparable for enumerating total aerobic microorganisms in foods. Similarly, the SimPlate method (30 degrees C) was comparable to the ISO method when samples were prepared and incubated according to the ISO method.

  18. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  19. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  20. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...... additive. This method makes it possible to deposit nickel, cobalt, nickel or cobalt platings without internal stresses....

  1. Models of convection-driven tectonic plates - A comparison of methods and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Gable, Carl W.; Weinstein, Stuart A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of convection in the earth's mantle have included various features of plate tectonics. This paper describes three methods of modeling plates: through material properties, through force balance, and through a thin power-law sheet approximation. The results obtained are compared using each method on a series of simple calculations. From these results, scaling relations between the different parameterizations are developed. While each method produces different degrees of deformation within the surface plate, the surface heat flux and average plate velocity agree to within a few percent. The main results are not dependent upon the plate modeling method and herefore are representative of the physical system modeled.

  2. A method for designing plates in treatments of proximal humeral fracture and distal radial fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to quickly design fixation plates for fractured proximal humerus and distal radius according to the requirements of surgical treatment. Therefore, a new method to quickly design cloverleaf plate appropriate for proximal humerus and volar plate appropriate for distal radius is put forward. First, three-dimensional (3D reconstruction models of fractured proximal humerus and distal radius were generated based on deforming mean parametric models of proximal humerus and distal radius, respectively. Second, based on region-of-interest marked on the 3D reconstruction model of proximal humerus and distal radius, abutted surfaces of cloverleaf plate and volar plate were established, respectively. Then, parametric abutted surface was established after setting rational parameters for the surface of the cloverleaf plate. Parametric abutted surface of volar plate was established using the same method. Finally, parametric cloverleaf plate and volar plate are generated through thickening their respective parametric abutted surfaces. The parametric plates, acting as templates, accelerate and simplify the design process and therefore allow users to construct plate with editing valid parameters easily. Group of cloverleaf plates and volar plates with different sizes were generated quickly, showing that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  3. A New Method for Correcting Vehicle License Plate Tilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Qi Xiong; Jun-Biao Yan

    2009-01-01

    In the course of vehicle license plate (VLP) automatic recognition, tilt correction is a very crucial process. According to Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) transformation, the coordinates of characters in the image are arranged into a two-dimensional covariance matrix, on the basis of which the centered process is carried out. Then, the eigenvector and the rotation angle α are computed in turn. The whole image is rotated by -α. Thus, image horizontal tilt correction is performed. In the vertical tilt correction process, three correction methods, which are K-L transformation method, the line fitting method based on K-means clustering (LFMBKC), and the line fitting based on least squares (LFMBLS), are put forward to compute the vertical tilt angle θ. After shear transformation (ST) is imposed on the rotated image, the final correction image is obtained. The experimental results verify that this proposed method can be easily implemented, and can quickly and accurately get the tilt angle. It provides a new effective way for the VLP image tilt correction as well.

  4. Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using integral method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Токарев

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using  integral method The influence of boundary conditions on sound wave propagation, radiation and transmission through thin elastic plate is investigated. Necessary for that numerical model was found using the Helmholtz equation and equation of oscilated plate by means of integral formulation of the solution for acoustic fields near to elastic thin plate and for bending waves of small amplitudes.

  5. Energy flow in plate assembles by hierarchical version of finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachulec, Marcin; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    method has been proposed. In this paper a modified hierarchical version of finite element method is used for modelling of energy flow in plate assembles. The formulation includes description of in-plane forces so that planes lying in different planes can be modelled. Two examples considered are: L......-corner of two rectangular plates an a I-shaped plate girder made of five plates. Energy distribution among plates due to harmonic load is studied and the comparison of performance between the hierarchical and standard finite element formulation is presented....

  6. Development of optimization method for plate heat exchanger with undulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Václav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with optimization of undulated heat transfer surface of plate heat exchanger. The goal of optimization is not only to increase effectiveness of heat transfer but also to reduce the pressure drop. A combined pattern of undulation which combines herringbone pattern and wavy pattern was optimized and best values of four parameters were found; angle of herringbone pattern, number, phase and amplitude of longitudinal waves of wavy pattern. The optimization procedure looked for maximum of objective function which was a linear combination of effectiveness and pressure drop. We used simple Monte Carlo method and the optimum was searched for four values of reference pressure drop. Four different optimization were run and we investigated the effect of various definition of objective function and parameters of undulation. It was found that during optimization of combined pattern, the herringbone pattern is more favoured than wavy pattern. It is caused by the fact that herringbone pattern was described by the only one free parameter, which was the angle of undulation, and therefore it is more likely to be found by a stochastic method. This assumption was confirmed when simple wavy pattern was optimized and higher values of objective function and effectiveness were found.

  7. Hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entis, P

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one laboratories participated in a collaborative study to validate a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) method for aerobic plate count by comparing its performance against the AOAC/APHA pour plate method. Raw milk, raw poultry, whole egg powder, flours, and spices were included in the study. Counts obtained by the HGMF and pour plate methods did not differ significantly, except in the case of whole egg powder, for which the HGMF method produced significantly higher counts. The hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods has been adopted official first action.

  8. Research on Transverse Acetabular Fracture Fixation Using Different Plate Attachment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gaidulis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of transverse acetabular fracture fixation using different plate attachment methods. A 3D model of pelvis and hip joint structure was created and the design of three different fixation plates using SolidWorks was made. The plates were fixed at distances of 10, 20 and 30 mm from the acetabulum. The model was meshed into finite elements, a static external load of 2500 N was added and the analysis of stress distribution in plates and fracture displacement was performed. The obtained results showed that fracture displacement was quite similar in all fixation methods. However, the maximal stress in the nearest from the acetabulum plate was higher than yield strength. Thus, this placement is not eligible. The plate fixed at a distance of 30 mm from the acetabulum appeared the most suitable because of the smallest and symmetrical stress distribution in the plate.

  9. Semi-Analytical Finite Strip Transfer Matrix Method for Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Thin Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ke Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plates and shells are main components of modern engineering structures, whose buckling analysis has been focused by researchers. In this investigation, rectangular thin plates with loaded edges simply supported can be discretized by semi-analytical finite strip technology. Then the control equations of the strip elements of the buckling plate will be rewritten as the transfer equations by transfer matrix method. A new approach, namely semi-analytical Finite Strip Transfer Matrix Method, is developed for the buckling analysis of plates. This method requires no global stiffness matrix of the system, reduces the system matrix order, and improves the computational efficiency. Comparing with some theoretical results and FEM’s results of two illustrations (the plates and the ribbed plates under six boundary conditions, the method is proved to be reliable and effective.

  10. Analysis of thin plates by the weak form quadrature element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG HongZhi; YUE ZhiGuang

    2012-01-01

    The recently proposed weak form quadrature element method (QEM) is applied to flexural and vibrational analysis of thin plates.The integrals involved in the variational description of a thin plate are evaluated by an efficient numerical scheme and the partial derivatives at the integration sampling points are then approximated using differential quadrature analogs.Neither the grid pattern nor the number of nodes is fixed,being adjustable according to convergence need.The C1 continuity conditions characterizing the thin plate theory are discussed and the robustness of the weak form quadrature element for thin plates against shape distortion is examined.Examples are presented and comparisons with analytical solutions and the results of the finite element method are made to demonstrate the convergence and computational efficiency of the weak form quadrature element method.It is shown that the present formulation is applicable to thin plates with varying thickness as well as uniform plates.

  11. FREE VIBRATION OF ANISOTROPIC RECTANGULAR PLATES BY GENERAL ANALYTICAL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the differential equation for transverse displacement function of anisotropic rectangular thin plates in free vibration, a general analytical solution is established. This general solution, composed of the composite solutions of trigonometric function and hyperbolic function, can satisfy the problem of arbitrary boundary conditions along four edges. The algebraic polynomial with double sine series solutions can also satisfy the problem of boundary conditions at four corners. Consequently, this general solution can be used to solve the vibration problem of anisotropic rectangular plates with arbitrary boundaries accurately. The integral constants can be determined by boundary conditions of four edges and four corners. Each natural frequency and vibration mode can be solved by the determinate of coefficient matrix from the homogeneous linear algebraic equations equal to zero. For example, a composite symmetric angle ply laminated plate with four edges clamped has been calculated and discussed.

  12. Biomechanical Evaluation of the Fixation Methods for Transcondylar Fracture of the Humerus:ONI Plate Versus Conventional Plates and Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimamura,Yasunori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    We biomechanically evaluated the bone fixation rigidity of an ONI plate (Group I during fixation of experimentally created transcondylar humerus fractures in cadaveric elbows, which are the most frequently observed humeral fractures in the elderly, and compared it with the rigidity achieved by 3 conventional fixation methods:an LCP reconstruction plate 3.5 using a locking mechanism (Group II, a conventional reconstruction plate 3.5 (CRP with a cannulated cancellous screw (Group III, and a CRP with 2 cannulated cancellous screws (CS in a crisscross orientation (Group IV. In the axial loading test, the mean failure loads were:Group I, 98.9+/-32.6;Group II, 108.5+/-27.2;Group III, 50.0+/-7.5;and Group IV, 34.5+/-12.2 (N. Group I fixations failed at a significantly higher load than those of Groups III and IV (p0.05. In the extension loading test, the mean failure loads were:Group I, 34.0+/-12.4;Group II, 51.0+/-14.8;Group III, 19.3+/-6.0;and Group IV, 14.7+/-3.1 (N. Group IV fixations showed a significantly lower failure load than those of Group I (p0.05. The fixation rigidities against mechanical loading by the ONI plate and LCP plate were comparable. These results suggested that an ONI system might be superior to the CRP and CS method, and comparable to the LCP method in terms of fixation rigidity for distal humerus fractures.

  13. Ceramic hot plate and method for its manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhoek, M.J.; Van den Heuvel, R.C.; Kelder, E.M.; Schoonman, J.

    2000-01-01

    The subject is a hot plate comprising at least one cooking zone of ceramic material to be located above a heat source of a cooking range. The cooking zone consists of a ceramic material exhibiting a Mott transition. The material exhibiting a Mott transition may consist of a primary ceramic material,

  14. New method for solving the bending problem of rectangular plates with mixed boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is used to solve the rectangular plate bending problem with mixed boundary conditions. The method overcomes the complicated derivation of the classical solution by Fourth-order differential problem into integrating question. Under uniform loading rectangular plate bending problem with one side fixed the opposite side half simply supported half fixed the other two sides free rectangular plate, one side simply supported the opposite side half simply supported half fixed the other two sides free rectangular plate is systematically solved. According to the actual boundary conditions of the rectangular plate, the corresponding characteristic equation can easily be set up. It is presented deflection curve equation and the numerical calculation. By compared the results of the equation to the finite element program, we are able to demonstrate the correctness of the method. So the method not only has certain theoretical value, but also can be directly applied to engineering practice.

  15. A Novel Morphological Method for Detection and Recognition of Vehicle License Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H.M. Kasaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: License plate detection and recognition is an image-processing technique used to identify a vehicle by its license plate. This notable technology has got multiple applications in various traffic and security cases. To name but a few, toll roads, border control, security and car tracking are same of its applications. The main stage is the isolation of the license plate, from the digital image of the car obtained by a digital camera under different circumstances such as illumination, slop, distance and angle. Approach: This study presented a novel method of identifying and recognizing license plates based on the morphology and template matching. The algorithm started with reprocessing and signal conditioning. Next license plate is localized using morphological operators. Then a template matching scheme will be used to recognize the digits and characters within the plate. Results: The system was tested on Iranian car plate images and the performance was 97.3% of correct plates identification and localization and 92% of correct recognized characters. The results regarding the complexity of the problem and diversity of the test cases showed the high accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. The method could also be applicable for other applications in the transport information systems, where automatic recognition of registration plates, shields, signs and so on is often necessary. Conclusion: This system was customized for the identification of Iranian license plates. The results showed that this algorithm performs well on different types of vehicles including Iranian car and motorcycle plates as well as diverse circumstances. We believe that this system can be redesigned and tested for multi national car license plates in the future time regarding their own attributes.

  16. Spiral plate count method for the examination of raw and pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C B; Gilchrist, J E; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1976-07-01

    The spiral plate count method (SPLPC) was compared with the standard plate count (SPC) method by examining 201 samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Although the means of the two methods differed significantly at alpha = 0.01,the difference was less than 10% and was not considered to be of any practical importance. The pooled replicate variances of both methods were less than 0.003, indicating good agreement between duplicate plates, with the variance of the SPLPC slightly less than that of the SPC. We believe this study indicates that the SPLPC could be substituted for the SPC in the bacteriological examination of milk.

  17. The constraint method: A new finite element technique. [applied to static and dynamic loads on plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Szabo, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    An approch to the finite element method which utilizes families of conforming finite elements based on complete polynomials is presented. Finite element approximations based on this method converge with respect to progressively reduced element sizes as well as with respect to progressively increasing orders of approximation. Numerical results of static and dynamic applications of plates are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. Comparisons are made with plate elements in NASTRAN and the high-precision plate element developed by Cowper and his co-workers. Some considerations are given to implementation of the constraint method into general purpose computer programs such as NASTRAN.

  18. Test Method for High β Particle Emission Rate of 63Ni Source Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of measurement difficulties of β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate used for Ni-63 betavoltaic battery, a relative test method of scintillation current method was erected according to the measurement principle of scintillation detector.β particle emission rate of homemade Ni-63 source plate was tested by the method, and the test results were analysed and evaluated, it was initially thought that scintillation current method was a feasible way of testing β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate with high β particle emission rate.

  19. A License Plate Locating Method Based on Tophat-bothat Changing and Line Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P G; Zhao, J; Liu, M [Electrical Engineering Institute of Yanshan University, QinHuangdao, Hebei (China)

    2006-10-15

    The automatic license plate recognition is an important technique to obtain traffic information, it mixes computer vision, image processing techniques and pattern recognition techniques, it is an important technique in intelligent traffic system. In a vehicle license plate recognition system, plate region detection is the key step before the final recognition. This article introduces the whole process of plate region detection. Top - hat and bot - hat transformation are used for enhancing the image contrast in this paper, and wavelet threshold method is used as image filter, and a improved line scanning is used for plate region detection at last. This method has strong practicability. The experimental results demonstrate that the method introduced in this paper is effective.

  20. A comparison between orthogonal and parallel plating methods for distal humerus fractures: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Kap Jung; Park, Kyung Hoon; Choy, Won Sik

    2014-10-01

    With the continuing improvements in implants for distal humerus fractures, it is expected that newer types of plates, which are anatomically precontoured, thinner and less irritating to soft tissue, would have comparable outcomes when used in a clinical study. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients with distal humerus fractures who were treated with orthogonal and parallel plating methods using precontoured distal humerus plates. Sixty-seven patients with a mean age of 55.4 years (range 22-90 years) were included in this prospective study. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments: orthogonal or parallel plating. The following results were assessed: operating time, time to fracture union, presence of a step or gap at the articular margin, varus-valgus angulation, functional recovery, and complications. No intergroup differences were observed based on radiological and clinical results between the groups. In our practice, no significant differences were found between the orthogonal and parallel plating methods in terms of clinical outcomes, mean operation time, union time, or complication rates. There were no cases of fracture nonunion in either group; heterotrophic ossification was found 3 patients in orthogonal plating group and 2 patients in parallel plating group. In our practice, no significant differences were found between the orthogonal and parallel plating methods in terms of clinical outcomes or complication rates. However, orthogonal plating method may be preferred in cases of coronal shear fractures, where posterior to anterior fixation may provide additional stability to the intraarticular fractures. Additionally, parallel plating method may be the preferred technique used for fractures that occur at the most distal end of the humerus.

  1. A Novel Separation Method of Microthrix parvicella Filaments from Activated Sludge by a Hydrophobic Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xuening; Li, Songya; Cao, Lingyun; Yan, Weiguo; Ma, Huaji; Jia, Guozhi

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a novel method to separate Microthrix parvicella (M. parvicella) filaments from activated sludge easily and quickly, as there are a few difficulties in the isolation of M. parvicella filaments, such as complicated isolation process, time consuming, etc. In this work, a series of hydrophobic plate with and without microchannels have been prepared for the separation of M. parvicella filaments. The results showed that the presence of microchannels and hydrophobic property of the hydrophobic plates affected the separation efficiency of M. parvicella significantly. The scanning electron microscope and Keyence Digital Microscope analysis results showed that the diameter of microchannels was similar to the width of M. parvicella filament, which was beneficial for the fastening of M. parvicella filaments on the plate. The hydrophobic property of the prepared plates was tested by contact angle of water droplets, and the results displayed that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) plate possessed the highest contact angle compared with that of other plates, like polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene plate, and PDMS plate with no hydrophobic microchannels. Thus, it was concluded that the high separation efficiency of PDMS plates to M. parvicella filaments was due to its best hydrophobic property.

  2. Energy flow in plate assembles by hierarchical version of finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachulec, Marcin; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    method has been proposed. In this paper a modified hierarchical version of finite element method is used for modelling of energy flow in plate assembles. The formulation includes description of in-plane forces so that planes lying in different planes can be modelled. Two examples considered are: L......The dynamic analysis of structures in medium and high frequencies are usually focused on frequency and spatial averages of energy of components, and not the displacement/velocity fields. This is especially true for structure-borne noise modelling. For the analysis of complicated structures......-corner of two rectangular plates an a I-shaped plate girder made of five plates. Energy distribution among plates due to harmonic load is studied and the comparison of performance between the hierarchical and standard finite element formulation is presented....

  3. Soil plate bioassay: an effective method to determine ecotoxicological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R; Roca-Pérez, L; Marimón, L

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have become one of the most serious anthropogenic stressors for plants and other living organisms. Having efficient and feasible bioassays available to assess the ecotoxicological risks deriving from soil pollution is necessary. This work determines pollution by Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in two soils used for growing rice from the Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Spain). Both were submitted to a different degree of anthropic activity, and their ecotoxicological risk was assessed by four ecotoxicity tests to compare their effectiveness: Microtox test, Zucconi test, pot bioassay (PB) and soil plate bioassay (SPB). The sensitivity of three plant species (barley, cress and lettuce) was also assessed. The results reveal a different degree of effectiveness and level of inhibition in the target organisms' growth depending on the test applied, to such an extent that the one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences only for the plate bioassay results, with considerable inhibition of root and shoot elongation in seedlings. Of the three plant species selected, lettuce was the most sensitive species to toxic effects, followed by cress and barley. Finally, the results also indicate that the SPB is an efficient, simple and economic alternative to other ecotoxicological assays to assess toxicity risks deriving from soil pollution.

  4. Vibration analysis of orthotropic circular and elliptical nano-plates embedded in elastic medium based on nonlocal Mindlin plate theory and using Galerkin method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjomshoa, Amin; Tahani, Masoud [Ferdowsi University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In the present study a continuum model based on the nonlocal elasticity theory is developed for free vibration analysis of embedded ortho tropic thick circular and elliptical nano-plates rested on an elastic foundation. The elastic foundation is considered to behave like a Pasternak type of foundations. Governing equations for vibrating nano-plate are derived according to the Mindlin plate theory in which the effects of shear deformations of nano-plate are also included. The Galerkin method is then employed to obtain the size dependent natural frequencies of nano-plate. The solution procedure considers the entire nano-plate as a single super-continuum element. Effect of nonlocal parameter, lengths of nano-plate, aspect ratio, mode number, material properties, thickness and foundation on circular frequencies are investigated. It is seen that the nonlocal frequencies of the nano-plate are smaller in comparison to those from the classical theory and this is more pronounced for small lengths and higher vibration modes. It is also found that as the aspect ratio increases or the nanoplate becomes more elliptical, the small scale effect on natural frequencies increases. Further, it is observed that the elastic foundation decreases the influence of nonlocal parameter on the results. Since the effect of shear deformations plays an important role in vibration analysis and design of nano-plates, by predicting smaller values for fundamental frequencies, the study of these nano-structures using thick plate theories such as Mindlin plate theory is essential.

  5. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  6. Free Vibration Analysis of Sectorial Plates Using the Triangular Differential Quadrature Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 钟宏志; 何玉红

    2004-01-01

    The triangular differential quadrature method was used to analyze the free vibrations of moderately thick sectorial plates. A triangular serendipity transformation was introduced to map the sectorial domain onto a unit isosceles right triangle. The first six non-dimensional frequencies of the sectorial plates were obtained for various combinations of clamped and simply supported boundary conditions. For sectorial plates with simply supported radial edges, the present results agree well with the available exact solutions and finite element solutions, demonstrating the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Consideration of Uninterrupted Conditions in Solving the Tasks of Plate Bending by the Finite - Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azaryan N. A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested a modification of tetragonal finite - element method, where the tasks of plate bending with taking into accountancy uninterrupted normal efforts or displacements are reduced to quadratic programming ones.

  8. Plate screening methods for the detection of polysaccharase-producing microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Hartmans, S.

    2000-01-01

    Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (polysaccharases) are widely applied in industry. One of the sources of these enzymes are polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms. To obtain such microorganisms from enrichment cultures, strain collections or gene libraries, efficient plate screening methods are requ

  9. Isolation method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter from chicken carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  10. A multiresolution finite element method based on a new locking-free rectangular Mindlin plate element

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    A locking-free rectangular Mindlin plate element with a new multi-resolution analysis (MRA) is proposed and a multireolution finite element method is hence presented. The MRA framework is formulated out of a mutually nesting displacement subspace sequence. The MRA endows the proposed element with the resolution level (RL) to adjust the element node number, thus modulating structural analysis accuracy accordingly. As a result, the traditional 4-node rectangular Mindlin plate element and method is a mono-resolution one and also a special case of the proposed element and method. The meshing for the monoresolution plate element model is based on the empiricism while the RL adjusting for the multiresolution is laid on the rigorous mathematical basis. The accuracy of a structural analysis is actually determined by the RL, not by the mesh. The rational MRA enables the implementation of the multiresolution Mindlin plate element method to be more rational and efficient than that of the conventional monoresolution or o...

  11. Implementation Methods of Computer Aided Design-Drawing and Drawing Management for Plate Cutting-Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-de; ZHAO Han; TAN Jian-rong

    2002-01-01

    The implementation methods of computer aided design,drawing and drawing management for plate cuttingmachine are discussed. The system structure for plate cutting- machine design is put forward firstly, then some key technologies and their implementation methods are introduced, which include the structure management of graphics, the unification of graph and design calculation, information share of part, assemble and drawing management system, and movement simulation of key components.

  12. Orthotopic Autologous Chondrocyte Grafting as a Method of Treatment of Growth Plate Damage in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Wiktor, Łukasz; Gap, Artur

    2016-10-28

    With the continuous advances in the therapy of joint cartilage injury, some of those classification systems are also being used for evaluating the quality of regenerating cartilage. Histo lo gi cal assessment of joint cartilage is a very important component in the staging of osteoarthritis and tracing therapeutic outcomes. We performed a histological assessment of regenerating growth plate in a group of New Zealand white rabbits as a component of autologous chondrocyte therapy for growth plate damage. We studied a group of 14 five-week-old in-bred white rabbits. We used a tre phine needle to harvest growth plate from the medial fourth of tibial width. The mean duration of the procedure was 25 minutes (range: 12-37 minutes). We conducted a total of 25 growth plate harvesting procedures. In 21 cases, we placed a drainage tube at the site of the defect for 22 days. After removing the tube, we introduced a cartilago-fibrinous construct containing cultured autologous chondrocytes into 14 defects, while 4 defects were left intact. Three growth plates represented non-intervention controls. Our analysis showed satisfactory graft morphology and integration; absence of inflammatory res ponse and fair restitution of growth plate architecture. 1. Growth plate damage can lead to the development of an angular deformity as a result of im paired longitudinal bone growth; 2. Autologous chondrocyte grafting is a good method of treatment for growth plate damage; 3. A weakness of autologous chondrocyte grafting is the relatively long time of chondrocyte culturing.

  13. An Effective Method for Free Vibration of Plate on Elastic Half Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuanhan; Gong Wenhui

    2004-01-01

    The vibration analysis of a plate on an elastic foundation is an important problem in engineering. It is the interaction of a plate with the three-dimensional half space and the plate is usually loaded from both the upper and lower surfaces. The contact pressure from the soil can not be predefined. According to Lamb's solution for a single oscillating force acting on a point on the surface of an elastic half space, and the relevant approximation formulae, a relation between the local pressure and the deflection of the plate has been proposed. Based on this analysis, the reaction of the soil can be represented as the deformation of the plate. Therefore, the plate can be separated from the soil and only needs to be divided by a number of elements in the analysis. The following procedure is the same as the standard finite element method. This is a semi-analytical and semi-numerical method. It has been applied to the dynamic analysis of circular or rectangular plates on the elastic half space, at low or high frequency vibration, and on rigid, soft or flexible foundations. The results show that this method is versatile and highly accurate.

  14. DUAL RECIPROCITY BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR FLEXURAL WAVES IN THIN PLATE WITH CUTOUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Suo-wen; WANG Yue-sheng; ZHANG Zi-mao; MA Xing-rui

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical analysis and numerical calculation of scattering of elastic waves and dynamic stress concentrations in the thin plate with the cutout was studied using dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRM). Based on the work equivalent law, the dual reciprocity boundary integral equations for flexural waves in the thin plate were established using static fundamental solution. As illustration, numerical results for the dynamic stress concentration factors in the thin plate with a circular hole are given.The results obtained demonstrate good agreement with other reported results and show high accuracy.

  15. Natural frequencies of cracked functionally graded material plates by the extended finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, S; Bordas, S; Rabczuk, T; Kerfriden, P

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the linear free flexural vibration of cracked functionally graded material plates is studied using the extended finite element method. A 4-noded quadrilateral plate bending element based on field and edge consistency requirement with 20 degrees of freedom per element is used for this study. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of simply supported and clamped square and rectangular plates are computed as a function of gradient index, crack length, crack orientation and crack location. The effect of thickness and influence of multiple cracks is also studied.

  16. Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Moderately Thick Plates using Natural Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Etemadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using natural element method (NEM, the buckling and the free vibration behaviors of moderate thick plates is studied here. The basis of NEM is natural neighbors and Voronoi cells concepts. The shape functions of nodes located in the domain is equal to the proportion of common natural neighbors area divided by area that related by each Voronoi cells. First step in analyzing the moderate thick plates is identification boundaries. This is done by nodes scattering on problem domain. Mindlin/Reissner theory is used to express the equations of moderate thick plate. First and second order shape functions obtained from natural element method are used to discretize differential equations. Using numerical integration on whole discrete equations of domain, stiffness, geometry and mass matrices of plate are obtained. Buckling loads and vibration modes are expressed by substituting these matrices in plate equations of motions. Arbitrary shapes of plate are selected for solution. Comparing the results of the current approach with those obtained by other numerical analytical methods, it is shown that natural element method can solve problems with complex areas accurately.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL QUADRATURE METHOD FOR BENDING OF ORTHOTROPIC PLATES WITH FINITE DEFORMATION AND TRANSVERSE SHEAR EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 程昌钧

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Reddy' s theory of plates with the effect of higher-order shear deformations, the governing equations for bending of orthotropic plates with finite deformations were established. The differential quadrature ( DQ ) method of nonlinear analysis to the problem was presented. New DQ approach, presented by Wang and Bert (DQWB), is extended to handle the multiple boundary conditions of plates. The techniques were also further extended to simplify nonlinear computations. The numerical convergence and comparison of solutions were studied. The results show that the DQ method presented is very reliable and valid. Moreover, the influences of geometric and material parameters as well as the transverse shear deformations on nonlinear bending were investigated.Numerical results show the influence of the shear deformation on the static bending of orthotropic moderately thick plate is significant.

  18. New method and uncertainty estimation for plate dimensions and surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salah H. R.; Buajarern, Jariya

    2014-03-01

    Dimensional and surface quality for tile plate manufacturing control is facing difficult engineering challenges. One of these challenges being that plates in large-scale mass production contain geometrically uneven surfaces. There is a traditional measurement method used to assess the tile plate dimensions and surface quality based on standard specifications: ISO-10545-2: 1995, EOS-3168-2: 2007 and TIS 2398-2:2008. A new measurement method of the dimensions and surface quality for ceramic oblong large-scale tile plate has been developed compared to the traditional method. The strategy of the proposed method is based on CMM straightness measurement strategy instead of the centre point in the traditional method. Expanded uncertainties budgets in the measurements of each method have been estimated in detail. The capability of accurate estimations of real actual results of centre of curvature (CC), centre of edge (CE), warpage (W) and edge crack defects parameters has been achieved according to standards. Moreover, the obtained results showed not only a more accurate method but also improved the quality of tile plate products significantly.

  19. New Measurement Method and Uncertainty Estimation for Plate Dimensions and Surface Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah H. R. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional and surface quality for plate production control is facing difficult engineering challenges. One of these challenges is that plates in large-scale mass production contain geometric uneven surfaces. There is a traditional measurement method used to assess the tile plate dimensions and surface quality based on standard specifications: ISO-10545-2: 1995, EOS-3168-2: 2007, and TIS 2398-2: 2008. A proposed measurement method of the dimensions and surface quality for ceramic oblong large-scale tile plate has been developed compared to the traditional method. The strategy of new method is based on CMM straightness measurement strategy instead of the centre point in the traditional method. Expanded uncertainties budgets in the measurements of each method have been estimated in detail. The capability of accurate estimations of real actual results for centre of curvature (CC, centre of edge (CE, warpage (W, and edge crack defects parameters has been achieved according to standards. Moreover, the obtained results not only showed better accurate new method but also improved the quality of plate products significantly.

  20. Numerical Methods for Plate Forming by Line Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik Bisgaard

    2000-01-01

    Few researchers have addressed so far the topic Line Heating in the search for better control of the process. Various methods to help understanding the mechanics have been used, including beam analysis approximation, equivalent force calculation and three-dimensional finite element analysis. I...... consider here finite element methods to model the behaviour and to predict the heating paths....

  1. Topology Optimization of Constrained Layer Damping on Plates Using Method of Moving Asymptote (MMA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damping treatments have been extensively used as a powerful means to damp out structural resonant vibrations. Usually, damping materials are fully covered on the surface of plates. The drawbacks of this conventional treatment are also obvious due to an added mass and excess material consumption. Therefore, it is not always economical and effective from an optimization design view. In this paper, a topology optimization approach is presented to maximize the modal damping ratio of the plate with constrained layer damping treatment. The governing equation of motion of the plate is derived on the basis of energy approach. A finite element model to describe dynamic performances of the plate is developed and used along with an optimization algorithm in order to determine the optimal topologies of constrained layer damping layout on the plate. The damping of visco-elastic layer is modeled by the complex modulus formula. Considering the vibration and energy dissipation mode of the plate with constrained layer damping treatment, damping material density and volume factor are considered as design variable and constraint respectively. Meantime, the modal damping ratio of the plate is assigned as the objective function in the topology optimization approach. The sensitivity of modal damping ratio to design variable is further derived and Method of Moving Asymptote (MMA is adopted to search the optimized topologies of constrained layer damping layout on the plate. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed topology optimization approach. The results show that vibration energy dissipation of the plates can be enhanced by the optimal constrained layer damping layout. This optimal technology can be further extended to vibration attenuation of sandwich cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles as an

  2. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF PLATES DUE TO MOVING VEHICLES USING FINITE STRIP METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远胜; 张佑啟; 区达光

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic response of beam-like structures to moving vehicles has been extensive-ly studied. However, the study on dynamic response of plates to moving vehicles has so farreceived but scant attention. A plate-vehicle strip for simulating the interaction between arectangular plate and moving vehicles was described. For the portion of strips that are in di-rect contact with the moving vehicles, the plate-vehicle strips were employed. Conventionalplate finite strips were used to model the portion of strips that are not directly under the ac-tion of moving vehicles. In the analysis, each moving vehicle is idealized as a one-foot dy-namic system with the unsprung mass and sprund mass interconnected by a spring and adashpot. The numerical results obtained from the proposed method agree well with availableresults.

  3. Electrochemical Device Comprising Composite Bipolar Plate and Method of Using the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Inventor); Braff, William A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical device and methods of using the same. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device may be used as a fuel cell and/or as an electrolyzer and includes a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), an anodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the anode of the MEA, a cathodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the cathode, a first bipolar plate in contact with the anodic gas diffusion medium, and a second bipolar plate in contact with the cathodic gas diffusion medium. Each of the bipolar plates includes an electrically-conductive, chemically-inert, non-porous, liquid-permeable, substantially gas-impermeable membrane in contact with its respective gas diffusion medium, as well as a fluid chamber and a non-porous an electrically-conductive plate.

  4. Electrochemical Device Comprising Composite Bipolar Plate and Method of Using the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Inventor); Braff, William A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical device and methods of using the same. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device may be used as a fuel cell and/or as an electrolyzer and includes a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), an anodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the anode of the MEA, a cathodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the cathode, a first bipolar plate in contact with the anodic gas diffusion medium, and a second bipolar plate in contact with the cathodic gas diffusion medium. Each of the bipolar plates includes an electrically-conductive, chemically-inert, non-porous, liquid-permeable, substantially gas-impermeable membrane in contact with its respective gas diffusion medium, as well as a fluid chamber and a non-porous an electrically-conductive plate.

  5. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R Cold

    Full Text Available The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1 Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2 Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3 Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.

  6. Modeling of Intermesh Schedule for Strong Heavy Plate Roller Straightener and Finite Element Method Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding straightening unit as the research object, considered the different of roller spacing, a mathematical model of intermesh schedule suitable to the 2800 seven-roller strong heavy plate straightening machine was deduced by the geometric method. According to the mathematical model, the intermesh schedules of several specifications of plate were calculated, and the finite element model of straightening process was established in the finite element analysis software Abaqus. By analysing, it was found that those plates after straightening cannot meet the requirement of flatness, due to the existence of the work hardening. The bending deflection of the last straightening unit was modified and the new calculation formula of intermesh schedule was obtained. The values of the modified coefficients were determined by the finite element method. The intermesh schedules of other specifications of plate were calculated by the modified calculation formula and then verified it in Abaqus. The simulation results showed that those plates after straightening meet the requirement of flatness. So, the research results provide a theoretical basis for development of a new plate straightening machine and formulation of intermesh schedule.

  7. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold, Emma R; Freyria, Nastasia J; Martínez Martínez, Joaquín; Fernández Robledo, José A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1) Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2) Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3) Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.

  8. Applications of a General Finite-Difference Method for Calculating Bending Deformations of Solid Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, William C., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of an investigation of a finite - difference method directly applicable to calculating static or simple harmonic flexures of solid plates and potentially useful in other problems of structural analysis. The method, which was proposed in doctoral thesis by John C. Houbolt, is based on linear theory and incorporates the principle of minimum potential energy. Full realization of its advantages requires use of high-speed computing equipment. After a review of Houbolt's method, results of some applications are presented and discussed. The applications consisted of calculations of the natural modes and frequencies of several uniform-thickness cantilever plates and, as a special case of interest, calculations of the modes and frequencies of the uniform free-free beam. Computed frequencies and nodal patterns for the first five or six modes of each plate are compared with existing experiments, and those for one plate are compared with another approximate theory. Beam computations are compared with exact theory. On the basis of the comparisons it is concluded that the method is accurate and general in predicting plate flexures, and additional applications are suggested. An appendix is devoted t o computing procedures which evolved in the progress of the applications and which facilitate use of the method in conjunction with high-speed computing equipment.

  9. Development of Time-Reversal Method for Impact Source Identification on Plate Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed study on the impact source identification of a plate structure using time-reversal (T-R method. Prior to impact monitoring, the plate is calibrated (or characterized by transfer functions at discrete locations on the plate surface. Both impact location and impact loading time-history are identified using T-R technique and associated signal processing algorithms. Numerical verification for finite-size isotropic plates under low velocity impacts is performed to demonstrate the versatility of T-R method for impact source identification. The tradeoff between accuracy of the impact location detection and calibration spacing is studied in detail. In particular, the effect of plate thickness on calibration spacing has been examined. A number of parameters selected for determining the impact location, approximated transfer functions and steps taken for reconstructing the impact loading time-history are also examined. Two types of noise with various intensities contaminated in strain response and/or transfer functions are investigated for demonstrating the stability and reliability of the T-R method. The results show that T-R method is robust against noise in impact location detection and force reconstruction in circumventing the inherent ill-conditioned inverse problem. Only transfer functions are needed to be calibrated and four sensors are requested in T-R method for impact identification.

  10. High Velocity Tensile Test for Thin Plate Specimen with One Bar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Masaaki

    In order to design thin-walled impact-resistant structure, for example, an automotive body, dynamic behavior of thin plate is essential. So far, except for laminated composite materials, high velocity tensile test of thin plate specimen did not attract impact researchers' and engineers' attention very much. In this paper, the previous thin plate specimen assembly for the one bar method was improved. The one bar method has been utilized for cylindrical specimens of various solid materials and is known as an effective high velocity tensile testing technique. Unfortunately, the previous assembly introduced a tremendous initial peak on stress-strain curves, even for aluminum alloys. With a new specimen assembly, stress-strain curves for IF (Interstitial-atom Free) steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy obtained by the one bar method were almost equivalent to those obtained by the tensile version of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method.

  11. Verification of 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates by an absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gammal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Safeguards is referred to a verification System by which a State can control all nuclear materials (NM) and nuclear activities under its authority. An effective and efficient Safeguards System must include a system of measurements with capabilities sufficient to verify such NM. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM Standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method has been investigated to verify the 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) type. The most intense gamma-ray signature at 185.7 keV emitted after α-decay of the 235U nuclei was employed in the method. The measuring system (an HPGe-spectrometer) was mathematically calibrated for efficiency using the general Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B. The calibration results and the measured net count rate were used to estimate the 235U mass content in fuel plates at different detector-to-fuel plate distances. Two sets of fuel plates, containing natural and low enriched uranium, were measured at the Fuel Fabrication Facility. Average accuracies for the estimated 235U masses of about 2.62% and 0.3% are obtained for the fuel plates containing natural and low enriched uranium; respectively, with a precision of about 3%.

  12. Vibration of circular plate with multiple eccentric circular perforations by the Rayleigh-Ritz method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeedi, Khodabakhsh; Bhat, Rama B.; Stiharu, Ion [Concordia University, Montreal (Canada); Leo, Alfin [2Parker Filtration Canada, Laval (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    The free vibration of a circular plate with multiple perforations is analyzed by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Admissible functions are assumed to be separable functions of radial and tangential coordinates. Trigonometric functions are assumed in the circumferential direction. The radial shape functions are the boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials generated following the Gram-Schmidt recurrence scheme. The assumed functions are used to estimate the kinetic and the potential energies of the plate depending on the number and the position of the perforations. The eigenvalues, representing the dimensionless natural frequencies, are compared with the results obtained using Bessel functions, where the exact solution is available. Moreover, the eigenvectors, which are the unknown coefficients of the Rayleigh-Ritz method, are used to present the mode shapes of the plate. To validate the analytical results of the plates with multiple perforations, experimental investigations are also performed. Two unique case studies that are not addressed in the existing literature are considered. The results of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are found to be in good agreement with those from the experiments. Although the method presented can be employed in the vibration analysis of plates with different boundary conditions and shapes of the perforations, circular perforations that are free on the edges are studied in this paper. The results are presented in terms of dimensionless frequencies and mode shapes.

  13. Non-invasive method of field imaging in parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a new non-invasive air-photonic-based method of terahertz (THz) field imaging inside a parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on THz field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We also demonstrate the direct measurements...

  14. C1-continuous Virtual Element Method for Poisson-Kirchhoff plate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mourad, Hashem Mohamed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We present a family of C1-continuous high-order Virtual Element Methods for Poisson-Kirchho plate bending problem. The convergence of the methods is tested on a variety of meshes including rectangular, quadrilateral, and meshes obtained by edge removal (i.e. highly irregular meshes). The convergence rates are presented for all of these tests.

  15. A force plate based method for the calibration of force/torque sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Gert S.; Chang, Chien-Chi; Kingma, Idsart; Schepers, H. Martin; Herber, Sebastiaan; Veltink, Peter H.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a novel calibration method for six-degrees-of-freedom force/torque sensors (FTsensors) using a pre-calibrated force plate (FP) as a reference measuring device. In this calibration method, the FTsensor is rigidly connected to a FP and force/torque data are synchronously recorded

  16. A simple agar plate method, using micro-algae, for herbicide bio-assay or detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S J

    1975-07-01

    A simple, inexpensive method is described for the bio-assay of herbicides using micro-algae growing on agar plates. A result is obtainable in 2 days and the method is suitable for biodetection of herbicide residues, or toxicity studies on soil or aquatic pollutants.

  17. A new multiresolution finite element method based on a multiresolution quadrilateral plate element

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, YiMing

    2014-01-01

    A new multiresolution quadrilateral plate element is proposed and a multiresolution finite element method is hence presented. The multiresolution analysis (MRA) framework is formulated out of a mutually nesting displacement subspace sequence, whose basis functions are constructed of scaling and shifting on the element domain of basic node shape function. The basic node shape function is constructed by extending shape function around a specific node. The MRA endows the proposed element with the resolution level (RL) to adjust the element node number, thus modulating structural analysis accuracy accordingly. As a result, the traditional 4-node quadrilateral plate element and method is a monoresolution one and also a special case of the proposed element and method. The meshing for the monoresolution plate element model is based on the empiricism while the RL adjusting for the multiresolution is laid on the rigorous mathematical basis. The accuracy of a structural analysis is fully determined by the RL, not by th...

  18. Ultrafast Laser Engraving Method to Fabricate Gravure Plate for Printed Metal-Mesh Touch Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyuan Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to engrave gravure plate with fine lines structures, conventional art used lithography with dry/wet etching. Lithography with dry/wet etching method allows to engrave lines with smooth concave shape, but its disadvantages include difficulty in controlling aspect ratio, high and uniform in large size process, substrate material limitation due to etching solution availability, and process complexity. We developed ultra-fast laser technology to directly engrave a stainless plate, a gravure plate, to be used for fabricating 23 in. metal-mesh touch panel by gravure offset printing process. The technology employs high energy pulse to ablate materials from a substrate. Because the ultra-fast laser pulse duration is shorter than the energy dissipation time between material lattices, there is no heating issue during the ablation process. Therefore, no volcano-type protrusion on the engraved line edges occurs, leading to good printing quality. After laser engraving, we then reduce surface roughness of the gravure plate using electro-polishing process. Diamond like carbon (DLC coating layer is then added onto the surface to increase scratch resistance. We show that this procedure can fabricate gravure plate for gravure offset printing process with minimum printing linewidth 10.7 μm. A 23 in. metal-mesh pattern was printed using such gravure plate and fully functional touch panel was demonstrated in this work.

  19. 3-D vibration analysis of annular sector plates using the Chebyshev-Ritz method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Lo, S. H.; Cheung, Y. K.

    2009-02-01

    The three-dimensional free vibration of annular sector plates with various boundary conditions is studied by means of the Chebyshev-Ritz method. The analysis is based on the three-dimensional small strain linear elasticity theory. The product of Chebyshev polynomials satisfying the necessary boundary conditions is selected as admissible functions in such a way that the governing eigenvalue equation can be conveniently derived through an optimization process by the Ritz method. The boundary functions guarantee the satisfaction of the geometric boundary conditions of the plates and the Chebyshev polynomials provide the robustness for numerical calculation. The present study provides a full vibration spectrum for the thick annular sector plates, which cannot be given by the two-dimensional (2-D) theories such as the Mindlin theory. Comprehensive numerical results with high accuracy are systematically produced, which can be used as benchmark to evaluate other numerical methods. The effect of radius ratio, thickness ratio and sector angle on natural frequencies of the plates with a sector angle from 120° to 360° is discussed in detail. The three-dimensional vibration solutions for plates with a re-entrant sector angle (larger than 180°) and shallow helicoidal shells (sector angle larger than 360°) with a small helix angle are presented for the first time.

