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Sample records for plate mcp detector

  1. Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido

    1996-07-01

    In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)

  2. Image translational shifts in microchannel plate detectors due to the presence of MCP channel bias

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W

    2002-01-01

    A detailed study of possible image displacements in MCP detectors due to the presence of MCP pore bias is presented. We show that fluctuations of the rear accelerating field, characteristic to some MCP detector configurations, result in translational shifts of the entire image, which degrade the detector spatial resolution. It was experimentally observed that a 10% increase in the rear voltage of 400 V for a detector with 13 deg. -biased MCPs and 8.5 mm MCP-to-anode distance results in a 32 mu m shift of the image in the direction opposite to the pore bias. Increasing the voltage to 800 V induced a 200 mu m image displacement. No displacement was observed for a detector with a 0 deg. -biased output MCP. We also present a model for calculation of the charge footprint centroid in MCP detectors based on the output distribution function of the charge cloud. The results of our computer simulation of the image displacements prove to be in a very good agreement with the experimental data, thus providing the basis fo...

  3. Development of a New Fast Shower Maximum Detector Based on Microchannel Plates Photomultipliers (MCP-PMT) as an Active Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A. [Fermilab; Los, S. [Fermilab; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab; Spiropulu, M. [Caltech; Apresyan, A. [Caltech; Xie, S. [Caltech; Kim, H. [Chicago U.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [UC, Santa Cruz

    2014-09-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum (SM) detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We present below test beam results, obtained with different types of photodetectors based on microchannel plates (MCPs) as the secondary emitter. We performed the measurements at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with 120GeV proton beam and 12GeV and 32GeV secondary beams. The goal of the measurement with 120GeV protons was to determine time resolution for minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). The SM time resolution we obtained for this new type of detector is at the level of 20-30ps. We estimate that a significant contribution to the detector response originates from secondary emission of the MCP. This work can be considered as the first step in building a new type of calorimeter based on this principle.

  4. Development of a New Fast Shower Maximum Detector Based on Microchannel Plates Photomultipliers (MCP-PMT) as an Active Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A. [Fermilab; Los, S. [Fermilab; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab; Spiropulu, M. [Caltech; Apresyan, A. [Caltech; Xie, S. [Caltech; Kim, H. [Chicago U.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [UC, Santa Cruz

    2014-09-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum (SM) detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We present below test beam results, obtained with different types of photodetectors based on microchannel plates (MCPs) as the secondary emitter. We performed the measurements at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with 120GeV proton beam and 12GeV and 32GeV secondary beams. The goal of the measurement with 120GeV protons was to determine time resolution for minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). The SM time resolution we obtained for this new type of detector is at the level of 20-30ps. We estimate that a significant contribution to the detector response originates from secondary emission of the MCP. This work can be considered as the first step in building a new type of calorimeter based on this principle.

  5. MCP detector development for WSO-UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, Sebastian; Barnstedt, Jürgen; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf; Ganz, Philipp; Hermanutz, Stephan; Kalkuhl, Christoph; Kappelmann, Norbert; Pfeifer, Marc; Schaadt, Daniel; Schanz, Thomas; Tanirah, Omar; Werner, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    The spectrographs of WSO-UV cover the wavelength range of 102 - 310 nm. The essential requirements for the associated detectors are high quantum effciency, solar blindness, and single photon detection. To achieve this, we develop a microchannel plate detector in a sealed tube. We plan to use cesium activated gallium nitride as semitransparent photocathode, a stack of two microchannel plates and a cross strip anode with advanced readout electronics. Challenges are the degradation of the photocathode under atmospheric conditions and the sealing process. We present the detector concept, details of the transfer and sealing processes under UHV, and the current status.

  6. An introduction to the IAAT ultraviolet MCP detector development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanutz, S.; Barnstedt, J.; Diebold, S.; Elsener, H. R.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kappelmann, N.; Pfeifer, M.; Schanz, T.; Werner, K.

    2014-07-01

    Observations of ultraviolet light is the key to understand high temperature processes in the universe like hot plasma, accretion processes or illuminated protoplanetary discs around UV sources. Furthermore these observation contribute to major cosmological questions, like the distribution of baryonic matter or the formation of the milky way, as pointed out by Gomez de Castro et al.1 Driven by the idea to participate in the Russian World Space Observatory we started to develop a position sensitive micro channel plate detector (MCP) for spectroscopy in the range of 160nm to 300 nm. Although we are not part of this project we still build a MCP detector prototype. In this paper we will present the general design of the detector and mainly focus on the aspect of our photocathode, while the electronics will be explained in more detail in the paper Characterisation of low power readout electronics for a UV microchannel plate detector with cross-strip readout" (Paper number 9144-116) by Marc Pfeifer.

  7. MCP-based detector some results and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Patarakin, O O; Strepetov, A N; Turbin, E V; Sinitsin, V I; Kartamushev, A A

    1997-01-01

    The timing resolution of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) based on shevron-type microchannel plates (MCP) has been studied inmagnetic fields. The same timingresolution with and without a longitudinal magnetic field up to 2.0 kGwas obtained as = 85 ± 2 ps. It is shown that an increase of timing resolution in this magnetic field does not exceed25 ps (upper limit). The timing resolution of = 31 ± 2 pswas obtained for narrow (10resolution) amplitude spectrumfrom Corone discharge. The counting rate of MCP-based detector was studied in function of the direction of the magnetic field.The spatial and timing resolution for the MCP-based PMT were obtained using laser pulses as well. With laser pulses of 0.3 ns a timing resolution of ≅ 450 ps was obtained. Taking into account the amplitude correction narrows to 140 ps. Using 100 fs-laser with the standard constant fractiondiscriminator gives a timing resolution from 20 to 40 ps depending on the read-out MCP region.The perspectives of using...

  8. Detection efficiency evaluation for a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yiming; Liu, Ren

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the detection efficiency of a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector has been evaluated. A 6LiF/ZnS detector was employed as the benchmark detector, the TOF spectra of these two detectors were simultaneously measured and the energy spectra were then deduced to calculate the detection efficiency curve of the nMCP detector. Tests show the detection efficiency@25.3 meV thermal neutron is 34% for this nMCP detector.

  9. ELENA MCP detector: absolute efficiency measurement for low energy neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-04-01

    MicroChannel plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission to Mercury to be launched in 2014. ELENA is a TOF sensor, based on a novel concept ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section)which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop section. It is aimed to detect neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 70° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the environment and the planet, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles release from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (EMEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different type of MCPs coating have been performed providing the behaviors of MCP detection efficiency in the range 10eV-1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are here discussed.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations of High-speed, Time-gated MCP-based X-ray Detectors: Saturation Effects in DC and Pulsed Modes and Detector Dynamic Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Kruschwitz, Ming Wu, Ken Moy, Greg Rochau

    2008-10-31

    We present here results of continued efforts to understand the performance of microchannel plate (MCP)–based, high-speed, gated, x-ray detectors. This work involves the continued improvement of a Monte Carlo simulation code to describe MCP performance coupled with experimental efforts to better characterize such detectors. Our goal is a quantitative description of MCP saturation behavior in both static and pulsed modes. We have developed a new model of charge buildup on the walls of the MCP channels and measured its effect on MCP gain. The results are compared to experimental data obtained with a short-pulse, high-intensity ultraviolet laser; these results clearly demonstrate MCP saturation behavior in both DC and pulsed modes. The simulations compare favorably to the experimental results. The dynamic range of the detectors in pulsed operation is of particular interest when fielding an MCP–based camera. By adjusting the laser flux we study the linear range of the camera. These results, too, are compared to our simulations.

  11. High resolution MCP photon detectors for the PANDA endcap disc DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, Julian; Biguenko, Klim; Dueren, Michael; Etzelmueller, Erik; Hayrapetyan, Avetik; Kroeck, Benno; Merle, Oliver; Schmidt, Mustafa [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Foehl, Klaus [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt will require excellent particle identification (PID) to achieve its physics goals. The forward region between 5 and 22 degrees will be instrumented with a novel Disc DIRC detector which utilizes internally reflected Cherenkov light and will provide separation of pions, kaons and protons with momenta up to 4 GeV/c. The Cherenkov photon readout will be carried out with high resolution microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs). A custom made anode layout with a narrow strip pitch of 0.5 mm will allow the reconstructing of the point of impact of single photons with high precision. The tubes will be read out by a modified version of the TOFPET ASIC. The current status of the prototype testing of the tubes and the ASIC is presented.

  12. ELENA MCP detector: absolute detection efficiency for low-energy neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J. A.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-09-01

    Microchannel Plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission of ESA to Mercury to be launched in 2015. ELENA is a Time of Flight (TOF) sensor, based on a novel concept using an ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section), which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop detector. The scientific objective of ELENA is to detect energetic neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 76° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the plasma environment and the planet’s surface, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles released from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (MEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of the University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different types of MCP (with and without coating) have been performed providing the detection efficiencies in the energy range 10eV - 1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are discussed here.

  13. Dead-time effects in microchannel-plate imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zombeck, Martin V.; Fraser, George W.

    1991-01-01

    The observed counting rates of microchannel plate (MCP) based detectors for high resolution observations of celestial EUV and X-ray sources vary over many orders of magnitude; the counting capability of an individual channel, however, is not high, and is associated with dead-times ranging from 0.1 msec to 1 sec. The dead-time increases with the area illuminated; attention is presently given to laboratory determinations of the count rate characteristics of a MCP detector as a function of illuminated area, and a model is developed for these results' use in the interpretation of space observations.

  14. Detection efficiency, spatial and timing resolution of thermal and cold neutron counting MCP detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Hull, J. S.; Feller, W. B.; Lehmann, E.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron counting detectors with boron or gadolinium doped microchannel plates (MCPs) have very high detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution, and have a very low readout noise. In this paper we present the results of both theoretical predictions and experimental evaluations of detection efficiency and spatial resolution measured at cold and thermal neutron beamlines. The quantum detection efficiency of a detector (not fully optimized) was measured to be 43% and 16% for the cold and thermal beamlines, respectively. The experiments also demonstrate that the spatial resolution can be better than 15 μm—highest achievable with the particular MCP pore dimension used in the experiment, although more electronics development is required in order to increase the counting rate capabilities of those <15 μm resolution devices. The timing accuracy of neutron detection is on the scale of few μs and is limited by the neutron absorption depth in the detector. The good agreement between the predicted and measured performance allows the optimization of the detector parameters in order to achieve the highest spatial resolution and detection efficiency in future devices.

  15. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  16. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A., E-mail: ronzhin@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los, S.; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kim, H. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. The time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  17. Development and tests of MCP based timing and multiplicity detector for MIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, G.; Kondratev, V.; Stolyarov, O.; Tulina, T.; Valiev, F.; Vinogradov, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present summary of technological developments and tests of the MCP based large area detector aimed at precise timing and charged particles multiplicity measurements. Results obtained in course of these developments of isochronous (simultaneity) precise signal readout, passive summation of 1 ns signals, fast (1 GHz) front-end electronics, miniature vacuum systems, etc. could be potentially interesting for a number of future applications in different fields.

  18. Neutron Imager and Flux Monitor Based on Micro Channel Plates (MCP) in Electrostatic Mirror Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variale, V.

    In this paper, a new high transparency device based on MCP for the monitoring the flux and spatial profile of a neutron beam will be described. The assembly consists of a carbon foil with a 6Li deposit, placed in the beam, and a MCP equipped with a phosphor screen readout viewed by a CCD camera, placed outside the beam. Secondary emitted electrons (SEE) produced in the carbon foil by the alpha-particles and tritons from the 6Li+n reaction, are deflected to the MCP detector by means of an electrostatic mirror, suitably designed to preserve the spatial resolution. The conductive layer on the phosphor can be used for neutron counting, and to obtain time-of-flight information. A peculiar feature of this device is that the use of an electrostatic mirror minimizes the perturbation of the neutron beam, i.e. absorption and scattering. It can be used at existing time-of-flight (TOF) facilities, in particular at the n_TOF facility at CERN, for monitoring the flux and special profile of the neutron beam in the thermal and epithermal region. In this work, the device principle and design will be presented, together with the main features in terms of resolution and neutron detection efficiency.

  19. Imaging characteristics of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer microchannel plate detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Kaplan, G. C.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Lampton, M.; Malina, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite will conduct an all-sky survey over the wavelength range from 70 A to 760 A using four grazing-incidence telescopes and seven microchannel-plate (MCP) detectors. The imaging photon-counting MCP detectors have active areas of 19.6 cm2. Photon arrival position is determined using a wedge-and-strip anode and associated pulse-encoding electronics. The imaging characteristics of the EUVE flight detectors are presented including image distortion, flat-field response, and spatial differential nonlinearity. Also included is a detailed discussion of image distortions due to the detector mechanical assembly, the wedge-and-strip anode, and the electronics. Model predictions of these distortions are compared to preflight calibration images which show distortions less than 1.3 percent rms of the detector diameter of 50 mm before correction. The plans for correcting these residual detector image distortions to less than 0.1 percent rms are also presented.

  20. Development of a flight qualified 100 x 100 mm MCP UV detector using advanced cross strip anodes and associated ASIC electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, John; McPhate, Jason; Tremsin, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Raffanti, Rick; Cumming, Harley; Seljak, Andrej; Virta, Vihtori; Varner, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last three decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.) and been mentioned for instruments on future large telescopes in space such as LUVOIR14. Using cross strip anodes, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. A crossed strip anode MCP readout starts with a set of orthogonal conducting strips (e.g. 80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital converter (ADC). All of the ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T) and pass this information to a downstream computer. Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) grant to raise the TRL of a cross strip detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass, and volume requirements of the detector electronics. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration

  1. Detection efficiency evaluation for a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-ming; Tian, Yang; Yang, Yi-gang; Liu, Ren; Pan, Jing-sheng; Wang, Xue-wu; Zhang, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the detection efficiency of a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector has been evaluated. A 6LiF/ZnS scintillator detector 65 mm in diameter and 0.32 mm in thickness, with product code, EJ426HD2, produced by Eljen Technology, was employed as the benchmark detector. The TOF spectra of these two detectors were simultaneously measured and the energy spectra were then deduced to calculate the detection efficiency curve of the nMCP detector. Tests show the detection efficiency@25.3 meV thermal neutrons is 34% for this nMCP detector. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375095, 11175098)

  2. Experimental investigation of the radiation shielding of a MCP detector in the radiation environment near Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter; Meyer, Stefan; Lasi, Davide; Lüthi, Matthias; Galli, André; Piazza, Daniele; Desorgher, Laurent; Hajdas, Wojciech; Reggiani, Davide; Karlsson, Stefan; Kalla, Leif

    2016-04-01

    The Neutral Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) is one of the six instruments in the Particle Environmental Package (PEP) designed for the JUICE mission of ESA to the Jupiter system. NIM will conduct detailed measurements of chemical composition of Jovian moon exospheres and is equipped with a sensitive MCP ion detector. To maintain high sensitivity of the NIM instrument, background signals arising from the presence of a large background of penetrating radiation (mostly high-energy electrons and protons) in Jupiter's magnetosphere have to be minimised. We investigate the performance of a layered-Z radiation shield, an Al-Ta-Al sandwich, as a potential shielding against high-energy electrons. The experimental investigations were performed at the PiM1 beam line of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facilities located at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The facility delivers a particle beam containing e,  and  with an adjustable momentum ranging from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c. The measurements of the induced radiation background generated during the interaction of primary particles with Al-Ta-Al sandwich were conducted by beam diagnostic methods and a MCP detector. Diagnostic methods provided for the characterisation of the beam parameters (beam geometry, flux and intensity) and identification of individual particles in the primary beam and in the flux of secondary particles. The MCP detector measurements provided information on the effects of radiation and the results of these measurements define the performance of the shielding material in reducing the background arising from penetrating radiation. In parallel, we performed modelling studies using GEANT 4 and GRASS methods to identify products of the interaction and predict their fluxes and particle rates at the MCP detector. Combination of the experiment and modelling studies yields detailed characterisation of the radiation effects produced by the interaction of the incident e- in the

  3. Near UV imager with an MCP-based photon counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambily, S.; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Sreejith, A. G.; Nirmal, K.; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-07-01

    We are developing a compact UV Imager using light weight components, that can be own on a small CubeSat or a balloon platform. The system has a lens-based optics that can provide an aberration-free image over a wide field of view. The backend instrument is a photon counting detector with off-the-shelf MCP, CMOS sensor and electronics. We are using a Z-stack MCP with a compact high voltage power supply and a phosphor screen anode, which is read out by a CMOS sensor and the associated electronics. The instrument can be used to observe solar system objects and detect bright transients from the upper atmosphere with the help of CubeSats or high altitude balloons. We have designed the imager to be capable of working in direct frame transfer mode as well in the photon-counting mode for single photon event detection. The identification and centroiding of each photon event are done using an FPGA-based data acquisition and real-time processing system.

  4. Sector Multipad Prototype of the FMD-MCP Detector for ALICE (1997)

    CERN Document Server

    Antropov, A E; Feofilov, G A; Izrailov, E K; Kasatkin, V A; Klempt, W; Kolojvari, A A; Larin, M P; Lazarev, V A; Novikov, I A; Potapov, S V; Stolyarov, O I; Tsimbal, F A; Tulina, T A; Valiev, F F; Vinogradov, L I

    1997-01-01

    We present results of the technology, manufacturing andfirst tests of a novel MCP-based sector prototypefor the Forward Multiplicity Detector for the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The detector is to provide better than sqrt(M)/Mresolution for high multiplicity events, and about 50 pstiming resolution. Two Sector MCPs are mounted on a 200 ceramics board with the multipad readout integrated with a passive summator. This microelectronics UHF device provides isochronous analogue summation of the fast 1ns signal components from 8 pads, along with the individual readout of charges. The setup is baked under 300C and then sealedinto a singular thin wall (200 ) stainlesssteel vacuum sector chamber with Ti getter keeping a vacuum of 10-5Torr.The separation of the fast and slow componentsallows us to use this detector as the zero level trigger,in pile up and beam-gas interaction diagnostics and for thedetermination of the collision vertex along the beam axis. The results of the first and future lab and in-beam tests are ...

  5. MCP detector read out with a bare quad Timepix at kilohertz frame rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Tremsin, A.; McPhate, J.; Siegmund, O.

    2011-01-01

    The existing Berkeley neutron sensitive MCP/Timepix hybrid detector has been very successful at demonstrating energy resolved spatial imaging with a single Timepix ASIC read out at a ~ 30 Hz frame rate where each neutron's position and time (energy) is determined (X,Y,E). By increasing the detector format using a quad arrangement of Timepix readouts and increasing the frame rate to 1 kHz, we can increase our total event throughput by a factor of 120, thereby taking full advantage of the high fluxes of modern pulsed neutron sources (106 n cm-2 s-1). The key to this conversion is a new design for the ASIC readout, called the Berkeley Quad Timepix detector, consisting of 3 major subsystems. The first is a quad (2 × 2) bare Timepix ASIC board mounted directly behind the neutron sensitive MCPs in a hermetic vacuum enclosure with a sapphire window. The data from the Timepix ASICs flow to the second subsystem called the Interface board whose field programmable gate array (FPGA) rearranges and converts the digital bit stream to LVDS logic levels before sending downstream to the third subsystem, the Roach board. The Roach board is also FPGA based, and takes the data from all the ASICs and analyses the frames to extract information on the input events to pass on to the host PC. This paper describes in detail the hardware and firmware designs to accomplish this task.

  6. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P. K.; Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  7. Quantum efficiencies of imaging detectors with alkali halide photocathodes. I - Microchannel plates with separate and integral CsI photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements and comparisons have been made of the quantum efficiencies of microchannel plate (MCP) detectors in the far-UV (below 2000-A) wavelength range using CsI photocathodes (a) deposited on the front surfaces of microchannel plates and (b) deposited on solid substrates as opaque photocathodes with the resulting photoelectrons input to microchannel plates. The efficiences were measured in both pulse-counting and photodiode modes of operation. Typical efficiencies are about 15 percent at 1216 A for a CsI-coated MCP compared with 65 percent for an opaque CsI photocathode MCP detector. Special processing has yielded an efficiency as high as 20 percent for a CsI-coated MCP. This may possibly be further improved by optimization of the tilt angle of the MCP channels relative to the front face of the MCP and incident radiation. However, at present there still remains a factor of at least 3 quantum efficiency advantage in the separate opaque CsI photocathode configuration.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate detectors I: steady-state voltage bias results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Wu, Craig Kruschwitz, Dane Morgan, Jiaming Morgan

    2008-07-01

    X-ray detectors based on straight-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) are a powerful diagnostic tool for two-dimensional, time-resolved imaging and timeresolved x-ray spectroscopy in the fields of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion and fast z-pinch experiments. Understanding the behavior of microchannel plates as used in such detectors is critical to understanding the data obtained. The subject of this paper is a Monte Carlo computer code we have developed to simulate the electron cascade in a microchannel plate under a static applied voltage. Also included in the simulation is elastic reflection of low-energy electrons from the channel wall, which is important at lower voltages. When model results were compared to measured microchannel plate sensitivities, good agreement was found. Spatial resolution simulations of MCP-based detectors were also presented and found to agree with experimental measurements.