  20. A numerical method for multiple cracks in an infinite elastic plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiang-qiao; WU Hai-peng

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the interaction of multiple cracks in an infinite plate by using a numerical method. The numerical method consists of the non-singular displacement discontinuity element presented by Crouch and Starfied and the crack tip displacement discontinuity elements proposed by the author. In the numerical method implementation, the left or the right crack tip element is placed locally at the corresponding left or right crack tip on top of the constant displacement discontinuity elements that cover the entire crack surface and the other boundaries. The numerical method is called a hybrid displacement discontinuity method. The following test examples of crack problems in an infinite plate under tension are included: "center-inclined cracked plate", "interaction of two collinear cracks with equal length", "interaction of three collinear cracks with equal length", "interaction of two parallel cracks with equal length", and "interaction of one horizontal crack and one inclined crack". The present numerical results show that the numerical method is simple yet very accurate for analyzing the interaction of multiple cracks in an infinite plate.

  1. Dynamic Error Analysis Method for Vibration Shape Reconstruction of Smart FBG Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape reconstruction of aerospace plate structure is an important issue for safe operation of aerospace vehicles. One way to achieve such reconstruction is by constructing smart fiber Bragg grating (FBG plate structure with discrete distributed FBG sensor arrays using reconstruction algorithms in which error analysis of reconstruction algorithm is a key link. Considering that traditional error analysis methods can only deal with static data, a new dynamic data error analysis method are proposed based on LMS algorithm for shape reconstruction of smart FBG plate structure. Firstly, smart FBG structure and orthogonal curved network based reconstruction method is introduced. Then, a dynamic error analysis model is proposed for dynamic reconstruction error analysis. Thirdly, the parameter identification is done for the proposed dynamic error analysis model based on least mean square (LMS algorithm. Finally, an experimental verification platform is constructed and experimental dynamic reconstruction analysis is done. Experimental results show that the dynamic characteristics of the reconstruction performance for plate structure can be obtained accurately based on the proposed dynamic error analysis method. The proposed method can also be used for other data acquisition systems and data processing systems as a general error analysis method.

  2. The Interpretation of Dynamic Contact Angles Measured by the Wilhelmy Plate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramé

    1997-01-01

    We present an analysis for properly interpreting apparent dynamic contact angles measured using the Wilhelmy plate method at low capillary numbers, Ca. This analysis removes the ambiguity in current dynamic measurements which interpret data with the same formula as static measurements. We properly account for all forces, including viscous forces, acting on the plate as it moves into or out of a liquid bath. Our main result, valid at O(1) as Ca --> 0, relates the apparent dynamic contact angle to material-dependent, geometry-independent parameters necessary for describing dynamic wetting of a system. The special case of the apparent contact angle = pi/2 was solved to O(Ca). This O(Ca) solution can guide numerical work necessary for higher Ca's and arbitrary values of the apparent contact angle. These results make the Wilhelmy plate a viable method for determining material parameters for dynamic spreading.

  3. The dynamic flexibility method in structural dynamics: Application to nonuniform beams and plates and to cavity-backed plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyo

    1993-01-01

    Efficient and accurate analytical or semi-analytical solutions have been developed for the dynamics of one and two dimensional linear structures employing elemental dynamic flexibility formulation. This dissertation is divided into three parts. In the first, the elemental flexibility formulation is developed for Euler-Bernoulli beams having discontinuous section properties, which can be viewed as the synthesis of uniform beams, and the exactness of the solution is established. In the second, the elemental flexibility formulation is extended to thin rectangular plates having Levy boundary conditions, and conditions under which the exact solution can be achieved are presented. In the third, the structural-acoustic problem of Helmholtz fluid enclosed by a partially flexible cavity is posed and solved. Here, a concise analytical representation of the structural dynamics is used in conjunction with a boundary element approach for the fluid medium to give an efficient and accurate semi-analytical solution. All three sections are organized along similar lines. Following an introduction and review of the pertinent literature, the governing equations are derived and solved, a series of example problems is presented, the results from the examples are compared with similar results from the literature, and efficacy of the method when compared with other methods is discussed. This is followed by a general conclusions section and a series of appendices.

  4. High-Frequency Dynamic Analysis of Plates in Thermal Environments Based on Energy Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy density governing equation to analyze the high-frequency dynamic behavior of plates in thermal environments is derived in this paper, in which the thermal effects are considered to change the membrane stress state and temperature dependent material properties of plates. Then the thermal effects on the energy reflection and transmission coefficients are dealt with hereof. Based on the above, an EFEM (energy finite element method based approximate approach for the energy analysis of coupled plates under nonuniform thermal environments is proposed. The approach could be conducted by three steps: (1 thermal analysis, (2 thermal stress analysis, and (3 forming element matrixes, joint matrixes, and the whole EFEM formulation for the energy analysis. The same mesh model is used for all the three steps. The comparison between EFEM results and classical modal superposition method results of simply supported plates in various uniform thermal environments and coupled plates in nonuniform thermal environments demonstrated that the derived energy governing equation and the proposed approach described well the smooth time- and locally space-averaged energy density. It is found that the distributions and levels of energy density are affected by thermal effects, and the variation trends are related to exciting frequency.

  5. Dynamic Stationary Response of Reinforced Plates by the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Facundo Sanches

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct version of the boundary element method (BEM is developed to model the stationary dynamic response of reinforced plate structures, such as reinforced panels in buildings, automobiles, and airplanes. The dynamic stationary fundamental solutions of thin plates and plane stress state are used to transform the governing partial differential equations into boundary integral equations (BIEs. Two sets of uncoupled BIEs are formulated, respectively, for the in-plane state (membrane and for the out-of-plane state (bending. These uncoupled systems are joined to form a macro-element, in which membrane and bending effects are present. The association of these macro-elements is able to simulate thin-walled structures, including reinforced plate structures. In the present formulation, the BIE is discretized by continuous and/or discontinuous linear elements. Four displacement integral equations are written for every boundary node. Modal data, that is, natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of reinforced plates, are obtained from information contained in the frequency response functions (FRFs. A specific example is presented to illustrate the versatility of the proposed methodology. Different configurations of the reinforcements are used to simulate simply supported and clamped boundary conditions for the plate structures. The procedure is validated by comparison with results determined by the finite element method (FEM.

  6. Experimental method for and theoretical research on defect tolerance of fixed plate based on damage mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Zhixin; Hu Weiping; Zhang Miao; Zhu Yuefa; Meng Qingchun

    2013-01-01

    An experimental method and a theoretical analysis based on continuum damage mechan-ics are applied for the defects tolerance of fixed plate. The defects type studied in this article is scratch, which is considered a typical defect on fixed plate according to the engineering practice. The general approach to the defects tolerance analysis of scratched fixed plate is presented. The method of fatigue life prediction for standard notched specimens has been established on the basis of continuum damage mechanics. For the purpose of obtaining the influence law of fatigue life in consequence of scratches, fatigue experiments of standard notched specimens and scratched specimens have been done. Evalu-ation of the fatigue life of scratched fixed plate has been carried out. And the value of scratch defects permissible to the condition of safety service life has been worked out. According to the results of the-oretical calculations, the fatigue experiment of scratched fixed plate has been performed. The outcome shows that the theoretical prediction tallies with the experimental results.

  7. HE NEW METHOD OF MINIMALLY INVASIVE OSTEOSYTHESIS OF HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES WITH HELICAL PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Kochish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of investigation is to approve the new method of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in cases of diaphyseal humeral shaft fractures with helical plate.Materials and methods. During experimental cadaveric part of the study implantation of long helical plate on humerus using minimally invasive technique on 14 fresh cadaveric shoulders was done. plate was inserted from two incisions 3-5 cm long in the upper part of the shoulder on the lateral side and in the lower part on the anterior side. Clinical part of the study included 31 patients with isolated humeral shaft fractures and humeral shaft fractures associated with fractures of proximal humerus and treated by minimally invasive fixation with helical plate.Results. Cadaveric study included preparation and special measuring and showed that implantation of the helical plate in proposed way gives safe distances between plate and axial, radial, musculocutaneous, median nerves, main humeral vessels and tendon of the long head of the biceps.Results of the clinical part of the study: radiological evidence of bone healing were observed on the 12 weeks in 10 from 28 cases (36%, on the 18 weeks in 18 from 25 (72%, on the 24 weeks in all 25 cases (100%. On the 24 weeks after surgery results on the DASH scale in average were 13±3,6 (from 3 to 36. Where in good results were in 17 (68% cases, satisfactory in 8 (32% cases. On the Constant Shoulder Score at the same time averege results were 80±4,63 (from 60 to 91. Exellent result was in 7 (28% cases, good in 12 (48%, satisfactory in 5 (20% cases and bad in one (4% case with subacromial impidgement after wrong plate positioning. There were no any cases of vascular and neurological complications and nonunions.Conclusion. Minimally invasive fixation of humeral shaft fractures with helical plates is safe and effective method of surgical treatment with good dynamic of functional rehabilitation and can be recommended for clinical use.

  8. Validating the plate mapping method: Comparing drawn foods and actual foods of university students in a cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David E

    2016-05-01

    To examine effects of plate size on meals, I developed a method I label plate mapping. To validate plate mapping, a quasi-experimental between participants study was conducted that asked university students to accurately draw their lunch meal. Participants were randomized into groups where they were asked either pre-consumption or post-consumption to draw their lunch on either a 9″ or 11″ paper plate. Coding plate drawings for total meal size revealed that students drew bigger meals on larger plates and participant meal size drawings were more accurate when the plate provided was the same size as the meal plate used. Gender moderated meal size drawings, with women generally drawing meals that were more highly correlated and similarly sized to actual meals when compared to the drawings of men. Overall, the size of plate drawings was highly correlated with the size of actual foods, which provides support for the validity of the method of plate mapping. These findings suggest that plate mapping can be applied to estimate meal size and assess sensitivity to plate size. Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms and processes that influence food consumption habits can help increase awareness of these cues for both academics as well as for consumers of food and benefit short- and long-term health goals.

  9. Photography - Determination of thiosulphate and other residual chemicals in processed photographic films, plates and papers - Methylene blue photometric method and silver sulphide densitometric method

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1977-01-01

    Photography - Determination of thiosulphate and other residual chemicals in processed photographic films, plates and papers - Methylene blue photometric method and silver sulphide densitometric method

  10. Accurate calculation methods for natural frequencies of plates with special attention to the higher modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhout, G.M.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Spiering, R.M.E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Various computational methods have been studied with respect to their suitability for obtaining very accurate solutions of plate vibration problems, especially for the higher modes. Because of the interest in the higher modes, also higher order effects such as transverse shear deformation and rotati

  11. Vibration analysis of cracked plates using the extended finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachene, M. [University of Medea, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medea (Algeria); Tiberkak, R. [University of Blida, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Blida (Algeria); Rechak, S. [National Polytechnic School of Algiers, Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-03-15

    In the present paper, the extended finite element method (X-FEM) is adopted to analyze vibrations of cracked plates. Mindlin's plate theory taking into account the effects of shear deformation and rotatory inertia is included in the development of the model. First, conventional FEM without any discontinuity is carried out, then the enrichment proposed by Moes et al. (Int J Numer Methods Eng 46, 131-150, 1999) of nodal elements containing cracks is added to the FEM formulation. Numerical implementation of enriched elements by discontinuous functions is performed, and thus dynamic equations (stiffness and mass matrices) are established. A FORTRAN computer code based on the X-FEM formulation is hence developed. Rectangular and square plates containing through-edge and central cracks with different boundary conditions are considered. The subspace iteration method is used to solve the eigenvalue problem. Natural frequencies as well as the corresponding eigenfunctions are consequently calculated as a function of the crack length. The obtained results show that the X-FEM is an efficient method in the dynamic analysis of plates containing discontinuities. (orig.)

  12. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED PLATE BASED ON THE HAAR WAVELET METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of a simply-supported functionally graded rectangular plate with an arbitrary distribution of material properties is made using a simple and effective method based on the Haar wavelet. With good features in treating singularities, Haar series solution converges rapidly for arbitrary distributions, especially for the case where the material properties change rapidly in some regions. Through numerical examples the influences of the ratio of material constants on the top and bottom surfaces and different material gradient distributions on the structural response of the plate to mechanical stimuli are studied.

  13. Interaction of Shock Waves in Cement Mortar Plate Investigated by the Digital Speckle Correlation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu-Dong; LIU Kai-Xin; ZHANG Guang-Sheng; WEN Shang-Gang; TAN Fu-Li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Interaction of shock waves in cement mortar plate is studied by digital speckle correlation method and digital high-speed photography technique. When the plates were destroyed by two detonators exploding at the same time, variation of shock wave field is obtained. Experimental results show that the interaction of shock waves will result in a nonlinear huge increase of local normal strain, leading to large deformation and serious destruction. However, the occurrence of this strongly nonlinear phenomenon sensitively depends on the interval between detonators, and it will only appear when the interval is smaller than the diameter of the region where shock waves exist.

  14. A Review of Metallic Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Materials and Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell offers an exceptional potential for a clean, efficient, and reliable power source. The bipolar plate is a key component in this device, as it connects each cell electrically, supplies reactant gases to both anode and cathode, and removes reaction products from the cell. Bipolar plates have been fabricated primarily from high-density graphite, but in recent years, much attention has been paid to developing cost-effective and feasible alternative materials. Two different classes of materials have attracted attention: metals and composites. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the current research being carried out on metallic bipolar plates, covering materials and fabrication methods.

  15. Characterization of nano-sized SiC@Ni composite fabricated by electroless plating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhan; Chen, Yigang

    2013-02-01

    A nano-sized SiC@Ni composite was prepared by simple electroless plating method. Nickel can be reduced by Na2H2PO2 under the catalysis of Pd to despite onto the surface of SiC nanoparticles. The composite structure was characterized by means of TEM images, XRD and the components were analyzed using EDS. The coating layer on the SiC particles was several nanometers thick and mainly in a form of fine Ni crystalline grain and amorphous Ni-P alloy. By increasing the concentration of Na2H2PO2 in the plating bath, the uniformity of the coating layer can be improved obviously. Both of the magnetism and crystallinity of Ni coatings depends on the P content in the coating which can be decreased by increasing the pH values of plating solutions. The SiC@Ni particles exhibited soft magnetic characteristics.

  16. Plate measurement techniques and reduction methods used by the West German satellite observers, and resulting consequences for the observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deker, H.

    1971-01-01

    The West German tracking stations are equipped with ballistic cameras. Plate measurement and plate reduction must therefore follow photogrammetric methods. Approximately 100 star positions and 200 satellite positions are measured on each plate. The mathematical model for spatial rotation of the bundle of rays is extended by including terms for distortion and internal orientation of the camera as well as by providing terms for refraction which are computed for the measured coordinates of the star positions on the plate. From the measuring accuracy of the plate coordinates it follows that the timing accuracy for the exposures has to be about one millisecond, in order to obtain a homogeneous system.

  17. Dynamic buckling analysis of delaminated composite plates using semi-analytical finite strip method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesy, H. R.; Totounferoush, A.; Ghannadpour, S. A. M.

    2015-05-01

    The delamination phenomena can become of paramount importance when the design of the composite plates is concerned. In the current study, the effect of through-the-width delamination on dynamic buckling behavior of a composite plate is studied by implementing semi-analytical finite strip method. In this method, the energy and work integrations are computed analytically due to the implementation of trigonometric functions. Moreover, the method can lead to converged results with comparatively small number of degrees of freedom. These features have made the method quite efficient. To account for delamination effects, displacement field is enriched by adding appropriate terms. Also, the penetration of the delamination surfaces is prevented by incorporating an appropriate contact scheme into the time response analysis. Some selected results are validated against those available in the literature.

  18. The vibration and stability analysis of moderate thick plates by the method of lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shou-Gao; Yuan, Si

    1992-06-01

    The method of lines based on Hu Hai-chang's theory for the vibration and stability of moderate thick plates is developed. The standard nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) system for natural frequencies and critical load is given by use of ODE techniques; any indicated eigenvalue could be obtained directly from ODE solver by employing the so-called initial eigenfunction technique instead of the mode orthogonality condition. Numerical examples show that the present method is very effective and reliable.

  19. Evaluation of the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count plate method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-09-01

    Results of the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count (EB) plate method were compared with those of the standard violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) method for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae. Studies involving 107 bacterial strains demonstrated that the Petrifilm EB plate method is as sensitive as and more selective than the VRBG method. Sixty of the 62 pure Enterobacteriaceae cultures were recovered by both methods. In addition, 38 of the 45 non-Enterobacteriaceae organisms did not grow on the Petrifilm EB plate, while 28 of the 45 non-Enterobacteriaceae organisms did not grow on the VRBG plate. Colony counts from 174 naturally contaminated and 120 artificially inoculated dairy and nondairy food samples showed that the Petrifilm EB plate method performed as well as or better than the standard VRBG method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae.

  20. AN EFFECTIVE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF CRACK PROBLEMS IN A PLANE ELASTIC PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiang-qiao

    2005-01-01

    A simple and effective boundary element method for stress intensity factor calculation for crack problems in a plane elastic plate is presented. The boundary element method consists of the constant displacement discontinuity element presented by Crouch and Starfield and the crack-tip displacement discontinuity elements proposed by YAN Xiangqiao. In the boundary element implementation the left or the right crack-tip displacement discontinuity element was placed locally at the corresponding left or right each crack tip on top of the constant displacement discontinuity elements that cover the entire crack surface and the other boundaries. Test examples ( i. e. , a center crack in an infinite plate under tension, a circular hole and a crack in an infinite plate under tension) are included to illustrate that the numerical approach is very simple and accurate for stress intensity factor calculation of plane elasticity crack problems. In addition, specifically, the stress intensity factors of branching cracks emanating from a square hole in a rectangular plate under biaxial loads were analysed. These numerical results indicate the present numerical approach is very effective for calculating stress intensity factors of complex cracks in a 2-D finite body, and are used to reveal the effect of the biaxial loads and the cracked body geometry on stress intensity factors.

  1. Preparation of zeolite a coatings on copper plates by using the substrate heating method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Teber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The substrate heating method was used to grow zeolite 4A coatings on copper plates. The reaction mixture was kept at 25º C, while the plate was heated to a higher temperature. In some of the synthesis experiments performed, the reaction mixture was circulated in the system. The coatings prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that crystalline and pure zeolite 4A coatings could be formed on copper by using the substrate heating method from a highly alkaline solution, in which dissolution and oxidation of the copper plates took place. A coating with about 310 µm mass equivalent thickness could be grown on copper after 72 h of synthesis. The thickness decreased when circulation was applied. Compared to coatings previously prepared on stainless steel plates under similar experimental conditions, thicker coatings were grown on copper. It is possible that the roughened surface of copper in the highly alkaline reaction mixture provided a higher number of nucleation sites.

  2. Analysis of Nonlinear Vibration of Hard Coating Thin Plate by Finite Element Iteration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies nonlinear vibration mechanism of hard coating thin plate based on macroscopic vibration theory and proposes finite element iteration method (FEIM to theoretically calculate its nature frequency and vibration response. First of all, strain dependent mechanical property of hard coating is briefly introduced and polynomial method is adopted to characterize the storage and loss modulus of coating material. Then, the principle formulas of inherent and dynamic response characteristics of the hard coating composite plate are derived. And consequently specific analysis procedure is proposed by combining ANSYS APDL and self-designed MATLAB program. Finally, a composite plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 is taken as a study object and both nonlinear vibration test and analysis are conducted on the plate specimen with considering strain dependent mechanical parameters of hard coating. Through comparing the resulting frequency and response results, the practicability and reliability of FEIM have been verified and the corresponding analysis results can provide an important reference for further study on nonlinear vibration mechanism of hard coating composite structure.

  3. Waves on Thin Plates: A New (Energy Based) Method on Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Noisy acoustic signal localization is a difficult problem having a wide range of application. We propose a new localization method applicable for thin plates which is based on energy amplitude attenuation and inversed source amplitude comparison. This inversion is tested on synthetic data using a direct model of Lamb wave propagation and on experimental dataset (recorded with 4 Brüel & Kjær Type 4374 miniature piezoelectric shock accelerometers, 1 - 26 kHz frequency range). We compare the performance of this technique with classical source localization algorithms, arrival time localization, time reversal localization, localization based on energy amplitude. The experimental setup consist of a glass / plexiglass plate having dimensions of 80 cm x 40 cm x 1 cm equipped with four accelerometers and an acquisition card. Signals are generated using a steel, glass or polyamide ball (having different sizes) quasi perpendicular hit (from a height of 2-3 cm) on the plate. Signals are captured by sensors placed on the plate on different locations. We measure and compare the accuracy of these techniques as function of sampling rate, dynamic range, array geometry, signal to noise ratio and computational time. We show that this new technique, which is very versatile, works better than conventional techniques over a range of sampling rates 8 kHz - 1 MHz. It is possible to have a decent resolution (3cm mean error) using a very cheap equipment set. The numerical simulations allow us to track the contributions of different error sources in different methods. The effect of the reflections is also included in our simulation by using the imaginary sources outside the plate boundaries. This proposed method can easily be extended for applications in three dimensional environments, to monitor industrial activities (e.g boreholes drilling/production activities) or natural brittle systems (e.g earthquakes, volcanoes, avalanches).

  4. A passive guard for low thermal conductivity measurement of small samples by the hot plate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Yves; Degiovanni, Alain; Grigorova-Moutiers, Veneta; Godefroy, Justine

    2017-01-01

    Hot plate methods under steady state conditions are based on a 1D model to estimate the thermal conductivity, using measurements of the temperatures T 0 and T 1 of the two sides of the sample and of the heat flux crossing it. To be consistent with the hypothesis of the 1D heat flux, either a hot plate guarded apparatus is used, or the temperature is measured at the centre of the sample. On one hand the latter method can be used only if the ratio thickness/width of the sample is sufficiently low and on the other hand the guarded hot plate method requires large width samples (typical cross section of 0.6  ×  0.6 m2). That is why both methods cannot be used for low width samples. The method presented in this paper is based on an optimal choice of the temperatures T 0 and T 1 compared to the ambient temperature T a, enabling the estimation of the thermal conductivity with a centered hot plate method, by applying the 1D heat flux model. It will be shown that these optimal values do not depend on the size or on the thermal conductivity of samples (in the range 0.015-0.2 W m-1 K-1), but only on T a. The experimental results obtained validate the method for several reference samples for values of the ratio thickness/width up to 0.3, thus enabling the measurement of the thermal conductivity of samples having a small cross-section, down to 0.045  ×  0.045 m2.

  5. Key techniques and applications of adaptive growth method for stiffener layout design of plates and shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaohong; Ji, Xuerong; Ma, Man; Hou, Jianyun

    2013-11-01

    The application of the adaptive growth method is limited because several key techniques during the design process need manual intervention of designers. Key techniques of the method including the ground structure construction and seed selection are studied, so as to make it possible to improve the effectiveness and applicability of the adaptive growth method in stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Three schemes of ground structures, which are comprised by different shell elements and beam elements, are proposed. It is found that the main stiffener layouts resulted from different ground structures are almost the same, but the ground structure comprised by 8-nodes shell elements and both 3-nodes and 2-nodes beam elements can result in clearest stiffener layout, and has good adaptability and low computational cost. An automatic seed selection approach is proposed, which is based on such selection rules that the seeds should be positioned on where the structural strain energy is great for the minimum compliance problem, and satisfy the dispersancy requirement. The adaptive growth method with the suggested key techniques is integrated into an ANSYS-based program, which provides a design tool for the stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Typical design examples, including plate and shell structures to achieve minimum compliance and maximum bulking stability are illustrated. In addition, as a practical mechanical structural design example, the stiffener layout of an inlet structure for a large-scale electrostatic precipitator is also demonstrated. The design results show that the adaptive growth method integrated with the suggested key techniques can effectively and flexibly deal with stiffener layout design problem for plates and shells with complex geometrical shape and loading conditions to achieve various design objectives, thus it provides a new solution method for engineering structural topology design optimization.

  6. A TIME DOMAIN METHOD FOR QUASI-STATIC ANALYSIS OF VISCOELASTIC THIN PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张能辉; 程昌钧

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Boltzmann's superposition principles of linear viscoelastic materials for quasi-static problems of viscoelastic thin plates was given. By the Galerkin method in spatial domain, the original integro-partial-differential system could be transformed into an integral system. The latter further was reduced to a differential system by using the new method for temporal domain presented in this paper. Numerical results show that compared with the ordinary finite difference method, the new method in this paper is simpler to operate and has some advantages, such as, no storage and quicker computational speed etc.

  7. Nonconforming stabilized combined finite element method for Reissner-Mindlin plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-fu FENG; Yan YANG; Tian-xiao ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Based on combination of two variational principles, a nonconforming sta-bilized finite element method is presented for the Reissner-Mindlin plates. The method is convergent when the finite element space is energy-compatible. Error estimates are derived. In particular, three finite element spaces are applied in the computation. Nu-merical results show that the method is insensitive to the mesh distortion and has better performence than the MITC4 and DKQ methods. With properly chosen parameters, high accuracy can be obtained at coarse meshes.

  8. Validation of a two-plate microbiological method for screening antibiotic residues in shrimp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pham Kim; Degand, Guy; Danyi, Sophie; Pierret, Gilles; Delahaut, Philippe; Ton, Vu Dinh; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2010-07-05

    Microbiological inhibition screening tests could play an important role to detect residues of antibiotics in the different animal food products, but very few are available for the aquaculture products in general, and for shrimps in particular. A two-plate microbiological method to screen shrimp for residues of the most commonly used antibiotics has been developed and validated according to criteria derived from the European Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Bacillus subtilis was used as a sensitive strain to target antibiotics. Culture conditions on Petri plates (pH of medium) were selected to enhance the capacity of antibiotic detection. Antibiotic residues were extracted from shrimps using acetonitrile/acetone (70/30, v/v) before application on Petri plates seeded with B. subtilis. The method was validated using spiked blank tissues as well as antibiotic treated shrimps with enrofloxacin and tetracycline, two antibiotics often found to be used in shrimp production. For tetracyclines and (fluoro)quinolones, the detection capability was below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while it was around the MRL for sulfonamides. The specificity of the microbiological screening was 100% in all cases while the sensitivity and accuracy was 100% in almost all cases. The capacity of the method to detect contaminated samples was confirmed on antibiotic treated shrimps, analyzed in parallel with a confirmatory method (Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS)).

  9. Crack Imaging and Quantification in Aluminum Plates with Guided Wave Wavenumber Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Guided wavefield analysis methods for detection and quantification of crack damage in an aluminum plate are presented in this paper. New wavenumber components created by abrupt wave changes at the structural discontinuity are identified in the frequency-wavenumber spectra. It is shown that the new wavenumbers can be used to detect and characterize the crack dimensions. Two imaging based approaches, filter reconstructed imaging and spatial wavenumber imaging, are used to demonstrate how the cracks can be evaluated with wavenumber analysis. The filter reconstructed imaging is shown to be a rapid method to map the plate and any existing damage, but with less precision in estimating crack dimensions; while the spatial wavenumber imaging provides an intensity image of spatial wavenumber values with enhanced resolution of crack dimensions. These techniques are applied to simulated wavefield data, and the simulation based studies show that spatial wavenumber imaging method is able to distinguish cracks of different severities. Laboratory experimental validation is performed for a single crack case to confirm the methods' capabilities for imaging cracks in plates.

  10. Developments in variational methods for high performance plate and shell elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmelo

    1991-01-01

    High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational foundations of high-performance elements, with emphasis on plate and shell elements constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parameterized variational principles are studied that provide a common foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both. From this unified formulation a variant of the ANS formulation, called the assumed natural deviatoric strain (ANDES) formulation, emerges as an important special case. The first ANDES element, a high-performance 9 degrees of freedom triangular Kirchhoff plate bending element, is briefly described to illustrate the use of the new formulation.

  11. Probabilistic fracture investigation of symmetric angle ply laminated composite plates using displacement correlation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Achchhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second order statistics of mixed mode stress intensity factors (MSIF of single edge V-notched angle ply laminated composite plate subjected to uniaxial tensile load with uncertinity in the system properties using displacement correlation method (DCM is evaluated. The random system properties such as material properties, crack opening and crack length are modelled as combined uncorrelated and correlated random system variables. A C0 finite element method (FEM based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT is used for basic formulation. The Taylor series based first order perturbation technique (FOPT, second order perturbation technique (SOPT are used and direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS is performed to evaluate the statistics (mean and coefficient of variance of the mixed mode SIFs. The present work signifies the accurate analysis of frature behaviour by influence of different random variables and fibre orientations on the fracture behaviour in angle ply laminates.

  12. Homotopy perturbation method for heat transfer flow of a third grade fluid between parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A.M. [Pennsylvania State University, York Campus, York, PA 17403 (United States); Zeb, A. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, 30 H-8/1, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: amtaz56@yahoo.co.uk; Ghori, Q.K. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, 30 H-8/1, Islamabad (Pakistan); Benharbit, A.M. [Pennsylvania State University, York Campus, York, PA 17403 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The present paper studies the heat transfer flow of a third grade fluid between two heated parallel plates for the constant viscosity model. Three flow problems, namely plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow and plane Couette-Poiseuille flow have been considered. In each case the non-linear momentum equation and the energy equation have been solved using the homotopy perturbation method. Explicit analytical expressions for the velocity field and the temperature distribution have been derived.

  13. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.

    1999-08-02

    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data.

  14. Structural analysis of plate-type fuel assemblies and development of a non-destructive method to assess their integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caresta, Mauro, E-mail: mcaresta@yahoo.it [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wassink, David [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A plate-type fuel assembly is made of thin plates mounted in a box-like structure. • Drag force from the coolant can shift the plates. • A non invasive method is proposed to test the strength of the plate connections. • The natural frequencies’ shift is used to assess the fuel integrity. -- Abstract: This work is concerned with the structural behaviour and the integrity of parallel plate-type nuclear fuel assemblies. A plate-type assembly consists of several thin plates mounted in a box-like structure and is subjected to a coolant flow that can result in a considerable drag force. A finite element model of an assembly is presented to study the sensitivity of the natural frequencies to the stiffness of the plates’ junctions. It is shown that the shift in the natural frequencies of the torsional modes can be used to check the global integrity of the fuel assembly while the local natural frequencies of the inner plates can be used to estimate the maximum drag force they can resist. Finally a non-destructive method is developed to assess the resistance of the inner plates to bear an applied load. Extensive computational and experimental results are presented to prove the applicability of the method presented.

  15. Effect of different heating methods on deformation of metal plate under upsetting mechanism in laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongjun; Liu, Yancong; Yi, Peng; Hu, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In a laser forming process, different forming mechanisms have different deformation behaviors. The aim of laser forming is to acquire plane strain under an upsetting mechanism, while a plate undergoes a small bending deformation. In some industrial applications, the bending strain should not occur. To achieve high-precision forming, the deformation behaviors of a metal plate when an upsetting mechanism plays a dominant role are studied in the paper. Several heating methods are proposed to reduce the plane strain difference along the thickness direction and little bending deformation resulting from a small temperature difference between the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. The results show that negligible bending deformation and a uniform plastic plane strain field can be obtained by simultaneously heating the top and bottom surfaces with the same process parameters. A conventional scanning method needs a larger spot diameter and slower scanning speed under the upsetting mechanism, but a smaller spot diameter and quicker scanning speed may be selected using the simultaneous heating method, which can greatly widen the potential scope of process parameters.

  16. Comparative detection of bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 cells with ELISA, radioactivity and plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Fliss, Ismaïl; Lacroix, Christophe

    2004-11-01

    Different methods are used to study bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, which is an important step in pathogenic infection as well as in probiotic colonization of the intestinal tract. The aim of this study was to compare the ELISA-based method with more conventional plate count and radiolabeling methods for bacterial adhesion detection. An ELISA-based assay was optimized for the detection of Bifidobacterium longum and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which are low and highly adherent bacteria, respectively. In agreement with previous investigations, a percentage of adhesion below 1% was obtained for B. longum with ELISA. However, high nonspecific background and low positive signals were measured due to the use of polyclonal antibodies and the low adhesion capacity with this strain. In contrast, the ELISA-based method developed for E. coli adhesion detected a high adhesion percentage (15%). For this bacterium the three methods tested gave similar results for the highest bacterial concentrations (6.8 Log CFU added bacteria/well). However, differences among methods increased with the addition of decreased bacterial concentration due to different detection thresholds (5.9, 5.6 and 2.9 Log CFU adherent bacteria/well for radioactivity, ELISA and plate count methods, respectively). The ELISA-based method was shown to be a good predictor for bacterial adhesion compared to the radiolabeling method when good quality specific antibodies were used. This technique is convenient and allows handling of numerous samples.

  17. An Inverse method of elastic constants for unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; CUI Lian-jun; XU Jian; CHENG Jian-chun

    2006-01-01

    An inverse method is presented to determine the elastic constants of an experimental sample,a titanium graphite unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate,using wavelet transform and neural networks.Optimal algorithms of wavelet transform and neural networks are given here in order to improve the accuracy of inversion results.Coherent results were shown in both fiber direction and cross fiber direction,proving the feasibility of this method.Neither the group velocity of the Lamb wave modes are needed,as in the conventional method,and no direct least-square fitting of the experimental waveforms is necessary.

  18. A Comprehensive Study of Internal Distraction Plating, an Alternative Method for Distal Radius Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavani, Kinjal J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of highly comminuted distal radius fractures still remains a major treatment challenge. Articular comminution and compromised bone quality are the culprits. One novel approach is the technique of Internal Distraction Plating which involves “bridging” the fracture with the use of a standard 3.5mm plate applied dorsally in distraction from the radius, proximal to the fracture, to the long finger metacarpal distally, bypassing the comminuted segment. The plate is removed once fracture union has been achieved. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the role of internal dorsal distraction plating as an alternative method in the treatment of fracture distal radius in terms of special indications, technique and outcome. Materials and Methods This study was a prospective longitudinal study on 20 patients (mean age 62 years) treated with internal distraction plating for comminuted distal radius fractures with specific indications. Regular follow-ups with standard radiographs and analysis were done upto 24 months. Functional outcome were assessed by DASH Score and the Gartland and Werley demerit score. Results At final follow-up, all fractures had united and X-rays showed mean palmar tilt of 7°, positive ulnar variance of 0.5mm, radial inclination of 18° and average loss of 2mm of radial height. Mean range of motion values for wrist flexion 46°, extension 50°, pronation 79° and supination 77° At final follow-up, the mean DASH score was 32. 85% patient had excellent to good result as per Gartland and Werley demerit score. This construct has yield satisfactory clinical and radiographic results with these very challenging injuries. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to report the radiographic and the functional outcomes of treatment with this technique. External fixator and volar plating in communited distal end radius fractures are not always satisfactory in old age with osteoporotic bone because of

  19. Microscopic studies of the influence of main exposure time on parameters of flexographic printing plate produced by digital thermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Liliya

    2009-10-01

    The digital thermal technology of producing flexographic printing plates from photopolymer plates is one of the newest technologies. This technology allows to develop flexographic plates without the use of any solvent. The process of producing flexographic printing plates by the digital thermal method consists of several main stages: back exposure, laser exposure, main exposure, thermal development, post exposure, and light finishing. The studies carried out with the use of optical stereoscopic microscopy allowed to determine the effect of time of main exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the dot area, diameter, and edge factor of halftone dots reproduced on flexographic printing plate produced by the digital thermal method, as well as on the quality of reproducing the surface and on the profiles of free-standing printing microelements. The results of the microscopic studies performed have allowed to define the criteria of establishing optimum time of main exposure of photopolymer plates used in the digital thermal technology of producing flexographic printing plates. A precise definition of the criteria for determining the optimum time of main exposure will enable to reduce the time-consuming control tests and to eliminate errors in both the process of manufacturing flexographic printing plates and in the printing process carried out with the use of such plates.

  20. Calculation method of composite foundation sedimentation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾长存; 洪昌地; 马文彬; 李雪平

    2008-01-01

    Grouting pile is a new soft soil foundation treatment method with characteristics such as no vibration, no noise, no soil compaction, light construction machines and quick construction velocity and so on. At present, study on reinforcement mechanism and design calculation method of composite foundation of grouting pile is initially started without design specifications, so it is usually required to draw on design specifications of stump pile when designing composite foundation of grouting pile while grouting pile has its characteristics and difference although reinforcement mechanisms and construction processes of two types of piles are similar. Sedimentation formula of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate is educed and a suitable deformation mode is proposed by aiming to deformation characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load on basis of relevant sedimentation theories of composite foundation by combination of characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile. The sedimentation calculation formula of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load is educed according to balance relation of force and displacement coordination conditions by elastic theory and sedimentation calculation model established is validated by sedimentation monitoring documents of one expressway in China.

  1. Stochastic finite element method for random harmonic analysis of composite plates with uncertain modal damping parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, K.

    2017-07-01

    Damping parameters of fiber-reinforced composite possess significant uncertainty due to the structural complexity of such materials. Considering the parameters as random variables, this paper uses the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion to capture the uncertainty in the damping and frequency response function of composite plate structures. A spectral stochastic finite element formulation for damped vibration analysis of laminate plates is employed. Experimental modal data for samples of plates is used to identify and realize the range and probability distributions of uncertain damping parameters. The constructed gPC expansions for the uncertain parameters are used as inputs to a deterministic finite element model to realize random frequency responses on a few numbers of collocation points generated in random space. The realizations then are employed to estimate the unknown deterministic functions of the gPC expansion approximating the responses. Employing modal superposition method to solve harmonic analysis problem yields an efficient sparse gPC expansion representing the responses. The results show while the responses are influenced by the damping uncertainties at the mid and high frequency ranges, the impact in low frequency modes can be safely ignored. Utilizing a few random collocation points, the method indicates also a very good agreement compared to the sampling-based Monte Carlo simulations with large number of realizations. As the deterministic finite element model serves as black-box solver, the procedure can be efficiently adopted to complex structural systems with uncertain parameters in terms of computational time.

  2. -ree vibration analysis of cracked thin plates by quasi-convex coupled isogeometric-meshfree method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanjie ZHANG[1,2; JunzhaoWU[1,2; Dongdong WANG[1,2

    2015-01-01

    The free vibration analysis of cracked thin plates via a quasi-convex coupled isogeometric-meshfree method is presented. This formulation employs the consistently coupled isogeometric-meshfree strategy where a mixed basis vector of the convex B-splines is used to impose the consistency conditions throughout the whole problem domain. Meanwhile, the rigid body modes related to the mixed basis vector and reproducing conditions are also discussed. The mixed basis vector simultaneously offers the consistent isogeometric-meshfree coupling in the coupled region and the quasi-convex property for the meshfree shape functions in the meshfree region, which is particularly attractive for the vibration analysis. The quasi-convex meshfree shape functions mimic the isogeometric basis function as well as offer the meshfree nodal arrangement flexibility. Subsequently, this approach is exploited to study the free vibration analysis of cracked plates, in which the plate geometry is exactly represented by the isogeometric basis functions, while the cracks are discretized by meshfree nodes and highly smoothing approximation is invoked in the rest of the problem domain. The efficacy of the present method is illustrated through several numerical examples.

  3. A Sandwich Method Using Kapandji Intrafocal Pinning to Facilitate Palmar Plating of Displaced Distal Radius Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Kuang; Huang, Yi-Chao; Wang, Jung-Pan; Chang, Ming-Chau

    2017-09-01

    The use of palmar plating in the treatment of dorsally displaced distal radius fracture is very common, and can result in a good functional outcome. We present an easy "sandwich method" to reduce the fracture and to facilitate osteosynthesis. Firstly, the dorsal Kapandji intrafocal wire was applied to achieve the reduction of the dorsally displaced fracture and provide a volar-directed force. Then the intra-articular fractures were reduced or the metaphyseal defect is stuffed with bone graft if necessary. Finally, the anatomical plate is used to buttress and push back the distal fragment to complete the osteosynthesis. The postoperative radiographic parameters, comparing with the contralateral noninjured side, could achieve similar radial height, radial inclination, volar tilt, and ulnar variance without significant difference.

  4. Modelling Thermal Shock in Functionally Graded Plates with Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav N. Burlayenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermomechanical behavior and crack propagation in a functionally graded metal/ceramic plate undergoing thermal shock are analyzed by using the finite element method. A two-dimensional plane strain functionally graded finite element has been developed within the ABAQUS software environment for this purpose. An actual material gradation has been accomplished by sampling material quantities directly at the Gauss points of the element via programming appropriate user-defined subroutines. The virtual crack closure technique is used to model a crack growth under thermal loading. Contact possible between crack lips during the crack advance is taken into account in thermomechanical simulations as well. The paper shows that the presented finite element model can be applied to provide an insight into the thermomechanical respond and failure of the metal/ceramic plate.

  5. An Unstructured Finite Volume Method for Impact Dynamics of a Thin Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong Chen; Yanchun Yu

    2012-01-01

    The examination of an unstructured finite volume method for structural dynamics is assessed for simulations of systematic impact dynamics.A robust display dual-time stepping method is utilized to obtain time accurate solutions.The study of impact dynamics is a complex problem that should consider strength models and state equations to describe the mechanical behavior of materials.The current method has several features.1) Discrete equations of unstructured finite volume method naturally follow the conservation law.2)Display dual-time stepping method is suitable for the analysis of impact dynamic problems of time accurate solutions.3) The method did not produce grid distortion when large deformation appeared.The method is validated by the problem of impact dynamics of an elastic plate with initial conditions and material properties.The results validate the finite element numerical data.

  6. Evaluation of the petrifilm plate method for the enumeration of aerobic microorganisms and coliforms in retailed meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Seo, K S; Ahn, J S; Yoo, H S; Kim, S P

    2001-11-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness and applicability of the Petrifilm plate method with the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' (AOAC) standard aerobic count method and violet red bile agar method for meat products. The comparison was carried out using 303 meat samples collected from various retailers: 110 pork samples, 87 chicken samples, and 107 beef samples. In the comparison of the correlation coefficient (R) between the conventional method and the Petrifilm plate method by a linear regression analysis, the correlation coefficient in total microorganisms was 0.99, 0.95, and 0.94 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. The correlation coefficient in coliform count was 0.83, 0.96, and 0.81 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. Based on the high correlation in the total microorganism count, it might be possible to replace the conventional methods with the Petrifilm plate method. For coliform counts, the Petrifilm plate method also showed a generally high correlation coefficient, except for pork samples, which are more subject to contamination. The Petrifilm plate method was simpler and less time-consuming in sample preparation and, in procedures, faster than the conventional method. These results suggested that the 3M Petrifilm plate method could replace the conventional methods in the analysis of microorganism contamination measurement in meat products.