  9. Experimental investigation of the radiation shielding efficiency of a MCP detector in the radiation environment near Jupiter's moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulej, M.; Meyer, S.; Lüthi, M.; Lasi, D.; Galli, A.; Piazza, D.; Desorgher, L.; Reggiani, D.; Hajdas, W.; Karlsson, S.; Kalla, L.; Wurz, P.

    2016-09-01

    Neutral Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) is one of the instruments in the Particle Environmental Package (PEP) designed for the JUICE mission of ESA to the Jupiter system. NIM, equipped with a sensitive MCP ion detector, will conduct detailed measurements of the chemical composition of Jovian icy moons exospheres. To achieve high sensitivity of the instrument, radiation effects due to the high radiation background (high-energy electrons and protons) around Jupiter have to be minimised. We investigate the performance of an Al-Ta-Al composite stack as a potential shielding against high-energy electrons. Experiments were performed at the PiM1 beam line of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facilities located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The facility delivers a particle beam containing e-, μ- and π- with momentum from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c (Hajdas et al., 2014). The measurements of the radiation environment generated during the interaction of primary particles with the Al-Ta-Al material were conducted with dedicated beam diagnostic methods and with the NIM MCP detector. In parallel, modelling studies using GEANT4 and GRAS suites were performed to identify products of the interaction and predict ultimate fluxes and particle rates at the MCP detector. Combination of experiment and modelling studies yields detailed characterisation of the radiation fields produced by the interaction of the incident e- with the shielding material in the range of the beam momentum from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c. We derived the effective MCP detection efficiency to primary and secondary radiation and effective shielding transmission coefficients to incident high-energy electron beam in the range of applied beam momenta. This study shows that the applied shielding attenuates efficiently high-energy electrons. Nevertheless, owing to nearly linear increase of the bremsstrahlung production rate with incident beam energy, above 130 MeV their detection rates measured by the MCP

  10. Status of the Timepix MCP-HPD development

    CERN Document Server

    Tick, T; Michel, T; O'Shea, V; Plackett, R; Pospisil, S; Vallerga, J; Visser, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a high-speed, single-photon sensitive, Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD). The detector consists of a vacuum tube, containing a Micro Channel Plate (MCP) and 4 CMOS pixel readout chips, sealed with a transparent optical input window with a photocathode. The design described here utilizes currently available technologies, specifically the Timepix readout chips and the Photonis Planacon MCP-PMT vacuum tubes. The aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a 4-side buttable square MCP-HPD with high packing fraction sensitive area. Presented here is the mechanical and thermal design of the prototype detector

  11. Microchannel Plate Imaging Detectors for the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Stock, J.; Marsh, D.

    1992-01-01

    There has been significant progress over the last few years in the development of technologies for microchannel plate imaging detectors in the Ultraviolet (UV). Areas where significant developments have occurred include enhancements of quantum detection efficiency through improved photocathodes, advances in microchannel plate performance characteristics, and development of high performance image readout techniques. The current developments in these areas are summarized, with their applications in astrophysical instrumentation.

  12. High Spatial Resolution Investigations of Microchannel Plate Imaging Properties for UV Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Oswald

    1996-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) photon counting detectors are currently being used with great success on many of the recent NASA/ESA ultraviolet (UV) astrophysics missions that make observations in the 1OO A - 1600 A range. These include HUT, the Wide Field Camera on ROSAT, EUVE, ALEXIS, ORFEUS, and SOHO. These devices have also been chosen to fly on future UV astrophysics missions such as FUSE, FUVITA, IMAGE, and both the HST STIS and Advanced Camera instruments. During the period of this award we have fabricated a dual-chamber vacuum test facility to carry out laboratory testing of detector resolution, image stability and linearity, and flat field performance to enable us to characterize the performance of MCPs and their associated read-out architectures. We have also fabricated and tested a laboratory 'test-bed' delay line detector, which can accommodate MCP's with a wide range of formats and run at high data rates, to continue our studies of MCP image fixed pattern noise, and particularly for new small pore MCP's which have recently come onto the market. These tests were mainly focussed on the assessment of cross delay-line (XDL) and double delay line (DDL) anode read-out schemes, with particular attention being focussed on flat-field and spatial resolution performance.

  13. Using pulse shape analysis to improve the position resolution of a resistive anode microchannel plate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Siwal, Davinder; deSouza, R T

    2015-01-01

    Digital signal processing techniques were employed to investigate the joint use of charge division and risetime analyses for the resistive anode (RA) coupled to a microchannel plate detector (MCP). In contrast to the typical approach of using the relative charge at each corner of the RA, this joint approach results in a significantly improved position resolution. A conventional charge division analysis utilizing analog signal processing provides a position measured resolution of 170 $\\mu$m (FWHM). By using the correlation between risetime and position we were able to obtain a measured resolution of 92 $\\mu$m (FWHM), corresponding to an intrinsic resolution of 64 $\\mu$m (FMHM) for a single Z-stack MCP detector.

  14. New Developments in the Position Sensitive Detectors Based on Microchannel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    2002-11-01

    We report on the latest developments in position sensitive photon counting detectors based on microchannel plates. Substantial improvement of the spatial resolution was achieved with introduction of new readout technology, namely crossed strip (XS) anode, and corresponding processing electronics. The spatial resolution of XS readout appeared to be as small as ~3-4 μm FWHM. Reduction of the total detector gain (down to 106 and potentially lower) without compromising the spatial accuracy allows detector operation at much higher local and global counting rates since the microchannel recharge time becomes smaller. Recent developments of novel microchannel plate technologies provide basis for substantial increase of the spectral sensitivity and quantum efficiency of MCP detectors. We have tested a number of new Silicon micromachined MCPs The new MCP technologies should allow deposition of completely new photocathode materials directly on the front surface of microchannel plates (opaque photocathodes). Opposite to standard glass MCPs new Silicon MCPs can sustain high temperatures (-800 C°) required for the photocathode deposition and activation processes.

  15. Fast Micro-Channel Plate Detector for MIPs

    CERN Document Server

    Antropov, A E; Kasatkin, V A; Klempt, W; Kolojvari, A A; Kondratev, V P; Martinov, V; Lazarev, V A; Novikov, I A; Potapov, S V; Stolyarov, O I; Tsimbal, F A; Tulina, T A; Valiev, F F; Vinogradov, L I

    1999-01-01

    Abstract for the 6th International Conference on Advanced Technology and Particle Physics, to be held at Villa Olmo, Como, Italy, 5-9 October 1998. For a couple of the last decades Micro-channel plates (MCPs) are known as a fast (1 ns), fine granularity (5-12µ), high gain (103 -104), excellent time resolution (30-50 ps), high counting rate (1011 1/cm2 was reported) and efficient detector widely used in low energy nuclear physics. Nevertheless, these nice features have not been exploited sufficiently in the high energy experiments so far. The use of MCPs in the HEP experiments demands the developments of technologies different from the low-energy applications: in particular the low mass vacuum thin-wall chambers in the UHV technique. It is the great intrinsic capability of the MCPs for the registration of MIPs, high gain and sharp signals that prompted us to develop a fast multiplicity detector for ALICE at the LHC. The chevron MCP setup (gain up to 10*8) gives a strong signal for the Ultra High Freq...

  16. Cross strip anode readouts for large format, photon counting microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes of the detector and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, John; Raffanti, Rick; Cooney, Michael; Cumming, Harley; Varner, Gary; Seljak, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. Laboratory versions of PXS electronics have demonstrated count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector and electronics from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). The first ASICs designed for this program have been fabricated and are undergoing testing. We present the latest progress on these ASIC designs and performance and show imaging results from the new 50 x 50 mm XS detector.

  17. Lifetime of MCP-PMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, A.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The hadron identification in the PANDA experiment at FAIR will be done with DIRC detectors. Because of design and space reasons the sensors of the DIRCs have to be placed inside the strong magnetic field of the solenoid. As the favored photon sensors microchannel-plate photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs) were identified. However, these devices showed serious aging problems until very recently, which manifest themselves by a fast degrading quantum efficiency (QE) of the photo cathode (PC). This is mainly due to feedback ions from the residual gas. In this paper we discuss the recently accomplished huge improvements in the lifetime of MCP-PMTs. With innovative countermeasures applied to the MCP-PMTs in the attempt to reduce the aging effects the manufacturers were able to increase the lifetime of MCP-PMT prototypes by almost two orders of magnitude compared to the former commercially available devices. Our group has studied the aging of MCP-PMTs for more than four years by simultaneously illuminating different types of lifetime-enhanced MCP-PMTs at the same photon rate. Gain, dark count rate, and QE as a function of the wavelength and the PC surface were measured in regular time intervals and studied in dependence of the integrated anode charge. We observe that MCP-PMTs treated with an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique are by far the best devices available now. A lifetime of up to 10 C/cm2 integrated anode charge was reached with these sensors. This is sufficient for both PANDA DIRCs.

  18. High resolution, two-dimensional imaging, microchannel plate detector for use on a sounding rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Brett C.; Cotton, Daniel M.; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Harris, Walter; Clarke, John

    1991-01-01

    We discuss a high resolution microchannel plate (MCP) imaging detector to be used in measurements of Doppler-shifted hydrogen Lyman-alpha line emission from Jupiter and the interplanetary medium. The detector is housed in a vacuum-tight stainless steel cylinder (to provide shielding from magnetic fields) with a MgF2 window. Operating at nominal voltage, the four plate configuration provides a gain of 1.2 x 10 exp 7 electrons per incident photon. The wedge-and-strip anode has two-dimensional imaging capabilities, with a resolution of 40 microns FWHM over a one centimeter diameter area. The detector has a high quantum efficiency while retaining a low background rate. A KBr photocathode is used to enhance the quantum efficiency of the bare MCPs to a value of 35 percent at Lyman-alpha.

  19. High rate resistive plate chamber for LHC detector upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Y., E-mail: haddad@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet (LLR), École Polytechnique, 91120 Palaiseau (France); Laktineh, I.; Grenier, G.; Lumb, N. [IPNL, Villeurbanne 69622 Lyon (France); Cauwenbergh, S. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) used as muon detectors in the LHC experiments has prevented the use of such detectors in the high rate regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. One alternative to these detectors is RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates (10{sup 10}Ωcm), a beam test at DESY has shown that such detectors can operate at few thousand Hz/cm{sup 2} with high efficiency (>90%)

  20. Cross strip anode readouts for microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, John; Cooney, M.; Raffanti, R.; Varner, G.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (eg. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. The PXS anode is a set of orthogonal conducting strips (80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital (ADC) converter at 50MHz. All of the 160 ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T). Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 the our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). This detector design could then be modified for individual flight opportunities with a higher level of confidence than starting from scratch. We will present the

  1. Measuring position in 2-dimensions using induced signals in a microchannel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Blake; Desouza, Romualdo

    2017-01-01

    Position-sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detectors play an important role in the detection of photons, electrons, ions, and neutrons. Recently, a novel approach has been developed to provide position-sensitivity for an MCP detector. In this approach, namely the induced signal approach, the position of the incident particle is determined by sensing the electron cloud emanating from a MCP stack. The induced signals are inherently bipolar, where the negative lobe of the induced signal corresponds to the approach of the electron cloud to the sense wires and the positive lobe corresponds to the recession of the electron cloud from the sense wires. The zero-crossing point is the time at which the centroid of the charge cloud passes the wire plane. For a single incident electron, a spatial resolution of 103 μm (FWHM) has been achieved by utilizing the zero-crossing point of the induced signals. General considerations suggest that this spatial resolution can be improved by using the entire pulse shape information. The fundamentals of the induced signal approach as well as its implementation in slow neutron radiography will be presented. Supported by the US DOE NNSA under Award No. DE-NA0002012.

  2. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  3. Invited article: a test-facility for large-area microchannel plate detector assemblies using a pulsed sub-picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard; Chollet, Matthieu; Elagin, Andrey; Oberla, Eric; Vostrikov, Alexander; Wetstein, Matthew; Obaid, Razib; Webster, Preston

    2013-06-01

    The Large Area Picosecond Photodetector Collaboration is developing large-area fast photodetectors with time resolution tests on bare 8 in.-square MCP plates or into a smaller chamber for tests on 33-mm circular substrates. We present the experimental setup, detector calibration, data acquisition, analysis tools, and typical results demonstrating the performance of the test facility.

  4. Image Shutters: Gated Proximity-Focused Microchannel-Plate (MCP) Wafer Tubes Versus Gated Silicon Intensified Target (SIT) Vidicons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Ogle, J. W.; Noel, B. W.; Thayer, N. N.

    1983-03-01

    The imaging characteristics of two fast image shutters used for recording the spatial and temporal evolution of transient optical events in the nanosecond range have been studied. Emphasis is on the comparative performances of each shutter type under similar conditions. Response data, including gating speed, gain, dynamic range, shuttering efficiency, and resolution for 18 and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) intensifiers are com-pared with similar data for a prototype electrostatically-focused 25-mm-diam gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) vidicon currently under development for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Several key parameters critical to optical gating speed have been varied in both tube types in order to determine the optimum performance attainable from each design. These include conductive substrate material and thickness used to reduce photocathode resistivity, spacing between gating electrodes to minimize interelectrode capacitance, the use of con-ductive grids on the photocathode substrate to permit rapid propagation of the electrical gate pulse to all areas of the photocathode, and different package geometries to provide a more effective interface with external biasing and gating circuitry. For comparable spatial resolution, most 18-mm-diam MCPs require gate times > 2.5 ns while the fastest SIT has demonstrated sub-nanosecond optical gates as short as r 400 ± 50 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window.

  5. Image shutters: Gated proximity-focused Microchannel Plate (MCP) wafer tubes versus gated Silicon Intensified Target (SIT) vidicons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Ogle, J. W.; Noel, B. W.; Thayer, N. N.

    Response data, including gating speed, gain, dynamic range, shuttering efficiency, and resolution for 18- and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) intensifiers are compared with similar data for a prototype electrostatically-focused 25-mm-diam gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) vidicon. Conductive substrate material and thickness used to reduce photocathode resistivity, spacing between gating electrodes to minimize inter-electrode capacitance, the use of conductive grids on the photocathode substrate to permit rapid propagation of the electrical gate pulse to all areas of the photocathode, and different package geometries to provide a more effective interface with external biasing and gating circuitry were varied in both tube types to determine optimal performance from each design. For comparable spatial resolution, most 18-mm-diam MCPs require gate times 2.5 ns while the fastest SIT has demonstrated sub-nanosecond optical gates as short as approximately 400 + or - 50 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window.

  6. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  7. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apresyan, A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Los, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Pena, C.; Presutti, F. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  8. Optical and UV Sensing Sealed Tube Microchannel Plate Imaging Detectors with High Time Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O.; Vallerga, J.; Tremsin, A.; Hull, J.; Elam, J.; Mane, A.

    2014-09-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) based imaging, photon time tagging detector sealed tube schemes have a unique set of operational features that enable high time resolution astronomical and remote sensing applications to be addressed. New detectors using the cross strip (XS), cross delay line (XDL), or stripline anode readouts, a wide range of photocathode types, and advanced MCP technologies have been implemented to improve many performance characteristics. A variety of sealed tubes have been developed including 18mm XS readout devices with GaAs and SuperGenII photocathodes, 25mm XDL readout devices with SuperGenII and GaN photocathodes, and 20 x 20 cm sealed tubes with bialkali photocathodes and strip line readout. One key technology that has just become viable is the ability to make MCPs using atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. This employs nanofabrication of the active layers of an MCP on a microcapillary array. This technique opens new performance opportunities, including, very large MCP areas (>20cm), very low intrinsic background, lower radiation induced background, much longer overall lifetime and gain stability, and markedly lower outgassing which can improve the sealed tube lifetime and ease of fabrication. The XS readout has been implemented in formats of 22mm, 50mm and 100mm, and uses MCP charge signals detected on two orthogonal layers of conductive fingers to encode event X-Y positions. We have achieved spatial resolution XS detectors better than 25 microns FWHM, with good image linearity while at low gain (5 MHz with ~12% dead time and event timing accuracy of ~100ps. XDL sealed tubes in 25mm format demonstrate ~40 micron spatial resolution at up to ~2 MHz event rates, and have been developed with SupergenII visible regime photocathodes. The XDL tubes also achieve ~100 ps time resolution. Most recently ALD MCPs with an opaque GaN photocathode (100-350nm range) on the MCP surface has been demonstrated in a sealed tube configuration. These ALD MCPs show

  9. Study of the timing performance of micro-channel plate photomultiplier for use as an active layer in a shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A., E-mail: ronzhin@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, Il 60510 (United States); Los, S.; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab, Batavia, Il 60510 (United States); Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91126 (United States); Kim, H. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Il 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We continue the study of micro-channel plate photomultiplier (MCP-PMT) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present test beam results obtained with Photek 240 and Photonis XP85011 MCP-PMTs devices. For proton beams, we obtained a time resolution of 9.6 ps, representing a significant improvement over past results using the same time of flight system. For electron beams, the time resolution obtained for this new type of SM detector is measured to be at the level of 13 ps when we use Photek 240 as the active element of the SM. Using the Photonis XP85011 MCP-PMT as the active element of the SM, we performed time resolution measurements with pixel readout, and achieved a TR better than 30 ps, The pixel readout was observed to improve upon the TR compared to the case where the individual channels were summed.

  10. Centroiding algorithms for high speed crossed-strip readout of microchannel plate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallerga, John, E-mail: jvv@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Tremsin, Anton [Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Raffanti, Rick [Techne Instruments Inc., 4066 Oakmore Rd, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Siegmund, Oswald [Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Imaging microchannel plate (MCP) detectors with cross-strip (XS) readout anodes require centroiding algorithms to determine the location of the amplified charge cloud from the incident radiation, be it photon or particle. We have developed a massively parallel XS readout electronic system that employs an amplifier and ADC for each strip and uses this digital data to calculate the centroid of each event in real time using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). Doing the calculations in real time in the front end electronics using an FPGA enables a much higher input event rate, nearly two orders of magnitude faster by avoiding the bandwidth limitations of the raw data transfer to a computer. We report on our detailed efforts to optimize the algorithms used on both 18 and 40 mm diameter XS MCP detector with strip pitch of 640 {mu}m and readout with multiple 32 channel 'Preshape32' ASIC amplifiers (developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory). Each strip electrode is continuously digitized to 12 bits at 50 MHz with all 64 digital channels (128 for the 40 mm detector) transferred to a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. We describe how events are detected in the continuous data stream and then multiplexed into firmware modules that spatially and temporally filter and weight the input after applying offset and gain corrections. We will contrast a windowed 'center of gravity' algorithm to a convolution with a special centroiding kernel in terms of resolution and distortion and show results with<20 {mu}m FWHM resolution at input rates>1 MHz.

  11. Gamma-ray detection efficiency of the microchannel plate installed as an ion detector in the low energy particle instrument onboard the GEOTAIL satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y T; Yoshikawa, I; Yoshioka, K; Terasawa, T; Saito, Y; Mukai, T

    2007-03-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP) assembly has been used as an ion detector in the low energy particle (LEP) instrument onboard the magnetospheric satellite GEOTAIL. Recently the MCP assembly has detected gamma rays emitted from an astronomical object and has been shown to provide unique information of gamma rays if they are intense enough. However, the detection efficiency for gamma rays was not measured before launch, and therefore we could not analyze the LEP data quantitatively. In this article, we report the gamma-ray detection efficiency of the MCP assembly. The measured efficiencies are 1.29%+/-0.71% and 0.21%+/-0.14% for normal incidence 60 and 662 keV gamma rays, respectively. The incident angle dependence is also presented. Our calibration is crucial to study high energy astrophysical phenomena by using the LEP.

  12. Resolution changes of MCP-PMTs in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, J.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-05-01

    Micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs) are chosen in many applications that have to cope with strong magnetic fields. The DIRC detectors of the PANDA experiment plan to employ them as they show excellent timing characteristics, radiation hardness, relatively low dark count rates and sufficient lifetime. This article mainly focuses on the performance of the position reconstruction of detected photons. Two different MCP-PMTs with segmented anode geometries have been tested in magnetic fields of different strengths. The variation of their performance has been studied. The measurements show improved position resolution and image shifts with increasing magnetic field strength.

  13. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M. [CEA LIST, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Mathy, F. [CEA-LETI, Campus Minatec, F-38054, Grenoble (France); Schumm, A. [EDF R and D, 1 avenue du général de gaulle 92141 Clamart (France)

    2014-02-18

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI.

  14. Neutron detection with imaging plates Part II. Detector characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Thoms, M

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the physical processes described in Neutron detection with imaging plates - part I: image storage and readout [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 424 (1999) 26-33] detector characteristics, such as quantum efficiency, detective quantum efficiency, sensitivity to neutron- and gamma-radiation, readout time and dynamic range are predicted. It is estimated that quantum efficiencies and detective quantum efficiencies close to 100% can be reached making these kind of detectors interesting for a wide range of applications.

  15. Antiproton, positron, and electron imaging with a microchannel plate/phosphor detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A. P.; Pusa, P.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP)/phosphor screen assembly has been used to destructively measure the radial profile of cold, confined antiprotons, electrons, and positrons in the ALPHA experiment, with the goal of using these trapped particles for antihydrogen creation and confinement. The response of the MCP to low energy (10-200 eV, <1 eV spread) antiproton extractions is compared to that of electrons and positrons.