  7. Evaluation of the SimPlate method for enumeration of Escherichia coli in swab samples from beef and lamb carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Sigrun J; Nesbakken, Truls; Skjerve, Eystein; Dommarsnes, Kari; Østensvik, Øyvin

    2010-08-15

    Abattoirs have to enumerate Escherichia coli on carcass surfaces as part of compulsory HACCP monitoring and they therefore need rapid and reliable methods. The objective of this study was to compare a conventional plating method with a faster, simpler method for detection and enumeration of E. coli in samples from naturally contaminated carcasses. The two methods were the conventional pour plate method of the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis; NMKL Method No. 125, and the enzymatic method of SimPlate Coliforms &E. coli. Materials were 588 cotton-cloth samples used for swabbing 100 cm(2) areas on four sites on cattle and lamb carcasses in three commercial abattoirs in Norway. E. coli was detected by at least one of the methods in 270 (46%) of the samples. Forty-five samples (8%) were positive only by SimPlate while 28 samples (5%) were positive only by NMKL125. Cohen's kappa value was 0.74 for detection/non-detection results, which showed a high level of agreement between the two methods. E. coli counts determined by the conventional NMKL125 method showed a high concordance correlation (ccc 0.80, slope 0.99) with most probable number (MPN) values obtained with SimPlate. SimPlate is a rapid and reliable method for detection and enumeration of E. coli and a suitable alternative method for use with swab samples from cattle and lamb carcasses.

  8. Study on Interaction Between Two Parallel Plates with Iteration Method in Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Zheng-wu Wang; Zu-min Xu

    2008-01-01

    By introducing the functional theory into the calculation of electric double layer (EDL) interaction,the interaction energies of two parallel plates were calculated respectively at low,moderate,and high potentials. Compared with the results of two existing methods,Debye-Hiickel and Langmuir methods,which are appli- cable just to the critical potentials and perform poorly in the intermediate potential,the functional approach not only has much simpler expression of the EDL interaction energy,but also performs well in the entire range of potentials.

  9. Diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan by Cough Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Habib Bukhari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pertussis or whooping cough is a communicable infection of upper respiratory tract that mainly affects children. Reports regarding resurgence of pertussis in vaccinated children mainly motivated us to document pertussis in the children. The aim of the study was to explore pertussis in vaccinated children using an alternative method for pertussis diagnosis.Materials and methods: A total of 700 clinical samples were collected during study period (2006-2009, from suspected whooping cough cases of Diphtheria-tetanus- whole cell pertussis (DTwP vaccinated children both male and female aged from 6 months to 84 months The classical ‘Cough Plate Method’ instead of Nasopharyngeal Swab was used for sampling to find out its potential in diagnosis of pertussis.Results: Present study reports the presence of pertussis in vaccinated children using Cough Plate Method. The method successfully isolated Bordetella pertussis from suspected patients of pertussis. A total of 28 culture confirmed cases were detected among 700 samples tested. (Total Isolation rate: 4%.The peak incidence age under risk was 48 months. However, pertussis was detected in children aged as young as 6 and 12 months.Conclusion: The ‘Cough plate’ method used for isolation proved successful and simple instead of nasopharyngeal swabs that is difficult to perform and children may be reluctant to this sampling method when tried. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1 (2 : 68-72

  10. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  11. Direct Preparation of Strontium Aluminate Phosphor Plate by Reactive Infiltration Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watari, T [Ceramic Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Ikeue, K; Torikai, T; Yada, M, E-mail: watarit@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Hojo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Sr-aluminate phosphor plates were prepared by the infiltration-reaction method. The mixture of SrCO{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were mixed and coated on the porous alumina plate, followed by heating at 1300deg. C for 4h under 10%H{sub 2}+90%N{sub 2} gas atmosphere. After processing, the surface part of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plate became dense, {approx}20{mu}m thickness. SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} phases were observed as the product. The coated mixture powder changed to a liquid state and infiltrated into the pores of the alumina plate. During processing, the following reactions occurred; SrCO{sub 3{yields}}SrO+CO{sub 2}, SrO+Al{sub 2}O{sub 3{yields}}SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3SrO+Al{sub 2}O{sub 3{yields}}Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}. According to the Sr distribution analysis at the dense layer, Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} and SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases were mainly formed in the surface-side and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-side layers, respectively. This plate emits green luminescence by the irradiation of the 'black-light'. The wave length of the emitted light was in the range of 450-650nm, and the maximum intensity appeared at 520nm. Also, this plate showed green afterglow. The best mixing ratio was Sr/Eu/Dy = 5/1/1. This afterglow intensity decreased from 0.14cdm{sup -2} (0sec.) to 0.01cdm{sup -2} (30sec.). We observed the green afterglow for 3 hours in the dark.

  12. Depth compensating calculation method of computer-generated holograms using symmetry and similarity of zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni

    2017-10-01

    Computer-generated hologram (CGH) is a promising 3D display technology while it is challenged by heavy computation load and vast memory requirement. To solve these problems, a depth compensating CGH calculation method based on symmetry and similarity of zone plates is proposed and implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU). An improved LUT method is put forward to compute the distances between object points and hologram pixels in the XY direction. The concept of depth compensating factor is defined and used for calculating the holograms of points with different depth positions instead of layer-based methods. The proposed method is suitable for arbitrary sampling objects with lower memory usage and higher computational efficiency compared to other CGH methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by numerical and optical experiments.

  13. A simple method to definethe heat conductivity of a limited plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov Andrey Sergeevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To the present moment there are a lot of ways to define heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of solid bodies. The schemes of determining heat conductivity, which use transient methods, usually include a heater and a cooler. The sample is placed in between them. The temperature and temperature differential is determined using several thermocouples.The authors present a method of determining the thermal characteristics of a sample in the form of a rectangular plate, allowing to apply only one thermocouple, which leads to a simple analytical expression for thermal diffusivity. The described method provides high-precision determination of thermal diffusivity of the body of small size and with the accuracy sufficient for practice — conductivity coefficient. The method uses a simple mathematical model and minimal hardware resources compared to other methods. The exception is the heat-insulating materials. The determination of their thermal conductivity using this method can lead to poor accuracy.

  14. Error compensation of thin plate-shape part with prebending method in face milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei; Jiang, Zhaoliang; Shao, Weixian; Han, Xiangcheng; Liu, Wenping

    2015-01-01

    Low weight and good toughness thin plate parts are widely used in modern industry, but its flexibility seriously impacts the machinability. Plenty of studies focus on the influence of machine tool and cutting tool on the machining errors. However, few researches focus on compensating machining errors through the fixture. In order to improve the machining accuracy of thin plate-shape part in face milling, this paper presents a novel method for compensating the surface errors by prebending the workpiece during the milling process. First, a machining error prediction model using finite element method is formulated, which simplifies the contacts between the workpiece and fixture with spring constraints. Milling forces calculated by the micro-unit cutting force model are loaded on the error prediction model to predict the machining error. The error prediction results are substituted into the given formulas to obtain the prebending clamping forces and clamping positions. Consequently, the workpiece is prebent in terms of the calculated clamping forces and positions during the face milling operation to reduce the machining error. Finally, simulation and experimental tests are carried out to validate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed error compensation method. The experimental measured flatness results show that the flatness improves by approximately 30 percent through this error compensation method. The proposed method not only predicts the machining errors in face milling thin plate-shape parts but also reduces the machining errors by taking full advantage of the workpiece prebending caused by fixture, meanwhile, it provides a novel idea and theoretical basis for reducing milling errors and improving the milling accuracy.

  15. Error Compensation of Thin Plate-shape Part with Prebending Method in Face Milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Wei; JIANG Zhaoliang; SHAO Weixian; HAN Xiangcheng; LIU Wenping

    2015-01-01

    Low weight and good toughness thin plate parts are widely used in modern industry, but its flexibility seriously impacts the machinability. Plenty of studies focus on the influence of machine tool and cutting tool on the machining errors. However, few researches focus on compensating machining errors through the fixture. In order to improve the machining accuracy of thin plate-shape part in face milling, this paper presents a novel method for compensating the surface errors by prebending the workpiece during the milling process. First, a machining error prediction model using finite element method is formulated, which simplifies the contacts between the workpiece and fixture with spring constraints. Milling forces calculated by the micro-unit cutting force model are loaded on the error prediction model to predict the machining error. The error prediction results are substituted into the given formulas to obtain the prebending clamping forces and clamping positions. Consequently, the workpiece is prebent in terms of the calculated clamping forces and positions during the face milling operation to reduce the machining error. Finally, simulation and experimental tests are carried out to validate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed error compensation method. The experimental measured flatness results show that the flatness improves by approximately 30 percent through this error compensation method. The proposed method not only predicts the machining errors in face milling thin plate-shape parts but also reduces the machining errors by taking full advantage of the workpiece prebending caused by fixture, meanwhile, it provides a novel idea and theoretical basis for reducing milling errors and improving the milling accuracy.

  16. The analysis of the accuracy of the wheel alignment inspection method on the side-slip plate stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, A.; Strzępek, P.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the theoretical basis and the results of the examination of the wheel alignment inspection method on the slide slip plate stand. It is obligatory test during periodic technical inspection of the vehicle. The measurement is executed in the dynamic conditions. The dependence between the lateral displacement of the plate and toe-in of the tested wheels has been shown. If the diameter of the wheel rim is known then the value of the toe-in can be calculated. The comparison of the toe-in measurements on the plate stand and on the four heads device for the wheel alignment inspection has been carried out. The accuracy of the measurements and the influence of the conditions of the tests on the plate stand (the way of passing through the plate) were estimated. The conclusions about the accuracy of this method are presented.

  17. Damage Detection of Closed Crack in a Metallic Plate Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Time Reversal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial cracks in metallic structures incline to be closed at rest. Such incipient damage generally fails to be detected and located with traditional linear ultrasonic techniques because ultrasonic waves penetrate the contact area of the closed crack. In this paper, an imaging algorithm based on nonlinear ultrasonic time reversal method is proposed to detect closed cracks in aluminum plates. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducer arrays are used to generate, receive, and reemit ultrasonic wave signals. The closed crack is simulated by tightening a bolt on the aluminum plate. By applying large amplitude excitation voltage on the PZT transducers, the closed crack could be opened and closed. The transmitted waves recorded by PZT array contain nonlinear components, the signals are time reversed and emitted back, and the tone burst reconstructions are achieved. The linear reciprocity and the time reversibility break down due to the presence of the nonlinear components. The correlation coefficient between the original excitation signal and the reconstructed signal is calculated to define the damage index for individual sensing path and is used to develop an imaging algorithm to locate the closed crack on the plate. The experimental results demonstrate that incident wave signals and their reconstructed signals can be used to accurately detect and locate closed cracks.

  18. Apparatus and method for explosive bonding to edge of flyer plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1991-09-01

    The invention is an apparatus and a process for the explosive joining of a flyer plate and a base plate. The apparatus consists of a flyer plate positioned over a base plate. The flyer plate has a notch containing a filler material in intimate contact with the flyer plate. An adhesive means holds a ribbon explosive partially overlapping the notch in the flyer plate. A detonating means initiates the ribbon explosive that drives the flyer plate to accomplish a high velocity, angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and effacing bonding, resulting in electron sharing linkups between the plates. An unbonded tab fractures at a base of the notch leaving a bond to an edge of the attached flyer plate.

  19. 3M Petrifilm enterobacteriaceae count plate method for enumeration of enterobacteriaceae in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The practice of detecting and enumerating all oxidase-negative, glucose-fermenting-Gram-negative rods (i.e., the family Enterobacteriaceae) is used to indicate unsanitary or inadequate food processing conditions. The objective of this interlaboratory collaborative study was to evaluate and compare the methods described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) and the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (Compendium) with a commercial product, the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate, for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae in foods. Six foods--cheddar cheese, milk, flour, frozen prepared meals, frozen broccoli, and nut pieces--were analyzed for Enterobacteriaceae by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test portions consisting of a control test portion and 3 levels of inoculated test portion, each in duplicate. Each test portion was tested by the Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate method as well as the SMEDP or Compendium methods. The precision estimates (repeatability or within-laboratory variation, and reproducibility or between-laboratory variation) were calculated with standard statistical techniques.

  20. Application of the quadrilateral area coordinate method: a new element for laminated composite plate bending problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Cen; Xiangrong Fu; Yuqiu Long; Hongguang Li; Zhenhan Yao

    2007-01-01

    Recently, some new quadrilateral finite elements were successfully developed by the Quadrilateral Area Coordinate (QAC) method. Compared with those traditional models using isoparametric coordinates, these new models are less sensitive to mesh distortion. In this paper, a new displacement-based, 4-node 20-DOF (5-DOF per node)quadrilateral bending element based on the first-order shear deformation theory for analysis of arbitrary laminated composite plates is presented. Its bending part is based on the element AC-MQ4, a recent-developed high-performance Mindlin-Reissner plate element formulated by QAC method and the generalized conforming condition method; and its in-plane displacement fields are interpolated by bilinear shape functions in isoparametric coordinates. Furthermore,the hybrid post-processing procedure, which was firstly proposed by the authors, is employed again to improve the stress solutions, especially for the transverse shear stresses. The resulting element, denoted as AC-MQ4-LC, exhibits excellent performance in all linear static and dynamic numerical examples. It demonstrates again that the QAC method, the generalized conforming condition method, and the hybrid post-processing procedure are efficient tools for developing simple, effective and reliable finite element models.

  1. Extended layerwise method for laminated composite plates with multiple delaminations and transverse cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. H.; Zhang, X.; Sze, K. Y.; Liu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the extended layerwise method (XLWM), which was developed for laminated composite beams with multiple delaminations and transverse cracks (Li et al. in Int J Numer Methods Eng 101:407-434, 2015), is extended to laminated composite plates. The strong and weak discontinuous functions along the thickness direction are adopted to simulate multiple delaminations and interlaminar interfaces, respectively, whilst transverse cracks are modeled by the extended finite element method (XFEM). The interaction integral method and maximum circumferential tensile criterion are used to calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF) and crack growth angle, respectively. The XLWM for laminated composite plates can accurately predicts the displacement and stress fields near the crack tips and delamination fronts. The thickness distribution of SIF and thus the crack growth angles in different layers can be obtained. These information cannot be predicted by using other existing shell elements enriched by XFEM. Several numerical examples are studied to demonstrate the capabilities of the XLWM in static response analyses, SIF calculations and crack growth predictions.

  2. ON MORTAR-TYPE TRUNC ELEMENT METHOD FOR PLATE BENDING PROBOEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆; 李立康

    2002-01-01

    Wepresnet a brief introduction of applying the idea of mortar method to locally non-conforming TRUNC element for solving plate bending problem. At the interfaces, three mortarconditions, one for the value of solution in pointwise way, the other two for the normal and tan-gential derivatives of the solution in projection way, are provided to secure the global conver-gence. A fte some detailed analysis, we obtain that its error estimates in both energy norm and dis-crete H1 norm are optimal for u* ∈ H3 (Ω)∩ H20(Ω).

  3. The overlapping plates method applied to CCD observations of 243 Ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, W. M., Jr.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    The overlapping plates method has been applied to crossing-point Charge Coupled Device (CCD) observations of minor planet 243 Ida to produce absolute position measurements precise to better than 0.1 sec and differential position measurements precise to better than 0.06 sec. Although these observations numbered only 17 out of the 520 that produced the final ground-based Ida ephemeris for the Galileo spacecraft flyby, their inclusion decreased Ida's downtrack error from 78 to 60 km and its out-of-plane error from 58 to 44 km.

  4. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eydam, Agnes, E-mail: Agnes.Eydam@tu-dresden.de; Suchaneck, Gunnar, E-mail: Agnes.Eydam@tu-dresden.de; Gerlach, Gerald [Technische Universität Dresden, Solid State Electronics Laboratory, Helmholtzstraße 18, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-11-05

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes.

  5. A SIMILARITY METHOD FOR LAMINAR WAKE OF POWER-LAW FLUID FLOW AROUND A FLAT PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Cun-fang; Wang Mei-xia

    2003-01-01

    Based on the characteristic equation for power-law fluid and the Prandtl boundary layer equation, using the similarity method similar to that of Newtonian fluids, two similarity variables were given and a normal differential equation was derived for the laminar wake of power-law fluid flow produced by a flat plate. And numerical results were obtained. The results show that the power-law index n has evident influence on the velocity distribution in the wake. In the wake, velocity gradient is larger, and the wake is narrower for larger n.

  6. Using the heat flow plate method for determining thermal conductivity of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, M.; Puţan, V.; Vîlceanu, L.

    2017-01-01

    The heat flow plate method is used to determine thermal conductivity of a building material sample made of Rohacell (insulating foam). Experimental technique consists in placing the sample with a reference material on top (polystyrene sample) in a calorimetric chamber and heating from underside. Considering that the heat flux which passes through the two layers is constant and knowing thermal conductivity of the reference material, the sample thermal conductivity is determined. The temperature difference between the two opposite sample’s sides is recorded only when the steady state is achieved (constant heat flux).

  7. Predicting method of local damage in reinforced concrete plate with absorber sandwiched between two concrete panels under hard projectile impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Tetsuo; Kambayashi, Atsushi; Ueda, Masatoshi [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan); Ohno, Tomonori; Ishikawa, Nobutaka

    1995-07-01

    The predicting method of local damage in reinforced concrete plate with absorber sandwiched between two concrete panels (double-layered RC plate) under the impact of hard projectile is studied in this paper. The results of high-velocity impact tests to investigate the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates are reported. To evaluate quantitatively the extent of local damage, the existing formulae and the alternative predicting formulae with the multivariate analysis presented here are employed. The prediction of the proposed formulae can agree reasonably well with the actual observed damage, thus can be a useful method in impact resistant design. (author).

  8. Numerical manifold method for the forced vibration of thin plates during bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ding; Song, Chen; Wei-Bin, Wen; Shao-Ming, Luo; Xia, Huang

    2014-01-01

    A novel numerical manifold method was derived from the cubic B-spline basis function. The new interpolation function is characterized by high-order coordination at the boundary of a manifold element. The linear elastic-dynamic equation used to solve the bending vibration of thin plates was derived according to the principle of minimum instantaneous potential energy. The method for the initialization of the dynamic equation and its solution process were provided. Moreover, the analysis showed that the calculated stiffness matrix exhibited favorable performance. Numerical results showed that the generalized degrees of freedom were significantly fewer and that the calculation accuracy was higher for the manifold method than for the conventional finite element method.

  9. Numerical Manifold Method for the Forced Vibration of Thin Plates during Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel numerical manifold method was derived from the cubic B-spline basis function. The new interpolation function is characterized by high-order coordination at the boundary of a manifold element. The linear elastic-dynamic equation used to solve the bending vibration of thin plates was derived according to the principle of minimum instantaneous potential energy. The method for the initialization of the dynamic equation and its solution process were provided. Moreover, the analysis showed that the calculated stiffness matrix exhibited favorable performance. Numerical results showed that the generalized degrees of freedom were significantly fewer and that the calculation accuracy was higher for the manifold method than for the conventional finite element method.

  10. Robust scatter correction method for cone-beam CT using an interlacing-slit plate

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Kuidong; Zhang, Dinghua; Zhang, Hua; Shi, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in medical imaging and industrial nondestructive testing, but the presence of scattered radiation will cause significant reduction of image quality. In this article, a robust scatter correction method for CBCT using an interlacing-slit plate (ISP) is carried out for convenient practice. Firstly, a Gaussian filtering method is proposed to compensate the missing data of the inner scatter image, and simultaneously avoid too-large values of calculated inner scatter and smooth the inner scatter field. Secondly, an interlacing-slit scan without detector gain correction is carried out to enhance the practicality and convenience of the scatter correction method. Finally, a denoising step for scatter-corrected projection images is added in the process flow to control the noise amplification. The experimental results show that the improved method can not only make the scatter correction more robust and convenient, but also achieve a good quality of scatter-corre...

  11. MODIFIED LAYER REMOVAL METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THICK PRE-STRETCHED ALUMINUM PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShu-hong; ZUODun-wen; WANGMin; WANGZong-rong

    2004-01-01

    The integrated structure parts are widely used in aircraft. The distortion caused by residual stresses in thick pre-stretched aluminum plates during machining integrated parts is a common and serious problem. To predict and control the machining distortion, the residual stress distribution in the thick plate must be measured firstly. The modified removal method for measuring residual stress in thick pre-stretched aluminum plates is proposed and the stress-strain relation matrix is deduced by elasticity theory. The residual stress distribution in specimen of 7050T7451 plate is measured by using the method, and measurement results are analyzed and compared with data obtained by other methods. The method is effective to measure the residual stress.

  12. RESEARCH ON THE COMPANION SOLUTION FOR A THIN PLATE IN THE MESHLESS LOCAL BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙述尧; 熊渊博

    2004-01-01

    The meshless local boundary integral equation method is a currently developed numerical method, which combines the advantageous features of Galerkin finite element method(GFEM), boundary element method(BEM) and element free Galerkin method(EFGM), and is a truly meshless method possessing wide prospects in engineering applications.The companion solution and all the other formulas required in the meshless local boundary integral equation for a thin plate were presented, in order to make this method apply to solve the thin plate problem.

  13. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  14. 2D simulation and analysis of fluid flow between two sinusoidal parallel plates using lattice Bolzmann method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better heat transfer, it is important to enhance fluid mixing in heat exchangers. Since there are negative effects when heat exchangers are operating in turbulent regime (like significant pressure drop, increased size of the pump it is necessary to apply the techniques which would provide better fluid mixing when heat exchangers are operating in laminar regime. Investigations have shown that use of sinusoidal instead of flat plates results in this effect. This study is a result of two dimensional simulation of fluid flow between two parallel sinusoidal plates. Simulation was done with the use of modified Openlb code, based on lattice Boltzmann method. Reynolds number was varied from 200 to 1000, and space between the plates was varied from 3cm to 5 cm. Results showed that sinusoidal plates enhance fluid mixing, especially with greater values of Re and smaller space between the plates, which is in agreement with previous investigations.

  15. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  16. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  17. Efficiency of Removing Chromium from Plating Industry Wastewater using the Electrocoagulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghe-ei S.M.1 PhD,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chromium is one of the most important metallic pollutants in plating industry wastewater. This toxic metal is a serious threat to human health and to the environment due to its cumulative effects and non-degradability. This research intended to study the effects of pH, contact time, and voltage on the degree of chromium removal from wastewater of plating industry by using the electrocoagulation method. Materials & Methods This laboratory research conducted from late May to late November 2012. A 1000cc reactor at laboratory scale was used that included 4 aluminum electrodes of 90% purity, dimensions of 5 by 10cm, and thickness of 1mm, with parallel arrangement. Synthetic chromium-bearing wastewater was prepared at the initial concentration of 50mg/l. The process is done at pH values of 3, 7, and 9, electric potentials of 20, 30, and 40 volts contact durations of 20, 40, 60, and 80 minutes. Findings The degree of chromium reduction did not change linearly with time in the solution and strongly depended on the pH. The efficiency of chromium removal in the samples had an ascending trend with increases in voltage from 20 to 30 and 40 volts. The degree of chromium removal increased at longer contact times. Conclusion Lower pH, more contact time and higher voltages are effective factors in the chromium removal from wastewater by coagulation method.

  18. High-Temperature Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus Based on Guarded Hot Plate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzo-Andras, E.; Magyarlaki, T.

    2017-10-01

    An alternative calibration procedure has been applied using apparatus built in-house, created to optimize thermal conductivity measurements. The new approach compared to those of usual measurement procedures of thermal conductivity by guarded hot plate (GHP) consists of modified design of the apparatus, modified position of the temperature sensors and new conception in the calculation method, applying the temperature at the inlet section of the specimen instead of the temperature difference across the specimen. This alternative technique is suitable for eliminating the effect of thermal contact resistance arising between a rigid specimen and the heated plate, as well as accurate determination of the specimen temperature and of the heat loss at the lateral edge of the specimen. This paper presents an overview of the specific characteristics of the newly developed "high-temperature thermal conductivity measurement apparatus" based on the GHP method, as well as how the major difficulties are handled in the case of this apparatus, as compared to the common GHP method that conforms to current international standards.

  19. Silver-halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) processing method for pulse holograms recorded on VRP plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, Maria K.; Drozdova, Olga V.; Mikhailov, Viktor N.

    2002-06-01

    One of the most important area of holograph applications is display holography. In case of pulse recording the requirement for vibration stability is easier than compared to CW exposure. At the same time it is widely known that the behavior of sliver-halide holographic materials strongly depends on the exposure duration. In particular the exposure sensitivity drastically decreases under nanosecond pulse duration. One of the effective ways of the diffraction efficiency improvement is SHSG processing method. This processing scheme is based on high modulation of refractive index due to microvoids appearance inside emulsion layer. It should be mentioned that the SHSG method was used earlier only in the cases when the holograms were recorded by use of CW lasers. This work is devoted to the investigation of SHSG method for pulse hologram recording on VRP plates. We used a pulsed YLF:Nd laser with pulse duration of 25 nanoseconds and wavelength of 527 nm. Both transmission and reflection holograms were recorded. The different kinds of bleaching as well as developing solutions were investigated. Our final processing scheme includes the following stages: 1) development in non-tanning solution, 2) rehalogenating bleach, 3) intermediate alcohol drying, 4) uniform second exposure, 5) second development in diluted developer, 6) reverse bleaching, 7) fixing and 8) gradient drying in isopropyl alcohol. Diffraction efficiency of transmission holograms was of about 60 percent and reflection mirror holograms was of about 45 percent. Thus we have demonstrated the SHSG processing scheme for producing effective holograms on VRP plates under pulse exposure.

  20. Application of Homotopy Analysis Method to the Unsteady Squeezing Flow of a Second-Grade Fluid between Circular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated an axisymmetric unsteady two-dimensional flow of nonconducting, incompressible second grade fluid between two circular plates. The similarity transformation is applied to reduce governing partial differential equation (PDE to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE in dimensionless form. The resulting nonlinear boundary value problem is solved using homotopy analysis method and numerical method. The effects of appropriate dimensionless parameters on the velocity profiles are studied. The total resistance to the upper plate has been calculated.

  1. The boundary point method for Reissner′s plates%Reissner型板边界点法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴约; 王左辉

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a series of particular solutions are formed by utilizing correspondent Reissher′s plate fundamental solutions. Thus all elements in the coefficient matrix of boundary element equations for plates to be solved will be determined by boundary point method. In the process of solving, interpolation and numerical integration are not needed and numerical treatment for singular integration is avoided, meanwhile, the calculation of physical characteristics of any point does not depend on boundary unknowns to be solved, therefore, the accuracy is excellent. The method presented may be applied to solving the problems of all kinds of plates and shells no matter if the problem is isotropic or anisotropic. But it should be noticed that the matrix of all particular solution field should conform with the fundamental solution of the specific problem.%文章采用Reissner型板基本解来构建一系列特解,再通过边界点法确定边界元方程系效矩阵的全部元素。解算中不涉及具体插值,不用数值积分,避免了奇性处理,而任意点物理量的计算不依赖于待解的边界未知量,算效高,精度好。该法还可用来分析其它各类板壳问题,无论是各向同性还是各向异性的,不同的只是应按各自的基本解来构造全特解场矩阵。

  2. A novel prediction method of vibration and acoustic radiation for rectangular plate with particle dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongqiang; Wu, Chengjun [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-03-15

    Particle damping technology is widely used in mechanical and structural systems or civil engineering to reduce vibration and suppress noise as a result of its high efficiency, simplicity and easy implementation, low cost, and energy-saving characteristic without the need for any auxiliary power equipment. Research on particle damping theory has focused on the vibration response of the particle damping structure, but the acoustic radiation of the particle damping structure is rarely investigated. Therefore, a feasible modeling method to predict the vibration response and acoustic radiation of the particle damping structure is desirable to satisfy the actual requirements in industrial practice. In this paper, a novel simulation method based on multiphase flow theory of gas particle by COMSOL multiphysics is developed to study the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics of a cantilever rectangular plate with Particle dampers (PDs). The frequency response functions and scattered far-field sound pressure level of the plate without and with PDs under forced vibration are predicted, and the predictions agree well with the experimental results. Results demonstrate that the added PDs have a significant effect on vibration damping and noise reduction for the primary structure. The presented work in this paper shows that the theoretical work is valid, which can provide important theoretical guidance for low-noise optimization design of particle damping structure. This model also has an important reference value for the noise control of this kind of structure.

  3. Orifice plate for controlling solids flow, methods of use thereof and articles comprising the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen D.; Teigen, Bard C.

    2017-01-31

    Disclosed herein is an orifice plate comprising one or more plates having orifices disposed therein; the orifices being operative to permit the flow of solids from a moving bed heat exchanger to a solids flow control system; where the orifice plate is downstream of a tube bundle of the moving bed heat exchanger and upstream of the solids flow control system and wherein the orifice plate is operative to evenly distribute the flow of solids in the solids flow control system.

  4. Liquid crystal thermography. A method for monitoring temperature gradients in microtitration plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, D G; Sanders, A H; Jang, L; Poy, D; Van Heuvelen, A

    1983-03-11

    Precise quantitative heat transfer information in microtitration plates can be obtained by filling the wells of a microtitration plate with cholesteric liquid crystals and incubating the plates at the desired temperature in different incubators. The liquid crystals indicate temperature by changes in discrete reproducible colors over various temperature ranges. With these instrumented plates, interwell thermal gradients may be documented visually and are in close agreement with results obtained by using wire thermocouple measuring techniques.

  5. Thermal buckling analysis of annular FGM plate having variable thickness under thermal load of arbitrary distribution by finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghomshei, Mansour Mohieddin; Abbasi, Vahid [Islamic Azad University, Alborz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, a finite element formulation is developed for analyzing the axisymmetric thermal buckling of FGM annular plates of variable thickness subjected to thermal loads generally distributed nonuniformly along the plate radial coordinate. The FGM assumed to be isotropic with material properties graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power-law in terms of the plate thickness coordinate, and has symmetry with respect to the plate midplane. At first, the pre-buckling plane elasticity problem is developed and solved using the finite element method, to determine the distribution of the pre-buckling in-plane forces in terms of the temperature rise distribution. Subsequently, based on Kierchhoff plate theory and using the principle of minimum total potential energy, the weak form of the differential equation governing the plate thermal stability is derived, then by employing the finite element method, the stability equations are solved numerically to evaluate the thermal buckling load factor. Convergence and validation of the presented finite element model are investigated by comparing the numerical results with those available in the literature. Parametric studies are carried out to cover the effects of parameters including thickness-to-radius ratio, taper parameter and boundary conditions on the thermal buckling load factor of the plates.

  6. Comparison of discrimination methods for alpha radiation signals using imaging plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Zhuo, W

    2012-11-01

    The discrimination of different radiation signals is important for quantitative measurements of naturally occurring radionulides by using the technique of imaging plates (IPs). In this study, four discrimination algorithms previously proposed for discriminating and counting the incident alpha signals were experimentally compared from the view points of linearity response, the discrimination capability of alpha signals from beta signals and the detection uncertainty. The results showed that all the methods had a good linearity response and could discriminate alpha signals from beta signals. In general, a larger region of interest (ROI) has a higher detection efficiency, but the discrimination capability of alpha signals from beta signals is worse. By taking into account both the detection efficiency and the uncertainty of detection, the algorithm using an ROI of 5 × 100 μm × 100 μm was considered to be the most appropriate method for quantitative measurements of alpha radiation.

  7. Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Plates with One or More Guided Edges via Bicubic B-Spline Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Si

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and accurate method is proposed for the vibration analysis of rectangular plates with one or more guided edges, in which bicubic B-spline interpolation in combination with a new type of basis cubic B-spline functions is used to approximate the plate deflection. This type of basis cubic B-spline functions can satisfy simply supported, clamped, free, and guided edge conditions with easy numerical manipulation. The frequency characteristic equation is formulated based on classical thin plate theory by performing Hamilton's principle. The present solutions are verified with the analytical ones. Fast convergence, high accuracy and computational efficiency have been demonstrated from the comparisons. Frequency parameters for 13 cases of rectangular plates with at least one guided edge, which are possible by approximate or numerical methods only, are presented. These results are new in literature.

  8. Generalized equations of finite difference method in the problems of dynamic load calculation for thin bending plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabbasov Radek Fatykhovich

    Full Text Available Bending plate is widely used in the construction of large-span structures. Its advantage is light weight, industrial production, low cost and easy installation. Implementing the algorithm for calculating bending plates in engineering practice is an important issue of the construction science. The generalized equations of finite difference method is a new trend in the calculation of building construction. FDM with generalized equation provides additional options for an engineer along with other methods (FEM. In the article the algorithm for dynamic calculation of thin bending plates basing on FDM was developed. The computer programs for dynamic calculation were created on the basis of the algorithm. The authors come to the conclusion that the more simple equations of FDM can be used in case of solving the impulse load problems in dynamic load calculation of thin bending plate.

  9. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  10. Management of infectious fractures with "Non-Contact Plate" (NCP) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemdar, Celil; Azboy, Ibrahim; Atiç, Ramazan; Özkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Kapukaya, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of internal fixation with Non-Contact Plating (NCP) after deep infection caused by previous surgeries of the tibia or femur fractures. The study included 15 patients (4 female and 11 male). The mean age patients was 36.6 years (range, 21-64 years). There were 6 femur and 9 tibia fractures. The mean follow-up period was 25.7 months (range, 15-45 months). The study comprised 11 open and 4 closed fractures. External fixator was used in 3, plate in 4, and intramedullary nail in 8 patients for index surgery. Deep infection was diagnosed via clinical findings, laboratory parameters, and microbiological evaulation. Deep infection was diagnosed within a mean period of 5.5 weeks (range, 2-10 weeks). The infecting organism was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 5, methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in 6, pseudomonas auroginosa in 2, and enterobacteriacea in 2 patients. Union achieved in all patients. Mean time to union was 17 (range, 11-38) weeks. Delayed union was observed in 3 patients who required additional surgeries. Of these one patient developed osteomyelitis. The NCP is an effective alternative method in the treatment of deep infection encountered after internal or external fixation for the tibia, or femur fractures.

  11. Comparison of Primary Models to Predict Microbial Growth by the Plate Count and Absorbance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, María-Leonor; Oltra, Sandra; Esteban, María-Dolores; Andreu, Santiago; Palop, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The selection of a primary model to describe microbial growth in predictive food microbiology often appears to be subjective. The objective of this research was to check the performance of different mathematical models in predicting growth parameters, both by absorbance and plate count methods. For this purpose, growth curves of three different microorganisms (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli) grown under the same conditions, but with different initial concentrations each, were analysed. When measuring the microbial growth of each microorganism by optical density, almost all models provided quite high goodness of fit (r(2) > 0.93) for all growth curves. The growth rate remained approximately constant for all growth curves of each microorganism, when considering one growth model, but differences were found among models. Three-phase linear model provided the lowest variation for growth rate values for all three microorganisms. Baranyi model gave a variation marginally higher, despite a much better overall fitting. When measuring the microbial growth by plate count, similar results were obtained. These results provide insight into predictive microbiology and will help food microbiologists and researchers to choose the proper primary growth predictive model.

  12. A Novel Two-Step Method for Fabricating Silver Plating Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel two-step method was presented for fabricating silver plating cotton fabrics (SPCFs with high electrical conductivity and excellent washing fastness. First, polydopamine (PDA film was coated on the surface of cotton fabrics by in situ polymerization of dopamine, the silver ions in silver nitrate solution were reduced by the catechol groups of polydopamine, and silver nanoparticles were combined with polydopamine by covalent bond on the surface of cotton fabrics. Second, silver ions were reduced by glucose, and silver plating was coated on the surface. Subsequently, the properties of SPCFs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and so forth. With the increasing of silver-ammonia solution concentration or dopamine concentration, the surface resistivity of SPCFs decreases and gradually stabilized. The surface resistivity of the SPCFs can reach 0.12±0.02 Ω, and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (ESE of the SPCFs can reach 58.5±4.5 dB. Conductive fabrics have wide application prospect in many of fields, such as antibacterial, intelligent textiles, smart garments, electromagnetic shielding, and flexible sensors.

  13. Improved non-dimensional dynamic influence function method for vibration analysis of arbitrarily shaped plates with clamped edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new formulation for the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method, which was developed by the authors, is proposed to efficiently extract eigenvalues and mode shapes of clamped plates with arbitrary shapes. Compared with the finite element and boundary element methods, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method yields highly accurate solutions in eigenvalue analysis problems of plates and membranes including acoustic cavities. However, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method requires the uneconomic procedure of calculating the singularity of a system matrix in the frequency range of interest for extracting eigenvalues because it produces a non-algebraic eigenvalue problem. This article describes a new approach that reduces the problem of free vibrations of clamped plates to an algebraic eigenvalue problem, the solution of which is straightforward. The validity and efficiency of the proposed method are illustrated through several numerical examples.

  14. Experimental comparison and validation of hot-ball method with guarded hot plate method on polyurethane foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Ján; Glorieux, Christ; Dieška, Peter; Kubičár, Ľudovít

    2016-07-01

    The Hot-ball method is an innovative transient method for measuring thermophysical properties. The principle is based on heating of a small ball, incorporated in measured medium, by constant heating power and simultaneous measuring of the ball's temperature response since the heating was initiated. The shape of the temperature response depends on thermophysical properties of the medium, where the sensor is placed. This method is patented by Institute of Physics, SAS, where the method and sensors based on this method are being developed. At the beginning of the development of sensors for this method we were oriented on monitoring applications, where relative precision is much more important than accuracy. Meanwhile, the quality of sensors was improved good enough to be used for a new application - absolute measuring of thermophysical parameters of low thermally conductive materials. This paper describes experimental verification and validation of measurement by hot-ball method. Thanks to cooperation with Laboratory of Soft Matter and Biophysics of Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, established Guarded Hot Plate method was used as a reference. Details about measuring setups, description of the experiments and results of the comparison are presented.

  15. Temperature-independent pectin gel method for aerobic plate count in dairy and nondairy food products: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J N

    1988-01-01

    Ten laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare the pectin-based plate count (PC) Redigel method with the aerobic plate count and standard plate count agar-based standard methods for the estimation of total bacterial counts in 9 different nondairy food and dairy food products. The foods were cream, homogenized milk, raw milk, cheese, raw chicken, raw oysters, frozen broccoli, flour, and spices. Each laboratory analyzed 6 samples (3 sample pairs) of each food group. Counts obtained by the pectin-based plate count and agar-based plate count methods differed significantly (P less than 0.05) only for homogenized milk, where the pectin gel method resulted in higher counts. The actual counts were higher in the pectin gel method in 8 of the 9 food groups. The log means for pectin gel and agar-based media, respectively, for the 9 food groups were: cream 8.106 and 7.844; homogenized milk 8.642 and 8.231; raw milk 8.711 and 8.423; chicken 7.654 and 7.645; oysters 7.201 and 7.180; broccoli 7.102 and 6.798; cheese 8.045 and 8.055; flour 4.112 and 3.988; spice 5.379 and 5.314. The repeatability standard deviations favored the pectin gel method in 6 of the 9 foods tested. The reproducibility standard deviations favored the pectin gel method in 7 of the 9 foods tested. These results strongly support the suitability of the pectin gel method as an alternative to agar-based plate count and other methods for total bacterial counts in nondairy and dairy food products. The pectin gel method has been adopted official first action.

  16. Reconstruction of Dispersive Lamb Waves in Time Plates Using a Time Reversal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Time reversal (TR) of nondispersive body waves has been used in many applications including ultrasonic NDE. However, the study of the TR method for Lamb waves on thin structures is not well established. In this paper, the full reconstruction of the input signal is investigated for dispersive Lamb waves by introducing a time reversal operator based on the Mindlin plate theory. A broadband and a narrowband input waveform are employed to reconstruct the A{sub 0} mode of Lamb wave propagations. Due to the frequency dependence of the TR process of Lamb waves, different frequency components of the broadband excitation are scaled differently during the time reversal process and the original input signal cannot be fully restored. This is the primary reason for using a narrowband excitation to enhance the flaw detectability

  17. Local Projection-Based Stabilized Mixed Finite Element Methods for Kirchhoff Plate Bending Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehai Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on stress-deflection variational formulation, we propose a family of local projection-based stabilized mixed finite element methods for Kirchhoff plate bending problems. According to the error equations, we obtain the error estimates of the approximation to stress tensor in energy norm. And by duality argument, error estimates of the approximation to deflection in H1-norm are achieved. Then we design an a posteriori error estimator which is closely related to the equilibrium equation, constitutive equation, and nonconformity of the finite element spaces. With the help of Zienkiewicz-Guzmán-Neilan element spaces, we prove the reliability of the a posteriori error estimator. And the efficiency of the a posteriori error estimator is proved by standard bubble function argument.

  18. Effect of crack on the impact response of plates by the extended finite element method (X-FEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberkak, Rachid [University of Blida, Soumaa (Algeria); Bachene, Mourad [University of Medea, Medea (Algeria); Rechak, Said [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-06-15

    The dynamic response of cracked isotropic plates subjected to impact loading is studied in this paper. The impact properties of cracked plate are compared with the virgin ones to predict the eventual presence of discontinuities in plates. The extended finite element method (X-FEM) is employed in the mathematical modeling of the impact problem, wherein the effects of shear deformation is considered. Conventional finite element without any discontinuity is initially conducted in the numerical implementation. Enriched functions are then added to the nodal displacement field for element nodes that contain cracks. The effects of crack length and crack position on contact force and on plate deflection are analyzed. Results show that the maximal contact force decreases as the deflection increases with increasing crack length a . The effect of crack position on the dynamic response is less pronounced when the crack is near the fixed end.

  19. Single Transducer Ultrasonic Imaging Method that Eliminates the Effect of Plate Thickness Variation in the Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a single transducer ultrasonic imaging method that eliminates the effect of plate thickness variation in the image. The method thus isolates ultrasonic variations due to material microstructure. The use of this method can result in significant cost savings because the ultrasonic image can be interpreted correctly without the need for machining to achieve precise thickness uniformity during nondestructive evaluations of material development. The method is based on measurement of ultrasonic velocity. Images obtained using the thickness-independent methodology are compared with conventional velocity and c-scan echo peak amplitude images for monolithic ceramic (silicon nitride), metal matrix composite and polymer matrix composite materials. It was found that the thickness-independent ultrasonic images reveal and quantify correctly areas of global microstructural (pore and fiber volume fraction) variation due to the elimination of thickness effects. The thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method described in this article is currently being commercialized under a cooperative agreement between NASA Lewis Research Center and Sonix, Inc.

  20. Estimation of plate material properties by means of a complex wavenumber fit using Hankel's functions and the image source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, N. B.; Leclère, Q.; Ege, K.; Gerges, Y.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new wave fitting approach to estimate the frequency dependent material properties of thin isotropic plate structures from an experimentally obtained vibrational field, exciting the plate at a single point. The method projects the measurement data on to an analytical image source model, in which Hankel's functions are used for a description of the wave fields emanating from the point of excitation, including the reflected wave fields from the edges of the finite plate. By minimizing the error between the projected field and the measured field, varying the complex wave number and the source strengths of the image sources, an optimum fit is searched for. Thus the source strengths of the image sources do not need to be determined theoretically, but are estimated from the fit on to the experimental data instead (thus avoiding difficulties in theoretically assessing the reflection coefficient of the edges of the plate). The approach uses a complex wavenumber fit, enabling the determination of the dynamic stiffness of the plate structure and its damping properties as function of frequency. The method is especially suited for plates with a sufficient amount of damping, excited at high frequencies.

  1. Enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods by the SimPlate coliform and E. coli color indicator method and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip T; Lienau, Andrew H; Roa, Nerie H; Green, Shannon T

    2005-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of the SimPlate Coliform and E. coli Color Indicator (CEc-CI) method was compared to the AOAC 3-tube Most Probable Number (MPN) methods for enumerating and confirming coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods (966.23 and 966.24). In this study, test portions were prepared and analyzed according to the conditions stated in both the AOAC methods and SimPlate directions for use. Six food types were artificially contaminated with coliform bacteria and E. coli: frozen burritos, frozen broccoli, fluid pasteurized milk, whole almond nut meats, cheese, and powdered cake mix. Method comparisons were conducted. Overall, the SimPlate method demonstrated coliform and E. coli counts compared to the AOAC reference methods for the majority of food types and levels analyzed. In all cases, the repeatability and reproducibility of the SimPlate CEc-CI method were not different from those of the reference methods and in certain cases, were statistically better than those of the AOAC 3-tube MPN methods. These results indicate that the SimPlate CEc-CI method and the reference culture methods are comparable for enumeration of both total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

  2. Comparison of a quantitative microtiter method, a quantitative automated method, and the plate-count method for determining microbial complement resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M D; Wooley, R E; Brown, J; Spears, K R; Nolan, L K; Shotts, E B

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative microtiter method for determining the degree of complement resistance or sensitivity of microorganisms is described. The microtiter method is compared with a quantitative automated system and the standard plate-count technique. Data were accumulated from 30 avian Escherichia coli isolates incubated at 35 C with either chicken plasma or heat-inactivated chicken plasma. Analysis of data generated by the automated system and plate-count techniques resulted in a classification of the microorganisms into three groups: those sensitive to the action of complement; those of intermediate sensitivity to the action of complement; and those resistant to the action of complement. Although the three methods studied did not agree absolutely, there were statistically significant correlations among them.

  3. A force plate based method for the calibration of force/torque sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Gert S; Chang, Chien-Chi; Kingma, Idsart; Schepers, H Martin; Herber, Sebastiaan; Veltink, Peter H; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2012-04-30

    This study describes a novel calibration method for six-degrees-of-freedom force/torque sensors (FTsensors) using a pre-calibrated force plate (FP) as a reference measuring device. In this calibration method, the FTsensor is rigidly connected to a FP and force/torque data are synchronously recorded while a dynamic functional loading procedure is applied by the researcher. Based on these data an accurate calibration matrix for the FTsensor can easily be obtained via least-squares optimization. Using this calibration method, this study further investigated what loading methods are appropriate for the calibration of FTsensors intended for ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces (GRFs). Seven different loading methods were compared (e.g., walking, pushing while standing on the FTsensor). Calibration matrices were calculated based on the raw data from the seven loading methods individually and all loading methods combined. Performance of these calibration matrices was subsequently compared in an in situ trial. During the in situ trial, five common work tasks (e.g., walking, manual lifting, pushing) were performed by an experimenter, while standing on the FP wearing a "ForceShoe" with two calibrated FTsensors attached to its sole. Root-mean-square differences (RMSDs) between the FTsensor and FP outcomes were calculated over all tasks. Using the calibration matrices based on all loading methods combined resulted in small RMSDs (GRF: <8 N, center of pressure: <2 mm). Using the calibration matrices based on "pushing against manual resistance" resulted in similar RMSDs, proving it to be the best single loading method.

  4. A simple method for the detection of protease activity on agar plates using Bromocresolgreen Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan

    2013-07-01

    proteolytic activity using bromocresol green dye on substrate agar plates. Two methods were highlighted in this article. The first method was adopted to determine the proteolytic activity by flooding bromocresol green reagent on casein/skimmed milk agar plates. Later, a minimum of 0.0015% of bromocresol green was incorporated with the substrate agar plates before autoclaving to detect the proteolytic activity of bacteria. The proteolytic activity appeared as a colourless zone, while the rest of the plates were greenish-blue in colour which was pH dependent. This method was easy to perform and cheap.  

  5. Robust scatter correction method for cone-beam CT using an interlacing-slit plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui-Dong; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Ding-Hua; Zhang, Hua; Shi, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in medical imaging and industrial nondestructive testing, but the presence of scattered radiation will cause significant reduction of image quality. In this article, a robust scatter correction method for CBCT using an interlacing-slit plate (ISP) is carried out for convenient practice. Firstly, a Gaussian filtering method is proposed to compensate the missing data of the inner scatter image, and simultaneously avoid too-large values of calculated inner scatter and smooth the inner scatter field. Secondly, an interlacing-slit scan without detector gain correction is carried out to enhance the practicality and convenience of the scatter correction method. Finally, a denoising step for scatter-corrected projection images is added in the process flow to control the noise amplification The experimental results show that the improved method can not only make the scatter correction more robust and convenient, but also achieve a good quality of scatter-corrected slice images. Supported by National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China (2012ZX04007021), Aeronautical Science Fund of China (2014ZE53059), and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (3102014KYJD022)

  6. Tuning of Feedback Decoupling Controller for Two-Dimensional Heat Plate by Using VRFT Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Nobutomo; Nakano, Masahiko; Okajima, Hiroshi; Kawaji, Shigeyasu

    In manufacturing processes, inappropriate thermal distribution, which is observed in both steady and transient states of the thermal plant, leads to inferior quality. For a plant with strong thermal interaction, decoupling control is effective in precisely tuning the control system. We proposed the decoupling controller based on the temperature-difference feedback model. However, no parameter-identification method of thermal interaction has been presented so far. Traditionally, iterative tuning by trial and error has been used to tune the controller parameters. In the case of an industrial plant, the tuning time would be long because of the large time constants of the plant. Recently, the virtual reference feedback tuning (VRFT) method, which can be used for off-line tuning of the controller parameters using a set of I/O data, has been studied to examine the possibility of shortening the tuning time. In this paper, a VRFT method for the feedback decoupling controller is proposed for a two-dimensional heat plate by taking consideration the thermal interaction property. The effectiveness of this VRFT method is evaluated by performing an experimental simulation.

  7. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional spouted bed with draft plates by discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzhi ZHAO; Yi CHENG; Maoqiang JIANG; Yong JIN

    2008-01-01

    A discrete element method (DEM)-computa-tional fluid dynamics (CFD) two-way coupling method was employed to simulate the hydrodynamics in a two-dimensional spouted bed with draft plates. The motion of particles was modeled by the DEM and the gas flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equation. The interactions between gas and particles were considered using a two-way coupling method. The motion of particles in the spouted bed with complex geometry was solved by com-bining DEM and boundary element method (BEM). The minimal spouted velocity was obtained by the BEM-DEM-CFD simulation and the variation of the flow pat-tern in the bed with different superficial gas velocity was studied. The relationship between the pressure drop of the spouted bed and the superficial gas velocity was achieved from the simulations. The radial profile of the averaged vertical velocities of particles and the profile of the aver-aged void fraction in the spout and the annulus were stat-istically analyzed. The flow characteristics of the gas-solid system in the two-dimensional spouted bed were clearly described by the simulation results.

  8. Application of Approximation Full-Load Distribution Method to Pass Scheduling on Plate Mill With Hydro-Bending System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-lei; ZHANG Qi-sheng; ZHAO Zhong; TIAN Yong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    The influence of positive bending system on plate crown control was researched. The approximation full-load distribution method for pass scheduling was put forward. This method can not only make full use of the mill capacity with decreased pass number, but also give quality product of excellent flatness.

  9. A Simple Method of Detecting Chlamydia Trachomatis Using Enzymatically Amplified DNA and Immobilized Probes on Microtiter Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁礼; 熊艳; 张龙兴; 蒋秀蓉; 张忠恕

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a simple and economical method for Chlamydia trachomatis detecting, called microtiter plate hybridization (PCR-MPtt) , which may replace standard PCR. This method is similar to that of an ELISA. Briefly, the PCR products labeled at the 5' termini with biotin were hybridized with probes immobilized on a microtiter well

  10. Influence of the ARC patterning method and annealing on the contact adhesion of Ni/Cu-plated solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jong Wook; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Doo Won; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-05-01

    Ni/Cu two-step plating is a promising metallization technique because low contact resistance and improved contact adhesion can be achieved after the Ni annealing process. Also, narrow fingers, which are required for high-efficiency solar cells, can be formed by plating. However, the reliability of contact adhesion is still considered one obstacle to industrializing solar cells with plated metal contacts. In this experiment, the influence of ARC opening methods on plated contact adhesion was investigated because the roughnesses of the Si surfaces produced by using pico-second laser ablation and photolithography may be different. Also, the annealing process was conducted before and after plating Cu/Ag metal stacks. The sequence of the annealing can be significant for efficient production because plating is a wet process while annealing is a dry process. The contact adhesion was measured by using a peel-off test. The test was conducted on a 1.5-mm-wide by a 60 ~ 70- mm-long bus bar area. A 3.2-N/mm adhesion force was recorded as a highest average value along the bus bar.

  11. The hp-MITC finite element method for the Reissner-Mindlin plate problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Mark; Pinchedez, Katia

    2002-11-01

    The popular MITC finite elements used for the approximation of the Reissner-Mindlin plate are extended to the case where elements of non-uniform degree p distribution are used on locally refined meshes. Such an extension is of particular interest to the hp-version and hp-adaptive finite element methods. A priori error bounds are provided showing that the method is locking-free. The analysis is based on new approximation theoretic results for non-uniform Brezzi-Douglas-Fortin-Marini spaces, and extends the results obtained in the case of uniform order approximation on globally quasi-uniform meshes presented by Stenberg and Suri (SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 34 (1997) 544). Numerical examples illustrating the theoretical results and comparing the performance with alternative standard Galerkin approaches are presented for two new benchmark problems with known analytic solution, including the case where the shear stress exhibits a boundary layer. The new method is observed to be locking-free and able to provide exponential rates of convergence even in the presence of boundary layers.

  12. Methods for testing Zernike phase plates and a report on silicon-based phase plates with reduced charging and improved ageing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Michael; Meng, Xing; Hsieh, Chyongere; Roussie, James; Striemer, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Imaging with Zernike phase plates is increasingly being used in cryo-TEM tomography and cryo-EM single-particle applications. However, rapid ageing of the phase plates, together with the cost and effort in producing them, present serious obstacles to widespread adoption. We are experimenting with phase plates based on silicon chips that have thin windows; such phase plates could be mass-produced and made available at moderate cost. The windows are coated with conductive layers to reduce charging, and this considerably extends the useful life of the phase plates compared to traditional pure-carbon phase plates. However, a compromise must be reached between robustness and transmission through the phase-plate film. Details are given on testing phase-plate performance by means of imaging an amorphous thin film and evaluating the power spectra of the images.

  13. Solution of a Problem of Natural Oscillations of a Finite Plate with Fastened Base and Method of Levinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardanov A.H.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exact solution of three-dimensional problem of free vibrations of a finite elastic plate with fastened base is considered. The problem is solved with the Lame potentials and by method of Levinson, which has formulated to solve the three-dimensional plate problem with free faces. The dispersion equation for the vibration frequencies and the self functions characterizing the amplitude of oscillation are derived. Problems are solved in the case of the Navier conditions defined on the facial surfaces. It is shown that the method of Levinson leads to the exact solution.

  14. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  15. Differential specificity of selective culture media for enumeration of pathogenic vibrios: advantages and limitations of multi-plating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Steward, Grieg F

    2015-04-01

    Plating environmental samples on vibrio-selective chromogenic media is a commonly used technique that allows one to quickly estimate concentrations of putative vibrio pathogens or to isolate them for further study. Although this approach is convenient, its usefulness depends directly on how well the procedure selects against false positives. We tested whether a chromogenic medium, CHROMagar Vibrio (CaV), used alone (single-plating) or in combination (double-plating) with a traditional medium thiosulfate-citrate-bile-salts (TCBS), could improve the discrimination among three pathogenic vibrio species (Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus) and thereby decrease the number of false-positive colonies that must be screened by molecular methods. Assays were conducted on water samples from two estuarine environments (one subtropical, one tropical) in a variety of seasonal conditions. The results of the double-plating method were confirmed by PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Our data indicate that there is no significant difference in the false-positive rate between CaV and TCBS when using a single-plating technique, but determining color changes on the two media sequentially (double-plating) reduced the rate of false positive identification in most cases. The improvement achieved was about two-fold on average, but varied greatly (from 0- to 5-fold) and depended on the sampling time and location. The double-plating method was most effective for V. vulnificus in warm months, when overall V. vulnificus abundance is high (false positive rates as low as 2%, n=178). Similar results were obtained for V. cholerae (minimum false positive rate of 16%, n=146). In contrast, the false positive rate for V. parahaemolyticus was always high (minimum of 59%, n=109). Sequence analysis of false-positive isolates indicated that the majority of confounding isolates are from the Vibrionaceae family, however, members of distantly related bacterial groups were also able to

  16. Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William

    2016-01-01

    This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...

  17. Impact Localization Method for Composite Plate Based on Low Sampling Rate Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors have been increasingly used in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM in recent years. In this paper, we proposed an impact localization algorithm based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and Particle Swarm Optimization-Support Vector Machine (PSO-SVM to achieve better localization accuracy for the FBG-embedded plate. In our method, EMD is used to extract the features of FBG signals, and PSO-SVM is then applied to automatically train a classification model for the impact localization. Meanwhile, an impact monitoring system for the FBG-embedded composites has been established to actually validate our algorithm. Moreover, the relationship between the localization accuracy and the distance from impact to the nearest sensor has also been studied. Results suggest that the localization accuracy keeps increasing and is satisfactory, ranging from 93.89% to 97.14%, on our experimental conditions with the decrease of the distance. This article reports an effective and easy-implementing method for FBG signal processing on SHM systems of the composites.

  18. A screening method for the optimal selection of plate heat exchanger configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method for determining the best configuration(s of gasketed plate heat exchangers is presented. The objective is to select the configuration(s with the minimum heat transfer area that still satisfies constraints on the number of channels, the pressure drop of both fluids, the channel flow velocities and the exchanger thermal effectiveness. The configuration of the exchanger is defined by six parameters, which are as follows: the number of channels, the numbers of passes on each side, the fluid locations, the feed positions and the type of flow in the channels. The resulting configuration optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of the exchanger heat transfer area and a screening procedure is proposed for its solution. In this procedure, subsets of constraints are successively applied to eliminate infeasible and nonoptimal solutions. Examples show that the optimization method is able to successfully determine a set of optimal configurations with a minimum number of exchanger evaluations. Approximately 5 % of the pressure drop and channel velocity calculations and 1 % of the thermal simulations are required for the solution.

  19. MULTIPLE RECIPROCITY METHOD WITH TWO SERIES OF SEQUENCES OF HIGH-ORDER FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTION FOR THIN PLATE BENDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁方允; 丁睿; 李炳杰

    2003-01-01

    The boundary value problem of plate bending problem on two-parameter foundation was discussed. Using two series of the high-order fundamental solution sequences, namely, the fundamental solution sequences for the multi-harmonic operator and Laplace operator, applying the multiple reciprocity method (MRM), the MRM boundary integral equation for plate bending problem was constructed. It proves that the boundary integral equation derived from MRM is essentially identical to the conventional boundary integral equation. Hence the convergence analysis of MRM for plate bending problem can be obtained by the error estimation for the conventional boundary integral equation. In addition, this method can extend to the case of more series of the high-order fundamental solution sequences.

  20. Novel self-sampling culture method to monitor excretion of live, oral Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine SC602 during a community-based phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teska, J D; Coster, T; Byrne, W R; Colbert, J R; Taylor, D; Venkatesan, M; Hale, T L

    1999-08-01

    A culture technique for assessing the excretion of live enteric vaccines was developed and verified during an outpatient safety trial of the Shigella flexneri 2a SC602 vaccine. Preliminary studies showed that SC602 could be recovered on Hektoen enteric (HE) agar plates that had been inoculated with seeded stools in one quadrant, held for up to 48 hours, streaked for isolation, and incubated for 24 +/- 6 hours. Recovery results on HE plates held at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C were comparable; however, 4 degrees C better inhibited overgrowth before streaking. To prepare for a community-based vaccine trial, volunteers were trained to self-sample fresh stool and to swab-inoculate a single quadrant of HE agar. The trial began with 36 volunteers ingesting 2.5 x 10(4) CFU of SC602 in bicarbonate buffer. During the study, volunteers inoculated HE plates with fresh stool, stored the plates at 4 degrees C, and delivered them to the laboratory within 48 hours. A microbiologist then streaked the HE for isolation, incubated the plates at 35 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C for 24 +/- 6 hours, and identified presumptive S. flexneri colonies by slide agglutination with poly-group B antiserum. The attenuating genetic signature of SC602 was confirmed on selected isolates with the polymerase chain reaction with two specific DNA primer sets. Vaccine was detected from 20% of volunteers on day 1, increasing to 86% by day 4, and all but one vaccinee had excreted SC602 at least once by day 7. The latest initial SC602 detection occurred on day 7, the longest excretion occurred in one vaccinee on day 33, and excretion throughout the trial was intermittent. The trial was terminated by ciprofloxacin treatment on day 35. Volunteer compliance with self-sampling and HE plating was excellent because of the convenience of the method, and the advantage of immediate "bedside" plating was evident in the high recovery rate of excreted vaccine. This method can be applied in other trials of live enteric

  1. A comparative study on the customized design of mandibular reconstruction plates using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mandible defects and its deformities are serious complications and its precise reconstruction is one of the most challenging tasks in oral maxillofacial surgery. The commercially available standard mandible implants are manually bended before surgery to custom fit the patient’s jaw. A slight mismatch in the plate and bone alignment may result in the implant failure. However, with the integration of computer-aided design, rapid prototyping, and advanced imaging systems (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, it is possible to produce a customized mandible implant that can precisely fit the patient’s jaw. The aim of this article is to compare a new design of customized mandible implant (sinewave plate and compare it with the commonly used straight implant design. The finite element–simulated results reveal that the commonly used straight reconstruction plates are more prone to loosening of the screws due to its higher strain concentration on the screw hole when compared to newly designed sinewave reconstruction plate. Moreover, the straight plate is more sensitive to the chewing load variations and develops almost 20% increase in the stresses when compared to sinewave plate. The study reveals that the sinewave reconstruction plate can significantly enhance the stability and safety of the mandible implant.

  2. Evaluation of dry sheet medium culture plate (Compactdry TC) method for determining numbers of bacteria in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, S; Kodaka, H

    2000-05-01

    The Compactdry, a ready-to-use and self-diffusible dry medium sheet culture system, has been developed by the Nissui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. for enumerating bacteria in food. The Compactdry consists of special spread sheet with culture medium that is the same as standard method nutrients, a cold water-soluble gelling agent, and a unique plastic dish. The procedure for bacterial examination in a sample solution (1 ml) is to just inoculate a test solution into the center of the self-diffusible medium and incubate at 35 degrees C for 48 h. The Compactdry TC (CTC) for the enumeration of total aerobic bacteria from 97 food samples was compared with the standard plate count (SPC) method and 3M Petrifilm aerobic count plates (PAC). The correlation coefficients between the CTC and SPC method, the CTC and PAC, and the PAC and SPC method were 0.97, 0.99, and 0.97, respectively. The Compactdry system is useful for the enumeration of total aerobic bacteria in food and may be a possible suitable alternative to the conventional pour-plate or the Petrifilm plate methods.

  3. The Plate Model: a visual method of teaching meal planning. DAIS Project Group. Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelon, K M; Hådell, K; Jämsén, P T; Ketonen, K J; Kohtamäki, H M; Mäkimatilla, S; Törmälä, M L; Valve, R H

    1998-10-01

    Dietitians from Canada, Finland, France, and Sweden have explored methods of teaching meal planning to persons with diabetes and dyslipidemia in the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study. The Plate Model, a method commonly used in Europe, is a simple alternative to the traditional exchange-based method for teaching meal planning. In this visual method, a dinner plate serves as a pie chart to show proportions of the plate that should be covered by various food groups. Portions of foods and appropriate food choices can be depicted for meals and snacks in assorted forms of the model. Methods of presenting the model range from professional photography to hand-drawn sketches and displays of food replicas. Benefits of the model for adult learners include enhancement of the connection between dietary theory and practice, promotion of memory retention and understanding through visual messages, and experience of a positive approach to nutrition counseling. Various cuisines and festive foods can be incorporated into the model. The Plate Model offers a meal planning approach that is simple and versatile. The effectiveness of the model and its applications to other populations need to be evaluated.

  4. Volumetric topological analysis: a novel method for trabecular bone characterization on the continuum between plates and rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Punam K.; Xu, Yan; Liang, Guoyuan; Duan, Hong

    2009-02-01

    Trabecular bone (TB) is a complex quasi-random network of interconnected struts and plates. TB constantly remodels to adapt dynamically to the stresses to which it is subjected (Wolff's Law). In osteoporosis, this dynamic equilibrium between bone formation and resorption is perturbed, leading to bone loss and structural deterioration, both increasing fracture risk. Bone's mechanical competence can only be partly explained by variations in bone mineral density, which led to the notion of bone structural quality. Previously, we developed digital topological analysis or DTA which classifies plates, rods, profiles, edges and junctions in a TB skeletal representation. Although the method has become quite popular, a major limitation is that DTA produces hard classifications only, failing to distinguish between narrow and wide plates. Here, we present a new method called volumetric topological analysis or VTA for quantification of regional topology in complex quasi-random TB networks. At each TB voxel, the method uniquely classifies the topology on the continuum between perfect plates and rods. Therefore, the method is capable of detecting early alterations of trabeculae from plates to rods according to the known etiology of osteoporotic bone loss. Here, novel ideas of geodesic distance transform, geodesic scale and feature propagation have been introduced and combined with DTA and fuzzy distance transform methods conceiving the new VTA technology. The method has been applied to MDCT and μCT images of a cadaveric distal tibia specimen and the results have been quantitatively evaluated. Specifically, intra- and inter-modality reproducibility of the method has been examined and the results are found very promising.

  5. Modified Layer-Removal Method for Measurement of Residual Stress in Pre-stretched Aluminium Alloy Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbao Liu; Jianfei Sun; Wuyi Chen; Pengfei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Residual stress is one of the factors affecting the machining deformation of monolithic structure parts in the aviation industry. Thus, the studies on machining deformation rules induced by residual stresses largely depend on correctly and efficiently measuring the residual stresses of workpieces. A modified layer⁃removal method is proposed to measure residual stress by analysing the characteristics of a traditional layer⁃removal method. The coefficients of strain release are then deduced according to the simulation results using the finite element method ( FEM) . Moreover, the residual stress in a 7075T651 aluminium alloy plate is measured using the proposed method, and the results are then analyzed and compared with the data obtained by the traditional methods. The analysis indicates that the modified layer⁃removal method is effective and practical for measuring the residual stress distribution in pre⁃stretched aluminium alloy plates.

  6. Iterative methods for obtaining solvation structures on a solid plate: The methods for Surface Force Apparatus and Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, Ken-ich

    2013-01-01

    We propose iterative methods for obtaining solvation structures on a solid plate which use force distributions measured by surface force apparatus (SFA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as input data. Two model systems are considered here. In the model system for SFA, the same two solid plates are immersed in a solvent, and a probe tip and a solid plate are immersed in a solvent in the model system for AFM. Advantages of the iterative methods are as follows: The iterative method for SFA can obtain the solvation structure, for example, in a Lennard-Jones liquid; The iterative method for AFM can obtain the solvation structure without an input datum of solvation structure around the probe tip.

  7. Interfacial structure of steel-Al-28Pb bonding plate with semisolid rolling-casting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 杜云慧; 刘汉武; 曾大本; 崔建忠; 巴立民

    2004-01-01

    Fe-Al compound at the interface of steel-mushy Al-28Pb bonding plate was studied quantitatively. The relationship between ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and bonding parameters such as preheating temperature of steel plate, solid volume fraction of Al-28Pb slurry and rolling speed, was established by artificial neural networks perfectly. The results show that when the bonding parameters are 546 ℃ for preheating temperature of steel plate,43.5% for solid volume fraction of Al-28Pb slurry and 8.6 mm/s for rolling speed, the reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound corresponding to the largest interfacial shear strength of bonding plate is obtained as 71.5%. This reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound is a quantitative criterion of interfacial embrittlement, that is, when the ratio of FeAl compound at interface is larger than 71.5%, interfacial embrittlement will occur.

  8. A new method to assess temporal features of gait initiation with a single force plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moineau, Bastien; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Barbieri, Guillaume; Nougier, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether time of toe-off and heel-contact during gait initiation could be assessed with a single force plate. Twenty subjects performed ten self-paced gait initiations and seven other subjects performed ten gait initiations in four new conditions (slow, fast, obstacle and splint). Several force-plate parameters were measured with a single force plate, and actual toe-off and heel-contact were assessed with a motion analysis system. Results showed strong temporal correlations and closeness (r=.86-.99, mean error=3-86 ms) between two force-plate parameters and the kinematics events (toe-off and heel-contact). These new parameters may be of interest to easily measure duration of anticipatory postural adjustments and swing phase during clinical assessments.

  9. Postbuckling analysis of variable stiffness composite plates using a finite element-based perturbation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, T.; IJsselmuiden, S.T.; Abdalla, M.M.; Jansen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern fiber placement machines allow laminates with spatially varying stiffness properties to be manufactured. In earlier research, the authors optimized variable stiffness plates for maximum buckling load, demonstrating significant improvements in load-carrying capacity. In aerospace applications,

  10. Theoretical prediction of hysteretic rubber friction in ball on plate configuration by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has investigated theoretically the influence of sliding speed and temperature on the hysteretic friction in case of a smooth, reciprocating steel ball sliding on smooth rubber plate by finite element method (FEM. Generalized Maxwell-models combined with Mooney-Rivlin model have been used to describe the material behaviour of the ethylenepropylene-diene-monomer (EPDM rubber studied. Additionally, the effect of the technique applied at the parameter identification of the material model and the number of Maxwell elements on the coefficient of friction (COF was also investigated. Finally, the open parameter of the Greenwood-Tabor analytical model has been determined from a fit to the FE results. By fitting, as usual, the Maxwell-model to the storage modulus master curve the predicted COF, in a broad frequency range, will be underestimated even in case of 40-term Maxwell-model. To obtain more accurate numerical prediction or to provide an upper limit for the hysteretic friction, in the interesting frequency range, the Maxwell parameters should be determined, as proposed, from a fit to the measured loss factor master curve. This conclusion can be generalized for all the FE simulations where the hysteresis plays an important role.

  11. Fabrication and microwave properties of hollow nickel spheres prepared by electroless plating and template corrosion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guiqin, E-mail: wanggq@dlut.edu.cn; Wang, Lifang; Gan, Yulin; Lu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Using carbonyl iron as template, hollow nickel spheres were prepared by electroless plating on carbonyl iron and template corrosion method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer. Results showed that the shell thickness can be controlled by adjusting the loadage of carbonyl iron templates. The hollow nickel spheres exhibited good magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization of 48.56 emu/g and enhanced coercivity (as high as 260 Oe). The real (ε′) and imaginary (ε″) parts of complex permittivity of hollow nickel spheres first increased and then decreased as the shell thickness increased, and the sample with the thinnest shell showed the lowest complex permittivity. For the complex permeability, the resonance peak shifted to the lower frequency and then moved to higher frequency, as the shell thickness increased. The microwave absorption performances could be tuned by changing the shell thickness. In this study, the minimum reflection loss (RL) value of −27.2 dB was obtained at 13.4 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.4 mm and the effective absorption band (RL <−5 dB) from 11.8 to 18 GHz, covering the whole Ku-band (12.4−18 GHz).

  12. Concept of automatic programming of NC machine for metal plate cutting by genetic algorithm method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vaupotic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper the concept of automatic programs of the NC machine for metal plate cutting by genetic algorithm method has been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The paper was limited to automatic creation of NC programs for two-dimensional cutting of material by means of adaptive heuristic search algorithms.Findings: Automatic creation of NC programs in laser cutting of materials combines the CAD concepts, the recognition of features and creation and optimization of NC programs. The proposed intelligent system is capable to recognize automatically the nesting of products in the layout, to determine the incisions and sequences of cuts forming the laid out products. Position of incisions is determined at the relevant places on the cut. The system is capable to find the shortest path between individual cuts and to record the NC program.Research limitations/implications: It would be appropriate to orient future researches towards conceiving an improved system for three-dimensional cutting with optional determination of positions of incisions, with the capability to sense collisions and with optimization of the speed and acceleration during cutting.Practical implications: The proposed system assures automatic preparation of NC program without NC programer.Originality/value: The proposed concept shows a high degree of universality, efficiency and reliability and it can be simply adapted to other NC-machines.

  13. Forming mechanism of radial V-shaped microgrooves on plate using step punching method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Jian-hua

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The finned surface can increase the specific surface area, which could enhance the boiling efficiency of the working medium to realize the enhancement of heat transfer performance. This research adopted a step punching method to form a radial microgroove structure on the surface of a copper plate. The scanning electron microscopy analysis indicates that when the pressed metal is in the deformation range, it will flow under extrusion and is subject to the reaction force from the metal outside the deformation range, so a micro-finned structure nearby the punching tool is formed. And the deformation area of the formed microgroove is higher than the workpiece’s primitive surface. The relationships of the punching interference length Li with θc, ac, and αpt are analyzed; and the influence of forming parameters on the groove surface morphology as well as the relationships among these parameters are discussed. When the punching depth ac is 0.3 mm and the punching feeding angle θc is 2°–4°, the finned surface of the radial V-shaped microgrooves can be obtained.

  14. A simple and effective plating method to screen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria under various redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Youngsoon; Chang, Matthew Wook; Holoman, Tracey Pulliam

    2010-09-01

    Agar plates with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) layer have been used to screen for microorganisms that degrade PAHs, leaving clear zones around colonies; however, there are several problems with previous methods such as undesired contamination in the fume hood and difficulty in controlling the amount of PAH on the plates. In this study, we developed a modified screening method to address the drawbacks encountered with previous screening methods. A uniform white layer of PAHs was generated by spreading PAHs dissolved in volatile solvents over a surface of solidified agar medium, followed by the evaporation of the solvents. An inoculation was then performed by spreading a molten agar medium containing microbial samples over the solidified agar medium with a PAH layer. Subsequently, the white PAH layer migrated to the surface of the molten agar medium. This essential modification enabled us not only to solve problems of the previous screening methods but also to prepare an agar plate with a PAH layer without a complicated experimental scheme in the anaerobic chamber. After solidification of the molten agar medium and incubation of the plates, clear zones were successfully detected around colonies with aerobic and anaerobic PAH-degrading microbial cultures.

  15. FROM ENERGY IMPROVEMENT TO ACCURACY ENHANCEMENT:IMPROVEMENT OF PLATE BENDING ELEMENTS BY THE COMBINED HYBRID METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ping Xie

    2004-01-01

    By following the geometric point of view in mechanics, a novel expression of the combined hybrid method for plate bending problems is introduced to clarify its intrinsic mechanism of enhancing coarse-mesh accuracy of conforming or nonconforming plate elements.By adjusting the combination parameter α∈ (0, 1) and adopting appropriate bending moments modes, reduction of energy error for the discretized displacement model leads to enhanced numerical accuracy. As an application, improvement of Adini's rectangle is discussed. Numerical experiments show that the combined hybrid counterpart of Adini's element is capable of attaining high accuracy at coarse meshes.

  16. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu, E-mail: mqwang1514@163.com; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-15

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via N-Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni–P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni–P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  17. INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD'S APPLICATION IN HOLE-EDGE STRESS OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL PLATE WITH DIFFERENT SHAPED HOLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The strength of composite plate with different hole-shapes is always one of the most important but complicated issues in the application of the composite material. The holes will lead to mutations and discontinuity to the structure. So the hole-edge stress concentration is always a serious phenomenon. And the phenomenon makes the structure strength decrease very quickly to form dangerous weak points. Most partial damage begins from these weak points. According to the complex variable functions theory, the accurate boundary condition of composite plate with different hole-shapes is founded by conformal mapping method to settle the boundary condition problem of complex hole-shapes. Composite plate with commonly hole-shapes in engineering is studied by several complex variable stress function. The boundary integral equations are founded based on exact boundary conditions. Then the exact hole-edge stress analytic solution of composite plate with rectangle holes and wing manholes is resolved. Both of offset axis loadings and its influences on the stress concentration coefficient of the hole-edge are discussed. And comparisons of different loads along various offset axis on the hole-edge stress distribution of orthotropic plate with rectangle hole or wing manhole are made. It can be concluded that hole-edge with continuous variable curvatures might help to decrease the stress concentration coefficient; and smaller angle of outer load and fiber can decrease the stress peak value.

  18. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via Nsbnd Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni-P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni-P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  19. Thermal Effects on Vibration and Control of Piezocomposite Kirchhoff Plate Modeled by Finite Elements Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and numerical results of the modeling of a smart plate are presented for optimal active vibration control. The smart plate consists of a rectangular aluminum piezocomposite plate modeled in cantilever configuration with surface bonded thermopiezoelectric patches. The patches are symmetrically bonded on top and bottom surfaces. A generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezocomposite plate is derived, using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Kirchhoff assumptions. Finite element equations for the thermopiezoelastic medium are obtained by using the linear constitutive equations in Hamilton’s principle together with the finite element approximations. The structure is modelled analytically and then numerically and the results of simulations are presented in order to visualize the states of their dynamics and the state of control. The optimal control LQG-Kalman filter is applied. By using this model, the study first gives the influences of the actuator/sensor pair placement and size on the response of the smart plate. Second, the effects of thermoelastic and pyroelectric couplings on the dynamics of the structure and on the control procedure are studied and discussed. It is shown that the effectiveness of the control is not affected by the applied thermal gradient and can be applied with or without this gradient at any time of plate vibrations.

  20. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction methods and plating for analysis of enriched cultures of Listeria monocytogenes when using the ISO11290-1 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Marion; Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Hernandez, Marta; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Kuchta, Tomáš; Manios, Stavros G; Melero, Beatriz; Minarovičová, Jana; Muhterem, Meryem; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Rovira, Jordi; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2014-03-01

    Analysis for Listeria monocytogenes by ISO11290-1 is time-consuming, entailing two enrichment steps and subsequent plating on agar plates, taking five days without isolate confirmation. The aim of this study was to determine if a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay could be used for analysis of the first and second enrichment broths, saving four or two days, respectively. In a comprehensive approach involving six European laboratories, PCR and traditional plating of both enrichment broths from the ISO11290-1 method were compared for the detection of L. monocytogenes in 872 food, raw material and processing environment samples from 13 different dairy and meat food chains. After the first and second enrichments, total DNA was extracted from the enriched cultures and analysed for the presence of L. monocytogenes DNA by PCR. DNA extraction by chaotropic solid-phase extraction (spin column-based silica) combined with real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) was required as it was shown that crude DNA extraction applying sonication lysis and boiling followed by traditional gel-based PCR resulted in fewer positive results than plating. The RTi-PCR results were compared to plating, as defined by the ISO11290-1 method. For first and second enrichments, 90% of the samples gave the same results by RTi-PCR and plating, whatever the RTi-PCR method used. For the samples that gave different results, plating was significantly more accurate for detection of positive samples than RTi-PCR from the first enrichment, but RTi-PCR detected a greater number of positive samples than plating from the second enrichment, regardless of the RTi-PCR method used. RTi-PCR was more accurate for non-food contact surface and food contact surface samples than for food and raw material samples especially from the first enrichment, probably because of sample matrix interference. Even though RTi-PCR analysis of the first enrichment showed less positive results than plating, in outbreak scenarios where a rapid result is

  1. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected dairy foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--ice cream, raw milk, yogurt, whey powder, and cheese--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  2. The Optimizing Conditions by Taguchi Method for Fabricating Semi-Solid Al-Zn-Mg Alloy Slurry by Cooling Plate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Yong; Park, Hyung-Won; Jeong, In-Sang; Lim, Su-Gun

    In order to optimize the condition for the semi-solid Al-Zn-Mg aluminium alloy fabricated by cooling plate method, the Taguchi design was used. The cooling plate method effectively separating the grains formed from the mold wall can be used to form a semi-solid material by flowing molten metal over an inclined Cu plate and casting in a mold for the near-net shape component. In Taguchi's design method, the higher signal vs noise (S/N) ratio the better. Therefore, the manufacturing conditions were arranged as a table of orthogonal arrays (L9(34)), and the influence of two factors, pouring temperature and cooling plate angle, was examined. From the observed microstructures, the grain size and aspect ratio were measured by image analyzer. The results indicated that the pouring temperature exerts the main effect on the spherical microstructures since the S/N ratio, which is the sensibility of the surrounding environment, was the highest. The optimum condition for the Al-Zn-Mg alloy was a cooling plate angle of 40° and a pouring temperature of 680°C. The grain size and aspect ratio were 70 μm and 1.3, respectively.

  3. A high-throughput microtiter plate based method for the determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karson S Putt

    Full Text Available Peracetic acid is gaining usage in numerous industries who have found a myriad of uses for its antimicrobial activity. However, rapid high throughput quantitation methods for peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are lacking. Herein, we describe the development of a high-throughput microtiter plate based assay based upon the well known and trusted titration chemical reactions. The adaptation of these titration chemistries to rapid plate based absorbance methods for the sequential determination of hydrogen peroxide specifically and the total amount of peroxides present in solution are described. The results of these methods were compared to those of a standard titration and found to be in good agreement. Additionally, the utility of the developed method is demonstrated through the generation of degradation curves of both peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in a mixed solution.

  4. A high-throughput microtiter plate based method for the determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putt, Karson S; Pugh, Randall B

    2013-01-01

    Peracetic acid is gaining usage in numerous industries who have found a myriad of uses for its antimicrobial activity. However, rapid high throughput quantitation methods for peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are lacking. Herein, we describe the development of a high-throughput microtiter plate based assay based upon the well known and trusted titration chemical reactions. The adaptation of these titration chemistries to rapid plate based absorbance methods for the sequential determination of hydrogen peroxide specifically and the total amount of peroxides present in solution are described. The results of these methods were compared to those of a standard titration and found to be in good agreement. Additionally, the utility of the developed method is demonstrated through the generation of degradation curves of both peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in a mixed solution.

  5. Application of the HHT Method to the Non-contact Thickness Measurement of an Axially Moving Thin Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfang; Lu, Qianqian; Xia, Chunlin; Ding, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Non-contact thickness measuring systems can be found in a wide spectrum of technologies. In this paper, Hilbert-Huang transform method is used to analyze the real time signals of a measuring system which includes two round conveyor strings carrying a thin plate, a solar wafer as a sample under test. The vibrations of moving strings and the plate, which are sensitive to moving speed and initial tension in the string, are introduced briefly; the relevant analyses should be helpful for the system design. Using EMD-based time-domain filtering and complementary method, thickness variations and error bands are estimated for different cases. The results show that HHT method as an adaptive time-frequency method, should be potential in measurement engineering applications.

  6. Impact Response of Cantilever Fiber Metal Laminate (FML Plates Using a Coupled Analytical-Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dynamic response of cantilever Fiber Metal Laminate (FML plates subjected to the impact of a large mass is studied. Aluminum (Al sheets are placed instead of some Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP layers. The effect of the Al layers on contact force and deflection of the plates is investigated by considering the interaction between the impactor and the target in the impact analysis. A two degrees-of-freedom system consisting of springs-masses and finite element modeling of the ABAQUS/Explicit software were employed to model the interaction between the impactor and the target. The results indicate that some parameters like the layer sequence, mass and velocity of the impactor, mass of the target are important factors which affect the impact response of the plates.

  7. Comparison of the compact dry TC method with the standard pour plate method (AOAC official method 966.23) for determining aerobic colony counts in food samples: Performance-tested method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Mizuochi, Shingo; Teramura, Hajime; Nirazuka, Tadanobu

    2005-01-01

    Compact Dry TC qualifies as a rapid method kit for determining aerobic colony counts in foods. The plates are presterilized and contain culture medium and a cold-soluble gelling agent. The medium is rehydrated by inoculating 1 mL diluted sample into the center of the self-diffusible medium and allowing the solution to diffuse by capillary action. The plates can then be incubated and the colonies counted without any additional steps. The Compact Dry TC method was validated with 5 different raw meats. The performance tests were conducted at 35 degrees and 30 degrees C. In all required performance studies, no apparent differences were observed between the Compact Dry TC method and the Standard Pour Plate method (AOAC Official Method 966.23) for the detection level of aerobic microorganisms. For the accuracy claim (n = 60), a correlation factor of r2(35) = 0.9977 (35 degrees C) and r2(30) = 0.9932 (30 degrees C) could be assigned, as stated in the application for "Performance Tested Method." Quality consistency and storage robustness studies, showed no significant variations in plate count results with different production lots or plates of diverse storage age.

  8. A new diagnostic method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates with applications for propeller driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgary, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptably high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a prime obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller-driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method that permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on an aluminum plate. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available.

  9. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Flat Plate Solar Collectors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of flat plate solar collectors to water penetration when water is applied to their outer surfaces with a static air pressure at the outer surface higher than the pressure at the interior of the collector. 1.2 This test method is applicable to any flat plate solar collector. 1.3 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure and deflection measurement. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary information is contained in Section 6.

  10. Estimation of fatigue evolution of aluminum alloy plated with electroless NI–CO–P by using electromagnetic impedance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a method for detecting fatigue in aluminum alloys that is based on a applying a ferromagnetic electroless Ni–Co–P plating and then using an electromagnetic impedance (EMI) method to determine its permeability properties by measuring the high-frequency AC impedance of a coil sensor in the presence of a static magnetic field. The results obtained confirmed that this method can estimate the fatigue evolution of a specimen until the point at which the cumulative strain becomes saturated by using measurements obtained by the EMI method under tensile deformation and FEM analysis results. - Highlights: • Plating aluminum alloy with Ni–Co–P film increases its fatigue strength by 13−16%. • The tensile direction is the stress induced “hard axis” of the Ni–Co–P plating. • In-plane permeability determines the coil impedance for out-of-plane excitation. • This method can measure fatigue up to saturation of the substrate's residual strain.

  11. Requirements and testing methods for surfaces of metallic bipolar plates for low-temperature PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendras, P.; Lötsch, K.; von Unwerth, T.

    2017-03-01

    To reduce emissions and to substitute combustion engines automotive manufacturers, legislature and first users aspire hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Up to now the focus of research was set on ensuring functionality and increasing durability of fuel cell components. Therefore, expensive materials were used. Contemporary research and development try to substitute these substances by more cost-effective material combinations. The bipolar plate is a key component with the greatest influence on volume and mass of a fuel cell stack and they have to meet complex requirements. They support bending sensitive components of stack, spread reactants over active cell area and form the electrical contact to another cell. Furthermore, bipolar plates dissipate heat of reaction and separate one cell gastight from the other. Consequently, they need a low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) to the gas diffusion layer, high flexural strength, good thermal conductivity and a high durability. To reduce costs stainless steel is a favoured material for bipolar plates in automotive applications. Steel is characterized by good electrical and thermal conductivity but the acid environment requires a high chemical durability against corrosion as well. On the one hand formation of a passivating oxide layer increasing ICR should be inhibited. On the other hand pitting corrosion leading to increased permeation rate may not occur. Therefore, a suitable substrate lamination combination is wanted. In this study material testing methods for bipolar plates are considered.

  12. Three-dimensional stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded plates with circular holes by the use of the graded finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, K.; Ashrafi, H.; Shariyat, M.

    2016-07-01

    Static and free vibration analyses of plates with circular holes are performed based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The plates are made of a functionally graded material (FGM), and the volume fractions of the constituent materials vary continuously across the plate. The effective properties of the FGM plate are estimated by using the Mori-Tanaka homogenization method. A graded finite element method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz energy formulation is used to solve the problem. Effects of different volume fractions of the materials and hole sizes on the behavior of FGM plates under uniaxial tension are investigated. Natural frequencies of a fully clamped FGM plate with a circular cutout are derived. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data.