  16. Antiproton, positron, and electron imaging with a microchannel plate/phosphor detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jørgensen, L V; Kerrigan, S J; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

    2009-01-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP)/phosphor screen assembly has been used to destructively measure the radial profile of cold, confined antiprotons, electrons, and positrons in the ALPHA experiment, with the goal of using these trapped particles for antihydrogen creation and confinement. The response of the MCP to low energy (10-200 eV, <1 eV spread) antiproton extractions is compared to that of electrons and positrons.

  17. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  18. Single electron counting using a dual MCP assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuzhen [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Shulin, E-mail: liusl@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Tianchi, E-mail: tianchi@u.washington.edu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Yan, Baojun; Wang, Peiliang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Yang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Science, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Lei, Xiangcui [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Luping [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wen, Kaile [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Ming [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); and others

    2016-09-11

    The gain, pulse height resolution and peak-to-valley ratio of single electrons detected by using a Chevron configured Microchannel Plate (MCP) assembly are studied. The two MCPs are separated by a 280 µm gap and are biased by four electrodes. The purpose of the study is to determine the optimum bias voltage arrangements for single electron counting. By comparing the results of various bias voltage combinations, we conclude that good performance for the electron counting can be achieved by operating the MCP assembly in saturation mode. In addition, by applying a small reverse bias voltage across the gap while adjusting the bias voltages of the MCPs, optimum performance of electron counting can be obtained. - Highlights: • Dual MCPs assembly with four electrodes using different voltage combinations has been investigated for single electron counting. • Both the MCP voltages and the gap voltage can affect the gain, pulse height resolution and P/V ratio. • A high gain of the first stage MCP, a saturation mode of the second stage MCP and an appropriately reverse gap voltage can improve the resolution greatly. • The optimum voltage arrangements is significant for the design of MCP detectors in single electron counting applications.

  19. Characterisation and testing of a prototype $6 \\times 6$ cm$^2$ Argonne MCP-PMT

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, Greig A; Needham, Matthew; Gambetta, Silvia; Eisenhardt, Stephan; McBlane, Neil; Malek, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Argonne micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) is an offshoot of the Large Area Pico-second Photo Detector (LAPPD) project, wherein \\mbox{6 $\\times$ 6 cm$^2$} sized detectors are made at Argonne National Laboratory. Measurements of the properties of these detectors, including gain, time and spatial resolution, dark count rates, cross-talk and sensitivity to magnetic fields are reported. In addition, possible applications of these devices in future neutrino and collider physics experiments are discussed.

  20. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu; Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 10{sup 4} simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 µm, while >10{sup 3} simultaneous events can be detected with <10 µm spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×10{sup 8} particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10–20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  1. Analysis of Interplanetary Dust Experiment Detectors and Other Witness Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, D. P.; Wortman, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of analytical procedures for identifying the chemical composition of residue from impacts that occurred on the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) detectors during the flight of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the carrying out of actual analysis on IDE detectors and other witness plates are discussed. Two papers on the following topics are presented: (1) experimental analysis of hypervelocity microparticle impact sites on IDE sensor surfaces; and (2) contaminant interfaces with secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) analysis of microparticle impactor residues on LDEF surfaces.

  2. The Detector Control Systems for the CMS Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Paolucci, P; Gómez-Reino, R; Viviani, C; Shahzad, R; Khurshid, T

    2010-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber system is composed by 912 double-gap chambers equipped with about $10^4$ front-end boards. The correct and safe operation of the RPC system requires a sophisticated and complex online Detector Control System, able to monitor and control 2$\\cdot10^4$ hardware devices distributed on an area of about 5000 m$^2$. The RPC DCS acquires, monitors and stores about $10^5$ parameters coming from the detector, the electronics, the power system, the gas, and cooling systems. The DCS system and the first results, obtained during the 2007 and 2008 CMS cosmic runs, will be described in this paper.

  3. X-ray photon-counting detector based on a micro-channel plate for pulsar navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baomei Chen; Baosheng Zhao; Huijun Hu; Qiurong Yan; Lizhi Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The pulse time of arrival (TOA) is a determining parameter for accurate timing and positioning in X-ray pulsar navigation. The pulse TOA can be calculated by comparing the measured arrival time with the predicted arrival time of the X-ray pulse for pulsar. In this study, in order to research the measurement of pulse arrival time, an experimental system is set up. The experimental system comprises a simulator of the X-ray pulsar, an X-ray detector, a time-measurement system, and a data-processing system. An X-ray detector base is proposed on the basis of the micro-channel plate (MCP), which is sensitive to soft X-ray in the 1-10 keV band. The MCP-based detector, the structure and principle of the experimental system, and results of the pulse profile are described in detail. In addition, a discussion of the effects of different X-ray pulse periods and the quantum efficiency of the detector on pulse-profile signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. Experimental results reveal that the SNR of the measured pulse profile becomes enhanced as the quantum efficiency of the detector increases. The SNR of the pulse profile is higher when the period of the pulse is smaller at the same integral.%@@ The pulse time of arrival (TOA) is a determining parameter for accurate timing and positioning in X-ray pulsar navigation.The pulse TOA can be calculated by comparing the measured arrival time with the predicted arrival time of the X-ray pulse for pulsar.In this study, in order to research the measurement of pulse arrival time, an experimental system is set up.The experimental system comprises a simulator of the X-ray pulsar, an X-ray detector, a time-measurement system, and a data-processing system.An X-ray detector base is proposed on the basis of the micro-channel plate (MCP), which is sensitive to soft X-ray in the 1-10 keV band.The MCP-based detector, the structure and principle of the experimental system,and results of the pulse profile are described in detail.In addition, a

  4. A Directional Gamma-Ray Detector Based on Scintillator Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D; Boyle, P; MacLeod, A M L

    2015-01-01

    A simple device for determining the azimuthal location of a source of gamma radiation, using ideas from astrophysical gamma-ray burst detection, is described. A compact and robust detector built from eight identical modules, each comprising a plate of CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube, can locate a point source of gamma rays with degree-scale precision by comparing the count rates in the different modules. Sensitivity to uniform environmental background is minimal.

  5. Heating of Microchannel Plates Detector Positioned Inside the LHC Beam Pipe by the Electromagnetic Fields of Relativistic Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Dubenskiy, V P; CERN. Geneva; Tsimbal, F A

    1995-01-01

    Here we present the results of our estimates of upper limits for heating induced by the relativistic beams of charged particles at the future LHC in the MCP detector placed inside the beam pipe. The energy losses are small for the uppermost intensities of the beams to be expected: less than 0.0033 Wt for the conductive cromium MCP cladding and not greater than 0.02 Wt for the dialectric MCP body (for the whole MCP disk of 100 sq.cm area). The special measurements of the dispersion law e(w) of the MCP dialectric material have been performed in order to get the reference data to the analytical calculations. The approaches outlined here could be applied to any detector positioned in the vicinity of the beams. The possible problems of the beam induced electrical signal in the detector circuits are touched also.

  6. Comparison of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N, GR-200A) and alpha-Al203:C TL detectors in short-term measurements of natural radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budzanowski, M.; Bilski, P.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1996-01-01

    Results are reported of tests of GR-200A (LiF:Mg,Cu,P Chinese production), MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P Polish production) and alpha-Al2O3 highly sensitive TL detectors used in short-term measurements of natural radiation performed within the EU Intercalibration by the Polish (INP) and Spanish (CIEMAT...

  7. Application of imaging plate neutron detector to neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Fujine, S; Kamata, M; Etoh, M

    1999-01-01

    As an imaging plate neutron detector (IP-ND) has been available for thermal neutron radiography (TNR) which has high resolution, high sensitivity and wide range, some basic characteristics of the IP-ND system were measured at the E-2 facility of the KUR. After basic performances of the IP were studied, images with high quality were obtained at a neutron fluence of 2 to 7x10 sup 8 n cm sup - sup 2. It was found that the IP-ND system with Gd sub 2 O sub 3 as a neutron converter material has a higher sensitivity to gamma-ray than that of a conventional film method. As a successful example, clear radiographs of the flat view for the fuel side plates with boron burnable poison were obtained. An application of the IP-ND system to neutron radiography (NR) is presented in this paper.

  8. A high resolution, high frame rate detector based on a microchannel plate read out with the Medipix2 counting CMOS pixel chip.

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, Bettina; McPhate, J B; Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The future of ground-based optical astronomy lies with advancements in adaptive optics (AO) to overcome the limitations that the atmosphere places on high resolution imaging. A key technology for AO systems on future very large telescopes are the wavefront sensors (WFS) which detect the optical phase error and send corrections to deformable mirrors. Telescopes with >30 m diameters will require WFS detectors that have large pixel formats (512x512), low noise (<3 e-/pixel) and very high frame rates (~1 kHz). These requirements have led to the idea of a bare CMOS active pixel device (the Medipix2 chip) functioning in counting mode as an anode with noiseless readout for a microchannel plate (MCP) detector and at 1 kHz continuous frame rate. First measurement results obtained with this novel detector are presented both for UV photons and beta particles.

  9. Compact MCP assemblies for mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, S. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Umebayashi, S. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Kusuyama, Y. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Natsume, Y. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Oba, K. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.

    1995-09-01

    We have developed compact microchannel plate (MCP) assemblies which have a high gain, good pulse height resolution and a fast response for MS applications. In this paper, these new assemblies are described referring to their structures, functions and characteristics. (orig.).

  10. MCP-based Photodetectors for Cryogenic Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel; Elam, Jeffrey; May, Edward; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Xia, Lei; Xie, Junqi; Zhao, Huyue; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    The Argonne MCP-based photo detector is an offshoot of the Large Area Pico-second Photo Detector (LAPPD) project, wherein 6 cm x 6 cm sized detectors are made at Argonne National Laboratory. We have successfully built and tested our first detectors for pico-second timing and few mm spatial resolution. We discuss our efforts to customize these detectors to operate in a cryogenic environment. Initial plans aim to operate in liquid argon. We are also exploring ways to mitigate wave length shifting requirements and also developing bare-MCP photodetectors to operate in a gaseous cryogenic environment.

  11. Comparison of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N, GR-200A) and alpha-Al203:C TL detectors in short-term measurements of natural radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budzanowski, M.; Bilski, P.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1996-01-01

    Results are reported of tests of GR-200A (LiF:Mg,Cu,P Chinese production), MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P Polish production) and alpha-Al2O3 highly sensitive TL detectors used in short-term measurements of natural radiation performed within the EU Intercalibration by the Polish (INP) and Spanish (CIEMAT......) participants. The experiment was carried out in Roskilde, Denmark, by Riso National Laboratory. To assess only the cosmic component of natural radiation, detectors were exposed on a wooden pier. The actual dose rate was monitored over the total exposure time of three days by a Renter-Stokes high pressure...... ionisation chamber. Results obtained with MCP-N and GR-200A were, for both teams, about 32 nGy.h(-1), for alpha-Al2O3:C about 49 nGy.h(-1), while the chamber-evaluated mean dose rate was about 40 nGy.h(-1). It was found that all tested detectors (MCP-N, GR-200A and alpha-Al2O3:C) are capable of measuring...

  12. Performance of Small Pore Microchannel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Ravinett, T.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Edgar, M.

    1995-01-01

    Small pore size microchannel plates (MCP's) are needed to satisfy the requirements for future high resolution small and large format detectors for astronomy. MCP's with pore sizes in the range 5 micron to 8 micron are now being manufactured, but they are of limited availability and are of small size. We have obtained sets of Galileo 8 micron and 6.5 micron MCP's, and Philips 6 micron and 7 micron pore MCP's, and compared them to our larger pore MCP Z stacks. We have tested back to back MCP stacks of four of these MCP's and achieved gains greater than 2 x 1O(exp 7) with pulse height distributions of less than 40% FWHM, and background rates of less than 0.3 events sec(exp -1) cm(exp -2). Local counting rates up to approx. 100 events/pore/sec have been attained with little drop of the MCP gain. The bare MCP quantum efficiencies are somewhat lower than those expected, however. Flat field images are characterized by an absence of MCP fixed pattern noise.

  13. Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Jelinsky, P.

    1986-01-01

    The calibration of photon counting imaging detectors for satellite based EUV astronomy is a complex process designed to ensure the validity of the data received 'in orbit'. The methods developed to accomplish calibration of microchannel plate detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer are described and illustrated. The characterization of these detectors can be subdivided into three categories: stabilization, performance tests, and environmental tests.

  14. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche fission detector for use in particle induced fission coincidence measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plicht, J. van der

    1980-01-01

    A parallel plate avalanche detector developed for the detection of fission fragments in particle induced fission reactions is described. The active area is 6 × 10 cm2; it is position sensitive in one dimension with a resolution of 2.5 mm. The detector can withstand a count rate of 25000 fission

  15. Neutron diffractometer for bio-crystallography (BIX) with an imaging plate neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    We have constructed a dedicated diffractometer for neutron crystallography in biology (BIX) on the JRR-3M reactor at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). The diffraction intensity from a protein crystal is weaker than that from most inorganic materials. In order to overcome the intensity problem, an elastically bent silicon monochromator and a large area detector system were specially designed. A preliminary result of diffraction experiment using BIX has been reported. An imaging plate neutron detector has been developed and a feasibility experiment was carried out on BIX. Results are reported. An imaging plate neutron detector has been developed and a feasibility test was carried out using BIX.

  16. Silicon Microchannel Plate Large Area UV Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA GSFC need for efficient UV photodetectors for NASA missions, such as the follow-on to FUV detectors of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Physical...

  17. Therapy imaging: a signal-to-noise analysis of metal plate/film detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, P; Rawlinson, J A; Fenster, A

    1987-01-01

    We have measured the modulation transfer functions [MTF (f)'s] and the noise power spectra [NPS (f)] of therapy x-ray detectors irradiated by 60Co, 6- and 18-MV radiotherapy beams. Using these quantities, we have calculated the noise-equivalent quanta [NEQ (f)] and the detective quantum efficiency [DQE (f)] to quantitate the limitations of therapy detectors. The detectors consisted of film or fluorescent screen-film combinations in contact with copper, lead, or tungsten metal plates. The resolution of the detectors was found to be comparable to fluorescent screen-film combinations used in diagnostic radiology, however, the signal-to-noise ratio [SNR (f)] of the detectors was limited due to film granularity. We conclude that improved images can be obtained by using alternative detector systems which have less noise or film granularity.

  18. A parallel plate avalanche detector system for the localization of relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgei, R.; Demoulins, M.; Cavata, C.; Fanet, H.; Gosset, J.; Le Merdy, A.; L' Hote, D.; Lucas, B.; Lugol, J.C.; Poitou, J.; Valette, O. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire); Lemaire, M.C. (Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France) CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Recherche Fondamentale (IRF))

    1990-02-15

    Parallel plate avalanche counters have been designed and used for the localization of relativistic heavy ions. They have been tested with alpha particles from a {sup 241}Am source. They have been used with the heavy-ion beams from Saturne in conjunction with the 4{pi} detector Diogene. They provide an accurate measurement of the vertex position with high efficiency. (orig.).

  19. Microchannel Plates for the UVCS and SUMER Instruments on the SOHO Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Sasseen, T.; Jelinsky, P.; Gaines, G. A.; Hull, J.; Stock, J. M.; Edgar, M.; Welsh, B.; Jelinsky, S.; Vallerga, J.

    1995-01-01

    The microchannel plates for the detectors in the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) and UVCS (Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer) instruments aboard the Solar Orbiting Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission to be launched in late 1995 are described. A low resistance Z stack of microchannel plates (MCP's) is employed in a detector format of 27 mm x 10 mm using a multilayer cross delay line anode (XDL) with 1024 x 360 digitized pixels. The MCP stacks provide gains of greater than 2 x 10(exp 7) with good pulse height distributions (as low as 25% FWHM) under uniform flood illumination. Background rates of approx. 0.6 event cm(exp -2) sec(exp -1) are obtained for this configuration. Local counting rates up to about 800 events/pixel/sec have been achieved with little drop of the MCP gain. MCP preconditioning results are discussed, showing that some MCP stacks fail to have gain decreases when subjected to a high flux UV scrub. Also, although the bare MCP quantum efficiencies are close to those expected (10%), we found that the long wavelength response of KBr photocathodes could be substantially enhanced by the MCP scrubbing process. Flat field images are characterized by a low level of MCP fixed pattern noise and are stable. Preliminary calibration results for the instruments are shown.

  20. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleri, L.; Amaro, F. D.; Arazi, L.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Breskin, A.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Oliveri, E.; Pereira, F. A.; Shaked Renous, D.; Schaarschmidt, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Bressler, S.

    2016-09-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30 × 30 cm2 Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm2 readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (> 98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~ 1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH4), Ar/(5%CH4) and Ar/(7%CO2). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  1. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L

    2016-01-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30$\\times$30 cm$^2$ Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm$^2$ readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (>98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  2. Effects of variation of environmental parameters on the performance of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meghna, K.K. [INO Graduate Training Programme and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Biswas, S. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Jash, A. [INO Graduate Training Programme and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Saha, S., E-mail: satyajit.saha@saha.ac.in [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-04-21

    Performance of single gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors is investigated under variation of environmental parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity. Operational characteristics of the RPCs depend on both the environmental temperature and the relative humidity. Sensitivity to such dependence is found to be more on temperature rather than the relative humidity. Qualitative interpretation of some of the results obtained is given based on the known properties of the electrode materials and gases used in the detectors. - Highlights: • Performance of single gap bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors is investigated under independent variation of environmental temperature and relative humidity. • Parameters such as leakage currents, noise rates, efficiency and timing characteristics of RPCs are investigated. • Operational characteristics of the RPCs depend on both the environmental temperature and the relative humidity. • Sensitivity of the operational parameters to variation of environmental parameters is found to be more on temperature rather than the relative humidity.

  3. Tremendously increased lifetime of MCP-PMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, A.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-02-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) PMTs are very attractive photon sensors for low light level applications in strong magnetic fields. However, until recently the main drawback of MCP-PMTs was their aging behavior which manifests itself in a limited lifetime due to a rapidly decreasing quantum efficiency (QE) of the photo cathode (PC) as the integrated anode charge (IAC) increases. In the latest models of PHOTONIS, Hamamatsu, and BINP novel techniques are applied to avoid these aging effects which are supposed to be mainly caused by feedback ion impinging on the PC and damaging it. For more than four years we are running a long-term aging test with new lifetime-enhanced MCP-PMT models by simultaneously illuminating various PMTs with roughly the same photon rate. This allows a fair comparison of the lifetime of all investigated MCP-PMTs and will give some insight into the best techniques to be applied for a lifetime enhancement. In this paper the results of comprehensive aging tests will be discussed. Gain, dark count rate and QE were investigated for their dependence on the IAC. The QE was measured spectrally resolved and as a function of the position across the PC to identify regions where the damage develops first. For the best performing tubes the lifetime improvement compared to former MCP-PMTs is a factor of ∼ 50 based on an IAC of meanwhile > 10 C /cm2. This breakthrough in the lifetime of MCP-PMTs was achieved by coating the MCP pores with an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique.

  4. Saturation and Dynamic Range of Microchannel Plate-Based X-Ray Imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    2012-05-04

    This paper describes recent advances in Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP)–based x-ray detectors, a continuation of ongoing work in this area. A Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed over the past several years by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The model simulates the secondary electron emission process in an MCP pore and includes the effects of gain saturation. In this work we focus on MCP gain saturation and dynamic range. We have performed modeling and experimental characterizations of L/D = 46, 10-micron diameter, MCP-based detectors. The detectors are typically operated by applying a subnanosecond voltage pulse, which gates the detector on. Agreement between the simulations and experiment is very good for a variety of voltage pulse waveforms ranging in width from 150 to 300 ps. The results indicate that such an MCP begins to show nonlinear gain around 5 × 10^4 electrons per pore and hard saturation around 105 electrons per pore. The simulations show a difference in MCP sensitivity vs voltage for high flux of photons producing large numbers of photoelectrons on a subpicosecond timescale. Simulations and experiments both indicate an MCP dynamic range of 1 to 10,000, and the dynamic range depends on how the voltage is applied.

  5. The multigap resistive plate chamber as a time-of-flight detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Basile, M; Cerron-Zeballos, E; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Choi, J; Cozzoni, B; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Kim, D W; Kim, N Y; Klempt, W; Kluge, A; Laurenti, G; Lee, S C; Golovine, V; Hatzifotiadou, D; Martemyanov, A N; Martinengo, P; Pesci, A; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Seganti, A; Semak, A A; Smirnitsky, A V; Spegel, M; Szymanski, P; Valenti, G; Vicinanza, D; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this R&D has been to reach the time resolution needed for time-of-flight detectors using the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC). We present here a MRPC with a time resolution of 70 ps. This prototype has been studied within the R&D program for the very large area TOF array of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. (5 refs).