  13. Comparison of 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plates to standard plating methodology for use with AOAC antimicrobial efficacy methods 955.14, 955.15, 964.02, and 966.04 as an alternative enumeration procedure: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maria T; LaBudde, Robert A; Tomasino, Stephen F; Pines, Rebecca M

    2013-01-01

    A multilaboratory study was conducted to determine the equivalence of the 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate and standard plating methodology for measuring viable bacteria and spores recovered from hard-surface carriers (stainless steel and porcelain), also known as "control carrier counts," used in AOAC antimicrobial efficacy test methods. Six laboratories participated in the study in which carriers inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and spores of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated using 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count (AC) plates and standard plating side-by-side. The data were analyzed using a matched-pair t-test to determine the between-method effect with confidence intervals. For all test organisms pooled across all laboratories, the mean difference in log10 concentration between the standard plate count method and 3M Petrifilm AC Plates was -0.012, with a 95% confidence interval of (-0.090, +0.066), which was well within the -0.5, +0.5 interval established as the acceptance criterion. The between-carrier SD averaged 0.139; the between-replicate SD was 0.050. The carrier reproducibility, given that a single replicate per carrier is done, was estimated to be 0.148. Although differences were seen in the final concentrations of the test organisms among laboratories, there were no statistical differences between the enumeration methods. Based on the results from this study, 3M Petrifilm AC Plates are equivalent to standard plating methodology and can be used as an alternative procedure for the enumeration of test organisms used in AOAC Methods 955.14, 955.15, 964.02, and 966.04.

  14. USDA FSIS and FDA BAM culture methods BBL CHROMagar Salmonella prepared plated and Difco dehydrated culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Vicki; Dick, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    BBL and Difco CHROMagar Salmonella (CS) was evaluated internally and externally for the recovery of Salmonella in raw chicken, raw ground beef, raw fish, lettuce, and shell eggs. The raw chicken and ground beef were processed according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service reference methods. The raw fish, lettuce, and shell eggs were processed according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures. Only raw chicken was found to be naturally contaminated with Salmonella; all other matrixes were seeded with an appropriate dilution of organism to achieve fractionally positive results. Salmonella strains were permitted to equilibrate with the culture-negative matrixes for 48 h at 4 degrees C. Twenty 25 g samples of each food matrix plus 5 uninoculated samples were processed. CS prepared plates (CS PPM) and laboratory prepared plates from dehydrated culture media (CS DCM) were evaluated with the reference method media. A total of 16 positive cultures were obtained from the raw chicken samples, 17 in the raw ground beef, 18 in the raw fish and lettuce, and 11 in the shell eggs. A Chi-square analysis was performed on each of the food matrixes. BBL CS produced comparable results with the reference methods on all matrixes, resulting in a method agreement of 100% based on the Chi-square results. In testing known isolates the sensitivity and specificity was determined to be 94%. Specificity improved to 98% when tetrathionate broth enrichment was used. A negative- and false-positive rate of 6% was found with known isolates. No false negatives were found in testing the food matrixes. The performance of the CS prepared plate and laboratory prepared plate was identical.

  15. A New Activation Method for Electroless Metal Plating: Palladium Laden via Bonding with Self-Assembly Monolayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new activation method has been developed for electroless copper plating on silicon wafer based on palladium chemisorption on SAMs of APTS without SnCl2 sensitization and roughening condition. A closely packed electroless copper film with strong adhesion is successfully fonned by AFM observation. XPS study indicates that palladium chemisorption occurred via palladium chloride bonding to the pendant amino group of the SAMs.

  16. Gel microbead cultivation with a subenrichment procedure can yield better bacterial cultivability from a seawater sample than standard plating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shiqi; Zhao, Rui; Yin, Qi; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Chenguang; Xiao, Tian; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2012-03-01

    A gel microbead (GMD) cultivation method was employed to cultivate microorganisms from an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, P. R. China. The culture results were compared with those by standard plating method. In the GMD-based method, the microcolony-forming GMDs were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To further get pure cultures, a subsequent enrichment culture and a streaking purification procedure were conducted on marine R2A medium. Eighty bacterial strains isolated by the GMD-based method were randomly selected for sequencing. These isolates belonged to Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (44%), Bacteroidetes (11%), Actinobacteria (5%), Firmicutes (5%), Epsilonproteobacteria (1%), and Verrucomicrobia (1%), the last two groups being usually difficult to culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a diverse community with 91.1%-100% of the bacterial rRNAs similarities. Thirteen strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence which was less than 97% similar to any other rRNA genes currently deposited in TYP16S database. Seventy isolates derived from the standard plating method fell into 4 different taxonomic groups: Alphaproteobacteria (9%), Gammaproteobacteria (81%), Bacteroidetes (7%) and Firmicutes (3%) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between 95.8%-100%, in which only 3 strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence of less than 97%. The results indicated that the GMD-based method with subenrichment culture yielded more taxonomic groups and more novel microbial strains, including members of previously rarely cultured groups, when compared with the standard plating method, and that this method markedly improved the bacterial cultivability.

  17. Evaluation of DAPI direct count, computer assisted and plate count methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chivu, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatic counting of bacteria stained with highly specific and sensitive fluorescing DNA stain DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and direct manual counting to enumerate both pure culture of Pseudomonas putida overnight culture and sea water enhanced culture, was tested in correlation with plate direct counting, turbidity and absorbance at 600nm, to obtain cross validation. Six diluted samples from overnight pure culture of Pseudomonas putida and sea water culture ...

  18. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method; Avaliacao de combustiveis nucleares tipo placa pelo metodo de correntes parasitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  19. A method for measuring skin friction drag on a flat plate in contaminated gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, R. B.; Patterson, G. K.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for measuring friction drag in turbulent gas and gas/particle flows over flat plates is presented, and preliminary results are reported. A 0.25-in.-thick 72 x 6-in. Al plate is suspended by six horizontal support air bearings and four vertical alignment air bearings between fixed dummy plates and leading-edge and trailing-edge fairings in the 32-in.-high 48-in.-wide 11-ft-long test section of a closed-circuit atmospheric wind tunnel operating at 50-150 ft/sec. Particles of Fe and Al oxides of diameter 20-150 microns and density up to 0.3 lb particles per lb air are injected via a 6 x 0.167-in. nozzle; turbulence is induced by a roughened section of the leading-edge fairing; and friction drag is measured using a load-cell pressure transducer. Sample results are shown in a graph, demonstrating good agreement with theoretical drag calculations.

  20. Deformations between African and Euroasian plates estimated by methods of space geodesy - new result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, A.; Holesovsky, J.; Novotny, Z.; Hassan, K. A.; Abd El Monem, M. S.; Kostelecky, J.

    2009-12-01

    The contribution concerns with analysis of detailed information from the results of space geodesy (GPS) in the region of Mediterranean sea enclosing the results of till now not processed and published observations in quasipermanent network of the sites in Egypt. (It was made possible by agreement between the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in Egypt and the Research Center of Earth Dynamics in Czech Republic). A main topic in WEGENER's project activities is observation of geodynamic processes of the European-Mediterranean region, northern Africa and Asia Minor, by (space) geodetic techniques. The geodynamic setting of the region is formed by the convergence of the three major lithosphere plates (Eurasia, Africa and Arabia). In the plate boundary zones a variety of subduction and collision processes are active. The cotribution contains actual results of processing of the observations in Egypt together with selected sites of permanent EPN network in region of eastern part of Mediterranean sea. Results of analyses confirm model presumption of mutual activities between African, Arabic and Euroasian plates.

  1. Fatigue Property of Open-Hole Steel Plates Influenced by Bolted Clamp-up and Hole Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yu Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Steel plates with open holes are commonly used in structural assemblies. The fatigue properties of such details are influenced by bolted clamp-up and hole fabrication methods. The fracture surface, stiffness degradation and fatigue life of test specimens are investigated in detail and compared with the contemporary test data. The analysis results show that the presence of draglines greatly influences the fatigue crack initiation at the open-hole cut by laser. The bolted clamp-up condition greatly enhances the stiffness and the fatigue life of the open-hole details. A discussion is also made from a comparison with the referred fatigue life of hole fabrication details, such as the influence of plate thickness and plasma cutting, drilling and oxy-fuel gas cutting, with the details studied herein. This work could enhance the understanding of the fatigue property and design of such details.

  2. An optimal open/closed-loop control method with application to a pre-stressed thin duralumin plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sruthi Raju

    The excessive vibrations of a pre-stressed duralumin plate, suppressed by a combination of open-loop and closed-loop controls, also known as open/closed-loop control, is studied in this thesis. The two primary steps involved in this process are: Step (I) with an assumption that the closed-loop control law is proportional, obtain the optimal open-loop control by direct minimization of the performance measure consisting of energy at terminal time and a penalty on open-loop control force via calculus of variations. If the performance measure also involves a penalty on closed-loop control effort then a Fourier based method is utilized. Step (II) the energy at terminal time is minimized numerically to obtain optimal values of feedback gains. The optimal closed-loop control gains obtained are used to describe the displacement and the velocity of open-loop, closed-loop and open/closed-loop controlled duralumin plate.

  3. Effect of Salt on Crystal Growth of Plate-like Alumina Particles by Molten-salt Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Yoon Joo; Kim, Soo Ryong; Kwon, Woo Teck; Shin, Dong Geun; Kim, Young Hee [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Duck Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Alumina powder have been expanded its application in industry and required to control its morphology such as powder size and aspect ratio of single particle. It can be synthesized by molten - salt method which is possible to obtain various shapes of ceramic particles by controlling the growth direction because each crystal face has different growth rate. In this study, various combinations of salts such as NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and their mixture were used for control the growth of plate like alumina particle from the initial stage of synthesis because salt having different ionic strength can control the growth direction of ceramic particle under its melting condition around 800-900 .deg. C, and growth behavior of plate-like alumina particle with different reaction conditions such as temperature and concentration on the crystal size and shape was studied.

  4. Experience of the Indirect Neutron Radiography Method Based on the X-ray Imaging Plate at CARR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guohai; Han, Songbai; Wang, Hongli; He, Linfeng; Wang, Yu; Wu, Meimei; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng

    Indirect neutron radiography (INR) experiments by X-ray imaging plate were carried out at the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). The key experiment parameters were optimized, especially the exposure time of the neutron converter andimaging plate. The optimized total exposure time is 37.25 min, it is two-fifths of the timebased on the film method under the same experimental conditions. The qualitative and quantitativeinspections were tested with dummy nuclear fuel rods and a water temperaturesensor ofa motor vehicle. The spring in the sensor and the defects of the dummy fuel rod's pellets can be qualitatively detected. The thickness of the tape at one position on the cladding of the dummy nuclear fuel rodwas quantitatively calculated to be 9.57 layers with the relative error of ±4.3%.

  5. The reliability of the improved eN method for the transition prediction of boundary layers on a flat plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU CaiHong

    2012-01-01

    The transition criterion in the improved eN method is that transition would occur whenever the velocity amplitude of disturbance reaches 1%-2% of the free stream velocity,while in the conventional eN method,the N factor is an empirical factor.In this paper the reliability of this key assumption in the improved eN method is checked by results of transition prediction by using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE).Transition locations of an incompressible boundary layer and a hypersonic boundary layer at Mach number 6 on a flat plate are predicted by both the improved eN method and the PSE method.Results from both methods agree fairly well with each other,implying that the transition criterion proposed in the improved eN method is reliable.

  6. 2D numerical manifold method based on quartic uniform B-spline interpolation and its application in thin plate bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温伟斌; 蹇开林; 骆少明

    2013-01-01

    A new numerical manifold (NMM) method is derived on the basis of quartic uniform B-spline interpolation. The analysis shows that the new interpolation function possesses higher-order continuity and polynomial consistency compared with the conven-tional NMM. The stiffness matrix of the new element is well-conditioned. The proposed method is applied for the numerical example of thin plate bending. Based on the prin-ciple of minimum potential energy, the manifold matrices and equilibrium equation are deduced. Numerical results reveal that the NMM has high interpolation accuracy and rapid convergence for the global cover function and its higher-order partial derivatives.

  7. Improved electroless plating method through ultrasonic spray atomization for depositing silver nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Xie, Ming; Liu, Yichun; Yi, Jianhong

    2017-07-01

    A novel method was developed to deposit nanosized silver particles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The electroless plating of silver on MWCNTs accomplished in small solution drops generated by ultrasonic spray atomization, which inhibited excessive growth of silver particles and led to much more uniform nanometer grain-sized coatings. The results showed that pretreatment was essential for silver particles to deposit on the MWCNTs, and the electrolyte concentration and reaction temperature were important parameters which had a great influence on the morphology and structure of the silver coatings. Possible mechanisms of this method are also discussed in the paper.

  8. Measuring the Average Thickness of a Plate Using a Bayesian Method and Free Vibration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    form, the model is constructed with the implicit assumption that the corrosion is uniform. A more detailed model that included details of the pitting ...PROCEDURE The test specimen was a 0.76m by 0.60m (30” by 24”, 5:4 aspect ratio), 1.55mm (1/16”) thick 6061 -T6 aluminum plate. The density was...considering corrosion effect.” Marine Struc- tures, 21(4):402 – 419. [3] T. Nakai, H. Matsushita, N. Yamamoto, and H. Arai, 2004. “Effect of pitting

  9. A novel combined method of osteosynthesis in treatment of tibial fractures: a comparative study on sheep with application of rod-through-plate fixator and bone plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralman, G; Andrianov, V; Arend, A; Männik, P; Kibur, R T; Nõupuu, K; Uksov, D; Aunapuu, M

    2013-04-01

    The study compares the efficiency of a new bone fixator combining periostal and intramedullary osteosynthesis to bone plating in treatment of tibial fractures in sheep. Experimental osteotomies were performed in the middle third of the left tibia. Animals were divided into two groups: in one group (four animals) combined osteosynthesis (rod-through-plate fixator, RTP fixator) was applied, and in the other group (three animals) bone plating was used. The experiments lasted for 10 weeks during which fracture union was followed by radiography, and the healing process was studied by blood serum markers reflecting bone turnover and by histological and immunohistochemical investigations. In the RTP fixator group, animals started to load body weight on the operated limbs the next day after the surgery, while in the bone plating group, this happened only on the seventh day. In the RTP fixator group, consolidation of fractures was also faster, as demonstrated by radiographical, histological, and immunohistochemical investigations and in part by blood serum markers for bone formation. It can be concluded that application of RTP fixation is more efficient than plate fixation in the treatment of experimental osteotomies of long bones in sheep.

  10. Comparison of a rapid ATP bioluminescence assay and standard plate count methods for assessing microbial contamination of consumers' refrigerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria L

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of using an ATP bioluminescence assay for assessing microbial contamination of home refrigerators was evaluated and compared with the standard culture methods. Samples of refrigerator surfaces were collected from 123 households by swabbing an area of 100 cm2 on three locations in the refrigerator with premoisturized sterile swabs. Microbial contaminations were determined by aerobic plate count (APC; incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h) and psychrotrophic plate count (PPC; incubated at 7 degrees C for 10 days) on plate count agar. The results were compared to the readings from the microbial ATP (mATP) bioluminescence assay. The correlation coefficient (r) between mATP and PPC (r = 0.851) was slightly higher than that between mATP and APC (r = 0.823). Our results indicated a potential discrepancy in the population of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in the refrigerator samples. Nevertheless, mATP appeared to be a reliable indication of the average of APC and PPC (r = 0.895). The mATP bioluminescence assay would provide a rapid and convenient test for researchers in field studies to assess microbial contamination in refrigerators.

  11. The Cavitation With Plate Transducer And Non Cavitation With Knob Transducer By Manihot Utilissima Fermentation The Potential Hydrogen Ph Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Arifin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Manihot M. utilissima fermentation is popular foods and drinks for Indonesia people but it fermented foods 24 hours per day will breed fungi and anaerobic bacteriae so it will make it into acidic foods and alcoholic beverages. Ultrasonic 48 kHz 5 Vpp 1 VDC with functional generator and of the two models of transducers will have two different phenomena on M. utilissima fermentation. Methods Model-1. Radiation ultrasonic transducer plate or Flat of piezoelectric speakers2 were applied with transducers M. utilissima dipped in a test tube. Model-2. Knob or small ball ultrasonic transducer 12 balls were applied with transducers of tin knob which was connected to the copper wire2 and piezoelectricspeakers were dipped into the media M. utilissima in a test tube. After ultrasonic radiation fluid liquid from two models of transducers measured total acid in M. utilissima fermentation liquid by paper indicators of potential Hydrogen pH. The conclusion of this study can predict different phenomena namely the transducer plate of the initial pH value-acid fermentation M. utilissima can change increases the pH-value end of the base which means that the transducer plate has a cavitation phenomenon and media M. utilissima lead to the delicious food but on transducer knob that the initial pH value-acid fermentation M. utilissima will decrease more acid value so that have no phenomenon of cavitation and the media will lead M. utilissima to be alcoholic foods.

  12. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  13. Investigation of Thermal Performance of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tubular Solar Collectors According to a New Dynamic Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua;

    2012-01-01

    obtain fluid thermal capacitance in data processing. Then theoretical analysis and experimental verification are carried out to investigate influencing factors of obtaining accurate and stable second order term. A flat plate and ETC solar collector are compared using both the new dynamic method......A new dynamic test method is introduced. This so called improved transfer function method features on two new collector parameters. One is time term which can indicate solar collector's inner heat transfer ability and the other is a second order term of collector mean fluid temperature which can...... and a standard method. The results show that the improved function method can accurately and robustly estimate these two kinds of solar collectors....

  14. An Evaluation Method for the Suppression of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum by Soil Microorganisms Using the Dilution Plate Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Soil-borne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are one of the main factors responsible for the decline in crop yields in farmlands. Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum causes serious damage to various crops, and, thus, a feasible diagnostic method for soil-borne diseases is required. We herein examined a simple method to evaluate the suppressiveness of soil microorganisms against a pathogen by co-cultivating indigenous soil microorganisms and a pathogenic fungus (F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae). We inoculated F. oxysporum onto the center of agar medium plates mixed with a dilution series of a suspension of organic fertilizers or soil. After an approximately one-week cultivation, the growth degree of F. oxysporum was estimated based on the size of the colonies that formed on the plates. The growth degree of F. oxysporum significantly differed among the organic fertilizers tested, indicating the usefulness of the method for evaluating suppressiveness by organic fertilizers. Differences in the growth degrees of F. oxysporum were associated with the incidence of disease in spinach on soil treated with organic fertilizers and inoculated with a pathogenic F. oxysporum strain. These results suggested that this method provides some useful information on the suppressiveness of organic fertilizers and soil against Fusarium wilt.

  15. Evaluation method for ductile crack propagation in pre-strained plates; Yohizumizai no ensei kiretsu denpa hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y.; Murakawa, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Tanigawa, M. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to investigate an effect of the plastic deformation, which was generated on ship side outer platings subjected to collision load before crack initiation, on the crack propagation behavior, crack propagation experiments using pre-strained specimens and simulation analysis by means of FEM method were carried out, to discuss about the practical simulation analysis method. As a result of the crack propagation experiments using pre-strained center notched plate specimens, a phenomenon where the crack is apt to propagate due to the pre-strains was confirmed, and measured data of crack tip opening angles were obtained. A method was proposed, in which the critical crack tip opening angle values are corrected by considering the difference between the crack shapes obtained from the FEM analysis model and actually measured, and its effectiveness was confirmed. The finite element size effect was also examined. A method using an equivalent plastic strain as the crack propagation condition was shown to determine the relationship between the element size and the critical value of equivalent plastic strain. 5 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. A method for acoustic source location in plate-type structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour, Amir; Davoodi, Saman

    2017-09-01

    In this study an algorithm based on Shannon entropy, cross-time frequency spectrum (CTFS) and frequency varying velocities was proposed for structure health monitoring in two-layer plate. A linear array of two sensors is applied to capture the signals. By reducing the number of sensors we used a secondary pattern to get enough information for source locating. For this purpose a pattern for secondary points based on Shannon entropy and cost function was developed. Then to estimate the time delay of signals, cross-time frequency spectrum function was taken from captured signals. The time delay was calculated when CTFS function reached the maximum value. By taking short time Fourier transform of cross correlation function of captures signals and using dispersive curves, time delay and corresponding frequency dependent velocity are estimated. The experiments were carried out and the results showed high precision of presented algorithm.

  17. A compensating method of an imaging plate response to clinical proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, R; Takada, Y; Terunuma, T; Sakae, T; Matsumoto, K

    2002-01-01

    For charged particle irradiations, the response of an imaging plate (IP) changes around the Bragg peak. Therefore, an appropriate compensation is necessary for the evaluation of dose distribution formed by charged particles such as protons. In this paper, the response of IPs to clinical proton beams is investigated. An experimentally-obtained depth-dose distribution (an ordinary Bragg curve) by a silicon semiconductor detector (SSD) is employed to evaluate the compensation factors as a function of proton penetrating depth, i.e. residual range. A typical dose distribution in a water phantom formed by an L-shaped bolus is measured by IPs and corrected by using the information of those compensation factors; the residual proton range is successfully calculated by the pencil beam algorithm at an arbitrary point. The results show a good agreement with the measurements by the SSD within the rms error of 3.0%.

  18. Component mode synthesis and large deflection vibration of complex structures. Volume 2: Single-mode large deflection vibrations of beams and plates using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chuh

    1987-01-01

    A finite element method is presented for the large amplitude vibrations of complex structures that can be modelled with beam and rectangular plate elements subjected to harmonic excitation. Both inplane deformation and inertia are considered in the formulation. Derivation of the harmonic force and nonlinear stiffness matrices for a beam and a rectangular plate element are presented. Solution procedures and convergence characteristics of the finite element method are described. Nonlinear response to uniform and concentrated harmonic loadings and improved nonlinear free vibration results are presented for beams and rectangular plates of various boundary conditions.

  19. Conversion from film to image plates for transfer method neutron radiography of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to characterize and qualify a computed radiography (CR) system for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL has multiple programs that are actively developing, testing, and evaluating new nuclear fuels. Irradiated fuel experiments are subjected to a number of sequential post-irradiation examination techniques that provide insight into the overall behavior and performance of the fuel. One of the first and most important of these exams is neutron radiography, which provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Results from neutron radiography are often the driver for subsequent examinations of the PIE program. Features of interest that can be evaluated using neutron radiography include irradiation-induced swelling, isotopic and fuel-fragment redistribution, plate deformations, and fuel fracturing. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique with film for imaging fuel. INL is pursuing multiple efforts to advance its neutron imaging capabilities for evaluating irradiated fuel and other applications, including conversion from film to CR image plates. Neutron CR is the current state-of-the-art for neutron imaging of highly-radioactive objects. Initial neutron radiographs of various types of nuclear fuel indicate that radiographs can be obtained of comparable image quality currently obtained using film. This paper provides neutron radiographs of representative irradiated fuel pins along with neutron radiographs of standards that informed the qualification of the neutron CR system for routine use. Additionally, this paper includes evaluations of some of the CR scanner parameters and their effects on image quality.

  20. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172

  1. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samp

  2. 一种实用的基于形态学和标志法的车牌字符切分方法%A Practical Method of Car License Plate Character Segmentation Based on Morphology and Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明祥; 莫玉龙

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of practical image segmentation algorithm for segment characters from car license plate is presented, based on morphology and labeling. First, by morphological operation, noise in the binary image of license plate can be greatly decreased. Then, by labeling, each connected pixel component is given a unique label. Finally, by the known data of license plate, each character is extracted correctly. The advantage of this method is that it can deal with plates with different sizes and connected characters plates, and inclined plates. The experiment results show that it is an effective way to extract characters from the license plate, and can be put into practical use.

  3. 一种实用的基于形态学和标志法的车牌字符切分方法%A Practical Method of Car License Plate Character Segmentation Based on Morphology and Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明祥; 莫玉龙

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of practical image segmentation algorithm for segment characters from car license plate is presented, based on morphology and labeling. First, by morphological operation, noise in the binary image of license plate can be greatly decreased. Then, by labeling, each connected pixel component is given a unique label. Finally, by the known data of license plate, each character is extracted correctly. The advantage of this method is that it can deal with plates with different sizes and connected characters plates, and inclined plates. The experiment results show that it is an effective way to extract characters from the license plate, and can be put into practical use.

  4. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cell Expansion by Plating Whole Bone Marrow at a Low Cellular Density: A More Advantageous Method for Clinical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschi, Katia; Rustichelli, Deborah; Calabrese, Roberto; Gunetti, Monica; Sanavio, Fiorella; Castiglia, Sara; Risso, Alessandra; Ferrero, Ivana; Tarella, Corrado; Fagioli, Franca

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising source for cell therapy due to their pluripotency and immunomodulant proprieties. As the identification of “optimal” conditions is important to identify a standard procedure for clinical use. Percoll, Ficoll and whole bone marrow directly plated were tested from the same sample as separation methods. The cells were seeded at the following densities: 100 000, 10 000, 1000, 100, 10 cells/cm2. After reaching confluence, the cells were detached, pooled and re-plated at 1000, 500, 100, and 10 cells/cm2. Statistical analyses were performed. Cumulative Population Doublings (PD) did not show significant differences for the separation methods and seeding densities but only for the plating density. Some small quantity samples plated in T25 flasks at plating densities of 10 and 100 cells/cm2 did not produce any expansion. However, directly plated whole bone marrow resulted in a more advantageous method in terms of CFU-F number, cellular growth and minimal manipulation. No differences were observed in terms of gross morphology, differentiation potential or immunophenotype. These data suggest that plating whole bone marrow at a low cellular density may represent a good procedure for MSC expansion for clinical use. PMID:23715383

  5. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cell Expansion by Plating Whole Bone Marrow at a Low Cellular Density: A More Advantageous Method for Clinical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Mareschi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a promising source for cell therapy due to their pluripotency and immunomodulant proprieties. As the identification of “optimal” conditions is important to identify a standard procedure for clinical use. Percoll, Ficoll and whole bone marrow directly plated were tested from the same sample as separation methods. The cells were seeded at the following densities: 100 000, 10 000, 1000, 100, 10 cells/cm2. After reaching confluence, the cells were detached, pooled and re-plated at 1000, 500, 100, and 10 cells/cm2. Statistical analyses were performed. Cumulative Population Doublings (PD did not show significant differences for the separation methods and seeding densities but only for the plating density. Some small quantity samples plated in T25 flasks at plating densities of 10 and 100 cells/cm2 did not produce any expansion. However, directly plated whole bone marrow resulted in a more advantageous method in terms of CFU-F number, cellular growth and minimal manipulation. No differences were observed in terms of gross morphology, differentiation potential or immunophenotype. These data suggest that plating whole bone marrow at a low cellular density may represent a good procedure for MSC expansion for clinical use.

  6. Development of new finite element by source method. 2nd Report. Plate bending element; Source wo mochiita atarashii yugen yoso no kaihatsu. 2. Itamage yoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neki, I.; Tada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  8. A method to increase the nominal range resolution of a stack of parallel-plate ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, I.; Brons, S.; Jäkel, O.; Voss, B.; Parodi, K.

    2014-09-01

    A detector prototype based on a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionisation chambers (PPIC) interleaved with absorber plates of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was assembled for transmission imaging purposes in ion beam therapy. The thickness of the absorber sheets in the PPIC stack determines the nominal range resolution of the detector. In the current set-up, 3 mm PMMA slabs are used. The signal of the 61 active channels of the stack thereby provides a discrete approximation of the Bragg curve in the detector. In this work, a data processing method to increase the range resolution (MIRR) in a stack of ionization chambers is presented. In the MIRR the position of the maximum of the Bragg curve is deduced from the ratio of measured signals in adjacent PPIC channels. The method is developed based on Bragg curves obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and validated with experimental data of a wedge-shaped PMMA phantom acquired with the PPIC stack using carbon ion beams. The influence of the initial beam energy and of phantom inhomogeneities on the MIRR is quantitatively evaluated. Systematic errors as well as inaccuracies related to signal noise are discussed and quantified. It is shown that with the MIRR an increased range resolution of 0.7 mm PMMA equivalent or 0.8 mm water equivalent thickness is achieved for the considered experimental data.

  9. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  10. ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE DRUGS AND THE POLYHERBAL FORMULATION (RVSPHF567 BY STANDARDIZED CUP AND PLATE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Kandasamy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial study of crude drugs (Ajowan, Cardamom, Cumin, Mace, Clove, and Nutmeg and the Polyherbal formulation RVSPHF567 was assayed by standardized cup and plate method by using bacterial andfungal culture. The microorganisms used are Aspergillus niger (fungus, Streptococcus aureus (G+ve bacteria and Escherchia coli (G-ve bacteria. These microbes were cultured in a suitable nutritional media for their growth. The extractions of crude drugs were achieved by dissolving their powdered drugs in the suitable solvent. The solvents used for extracting crude drugs were alcohol and water, the solvent used for the preparation of the Polyherbal formulation RVSPHF567 was red tender coconut water. These extracted crude drugs and the Polyherbal formulation RVSPHF567 were then transferred to the pits on the solidified agar media, previously incubated with the different micro-organism separately. Then the plates were streaked with bacterial cultures and kept in an incubator at 37oC for 24hrs for growth of bacterial cultures, and plates streaked with fungal culture were incubated at 25°C for 24hrs. After the incubation period the growth of microbes and their zone of inhibition surrounding the extracts of the crude drugs and the Polyherbal formulation RVSPHF567 were observed and measured. All the crude drugs and the Polyherbal formulation RVSPHF567 were found to bespecifically effective against bacterial and fungal strain. Ajowan, Cardamom, Clove, Cumin, and Mace is highly active against Aspergillus niger. Nutmeg is highly active against Streptococcus, Polyherbal formulation RVSPHF567 is highly active against all the three organisms namely Aspergillus niger, Streptococcus aureus, Escherchia coli.

  11. [PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GROUNDS LANDFORMS BASIS PLATE DENTURES WHEN APPLYING THE COMPLEX METHOD OF PREVENTION OF PROSTHETIC STOMATITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverkhanovsky, A

    2016-06-01

    Objective - to develop the form of the drug reservoir to hold the vegetable oils under the basis of the prosthesis. The research was conducted on the Bench PMMA samples. The comparison group consisted of smooth plate PMMA. Two study groups were PMMA plates with grooves on one side of a square with sides of 2 mm and depth of channel - 1 mm. The third group consisted of the experimental plate with diamond-shaped notches with the same parameters. The lowest value of the stress in the plate having a rhombic grid, they are 54% less than in the smooth plate and 37% less than in the plate with a square lattice (the best strength characteristics in a rhombic plate with grille). Equivalent move from the plate with a rhombic lattice is less than an order of magnitude than that of a smooth plate and by 5.8% more than at the plate with a square lattice, which indicates good performance design plasticity with rhombic grid. Basis with the rhombic lattice on the surface has the best record on the stress-strain state in comparison with other models considered (smooth plate with a square lattice plate).

  12. Fabrication of CNT Dispersion Fluid by Wet-Jet Milling Method for Coating on Bipolar Plate of Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Almowarai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water based carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion was produced by wet-jet milling method. Commercial CNT was originally agglomerated at the particle size of less than 1 mm. The wet-jet milling process exfoliated CNTs from the agglomerates and dispersed them into water. Sedimentation of the CNTs in the dispersion fluid was not observed for more than a month. The produced CNT dispersion was characterized by the SEM and the viscometer. CNT/PTFE composite film was formed with the CNT dispersion in this study. The electrical conductivity of the composite film increased to 10 times when the CNT dispersion, which was produced by the wet-jet milling method, was used as a constituent of the film. Moreover, the composite film was applied to bipolar plate of fuel cell and increased the output power of the fuel cell to 1.3 times.

  13. Separation method of heavy-ion particle image from gamma-ray mixed images using an imaging plate

    CERN Document Server

    Yamadera, A; Ohuchi, H; Nakamura, T; Fukumura, A

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a separation method of alpha-ray and gamma-ray images using the imaging plate (IP). The IP from which the first image was read out by an image reader was annealed at 50 deg. C for 2 h in a drying oven and the second image was read out by the image reader. It was found out that an annealing ratio, k, which is defined as a ratio of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) density at the first measurement to that at the second measurement, was different for alpha rays and gamma rays. By subtracting the second image multiplied by a factor of k from the first image, the alpha-ray image was separated from the alpha and gamma-ray mixed images. This method was applied to identify the images of helium, carbon and neon particles of high energies using the heavy-ion medical accelerator, HIMAC. (author)

  14. Fracture analysis of one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals: Researches of a finite dimension rectangular plate by boundary collocation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiaxing, Cheng; Dongfa, Sheng [Southwest Forestry University, Yunnan (China)

    2017-05-15

    As an important supplement and development to crystallography, the applications about quasicrystal materials have played a core role in many fields, such as manufacturing and the space industry. Due to the sensitivity of quasicrystals to defects, the research on the fracture problem of quasicrystals has attracted a great deal of attention. We present a boundary collocation method to research fracture problems for a finite dimension rectangular one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystal plate. Because mode I and mode II problems for one- dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals are like that for the classical elastic materials, only the anti-plane problem is discussed in this paper. The correctness of the present numerical method is verified through a comparison of the present results and the existing results. And then, the size effects on stress field, stress intensity factor and energy release rate are discussed in detail. The obtained results can provide valuable references for the fracture behavior of quasicrystals.

  15. Analysis of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method with optimal test functions for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending model

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable) with a thickness-dependent constant in a norm encompassing the L2-norms of the bending moment, the shear force, the transverse deflection and the rotation vector. We then construct a numerical solution scheme based on quadrilateral scalar and vector finite elements of degree p. We show that for affine meshes the discretization inherits the stability of the continuous formulation provided that the optimal test functions are approximated by polynomials of degree p+3. We prove a theoretical error estimate in terms of the mesh size h and polynomial degree p and demonstrate numerical convergence on affine as well as non-affine mesh sequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Air-coupled method to investigate the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode in stubbed and air-drilled phononic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbo Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we applied a robust and fully air-coupled method to investigate the propagation of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb (A0 mode in both a stubbed and an air-drilled phononic-crystal (PC plate. By measuring simply the radiative acoustic waves of A0 mode close to the plate surface, we observed the band gaps for the stubbed PC plate caused by either the local resonance or the Bragg scattering, in frequency ranges in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We measured then the complete band gap of A0 mode for the air-drilled PC plate, in good agreement with the band structures. Finally, we compared the measurements made using the air-coupled method with those obtained by the laser ultrasonic technique.

  17. Air-coupled method to investigate the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode in stubbed and air-drilled phononic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jinfeng; Bonello, Bernard; Li, Libing; Wei, Jianxin; Pan, Yongdong; Zhong, Zheng

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we applied a robust and fully air-coupled method to investigate the propagation of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb (A0) mode in both a stubbed and an air-drilled phononic-crystal (PC) plate. By measuring simply the radiative acoustic waves of A0 mode close to the plate surface, we observed the band gaps for the stubbed PC plate caused by either the local resonance or the Bragg scattering, in frequency ranges in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We measured then the complete band gap of A0 mode for the air-drilled PC plate, in good agreement with the band structures. Finally, we compared the measurements made using the air-coupled method with those obtained by the laser ultrasonic technique.

  18. Application of laser ranging and VLBI data to a study of plate tectonic driving forces. [finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The measurability of changes in plate driving or resistive forces associated with plate boundary earthquakes by laser rangefinding or VLBI is considered with emphasis on those aspects of plate forces that can be characterized by such measurements. Topics covered include: (1) analytic solutions for two dimensional stress diffusion in a plate following earthquake faulting on a finite fault; (2) two dimensional finite-element solutions for the global state of stress at the Earth's surface for possible plate driving forces; and (3) finite-element solutions for three dimensional stress diffusion in a viscoelastic Earth following earthquake faulting.

  19. Effect of plating time on growth of nanocrystalline Ni–P from sulphate/glycine bath by electroless deposition method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Latha; V Raj; M Selvam

    2013-08-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel phosphorus (NC-Ni–P) deposits from sulphate/glycine bath using a simple electroless deposition process is demonstrated. In the present investigation, nanoporous alumina films are formed on the aluminium surface by anodization process followed by deposition of nickel onto the pores by electroless plating method. Anodic aluminium oxide surface was first sensitized and activated by using palladium chloride solution before immersing into the electroless nickel bath. Electroless nickel plating was carried out from the optimized bath by changing the deposition time from 20 to 1800 s at a constant temperature of 80 °C and a pH of 4.0. Surface morphology, elemental composition, structure and reflectance of the deposits have been analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible spectroscopic studies, respectively. Electroless nickel deposits formed at an early stage produces dense uniform nanocrystals containing higher percentage of atomic phosphorus with cubic Ni (111) structure. As the deposition time increased, nanocrystalline sharp peak became amorphous and dimension of the crystal size varied from 54 to 72 nm.

  20. Optimization of the polypyrrole-coating parameters for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates using the Taguchi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Northwood, Derek O. [Department of Mechanical, Automotive, and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In order to overcome the high price, weight and volume of non-porous graphite bipolar plates, metallic bipolar plates are being investigated as a substitute material. However, metallic materials can corrode under proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) working conditions, leading to a degradation in the performance of the membrane. Previous work had shown that a polypyrrole coating on SS316L can significantly increase the corrosion resistance of the base material. In this study, a Taguchi design of experiment method was used to optimize the process parameters for the polypyrrole coating so as to produce the maximum corrosion resistance. Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests were used to determine the corrosion resistance of the polypyrrole-coated SS316L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was used to characterize the coating thickness and coating appearance. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to determine the metal ion concentration in the solution after corrosion. The interfacial contact resistance of SS316L with carbon paper was measured both before and after coating with polypyrrole. (author)

  1. Buckling analysis of laminated plates using the extended Kantorovich method and a system of first-order differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhatanadgid, Pairod; Jommalai, Panupan [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-05-15

    The extended Kantorovich method using multi-term displacement functions is applied to the buckling problem of laminated plates with various boundary conditions. The out-of-plane displacement of the buckled plate is written as a series of products of functions of parameter x and functions of parameter y. With known functions in parameter x or parameter y, a set of governing equations and a set of boundary conditions are obtained after applying the variational principle to the total potential energy of the system. The higher order differential equations are then transformed into a set of first-order differential equations and solved for the buckling load and mode. Since the governing equations are first-order differential equations, solutions can be obtained analytically with the out-of-plane displacement written in the form of an exponential function. The solutions from the proposed technique are verified with solutions from the literature and FEM solutions. The bucking loads correspond very well to other available solutions in most of the comparisons. The buckling modes also compare very well with the finite element solutions. The proposed solution technique transforms higher-order differential equations to first-order differential equations, and they are analytically solved for out-of-plane displacement in the form of an exponential function. Therefore, the proposed solution technique yields a solution which can be considered as an analytical solution.

  2. Adaptive Lagrange finite element methods for high precision vibrations and piezoelectric acoustic wave compu- tations in SMT structures and plates with nano interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the validity of (adaptive) Lagrange generalized plain finite element method(FEM) and plate element method for accurate analysis of acoustic waves in multi-layered piezoelectric structures with tiny interfaces between metal electrodes and surface mounted piezoelectric substrates. We have come to conclusion that the quantitative relationships between the acoustic and electric fields in a piezoelectric structure can be accurately determined through the proposed finite element methods. The higher-order Lagrange FEM proposed for dynamic piezoelectric computation is proved to be very accurate (prescribed relative error 0.02%-0.04%) and a great improvement in convergence accuracy over the higher order Mindlin plate element method for piezoelectric structural analysis due to the assumptions and corrections in the plate theories. The converged Lagrange finite element methods are compared with the plate element methods and the computed results are in good agreement with available exact and experimental data. The adaptive Lagrange finite element methods and a new FEA computer program developed for macro- and micro-scale analyses are reviewed, and recently extended with great potential to high-precision nano-scale analysis in this paper and the similarities between piezoelectric and seismic wave propagations in layered structures and plates are stressed.

  3. An Investigation on Monolithic U-Mo Plate Type Fuel by a Pressure-Sintering Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. K.; Oh, J. M.; Jang, S. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, G. H.; Chun, B. S. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Previously the average particle diameter of U-Mo powder used for developing U-Mo dispersion fuel was about 50 {mu}m. U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels were shown that an extensive interaction between the UMo particle and the Al matrix occurred in high power- density of dispersion fuel. Because the interaction product has a low thermal conductivity and density, which have harmful effects for fuel performance, several attempts to avoid the above problems have been made such as (1) the decrease of the contacting area between the fuel and Al matrix, (2) the increase of the alloy stability of the interaction phase through the addition of an additional alloying element, such as Si, Ti and Zr, into the Al matrix. In KAERI U-Mo powder with very large particle size of more than 500 {mu}m could be produced by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process through adjusting the operating parameters in 2006. A consideration was taken for an application of a large particle to plate type fuel with a layer array. When the particles of spherical shape arrayed in a closed packing way the equivalent U-density of fuel meat would approach to more than 8 g-U/cc. The interface temperature between the U-Mo particle and the Al matrix is expected to be low because aluminum with good thermal conductivity is connected from the interface to the cooling water without any thermal diffusion interruption. The temperature at the center of the large U-Mo particle is calculated to be not too high. When the heat flux and the particle diameter are supposed to be 560 W/cm{sup 2} and 700 {mu}m, the temperature difference was about 36 .deg. C. In addition, the U-Mo particles are surrounded with an aluminum matrix so that a little of the constraint force will act on the fuel particles from the aluminum matrix. A problem like debonding between U-Mo foil and Al cladding in monolithic U-Mo fuel under development can be avoided. Some experiments related to the fabrication of large particle array fuel were carried out

  4. Development of Multiwell-Plate Methods Using Pure Cultures of Methanogens To Identify New Inhibitors for Suppressing Ruminant Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, M R; Cheung, J; Dey, D; McSweeney, C; Morrison, M; Kobayashi, Y; Whitman, W B; Carbone, V; Schofield, L R; Ronimus, R S; Cook, G M

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens typically require strictly anaerobic culturing conditions in glass tubes with overpressures of H2 and CO2 that are both time-consuming and costly. To increase the throughput for screening chemical compound libraries, 96-well microtiter plate methods for the growth of a marine (environmental) methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis strain S2 and the rumen methanogen Methanobrevibacter species AbM4 were developed. A number of key parameters (inoculum size, reducing agents for medium preparation, assay duration, inhibitor solvents, and culture volume) were optimized to achieve robust and reproducible growth in a high-throughput microtiter plate format. The method was validated using published methanogen inhibitors and statistically assessed for sensitivity and reproducibility. The Sigma-Aldrich LOPAC library containing 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds and an in-house natural product library (120 compounds) were screened against M. maripaludis as a proof of utility. This screen identified a number of bioactive compounds, and MIC values were confirmed for some of them against M. maripaludis and M. AbM4. The developed method provides a significant increase in throughput for screening compound libraries and can now be used to screen larger compound libraries to discover novel methanogen-specific inhibitors for the mitigation of ruminant methane emissions.IMPORTANCE Methane emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions, and new technologies are required to control emissions in the agriculture technology (agritech) sector. The discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of methanogens using high-throughput phenotypic (growth) screening against compound libraries (synthetic and natural products) is an attractive avenue. However, phenotypic inhibitor screening is currently hindered by our inability to grow methanogens in a high-throughput format. We have developed, optimized, and validated a high

  5. A Method of License Plate Location based on Mathematical Morphology%基于数学形态学的车牌定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳; 刘立

    2014-01-01

    In order to locate the position of the plate accurately, in this paper, a precise license plate locating algorithm is proposed based on mathematical morphology. Firstly, after gray level transformation of the color plate image, Sobel operator is used to detect the edge of the car image, Secondly, the methods of erosion and closing operation in mathematical morphology are adopted to process the binary image, and several candidate license plate areas are obtained. Then, removing false license plate area by the line scanning method to achieve coarse location of license plate. Finally, Hough transform is applied to locate the plate precisely. The experimental results show that the method can achieve the purpose of precise license plate location.%为了准确定位车牌的位置,提出了基于数学形态学的车牌定位方法。该方法首先将彩色图像灰度化,并利用Sobel算子进行图像边缘提取,然后运用数学形态学的腐蚀和闭运算对二值图像进行处理,可以得到几个车牌候选区,接着再利用行扫描去除伪车牌区域,实现车牌的粗定位。最后,利用Hough变换精确定位车牌的位置。实验表明,这一方法能够准确地实现车牌的定位。

  6. Adaptive Lagrange finite element methods for high precision vibrations and piezoelectric acoustic wave computations in SMT structures and plates with nano interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武; 洪涛

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the validity of (adaptive) Lagrange generalized plain finite element method (FEM) and plate element method for accurate analysis of acoustic waves in multi-layered piezoelectric structures with tiny interfaces between metal electrodes and surface mounted piezoelectric substrates. We have come to conclusion that the quantitative relationships between the acoustic and electric fields in a piezoelectric structure can be accurately determined through the proposed finite element methods. The higher-order Lagrange FEM proposed for dynamic piezoelectric computation is proved to be very accurate (prescribed relative error 0.02% - 0.04% ) and a great improvement in convergence accuracy over the higher order Mindlin plate element method for piezoelectric structural analysis due to the assumptions and corrections in the plate theories.The converged lagrange finite element methods are compared with the plate element methods and the computedresults are in good agreement with available exact and experimental data. The adaptive Lagrange finite elementmethods and a new FEA computer program developed for macro- and micro-scale analyses are reviewed, and recently extended with great potential to high-precision nano-scale analysis in this paper and the similarities between piezoelectric and seismic wave propagations in layered structures and plates are stressed.

  7. Estimation of dispersion curves by combining Effective Elastic Constants and SAFE Method: A case study in a plate under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, J. E.; Mujica, L.; Villamizar, R.; Ruiz, M.; Camacho, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an approach to calculate dispersion curves for homogeneous and isotropic plates subject to stress, via Semi-Analytical Finite Element and the Effective Elastic Constants, since stresses in the waveguide modify the phase and group velocities of the lamb waves. In the proposed methodology an isotropic specimen subjected to anisotropic loading is emulated by proposing an equivalent stress-free anisotropic specimen. This approximation facilitates determining the dispersion curves by using the well-studied numerical solution for the stress-free cases. The lamb wave in anisotropic materials can be studied by means of the Effective Elastic Constants, which reduces the complexity of the numerical implementation. Finally, numerical data available in literature were used to validate the proposed methodology, where it could be demonstrated its effectiveness as approximated method.

  8. Optical thickness measurement of mask blank glass plate by the excess fraction method using a wavelength-tuning interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangjin; Hibino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2013-10-01

    The absolute optical thickness of a 140-mm2 mask blank glass plate 3.1 mm thickness was measured by three-surface interferometry using a wavelength-tuning Fizeau interferometer. The interference order was determined by the excess fraction method. The wavelength of a tunable laser diode was scanned linearly from 632 to 642 nm, and a CCD detector recorded 2000 interference images. Two kinds of optical thicknesses measured by discrete Fourier analysis and phase-shifting were synthesized to obtain the optical thickness with respect to the ordinary refractive index. The optical thickness defined by the group refractive index at the 637 nm central wavelength was measured by wavelength scanning. The optical thickness deviation defined by the ordinary refractive index was measured using tunable phase-shifting. The systematic errors caused by nonlinearity in the wavelength tuning were corrected through correlation analysis between the theoretical and observed interference fringes.

  9. Optimization of the Adhesion Strength of Arc Ion Plating TiAlN Films by the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Yul Cho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-level six-factor (arc power, substrate temperature, pre-treatment bias voltage, working pressure, deposition bias voltage and pretreatment time orthogonal experimental array (L18 to optimize the adhesion strength of arc ion plating (AIP TiAlN films was designed using the Taguchi method. An optimized film process, namely substrate temperature 220 °C, arc power 60 A, negative bias voltage -800 V, nitrogen pressure 10-2 Torr, pretreated voltage -450 V and pretreated time 15 minutes was obtained by the Taguchi program for the purpose of obtaining a larger critical load. The critical load of the optimized TiAlN film (53 N was increased by 43% compared to the film with the highest critical load before optimization. The improvement in the adhesion strength of the films was attributed to the enhancement of hardness and the competitive growth of the (111, (200 and (220 orientations in the film.

  10. Thermodynamic equilibrium solubility measurements in simulated fluids by 96-well plate method in early drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharate, Sonali S; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2015-04-01

    An early prediction of solubility in physiological media (PBS, SGF and SIF) is useful to predict qualitatively bioavailability and absorption of lead candidates. Despite of the availability of multiple solubility estimation methods, none of the reported method involves simplified fixed protocol for diverse set of compounds. Therefore, a simple and medium-throughput solubility estimation protocol is highly desirable during lead optimization stage. The present work introduces a rapid method for assessment of thermodynamic equilibrium solubility of compounds in aqueous media using 96-well microplate. The developed protocol is straightforward to set up and takes advantage of the sensitivity of UV spectroscopy. The compound, in stock solution in methanol, is introduced in microgram quantities into microplate wells followed by drying at an ambient temperature. Microplates were shaken upon addition of test media and the supernatant was analyzed by UV method. A plot of absorbance versus concentration of a sample provides saturation point, which is thermodynamic equilibrium solubility of a sample. The established protocol was validated using a large panel of commercially available drugs and with conventional miniaturized shake flask method (r(2)>0.84). Additionally, the statistically significant QSPR models were established using experimental solubility values of 52 compounds.

  11. Boundary integral equation methods in eigenvalue problems of elastodynamics and thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, M

    1985-01-01

    The boundary integral equation (BIE) method has been used more and more in the last 20 years for solving various engineering problems. It has important advantages over other techniques for numerical treatment of a wide class of boundary value problems and is now regarded as an indispensable tool for potential problems, electromagnetism problems, heat transfer, fluid flow, elastostatics, stress concentration and fracture problems, geomechanical problems, and steady-state and transient electrodynamics.In this book, the author gives a complete, thorough and detailed survey of the method. It pro

  12. A development of the method of the control signal formation for the hot plate mill automation systems to improve the flatness of the finish plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Stanislav S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to control of the hot plate mill automation system to improve the quality metrics if the final strip. Based on the data of the modern hot rolling mills the classification of the cage equipment was designed. Depending on the degree of influence on the magnitude of reduction, the equipment was divided into categories. The functioning of every system including the main and the vertical cages was described. The conditions of electrical and hydraulic mechanisms was marked. The developed algorithm allows to improve defects based on the finite number of the thickness measurements given by special non-contact sensors. The example of regulators signals calculating was shown. The result of the algorithm operating was illustrated.

  13. One dimension spring supported ball on top of a sinusoidal vibrating plate: A forced oscillation simulation using molecular dynamics method

    CERN Document Server

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Hidayat, Wahyu; Singarimbun, Alamta; Balkis, Sitti

    2011-01-01

    A ball supported by a spring is set on top of a plate which is sinusoidal vibrated. The motion is limited to one dimension motion. It is assumed that the spring is an ideal one with zero mass. The vibrating plate is considered much heavier than the ball, so that the ball motion has no influence on the plate motion. Plate vibration frequency is varied around the frequency of ball-spring system. Resonance phenomenon is reported, which needs a phase match condition to occur.

  14. Plate-like structure damage location identification based on Lamb wave baseline-free probability imaging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage-scattering signal extraction using conventional ultrasonic guided wave–based damage detection techniques requires the measurement of baseline data under pristine condition. This study proposes a baseline-free ultrasonic guided wave damage localization and imaging method based on Lamb wave baseline-free probability imaging method. Although traditional Lamb wave probability imaging can monitor damage location in plate-like structures, the absolute time of arrival and magnitude of the signal are affected by several factors and are therefore difficult to obtain. This study also proposes a probability-based hyperbola diagnostic imaging method that is based on different times of arrival and has no magnitude information. A distributed active sensor network conforming to a pulse-echo configuration and time window functions is developed to separate damage-scattering signals from structural response signals. Continuous wavelet transform is used to calculate the time of flight of damage signal waves. The numerical simulation and experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in identifying damage.

  15. 一种快速的车牌自动定位方法%A Fast Automatic Location Method of Vehicle License Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万相; 田莹

    2015-01-01

    车牌定位是车牌识别系统中最重要的步骤,针对车牌区域的特点,提出一种简单快速的车牌粗定位方法。首先对拍摄的包含车牌的彩色车身图像进行灰度化,并采用自动阈值方法进行二值化,对于不同颜色车身图像都能得到理想的二值图像,然后对二值图像利用梯度进行边缘检测,再根据车牌区域水平方向具有黑白灰度跳变较为频繁的特征,采用行扫描图像的灰度跳变频率来定位车牌区域。在拍摄的车牌图像上进行定位实验表明,方法具有简单实用,速度快的特点。%Automatic license plate location is the most important step in license plate recognition system. According to the characteristics of the li-cense plate area, proposes a simple and fast method for the coarse location of the license plate. First of all, the color image of the license plate is gray, and the automatic threshold method is used to carry on binarization. The method can be used for different color images. Then gradient operator is used to detect the edge of the binary image. And then the gray-hopping frequency is used to locate the license plate area. Experiments on license plate images show that the proposed method is simple, practical, and fast.

  16. Quantitative Laser Biospeckle Method for the Evaluation of the Activity of Trypanosoma cruzi Using VDRL Plates and Digital Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Hilda Cristina; García, Lisbette C.; Lobo-Sulbarán, María Lorena; Velásquez, Ana; Andrades-Grassi, Francisco A.; Cabrera, Humberto; Andrades-Grassi, Jesús E.; Andrades, Efrén D. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report a quantitative laser Biospeckle method using VDRL plates to monitor the activity of Trypanosoma cruzi and the calibration conditions including three image processing algorithms and three programs (ImageJ and two programs designed in this work). Benznidazole was used as a test drug. Variable volume (constant density) and variable density (constant volume) were used for the quantitative evaluation of parasite activity in calibrated wells of the VDRL plate. The desiccation process within the well was monitored as a function of volume and of the activity of the Biospeckle pattern of the parasites as well as the quantitative effect of the surface parasite quantity (proportion of the object’s plane). A statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA, Tukey post hoc and Descriptive Statistics using R and R Commander. Conditions of volume (100μl) and parasite density (2-4x104 parasites/well, in exponential growth phase), assay time (up to 204min), frame number (11 frames), algorithm and program (RCommander/SAGA) for image processing were selected to test the effect of variable concentrations of benznidazole (0.0195 to 20μg/mL / 0.075 to 76.8μM) at various times (1, 61, 128 and 204min) on the activity of the Biospeckle pattern. The flat wells of the VDRL plate were found to be suitable for the quantitative calibration of the activity of Trypanosoma cruzi using the appropriate algorithm and program. Under these conditions, benznidazole produces at 1min an instantaneous effect on the activity of the Biospeckle pattern of T. cruzi, which remains with a similar profile up to 1 hour. A second effect which is dependent on concentrations above 1.25μg/mL and is statistically different from the effect at lower concentrations causes a decrease in the activity of the Biospeckle pattern. This effect is better detected after 1 hour of drug action. This behavior may be explained by an instantaneous effect on a membrane protein of Trypanosoma cruzi that could

  17. Quantitative Laser Biospeckle Method for the Evaluation of the Activity of Trypanosoma cruzi Using VDRL Plates and Digital Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Hilda Cristina; García, Lisbette C; Lobo-Sulbarán, María Lorena; Velásquez, Ana; Andrades-Grassi, Francisco A; Cabrera, Humberto; Andrades-Grassi, Jesús E; Andrades, Efrén D J

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report a quantitative laser Biospeckle method using VDRL plates to monitor the activity of Trypanosoma cruzi and the calibration conditions including three image processing algorithms and three programs (ImageJ and two programs designed in this work). Benznidazole was used as a test drug. Variable volume (constant density) and variable density (constant volume) were used for the quantitative evaluation of parasite activity in calibrated wells of the VDRL plate. The desiccation process within the well was monitored as a function of volume and of the activity of the Biospeckle pattern of the parasites as well as the quantitative effect of the surface parasite quantity (proportion of the object's plane). A statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA, Tukey post hoc and Descriptive Statistics using R and R Commander. Conditions of volume (100μl) and parasite density (2-4x104 parasites/well, in exponential growth phase), assay time (up to 204min), frame number (11 frames), algorithm and program (RCommander/SAGA) for image processing were selected to test the effect of variable concentrations of benznidazole (0.0195 to 20μg/mL / 0.075 to 76.8μM) at various times (1, 61, 128 and 204min) on the activity of the Biospeckle pattern. The flat wells of the VDRL plate were found to be suitable for the quantitative calibration of the activity of Trypanosoma cruzi using the appropriate algorithm and program. Under these conditions, benznidazole produces at 1min an instantaneous effect on the activity of the Biospeckle pattern of T. cruzi, which remains with a similar profile up to 1 hour. A second effect which is dependent on concentrations above 1.25μg/mL and is statistically different from the effect at lower concentrations causes a decrease in the activity of the Biospeckle pattern. This effect is better detected after 1 hour of drug action. This behavior may be explained by an instantaneous effect on a membrane protein of Trypanosoma cruzi that could

  18. Improvement of Surface Roughness Quality for Stainless Steel 420 Plate Using Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya M. Hamad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to improve the surface roughness quality of the stainless steel 420 using magnetic abrasive finishing method (MAF. Four independent operation parameters were studied (working gap, coil current, feed rate, and table stroke, and their effects on the MAF process were introduced. A rotating coil electromagnet was designed and implemented to use with plane surfaces. The magnetic abrasive powder used was formed from 33%Fe and 67% Quartz of (250µm mesh size. The lubricant type SAE 20W was used as a binder for the powder contents. Taguchi method was used for designing the experiments and the optimal values of the selected parameters were found. An empirical equation representing the relation between surface roughness with operation parameters have been achieved.

  19. Direct numerical simulation methods of hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer in thermally perfect gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, WenLi; Cao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature effects alter the physical and transport properties of air such as vibrational excitation in a thermally perfect gas, and this factor should be considered in order to compute the flow field correctly. Herein, for the thermally perfect gas, a simple method of direct numerical simulation on flat-plat boundary layer is put forward, using the equivalent specific heat ratio instead of constant specific heat ratio in the N-S equations and flux splitting form of a calorically perfect gas. The results calculated by the new method are consistent with that by solving the N-S equations of a thermally perfect gas directly. The mean flow has the similarity, and consistent to the corresponding Blasius solution, which confirms that satisfactory results can be obtained basing on the Blasius solution as the mean flow directly in stability analysis. The amplitude growth curve of small disturbance is introduced at the inlet by using direct numerical simulation, which is consistent with that obtained by linear stability theory. It verified that the equation established and the simulation method is correct.

  20. Optimization Of Curved Plated Structures With The Finite Strip And Finite Element Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh Bence

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare two available numerical tools for solving of partial differential equations for the optimal design of structures. In the past years numerous methods were developed for topology optimization, from these we have adopted the optimality criteria (OC approach. The main idea is that we state the optimal conditions, that the minimizer has to fulfil at the end of an iterative proves. This method however is not a general one, only advantageous in the case of separable problems, but comes with fast speed, easy programming, and a relative insensitivity of computational time to the number of variables. In the paper we suggest a new method for the elimination of a numerical error, the so called ‘checkerboard pattern’. In the presented examples we applied one loading case and an elastic material behaviour. The cost function is the net weight of the structure and upper bound of the compliance is set as the optimality constraint.

  1. Stacking sequence and shape optimization of laminated composite plates via a level-set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, G.; Delgado, G.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the optimal design of composite laminates by allowing a variable stacking sequence and in-plane shape of each ply. In order to optimize both variables we rely on a decomposition technique which aggregates the constraints into one unique constraint margin function. Thanks to this approach, an exactly equivalent bi-level optimization problem is established. This problem is made up of an inner level represented by the combinatorial optimization of the stacking sequence and an outer level represented by the topology and geometry optimization of each ply. We propose for the stacking sequence optimization an outer approximation method which iteratively solves a set of mixed integer linear problems associated to the evaluation of the constraint margin function. For the topology optimization of each ply, we lean on the level set method for the description of the interfaces and the Hadamard method for boundary variations by means of the computation of the shape gradient. Numerical experiments are performed on an aeronautic test case where the weight is minimized subject to different mechanical constraints, namely compliance, reserve factor and buckling load.

  2. A comparison of standard cultural methods for the detection of foodborne Salmonella species including three new chromogenic plating media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenbrücher, Vanessa; Mallinson, Edward T; Bülte, Michael

    2008-03-31

    In this study the draft of the horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella species from human food and animal feed (ISO 6579:2002) was compared to the European gold standard (DIN EN 12824:1998), including the three new chromogenic plating media AES Salmonella Agar Plate (ASAP), Oxoid Salmonella Chromogen Media (OSCM) and Miller-Mallinson agar (MM). First the growth and appearance of 36 bacterial type strains (Salmonella and other 21 species) on ASAP, OSCM and MM were compared to those on the three traditional agars Brilliant Green Agar according to Edel and Kampelmacher (BGA), Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar (XLD) and Xylose Lysine Tergitol 4 Agar (XLT4). Only on MM agar, did all of 36 tested type strains produce typical colonies, especially strains of S. Senftenberg, Salmonella arizonae, S. Dublin and S. Derby. Artificial inoculation experiments using raw pork ground meat (n=92) were subsequently conducted. A shortened incubation time of 24 h in RVS broth yielded a Salmonella species recovery of 100% from spiked meat samples. Finally, 286 naturally contaminated raw porcine and bovine minced meat samples and raw poultry meat samples were investigated. Forty-three strains from a total of 39 Salmonella-positive samples were found. S. Typhimurium (n=21), with DT 104 L, DT 012 and RDNC being the most prevalent subtypes isolated. D-tartrate-positive S. Paratyphi B (n=2) and S. Saint-Paul (n=3) were also recovered. They were cultured from poultry meat and were multi-resistant against antibiotics including nalidixic acid. Rappaport Vassiliadis broth with soypeptone (RVS) yielded the highest recovery of Salmonella spp. (97,4%) compared to Tetrathionate broth with Novobiocin according to Muller and Kauffman (MKTTn, 94,9%) and Selenite Cystine broth (SC, 38,5%). However, no significant difference was obtained by comparing the ISO 6579:2002 draft to the gold standard.

  3. Comparison of plate reader-based methods with fluorescence microscopy for measurements of intracellular calcium levels for the assessment of in vitro neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Marieke; Hendriks, Hester S; Heusinkveld, Harm J; Langeveld, Wendy T; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-12-01

    The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is an important readout for in vitro neurotoxicity since calcium is critically involved in many essential neurobiological processes, including neurotransmission, neurodegeneration and neurodevelopment. [Ca(2+)]i is often measured with considerable throughput at the level of cell populations with plate reader-based assays or with lower throughput at the level of individual cells with fluorescence microscopy. However, these methodologies yield different quantitative and qualitative results. In recent years, we demonstrated that the resolution and sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy is superior compared to plate reader-based assays. However, it is currently unclear if the use of plate reader-based assays results in more 'false negatives' or 'false positives' in neurotoxicity screening studies. In the present study, we therefore compared a plate reader-based assay with fluorescence microscopy using a small test set of environmental pollutants consisting of dieldrin, lindane, polychlorinated biphenyl 53 (PCB53) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). Using single-cell fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that all test chemicals reduce the depolarization-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)]i, whereas lindane, PCB53 and TBBPA also increase basal [Ca(2+)]i, though via different mechanisms. Importantly, none of these effects were confirmed with the plate reader-based assay. We therefore conclude that standard plate reader-based methods are not sufficiently sensitive and reliable to measure the highly dynamic and transient changes in [Ca(2+)]i that occur during chemical exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbagory, Abdulrahman M; Cupido, Christopher N; Meyer, Mervin; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2016-11-08

    The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC) for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  5. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Elbagory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  6. Non-Reflecting Regions for Finite Difference Methods in Modeling of Elastic Wave Propagation in Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishoni, Doron; Taasan, Shlomo

    1994-01-01

    Solution of the wave equation using techniques such as finite difference or finite element methods can model elastic wave propagation in solids. This requires mapping the physical geometry into a computational domain whose size is governed by the size of the physical domain of interest and by the required resolution. This computational domain, in turn, dictates the computer memory requirements as well as the calculation time. Quite often, the physical region of interest is only a part of the whole physical body, and does not necessarily include all the physical boundaries. Reduction of the calculation domain requires positioning an artificial boundary or region where a physical boundary does not exist. It is important however that such a boundary, or region, will not affect the internal domain, i.e., it should not cause reflections that propagate back into the material. This paper concentrates on the issue of constructing such a boundary region.

  7. A comparison of plate assay methods for detecting extracellular cellulase and xylanase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb-Mouelhi, Fatma; Moisan, Jessica Kelly; Beauregard, Marc

    2014-11-01

    Identification of microorganisms for the production of carbohydrolytic enzymes is extremely important given the increased demand for these enzymes in many industries. To this end, dye-polysaccharide interactions which provide a visual indication of polymer hydrolysis (clear zones or halos) have been used for decades. For the detection of extracellular cellulase or xylanase activity many laboratories use Gram's iodine as the chromogenic dye, as it is a more rapid initial screening method compared to the use of other dyes. Here, we compared Gram's iodine and Congo red as indicators of polysaccharide hydrolysis. We attempted to detect cellulase activity using carboxymethylcellulose, and xylanase activity using birchwood xylan, in fourteen uncharacterized bacteria isolated from wood chips. Our results indicate that Gram's iodine may lead to identification of false positives in a typical screening protocol and that Congo red allows for avoidance of such pitfall. Congo red allowed detection of cellulase activity from live microbial colonies but not Gram's iodine. To confirm this, detection of enzymatic activity was also assessed using cell-free enzyme preparations. Congo red was found to be reliable in detecting cellulase activity with isolated enzymes preparations. Under the same conditions, neither of these dyes detected xylanase activity, despite independent evidence of xylanase activity for one of the preparations. We detected xylanase activity for this particular enzyme preparation using a coloured derivative of xylan (Remazol Brillant Blue R-xylan adduct) that respond to xylan hydrolysis. Our results suggest that methods that rely on interactions between a dye (Congo red or Gram's iodine) and a polymeric substrate (carboxymethylcellulose or birchwood xylan) for indirect detection of hydrolysis may require the use of relevant controls and independent confirmation of enzymatic activities.

  8. Phene Plate (PhP) biochemical fingerprinting. A screening method for epidemiological typing of enterococcal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, B; Tärnberg, M; Gill, H; Hällgren, A; Jonasson, J; Nilsson, L E; Isaksson, B; Kühn, I; Hanberger, H

    2005-09-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently considered the gold standard for genotyping of enterococci. However, PFGE is both expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the PhP system can be used as a reliable clinical screening method for detection of genetically related isolates of enterococci. If so, it should be possible to minimize the number of isolates subjected to PFGE typing, which would save time and money. Ninety-nine clinical enterococcal isolates were analysed by PhP (similarity levels 0.90-0.975) and PFGE (similarity levels PhP also belong to the same cluster according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE)=B(PFGE) * A(PhP)=B(PhP)), and the probability that a pair of isolates of different types according to PhP also belong to different clusters according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE) not equalB(PFGE) * A(PhP) not equalB(PhP)), was relatively high for E. faecalis (0.86 and 0.96, respectively), but was lower for E. faecium (0.51 and 0.77, respectively). The concordance which shows the probability that PhP and PFGE agree on match or mismatch was 86%-93% for E. faecalis and 54%-66% for E. faecium, which indicates that the PhP method may be useful for epidemiological typing of E. faecalis in the current settings but not for E. faecium.

  9. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  10. Research on location methods of license plate recognition%车辆牌照识别中车牌定位的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑

    2011-01-01

    License plate location is the first step of license plate recognition, also a very important one. This paper briefly introduces the characteristics of vehicle license and several common location methods. After license plate image preprocessing,it extracts the edge of the image with differential operator, and makes up for shortcomings of Sobel operator by morphology method. On the basis of pixel gray accumulated values in row, completes a license plate image in license plate recognition.%车牌定位是车牌识别系统的第一步,也是非常重要的一步,对车辆牌照的特征及几种常用的定位方法进行简要介绍,对车牌图像进行图像预处理之后,用微分算子对图像进行边缘提取,并且针对Sobel算子的缺点用形态学出来进行弥补.根据图像行、列像素点灰度值累加和对车牌图像进行定位,最后给出定位出的车牌图像.

  11. Calculations of Lamb wave band gaps and dispersions for piezoelectric phononic plates using mindlin's theory-based plane wave expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong

    2008-02-01

    Based on Mindlin's piezoelectric plate theory and the plane wave expansion method, a formulation is proposed to study the frequency band gaps and dispersion relations of the lower-order Lamb waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic plates. The method is applied to analyze the phononic plates composed of solid-solid and airsolid constituents with square and triangular lattices, respectively. Factors that influence the opening and width of the complete Lamb wave gaps are identified and discussed. For solid/solid phononic plates, it is suggested that the filling material be chosen with larger mass density, proper stiffness, and weak anisotropic factor embedded in a soft matrix in order to obtain wider complete band gaps of the lower-order Lamb waves. By comparing to the calculated results without considering the piezoelectricity, the influences of piezoelectric effect on Lamb waves are analyzed as well. On the other hand, for air/solid phononic plates, a background material itself with proper anisotropy and a high filling fraction of air may favor the opening of the complete Lamb wave gaps.

  12. Evaluation of the spiral plating method for the enumeration of microorganisms throughout the manufacturing and ripening of a raw goat's milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Carballo, Javier; Capita, Rosa; Bernardo, Ana; García-López, María Luisa

    2002-02-01

    A statistical comparison of the spiral plate count (SPLPC) and the standard plate count (SPC) methods for enumeration of microorganisms in raw goat's milk cheese throughout its manufacturing and ripening was carried out. Enumeration of mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria (presumptive lactococci, presumptive leuconostocs, and presumptive lactobacilli), Micrococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and molds and yeasts was carried out for milk, curd, and 2-, 5-, 10-, 17-, and 27-day-old cheeses. Average counts for the SPLPC and SPC methods differed by less than half of a log cycle for all microbial groups studied (range of difference, -0.1386 [mesophiles] to +0.4397 [presumptive lactobacilli]). The results of the SPLPC method compared favorably with the results of the SPC procedure for mesophiles, presumptive lactococci, presumptive leuconostocs, Enterobacteriaceae, and molds and yeasts (the variance between replicate platings was close to 0.005, and correlation coefficients were >0.9). Correlation coefficients were lower for Micrococcaceae (r = 0.824) and presumptive lactobacilli (r = 0.670). Analysis of variance showed that the plating method was a significant factor (P microorganisms in goat cheese throughout its manufacturingand ripening processes. However, the suitability of the SPLPC method depends mainly on the microbial group studied.

  13. A study of narrow gap laser welding for thick plates using the multi-layer and multi-pass method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wang, Tianjiao; Wang, Chunming; Yan, Fei; Shao, Xinyu; Hu, Xiyuan; Li, Jianmin

    2014-12-01

    This paper details a new method that combines laser autogenous welding, laser wire filling welding and hybrid laser-GMAW welding to weld 30 mm thick plate using a multi-layer, multi-pass process. A “Y” shaped groove was used to create the joint. Research was also performed to optimize the groove size and the processing parameters. Laser autogenous welding is first used to create the backing weld. The lower, narrowest part of the groove is then welded using laser wire filling welding. Finally, the upper part of the groove is welded using laser-GMAW hybrid welding. Additionally, the wire feeding and droplet transfer behaviors are observed by high speed photography. The two main conclusions from this work are: the wire is often biased towards the side walls, resulting in a lack of fusion at the joint and the creation of other defects for larger groove sizes. Additionally, this results in the droplet transfer behavior becoming unstable, leading to a poor weld appearance for smaller groove sizes.

  14. Detection and analysis of SERS effect of nano gold by self-assembly chemical plating composite method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Huazhou; Gang, Chen; Lai, Chunhong; Liao, Xin; Wang, Rong

    2015-10-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a powerful analytical tool has gained extensive attention. Despite of many efforts have been devoted to design SERS substrates, it still remains a grand challenge for creating a general substrate with high SERS active by a simple, controllable and low-cost way. Herein, we attempt to address this issue by fabricating SERS-active nano gold film based on self-assembly chemical plating composite method. The influence of gold colloid particle size on gold seed distribution density and the influence of the particle size of nano gold films on the SERS activity were investigated in detail. 10-5 M Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was taken as Raman probe molecules and homemade Raman detection microsystem was used as detector. According to the results of SERS detection, the SERS substrate enhancement factors (SSEF) were calculated, and the nano gold film with average particle size of about 55 nm showed the maximum SSEF of 0.93 × 105, which indicated such nano gold films showed excellent SERS activity. Moreover, these nano gold films are all low-cost and easy to prepared. This study provided theoretical and experimental basis for the design and preparation of general SERS substrate.

  15. An Optimized High Throughput Clean-Up Method Using Mixed-Mode SPE Plate for the Analysis of Free Arachidonic Acid in Plasma by LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Wang; Suzi Qin; Linsen Li; Xiaohua Chen; Qunjie Wang; Junfu Wei

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput sample preparation method was developed utilizing mixed-mode solid phase extraction (SPE) in 96-well plate format for the determination of free arachidonic acid in plasma by LC-MS/MS. Plasma was mixed with 3% aqueous ammonia and loaded into each well of 96-well plate. After washing with water and methanol sequentially, 3% of formic acid in acetonitrile was used to elute arachidonic acid. The collected fraction was injected onto a reversed phase column at 30°C with mobile pha...

  16. Effectiveness of antibiotic combination therapy as evaluated by the Break-point Checkerboard Plate method for multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Tsukimori, Ayaka; Sato, Akihiro; Fukushima, Shinji; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) strains are defined as having resistance to the following 3 groups of antibiotics: carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic combinations have demonstrated increased activity in vitro compared with a single agent. As an in vitro method of determining the combination activity of antibiotics, the Break-point Checkerboard Plate (BC-plate) can be used routinely in clinical microbiology laboratories. We evaluated the effectiveness of the BC-plate for MDRP infections in clinical settings. We retrospectively selected cases of MDRP infection treated with combination therapy of antibiotics in Tokyo Medical University Hospital (1015 beds), Tokyo, Japan, from November 2010 to October 2012. A total of 28 MDRP strains were clinically isolated from 28 patients during the study period. This study design is a case series of MDRP infection. Six infections among the 28 patients were treated based on the results of the BC-plate assay, and the 6 strains tested positive for MBL. One patient had pneumonia, 3 had urinary tract infections, 1 had vertebral osteomyelitis, and 1 had nasal abscess. The combination of aztreonam with amikacin demonstrated the most frequently recognized in vitro effect (5 patients). Next, aztreonam with ciprofloxacin and piperacillin with amikacin revealed equivalent in vitro effects (3 patients, respectively). The clinical cure rate was 83.3% (5/6 patients). Antibiotic combination therapy based on the results of the BC-plate assay might indicate the effective therapy against MDRP infection in clinical settings.

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  20. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of meat, seafood, and poultry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Wendy A; Aleo, Victoria A; Schultz, Ann M; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Four foods--cooked, diced chicken; cured ham; smoked salmon; and pepperoni--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 4 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  1. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of processed and prepared foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--frozen lasagna, custard, frozen mixed vegetables, frozen hashbrowns, and frozen batter-coated mushrooms--were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  2. Effect of aspect ratio on large amplitude free vibrations of simply supported and clamped rectangular Mindlin plates using coupled displacement field method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, K. Krishna; Saheb, K. Meera [University College of Engineering, Kakinada (India)

    2017-05-15

    We propose a novel method, known as Coupled displacement field (CDF) method, an alternative to study large amplitude free vibration behavior of moderately thick rectangular plates. An admissible trial function was assumed for one of the variables, say, the total rotations (in both X, Y directions). The function for lateral displacement field is derived in terms of the total rotations with the help of coupling equations, where the two independent variables become dependent on one another. This method makes use of the energy formulation, where it contains only half the number of undetermined coefficients when compared with conventional Rayleigh-Ritz method. The vibration problem is simplified significantly due to the reduction in number of undetermined coefficients. The frequency -amplitude relationship for the moderately thick rectangular plates with various aspect ratios for all edges simply supported and clamped boundary conditions was obtained. Closed form expressions for linear and nonlinear fundamental frequency parameters were derived.

  3. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Concetta Campagna; Maria Teresa Di Schiavi; Marina Foti; Maria Cristina Mosconi; Giuseppina Mattiolo; Roberta Cavallina

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtaine...

  4. Combined Plate Microbial Assay (CPMA): a 6-plate-method for simultaneous first and second level screening of antibacterial residues in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Aureli, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved high throughput microbial method for the simultaneous performance of first and second level screening for antibacterial residues in meat. It is based on growth inhibition of B. subtilis on agar medium pH 6, 7.2 and 8, of B. cereus on agar medium pH 5.9, of M. luteus on agar medium pH 8 and of E. coli on agar medium pH 7.2 (research or first level screening) and on the use of confirmatory solutions (Pase, Paba, MgSO4) for the identification or second level screening. In kidney control samples, dialysis membranes were interposed between samples and the agar surface to both prevent the action of lysozyme and reduce false positive results. The proposed method detects beta-lactams, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and quinolones at MRL concentrations and reliably indicates the inhibitor family. Results are obtained in 18-24 h.

  5. Research and Application of Positioning Method of Electroplating Plating Part%电镀镀件定位方法研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓群; 尹勇; 李卉

    2013-01-01

    The plating parts often fall into the water during electroplating in manual electroplating production line.It can cause scrap for a long time. On the basis of the application of RFID technology, we proposed a location method. Each plating only corresponds to a label, then we calculate labels and reference tag distance that can quickly locate the plated position. The application of this method reduces plating factory's losses and improves the work efficiency of electroplating enterprises.%在手工电镀生产线电镀的过程中,镀件经常掉入水中,时间过长容易造成镀件报废。文章在应用RFID技术的基础上,提出一个区域定位方法,每个镀件唯一对应一个标签,计算标签与参考标签的距离,能够迅速定位镀件位置。该定位方法的应用减少了电镀厂的损失,提高了电镀企业的工作效率。

  6. Comparison of the compact dry TC and 3M petrifilm ACP dry sheet media methods with the spiral plate method for the examination of randomly selected foods for obtaining aerobic colony counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, P; Meldrum, R

    2002-02-01

    Two hundred thirty-six randomly selected food and milk samples were examined to obtain aerobic colony counts by two dry sheet media methods and a standard Public Health Laboratory Service spiral plate method. Results for 40 samples were outside the limits of detection for one or more of the tested methods and were not considered. (The limits of detection for the spiral plate method were 200 to 1 x 10(8) CFU/ml for the spiral plate method and 100 to 3 x 10(6) CFU/ml for the dry sheet media methods.) The remaining 196 sets of results were analyzed further. When the results from the three methods were compared, correlation coefficients were all >0.80 and slopes and intercepts were close to 1.0 and 0.0, respectively. Mean log values and standard deviations were very similar for all three methods. The results were evaluated according to published UK guidelines for ready-to-eat foods sampled at the point of sale, which include a quality acceptability assessment that is based on aerobic colony counts. Eighty-six percent of the comparable results gave the same verdict with regard to acceptability according to the aerobic colony count guidelines. Both dry sheet media methods were comparable to the spiral plate method and can be recommended for the examination of food.

  7. Development of a high throughput 96-well plate sample preparation method for the determination of trileptal (oxcarbazepine) and its metabolites in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souppart, C; Decherf, M; Humbert, H; Maurer, G

    2001-10-05

    A high throughput preparation method for the determination of trileptal (oxcarbazepine, OXC) and its mono (MHD) and dihydroxy (DHD) metabolites in human plasma, using 96-well plate technology, has been developed and validated according to international regulatory requirements. Preparation of plasma samples (50 microl) containing the compounds to be analysed involved solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Empore C18 96-well SPE plates. Eluates from the plate were injected onto a reversed-phase column (Hypersil C18,3 microm) with UV detection at 210 nm. Detector response was linear over the ranges 0.2-10, 0.1-200 and 0.1-20 micromol/l, for OXC, MHD and DHD, respectively, with relative standard deviations from 1 to 10% and mean accuracies within 4% of the nominal values (number of standard curves=3 in duplicate). The limits of quantitation were 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 micromol/l, respectively. The overall mean accuracies ranged from 96 to 106% and precision was in the range 4 to 11%. Cross validation indicated no significant difference between plasma concentrations obtained using the 96-well method and the previous method using a traditional SPE method with a 50 mg C18 cartridge. About a threefold increase in sample throughput and a twofold decrease of plasma volume required for the assays, were the main advantages obtained from the previous method. The method was applied for the determination of 3000 plasma samples from clinical studies.

  8. Tubularised Incised Plate Urethroplasty is an Applicable Method for the Treatment of the Hypospadiac Type of Urethral Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Yılmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly usually seen in males. We present a case of urethral duplication treated by a tubularised incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU technique. A 5-year-old male boy was admitted to the clinic with the complaints of thin calibrated urinating and diurnal enuresis. We diagnosed distal penile hypospadias. During the operation, another urethral opening was found proximal to the previously seen hypospadiac meatus, localised on the coronary sulcus. We performed the TIPU procedure without excising the duplicated urethra. We only excised the common wall between the two urethras, and used the dorsal urethral plate of the duplicated urethra for tubularisation of the neourethra. The postoperative course was uneventful. A cystoscopy was done for suspected urogenital sinus. There was no further complaint at the third postoperative month. The TIPU technique can be successfully applied in such cases. The dorsal plate of the duplicated urethra can be used to form the neourethra.

  9. Modeling of Lamb wave propagation in plate with two-dimensional phononic crystal layer coated on uniform substrate using plane-wave-expansion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Zhilin [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), Nancy University, CNRS Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239 F-54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: zhilin.hou@lpmi.uhp-nancy.fr; Assouar, Badreddine M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), Nancy University, CNRS Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239 F-54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2008-03-17

    We show that the conversional three-dimensional plane wave expansion method can be revised to investigate the lamb wave propagation in the plate with two-dimensional phononic crystal layer coated on uniform substrate. We find that an imaginary three-dimensional periodic system can be constructed by stacking the studied plates and vacuum layers alternately, and then the Fourier series expansion can be performed. The difference between our imaginary periodic system and the true three-dimensional one is that, in our system, the Bloch feature of the wave along the thickness direction is broken. Three different systems are investigated by the proposed method as examples. The principle and reliability of the method are also discussed.

  10. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  11. "Paraffin wax-overlay of pour plate", a method for the isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, A; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Arunasri, K

    2004-12-01

    A modification of pour plate technique with an overlay of wax was used for isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) with equal efficiency as that of agar shake culture. The total count of PNSB ranged from 10(5)-10(8) CFU g dry soil(-1) and belonged to the genera of Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodocista and Rubrivivax.

  12. Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma constrained by new subducted slab reconstruction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jonny; Suppe, John; Lu, Renqi; Kanda, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    We reconstructed Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma from 28 slabs mapped in 3-D from global tomography, with a subducted area of ~25% of present-day global oceanic lithosphere. Slab constraints include subducted parts of existing Pacific, Indian, and Philippine Sea oceans, plus wholly subducted proto-South China Sea and newly discovered "East Asian Sea." Mapped slabs were unfolded and restored to the Earth surface using three methodologies and input to globally consistent plate reconstructions. Important constraints include the following: (1) the Ryukyu slab is ~1000 km N-S, too short to account for ~20° Philippine Sea northward motion from paleolatitudes; (2) the Marianas-Pacific subduction zone was at its present location (±200 km) since 48 ± 10 Ma based on a >1000 km deep slab wall; (3) the 8000 × 2500 km East Asian Sea existed between the Pacific and Indian Oceans at 52 Ma based on lower mantle flat slabs; (4) the Caroline back-arc basin moved with the Pacific, based on the overlapping, coeval Caroline hot spot track. These new constraints allow two classes of Philippine Sea plate models, which we compared to paleomagnetic and geologic data. Our preferred model involves Philippine Sea nucleation above the Manus plume (0°/150°E) near the Pacific-East Asian Sea plate boundary. Large Philippine Sea westward motion and post-40 Ma maximum 80° clockwise rotation accompanied late Eocene-Oligocene collision with the Caroline/Pacific plate. The Philippine Sea moved northward post-25 Ma over the northern East Asian Sea, forming a northern Philippine Sea arc that collided with the SW Japan-Ryukyu margin in the Miocene (~20-14 Ma).

  13. 受污染车牌字符分割方法的研究%Research on the Method of Contaminated License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈花玉; 苗艳华; 杜青; 冯芳; 韩彬彬; 赵紫鹏; 赵志刚

    2016-01-01

    为提高对受污染车牌字符分割的有效率,提出了将现有字符分割方法中的垂直投影法和固定边界法结合的方法应用于受污染车牌字符的分割,对原始图像进行灰度化、二值化、开闭运算、去除边框、去除圆点,实验结果表明,该方法可以有效进行受污染车牌字符的分割。%To improve the efficiency of contaminated license plate character segmentation,it proposed the combined method of vertical projection method and fixed boundary method is applied to the contaminated license plate character segmentation.This metod is used to deal with the original image,grayscale, binaryzation, opening and closing operation,the removal of borders, removal of dots.The experimental results show that this method can segment contaminated license plate character effectively.

  14. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita; Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Koba, Yusuke; Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ohga, Saiji

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement.

  15. Densitometric HPTLC method for qualitative, quantitative analysis and stability study of Coenzyme Q10 in pharmaceutical formulations utilizing normal and reversed-phase silica gel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad; Alam, Prawez; Alqasoumi, Saleh Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Two simple, precise and stability-indicating densitometric HPTLC method were developed and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Coenzyme Q10 in pharmaceutical formulations using normal-phase (Method I) and reversed phase (Method II) silica gel TLC plates. Both methods were developed and validated with 10×20 cm glass-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of either silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) using hexane-ethyl acetate (8.5:1.5 v/v) as developing system (Method I) or RP-18 silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) using methanol-acetone (4:6 v/v) as mobile phase (Method II). Both analyses were scanned with a densitometer at 282 nm. Linearity was found in the ranges 50-800 ng/spot (r(2)=0.9989) and 50-800 ng/spot (r(2)=0.9987) for Method I and Method II respectively. Stability of Coenzyme Q10 was explored by the two methods using acid, base, hydrogen peroxide, temperature and different solvents. Due to the efficiency of the method in separating Coenzyme Q10 from other ingredients including its degradation products, it can be applied for quality control, standardization of different pharmaceutical formulations and stability study.

  16. A New Method for Decreasing Mass Limit of Detection and Increasing Number of Theoretical Plates in Capillary Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new method was developed to decrease the mass limit of detection (LOD) and increase the number of theoretical plates (N) in capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. When the single microcylinder electrode, the 10 μm ID capillary with the etched detection end and the in-capillary alignment were used, the mass LOD for phenol was reduced 124 times and N was increased 36 times in comparison with the normal situation.