  6. Front-End electronics development for the new Resistive Plate Chamber detector of HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J. A.; González-Díaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Lange, J. S.; Marín, J.; Montes, N.; Skott, P.; Traxler, M.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we present the new RPC wall, which is being installed in the HADES detector at Darmstadt GSI. It consists of time-of-flight (TOF) detectors used for both particle identification and triggering. Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are becoming widely used because of their excellent TOF capabilities and reduced cost. The wall will contain 1024 RPC modules, covering an active area of around 7 m2, replacing the old TOFino detector at the low polar angle region. The excellent TOF and good charge resolutions of the new detector will improve the time resolution to values better than 100 ps. The Front-End electronics for the readout of the RPC signals is implemented with two types of boards to satisfy the space constraints: the Daughterboards are small boards that amplify the low level signals from the detector and provide fast discriminators for time of flight measurements, as well as an integrator for charge measurements. The Motherboard provides stable DC voltages and a stable ground, threshold DACs for the discriminators, multiplicity trigger and impedance matched paths for transfer of time window signals that contain information about time and charge. These signals are sent to a custom TDC board that label each event and send data through Ethernet to be conveniently stored.

  7. Novel large format sealed tube microchannel plate detectors for Cherenkov timing and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmund, O.H.W., E-mail: ossy@ssl.berkeley.ed [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Tremsin, A.S.; Jelinsky, S.R. [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Frisch, H.J. [Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-05-21

    Large area (20x20 cm{sup 2}) sealed tube detectors using novel borosilicate glass microchannel plates, with bialkali photocathodes and strip-line readouts are being developed for Cherenkov light detection. Designs based on conventional sealed tubes with alumina brazed body construction and hot indium seals have been developed. Borosilicate glass substrates with 20 and 40 {mu}m holes have been processed using atomic layer deposition to produce functional microchannel plates. Initial results for these in a 33 mm format show gain, imaging performance, pulse shape and lifetime characteristics that are similar to standard glass microchannel plates. Large area (20x20 cm{sup 2}) borosilicate glass substrates with 20 {mu}m pores have also been made.

  8. A new type of detector time of flight - multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; Eppley, G; Geurts, F J M; Huang, S; Li, C; Liu, H; Llope, W J; Ruan, L; Shao, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z; Wu, J; Xu, Z; Zhang, Z

    2004-01-01

    Multi-gap resistive plate chamber is a new detector technology. It was first developed by the LHC-ALICE group at CERN in the late 1990s. The MRPC is a ideal detector for time-of-flight measurement due to its small gaps and works in the proportional (avalanche) mode. The beam test of single module result shows that MRPC tuning resolution is better than 70ps and the detection efficiency is higher than 95%. It is also radiation hard. A time-of-flight tray with 28 on MRPC modules. was tested at AGS. The average timing resolution is about 75ps (including the 4cm of beam spread) and detection efficiency is better than 95%. This tray has been installed on STAR detector system in October 2002 and used on the 200GeV d+Au experiment.

  9. High-speed microstrip multi-anode multichannel plate detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Rohner, Urs; Wurz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    High-speed detector systems with high dynamic range and pulse width characteristics in the sub-nanosecond regime are mandatory for high resolution and highly sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Typically, for a reasonable detector area, an impedance-matched anode design is necessary to transmit the registered signal fast and distortion-free from the anode to the signal acquisition system. In this report, a high-speed microstrip multi-anode multichannel plate detector is presented and discussed. The anode consists of four separate active concentric anode segments allowing a simultaneous readout of signal with a dynamic range of about eight orders of magnitude. The impedance matched anode segments show pulse width of about 250 ps, measured at full width at half maximum, and rise time of ˜170 ps, measured with an oscilloscope with a sampling rate of 20 GS/s and 4 GHz analogue bandwidth. The usage of multichannel plates as signal amplifier allowed the design of a lightweight, low power consuming, and compact detector system, suitable, e.g., for the integration into space instrumentation or portable systems where size, weight, and power consumption are limited parameters.

  10. Two micron pore size MCP-based image intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, John; Estrera, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Image intensifiers (I2) have many advantages as detectors. They offer single photon sensitivity in an imaging format, they're light in weight and analog I2 systems can operate for hours on a single AA battery. Their light output is such as to exploit the peak in color sensitivity of the human eye. Until recent developments in CMOS sensors, they also were one of the highest resolution sensors available. The closest all solid state solution, the Texas Instruments Impactron chip, comes in a 1 megapixel format. Depending on the level of integration, an Impactron based system can consume 20 to 40 watts in a system configuration. In further investing in I2 technology, L-3 EOS determined that increasing I2 resolution merited a high priority. Increased I2 resolution offers the system user two desirable options: 1) increased detection and identification ranges while maintaining field-of-view (FOV) or 2) increasing FOV while maintaining the original system resolution. One of the areas where an investment in resolution is being made is in the microchannel plate (MCP). Incorporation of a 2 micron MCP into an image tube has the potential of increasing the system resolution of currently fielded systems. Both inverting and non-inverting configurations are being evaluated. Inverting tubes are being characterized in night vision goggle (NVG) and sights. The non-inverting 2 micron tube is being characterized for high resolution I2CMOS camera applications. Preliminary measurements show an increase in the MTF over a standard 5 micron pore size, 6 micron pitch plate. Current results will be presented.

  11. Design of a new vacuum Compton gamma-ray detector with clad metal electron-converter plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Hetong; Wang Qunshu; Xia Liangbin; Guan Xingyin; Tan Xinjian; Zhang Zichuan

    2009-01-01

    A newly designed vacuum Compton gamma-ray detector with Ta-Al clad-metal electron converter plate is de-scribed. The detecting efficiency for 1.25 MeV gamma-ray is 7.85×10-3 electron/γ, which is 2.5 times higher than that with Fe converter plate. The designed detector has the merits of well processed and static vacuum keeping and can be used for intense pulsed gamma ray detecting.

  12. HV Test of the CTS Edgeless Silicon Detector in Vacuum and Close to a Grounded Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    The TOTEM Roman Pot Silicon sensors will be operated in vacuum to minimise the mechanical stress of the thin metal window which separates the detector package from the ultra high vacuum of the beam. To approach the beam axis as close as possible the detectors will be mounted with their edge at a distance of the order 100 - 200 um from the thin metal window. As the detectors will be run in overdepletion mode to allow the full charge collection within the shaping time of the readout electronics, there will be a potential drop of more than 100 V across their edge. Moreover this potential drop might need to be further increased with the accumulated radiation dose. The main goals of the tests described in this note are: - Characterisation of the voltage-current characteristics when the detector edge is in the direct vicinity of a grounded metal plate which simulates the above mentioned vacuum window; - Demonstration of the detector operation in vacuum at different pressures.

  13. A 4-Channel Waveform Sampling ASIC in 0.13 μm CMOS for front-end Readout of Large-Area Micro-Channel Plate Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberla, E.; Grabas, H.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H.; Genat, J. F.; Nishimura, K.; Varner, G.; Wong, A.

    We describe here the development of PSEC-3, a custom integrated circuit designed in the IBM-8RF 0.13 μm CMOS process and intended for fast, low-power waveform sampling. As part of the Large-Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD) collaboration, this chip has been designed as a prototype application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the front-end transmission line readout of large-area micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs). With 4 channels, PSEC-3 has a buffer depth of 256 samples on each channel, a chip-parallel ramp-compare ADC, and a serial data readout that includes the capability for region-of-interest windowing to reduce dead time. Chip calibrations and performance results, including achieved sampling rates of 2.5-17 GSa/s, are reported. Some design issues are identified, in particular the dependence of analog bandwidth on location in the sampling array. The causes have been found and addressed in a subsequent PSEC-4 submission.

  14. A 200 cm x 50 cm large multigap resistive plate chamber based neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Elekes, Zoltan; Bemmerer, Daniel; Kempe, Mathias; Sobiella, Manfred; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Roeder, Marko; Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A prototype for a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) based detector of 200 cm x 50 cm size for 1 GeV neutrons has been developed, built and tested. The principle of operation is the conversion of the high-energy neutron to a charged particle in an iron converter, and the detection of the charged particle in the MRPC. Experiments using the single-electron mode of operation of the ELBE 40 MeV electron accelerator showed that a time resolution of {sigma}{sub t}<100 ps was reached for minimum-ionizing particles, at nearly full efficiency. Extensive simulations show that it is feasible to construct a time-of-flight detector for GeV neutrons based on such a principle.

  15. Aging study for resistive plate chambers of the CMS muon trigger detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Altieri, S; Belli, G; Bruno, G; Guida, R; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vitulo, P

    2003-01-01

    A long-term aging test of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was carried out with an intense gamma **1**3**7Cs source. The detector was operated in avalanche mode and had the bakelite surface treated with linseed oil. After the irradiation the estimated dose, charge and fluence were approximately equal to the expected values after 10 years of operation in the CMS barrel region. During and after the irradiation, the RPC performance was monitored with cosmic muons and showed no relevant aging effects. Moreover, no variation of the bakelite resistance was observed.

  16. Thomson spectrometer-microchannel plate assembly calibration for MeV-range positive and negative ions, and neutral atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, R. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Abicht, F.; Braenzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Schnuerer, M. [Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Nickles, P. V. [WCU Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, GIST, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    We report on the absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) detector, used in conjunction with a Thomson parabola spectrometer. The calibration delivers the relation between a registered count numbers in the CCD camera (on which the MCP phosphor screen is imaged) and the number of ions incident on MCP. The particle response of the MCP is evaluated for positive, negative, and neutral particles at energies below 1 MeV. As the response of MCP depends on the energy and the species of the ions, the calibration is fundamental for the correct interpretation of the experimental results. The calibration method and arrangement exploits the unique emission symmetry of a specific source of fast ions and atoms driven by a high power laser.

  17. Development of noise-suppressed detector for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Tamotsu; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A noise-suppressed detector for single ion detection has been developed, and combined with the heavy ion microbeam apparatus. This detector consists of a pair of micro channel plates (MCP`s) and a very thin carbon foil. The detection signal is formed by the coincidence of the signals from these MCP`s, so that this detector and the coincidence measurement unit can reduce miscounting in the circuit. The detection efficiency for 15 MeV heavy ions was evaluated to be comparable to that of a silicon surface-barrier detector (SSD) and the miscounting rate was 4 orders lower than the noise rate of a single MCP. The rise time of the detection signal was also estimated. (author)

  18. The Resistive-Plate WELL with Argon mixtures - a robust gaseous radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L; Arazi, L; Rocha Azevedo, Carlos Davide; Oliveri, E; Pitt, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Shaked-Renous, D; Marques Ferreira dos Santos, J; Veloso, Joao Filipe Calapez de Albuquerque; Breskin, A; Bressler, S

    2016-01-01

    A thin single-element THGEM-based, Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector was operated with 150 GeV/c muon and pion beams in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$); signals were recorded with 1 cm$^2$ square pads and SRS/APV25 electronics. Detection efficiency values greater than 98% were reached in all the gas mixtures, at average pad multiplicity of 1.2. The use of the 10$^9${\\Omega}cm resistive plate resulted in a completely discharge-free operation also in intense pion beams. The efficiency remained essentially constant at 98-99% up to fluxes of $\\sim$10$^4$Hz/cm$^2$, dropping by a few % when approaching 10$^5$ Hz/cm$^2$. These results pave the way towards cost-effective, robust, efficient, large-scale detectors for a variety of applications in future particle, astro-particle and applied fields. A potential target application is digital hadron calorimetry.

  19. Calculating and optimizing inter-electrode capacitances of charge division microchannel plate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Bo, E-mail: chenb@ciomp.ac.cn [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang, Hong-Ji; Wang, Hai-Feng; He, Ling-Ping [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Jin, Fang-Yuan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Based on the principle of charge division microchannel plate detectors, the inter-electrode capacitances of charge division anodes which are related to electronic noise of the charge sensitive amplifier and crosstalk effect of the anode are presented. Under all the requirements of charge division microchannel plate detectors such as the imaging linearity and spatial resolution, decreasing the inter-electrode capacitances is one way to improve the imaging performance. In this paper, we illustrate the simulation process of calculating the inter-electrode capacitances. Moreover, a Wedge and Strip (WSZ) anode is fabricated with the picosecond laser micromachining process. Comparing the simulated capacitances and measured capacitances, the three-dimensional finite element method is proved to be valid. Furthermore, by adjusting the design parameters of the anode, the effects of the substrate permittivity, insulation width and the size of pitch on the inter-electrode capacitances have been analysed. The structure of the charge division anode has been optimized based on the simulation data.

  20. Study of timing response and charge spectra of glass based Resistive Plate Chamber detectors for INO-ICAL experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A.; Kumar, A.; Naimuddin, Md.

    2017-03-01

    Resistive Plate chambers (RPCs) are robust and affordable gaseous detectors that combine low cost with excellent timing, good spatial resolution and fast response to the incoming particles. The India Based Neutrino Observatory is an approved project aimed at building a magnetised Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study Neutrino physics and related issues. The ICAL experiment will utilize about 29000 RPC's as active detector elements, sandwiched between alternate plates of thick iron. The RPC detectors will be used to detect muons produced from the atmospheric neutrinos interaction with an iron target. The spatial information of the muons will be extracted from the two dimensional readout and the hit position in the respective layers. The up going and down going directionality will be obtained using the time stamp of hits in the active detectors. The charge induced by the particle and its behaviour with respect to the applied voltage play a significant role in designing the readout electronics for the detector. In this paper, we present the timing and charge measurement of single gap glass based RPC detectors. We will also report about studies on the dependence of the timing and charge response of these RPC detectors as a function of the gas composition.

  1. 2Kx2K resolution element photon counting MCP sensor with >200 kHz event rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J V

    2000-01-01

    Siegmund Scientific undertook a NASA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract to develop a versatile, high-performance photon (or particle) counting detector combining recent technical advances in all aspects of Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector development in a low cost, commercially viable package that can support a variety of applications. The detector concept consists of a set of MCPs whose output electron pulses are read out with a crossed delay line (XDL) anode and associated high-speed event encoding electronics. The delay line anode allows high-resolution photon event centroiding at very high event rates and can be scaled to large formats (>40 mm) while maintaining good linearity and high temporal stability. The optimal sensitivity wavelength range is determined by the choice of opaque photocathodes. Specific achievements included: spatial resolution of 200 000 events s sup - sup 1; local rates of >100 events s sup - sup 1 per resolution element; event timing of <1 ns; and low background ...

  2. Tests of Microchannel Plate (MCP) Detector Response to MeV Electrons in Support of Juno, JUICE, and Europa Mission UVS Instrument Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Davis, M. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Monreal, R. M.; Blase, R. C.; Raut, U.; Steffl, A. J.; Cooke, C. M.; Siegmun, O.; Gladstone, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    We report our efforts to optimize our UV Spectrograph (UVS) instruments for operating in the intense radiation environment of Jupiter for studying the ocean worlds of Europa and Ganymede in order to share our lessons learned.

  3. Characterizing Atacama B-mode Search Detectors with a Half-Wave Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S. M.; Appel, J. W.; Campusano, L. E.; Choi, S. K.; Crowley, K. T.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gallardo, P.; Ho, S. P.; Kusaka, A.; Nati, F.; Palma, G. A.; Page, L. A.; Raghunathan, S.; Staggs, S. T.

    2016-08-01

    The Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) instrument is a cryogenic (˜ 10 K) crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5190 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile that observed for three seasons between February 2012 and October 2014. ABS observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at large angular scales (40ABS focal plane consists of 480 transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. They are coupled to orthogonal polarizations from a planar ortho-mode transducer and observe at 145 GHz. ABS employs an ambient-temperature, rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) to mitigate systematic effects and move the signal band away from atmospheric 1 / f noise, allowing for the recovery of large angular scales. We discuss how the signal at the second harmonic of the HWP rotation frequency can be used for data selection and for monitoring the detector responsivities.

  4. Testing micro-channel plate detectors for the particle identification upgrade of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo Garcia, L

    2012-01-01

    The TORCH, Time of internally Reflected Cherenkov Light, is proposed for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHCb experiment. The detector combines Time-of-Flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve positive pi/K/p separation on a >= 3 sigma level in the momentum range below 10 GeV/c. The required time resolution is <= 50 ps for single photon signal. In a preliminary R\\&D phase, we have shown that already commercially available micro-channel plate tubes with 8 x 8 channels fulfil the requirements. Timing properties of the tubes have been investigated with a pulsed laser diode in single photon regime. Key results from these laboratory tests are reported. An excellent timing resolution of <40 ps is achieved with an efficiency of similar to 90\\%. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A fast microchannel plate-scintillator detector for velocity map imaging and imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, B; King, S J; Brouard, M; Vallance, C

    2014-02-01

    The time resolution achievable using standard position-sensitive ion detectors, consisting of a chevron pair of microchannel plates coupled to a phosphor screen, is primarily limited by the emission lifetime of the phosphor, around 70 ns for the most commonly used P47 phosphor. We demonstrate that poly-para-phenylene laser dyes may be employed extremely effectively as scintillators, exhibiting higher brightness and much shorter decay lifetimes than P47. We provide an extensive characterisation of the properties of such scintillators, with a particular emphasis on applications in velocity-map imaging and microscope-mode imaging mass spectrometry. The most promising of the new scintillators exhibits an electron-to-photon conversion efficiency double that of P47, with an emission lifetime an order of magnitude shorter. The new scintillator screens are vacuum stable and show no signs of signal degradation even over longer periods of operation.

  6. Field Decay and Snapback Measurements using a Fast Hall Plate Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Benedico, E; Haverkamp, M; ten Haken, B; ten Kate, H H J; Sanfilippo, S

    2002-01-01

    In superconducting particle accelerators significant changes occur in tune and chromaticity during the injection of particles and their subsequent acceleration. This behavior is caused by the decay of magnetic field components in the superconducting accelerator magnets during injection and their so-called "snapback" to the original hysteresis curve during the first few seconds after the start of the energy ramp. The two effects are closely related to a spatially periodic modulation of all field components along the magnet axis. In order to avoid a loss of particles the sextupole component in the dipoles has to be compensated with a very high accuracy. Standard magnetic measurements using rotating coils do not have the time resolution required to completely resolve the snapback. For this reason we have developed a fast system for sextupole measurements consisting of three Hall plates mounted on a ring. A new calibration procedure for the first time allows quantitative results. The detector is used to measure d...

  7. Development of TOF-PET detectors based on the Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U.; Borghi, G.; Bucciantonio, M.; Kieffer, R.; Samarati, J.; Sauli, F.; Watts, D.

    2015-04-01

    We describe the development, construction and preliminary results obtained with medium-size Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chambers prototypes designed to detect and localize 511 keV photons for Positron Emission Tomography imaging applications. The devices are intended for in-beam monitoring of the treatment plans throughout deep tumor therapy with hadron beams; emphasis is put on achieving coincidence time resolutions of few hundred ps, in order to exploit optimized reconstruction algorithm and reduce the heavy non-correlated background contributions distinctive of this operation. Using technologies developed for high energy physics experiments, the detectors can be built for covering large areas, thus leading the way to the conception of full-body PET systems at low cost.

  8. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, B. B.; Richardson, E.; Siwal, D.; Hudan, S.; deSouza, R. T.

    2015-08-01

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s-1 are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM).

  9. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, B B; Richardson, E; Siwal, D; Hudan, S; deSouza, R T

    2015-08-01

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s(-1) are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM).

  10. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, B. B.; Richardson, E.; Siwal, D.; Hudan, S.; Souza, R. T. de, E-mail: desouza@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N. Milo B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s{sup −1} are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM)

  11. The analog Resistive Plate Chamber detector of the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoli, B; Bi, X J; Cao, Z; Catalanotti, S; Chen, S Z; Chen, T L; Cui, S W; Dai, B Z; D'Amone, A; Danzengluobu,; De Mitri, I; Piazzoli, B D'Ettorre; Di Girolamo, T; Di Sciascio, G; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; He, H H; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M; Iuppa, R; Jia, H Y; Labaciren,; Li, H J; Liu, C; Liu, J; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Ma, L L; Ma, X H; Mancarella, G; Mari1, S M; Marsella, G; Mastroianni, S; Montini, P; Ning, C C; Perrone, L; Pistilli, P; Salvini1, P; Santonico, R; Shen, P R; Sheng, X D; Shi, F; Surdo, A; Tan, Y H; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Wang, H; Wu, C Y; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yang, Q Y; Yang, X C; Yao, Z G; Yuan, A F; Zha, M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Zhaxiciren,; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X; Zhu, F R; Zhu, Q Q

    2015-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking from November 2007 till February 2013 at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (4300 m a.s.l.). The detector consists of a single layer of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) ( about 6700 m^2}) operated in streamer mode. The signal pick-up is obtained by means of strips facing one side of the gas volume. The digital readout of the signals, while allows a high space-time resolution in the shower front reconstruction, limits the measurable energy to a few hundred TeV. In order to fully investigate the 1-10 PeV region, an analog readout has been implemented by instrumenting each RPC with two large size electrodes facing the other side of the gas volume. Since December 2009 the RPC charge readout has been in operation on the entire central carpet (about 5800 m^2). In this configuration the detector is able to measure the particle density at the core position where it ranges from tens to many thousands of particles per m^2. Thus ARGO-YBJ provides a highly detailed...

  12. A two dimensional silicon detectors array for quality assurance in stereotactic radiotherapy: MagicPlate-512

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldosari, A. H.; Petasecca, M., E-mail: marcop@uow.edu.au; Espinoza, A.; Newall, M.; Fuduli, I.; Porumb, C.; Alshaikh, S.; Alrowaili, Z. A.; Weaver, M.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Carolan, M. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Perevertaylo, V. [SPA-BIT, KIEV 02232 (Ukraine)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Silicon diode arrays are commonly implemented in radiation therapy quality assurance applications as they have a number of advantages including: real time operation (compared to the film) and high spatial resolution, large dynamic range and small size (compared to ionizing chambers). Most diode arrays have detector pitch that is too coarse for routine use in small field applications. The goal of this work is to characterize the two-dimensional monolithic silicon diode array named “MagicPlate-512” (MP512) designed for QA in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radio surgery (SRS). Methods: MP512 is a silicon monolithic detector manufactured on ap-type substrate. An array contains of 512 pixels with size 0.5 × 0.5 mm{sup 2} and pitch 2 mm with an overall dimension of 52 × 52 mm{sup 2}. The MP512 monolithic detector is wire bonded on a printed circuit board 0.5 mm thick and covered by a thin layer of raisin to preserve the silicon detector from moisture and chemical contamination and to protect the bonding wires. Characterization of the silicon monolithic diode array response was performed, and included pixels response uniformity, dose linearity, percent depth dose, output factor, and beam profiling for beam sizes relevant to SBRT and SRS and depth dose response in comparison with ionization chamber. Results: MP512 shows a good dose linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and repeatability within 0.2%. The measured depth dose response for field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} agreed to within 1.3%, when compared to a CC13 ionization chamber for depths in PMMA up to 30 cm. The output factor of a 6 MV Varian 2100EX medical linac beam measured by MP512 at the isocenter agrees to within 2% when compared to PTW diamond, Scanditronix point EDD-2 diode and MOSkin detectors for field sizes down to 1 × 1 cm{sup 2}. An over response of 4% was observed for square beam size smaller than 1 cm when compared to EBT3 films, while the beam profiles (FWHM) of MP

  13. Characterizing Atacama B-mode Search Detectors with a Half-Wave Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, S M; Campusano, L E; Choi, S K; Crowley, K T; Essinger-Hileman, T; Gallardo, P; Ho, S P; Kusaka, A; Nati, F; Palma, G A; Page, L A; Raghunathan, S; Staggs, S T

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) instrument is a cryogenic ($\\sim$10 K) crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5190 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile that observed for three seasons between February 2012 and October 2014. ABS observed the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at large angular scales ($40<\\ell<500$) to limit the B-mode polarization spectrum around the primordial B-mode peak from inflationary gravity waves at $\\ell \\sim100$. The ABS focal plane consists of 480 transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. They are coupled to orthogonal polarizations from a planar ortho-mode transducer (OMT) and observe at 145 GHz. ABS employs an ambient-temperature, rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) to mitigate systematic effects and move the signal band away from atmospheric $1/f$ noise, allowing for the recovery of large angular scales. We discuss how the signal at the second harmonic of the HWP rotation frequency can be used for data selection and for monitoring the detector responsivities.

  14. Feedback-amplified electrochemical dual-plate boron-doped diamond microtrench detector for flow injection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Grace E M; Gross, Andrew J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lubben, Anneke T; Marken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical flow cell with a boron-doped diamond dual-plate microtrench electrode has been developed and demonstrated for hydroquinone flow injection electroanalysis in phosphate buffer pH 7. Using the electrochemical generator-collector feedback detector improves the sensitivity by one order of magnitude (when compared to a single working electrode detector). The diffusion process is switched from an analyte consuming “external” process to an analyte regenerating “internal” process with benefits in selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:25735831

  15. Thermal dependence of electrical characteristics of micromachined silica microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.

    2004-04-01

    Micromachined silica microchannel plates (MCPs) under development have a number of advantages over standard glass MCPs and open completely new possibilities in detector technologies. In this article we present the results of our studies on the thermal properties of silica microchannel plates (sMCPs). Similar to standard glass microchanel plates the resistance of silica MCPs was measured to change exponentially with temperature with a negative thermal coefficient of -0.036 per °C, somewhat larger than that of standard glass MCPs. The resistance also decreases linearly with the applied voltage, with the voltage coefficient of -3.1×10-4 V-1. With the knowledge of these two coefficients, our thermal model allows the calculation of the maximum voltage, which can be applied to a given MCP without inducing a thermal runaway. A typical 25 mm diam, 240 μm thick sMCP with 6 μm pores has to have the resistance larger than ˜30 MΩ to operate safely at voltages up to 800 V. With this model we can also calculate the time required for a given silica MCP to reach the point of thermal equilibrium after a voltage increase. We hope that the ongoing efforts on a proper modification of the sMCP semiconducting layer will lead to the production of new MCPs with a small negative or even a positive thermal coefficient, reducing the possibility of thermal runaways of low-resistance MCPs required for high count rate applications.

  16. An optimized process for the production of advanced planar wire grid plates as detectors for high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Iacopi, F; Pins, R; Van Hook, R I; Honore, M; Zhukov, V; Van Lancker, L; Van Doninck, W K; Beyne, E

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel production technique for the planar wire grid plates of microstrip gas chambers (MSGCs, gaseous particle detectors), taking advantage from the typical thin film metallization technologies. The aim of the work here presented has been to manufacture MSGC substrates which can meet the challenging requirements proper to particle tracking detectors in highly ionizing environments. These requirements are mainly represented by high reliability and robustness, since the devices are supposed to operate efficiently for at least 10 years in the extremely hostile conditions foreseen at the large hadron collider at CERN (CH). A detailed process description will be given and results will be analyzed both from the production point of view and from the application of the manufactured prototypes as detectors for high energy physics experiments. (7 refs).

  17. Detection efficiency of microchannel plates for e(-) and π(-) in the momentum range from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulej, M; Meyer, S; Lüthi, M; Lasi, D; Galli, A; Desorgher, L; Hajdas, W; Karlsson, S; Kalla, L; Wurz, P

    2015-08-01

    High-energy e(-) and π(-) were measured by the multichannel plate (MCP) detector at the PiM1 beam line of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facilities located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The measurements provide the absolute detection efficiencies for these particles: 5.8% ± 0.5% for electrons in the beam momenta range 17.5-300 MeV/c and 6.0% ± 1.3% for pions in the beam momenta range 172-345 MeV/c. The pulse height distribution determined from the measurements is close to an exponential function with negative exponent, indicating that the particles penetrated the MCP material before producing the signal somewhere inside the channel. Low charge extraction and nominal gains of the MCP detector observed in this study are consistent with the proposed mechanism of the signal formation by penetrating radiation. A very similar MCP ion detector will be used in the Neutral Ion Mass (NIM) spectrometer designed for the JUICE mission of European Space Agency (ESA) to the Jupiter system, to perform measurements of the chemical composition of the Galilean moon exospheres. The detection efficiency for penetrating radiation determined in the present studies is important for the optimisation of the radiation shielding of the NIM detector against the high-rate and high-energy electrons trapped in Jupiter's magnetic field. Furthermore, the current studies indicate that MCP detectors can be useful to measure high-energy particle beams at high temporal resolution.

  18. The TORCH time-of-flight detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnew, N., E-mail: Neville.Harnew@physics.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N. [University College London, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Castillo García, L. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cussans, D. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gao, R. [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gys, T.; Piedigrossi, D. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rademacker, J.; Ros Garcia, A.; Dijk, M. van [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-11

    The TORCH time-of-flight detector is being developed to provide particle identification between 2 and 10 GeV/c momentum over a flight distance of 10 m. TORCH is designed for large-area coverage, up to 30 m{sup 2}, and has a DIRC-like construction. The goal is to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle by combining arrival times from multiple Cherenkov photons produced within quartz radiator plates of 10 mm thickness. A four-year R&D programme is underway with an industrial partner (Photek, UK) to produce 53×53 mm{sup 2} Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detectors for the TORCH application. The MCP-PMT will provide a timing accuracy of 40 ps per photon and it will have a lifetime of up to at least 5 Ccm{sup −2} of integrated anode charge by utilizing an Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coating. The MCP will be read out using charge division with customised electronics incorporating the NINO chipset. Laboratory results on prototype MCPs are presented. The construction of a prototype TORCH module and its simulated performance are also described.

  19. Low noise and conductively cooled microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) dynamic range has recently been enhanced for both very low and very high input flux conditions. Improvements in MCP manufacturing technology reported earlier have led to MCPs with substantially reduced radioisotope levels, giving dramatically lower internal background-counting rates. An update is given on the Galileo low noise MCP. Also, new results in increasing the MCP linear counting range for high input flux densities are presented. By bonding the active face of a very low resistance MCP (less than 1 megaohm) to a substrate providing a conductive path for heat transport, the bias current limit (hence, MCP output count rate limit) can be increased up to two orders of magnitude. Normal pulse-counting MCP operation was observed at bias currents of several mA when a curved-channel MCP (80:1) was bonded to a ceramic multianode substrate; the MCP temperature rise above ambient was less than 40 C.

  20. The PRESHOWER - a New Multichnnel Detector for the CDF. The Scintillator Plates of the New Detector: Design, Production, Quality Control

    CERN Document Server

    Artikov, A M; Chocheli, D; Danilov, V; Grinyov, B; Lebedev, V; Senchyshyn, V G

    2005-01-01

    To increase the CDF efficiency when studying heavy quark processes there was designed, constructed and put into operation a new multichannel detector --- the so called Central Preshower. It was positioned before the central electromagnetic calorimeter and increased the photon, lepton and hadron identification efficiency. JINR in cooperation with the Institute of Scintillating Materials (Kharkiv) has created a sensitive element of the new detector: about 2800 units of the scintillation tiles; the specially developed quality control procedure guaranteed the necessary high light yield for tiles mass production. The chosen tiles were equipped at FNAL by two loops (about 1 m long) of WLS fibers positioned inside the $\\Omega $-shape groove; it guaranteed a light yield of $\\sim$ 25--35 photoelectrons/MIP.

  1. A High Position Resolution X-ray Detector: an Edge on Illuminated Capillary Plate Combined with a Gas Amplification Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Ostling, J; Pavlopoulos, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Tokanai, F

    2006-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested a prototype of a new type of high position resolution hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall lead glass capillary plate converter of X-rays combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber filled with gas at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0-90 degree. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between 5-30 percent in a single step mode and up to 50 percent in a multi-layered combination. Depending on the capillary geometry, the position resolution achieved was between 0.050-0.250 mm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon energy or gas mixture. The usual lead glass capillary plates operated without noticeable charging up effects at counting rates of 50 Hz/mm2, and hydrogen treated capillaries up to 10E5 Hz/mm2. The developed detector may open new possibil...

  2. High-resolution imaging X-ray detector. [using microchannel plates and electronic readout for spaceborne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E.; Henry, P.; Murray, S.; Van Speybroeck, L.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an X-ray detector using microchannel plates as a photocathode surface and imaging photoelectron multiplier, and a crossed wire grid as a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector. The position resolution is 10 microns. The crossed wire grid consists of 100-micron-diam wires on 200-micron centers. Position sensing is accomplished by electronic interpolation to 1/20 of the wire spacing. The quantum efficiency of the microchannel plates varies from 29% at 0.28 keV to 5% at 3 keV. This detector will provide second-of-arc X-ray imaging in the focal plane of the 342.9-cm focal length grazing-incidence telescope being prepared for the HEAO-B observatory. By addition of suitable photocathodes, it can be used for single-photon imaging light detection in the UV, visible, and near-IR-ranges. In all cases, it gives a very low dark counting rate, allows timing of individual events to 1 microsec or less, and can handle counting rates up to 10,000 per sec.

  3. Atomic layer deposited borosilicate glass microchannel plates for large area event counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A. S.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Hemphill, R.; Frisch, H. J.; Elam, J.; Mane, A.; Lappd Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    Borosilicate glass micro-capillary array substrates with 20 μm and 40 μm pores have been deposited with resistive, and secondary electron emissive, layers by atomic layer deposition to produce functional microchannel plates. Device formats of 32.7 mm and 20 cm square have been fabricated and tested in analog and photon counting modes. The tests show amplification, imaging, background rate, pulse shape and lifetime characteristics that are comparable to standard glass microchannel plates. Large area microchannel plates of this type facilitate the construction of 20 cm format sealed tube sensors with strip-line readouts that are being developed for Cherenkov light detection. Complementary work has resulted in Na2KSb bialkali photocathodes with peak quantum efficiency of 25% being made on borosilicate glass. Additionally GaN (Mg) opaque photocathodes have been successfully made on borosilicate microchannel plates.

  4. Atomic layer deposited borosilicate glass microchannel plates for large area event counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmund, O.H.W., E-mail: ossy@ssl.berkeley.edu [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Tremsin, A.S.; Jelinsky, S.R.; Hemphill, R. [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Frisch, H.J. [Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Elam, J.; Mane, A. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Collaboration: LAPPD Collaboration

    2012-12-11

    Borosilicate glass micro-capillary array substrates with 20 {mu}m and 40 {mu}m pores have been deposited with resistive, and secondary electron emissive, layers by atomic layer deposition to produce functional microchannel plates. Device formats of 32.7 mm and 20 cm square have been fabricated and tested in analog and photon counting modes. The tests show amplification, imaging, background rate, pulse shape and lifetime characteristics that are comparable to standard glass microchannel plates. Large area microchannel plates of this type facilitate the construction of 20 cm format sealed tube sensors with strip-line readouts that are being developed for Cherenkov light detection. Complementary work has resulted in Na{sub 2}KSb bialkali photocathodes with peak quantum efficiency of 25% being made on borosilicate glass. Additionally GaN (Mg) opaque photocathodes have been successfully made on borosilicate microchannel plates.

  5. Applications and characteristics of imaging plates as detector in neutron radiography at SINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, H; Gunia, W; Körner, S

    1999-01-01

    Imaging plate technique is a commonly accepted method in many fields as in medicine, biology and physics for detection of the distribution of beta- and gamma-radiation or X-rays on large areas. Recently a new type of imaging plate sensitive to neutrons has been developed. The storage layer is doped with gadolinium, which, after absorption of neutrons, produces radiation detectable by the same sensitive crystals used in conventional imaging plates. At the spallation neutron source, SINQ, at the Paul Scherrer Institut (CH) some of the characteristics of the neutron radiography station in combination with the imaging plate technique were investigated. The intensity distribution of the source was measured to check the accuracy for quantification of the image data. Also, the reproducibility of results obtained by this detection system was stated. For a test object, the high selectivity for different neutron absorption is demonstrated at details with low contrast. The obtainable spatial resolution was determined re...

  6. Imaging at soft X-ray wavelengths with high-gain microchannel plate detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn

    1986-01-01

    Multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with formats of 256 x 1024 pixels and active areas of 6 x 26 mm are now under evaluation at visible, UV and soft X-ray wavelengths. Very-large-format versions of the MAMA detectors with formats of 2048 x 2048 pixels and active areas of 52 x 52 mm are under development for use in the NASA Goddard Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). Open-structure versions of these detectors with Cs I photocathodes can provide a high-resolution imaging capability at EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths and can deliver a maximum count rate from each array in excess of 10 to the 6th counts/s. In addition, these detector systems have the unique capability to determine the arrival time of a detected photon to an accuracy of 100 ns or better. The construction, mode of operation, and performance characteristics of the MAMA detectors are described, and the program for the development of the very-large-format detectors is outlined.

  7. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2016-02-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  8. Reducing dose in urography while maintaining image quality - a comparison of storage phosphor plates and a flat-panel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Margareta; Geijer, Haakan; Andersson, Torbjoern [Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oerebro (Sweden); Persliden, Jan [Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Oerebro (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of new flat-panel detector technology often forces us to accept too high dose levels as proposed by the manufacturers. We need a tool to compare the image quality of a new system with the accepted standard. The aim of this study was to obtain a comparable image quality for two systems - storage phosphor plates and a flat-panel system using intravenous urography (IVU) as a clinical model. The image quality figure was calculated using a contrast-detail phantom (CDRAD) for the two evaluated systems. This allowed us to set a dose for the flat-panel system that gave equivalent image quality to the storage phosphor plates. This reduced detector dose was used in an evaluation of clinical images to find out if the dose reduction from the phantom study indeed resulted in images of equal clinical image quality. The image quality was assessed using image criteria of the European guidelines for IVU with visual grading analysis. Equivalent image quality in image pairs was achieved at 30% of the dose. The CDRAD contrast-detail phantom makes it possible to find dose levels that give equal image quality using different imaging systems. (orig.)

  9. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  10. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  11. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C. G.; Canfield, M. J.; Graeper, G. B.; Lombardo, A. T.; Stillman, C. R.; Padalino, S. J. [Physics Department, SUNY Geneseo, Geneseo, New York 14454 (United States); Fiksel, G.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW.

  12. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C G; Fiksel, G; Stoeckl, C; Sinenian, N; Canfield, M J; Graeper, G B; Lombardo, A T; Stillman, C R; Padalino, S J; Mileham, C; Sangster, T C; Frenje, J A

    2011-07-01

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW.

  13. A noiseless kilohertz frame rate imaging detector based on microchannel plates read out with the Medipix2 CMOS pixel chip

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, Bettina; Ferrère, Didier; La Marra, Daniel; McPhate, J B; Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W; Vallerga, J V; Clement, J; Ponchut, C; Rigal, J M; CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    A new hybrid optical imaging detector is described that is being developed for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors (WFS) for ground-based telescopes. The detector consists of a photocathode and proximity focused microchannel plates (MCPs) read out by the Medipix2 CMOS pixel ASIC. Each pixel of the Medipix2 device measures 55x55 um2 and comprises pre-amplifier, a window discriminator and a 14-bit counter. The 256x256 Medipix2 array can be read out noiselessly in 287 us. The readout can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few us. The Medipix2 is buttable on 3 sides to produce 512x(n*256) pixel devices. Measurements with ultraviolet light yield a spatial resolution of the detector at the Nyquist limit. Sub-pixel resolution can be achieved using centroiding algorithms. For the AO application, very high continuous frame rates of the order of 1 kHz are required for a matrix of 512x512 pixels. The design concepts of a parallel readout board are presented that will allow ...

  14. A 30 ps Timing Resolution for Single Photons with Multi-pixel Burle MCP-PMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.; Benitez, J.; Coleman, J.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Mazaheri, G.; Ratcliff, B.; Schwiening, J.; /SLAC

    2006-07-05

    We have achieved {approx}30 psec single-photoelectron and {approx}12ps for multi-photoelectron timing resolution with a new 64 pixel Burle MCP-PMT with 10 micron microchannel holes. We have also demonstrated that this detector works in a magnetic field of 15kG, and achieved a single-photoelectron timing resolution of better than 60 psec. The study is relevant for a new focusing DIRC RICH detector for particle identification at future Colliders such as the super B-factory or ILC, and for future TOF techniques. This study shows that a highly pixilated MCP-PMT can deliver excellent timing resolution.

  15. Evaluation of dose distributions in gamma chamber using glass plate detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial glass plate of thickness 1.75 mm has been utilized for evaluation of dose distributions inside the irradiation volume of gamma chamber using optical densitometry technique. The glass plate showed linear response in the dose range 0.10 Kilo Gray (kGy to 10 kGy of cobalt-60 gamma radiation with optical sensitivity 0.04 Optical Density (OD /kGy. The change in the optical density at each identified spatial dose matrix on the glass plate in relation to the position in the irradiation volume has been presented as dose distributions inside the gamma chamber. The optical density changes have been graphically plotted in the form of surface diagram of color washes for different percentage dose rate levels as isodose distributions in gamma chamber. The variation in dose distribution inside the gamma chamber unit, GC 900, BRIT India make, using this technique has been observed within ± 15%. This technique can be used for routine quality assurances and dose distribution validation of any gamma chamber during commissioning and source replacement. The application of commercial glass plate for dose mapping in gamma chambers has been found very promising due to its wider dose linearity, quick measurement, and lesser expertise requirement in application of the technique.

  16. Sinorhizobium meliloti chemoreceptor McpU mediates chemotaxis toward host plant exudates through direct proline sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Hildreth, Sherry; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis is an important attribute that aids in establishing symbiosis between rhizobia and their legume hosts. Plant roots and seeds exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil to attract their bacterial symbionts. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses eight chemoreceptors to sense its environment and mediate chemotaxis toward its host. The methyl accepting chemotaxis protein McpU is one of the more abundant S. meliloti chemoreceptors and an important sensor for the potent attractant proline. We established a dominant role of McpU in sensing molecules exuded by alfalfa seeds. Mass spectrometry analysis determined that a single germinating seed exudes 3.72 nmol of proline, producing a millimolar concentration near the seed surface which can be detected by the chemosensory system of S. meliloti. Complementation analysis of the mcpU deletion strain verified McpU as the key proline sensor. A structure-based homology search identified tandem Cache (calcium channels and chemotaxis receptors) domains in the periplasmic region of McpU. Conserved residues Asp-155 and Asp-182 of the N-terminal Cache domain were determined to be important for proline sensing by evaluating mutant strains in capillary and swim plate assays. Differential scanning fluorimetry revealed interaction of the isolated periplasmic region of McpU (McpU40-284) with proline and the importance of Asp-182 in this interaction. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we determined that proline binds with a Kd (dissociation constant) of 104 μM to McpU40-284, while binding was abolished when Asp-182 was substituted by Glu. Our results show that McpU is mediating chemotaxis toward host plants by direct proline sensing.