  17. Approach to Deep Plate Loading Test of Self-reaction Force Method%自反力法深层平板载荷试验探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 林泽耿; 刘炳凯

    2014-01-01

    This article took a project of Guangdong as an example, introduced the technique of deep plate loading test of self-reaction force method in detail,and compared with the traditional method of deep plate loading test,and finally,problems that need to pay attention to deep plate loading test of self-reaction force method were put forward from the processing technology at the bottom of testing hole,keeping test hole straight,keeping stability of hole wall,and so on.%以广东某工程为例,详细介绍采用自反力法进行深层平板载荷试验测试技术,并将该方法与传统法深层平板载荷试验进行比较,最后从测试孔的孔底处理技术、测孔保直、孔壁稳定等方面提出采用自反力法进行深层平板载荷试验需要注意的问题。

  18. Using plate mapping to examine portion size and plate composition for large and small divided plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David E; Sobal, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods - such as meat versus vegetables - differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, which showed that the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are that plate size may influence portion size and change the proportions of foods served.

  19. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: The method for controlling dew droplets deposited on a copper plate by scattered laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki

    2008-01-01

    Tiny dew droplets deposited on a copper plate were controlled constantly by a developed control technique using scattered laser light for studying initial dropwise condensation. The technique employs proportional control combined with shifting movement by an integrator. The droplets were controlled for 60 min at almost constant diameters in a range from only a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and were almost hemispherical in the initial condensation at room temperature.

  20. New Method for Hard Sludge Removal from Tube Plate Surfaces: The AREVA Enhanced Inner Bundle Lancing Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoss, J.; Santibanez, M.

    2014-07-01

    AREVA is currently conducting the final steps to start-up an enhanced technology to remove hard sludge deposits from the inner bundle area of the tube sheets. This inner bundle area at the top of the tube plate is the location with the lowest flow velocity of the circulating water at the secondary closed loop. The reduced water speed causes increased accumulation of ferrite oxides at these locations. (Author)

  1. Structural health monitoring method based on the entropy of an ultrasonic sensor network for a plate-like structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Erick; Baltazar, Arturo

    2015-03-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors used to propagate guided waves can potentially be implemented to inspect large areas in engineering structures. However, the inherent dispersion and noise of the guided acoustic signals, multiple echoes in the plate as well as a lack of an approximate or exact model limits their use as a continuous structural health monitoring system. In this work, the implementation of a network of piezoelectric sensors randomly placed on a plate-like structure to detect and locate artificial damage is studied. A sensor network of randomly located 1MHz transducers working in a pitch-catch configuration was set on an aluminum thin plate 1.9 mm in thickness. Signals were analyzed in time-scale domain by the continuous wavelet transform. The objectives in this work were twofold, first to develop a damage index using the entropy of the ultrasonic waves generated by a sensor network; and second to implement time of arrival (TOA) and time-difference of arrival (TDOA) algorithms on the gathered signals for damage location of an artificial circular discontinuity. Our preliminary test results show that the proposed methodology provides sufficient information for damage detection which, once combined with the TOA and TDOA algorithms, allows localization of the damage.

  2. Detection of plating defects using ultrasonic and eddy current test methods; Nachweis von Plattierungsfehlern mit Ultraschall- und Wirbelstromverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidele, H.; Knoch, P. [MPA, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gersinska, R. [BfS Salzgitter (Germany); Brenner, W.; Seidenkranz, T. [TUeV Sued (Germany); Csapo, G.; Just, T. [TUeV Nord (Germany); Weiss, R. [IzfP Saarbruecken (Germany); Rathgeb, W. [IntelligeNDT, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The validity of ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels was investigated in the context of a project funded by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). In the first phase, test specimens with natural defects were fabricated at MPA Stuttgart; in the second phase, plating defects were introduced in a MPA large-size vessel. Measurements showed that most plating defects will be detected by standard ultrasonic testing. The highest accuracy was achieved by a combination of ultrasonic and eddy current testing. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz gefoerderten Vorhabens wurde die Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern untersucht. In der ersten Phase des Vorhabens wurden an der MPA Stuttgart Testkoerper mit natuerlichen Fehlern im Plattierungsbereich gefertigt, in einer zweiten Phase wurden Plattierungsfehler in den MPA-Grossbehaelter eingebracht. Die Messungen haben gezeigt, dass die meisten Plattierungsfehler mit Ultraschall-Standardprueftechniken nachweisbar sind, wobei die groesste Aussagekraft bei einer Kombination von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung gegeben ist. (orig.)

  3. Parametric study on supersonic flutter of angle-ply laminated plates using shear deformable finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xia; Qiao Ni

    2011-01-01

    The influence of fiber orientation,flow yaw angle and length-to-thickness ratio on flutter characteristics of angle-ply laminated plates in supersonic flow is studied by finite element approach.The structural model is established using the Reissner-Mindlin theory in which the transverse shear deformation is considered.The aerodynamic pressure is evaluated by the quasi-steady first-order piston theory.The equations of motion are formulated based on the principle of virtual work.With the harmonic motion assumption,the flutter boundary is determined by solving a series of complex eigenvalue problems.Numerical study shows that (1)The flutter dynamic pressure and the coalescence of flutter modes depend on fiber orientation,flow yaw angle and length-to-thickness ratio; (2) The laminated plate with all fibers aligned with the flow direction gives the highest flutter dynamic pressure,but a slight yawing of the flow from the fiber orientation results in a sharp decrease of the flutter dynamic pressure; (3) The angle-ply laminated plate with fiber orientation angle equal to flow yaw angle gives high flutter dynamic pressure,but not the maximum flutter dynamic pressure; (4) With the decrease of length-to-thickness ratio,an adverse effect due to mode transition on the flutter dynamic pressure is found.

  4. Research of Preloading Method for Axial Piston Pump with Swash Plate%斜盘式轴向柱塞泵预紧方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 吉利科; 朱琳

    2015-01-01

    在斜盘式轴向柱塞泵中,通常采用弹簧对缸体与配油盘进行中心预紧,产生的预压力压紧保持架使柱塞与滑靴回程。目前常见为碟形弹簧及普通螺旋形弹簧,该文对两种弹簧进行比较,同时对使用上述两种弹簧的几种典型中心弹簧预紧方式进行比较、分析,给出在不同场合建议选用的预紧方式。%In general, the cylinder and valve plate is preloaded by spring in axial piston pump with swash plate. Meanwhile the spring can preload the retainer to make the piston and piston shoe back to the swash plate. The structure is widely used in axial piston pump. At present, the disk spring and coil spring are used often. In this paper, several typical preloading methods with the two types of spring above are dis-cussed and analyzed, and the proper preloading method is suggested in different specific applications.

  5. 镀金引线SMD焊接工艺方法探讨%Soldering Method Research of SMD with Golding-plated Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艺峰; 车飞; 周承平; 吴夏凯

    2014-01-01

    With high reliability requirements of weapon system and improvement of the basis level of domestic electron components, more and more ceramic packaging of SMD apply to the military product. The component lead is mostly plated with gold, but the gold coating must be removed when the component is to be soldered. Compare and analyze the soldering quality of solder joints of golding-plated lead SMT components using four soldering methods, get the best soldering method for golding-plated lead components.%随着武器系统高可靠性要求的不断加强和国产电子元器件基础水平的不断提高,越来越多的陶瓷封装军用SMD开始应用于型号产品。该类器件的引线多采用镀金工艺,焊接时必须进行除金处理。用四种焊接工艺方法对镀金引脚器件焊接,对比分析器件焊点的焊接质量,得出镀金引脚器件最佳焊接工艺方法。

  6. Bending and free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates using new eight-unknown shear deformation theory by finite-element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Long, Nguyen; Quoc, Tran Huu; Tu, Tran Minh

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a new eight-unknown shear deformation theory is developed for bending and free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates by finite-element method. The theory based on full 12-unknown higher order shear deformation theory simultaneously satisfies zeros transverse stresses at top and bottom surfaces of FG plates. A four-node rectangular element with 16 degrees of freedom per node is used. Poisson's ratios, Young's moduli, and material densities vary continuously in thickness direction according to the volume fraction of constituents which is modeled as power-law functions. Results are verified with available results in the literature. Parametric studies are performed for different power-law indices, side-to-thickness ratios.

  7. Comparison of Petrifilm Staph Express Count System with the bacteriological analytical manual direct-plating method for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in artificially contaminated hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedio, Willis M; Wendakoon, Chitra N; Zapata, Ruben; Carrillo, Christina; Browning, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count System was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) direct-plate count method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in 6 types of artificially contaminated hard cheese (Asiago, Cheddar, Gruyère, Parmesan, Romano, and Swiss). Five different samples of each cheese type were inoculated with S. aureus (ATCC 25923) to achieve low, medium, and high inoculum levels. S. aureus was enumerated by the Petrifilm and BAM methods, and the results were compared. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant differences (P<0.05) between the 2 methods. The Petrifilm method compared favorably with the BAM procedure. The rapid method was more convenient to use, considerably faster, and less expensive to perform than the BAM method.

  8. The optimization of molybdenum back contact films for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells by the cathodic arc ion plating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Ki, E-mail: choyk@kitech.re.kr [Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering R and D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gang Sam; Song, Young Sik; Lim, Tae Hong [Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering R and D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Donggeun [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-02

    Molybdenum back contact films for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells have been deposited using DC magnetron sputtering methods. The electronic pathway properties of the molybdenum film have been highly dependent on the working gas pressure in magnetron sputtering, which should be carefully controlled to obtain high conductivity and adhesion. A coating method, cathodic arc ion plating, was used for molybdenum back contact electrode fabrication. The aim of this work was to find a metallization method for CIGS solar cells, which has less sensitivity on the working pressure. The resistivity, grain size, growth structures, stress, and efficiency of the films in CIGS solar cells were investigated. The results reveal that the growth structures of the molybdenum films mainly affect the conductivity. The lowest electrical resistivity of the ion-plated molybdenum films was 6.9 μΩ-cm at a pressure of 0.7 Pa. The electrical resistivity variation showed a gently increasing slope with linearity under a working gas pressure of 13.3 Pa. However, a high value of the residual stress of over 1.3 GPa was measured. In order to reduce stress, titanium film was selected as the buffer layer material, and the back contact films were optimized by double-layer coating of two kinds of hetero-materials with arc ion plating. CIGS solar cells prepared molybdenum films to measure the efficiency and to examine the effects of the back contact electrode. The resistivity, grain size, and surface morphology of molybdenum films were measured by four-point probe, X-ray diffraction, and a scanning electron microscope. The residual stress of the films was calculated from differences in bending curvatures measured using a laser beam. - Highlights: • Molybdenum back contact films for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells were prepared by the cathodic arc ion plating. • The lowest electrical resistivity of molybdenum film was 6.9 μΩ-cm. • Titanium buffer layer reduced the compressive residual stress

  9. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  10. Comparing the mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin agar plating method with the three-tube most-probable-number method for enumeration of Bacillus cereus spores in raw and high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nigel M; Getty, Kelly J K; Schmidt, Karen A; Nutsch, Abbey L; Linton, Richard H

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual recommends two enumeration methods for Bacillus cereus: (i) standard plate count method with mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin (MYP) agar and (ii) a most-probable-number (MPN) method with tryptic soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 0.1% polymyxin sulfate. This study compared the effectiveness of MYP and MPN methods for detecting and enumerating B. cereus in raw and high-temperature, short-time pasteurized skim (0.5%), 2%, and whole (3.5%) bovine milk stored at 4°C for 96 h. Each milk sample was inoculated with B. cereus EZ-Spores and sampled at 0, 48, and 96 h after inoculation. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in B. cereus populations among sampling times for all milk types, so data were pooled to obtain overall mean values for each treatment. The overall B. cereus population mean of pooled sampling times for the MPN method (2.59 log CFU/ml) was greater (P plate count method (1.89 log CFU/ml). B. cereus populations in the inoculated milk samples ranged from 2.36 to 3.46 and 2.66 to 3.58 log CFU/ml for inoculated milk treatments for the MYP plate count and MPN methods, respectively, which is below the level necessary for toxin production. The MPN method recovered more B. cereus, which makes it useful for validation research. However, the MYP plate count method for enumeration of B. cereus also had advantages, including its ease of use and faster time to results (2 versus 5 days for MPN).

  11. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS, with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  12. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inbok; Zhang, Aoqi; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee

    2016-12-16

    This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS), with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  13. MULTIVARIABLE WAVELET FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THIN PLATE ANALYSIS%薄板的多变量小波有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴武; 陈雪峰; 王修专; 何正嘉

    2011-01-01

    Based on B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI) and the generalized potential variational principle, a new multivariable wavelet finite element method with two kinds of variables was proposed in the paper. The new corresponding elements for square thin plate, skew thin plate and trapezoidal thin plate were constructed. Firstly, formulations were derived from multivariable generalized potential energy functional. Then the matrix equation of thin plate was obtained by using BSWI as trial function. In this study, the generalized stress and strain were interpolated separately, so differentiation of displacement in traditional method of stress calculation was avoided, and the calculation error was reduced. Besides, the good approximation property of B-spline wavelet on the interval can further guarantee the solving accuracy. Finally, several numerical examples for bending and vibration analysis of square and skew thin plate verified the efficiency and superiority in solving generalized stress.%基于区间B样条小波和广义变分原理,提出了多变量小波有限元法,构造了一种新的薄板多变量小波有限单元.由广义变分原理推导结构的多变量有限元列式,区间B样条小波尺度函数作为插值函数构造的多变量小波有限元法中,广义应力和应变被作为独立变量进行插值,避免了传统方法中应力应变求解的微分运算,减小了计算误差.区间B样条小波良好的数值逼近性能可进一步保证求解精度.通过方形薄板、斜形薄板以及梯形薄板的弯曲和振动分析,验证了此方法的有效性和在广义应力求解中的优越性.

  14. Strongyloides stercoralis: a field-based survey of mothers and their preschool children using ELISA, Baermann and Koga plate methods reveals low endemicity in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J R; Pleasant, J; Oguttu, D; Adriko, M; Galimaka, R; Ruggiana, A; Kazibwe, F; Kabatereine, N B

    2008-09-01

    To ascertain the current status of strongyloidiasis in mothers and their preschool children, a field-based survey was conducted in western Uganda using a combination of diagnostic methods: ELISA, Baermann concentration and Koga agar plate. The prevalence of other soil-transmitted helminthiasis and intestinal schistosomiasis were also determined. In total, 158 mothers and 143 children were examined from five villages within Kabale, Hoima and Masindi districts. In mothers and children, the general prevalence of strongyloidiasis inferred by ELISA was approximately 4% and approximately 2%, respectively. Using the Baermann concentration method, two parasitologically proven cases were encountered in an unrelated mother and child, both of whom were sero-negative for strongyloidiasis. No infections were detected by Koga agar plate method. The general level of awareness of strongyloidiasis was very poor ( < 5%) in comparison to schistosomiasis (51%) and ascariasis (36%). Strongyloidiasis is presently at insufficient levels to justify inclusion within a community treatment programme targeting maternal and child health. Better epidemiological screening is needed, however, especially identifying infections in HIV-positive women of childbearing age. In the rural clinic setting, further use of the Baermann concentration method would appear to be the most immediate and pragmatic option for disease diagnosis.

  15. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro, E-mail: nohtomi@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Shinsho, Kiyomitsu [Graduate School of Human Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 7-2-10 Higashi-oku, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8551 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Genichiro [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Koba, Yusuke [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ohga, Saiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement. - Highlights: • Preliminary observations have been performed by a CCD for the CsI self-activation method. • It has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement. • Such application may provide a novel method for simple neutron distribution measurement.

  16. Dynamic analysis of isotropic nanoplates subjected to moving load using state-space method based on nonlocal second order plate theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nami, Mohammad Rahim [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghorban, Maziar [Islamic Azad University, Marvdash (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this work, dynamic analysis of rectangular nanoplates subjected to moving load is presented. In order to derive the governing equations of motion, second order plate theory is used. To capture the small scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted. It is assumed that the nanoplate is subjected to a moving concentrated load with the constant velocity V in the x direction. To solve the governing equations, state-space method is used to find the deflections of rectangular nanoplate under moving load. The results obtained here reveal that the nonlocality has significant effect on the deflection of rectangular nanoplate subjected to moving load.

  17. The Finite Element Method Solution of an Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow Past an Infinite Vertical Plate with Constant Suction and Heat Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sri Sailam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of unsteady hydro magnetic free convective flow of viscous incompressible and electrically conducting fluids past an infinite vertical porous plate in the presence of constant suction and heat absorbing sinks has been made. Appropriate solutions have been derived for the velocity and temperature fields, skin friction and rate of heat transfer using Galerkin finite element method. It is observed that increase in magnetic field strength decreases the velocity of the fluid. Also the skin friction and rate of heat transfer of the conducting fluid decrease with increase in magnetic field strength.

  18. The method used for justification of engineering solutions for multistage plate-type mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupov, V. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes technical and economic problems associated with the selection of designs of mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants. A method is suggested that makes it possible to determine the dimensions of each stage of plate-type mufflers on the basis of achieving the lowest total discounted costs in order to provide the required acoustical performance at a permissible aerodynamic resistance of a muffler. The condition of the lowest total discounted costs for a multistage muffler, which is valid for different types of mufflers, has been obtained.

  19. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Campagna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT/aerobic plate count (APC (EN 13783:2001 for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g<103.

  20. Application of Microbiological Method Direct Epifluorescence Filter Techique/Aerobic Plate Count Agar in the Identification of Irradiated Herbs and Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Schiavi, Maria Teresa; Foti, Marina; Mosconi, Maria Cristina; Mattiolo, Giuseppina; Cavallina, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU)/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g <103. PMID:27800348

  1. 基于动网格方法的拍动平板升力分析%Lift performance analysis of flapping flat plate using dynamic mesh method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宪钊; 苏玉民; 曹建; 闫岱峻

    2012-01-01

    Aim at micro air vehicles,two-dimensional and three-dimensional flapping flat plate lift performance of advanced,synchronized and delayed rotation were numerically investigated by dynamic mesh method.The vortices and lift changes versus kinematic motions were highlighted to analyze the relationship between lift performance and kinematic motions.Numerical results show that the lift coefficients of synchronized and advanced rotation model are larger than that of delayed rotation obviously;the lift coefficients of two-dimensional and three-dimensional flapping plate decrease with increasing of angular amplitude and increase with increasing phase lag,while the influence of plunging amplitude is less relatively.The lift coefficients of three-dimensional plate are larger than two-dimensional plate in advanced rotation model with higher angular amplitude,also in delayed rotation only when lower angular amplitude and shorter plunging amplitude.The lift coefficients of two-dimensional and three-dimensional flapping plate are not changed significantly in synchronized rotation with higher angular amplitude.%针对微型飞行器,采用动网格方法计算了旋转超前、同步、滞后3种拍动模式下的平板升力性能.通过比较分析二维、三维拍动平板的升力性能以及尾涡分布变化,探讨了拍动平板升力性能与其运动规律的关系.计算表明:旋转同步和超前模式下的平板升力系数明显高于旋转滞后模式下的平板升力系数;二维、三维平板升力系数均随角振幅的增大而减小,随相位差的增大而增大,拍动振幅的影响相对较小;角振幅较大时,旋转超前模式中三维平板升力系数均明显高于二维平板升力系数,旋转同步模式中二维、三维平板升力系数变化不明显,旋转滞后模式中仅当小角振幅且小平移振幅时,三维平板升力系数增加较大.

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  5. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  6. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  7. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  8. A direct LC/MS/MS method for the determination of ciclopirox penetration across human nail plate in in vitro penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Fan, Xiaoqing; Sexton, Holly; Heyman, Irwin

    2010-01-05

    Due to severe chelating effect caused by N-hydroxylpyridone group of ciclopirox, there is no published direct HPLC or LC/MS/MS method for the determination of ciclopirox in any in vitro or in vivo matrix. Instead, the time-consuming pre-column derivatization methods have been adapted for indirect analysis of ciclopirox. After overcoming the chelating problem by using K(2)EDTA coated tubes, a direct, sensitive and high-throughput LC/MS/MS method was successfully developed and validated to determine the amount of ciclopirox that penetrated across the nail plate during in vitro nail penetration studies. The method involved adding a chemical analog, chloridazon as internal standard (IS) in K(2)EDTA coated tubes, mixing IS with ciclopirox in a 96-well plate and then proceeding to LC/MS/MS analysis. The MS/MS was selected to monitor m/z 208.0-->135.8 and 221.8-->77.0 for ciclopirox and IS, respectively, using positive electrospray ionization. The method was validated over a concentration range of 8-256 ng/mL, yielding calibration curves with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9991 with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 8 ng/mL. The assay precision and accuracy were evaluated using quality control (QC) samples at three concentration levels. Analyzed concentrations ranged from 101% to 113% of their respective nominal concentration levels with coefficients of variation (CV) below 10.6%. The average recovery of ciclopirox from nail matrix was 101%. The validated method was successfully used to analyze the ciclopirox formulation and in vitro nail penetration samples.

  9. 酸性镀铜溶液中锌杂质的分析方法%Analysis Method of Zinc Impurity in an Acidic Copper Plating Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2012-01-01

    在电镀生产中,监控镀液中金属杂质是十分必要的.制定了酸性镀铜溶液中锌杂质的分析方法.用碘量法测定硫酸铜,用EDTA容量法测定硫酸铜和锌杂质的总量,从总量中减去硫酸铜的量得到锌杂质的质量浓度.方法准确,能够满足监控酸性镀铜溶液的要求.%It is necessary to monitor the metal impurites in bath during the electroplating production. An a-nalysis method of zinc impurity in acidic copper plating bath is established. The concentration of copper sulfate is firstly determined by using iodimetry, and then the sum of the copper sulfate and zinc impurity is determined with EDTA volumetry. The concentration of zinc is determined by the deference between copper sulfate and the sum of copper sulfate and zinc impurity. This method is exact and accurate, and can satisfy the controlling requirement of acidic copper plating solution.

  10. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  11. Measurement of Macro- and Microstress of Dual Phase Composite Materials by X-Ray Diffraction Method Using Imaging Plate

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 敏彦

    1998-01-01

    A newly developed method for the x-ray stress analysis was studied. This method is not a ψ-angle based method which the conventional x-ray methods usually use, but a α-angle based one, where ψ is the angle

  12. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  13. Study on the Thickness Change of Nickel-Plated Layer in Fabrication of the Silver Hollow Nickel Waveguides by the Outer-Coating Method of the Liquid Phase Process

    CERN Document Server

    Ro, Sok-Bong; Kim, Uo-Hyon

    2016-01-01

    A metallic hollow waveguide is promising fiber for the delivery of laser radiation. Thickness of the nickel plated layer for supporting of the waveguide in fabrication of a dielectric coated silver hollow nickel waveguide is very important factor. In this paper, the change characteristic in the thickness of the nickel plated layer along the length of the silver coated glass mandrel during fabricating the silver hollow nickel waveguide by the outer-coating method of the liquid phase process has been studied both experimentally and analytically. Waveguides with uniform thickness of the nickel plated layer along the length of the silver coated glass mandrel have been fabricated.

  14. New Approaches on Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry Samples: The Use of Digital PCR and Real-time PCR against the ISO Standard Plate Count Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papić, Bojan; Pate, Mateja; Henigman, Urška; Zajc, Urška; Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Ocepek, Matjaž; Kušar, Darja

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported bacterial food-borne illness in the European Union and contaminated broiler meat is considered the most important source of infection in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) for quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in 75 broiler neck-skin samples collected from a poultry slaughterhouse, and to compare them with the ISO 10272-2 standard plate count method. For qPCR standard curve, C. jejuni-negative neck-skin samples were spiked with C. jejuni suspension with a known number of bacterial cells. The observed CFU/g values by qPCR correlated greatly with the expected values and qPCR showed good performance with the reliable limit of detection (rLOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of three and 31 target copies per reaction, respectively. However, both rLOD (1219 CFU/g) and LOQ (12,523 CFU/g) were beyond the EFSA-proposed critical limit of 500–1,000 CFU/g of neck skin. Although C. jejuni cell counts were ≤1,000 CFU/g in only 7/75 samples by plate counting, they were ≤LOQ in 60/75 and ≤rLOD in 26/75 (≤1,000 CFU/g in 24/75) samples by qPCR. A strong and statistically significant correlation was observed between qPCR and dPCR. Both PCR-based methods correlated significantly with the plate count method; however, the correlation was moderate. Using the Bland–Altman analysis, an average agreement was noted between all three methods, although with a large standard deviation. A significant bias toward overestimation in dPCR was observed, probably due to the relatively high number of false positive calls. The linear dynamic range was comparable in both PCR-based methods; however, qPCR proved to be more suitable for routine use. In the future, the establishment of a reliable molecular quantification of C. jejuni in poultry samples showing a wide range of contamination levels down to the proposed critical limit is needed to enable time- and cost

  15. Comparison of the SimPlate coliform and Escherichia coli test with Petrifilm, three-tube MPN, and VRBA + MUG methods for enumerating coliforms and E. coli in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D E; Irving, R L; Naqui, A

    1998-04-01

    SimPlate for coliforms and Escherichia coli (CEc) is a new method for the detection and quantification of coliforms and E. coli in food. Internal validation of the method was carried out at IDEXX Laboratories (Westbrook, ME) with 180 food samples representing a variety of different food matrices and compared against three-tube MPN (most probable number), VRBA (violet red bile agar) + MUG, and Petrifilm (E. coli count) methods. SimPlate CEc was highly correlated with each of these methods for the quantification of coliform bacteria (r > or = 0.90). An insignificant number of food samples were found to contain E. coli; therefore, no meaningful correlation data could be generated. Four hundred forty-four additional food samples were tested at five collaborating laboratories for the presence of coliforms E. coli using SimPlate CEc and either VRBA + MUG or Petrifilm (E. coli count). Regression analysis of data from SimPlate for CEc versus Petrifilm E. coli count plates generated correlation coefficients (r) of at least 0.89 for total coliforms and at least 0.90 for generic E. coli. Correlation coefficients between SimPlate for CEc and VRBA + MUG data were at least 0.90 for coliforms and at least 0.86 for E. coli. SimPlate for CEc demonstrated better recovery of E. coli than Petrifilm when high populations of bacteria were present. E. coli was not detected in 20 or 50 (40%) raw milk samples tested by the Petrifilm method due to the presence of interfering coliform and noncoliform bacteria. It is concluded that SimPlate for CEc is a suitable alternative for determining numbers of coliform bacteria and E. coli in food.

  16. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  17. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  18. Measurements of Residual Stresses in Cold-Rolled 304 Stainless Steel Plates Using X-Ray Diffraction with Rietveld Refinement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the residual stresses using X-ray powder diffraction in a series of cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates, deforming 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175 and 196 % reduction in thickness has been carried out. The diffraction data were analyzed using the Rietveld structure refinement method. The analysis shows that for all specimens, the martensite particles are closely in compression and the austenite matrix is in tension. Both the martensite and austenite, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness (containing of about 1% martensite phase the average lattice strains are anisotropic and decrease approximately exponential with an increase in the corresponding percent reduction (essentially phase content. It is shown that this feature can be qualitatively understood by taking into consideration the thermal expansion mismatch between the martensite and austenite grains. Also, for all cold-rolled stainless steel specimens, the diffraction peaks are broader than the unrolled one (instrumental resolution, indicating that the strains in these specimens are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was predicted. The average residual stresses in cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates showed a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of the martensite particles and the austenite matrix.

  19. An Optimized High Throughput Clean-Up Method Using Mixed-Mode SPE Plate for the Analysis of Free Arachidonic Acid in Plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan; Qin, Suzi; Li, Linsen; Chen, Xiaohua; Wang, Qunjie; Wei, Junfu

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput sample preparation method was developed utilizing mixed-mode solid phase extraction (SPE) in 96-well plate format for the determination of free arachidonic acid in plasma by LC-MS/MS. Plasma was mixed with 3% aqueous ammonia and loaded into each well of 96-well plate. After washing with water and methanol sequentially, 3% of formic acid in acetonitrile was used to elute arachidonic acid. The collected fraction was injected onto a reversed phase column at 30°C with mobile phase of acetonitrile/water (70 : 30, v/v) and detected by LC-MS/MS coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve ranged from 10 to 2500 ng/mL with sufficient linearity (r (2) = 0.9999). The recoveries were in the range of 99.38% to 103.21% with RSD less than 6%. The limit of detection is 3 ng/mL.

  20. Study on the Thickness Change of Nickel-Plated Layer in Fabrication of the Silver Hollow Nickel Waveguides by the Outer-Coating Method of the Liquid Phase Process

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A metallic hollow waveguide is promising fiber for the delivery of laser radiation. Thickness of the nickel plated layer for supporting of the waveguide in fabrication of a dielectric coated silver hollow nickel waveguide is very important factor. In this paper, the change characteristic in the thickness of the nickel plated layer along the length of the silver coated glass mandrel during fabricating the silver hollow nickel waveguide by the outer-coating method of the liquid phase process ha...

  1. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  2. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  3. A numerical method for solving the boundary layer equations of laminar natural convention about a vertical plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liancun Zheng; Chen Liang; Xinxin Zhang

    2007-01-01

    An improved shooting method was presented for solving the natural convention boundary layer equations,with a coupling of the velocity field to the temperature field.The numerical results are consistent with the approximate solution obtained by former researchers.

  4. A New Inverse Method of Elastic Constants for a Fibre-Reinforced Composite Plate from Laser-Based Ultrasonic Lamb Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨京; 程建春

    2001-01-01

    A new inverse method based on the wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (ANN) is presented to recover elastic constants of a fibre-reinforced composite plate from laser-based ultrasonic Lamb waves. The transient waveforms obtained by numerical simulations under different elastic constants are taken as the input of the ANN for training and learning. The wavelet transform is employed for extracting the eigenvectors from the raw Lamb wave signals so as to simplify the structure of the ANN. Then these eigenvectors are input to a multi-layer internally recurrent neural network with a back-propagation algorithm. Finally, the experimental waveforms are used as the input in the whole system to inverse elastic constants of the experimental material.

  5. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Parameters in Functionally Graded Material Plates with Cracks by Graded Finite Element Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finite element software ABAQUS and graded element method, we developed a dummy node fracture element, wrote the user subroutines UMAT and UEL, and solved the energy release rate component of functionally graded material (FGM plates with cracks. An interface element tailored for the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT was applied. Fixed cracks and moving cracks under dynamic loads were simulated. The results were compared to other VCCT-based analyses. With the implementation of a crack speed function within the element, it can be easily expanded to the cases of varying crack velocities, without convergence difficulty for all cases. Neither singular element nor collapsed element was required. Therefore, due to its simplicity, the VCCT interface element is a potential tool for engineers to conduct dynamic fracture analysis in conjunction with commercial finite element analysis codes.

  6. Study of Nd:YAG laser annealing of electroless Ni-P film on spiegel-iron plate by Taguchi method and grey system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, 64, Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Chien, W.T.; Jiang, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuehfu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.J., E-mail: chenwjau@yuntech.edu.t [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123 University Road, Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-09

    An electroless Ni-P film was first deposited on a spiegel-iron plate and then annealed by an Nd:YAG pulsed wave laser. In order to obtain the optimal laser annealing parameters for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films, the Taguchi method and grey system theory were used to analyze the experimental data. The electroless Ni-P film was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy for the morphology, and transmission electron microscopy for the microstructure and crystal structure. The results showed that the hardness and the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films can be, at the same time, improved to 50.8% and 68%, respectively, by the laser annealing with the optimal parameters.

  7. Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-09-01

    Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.

  8. Ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels - qualification according the ENIQ method; Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung austenitischer Plattierungen von Reaktorbehaeltern - Qualifizierung nach der Methode von ENIQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, T.; Csapo, G. [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Brenner, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland-ET, Mannheim (Germany); Waidele, H. [MPA, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the context of the research project SR2318, which received funds from the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) and the BMU, the accuracy of eddy current and ultrasonic tests of austenitic platings on reactor pressure vessels was investigated. The results were evaluated with a view to qualification of combined ultrasonic and eddy current tests of platings and base materials on the one hand; on the other hand, a standard test procedure according to the ENIQ method (European Network of Inspection Qualification) is proposed which can serve as a basis for qualification of test procedures. Summarizing suggestions are made for updating the KTA 3201.4 regulation for recurrent inspections of platings. The results of research project SR 2351 are considered. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz bzw. des BMU gefoerderten Untersuchungsvorhabens SR2318 wurde die Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern untersucht. Die im Untersuchungsvorhaben erzielten Ergebnisse werden zum einen hinsichtlich der Qualifizierung der Pruefung von Plattierungen und des daran angrenzenden Grundwerkstoffes mittels mechanisierter Ultraschallpruefung in Kombination mit der Wirbelstrompruefung bewertet, und es wird zum anderen beispielhaft ein Muster fuer eine Qualifizierung nach der Methodik von ENIQ (European Network of Inspection Qualification) vorgeschlagen, nach dem kuenftig bei Qualifikationen von Pruefverfahren vorgegangen werden kann. Als Quintessenz werden daraus Vorschlaege zur Ergaenzung der Regel KTA 3201.4 hinsichtlich der wiederkehrenden Pruefungen (WKP) von Plattierungsbereichen formuliert. Dabei sind die Ergebnisse des Untersuchungsvorhabens SR 2351 einbezogen worden. (orig.)

  9. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  10. 计算大型塔板效率的区域贡献法%Local Contribution Method for Efficiency of Large Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许松林; 王惠媛; 徐世民

    2005-01-01

    From the measurement of liquid flow field on a large plate by a hot-film anemometer, three different regions on the large plate were presented, including a liquid circulation area near the inlet down-comer, a region with very slow moving or stagnant liquid on the side of the tray and an active flow region at the center of the plate.According to the contribution of the three regions, the tray efficiency for large plates was proposed. The prediction plate efficiency by the present model are compared with the experimental data in the literature and those calculated by other models. It is shown that the present model is more accurate for prediction of efficiency of large plates, and the calculation is simpler.

  11. New methods to cope with temperature elevations in heated segments of flat plates cooled by boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajmohammadi Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents two reliable methods to cope with the rising temperature in an array of heated segments with a known overall heat load and exposed to forced convective boundary layer flow. Minimization of the hot spots (peak temperatures in the array of heated segments constitutes the primary goal that sets the platform to develop the methods. The two proposed methods consist of: 1 Designing an array of unequal heaters so that each heater has a different size and generates heat at different rates, and 2 Distancing the unequal heaters from each other using an insulated spacing. Multi-scale design based on constructal theory is applied to estimate the optimal insulated spacing, heaters size and heat generation rates, such that the minimum hot spots temperature is achieved when subject to space constraint and fixed overall heat load. It is demonstrated that the two methods can considerably reduce the hot spot temperatures and consequently, both can be utilized with confidence in industry to achieve optimized heat transfer.

  12. A 3D shell-like approach using element-free Galerkin method for analysis of thin and thick plate structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yin; Lin-Quan Yao; Yang Cao

    2013-01-01

    A new efficient meshless method based on the element-free Galerkin method is proposed to analyze the static deformation of thin and thick plate structures in this paper.Using the new 3D shell-like kinematics in analogy to the solid-shell concept of the finite element method,discretization is carried out by the nodes located on the upper and lower surfaces of the structures.The approximation of all unknown field variables is carried out by using the moving least squares (MLS) approximation scheme in the in-plane directions,while the linear interpolation is applied through the thickness direction.Thus,different boundary conditions are defined only using displacements and penalty method is used to entorce the essential boundary conditions.The constrained Galerkin weak form,which incorporates only displacement degrees of freedom (d.o.f.s),is derived.A modified 3D constitutive relationship is adopted in order to avoid or eliminate some self-locking effects.The numeric efficiency of the proposed meshless formulation is illustrated by the numeric examples.

  13. A Location Method Using Sensor Arrays for Continuous Gas Leakage in Integrally Stiffened Plates Based on the Acoustic Characteristics of the Stiffener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a continuous leakage location method based on the ultrasonic array sensor, which is specific to continuous gas leakage in a pressure container with an integral stiffener. This method collects the ultrasonic signals generated from the leakage hole through the piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor array, and analyzes the space-time correlation of every collected signal in the array. Meanwhile, it combines with the method of frequency compensation and superposition in time domain (SITD, based on the acoustic characteristics of the stiffener, to obtain a high-accuracy location result on the stiffener wall. According to the experimental results, the method successfully solves the orientation problem concerning continuous ultrasonic signals generated from leakage sources, and acquires high accuracy location information on the leakage source using a combination of multiple sets of orienting results. The mean value of location absolute error is 13.51 mm on the one-square-meter plate with an integral stiffener (4 mm width; 20 mm height; 197 mm spacing, and the maximum location absolute error is generally within a ±25 mm interval.

  14. 电流变夹层板滑模振动控制%Vibration Control of an Electrorheological Sandwich Plate Using Sliding Control Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春强; 陈前

    2016-01-01

    为实现板结构振动控制,基于滑动模态控制思想,设计适用于电流变夹层结构的变刚度控制器,并且推导两类控制律——滑模控制律和简化的开关控制律。先将电流变液处理为可控黏弹性材料,基于Hamilton原理建立电流变夹层板有限元模型。设计滑模控制器时,首先将系统变换到模态空间,然后利用LQR最优控制理论设计控制面函数,设计电流变夹层板的滑模控制器,最后给出两个近似的半主动控制律。对悬臂电流变夹层板进行仿真分析,设计的滑模控制器能显著降低电流变夹层板振动水平,均方根降幅达到88.23%,取得明显优于被动控制的减振效果,体现电流变夹层结构在板结构振动控制应用中的前景。%Based on the sliding mode control algorithm, a new active variable stiffness controller was presented and employed to deduce both control laws:continuous sliding mode control law and ON-OFF sliding mode control law. First of all, assuming that the electrorheological (ER) fluids behave as viscoelastic materials and their storage modulus and loss modulus depend on the applied electric fields, the kinetic equations of a sandwich plate with the ER materials layer were derived based on the Hamilton’s principle and finite element method (FEM). The effects of the electric fields on the natural frequencies and modal loss factors of the sandwich plate were obtained. The kinetic equations of the sandwich plate system were transformed to a modal system before designing the sliding mode controller. Then, the sliding surface was designed by LQR optimal control theory, and two semi-active control laws were proposed. The results of numerical simulation of a cantilever ER sandwich plate show that this control method is very effective in attenuating the structural vibration. The mean square root of displacement at point P has depressed about 88%. The attenuation effect is much better than

  15. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  16. Non-destructive method for the analysis of gold(I) cyanide plating baths Complexometric determination of nickel and indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, R; Veselý, V

    1972-12-01

    A method is described for rapid determination of nickel and indium in gold(I) cyanide baths containing large amounts of citric acid and/or sodium citrate, without previous destruction of organic matter. Gold is removed by extraction with ethyl acetate. In one aliquot of the solution indium is masked with thioglycollic acid and nickel is precipitated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into chloroform, stripped into water and determined complexometrically. In a second aliquot indium and nickel are precipitated together with the same reagent and stripped into water, then nickel is masked with 1,10-phenanthroline, and indium is determined by direct titration with EDTA.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Rod-Plate Gap Streamer Discharge in SF6/N2 Gas Mixtures Based on ETG-FCT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Euler-Taylor-Galerkin flux-corrected transport (ETG-FCT algorithm for the numerical solution of particle transport equations is described, based on the method developed by Lohner to solve conservation equations in fluid mechanics, and its application is extended to gas discharge problems. To improve the efficiency of computing and reduce numerical error, the nonuniform triangular mesh method is introduced, and the continuity equation is solved by ETG-FCT. The new contributions in this paper include the development of the ETG scheme and its application to rod-plate gap streamer discharge in 50~50% SF6/N2 gas mixtures problems. Results are obtained: the spatial distributions of electron densities, positive ion densities, negative ion densities, photoelectron densities, and the electric field, respectively. The velocities of streamer propagations and the radius of streamer obtained from the proposed model are in good agreement with experimental and simulation results in literature. The results also prove that the ETG-FCT method is valid.

  18. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-09-09

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current sources are represented in terms of the eigenmodes of the antipads. Since closed-forms solutions do not exist for the eigenmodes of the arbitrarily shaped antipads, they have to be calculated using numerical schemes. Spatial orthogonality of the eigenmodes permits determination of each mode\\'s temporal expansion coefficient by integrating the product of the electric field and the mode over the wave port. The temporal mode coefficients are then Fourier transformed to accurately calculate the S-parameters corresponding to different modes. Additionally, to generalize the DGTD to manipulate dispersive media, the auxiliary differential equation method is employed. This is done by introducing a time-dependent polarization volume current as an auxiliary unknown and the constitutive relation between this current and the electric field as an auxiliary equation. Consequently, computationally expensive temporal convolution is avoided. Various numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method, are presented.

  19. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol-Hofstad, I; Driessen-Van Lankveld, W; Tomassen, M; De Jong, J; Van Egmond, H

    2008-12-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samples was carried out to verify the performance characteristics. The detection level for tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin, expressed in microbiological activity, was 1 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 3, 0, and 6%, respectively). Avoparcin could be detected at 1 mg kg(-1) in feed in general (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 0%). However, in calf feed the sensitivity was lower. The percentages of false-negatives were found to be 12%, 7%, and 0% at 1, 3, and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively (false-positives, 4%). The limit of detection for zinc bacitracin was 3-5 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 5-10%; false-negatives, 77% at 1 mg kg(-1), 45% at 2 mg kg(-1), 12% at 3 mg kg(-1), and 4% at 5 mg kg(-1)). The method allowed for a distinction to be made between the groups of antibiotics: avoparcin/zinc bacitracin versus tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin. This definitely gives added value to the method in the framework of a follow-up of positive screening results by post-screening and confirmatory analysis.

  20. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  1. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  2. 定日镜反射板力学模型及设计方法%MECHANICAL MODEL AND DESIGN METHOD FOR REFLECTOR PLATE OF HELIOSTAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昱涵; 余小孔

    2011-01-01

    该文在文献[1]的基础上,通过对太阳能定日镜反射板的实际工作状况及有限元分析,分别采用薄板大、小挠度弯曲理论研究反射板的挠度及应力规律,给出定日镜反射板周边固支矩形薄板弯曲力学模型;经理论分析及算例验证表明:太阳能定日镜反射板的合理力学模型应为周边固支矩形薄板小挠度弯曲力学模型;并根据反射板结构的受力情况及材料特性,从刚度和强度条件出发,提出反射板厚度的设计方法.%On the basis of the paper of " Deflection for Reflector Plate of Heliostat Based on Thin Plate Flexure Theory" , the model of rectangular plate with periphery fixed was proposed according to the actual working condition of reflector plate. The deflection and stress of reflector plate were respectively studied on the basis of large-deflection and small-deflection thin plate flexure theory. Theoretical and instantial analysis indicated; clamped rectangular plate based on small-deflection thin plate flexure theory was the reasonable model for reflector plate; thickness of reflector plate could be rationally designed in reference to the stiffness and intensity conditions of material properties and stress characteristics.