  17. MagicPlate-512: A 2D silicon detector array for quality assurance of stereotactic motion adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petasecca, M., E-mail: marcop@uow.edu.au; Newall, M. K.; Aldosari, A. H.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A. A.; Porumb, C. S.; Guatelli, S.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Illawarra Health Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Booth, J. T.; Colvill, E. [School of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Duncan, M.; Cammarano, D. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Carolan, M. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Illawarra Health Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Oborn, B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Perevertaylo, V. [SPA-BIT, Kiev 02232 (Ukraine); Keall, P. J. [School of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    , no motion, and motion with MLC tracking profiles agreed within 1 and 0.4 mm, respectively, for all field sizes tested. Use of electromagnetic tracking system generates a fluctuation of the detector baseline up to 10% of the full scale signal requiring a proper shielding strategy. MagicPlate-512 is also able to reconstruct the dose variation pulse-by-pulse in each pixel of the detector. An analysis of the dose transients with motion and motion with tracking shows that the tracking feedback algorithm used for this experiment can compensate effectively only the effect of the slower transient components. The fast changing components of the organ motion can contribute only to discrepancy of the order of 15% in penumbral region while the slower components can change the dose profile up to 75% of the expected dose. Conclusions: MagicPlate-512 is shown to be, potentially, a valid alternative to film or 2D ionizing chambers for quality assurance dosimetry in SRS or SBRT. Its high spatial and temporal resolutions allow for accurate reconstruction of the profile in any conditions with motion and with tracking of the motion. It shows excellent performance to reconstruct the dose deposition in real time or retrospectively as a function of time for detailed analysis of the effect of motion in a specific pixel or area of interest.

  18. Operation of Resistive Plate Chamber Detectors with a New Environmentally Friendly Freon

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    RPC particle gas detectors at CERN provide a vital element to the physics experiments carried out on the LHC. While their current operation and working gas mixtures are successful, environ- mental and economic factors force a revision of the mixture, specifically the eventual replacement of the current Freon gas R134-a with a newer, less environmentally harmful formulation, namely R1234-yf. The methods and results presented here outline the detector response to the introduction of the new Freon and its behavior under various mixtures. The electronegativity and hence impact on RPC parameters was investigated. It was found that the new Freon gas is indeed electroneg- ative, and suppresses the RPC signal. The mixture was modified to include Argon to increase ionization, and the final results of the operation of the RPC were satisfactory. Further work to refine the mixture for future implementation is necessary.

  19. Assembly and tests of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) for the CMS barrel detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Gabriella Pugliese, Bari

    2006-01-01

    The pictures 1-3 show some assembly steps of Resistive Plate Chambers in Bari and their tests with cosmic rays (4-6: moving RPC to the test towers; 7-8 cosmic tests). Pictures 9-10 show assembly and tests in Sofia, 11 shows RPC coupling with drift tubes at ISR and 12-13 tests at the CMS site at CERN.

  20. Development of microchannel plates in advanced wind-tunnel instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, W. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) electron multiplier dynamic range has been increased 3 to 4 orders of magnitude at ambient temperatures, through enhanced input count rate capability and reduced background or 'dark' noise. The previous upper limit of roughly 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) at ambient has been extended to levels approach 10(exp 10) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) under continuous dc operation. The lower limit, previously set by an irreducible background component (approximately 0.6 cm(exp -2)s(exp -1)), has been lowered to the cosmic ray limit of .01 cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The high end improvement was achieved by conductively cooling a very low resistance MCP by bonding it to a heat sink, while maintaining pulse-counting operation with multianode readouts. The low-end improvement was achieved by removing all radioisotopes from the MCP matrix glass. The detectors will benefit optical and mass spectrometry, flow visualization, plasma diagnostics, magnetometry, and other high signal flux applications. Very low MCP background noise will benefit X-ray and UV astronomy, medical imaging, trace isotope mass spectrometry, and other applications where the signal flux is often extremely low.

  1. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Alejo, A; Ahmed, H; Krygier, A G; Doria, D; Clarke, R; Fernandez, J; Freeman, R R; Fuchs, J; Green, A; Green, J S; Jung, D; Kleinschmidt, A; Lewis, C L S; Morrison, J T; Najmudin, Z; Nakamura, H; Nersisyan, G; Norreys, P; Notley, M; Oliver, M; Roth, M; Ruiz, J A; Vassura, L; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C6+, O8+, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented.

  2. Position-sensitive detector system OBI for High Resolution X-Ray Powder Diffraction using on-site readable image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, M.; Joco, V.; Baehtz, C.; Brecht, H. H.; Berghaeuser, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; von Seggern, H.; Fuess, H.

    2004-04-01

    A one-dimensional detector system has been developed using image plates. The detector is working in transmission mode or Debye-Scherrer geometry and is on-site readable which reduces the effort for calibration. It covers a wide angular range up to 110° and shows narrow reflection half-widths depending on the capillary diameter. The acquisition time is in the range of minutes and the data quality allows for reliable Rietveld refinement of complicated structures, even in multi-phase samples. The detector opens a wide field of new applications in kinetics and temperature resolved measurements.

  3. Position-sensitive detector system OBI for High Resolution X-Ray Powder Diffraction using on-site readable image plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, M. E-mail: mknapp@tu-darmstadt.de; Joco, V.; Baehtz, C.; Brecht, H.H.; Berghaeuser, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Seggern, H. von; Fuess, H

    2004-04-01

    A one-dimensional detector system has been developed using image plates. The detector is working in transmission mode or Debye-Scherrer geometry and is on-site readable which reduces the effort for calibration. It covers a wide angular range up to 110 deg. and shows narrow reflection half-widths depending on the capillary diameter. The acquisition time is in the range of minutes and the data quality allows for reliable Rietveld refinement of complicated structures, even in multi-phase samples. The detector opens a wide field of new applications in kinetics and temperature resolved measurements.

  4. Design and performance of the detector control system of the ATLAS resistive-plate-chamber muon spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.polini@bo.infn.it [INFN Bologna (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    Muon detection plays a key role at the Large Hadron Collider. Resistive plate chambers (RPC) provide the barrel region of the ATLAS detector with an independent muon trigger as well as a two-coordinate measurement. The chambers, arranged in three concentric layers, are operated in a strong magnetic toroidal field and cover a surface area of about 4000 m{sup 2}. The RPC detector control system (DCS) is required to monitor and safely operate tens of thousand of channels, distributed on several subsystems, including low and high voltage power supplies, trigger electronics, currents and thresholds monitoring, environmental sensors and gas and electronic infrastructure. The DCS is also required to provide a level of abstraction for ease of operation as well as specific tools allowing expert actions and detailed analysis of archived data. The hardware architecture and the software solutions adopted are shown in detail along with a few results from the commissioning and first running phases. The material presented here can be used in future test facilities and projects.

  5. Thermal neutron imaging using microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, George W.; Pearson, James F.; Al-Horayess, O. S.; Feller, W. Bruce; Cook, Lee M.

    1993-02-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are compact electron multipliers of high gain, widely used for the high resolution imaging of charged particles and photons. In this paper, we consider the use of lead glass MCPs for the imaging of thermal neutrons. Two contrasting techniques are described. The first method involves direct neutron detection within a special channel plate structure containing lithium and/or boron. We review the constraints of glass chemistry on the attainable lithium oxide and boron oxide fractions and, hence, on the maximum neutron detection efficiency. The second method involves the detection, using MCPs of standard glass composition, of the internal conversion electrons from a thin gadolinium foil. We present the first measurements of the detection efficiency, pulse height resolution and imaging properties of a pulse-counting MCP/Gd detector system.

  6. Hard X-ray texture measurements with an on-line image plate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Tschentscher, T; Klein, H; Bunge, H J

    2001-01-01

    An instrument for diffraction texture measurements in polycrystalline bulk materials using hard X-ray photons from the wiggler beamline BW5 at HASYLAB is described. High-energy photons in the 100 keV regime enable high penetration power in medium-to-high Z materials and the use of Laue diffraction geometry in combination with a two-dimensional area detector allows fast and convenient data collection. Determination of quantitative, high-resolution pole figures with a better angular resolution of 0.1 deg. is attained by the instrument. Profile analysis of the diffraction pattern parameters for each (h k l)-reflection thus provides, in addition to texture data, information about other microstructural quantities, e.g. lattice strain.

  7. Optimization of the electron collection efficiency of a large area MCP-PMT for the JUNO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin, E-mail: chenlin@opt.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Chunliang [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Yifang; Zhao, Tianchi [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Hui, Dandan; Guo, Lehui [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Shulin; Qian, Sen; Xia, Jingkai; Yan, Baojun; Zhu, Na [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang [North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) CO., LTD, Nanjing 210110 (China); and others

    2016-08-11

    A novel large-area (20-inch) photomultiplier tube based on microchannel plate (MCP-PMTs) is proposed for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) experiment. Its photoelectron collection efficiency C{sub e} is limited by the MCP open area fraction (A{sub open}). This efficiency is studied as a function of the angular (θ), energy (E) distributions of electrons in the input charge cloud and the potential difference (U) between the PMT photocathode and the MCP input surface, considering secondary electron emission from the MCP input electrode. In CST Studio Suite, Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method are combined to investigate the dependence of C{sub e} on θ, E and U. Results predict that C{sub e} can exceed A{sub open}, and are applied to optimize the structure and operational parameters of the 20-inch MCP-PMT prototype. C{sub e} of the optimized MCP-PMT is expected to reach 81.2%. Finally, the reduction of the penetration depth of the MCP input electrode layer and the deposition of a high secondary electron yield material on the MCP are proposed to further optimize C{sub e}.

  8. ASSEMBLY and CHARACTERIZATION OF RESISTIVE PLATE CHAMBERS IN INDIA FOR THE CMS DETECTOR

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ramandeep

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is a general purpose detector being operated at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility at CERN. The RE4 upgrade project was envisaged to improve the Level-1 trigger efficiency in the forward region, when LHC would run at its full designed energy and luminosity after the first Long Shutdown (LS-1, 2013-2014). About 200 RPCs were built for the upgrade at three assembly sites in India, CERN and Ghent. India contributed to 50, RE4/2 RPCs along with 200 Cu-cooling units for the entire upgrade for which the assembly and characterization of RPCs was carried out jointly by Nuclear Physics Division-BARC and Panjab University-Chandigarh. The gas-gaps after their arrival from KODEL, South Korea, underwent mechanical tests for leak and popped spacers, followed by electrical tests for long term monitoring of leakage currents. After the assembly, each RPC was evaluated for its efficiency, cluster size, noise and strip profiles. The Cu-cooling units build at BARC were also tested acc...

  9. Impact of different environmental stimuli on the release of 1-MCP from boron-MCP complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our previous report, boron derivatives of methylene cyclopropane complexes (B-MCP) were developed to stabilize the gaseous 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene), a commercial plant growth regulator, for eventual release in open crop fields when under humid conditions or in contact with water. To meet the ...

  10. Note: A two-dimensional position-sensitive micro-channel plate detector with a cross-connected-pixels resistive anode and integrated spectroscopy amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Liu, Junliang; Zhang, Yuezhao; Wang, Wei; Yu, Deyang; Li, Xiaoxiao; Li, Xin; Zheng, Min; Ding, Baowei; Cai, Xiaohong

    2017-08-01

    Based on the charge-division method, a compact detector system for charged particles is constructed. The system consists of a pair of micro-channel plates, a novel two-dimensional position-sensitive cross-connected-pixels resistive anode, and specially designed front-end electronics that can directly drive analog-to-digital converters. The detector is tested with an (241)Am α-source. A position resolution of better than 0.3 mm and a maximum distortion within 0.5 mm in the active dimensions of 100 mm diameter are achieved.

  11. Note: A two-dimensional position-sensitive micro-channel plate detector with a cross-connected-pixels resistive anode and integrated spectroscopy amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Liu, Junliang; Zhang, Yuezhao; Wang, Wei; Yu, Deyang; Li, Xiaoxiao; Li, Xin; Zheng, Min; Ding, Baowei; Cai, Xiaohong

    2017-08-01

    Based on the charge-division method, a compact detector system for charged particles is constructed. The system consists of a pair of micro-channel plates, a novel two-dimensional position-sensitive cross-connected-pixels resistive anode, and specially designed front-end electronics that can directly drive analog-to-digital converters. The detector is tested with an 241Am α-source. A position resolution of better than 0.3 mm and a maximum distortion within 0.5 mm in the active dimensions of 100 mm diameter are achieved.

  12. Position Sensitive Detector Used to Detect Beam Profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Non-destructive diagnostic methods are very important for beam adjustments and monitors,especially when the beam intensity is less than 10~8 pps during the heavy-ion treatment of cancer.Now the diagnostic devices of HIFRL can’t satisfy the requests,so we decide to construct a detecting system of the residual-gas beam profile~([1,2]).The system uses the Position Sensitive Detector(PSD)~([3,4])based on microchannel plate(MCP)to

  13. Salmonella chemoreceptors McpB and McpC mediate a repellent response to L-cystine: a potential mechanism to avoid oxidative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazova, Milena D; Butler, Mitchell T; Shimizu, Thomas S; Harshey, Rasika M

    2012-05-01

    Chemoreceptors McpB and McpC in Salmonella enterica have been reported to promote chemotaxis in LB motility-plate assays. Of the chemicals tested as potential effectors of these receptors, the only response was towards L-cysteine and its oxidized form, L-cystine. Although enhanced radial migration in plates suggested positive chemotaxis to both amino acids, capillary assays failed to show an attractant response to either, in cells expressing only these two chemoreceptors. In vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements of kinase activity revealed that in wild-type bacteria, cysteine and cystine are chemoeffectors of opposing sign, the reduced form being a chemoattractant and the oxidized form a repellent. The attractant response to cysteine was mediated primarily by Tsr, as reported earlier for Escherichia coli. The repellent response to cystine was mediated by McpB/C. Adaptive recovery upon cystine exposure required the methyl-transferase/-esterase pair, CheR/CheB, but restoration of kinase activity was never complete (i.e. imperfect adaptation). We provide a plausible explanation for the attractant-like responses to both cystine and cysteine in motility plates, and speculate that the opposing signs of response to this redox pair might afford Salmonella a mechanism to gauge and avoid oxidative environments.

  14. [First experiments for the detection of simulated mammographic lesions: digital full field mammography with a new detector with a double plate of pure selenium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Hermann, K-P; Wenkel, E; Adamietz, B; Lell, M; Anders, K; Uder, M

    2011-02-01

    The article describes an experimental phantom study of a system for digital full field mammography with a new digital detector with a double plate of pure selenium. The experiments were carried out with the new full field digital mammography system Amulet from FujiFilm. This system has a new detector (18×24 cm(2)) on the basis of highly purified amorphous selenium (a-Se) with a pixel size of 50 µm. The x-rays are converted into electric signals in the first plate which are read into the second plate with the help of an optical switch and demonstrated in the form of an image. In this way a better pixel size/volume and signal-to-noise ratio should be achieved. The object of the investigation was the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Model 152 A (Technical Performance Mo/Mo, 28 kV, 100 mAs). Five investigators with different experiences in mammography each received three images on a monitor with different random positions of the simulated lesions in the phantom for assessment. The detection rates were compared under the same conditions with the results of two other full field digital mammography systems. The median detection rate for all images and investigators for the new doubled plated a-Se detector with optical switch was 98.7%. For both other systems with a-Si or and a-Se detectors the detection rate was 89.8% or 97.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the detection rate of the simulated breast lesions for all three systems considering the interobserver and intraobserver variation. The first phantom study for the detection of simulated breast lesions with the new full field digital mammography system Amulet demonstrates equivalent results with the other systems used in the clinical routine. The trend towards superiority of the new system has to be confirmed in further clinical studies.

  15. Development of two-channel prototype ITER vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer with back-illuminated charge-coupled device and microchannel plate detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, C R; Choi, S H; Cheon, M S; Pak, S; Lee, H G; Biel, W; Barnsley, R

    2010-10-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer of a five-channel spectral system is designed for ITER main plasma impurity measurement. To develop and verify the system design, a two-channel prototype system is fabricated with No. 3 (14.4-31.8 nm) and No. 4 (29.0-60.0 nm) among the five channels. The optical system consists of a collimating mirror to collect the light from source to slit, two holographic diffraction gratings with toroidal geometry, and two different electronic detectors. For the test of the prototype system, a hollow cathode lamp is used as a light source. To find the appropriate detector for ITER VUV system, two kinds of detectors of the back-illuminated charge-coupled device and the microchannel plate electron multiplier are tested, and their performance has been investigated.

  16. Development and testing of cost-effective, 6 cm×6 cm MCP-based photodetectors for fast timing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingbo, E-mail: wjingbo@anl.gov [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Elam, Jeffrey; Mane, Anil [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); May, Edward; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Xia, Lei; Xie, Junqi; Zhao, Huyue [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Micro-channel plate (MCP)-based photodetectors are capable of picosecond level time resolution and sub-mm level position resolution, which makes them a perfect candidate for the next generation large area photodetectors. The large-area picosecond photodetector (LAPPD) collaboration is developing new techniques for making large-area photodetectors based on new MCP fabrication and functionalization methods. A small single tube processing system (SmSTPS) was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for developing scalable, cost-effective, glass-body, 6 cm×6 cm, picosecond photodetectors based on MCPs functionalized by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Recently, a number of fully processed and hermitically sealed prototypes made of MCPs with 20 μm pores have been fabricated. This is a significant milestone for the LAPPD project. These prototypes were characterized with a pulsed laser test facility. Without optimization, the prototypes have shown excellent results: the time resolution is ~57 ps for single photoelectron mode and ~15 ps for multi-photoelectron mode; the best position resolution is ≤0.8 mm for large pulses. In this paper, the tube processing system, the detector assembly, experimental setup, data analysis and the key performance will be presented.

  17. Contribution of plated-out 218Po and 214Po to measurements of airborne 222Rn and daughters with plastic (CR-39) nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Bernd; Wang, Zuoyuan; Sensistaffar, Edwin

    1984-01-01

    The fraction of alpha-particle tracks due to radioactivity plated out on its surface was measured for CR-39 nuclear track detector foils used to determine working level values in air. Bare foils were exposed to known concentrations of airborne 222Rn and its short-lived daughters in a calibration chamber. The amounts of 218Po and 214Po on the foil surface were measured with a calibrated diffused junction detector-spectrometer system immediately after the foils were removed from the chamber. Deposition was mostly by 218Po, with some 214Pb but essentially no 214Bi. The track density due to the plated-out radionuclides and the 222Rn, 218Po, and 214Po in chamber air was calculated and compared to the value measured by electrochemical etching. The calculated values generally were slightly above the measured values. On the basis of these calculations, the deposited radioactivity contributed slightly less than one-half of the total tracks in one test and slightly more than two-thirds in another. This effect complicates calibration of the detector relative to airborne radon daughters.

  18. High Resolution Photon Timing with MCP-PMTs: A Comparison of a Commercial Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD) with the ASIC-based Waveform Digitizers TARGET and WaveCatcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D.; /Orsay, LAL; Delagnes, E.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Maalmi, J.; /Orsay, LAL; Nishimura, K.; Ruckman, L.L.; Varner, G.; /Hawaii U.; Va' vra, J.; /SLAC

    2011-07-14

    There is a considerable interest to develop new time-of-flight detectors using, for example, micro-channel-plate photodetectors (MCP-PMTs). The question we pose in this paper is if new waveform digitizer ASICs, such as the WaveCatcher and TARGET, operating with a sampling rate of 2-3 GSa/s can compete with 1GHz BW CFD/TDC/ADC electronics. We have performed a series of measurements with these waveform digitizers coupled to MCP-PMTs operating at low gain and with a signal equivalent to {approx}40 photoelectrons. The tests were done with a laser diode on detectors operating under the same condition used previously in SLAC and Fermilab beam tests. Our test results indicate that one can achieve similar resolution with both methods. Although the commercial CFD-based electronics does exist and performs very well, it is difficult to implement on a very large scale, and therefore the custom electronics is needed. In addition, the analog delay line requirement makes it very difficult to incorporate CFD discriminators in ASIC designs.

  19. Response of a chevron microchannel plate to 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, S. S.; Persing, R.

    1981-10-01

    The response of a large area (4.6×13 cm) multianode channel electron multiplier array (CEMA) detector to energetic neutrons was investigated. The measured neutron detection efficiencies of the chevron microchannel plate (MCP) were 1.7×10-3 and 6.4×10-3 counts/neutron, respectively, for 2.5 MeV-DD and 14 MeV-DT neutrons. The apparently higher efficiency observed for the 14 MeV neutrons is attributed to neutron-induced background gamma radiation.