  3. 冲击载荷下加筋板非线性瞬态分析%Transient Responses of Stiffened Plates under Lateral Impact Load by Semi-analytic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 刘土光; 刘增荣; 刘敬喜

    2003-01-01

    本文用半解析的方法分析了横向冲击载荷下加筋板的非线性瞬态响应.考虑膜力的存在,忽略筋截面上的剪切应力,引人板的应力函数,采用离散加筋板模型,运用能量原理建立加筋板的动响应控制方程.假设挠度为双级数形式,运用迦辽金法,将加筋板的动响应方程转化为一个多自由度的动力系统,采用数值方法来求解.本文最后给出了几个模型的计算结果.%This paper presents a simple and efficient semi - analytic method to solve the response of stiff-ened plates under lateral impact load. Applying the discrete stiffened plates model, the motion equations ofstiffened plate is deduced using Hamilton's variation principle. Based on the large deformation theory, theyon Karman kinematic relations of the plate and stiffener are considered in the formula. The stress functionsand the deflection of the plate are taken as double Fourier series. The motion equations expressed by deflec-tion are obtained with the Galerkin method, and solved by numerical approach. Examples are given for thenon - linear transient response of stiffened plates tinder lateral impact, and parametric studies are alsoperformed for various stiffener/plate geometric parameters and impact load configurations.

  4. Interlaminar stress analysis of dropped-ply laminated plates and shells by a mixed method. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter N.; Johnson, Eric R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A mixed method of approximation based on Reissner's variational principle is developed for the linear analysis of interlaminar stresses in laminated composites, with special interest in laminates that contain terminated internal plies (dropped-ply laminates). Two models are derived, one for problems of generalized plane deformation and the other for the axisymmetric response of shells of revolution. A layerwise approach is taken in which the stress field is assumed with an explicit dependence on the thickness coordinate in each layer. The dependence of the stress field on the thickness coordinate is determined such that the three-dimensional equilibrium equations are satisfied by the approximation. The solution domain is reduced to one dimension by integration through the thickness. Continuity of tractions and displacements between layers is imposed. The governing two-point boundary value problem is composed of a system of both differential and algebraic equations (DAE's) and their associated boundary conditions. Careful evaluation of the system of DAE's was required to arrive at a form that allowed application of a one-step finite difference approximation. A two-stage Gauss implicit Runge-Kutta finite difference scheme was used for the solution because of its relatively high degree of accuracy. Patch tests of the two models revealed problems with solution accuracy for the axisymmetric model of a cylindrical shell loaded by internal pressure. Parametric studies of dropped-ply laminate characteristics and their influence on the interlaminar stresses were performed using the generalized plane deformation model. Eccentricity of the middle surface of the laminate through the ply drop-off was found to have a minimal effect on the interlaminar stresses under longitudinal compression, transverse tension, and in-plane shear. A second study found the stiffness change across the ply termination to have a much greater influence on the interlaminar stresses.

  5. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  6. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate.

  7. Calculating Method for Deformation of Structures of Reinforced Concrete- steel Plate against Explosion Action%混凝土-钢板结构在爆炸作用下变形的计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢国强; 林润德

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a practical method of calculating steel - plate deformation of composite structure is got by means of explosion simulated tests for composite structure models of reinforced concrete - steel plate. Theorical calculation is bassicaly equal to testing results. Therefore, the practical method of calculating steel - plate deformation is effective and can be applied in practical engineerings.%通过对钢筋混凝土内贴钢板的大比例尺模型结构进行爆炸模拟试验,导出了组合结构中钢板变形的实用计算方法,试验结果与理论计算基本一致,表明该方法是可行的,可以指导实际工程的应用.

  8. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  9. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.

  10. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO2 nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Vibha; Duchaniya, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO2 on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO2 nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO2 nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO2 coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating.

  11. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Vibha, E-mail: vibhauttam74@gmail.com; Duchaniya, R. K., E-mail: rkduchaniya.meta@mnit.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, MNIT Jaipur (India)

    2016-05-06

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO{sub 2} nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO{sub 2} nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy–dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating.

  12. Analysis on a Damping Property Measurement Method for Aluminum Alloy Plate%铝合金板阻尼特性测试方法的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞庆庆; 郑君; 刘继承; 王长武

    2012-01-01

    To obtain the damping property of alumium alloy plate-damping ratio ξ,this paper introduced the method of cantilever beam damped free vibration for two kinds of aluminum alloy plate(normal Al-alloy and high damping Al-alloy),ξ value was obtained easily and precisely by this method.The theory fundation,implementation condition,operation process and precision verification by simulation of the method was discussed in detail.Processing and analysis of testing data show that ξ value of high damping Al-alloy is 1.8 times higher than normal Al-alloy,and the value is not constant.The results provide reference for future design of structural vibration attenuation and optimization.%为了获得铝合金板即典型结构件的阻尼特性参数——阻尼比ξ值,文中对两种铝合金板件(普通铝和高阻尼铝)采用悬臂梁自由衰减振动法,较简便、准确地测得材料的ξ值。这里详细介绍了该测试试验的理论依据、实施条件、操作步骤和其准确度的仿真验证;并通过对后续试验数据进行处理和对比分析,得出高阻尼铝ξ值为普通铝的1.8倍;且高阻尼铝本身表现出非定值阻尼特性。上述试验结论将为结构减振及优化设计提供借鉴。

  13. Tilt correction method of license plate based on Sobel operator and Radon transform%基于Sobel算子和Radon变换的车牌倾斜校正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽丽; 余春艳

    2013-01-01

    The tilt license plate is bad for license plate characters segmentation.A new approach for license plate tilt correction based on Sobel operator and Radon transform was presented.The horizontal edge and vertical edge of the binary image were detected by Sobel operator.On the basis of the results of edge detection,the horizontal tilt angle and vertical tilt angle were detected by Radon transform.Combined with tilt angle,the binary image was corrected by shear transformation.Experimental results show that the method offers robustness when dealing with dirty plates and license plates in variant lighting conditions.%倾斜的车牌不利于车牌字符的分割.基于Sobel算子和Radon变换,提出了一种新的车牌倾斜校正方法.利用Sobel算子对二值化后的车牌进行水平和垂直两个方向的边缘检测,在边缘检测结果的基础上用Radon变换测出车牌在水平和垂直两个方向上的倾斜角,结合倾斜角用剪切变换对二值化后的车牌进行校正.实验结果表明,该方法简单易行,对污迹、光照不敏感.

  14. 切割方式对直接淬火钢板的影响%Effect of cutting method on direct quenched steel plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洪生; 张所全; 韩剑宏

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of microstructure and hardness near cutting area of the direct quenched steel with thickness of 20 mm and strength of 600 MPa after different cutting method were studied .The results show that flame cutting leads to an obvious softened region near the cutting face, but the plasma cutting and laser cutting do not .Plasma and laser cutting lead to re-quenching effect at the area close to the cutting face, and the hardness is much higher than that of the matrix away from the cutting face .The size of the heat affected area by flame cutting is larger than those by plasma and laser cutting .Considering the thickness range and acceptable size of the heat affected area , plasma cutting method is recommended for the investigated direct quenching steel plate .%研究了20 mm厚60 kg级直接淬火钢板不同切割方式下切割区域附近组织和硬度的特点。结果表明,火焰切割后,在割口附近会形成明显的软化区域,而等离子切割和激光切割无明显软化区域;等离子割口和激光割口处会重新淬火,其硬度远高于远离割口处;火焰切割割口的热影响区域大于等离子切割和激光切割。考虑到等离子切割和激光切割的适应厚度范围以及热影响区域的大小,推荐采用等离子切割20 mm厚60 kg级直接淬火钢板。

  15. Quality Assurance of Process Free Thermal Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoffmann-Walbeck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for manual processing of process free printing plates is defined which ensures reproducible results. This decoating procedure can help print service providers with certain quality checks (like linearization that are otherwise more expensive or even not feasible altogether for such plates. This method holds for quality assurance only and is not suitable for the actual production.

  16. Cautions on the Use of National Standard Method for Aerobic Plate Count in Food and Rapid Detection Techniques for Aerobic Plate Count%食品中茵落总数的国标法测定注意事项及快速检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维雅

    2012-01-01

    菌落总数是食品微生物检测的一个重要项目,也是评价食品卫生安全性最常用的指标之一,其结果的准确度和可信度直接影响评价的可靠性。该文总结了食品中菌落总数的国标法检测注意事项,并介绍了近年来常用的几种食品菌落总数的快速检测技术。%The aerobic plate count is important in the food microbiological examination and widely used in evaluation of food hygiene and safety. The reliability of evaluations is depended on the accuracy and the credibility of the aerobic plate count. This paper summarized some cautions on the use of national standard method for aerobic plate count in food microbiological examination, and reviewed some common rapid detection techniques for aerobic plate count in food microbiological study in recent years.

  17. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...

  18. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  19. Excitation and Characterization of Chladni Plate Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Shannon; Behringer, Ernest

    2011-04-01

    When a thin metal plate with a small amount of sand on it is made to vibrate, aesthetically pleasing sand patterns can form along the nodal lines of the plate. These symmetric patterns are called Chladni Patterns. Students taking PHY 101 Physical Science in the Arts at Eastern Michigan University create these patterns by pulling a violin bow across the edge of a plate, or by using a mechanical oscillator to drive the center of a plate. These two methods only allow a small subset of all possible points on the plate to be excited. We designed and built an electronic device that allows its user to excite the plate at any point. We present patterns created with this electronic device and other methods, and describe ways to model the observed patterns.

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  3. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  4. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  9. ICMSF methods study. XVII. An international comparative study of the direct plate and hydrophobic grid-membrane filter methods for enumeration of Escherichia coli in foods. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, A N; Rayman, M K; Malik, N; Beckers, H J; Delfgou, E; Christian, J H; Eyles, M; Dodsworth, P; Nafziger, M; Gibbs, P A

    1987-02-01

    Eight laboratories compared counts of Escherichia coli from naturally or artificially contaminated ground beef, other meats and poultry, vegetables, fish and shellfish, cheese, and diverse sources such as swabs, by the Anderson-Baird-Parker direct plate (DP) and a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) method. For five of the eight laboratories overall counts by HGMF were significantly low (51-83%) compared with those by DP. Counts by HGMF tended to be lower for naturally contaminated samples; several possible causes were investigated. In a subsidiary study, analyst variation in counting HGMF ranged from 0.8-7.3%, with little evidence of effects from counting positive versus negative grid cells or from the fullness of growth or staining intensity.

  10. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber......-based plate shells and outlines needs, methods and effects of controlling cable stresses for secured capacity, form and function of plate tensegrity....

  11. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  12. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of Plate Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Sharma; Singh, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, fuzzy logic is meshed with sliding mode control, in order to control vibrations of a cantilevered plate. Test plate is instrumented with a piezoelectric sensor patch and a piezoelectric actuator patch. Finite element method is used to obtain mathematical model of the test plate. A design approach of a sliding mode controller for linear systems with mismatched time-varying uncertainties is used in this paper. It is found that chattering around the sliding surface in the sliding ...

  13. LICENSE PLATE LOCALIZATION USING GABOR FILTERS AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ktata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle License Plate Detection (LPD is an important step for the vehicle plate recognition which can be used in the intelligent transport systems. Many methods have been proposed for the detection of license plates based on: Mathematical morphology, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Hough Transform and others. In general, an LPR system includes four main parts: Vehicle image acquisition, license plate detection, character segmentation and character recognition. In this study, we present a robust method for extracting and detecting license plates, from simple images of Tunisian vehicles, based on Gabor filters and neural networks. The proposed method is designed to perform recognition of any kind of license plates under any environmental conditions.

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  15. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  16. A kind of practical methods of license plate location%一种实用的车牌定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳妮

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle plate localization algorithm mainly includes two steps: image preprocessing and license plate location. At the location of the ]iecese plate stage, a series of image processing technology has been clone in the vehicle images that we received,analy%车辆牌照定位算法主要包括两个步骤:图像预处理和车牌定位。本文是在对含有车辆牌照的图像进行一些列的处理后,通过对其二值化后图像的分析,排除车牌定位中的干扰,从而更为准确地定位出车牌的位置。

  17. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  18. 基于离散元法的糙米匀料盘仿真优化设计%Simulation and optimal design of uniform plate of brown rice based on discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾富国; 姚丽娜; 韩燕龙; 王会; 史宇菲; 曾勇; 蒋龙伟

    2016-01-01

    Humidifying evenly is the key to moisture conditioning technology. The uniformity of moisture content depends on the material distribution uniformity. Material uniform plate is the chief work part for increasing the material uniformity, and it has an immediate influence on the follow-up material processing quality and production efficiency. In order to improve the humidifying uniformity in the process of brown rice moisture conditioning, a new type of plate called curved-surface material uniform plate was designed on the basis of existing technology. Combined with the material movement rule on the cone material uniform plate, the parabola was set as the curved generatrix of curved-surface material uniform plate. One of the characteristics of the curved-surface material uniform plate was that it enhanced the uniformity of the material thickness by controlling the floating velocity of the material and offered a favorable condition for uniform humidification of brown rice, and moreover it couldn’t damage brown rice. In this study, on the basis of the theoretical analysis, the working process of the curved-surface material uniform plate was simulated with the discrete element method (DEM), and it was found that the structure parameters and operating conditions of curved-surface refining plate were the key factors affecting its wok performance through the analysis based on the orthogonal design. DEM is a numerical method used for modelling the mechanical behavior of granular materials. Using the EDEM software, the influence laws of the rotation rate of material uniform plate, the curved-surface form and the feeding rateon the material thickness uniformity were simulated and analyzed. According to the performance evaluation indices of evenly distributing material, the structure of curved-surface material uniform plate was optimized. By the response surface analysis method, the mathematical model between each factor and coefficient of variation was established. The

  19. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF QUADRATIC SANDWICH PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMAR Dr. Imre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show the optimal design of the three-layered sandwich plates. The objective function contains the material and fabrication costs. The design constraints are the maximal stresses, the deflection of plates and damping of vibrations. The unknown is the thickness of the filling foam. By the mathematical method, we define the minima of the cost function and the optimal thickness of the filling layer of foam. The active constraint is the deflection, so we calculate of the costs of the sandwich plate with the homogeneous plate.

  20. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...... in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important...

  1. The comparative study for the isotropic and orthotropic circular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Tomescu, G.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of study is static bending analysis of an isotropic circular plate using analytical method i.e. Classical Plate Theory, Finite Element software ANSYS and experimental methods. The diameter of circular plate, material properties, like modulus of elasticity (E), poissons ratio (µ) and intensity of loading is assumed at the initial stage of research work. In comparison with this plane plate we analyze a plate of same dimensions and charge, but having ribs, to see the advantage of the rigidify. The two plates are fixed supported subjected to uniformly distributed load.

  2. The Research of License Plate Image Preprocessing Method Base on VC++%基于VC++车牌图像预处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德峰; 丁玉飞; 邱细亚

    2011-01-01

    车牌图像识别的预处理是车牌图像识别系统的重要环节之一。该文简要地介绍车牌图像受环境因素影响所呈现的特征后,系统地阐述了车牌识别系统中图像预处理的各个步骤,包括图像的灰度化、中值滤波、灰度拉伸、sobel算子梯度锐化、二值化等。提出了一种图像预处理方案.并运用VC++编程开发的软件验证了各阶段的实验结果,证实了这种方案对图像的预处理可以达到较好的处理效果,%The license plate image preprocessing is one component of the license Plate recognition system. This paper systematically describes each step of the image preprocessing in the license plate recognition system after describing briefly the characteristics of the license plate images affected by environmental factors,including gray-scale image,median filtering,gray stretch,sobel operator image sharpening,license plate title correction and so on.Proposing an image preprocessing program and developing the Software using VC++ program,which verified the experimental results of the various stages that confirmed the image preprocessing program can achieve better processing results.

  3. Optimization of friction welding by taguchi and ANOVA method on commercial aluminium tube to Al 2025 tube plate with backing block using an external tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanna, S.; Kumaraswamidhs, L. A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad (India); Kumaran, S. Senthil [RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul (India)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of the present work is to optimize the Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) with clearance fit of commercial aluminum tube to Al 2025 tube plate using an external tool. Conventional frictional welding is suitable to weld only symmetrical joints either tube to tube or rod to rod but in this research with the help of external tool, the welding has been done by unsymmetrical shape of tube to tube plate also. In this investigation, the various welding parameters such as tool rotating speed (rpm), projection of tube (mm) and depth of cut (mm) are determined according to the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The two conditions were considered in this process to examine this experiment; where condition 1 is flat plate with plain tube Without holes [WOH] on the circumference of the surface and condition 2 is flat plate with plane tube has holes on its circumference of the surface With holes [WH]. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was utilized to find the most significant control factors which will yield better joint strength. Besides, the most influential process parameter has been determined using statistical Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the comparison of each result has been done for conditions by means percentage of contribution and regression analysis. The general regression equation is formulated and better strength is obtained and it is validated by means of confirmation test. It was observed that value of optimal welded joint strength for both tube without holes and tube with holes are to be 319.485 MPa and 264.825 MPa, respectively.

  4. Stability of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Composite Facings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, D.

    2017-02-01

    Paper presents the behaviour of three-layered annular plates subjected to loads acting in plate plane. Plates are composed of laminated fibre-reinforced composite facings and foam core. The static and dynamic parameters of plate critical state were evaluated. The sensitivity of composite structure of plate to the acting of quickly increasing in time loads is shown. The problem has been solved numerically using the finite element method. Results have been compared with ones obtained for plate models with isotropic layers. These plate models have also been calculated solving formulated task analytically and numerically by means of the finite difference method. Solutions to the problem concern the axisymmetrical and asymmetrical plate buckling modes. Numerous presented tables and figures create the image of the stability behaviour of examined composite plates.

  5. UNSYMMETRICAL LARGE DEFORMATION PROBLEM OF ORTHOTROPIC PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新志; 赵永刚; 叶开沅; 黄达文

    2002-01-01

    Based upon the theory of anisotropic plates, the unsymmetrical large deformation equations of orthotropic circular plates were derived. By using Fourier series, the partial differential equations of this problem can be transformed into sets of nonlinear differential equations. And the procedure to solve the problem using the iterative method is given.

  6. 化学镀镍法制备Ni/石墨烯%Synthesis of Ni/graphene sheets by an electroless Ni-plating method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆华; 王玺堂; 陈浩; 王周福

    2012-01-01

    Ni/graphene sheets were synthesized from graphene oxide sheets using electroless Ni-plating in a NiSO4 solution,with NaBH4 as a reducing agent.The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction,scanning and transmission electron microscopy.Ni deposited on the surface of the reduced graphene oxide sheets had a high dispersion without aggregation,although the amount of Ni was as high as 32.9% by mass.,The stacking of Ni/graphene sheets resulted in the formation of meso- and macropores.Nitrogen adsorption showed that the meso- and macropores had a slit shape and that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area reached 91 m2/g.The average pore size calculated by the BarretJoyner-Halenda method from desorption studies was 3.83 m,with a pore volume of 0.28 cm3/g.%采用化学镀镍方法,以氧化石墨烯薄片为基体、NaBH4为还原剂,在NiSO4溶液中制备了Ni/石墨烯.通过X射线衍射、场发射扫描电镜和透射电镜对样品进行了表征,结果表明:沉积在石墨烯片表面Ni的的质量分数高达32.9%时,仍具有高度的分散性;相互堆积Ni/石墨烯片形成了介孔和大孔.氮气等温吸附表明:其介孔和大孔为狭缝型结构,孔的Brunauer-Emmett-Teller比表面积为91 m2/g;吸附支的Barret-Joyner-Halenda平均孔径为3.83nm,孔容为0.28 cm3/g.

  7. A Mathematical Morphology-Based Radon-Transfered Method for License Plate Location%基于数学形态学与Radon变换的车牌定位法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红萍; 白艳萍

    2012-01-01

    从粗定位和精定位方面考虑车牌定位.利用腐蚀、膨胀和差运算将RGB车牌图像转换为车牌图像位置为彩色的而其余位置是灰色的图像,将所获得的图像转化为灰度图像,利用Robert算子进行边缘检测,再进行腐蚀和膨胀运算,根据阈值获得连通区域,利用颜色特征实现车牌的粗定位.将粗定位后的图像进行二值化、差运算、Radon变换,再进行腐蚀运算,图像的填充等步骤,再考虑图像的上下左右边界实现车牌的精定位,对185幅车牌图像进行定位.通过实验,车牌定位准确率达到91.89%.说明所提出的方法简单易行,具有一定的实效性.%In this paper, the license plate location is considered from the wide location and the refined location. Turn the inputted RGB image with license plate into the image with license plate into the image in which the license plate region is colorful and the remains restrain gray by use of erosion, dilation and difference. Change the obtained image into gray image and detect the edge of the gray image by Robert operator. Erode and dilation the obtained edge image and obtained the connect regions with the threshold. The wide location of license plate is obtained by using the color feature. The refined location is achieved by considering the up-down-left-right bound of the obtained image by binaryzation, difference operation, Radom transfer, erosion operation, filling etc. Of the wide image. Take 185 license plate images located in this paper. In the experiments, the accurate rate of the license plate location is 91.89%. So the above proposed method with a certain effectiveness is easy to achieve.

  8. 立式钢制拱顶储罐瓜皮板预制方案%Prefabrication Method for Melon Peel Shaped Plates of Vertical Steel Dome Storage Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 周思柱; 袁新梅; 程文佳

    2013-01-01

    The methods for making melon peel shaped plates of vertical steel dome storage tanks are miscellaneous, for which reason factors influencing the size of a melon peel shaped plate were analyzed, computation formulas were summarized and transformed to computer programs, then a simple computing method was brought forward. The melon peel shaped plates of ordinary storage tanks in some oil depots and metering stations were calculated by this method, which provides convenience for petrochemical engineering construction.%针对拱顶储罐瓜皮板预制下料方法繁杂的问题,分析影响瓜皮板下料尺寸因素,总结计算公式并编制计算机程序,提出了一种较为简便的计算方法.用此方法计算出油库、计量站常用拱顶储罐的瓜皮板尺寸,可为石油化工工程设计提供便利.

  9. Combined Plate-Beam Element Method for Local Vibration Computation of Orthotropic Steel Bridge Deck%正交异性钢桥面板局部振动计算的组合板梁单元法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马牛静; 王荣辉

    2011-01-01

    Proposed in this paper is a combined plate-beam element method to calculate the local vibration of the orthotropic steel bridge deck with trapezoid stiffened ribs, which is used in the long-span steel bridge. In this method, the top plate and the trapezoid stiffened rib are respectively taken as the flat shell element and the plate-beam element, and the corresponding displacement model is established according to the deformation coordination relationship between the plate and the rib. Moreover, the stiffness matrix of the combined plate-beam element is obtained based on the energy-variation principle, and the consistent mass matrix and the consistent load matrix are obtained based on the shape function of each sub-element. Then, the finite dynamic equilibrium equations are obtained. Finally, a calculation program of dynamic finite element is presented for the combined plate-beam element, and the first 10 consequent natural frequencies are compared with those of the shell finite element, finding that the latters accord well with the formers. Thus, the proposed method proves to be feasible and efficient.%针对大跨度钢桥中采用梯形加劲肋的正交异性钢桥面板,提出一种计算钢桥面板局部振动的组合板梁单元法.其中顶板用平板壳单元分析,梯形加劲肋视为板梁单元,两者的位移模式根据板与肋的变形协调关系建立.组合板梁单元的刚度矩阵通过能量变分原理得到,利用各子单元的形函数可以求得组合板梁单元的一致质量矩阵与一致荷载列阵,进而得到相应的有限元动力平衡方程组.最后编制了组合板梁单元的有限元动力计算程序,将其前10阶自振频率与板壳有限元计算结果进行比较,验证了该方法的可行性与高效性.

  10. An Analysis of Elasto-Plastic Bending of Rectangular Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sakiyama, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete method for analyzing the problem of elasto-plastic bending of a rectangular plate is proposed. The solutions for partial differential equation of rectangular plate are obtained in discrete forms by applying numerical integnltion. An incremental variable elasticity procedure has been used for the clasta-plastic analysis of the rectangular plate. As the applications of the proposed method, clasta-plastic bending of rectangular plate with four types of boundary conditio...

  11. A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

  12. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  13. Electroless copper plating of inkjet-printed polydopamine nanoparticles: a facile method to fabricate highly conductive patterns at near room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siyuan; Liu, Liang; Bromberg, Vadim; Singler, Timothy J

    2014-11-26

    Aqueous dispersions of artificially synthesized, mussel-inspired poly(dopamine) nanoparticles were inkjet printed on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Narrow line patterns (4 μm in width) of poly(dopamine) resulted due to evaporatively driven transport (coffee ring effect). The printed patterns were metallized via a site-selective Cu electroless plating process at a controlled temperature (30 °C) for varied bath times. The lowest electrical resistivity value of the plated Cu lines was about 6 times greater than the bulk resistivity of Cu. This process presents an industrially viable way to fabricate Cu conductive fine patterns for flexible electronics at low temperature, low cost, and without need of sophisticated equipment.

  14. Evaluation of Electrochemical Characteristics on Graphene Coated Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for Metallic Bipolar Plates in PEMFC Fabricated with Hydrazine Reduction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seong-Yun; Lee, Jae-Bong [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Graphene was coated on austenitic and martensitic stainless steels to simulate the metallic bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and was reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a hydrazine process. rGO was confirmed by FE-SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) between the bipolar plate and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) was measured to confirm the electrical conductivity. Both ICR and corrosion current density decreased on graphene coated stainless steels. Corrosion resistance was also improved with immersion time in cathodic environments and satisfied the criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE), USA. The total concentrations of metal ions dissolved from graphene coated stainless steels were reduced. Furthermore hydrophobicity was improved by increasing the contact angle.

  15. Comparison of Some Mechanical and Physical Methods for Measurement of Residual Stresses in Brush-Plated Nickel Hardened Gold and Silver Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri LILLE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hard gold and silver are applied in coating owing to their high hardness, good wear and corrosion resistance for engineering application (e.g. on generators slip rings, sliding contacts and small machine parts and are typically plated on copper (mostly, brass and bronze. The studied nickel-hardened gold and silver coatings were brush plated on open thin-walled copper ring substrates. Residual stresses in the coatings were calculated from the curvature changes of the substrates. Biaxial intrinsic residual stresses were also determined by nanoindentation testing and by the X-ray technique. The values of the residual stresses represented tensile stresses and when determined by the techniques used they were comparable within a maximum limit of measurement uncertainty. These stresses relax; the dependence of relaxation time was approximated by a linear-fractional function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7439

  16. Hamiltonian system for orthotropic plate bending based on analogy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analogy between plane elasticity and plate bending as well as variational principles of mixed energy, Hamiltonian system is further led to orthotropic plate bending problems in this paper. Thus many effective methods of mathematical physics such as separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion can be employed in orthotropic plate bending problems as they are used in plane elasticity. Analytical solutions of rectangular plate are presented directly, which expands the range of analytical solutions. There is an essential distinction between this method and traditional semi-inverse method. Numerical results of orthotropic plate with two lateral sides fixed are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of this method.

  17. Chaotic Motion of Corrugated Circular Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large deflection theory of thin anisotropic circular plates was used to analyze the bifurcation behavior and chaotic phenomena of a corrugated thin circular plate with combined transverse periodic excitation and an in-plane static boundary load. The nonlinear dynamic equation for the corrugated plate was derived by employing Galerkin's technique. The critical conditions for occurrence of the homoclinic and subharmonic bifurcations as well as chaos were studied theoretically using the Melnikov function method. The chaotic motion was also simulated numerically using Maple, with the Poincaré map and phase curve used to evaluate when chaotic motion appears. The results indicate some chaotic motion in the corrugated plate. The method is directly applicable to chaotic analysis of an isotropic circular plate.

  18. Precision Plate Plan View Pattern Predictive Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yang; YANG Quan; HE An-rui; WANG Xiao-chen; ZHANG Yun

    2011-01-01

    According to the rolling features of plate mill, a 3D elastic-plastic FEM (finite element model) based on full restart method of ANSYS/LS-DYNA was established to study the inhomogeneous plastic deformation of multipass plate rolling. By analyzing the simulation results, the difference of head and tail ends predictive models was found and modified. According to the numerical simulation results of 120 different kinds of conditions, precision plate plan view pattern predictive model was established. Based on these models, the sizing MAS (mizushima automatic plan view pattern control system) method was designed and used on a 2 800 mm plate mill. Comparing the rolled plates with and without PVPP (plan view pattern predictive) model, the reduced width deviation indicates that the olate !olan view Dattern predictive model is preeise.

  19. Combined experimental and computational investigation of the cavitating flow in an orifice plate with special emphasis on surrogate-based optimization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, XianLin; Huang, Biao; Chen, Tairan; Liu, Ying; Qiu, Si Cong [School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Jing [China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    We investigated the influence of geometrical parameters of the orifice plate on the cavitation structures, and optimized these parameters by using a surrogate-based model with special emphasis on the concentration of hydroxyl radical released. The results show that for the orifice plate of the hydrodynamic cavitation system, the possible location of the inception of the cavity spreads to throat and divergent section of the venturi geometry. Based on the surrogate model and global sensitivity assessment, the diameter of throat Dt and diameter of inlet Din significantly influenced the size of the cavity, while the length of throat Lt had little effect on both cavitation intensity and flow rate. It should be noted that when Lt is decreased, the size of cavity would be slightly decreased but the flow rate increased clearly. The increase of the diverging section is in favor of the size of cavity. By comparing the experimental measurements on the concentration of Methylene blue, the optimum geometry of the orifice plate for best cavitational activity is proposed.

  20. Using plate mapping to examine sensitivity to plate size in food portions and meal composition among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David; Sobal, Jeffery

    2012-12-01

    People eat meals rather than nutrients or food groups. Plate size may influence meal size, meal composition, and food type. To examine effects of plate size on meals, we developed a method we label plate mapping. A quasi-experimental study asked university students to accurately draw what they would like to eat for dinner on either a 9″ or 11″ paper plate. Coding plate drawings for total meal size revealed that students drew an average of 26% more food on larger plates. When plates were coded for meal composition we found that the biggest three food portions drawn by students were bigger on 11″ plates, with 70% of the overall difference in food area occurring in the biggest food. Participants drew bigger portions of vegetables on larger plates, while other food types showed little change in mean size. Gender moderated plate sensitivity for food types: women drew 36% bigger vegetable portions than men on larger plates. Smaller plates may lead to smaller meal sizes, but plate size may differentially influence composition of meals for men and women. These findings suggest plate mapping can be used to reflect meal conceptualizations and assess sensitivity to plate size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  2. Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

  3. Free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates by local moving Kriging meshless method%基于局部移动 Kriging 无网格方法的层合板自由振动分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈富军; 魏春志; 姚林泉

    2013-01-01

    利用基于局部移动Kriging插值无网格法对层合板自由振动进行了数值分析,基于一阶剪切层合理论导出了层合板振动的控制方程和边界条件,进一步得到了自由振动的离散化特征方程。由于Kriging插值函数具有Kronecker delta函数性质,可以直接施加本质边界条件。通过本文给出的方法,对不同边界条件、不同跨厚比、不同材料参数和铺设角度的层合板的振动频率进行了计算,均得到满意结果。最后用该方法对层合板的铺设角度进行优化设计,得到了与已有文献完全一致的优化结果。数值结果充分表明了无网格Kriging方法分析层合板自由振动问题的有效性和高精确度。%The local moving Kriging interpolation meshless method is used to numerically analysis the natural frequencies of laminated composite plates in this paper .The governing equations and boundary conditions of the laminated plates are derived based on the first order shear theory .T hen the discrete characteristic equations are obtained by the collocation method .As the Kriging interpolation function has the Kronecker delta function properties ,the essential boundary conditions can be applied directly .Natu-ral frequencies of the laminated composite plates with various boundary conditions ,side-to-thickness rati-os ,material parameters and laying angle are computed by present method ,and the numerical results are all well .Finally ,the optimal angle design of laminated composite plates is studied by present method ,and the optimization results are agreed well with the existing solutions in the literature .Numerical experi-ments demonstrate that the present method for free vibration analysis of laminated plates is efficient and highly accurate .

  4. Optimization of single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS) with sample anchoring as an assured method for bacterial and yeast cfu enumeration and single colony isolation from diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna C; Upreti, Reshmi; Mujawar, Mohammad M; Pasha, Sadiq S

    2015-12-01

    We propose a simple technique for bacterial and yeast cfu estimations from diverse samples with no prior idea of viable counts, designated as single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS) with the prime recommendation of sample anchoring (10(0) stocks). For pure cultures, serial dilutions were prepared from 0.1 OD (10(0)) stock and 20 μl aliquots of six dilutions (10(1)-10(6)) were applied as 10-15 micro-drops in six sectors over agar-gelled medium in 9-cm plates. For liquid samples 10(0)-10(5) dilutions, and for colloidal suspensions and solid samples (10% w/v), 10(1)-10(6) dilutions were used. Following incubation, at least one dilution level yielded 6-60 cfu per sector comparable to the standard method involving 100 μl samples. Tested on diverse bacteria, composite samples and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SP-SDS offered wider applicability over alternative methods like drop-plating and track-dilution for cfu estimation, single colony isolation and culture purity testing, particularly suiting low resource settings.

  5. Optimization of single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS with sample anchoring as an assured method for bacterial and yeast cfu enumeration and single colony isolation from diverse samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple technique for bacterial and yeast cfu estimations from diverse samples with no prior idea of viable counts, designated as single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS with the prime recommendation of sample anchoring (100 stocks. For pure cultures, serial dilutions were prepared from 0.1 OD (100 stock and 20 μl aliquots of six dilutions (101–106 were applied as 10–15 micro-drops in six sectors over agar-gelled medium in 9-cm plates. For liquid samples 100–105 dilutions, and for colloidal suspensions and solid samples (10% w/v, 101–106 dilutions were used. Following incubation, at least one dilution level yielded 6–60 cfu per sector comparable to the standard method involving 100 μl samples. Tested on diverse bacteria, composite samples and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SP-SDS offered wider applicability over alternative methods like drop-plating and track-dilution for cfu estimation, single colony isolation and culture purity testing, particularly suiting low resource settings.

  6. Comparison of an automated most-probable-number technique with traditional plating methods for estimating populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli associated with freshly processed broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J E; Stern, N J; Oakley, B B; Seal, B S

    2011-09-01

    An instrument (TEMPO) has been developed to automate the most-probable-number (MPN) technique and reduce the effort required to estimate some bacterial populations. We compared the automated MPN technique with traditional microbiological plating methods and Petrifilm methods for estimating the total viable count of aerobic microorganisms (TVC), total coliforms (CC), and Escherichia coli populations (EC) on freshly processed broiler chicken carcasses (postchill whole carcass rinse [WCR] samples) and cumulative drip-line samples from a commercial broiler processing facility. Overall, 120 broiler carcasses, 36 prechill drip-line samples, and 40 postchill drip-line samples were collected over 5 days (representing five individual flocks) and analyzed by the automated MPN and direct agar plating and Petrifilm methods. The TVC correlation coefficient between the automated MPN and traditional methods was very high (0.972) for the prechill drip samples, which had mean log-transformed values of 3.09 and 3.02, respectively. The TVC correlation coefficient was lower (0.710) for the postchill WCR samples, which had lower mean log values of 1.53 and 1.31, respectively. Correlations between the methods for the prechill CC and EC samples were 0.812 and 0.880, respectively. The estimated number of total aerobes was generally greater than the total number of coliforms or E. coli recovered for all sample types (P methods and the automated MPN method.

  7. A REVIEW PAPER ON RECOGNIZE AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE AND BLURRED NUMBER PLATES

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Soni*, Dr.Raman Chadha, Sukhmeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    This review paper provides a brief survey on various recognition techniques for automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) in image processing. ANPR is real –time embedded system which uses number plate to identify the vehicle. This expertise is in advance popularity in security and traffic installations. License plate recognition system is an application of computer vision. Computer vision is a method of using a computer to take out high level information from a digital image. The usele...

  8. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  9. 一种模板匹配和神经网络的车牌字符识别方法%A Method of Characters in Vehicle Number-plate Using Pattern Match and Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 黄心汉; 魏武; 李炜

    2001-01-01

    A method of characters in vehicle number-plate using pattern match and neural networks is presented. This method integrates the advantages of pattern match and neural networks recognizing characters in vehicle number-plate. It can be used to solve at the same time the problem that only pattern match or neural network is difficult to recognize the characters. The recognition rate can be improved with the recognition time reduced and the adaptable ability of recognition method increased. The experimental results show that, for a vehicle number-plate, recognition rate of characters is more than 90% and the recognition time of characters is less than 1.2 second by using this method. It is obvious that this method is of more effective recognition ability than other methods.%提出了一种基于模板匹配和神经网络的车牌识别方法.该方法集成了模板匹配识别车牌字符和神经网络识别车牌字符的优势,可有效地提高车牌字符的识别率、识别速度和识别系统的泛化能力.实验结果表明:大多数情况下,该方法的识别率超过90?%,识别时间不超过1?200?ms,能有效地识别各种车牌中的字符,满足实际系统的要求.

  10. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  13. Numerical solution of the free vibration of functionally graded material moderately thick circular plates by shooting method%FGM中厚圆板轴对称自由振动的打靶法求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清禄; 张靖华; 李世荣

    2016-01-01

    The free vibration of FGMmoderately thick circular plates was investigated.A FGM plate consisting of metal and ceramic was considered in the study.Based on the geometric equation,physical equation and equilibrium equation of thick plates,taking into account the transverse shearing deformation,the free vibration equation of axisymmetric FGM thick circular plates was derived in terms of the middle surface angles of rotation and lateral displacement.The material properties of the plate were assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction according to a power law.By using the shooting method to solve the coupled ordinary differential equations with different boundary conditions,the natural frequencies of FGMthick circular plates were obtained numerically.The effects of material gradient property,thickness ratio and boundary conditions on the natural frequencies were discussed in detail.%研究了由陶瓷和金属两种材料组成的功能梯度材料(FGM)中厚圆板的自由振动问题。基于考虑横向剪切变形中厚板的几何方程、物理方程及平衡方程,建立了以中面转角和横向位移为基本未知量的功能梯度中厚圆板轴对称自由振动问题的控制方程;假定功能梯度中厚圆板的材料性质方向按照幂函数连续变化规律;采用打靶法数值求解所得非线性两点边值问题出,获得了多种边界下功能梯度中厚圆板的无量纲自然频率以及振动模态。讨论了材料梯度指数、板的厚度以及边界条件对自然频率的影响。

  14. Problem of Electromagnetoviscoelasticity for Multiply Connected Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloerov, S. A.; Samodurov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    A method for solving the problem of electromagnetoviscoelasticity for multiply connected plates is proposed. The small-parameter method is used to reduce this problem to a recursive sequence of problems of electromagnetoelasticity, which are solved by using complex potentials. A procedure is developed to determine, using complex potentials, approximations of the basic characteristics (stresses, electromagnetic-field strength, electromagnetic-flux density) of the electromagnetoelastic state at any time after application of a load. A plate with an elliptic hole is considered as an example. The variation in the electromagnetoelastic state of the multiply connected plate with time is studied

  15. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... analysis of beam structures is presented and includes both upper and lower-bound solution techniques. The remaining chapters are devoted to plates. The classic elastic plate theories are presented. The plastic yield line theory for plates is presented including both upper and lower-bound techniques...

  16. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    due to increasing amount of amorphous matter in the samples was observed in both vials and well plates. Cake collapse was found to be representative in well plates and could be effectively quantified using image analysis. Reconstitution time was also found to be equal in all three platforms. Finally......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates...... as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture...

  17. Clinical efficacy of figure-of-eight steel plate half epiphyseal plate block method in treatment of children with lower limb angular deformity%8字钢板半骨骺阻滞法治疗儿童下肢成角畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 鲍昆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of minimally invasive implantation figure-ofeight steel plate in treatment of children with lower limb angular deformity caused by a variety of reasons.Methods The clinical data of 35 lower limb angular deformity children who treated with minimally invasive implantation figure-of-eight steel plate half epiphyseal plate block method were retrospectively analyzed.During pre-operation and post-operation,the X-ray of both lower limb was shoot,the mechanical axis of lower limb and femoral tibial angle (FTA) were measured,and the clinical efficacy combining clinical results was assessed.Results All the children were completed the follow-up,the average follow-up was 15 (13-20)months.The 35 children with lower limb angular deformity achieved satisfactory correction and restored normal the mechanical axis of lower limb.All children were normal,and no complications of epiphyseal plate injury were found,except 1 child appeared incision fat liquefied and healed after secondary wound debridement and suture.Conclusions Minimally invasive implantation figure-of-eight steel plate half epiphyseal plate block method in treatment of the children with lower limb angular deformity is simple,cheap,effective,needless osteotomy,well tolerated and with less complications.It is an easily learned technique for osteology surgeons and to be worth generalization at clinical especially those hospitals without establishing special department of children' s osteology.%目的 探讨微创植入8字钢板治疗各种原因所致的儿童下肢成角畸形的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析采用微创植入8字钢板半骨骺阻滞法治疗的35例儿童下肢成角畸形患儿的临床资料.手术前后拍摄双下肢全长X线片,测量下肢机械轴线、股骨胫骨角(FTA),并结合临床测量结果进行疗效评价.结果 所有患者均获得完整随访,平均随访时间15(13 ~20)个月,35例下肢成角畸形获得满意的矫正,并恢

  18. Optimization Design of Thermal Conduction Enhanced PCM Plates for Simulating the Infrared Signature of Steel Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong; JIANG Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    Phase change material (PCM) can be used to prepare the infrared false targets for realizing all-weather passive infrared decoy, but its low thermal conductivity is a great blockage to the simulation of the infrared signature of thick metal plates. For that reason, a method of simulating the infrared signature of thick steel plates by thermal conduction enhanced PCM, including the aluminum fins, is proposed. A physical and mathematic model is set up, and the infrared signature simulation of thick steel plate is investigated numerically. The effects of the distribution density and thickness of fins and the thickness of PCM plate on the simulation results are discussed, and the reasonable construction parameters of PCM plates used to simulate the steel plates of different thickness are obtained.

  19. Preparation Method of Aluminum- plated Corrugated Cardboard and its Commercial Application%镀铝瓦楞纸板商业化应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颐; 周威

    2011-01-01

    本着绿色设计低碳生产和经济的可持续发展理念,探讨真空镀铝磁控溅射镀膜理论及其技术方法制备镀铝瓦楞纸板。从而获得绿色环保的镀铝瓦楞纸板新材料。深入分析镀铝瓦楞纸板商业化应用,生产新颖、美观具有时代特点的镀铝瓦楞纸板家具,满足市场需要并获得重大的经济效益和社会效益。%According to the concept of low -carbon production and sustainable economic development, the mechanism of vacuum magnetron sputtering coating and its technology of preparing the aluminum - plated corrugated cardboard were explored in this paper in order to obtain the environment - friendly new material. Furthermore, the commercial application of aluminum - plated corrugated cardboard was analyzed to produce original elegant and fashionable furniture to meet the needs of the market and gain significant economic and social benefits.

  20. Transfinite thin plate spline interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Bejancu, Aurelian

    2009-01-01

    Duchon's method of thin plate splines defines a polyharmonic interpolant to scattered data values as the minimizer of a certain integral functional. For transfinite interpolation, i.e. interpolation of continuous data prescribed on curves or hypersurfaces, Kounchev has developed the method of polysplines, which are piecewise polyharmonic functions of fixed smoothness across the given hypersurfaces and satisfy some boundary conditions. Recently, Bejancu has introduced boundary conditions of Beppo Levi type to construct a semi-cardinal model for polyspline interpolation to data on an infinite set of parallel hyperplanes. The present paper proves that, for periodic data on a finite set of parallel hyperplanes, the polyspline interpolant satisfying Beppo Levi boundary conditions is in fact a thin plate spline, i.e. it minimizes a Duchon type functional.