  20. Detection efficiency of microchannel plates for e{sup −} and π{sup −} in the momentum range from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulej, M., E-mail: marek.tulej@space.unibe.ch; Meyer, S.; Lüthi, M.; Lasi, D.; Galli, A.; Wurz, P. [Space Research and Planetary Sciences, Physics Institute, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Desorgher, L.; Hajdas, W. [Laboratory of Particle Physics, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Karlsson, S.; Kalla, L. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Space Kampus 1, Kiruna (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    High-energy e{sup –} and π{sup –} were measured by the multichannel plate (MCP) detector at the PiM1 beam line of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facilities located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The measurements provide the absolute detection efficiencies for these particles: 5.8% ± 0.5% for electrons in the beam momenta range 17.5–300 MeV/c and 6.0% ± 1.3% for pions in the beam momenta range 172–345 MeV/c. The pulse height distribution determined from the measurements is close to an exponential function with negative exponent, indicating that the particles penetrated the MCP material before producing the signal somewhere inside the channel. Low charge extraction and nominal gains of the MCP detector observed in this study are consistent with the proposed mechanism of the signal formation by penetrating radiation. A very similar MCP ion detector will be used in the Neutral Ion Mass (NIM) spectrometer designed for the JUICE mission of European Space Agency (ESA) to the Jupiter system, to perform measurements of the chemical composition of the Galilean moon exospheres. The detection efficiency for penetrating radiation determined in the present studies is important for the optimisation of the radiation shielding of the NIM detector against the high-rate and high-energy electrons trapped in Jupiter’s magnetic field. Furthermore, the current studies indicate that MCP detectors can be useful to measure high-energy particle beams at high temporal resolution.

  1. Noiseless, kilohertz-frame-rate, imaging detector based on micro-channel plates readout with the Medipix2 CMOS pixel chip

    CERN Document Server

    McPhate, J; Tremsin, A; Siegmund, O; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    A new hybrid imaging detector is described that is being developed for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of proximity focused microchannel plates (MCPs) read out by pixelated CMOS application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ("Medipix2"). Each Medipix2 pixel has an amplifier, lower and upper charge discriminators, and a 14-bit chounter. The 256x256 array can be read out noiselessly (photon counting) in 286 us. The Medipix2 is buttable on 3 sides to produce 512x(n*256) pixel devices. The readout can be electronically shuttered down to a terporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. Good quantum efficiencies can be achieved from the x-ray (open faced with opaque photocathodes) to the optical (sealed tube with multialkali or GaAs photocathode).

  2. Multiple-photon disambiguation on stripline-anode Micro-Channel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jocher, Glenn R., E-mail: glenn.jocher@ultralytics.com [Ultralytics LLC, Arlington, VA 22203 (United States); Wetstein, Matthew J., E-mail: mwetstein@uchicago.edu [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Adams, Bernhard, E-mail: badams@incomusa.com [Incom, Inc., 294 Southbridge Road, Charlton, MA 01507 (United States); Nishimura, Kurtis, E-mail: kurtis.nishimura@ultralytics.com [Ultralytics LLC, Arlington, VA 22203 (United States); Usman, Shawn M., E-mail: shawn.usman@nga.mil [Research Directorate, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Dr., Springfield, VA 22150 (United States); Department of Geography and Geoinformation Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Large-Area Picosecond Photo-Detectors (LAPPDs) show great potential for expanding the performance envelope of Micro-Channel Plates (MCPs) to areas of up to 20×20 cm and larger. Such scaling introduces new challenges, including how to meet the electronics readout burden of ever larger area MCPs. One solution is to replace the traditional grid anode used for readout with a microwave stripline anode, thus allowing the channel count to scale with MCP width rather than area. However, stripline anodes introduce new issues not commonly dealt with in grid-anodes, especially as their length increases. One of these issues is the near simultaneous arrival of multiple photons on the detector, creating possible confusion about how to reconstruct their arrival times and positions. We propose a maximum a posteriori solution to the problem and verify its performance in simulated scintillator and water-Cherenkov detectors.

  3. Reducing dose in urography while maintaining image quality-a comparison of storage phosphor plates and a flat-panel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Margareta; Geijer, Håkan; Persliden, Jan; Andersson, Torbjörn

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of new flat-panel detector technology often forces us to accept too high dose levels as proposed by the manufacturers. We need a tool to compare the image quality of a new system with the accepted standard. The aim of this study was to obtain a comparable image quality for two systems-storage phosphor plates and a flat-panel system using intravenous urography (IVU) as a clinical model. The image quality figure was calculated using a contrast-detail phantom (CDRAD) for the two evaluated systems. This allowed us to set a dose for the flat-panel system that gave equivalent image quality to the storage phosphor plates. This reduced detector dose was used in an evaluation of clinical images to find out if the dose reduction from the phantom study indeed resulted in images of equal clinical image quality. The image quality was assessed using image criteria of the European guidelines for IVU with visual grading analysis. Equivalent image quality in image pairs was achieved at 30% of the dose. The CDRAD contrast-detail phantom makes it possible to find dose levels that give equal image quality using different imaging systems.

  4. Surface and buildup region dose measurements with Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, Gafchromic EBT3 film and MOSFET detector for high energy photon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Akbas, Ugur; Koksal, Canan; Bilge, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate surface and buildup region doses for 6 MV photon beams using a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, GafChromic EBT3 film and MOSFET detector for different field sizes and beam angles. The measurements were made in a water equivalent solid phantom at the surface and in the buildup region of the 6 MV photon beams at 100 cm source-detector distance (SDD) for 5x5, 10x10 and 20x20 cm2 field sizes and 0, 30, 60, 80 and 90 beam angles. The surface doses for 10x10 cm2 field size were found to be 20.33%, 18.80% and 25.48% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface dose increased with field size for all dosimeters. As the angle of the incident radiation beam became more oblique, the surface dose increased. The effective measurement depths of dosimeters vary, thus the results of the measurements could be different. This issue can lead to mistakes at surface and buildup dosimetry, and must be taken into account.

  5. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  6. Evaluation of Metal Connector Plates for Repair of Wood Pallet Stringers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Clarke; Thomas E. McLain; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Repair of damaged pallets with metal connector plates (MCPs or plates) may reduce woodwaste while providing high quality, economical pallets. This study evaluated some effects of MCP repair on the performance of pallet components and some provisions of a preliminary standard for MCP repair of pallets. Whole pallet stringers and notched segments of stringers were tested...

  7. Surface and Buildup Region Dose Measurements with Markus Parallel-Plate Ionization Chamber, GafChromic EBT3 Film, and MOSFET Detector for High-Energy Photon Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Akbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate surface and buildup region doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams using a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, GafChromic EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector for different field sizes and beam angles. The measurements were made in a water equivalent solid phantom at the surface and in the buildup region of the 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams at 100 cm source-detector distance for 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm2 field sizes and 0°, 30°, 60°, and 80° beam angles. The surface doses using 6 MV photon beams for 10 × 10 cm2 field size were found to be 20.3%, 18.8%, and 25.5% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface doses using 15 MV photon beams for 10 × 10 cm2 field size were found to be 14.9%, 13.4%, and 16.4% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface dose increased with field size for all dosimeters. As the angle of the incident radiation beam became more oblique, the surface dose increased. The effective measurement depths of dosimeters vary; thus, the results of the measurements could be different. This issue can lead to mistakes at surface and buildup dosimetry and must be taken into account.

  8. Making bulk-conductive glass microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jay J. L.; Niu, Lihong

    2008-02-01

    The fabrication of microchannel plate (MCP) with bulk-conductive characteristics has been studied. Semiconducting clad glass and leachable core glass were used for drawing fibers and making MCP. Co-axial single fiber was drawn from a platinum double-crucible in an automatic fiberizing system, and the fibers were stacked and redrawn into multifiber by a special gripping mechanism. The multifibers were stacked again and the boule was made and sliced into discs. New MCPs were made after chemically leaching process without the traditional hydrogen firing. It was shown that bulk-conductive glass MCP can operate at higher voltage with lower noise.

  9. Time-of-flight detector applied to mass measurements in Rare-RI Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagae, D., E-mail: nagae@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Abe, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okada, S.; Ozawa, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Yamaguchi, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo 255, Sakura-ku Saitama-shi, 338-8570 (Japan); Suzuki, H.; Moriguchi, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ishibashi, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukuoka, S.; Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Suzaki, F.; Sato, K.; Furuki, H.; Ichihashi, N.; Miyazawa, S. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo 255, Sakura-ku Saitama-shi, 338-8570 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Y.; Uesaka, T.; Wakasugi, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We have developed Time-of-flight detectors for the Rare-RI Ring. • Measurements to evaluate a time resolution and a detection efficiency have been performed using alpha particle and heavy ion beams. • Preliminary time resolution is about 130 ps and detection efficiency is about 56% for the heavy ion beams. -- Abstract: A large time-of-flight (TOF) detector has been developed for the Rare-RI Ring. This detector consists of a Multi Channel Plate (MCP) and a carbon foil. Secondary electrons from the carbon foil are transported to the MCP by crossed electric and magnetic fields. In order to cover the beam size of the ring, a large and thin carbon foil (100 mm × 50 mm{sup 2} and 60 μg/cm{sup 2}) is used as a sensitive material. The time resolution of σ≈130 ps, the detection efficiency about 56% and a position dependence of the TOF about 1 ns are obtained. A calculated position dependence of TOF adopting experimental (inhomogeneous) electric field and a homogeneous magnetic field is in agreement with the experimental one. These results suggest that the homogeneity of electric field is important to improve the time resolution in the large size detector.

  10. Soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet photon-counting imaging detector with curved surface micro-channel plate and induced charge position-sensitive anode%使用曲面微通道板和感应电荷位置灵敏阳极的软 X 射线-极紫外光子计数成像探测器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尼启良

    2015-01-01

    本项目对我国空间探测的极紫外( EUV)波段大视场相机所需求的球面光子计数成像探测器的关键技术进行了研究。首先,建立了光阴极材料次级电子产出模型,利用该模型计算了软X射线-EUV波段常用的光电阴极材料—碱卤化物的次级电子产出,分析了微通道板( MCP)的次级电子产出。建立了测量MCP量子探测效率的装置,并推导出MCP量子探测效率的计算公式,测量了MCP在软X射线-EUV波段的量子效率以及MCP量子效率随掠入射角的变化。其次,建立了球面实芯微通道板的制备装置,利用高温热成型方法制备出曲率半径为150 mm球面MCP,利用光刻技术制备出有效直径为48 mm的楔条形感应电荷位置灵敏阳极,在此基础上集成了一套使用球面MCP和感应电荷位置灵敏阳极的两维光子计数成像探测器。再次,研制出包括快速前端模拟电路与后续数字电路的成像读出电路,编制了能矫正图像畸变的图像实时采集和处理软件。最后,建立了MCP探测器空间分辨率、图像线性的检测装置,对研制出的探测器性能进行了检测,检测结果表明:探测器的各项技术指标完全满足要求。%The research on key techniques of wide field extreme ultraviolet ( EUV ) spherical micro-channel plate( MCP) photon-counting imaging detector which will be used in space probe in China have been done. Firstly, the secondary electron yield model of photocathode material was built, and the secondary yield of alka-li halide and MCP in soft X-ray and EUV band were calculated using the model.The measurement equipment of MCP′s quantum detection efficiency also was set up.The calculated fomula of MCP′s quantum efficiency was introduced, and MCP′s quantum efficiency vs.wavelength and incidence angle in soft X-ray and EUV re-gion were measured.secondly, the instrument of solid core spherical MCP fabrication was

  11. Microchannel plate special nuclear materials sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, W.B., E-mail: bfeller@novascientific.com [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); White, P.L.; White, P.B. [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Siegmund, O.H.W.; Martin, A.P.; Vallerga, J.V. [Sensor Sciences, 3333 Vincent Road, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Nova Scientific Inc., is developing for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO SBIR no. HSHQDC-08-C-00190), a solid-state, high-efficiency neutron detection alternative to {sup 3}He gas tubes, using neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) containing {sup 10}B and/or Gd. This work directly supports DNDO development of technologies designed to detect and interdict nuclear weapons or illicit nuclear materials. Neutron-sensitized MCPs have been shown theoretically and more recently experimentally, to be capable of thermal neutron detection efficiencies equivalent to {sup 3}He gas tubes. Although typical solid-state neutron detectors typically have an intrinsic gamma sensitivity orders of magnitude higher than that of {sup 3}He gas detectors, we dramatically reduce gamma sensitivity by combining a novel electronic coincidence rejection scheme, employing a separate but enveloping gamma scintillator. This has already resulted in a measured gamma rejection ratio equal to a small {sup 3}He tube, without in principle sacrificing neutron detection efficiency. Ongoing improvements to the MCP performance as well as the coincidence counting geometry will be described. Repeated testing and validation with a {sup 252}Cf source has been underway throughout the Phase II SBIR program, with ongoing comparisons to a small commercial {sup 3}He gas tube. Finally, further component improvements and efforts toward integration maturity are underway, with the goal of establishing functional prototypes for SNM field testing.

  12. Test-beam and laboratory characterisation of the TORCH prototype detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ros, A; Castillo-Garcia, L; Conneely, T; Cussans, D; Foehl, K; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Milnes, J; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Van Dijk, M

    2016-01-01

    The TORCH time-of-flight (TOF) detector is being developed to provide particle identification up to a momentum of 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10 m. It has a DIRC-like construction with View the MathML source10mm thick synthetic amorphous fused-silica plates as a Cherenkov radiator. Photons propagate by total internal reflection to the plate periphery where they are focused onto an array of customised position-sensitive micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors. The goal is to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle by combining arrival times from multiple photons. The MCPs have pixels of effective size 0.4 mm×6.6 mm2 in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, by incorporating a novel charge-sharing technique to improve the spatial resolution to better than the pitch of the readout anodes. Prototype photon detectors and readout electronics have been tested and calibrated in the laboratory. Preliminary results from testbeam measurements of a prototype TORCH detector are a...

  13. Test-beam and laboratory characterisation of the TORCH prototype detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ros, A; Castillo-Garcia, L; Conneely, T; Cussans, D; Foehl, K; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Milnes, J; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Van Dijk, M

    2016-01-01

    The TORCH time-of-flight (TOF) detector is being developed to provide particle identification up to a momentum of 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10 m. It has a DIRC-like construction with View the MathML source10mm thick synthetic amorphous fused-silica plates as a Cherenkov radiator. Photons propagate by total internal reflection to the plate periphery where they are focused onto an array of customised position-sensitive micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors. The goal is to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle by combining arrival times from multiple photons. The MCPs have pixels of effective size 0.4 mm×6.6 mm2 in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, by incorporating a novel charge-sharing technique to improve the spatial resolution to better than the pitch of the readout anodes. Prototype photon detectors and readout electronics have been tested and calibrated in the laboratory. Preliminary results from testbeam measurements of a prototype TORCH detector are a...

  14. An ion-to-photon conversion detector for mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, F.; Knochenmuss, R.; Zenobi, R.

    1997-12-01

    An ion-to-photon conversion detector (IPD) for time-of-flight mass spectrometry was studied and tested with ions produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization. The detector consisted of a conversion surface located at the end of the drift tube of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and, behind it, a head-on photomultiplier tube. Fluorescent organic scintillator materials like Bu-PBD [2-(4-t-buthylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxidiazole] were found to be the most efficient converters of those materials tested. Similar mass resolutions were found with the ion-to-photo detector and standard microchannel plates in a linear time-of-flight instrument. The background noise of the IPD was more intense than with microchannel plates. Slow unfocused ions are suspected to contribute to this noise. Test analytes as large as 70 000 Da could be measured with the IPD. Even with no secondary particle conversion surface in front of the IPD, masses up to approximately 20 000 Da may be more efficiently detected with the IPD than the MCP. For higher masses, a conversion dynode should be considered for increased signal.

  15. Viscoelastic behavior of yellow pitahaya treated with 1-MCP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Sofia Torres Valenzuela; Alfredo Adolfo Ayala-Aponte; Liliana Serna

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the application of 1-MCP on the viscoelastic properties of minimally processed yellow pitahaya during refrigeration storage, by using a stress relaxation test...

  16. Characterization of an ultraviolet imaging detector with high event rate ROIC (HEROIC) readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Nicholas; France, Kevin; Harwit, Alex; Bradley, Scott; Franka, Steve; Freymiller, Ed; Ebbets, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    We present characterization results from a photon counting imaging detector consisting of one microchannel plate (MCP) and an array of two readout integrated circuits (ROIC) that record photon position. The ROICs used in the position readout are the high event rate ROIC (HEROIC) devices designed to handle event rates up to 1 MHz per pixel, recently developed by the Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in collaboration with the University of Colorado. An opaque cesium iodide (CsI) photocathode sensitive in the far-ultraviolet (FUV; 122-200 nm), is deposited on the upper surface of the MCP. The detector is characterized in a chamber developed by CU Boulder that is capable of illumination with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) monochromatic light and measurement of absolute ux with a calibrated photodiode. Testing includes investigation of the effects of adjustment of internal settings of the HEROIC devices including charge threshold, gain, and amplifier bias. The detector response to high count rates is tested. We report initial results including background, uniformity, and quantum detection efficiency (QDE) as a function of wavelength.

  17. X-ray focusing using microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, P.; Geissbuehler, P.; Chen, A.; Glavinas, E.

    1992-01-01

    We present measurements of the X-ray focusing properties of square-pore microchannel plates (MCP's). Square-pore MCP's contain large numbers of closely packed optical surfaces, as required for grazing incidence X-ray optics. The surface of individual MCP channels has been measured and found to have high microroughness transverse to the channel axis and low microroughness parallel to the axis. The high frequency transverse roughness, on length scales greater than 400 nm, has a rms value of 5.9 nm and a Gaussian autocorrelation function with correlation length of 1.41 micron. We find that the geometric misalignments of the surfaces of different channels limit the angular resolution obtainable with current samples of MCP's to 7.1 arcmin.

  18. Performance Measurements of the Flight Detector for SPICE on SolarOrbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Davila, J. M.; Caldwell, M.; Siegmund, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment (SPICE) instrument for theSolar Orbiter mission will make spectroscopic observations of the Sun's lowcorona to characterize the plasma properties of the source regions of the solarwind. The detector package for SPICE, provided by the NASA Goddard SpaceFLight Center, consists of two microchannel-plate (MCP) intensified ActivePixel Sensor (APS) detectors covering the short (702-792 Angstroms) and long(972-1050 Angstroms) wavelength bandpasses. The long wavelength detector willalso provide coverage in second order between 485-525 Angstroms. We previouslyreported on measurements of the engineering model detector. Here, we report onmeasurements made on the flight SPICE detector in the same vacuum tank facilityat the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Harwell, UK. These measurementsinclude the detector flat field, sensitivity, resolution, linearity, andstatistical noise. A krypton resonance lamp operating at 1236 Angstroms wasused to stimulate the detector. Results at this wavelength are combined withthe quantum efficiency measurements of the individual MCPs at this and otherwavelengths covering the entire wavelength range to provide a completecalibration curve for the instrument. A calibrated NIST photodiode was used todetermine the absolute brightness of the lamp.

  19. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide Induced MCP-1 Expression in Primary Astrocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Faez Abdelgawad, Amro

    2017-01-01

    Background. Neuroinflammation which presents as a possible mechanism of delirium is associated with MCP-1, an important proinflammatory factor which is expressed on astrocytes. It is known that dexmedetomidine (DEX) possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of DEX on the production of MCP-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. Materials and Methods. Astrocytes were treated with LPS (10 ng/ml, 50 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml, and 1000 ng/ml), DEX (500 ng/mL), LPS (100 ng/ml), and DEX (10, 100, and 500 ng/mL) for a duration of three hours; expression levels of MCP-1 were measured by real-time PCR. The double immunofluorescence staining protocol was utilized to determine the expression of α2-adrenoceptors (α2AR) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) on astrocytes. Results. Expressions of MCP-1 mRNA in astrocytes were induced dose-dependently by LPS. Administration of DEX significantly inhibited the expression of MCP-1 mRNA (P < 0.001). Double immunofluorescence assay showed that α2AR colocalize with GFAP, which indicates the expression of α2-adrenoceptors in astrocytes. Conclusions. DEX is a potent suppressor of MCP-1 in astrocytes induced with lipopolysaccharide through α2A-adrenergic receptors, which potentially explains its beneficial effects in the treatment of delirium by attenuating neuroinflammation. PMID:28286770

  20. High-resolution VUV spectrometer/detector investigations of rare-earth pulsed plasma source (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. R.; Cromer, C. L.; Bridges, J. M.; Lucatorto, T. B.

    1985-05-01

    A 1.5-m grazing incidence spectrometer with a channel electron multiplier (CEMA) and electronic readout detector has been incorporated with a rare-earth target, pulsed plasma, continuum source. The spectrometer is compact and portable while maintaining high resolution. The CEMA detector consists of a single multichannel plate (MCP) with coned-shaped input pores which are cut at a 15-degree bias to improve efficiency at grazing angles. The source is a rare-earth plasma generated by a 10-J ruby laser producing intense continuum emission for wavelengths from 170 to 5 nm. This system will be used for both stationary and transient high-resolution atomic photoabsorption spectroscopy. The pulsed plasma source itself will be investigated for suitability as a radiometric transfer standard source. Preliminary results obtained with this integrated system will be discussed.

  1. CCL2/MCP-1 modulation of microglial activation and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Bueno Borja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocyte chemoattractant protein (CCL2/MCP-1 is a chemokine that attracts cells involved in the immune/inflammatory response. As microglia are one of the main cell types sustaining inflammation in brain, we proposed here to analyze the direct effects of MCP-1 on cultured primary microglia. Methods Primary microglia and neuronal cultures were obtained from neonatal and embryonic Wistar rats, respectively. Microglia were incubated with different concentrations of recombinant MCP-1 and LPS. Cell proliferation was quantified by measuring incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Nitrite accumulation was measured using the Griess assay. The expression and synthesis of different proteins was measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Cell death was quantified by measuring release of LDH into the culture medium. Results MCP-1 treatment (50 ng/ml, 24 h did not induce morphological changes in microglial cultures. Protein and mRNA levels of different cytokines were measured, showing that MCP-1 was not able to induce proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL6, MIP-1α, either by itself or in combination with LPS. A similar lack of effect was observed when measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 expression or accumulation of nitrites in the culture media as a different indicator of microglial activation. MCP-1 was also unable to alter the expression of different trophic factors that were reduced by LPS treatment. In order to explore the possible release of other products by microglia and their potential neurotoxicity, neurons were co-cultured with microglia: no death of neurons could be detected when treated with MCP-1. However, the presence of MCP-1 induced proliferation of microglia, an effect opposite to that observed with LPS. Conclusion These data indicate that, while causing migration and proliferation of microglia, MCP-1 does not appear to directly activate an inflammatory response in this cell type, and therefore, other factors may be

  2. Study on MCP-1 related to inflammation induced by biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Tingting [Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University/Shanghai Biomaterials Research and Testing Center, Shanghai 200023 (China); Sun Jiao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai 200023 (China); Zhang Ping, E-mail: jiaosun59@yahoo.co [School of Life Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The study of inflammation is important for understanding the reaction between biomaterials and the human body, in particular, the interaction between biomaterials and immune system. In the current study, rat macrophages were induced by multiple biomaterials with different biocompatibilities, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing 8% of organic tin, a positive control material with cellular toxicity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304), cultured with PRMI-1640, were detached from cells cultured with the supernatant of macrophages containing TNF-alpha and IL-1beta because of stimulation by biomaterials. The cells were then treated with different biomaterials. Then both TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in macrophages were detected by ELISA. Levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by RT-PCR. The results suggested that the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta was elevated by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and American NPG alloy (p < 0.001). The level of MCP-1 cultured in supernatant of macrophages was higher than in PRMI-1640 with the same biomaterials. And the exposure to PTFE, PLGA and NPG resulted in the high expression of MCP-1 (p < 0.001) following cytokine stimulation. MCP-1 was also significantly expressed in beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and calcium phosphate cement samples (CPC) (p < 0.01). Thus, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and MCP-1 had played an important role in the immune reaction induced by biomaterials and there was a close relationship between the expression of cytokines and biomcompatibility of biomaterials. Furthermore, these data suggested that MCP-1 was regulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and activated by both cytokines and biomaterials. The data further suggested that the expression of MCP-1 could be used as a marker to indicate the degree of immune reaction induced by biomaterials.

  3. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, John; Tremsina, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ("Medipix2") with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256 x 256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest.

  4. Efficiency and rate capability studies of the time-of-flight detector for isochronous mass measurements of stored short-lived nuclei with the FRS-ESR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, Natalia; Fabian, Benjamin [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität, 35392 Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Diwisch, Marcel [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Plaß, Wolfgang R., E-mail: Wolfgang.R.Plass@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität, 35392 Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Geissel, Hans; Ayet San Andrés, Samuel; Dickel, Timo; Knöbel, Ronja; Scheidenberger, Christoph [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität, 35392 Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Sun, Baohua [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Weick, Helmut [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-06-11

    A time-of-flight (TOF) detector is used for Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) with the projectile fragment separator FRS and the heavy-ion storage ring ESR. Exotic nuclei are spatially separated in flight with the FRS at about 70% of the speed of light and are injected into the ESR. The revolution times of the stored ions circulating in the ESR are measured with a thin transmission foil detector. When the ions penetrate the thin detector foil, secondary electrons (SEs) are emitted from the surface and provide the timing information in combination with microchannel plate (MCP) detectors. The isochronous transport of the SEs is performed by perpendicular superimposed electric and magnetic fields. The detection efficiency and the rate capability of the TOF detector have been studied in simulations and experiments. As a result the performance of the TOF detector has been improved substantially: (i) The SE collection efficiency was doubled by use of an optimized set of electric and magnetic field values; now SEs from almost the full area of the foil are transmitted to the MCP detectors. (ii) The rate capability of the TOF detector was improved by a factor of four by the use of MCPs with 5 μm pore size. (iii) With these MCPs and a carbon foil with a reduced thickness of 10 μg/cm{sup 2} the number of recorded revolutions in the ESR has been increased by nearly a factor of 10. The number of recorded revolutions determine the precision of the IMS experiments. Heavy-ion measurements were performed with neon ions at 322 MeV/u and uranium fission fragments at about 370 MeV/u. In addition, measurements with an alpha source were performed in the laboratory with a duplicate of the TOF detector.

  5. Performance of a compact position-sensitive photon counting detector with image charge coupling to an air-side anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagutzki, O.; Czasch, A.; Schössler, S.

    2013-05-01

    We discuss a novel micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier with resistive screen (RS-PMT) as a detection device for space- and time-correlated single photon counting, illustrated by several applications. The photomultiplier tube resembles a standard image intensifier device. However, the rear phosphor screen is replaced by a ceramic "window" with resistive coating. The MCP output is transferred through the ceramic plate to the read-out electrode (on the air side) via capacity-coupling of the image charge. This design allows for an easy reconfiguration of the read-out electrode (e.g. pixel, charge-sharing, cross-strip, delay-line) without breaking the vacuum for optimizing the detector performance towards a certain task. It also eases the design and manufacturing process of such a multi-purpose photomultiplier tube. Temporal and spatial resolutions well below 100 ps and 100 microns, respectively, have been reported at event rates as high as 1 MHz, for up to 40 mm effective detection diameter. In this paper we will discuss several applications like wide-field fluorescence microscopy and dual γ/fast-neutron radiography for air cargo screening and conclude with an outlook on large-area detectors for thermal neutrons based on MCPs.

  6. Development and testing of cost-effective, 6 cm x 6 cm MCP-based photodetectors for fast timing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jingbo; Demarteau, Marcel; Elam, Jeffrey; Mane, Anil; May, Edward; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Xie, Junqi; Xia, Lei; Zhao, Huyue

    2016-01-01

    Micro-channel plate (MCP)-based photodetectors are capable of picosecond level time resolution and sub-mm level position resolution, which makes them a perfect candidate for the next generation large area photodetectors. The large-area picosecond photodetector (LAPPD) collaboration is developing new techniques for making large-area photodetectors based on new MCP fabrication and functionalization methods. A small single tube processing system (SmSTPS) was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for developing scalable, cost-effective, glass-body, 6 cm x 6 cm, picosecond photodetectors based on MCPs functionalized by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Recently, a number of fully processed and hermitically sealed prototypes made of MCPs with 20 micron pores have been fabricated. This is a significant milestone for the LAPPD project. These prototypes were characterized with a pulsed laser test facility. Without optimization, the prototypes have shown excellent results: The time resolution is ~57 ps for sing...

  7. Angular Sensitivity of Gated Micro-Channel Plate Framing Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, O L; Lobban, A; Tutt, T; Bell, P M; Costa, R; Ze, F

    2000-07-24

    Gated, microchannel-plate-based (MCP) framing cameras have been deployed worldwide for 0.2 - 9 keV x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of transient plasma phenomena. For a variety of spectroscopic and imaging applications, the angular sensitivity of MCPs must be known for correctly interpreting the data. We present systematic measurements of angular sensitivity at discrete relevant photon energies and arbitrary MCP gain. The results can been accurately predicted by using a simple 2D approximation to the 3D MCP geometry and by averaging over all possible photon ray paths.

  8. A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhua Xue; Hulie Zeng; Jianmin Yang; Hizuru Nakajima; Katsumi Uchiyama

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well ...

  9. Nanosecond-gating properties of proximity-focused microchannel-plate image intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N. S. P.; Yates, G. J.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Ogle, J. W.

    Some fundamental properties of 18 mm-diam gated proximity focussed microchannel plate (MCP) image intensifiers used as fast image shutters in the 1 to 10 ns range were identified and studied. Light pulses from a modelocked dye laser optically sample the gated MCP. Shuttering is achieved by applying a forward biasing electrical gate pulse to the quiescently reverse-biased photocathode MCP interface. Variable delay between the gate pulse and the laser pulse permits tracing the MCP's optical response. Gating speeds, turn-on and turn-off patterns, the asymmetric spatial depedence of the MCP optical response, and resolution effects as functions of gate pulse width and photocathode-MCP bias were characterized. Variations in the intensity profiles of the phosphor's spatial response for uniform photocathode illumination are measured with a calibrated silicon intensified target focus projection, scan television camera and a high speed video digitizer while photomultipliers monitor the laser pulse and the phosphor's spatially integrated output intensities.

  10. Evaluation of BICRON NE MCP DXT-RAD passive extremity dosemeter

    CERN Document Server

    Yuen, P S; Frketich, G; Rotunda, J

    1999-01-01

    Passive extremity dosemeters currently used in dosimetry communities worldwide have shortcomings. In general, an extremity dosemeter has too thick a detector element, and the dosemeter response is highly energy dependent for beta rays with energies ranging from 200 keV to 2 MeV. It often does not have dosemeter identification, causing problems in the chain of custody. It is often read manually, rendering reading/packing operations very labour intensive. As a result of collaboration between AECL and BICRON NE, a new extremity dosemeter, incorporating a highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD and tentatively code named MCP DXT-RAD, was developed. It has been evaluated for radiological performance against an ISO draft standard for extremity dosemeters in twelve categories: homogeneity, detection threshold, beta ray energy response, beta angular response, photon energy response, photon angular response, reproducibility, stability under various climatic conditions, linearity, residue, self irradiation, and effect of ligh...

  11. Single Particle-Photon Imaging Detector With 4-Dimensional Output: Absolute Time-of-hit, X-Y Position, and PHA: Applications in Space Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, N. P.; Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.

    2006-12-01

    A detector that can simultaneously measure time, position, and pulse high analysis (PHA) of single particle/photons with high resolutions and speeds, is a strong enabling technology for many space science instruments such as: energetic neutral atom imagers, low energy neutrals, energetic particle spectrometers, ion/electron plasma analyzers, UV spectrographs, mass spectrometers, laser range finding imagers, X-ray imagers. This presentation describes one such 4-dimentional detector based on micro-channel plates (MCPs), delay line anodes, and precise time of flight, and charge integration electronics for PHA. More specifically the detector includes: a) An MCP in 2-stack or Z-stack configuration for the particle/photon detection. b) Option for a thin foil or photo-cathode in front of the MCP to increase the detection efficiency of particles or photons respectively. c) Novel 1D or 2D delay line anode adaptable to almost any geometry and physical size of common instruments mentioned above. d) Fast time of flight (TOF) electronics for the absolute time of hit and the X-Y position determination. e) Fast charge integration electronics for PHA of the total charge released by the MCP. Under certain circumstances the PHA gives information about the particle mass such as for protons, He and Oxygen, cross calibrated against UV light which typically gives a single electron distribution. f) FPGA electronics for digital data acquisition and handling. e) Standard mat lab SW for data analysis and visualization in a stand alone application. The detector achieves time of hit accuracy UV spectrograph with X-Y position only. Typical front-end power consumption at full 4D and full speed configuration is 100mW. The technology is customizable for a variety of detection area, size and geometry, as well as power -speed/resolution tradeoff.

  12. Position sensitive anodes for MCP read-out using induced charge measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagutzki, O.; Lapington, J. S.; Worth, L. B. C.; Spillman, U.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the method of an indirect detection of a MCP charge avalanche projected onto a resistive layer (G. Battistoni, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth., 202 (1982) 459). If the sheet resistance is favourable one can detect the charge cloud by the capacitive coupling to an anode structure a few millimetres behind the layer. The anode structure can be, for example, a wedge-and-strip electrode pattern (M. Unverzagt, Diplomarbeit, Universität Frankfurt 1992, private communication) as it is used for directly collecting the electron avalanche from a MCP. Detection of the induced charge is beneficial in several respects. Firstly, image distortions produced by secondary electron mediated charge redistribution are eliminated. Secondly, the noise component due to quantized charge collection, commonly referred to as partition noise, is not present. In addition, the dielectric substrate can function both as an element of the vacuum enclosure and HV insulator, making the electrical connections easily accessible and the pattern operable at ground potential, independently of detector operating voltages. This technique can be used to simplify the electronic design requirements where varying high voltages are required at the detector input face such as plasma analysers, etc. It also has application in the manufacture of intensifier tubes (J. Barnstedt, M. Grewing, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., these proceedings) where the inclusion of a readout pattern inside the intensifier body with associated electrical feed-throughs can prove problematic. We will present data on the performance of such detection geometries using several types of charge division anode, and discuss the advantages compared with the "traditional" charge collecting method.

  13. Capacitively coupled pickup in MCP-based photodetectors using a conductive metallic anode

    CERN Document Server

    Angelico, Evan; Adams, Bernhard; Elagin, Andrey; Frisch, Henry; Spieglan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and tested a robust 20 $\\times$ 20 cm$^2$ thin metal film internal anode capacitively coupled to an external array of signal pads or micro-strips for use in fast microchannel plate photodetectors. The internal anode, in this case a 10nm-thick NiCr film deposited on a 96% pure Al$_2$O$_3$ 3mm-thick ceramic plate and connected to HV ground, provides the return path for the electron cascade charge. The multi-channel pickup array consists of a printed-circuit card or glass plate with metal signal pickups on one side and the signal ground plane on the other. The pickup can be put in close proximity to the bottom outer surface of the sealed photodetector, with no electrical connections through the photodetector hermetic vacuum package other than a single ground connection to the internal anode. Two pickup patterns were tested using a small commercial MCP-PMT as the signal source: 1) parallel 50$\\Omega$ 25-cm-long micro-strips with an analog bandwidth of 1.5 GHz, and 2) a 20 $\\times$ 20 cm$^2$ array...

  14. An Internal ALD-Based High Voltage Divider and Signal Circuit for MCP-based Photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bernhard W.; Elagin, Andrey; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Frisch, Henry J.; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gregar, Joseph S.; Mane, Anil U.; Minot, Michael J.; Northrup, Richard; Obaid, Razib; Oberla, Eric; Alexander, Vostrikov; Wetstein, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    We describe a pin-less design for the high voltage (HV) resistive divider of the all-glass LAPPD (TM) 8 in,square thin photodetector module. The divider, which distributes high voltage applied to the photocathode to the two micro-channel plates (MCPs) that constitute the amplification stage, is comprised of the two MCPs and three glass mechanical spacers, each of which is coated with a resistive layer using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The three glass grid spacers and the two MCPs form a continuous resistive path between cathode and anode, with the voltages across the MCPs and the spacers determined by the resistance of each. High voltage is applied on an external tab on the top glass window that connects to the photocathode through the metal seal. The DC ground is supplied by microstrips on the bottom glass plate that form the high-bandwidth anode. The microstrips exit the package through the glass-frit seal of the anode base-plate and the package sidewall. The divider is thus completely internal, with no HV pins penetrating the low-profile flat glass package. Measurements of the performance of the divider are presented for the 8 in.-square MCP and spacer package in a custom test fixture and for an assembled externally pumped LAPPD (TM) prototype with an aluminum photocathode. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Firmeza de pêssegos 'diamante' tratados com 1-MCP Firmness of peach 'diamante' treated with 1-MCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Emanuele da Rocha Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o consumo de pêssegos in natura vem aumentando a cada ano. No entanto, durante o transporte, o período de armazenamento e a comercialização, as perdas são bastante significativas, havendo a necessidade de desenvolver tecnologias para manter a qualidade pós-colheita e prolongar a vida útil desses frutos. O composto 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP vem sendo usado com resultados positivos em diversos tipos de frutos, como goiaba, banana, maçã, entre outras. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o tratamento com 1-MCP em pêssegos armazenados em condições ambientais para a manutenção da firmeza dos frutos. Os frutos da cv. Diamante foram provenientes do município de Nepomuceno-MG, colhidos no estádio de maturação 'de vez' e selecionados em função do tamanho, estádio de maturação e ausência de injúrias. Os frutos foram submetidos à imersão em hipoclorito de sódio a 1% para desinfecção e parte deles foi tratada com 1-MCP, na concentração aproximada de 625 nL/L, por 12 horas. Em seguida, os frutos foram armazenados por até 10 dias, em temperatura ambiente (22 ± 2°C e 77 ± 2% UR. Foram realizadas análises de firmeza da polpa, solubilização de pectinas e atividades de pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase a cada 2 dias até o final do período de armazenamento. Os frutos tratados com 1-MCP apresentaram maior firmeza e menor solubilização de pectinas durante o período avaliado e também menor atividade de pectinametilesterase que os frutos-controle até o 6º dia de armazenamento, demonstrando que o 1-MCP foi eficiente em retardar o amaciamento dos frutos no período estudado.In Brazil, the consumption of in natura peaches has been increasing every year. However, during the transport, the storage period and the commercialization, the losses are quite significant, having the need to develop technologies to maintain postharvest quality and to prolong the useful life of those fruits. The compound 1-methylcyclopropene

  16. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles P. E-mail: NanoSystem@aol.com; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R. E-mail: winn@fair1.fairfield.edu

    2000-03-11

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of {approx}0.5 to {approx}25 {mu}m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented.

  17. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-03-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ˜0.5 to ˜25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200°C, also compatible with high-temperture brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented.

  18. Improved lifetime of microchannel-plate PMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, A., E-mail: lehmann@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Physikalisches Institut IV, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Uhlig, F. [Physikalisches Institut IV, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Höhler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The charged particle identification at the PANDA experiment will be mainly performed with DIRC detectors. Because of their advantageous properties the preferred photon sensors are MCP-PMTs. However, until recently these devices showed serious aging problems which resulted in a diminishing quantum efficiency (QE) of the photo cathode. By applying innovative countermeasures against the aging causes, the manufacturers recently succeeded in drastically improving the lifetime of MCP-PMTs. Especially the application of an ALD coating technique to seal the material of the micro-channels proves very powerful and results in a lifetime of ≈6C/cm{sup 2} integrated anode charge without a substantial QE degradation for the latest PHOTONIS XP85112. This paper will present a comparative measurement of the lifetime of several older and recent MCP-PMTs demonstrating this progress.

  19. Improved lifetime of microchannel-plate PMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, A.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Uhlig, F.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Höhler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    The charged particle identification at the PANDA experiment will be mainly performed with DIRC detectors. Because of their advantageous properties the preferred photon sensors are MCP-PMTs. However, until recently these devices showed serious aging problems which resulted in a diminishing quantum efficiency (QE) of the photo cathode. By applying innovative countermeasures against the aging causes, the manufacturers recently succeeded in drastically improving the lifetime of MCP-PMTs. Especially the application of an ALD coating technique to seal the material of the micro-channels proves very powerful and results in a lifetime of ≈ 6 C /cm2 integrated anode charge without a substantial QE degradation for the latest PHOTONIS XP85112. This paper will present a comparative measurement of the lifetime of several older and recent MCP-PMTs demonstrating this progress.

  20. Characteristics and applications of advanced technology microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jerry R.; Tasker, G. William; Fijol, John J.

    1990-10-01

    A method for fabrication of novel thin-filrn continuous dynode electron multipliers is described. We have shown the feasibility of crucial manufacturing steps, including anisotropic dry etching of substrates into photolithographically-defined arrays of high-aspect-ratio channels, and the formation of thin-film continuous dynodes by chemical vapor deposition. We discuss potential performance and design advantages of this advanced technology microchannel plate (AT-MCP) over the conven tional reduced lead silicate glass inicrochannel plate (RLSG-'MCP) and implications for new applications.

  1. VIDA COMERCIAL DE PITAHAYA AMARILLA TRATADA CON 1-MCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA-COCK

    Full Text Available 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, un inhibidor del etileno, ha sido utilizado para extender la vida comercial de diferentes frutas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de soluciones acuosas de 10, 100 y 200 gL-1 de 1-MCP, con tiempos de exposición de 1, 5 y 10 minutos, sobre la vida comercial de pitahaya amarilla en estado de madurez 4. Durante 15 días de almacenamiento (25 ± 2°C y 75% de humedad relativa, se evaluaron cambios físicos como la pérdida de peso y la aparición de pardeamiento; y se midieron cambios químicos como sólidos solubles, pH, acidez e índice de madurez. Se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos. Los resultados demostraron que aplicaciones de 200 gL-1 de 1-MCP durante 10 minutos prolongó por tres días, la vida comercial de la pitahaya amarilla, y redujo cambios en los sólidos solubles y la acidez

  2. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingsen, T.; Elling, P; Olson, A.; Elling, H; Baandrup, U; Matsushima, K.; Deleuran, B; Stengaard-Pederse..., K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the localisation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in the inflamed vessel wall in temporal arteritis (TA) and to measure MCP-1 in plasma both in patients with TA and patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).
METHODS—By immunohistochemical techniques MCP-1 was localised to the vessel wall in patients with TA. In TA, PMR, and healthy controls MCP-1 was quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plasma.
RESULTS—MCP-1 was localised to the majorit...

  3. 随机极性MCP-EBPSK传输性能%Transmission performance of MCP-EBPSK with random polar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳一; 吴乐南; 冯熳; 邓蕾

    2012-01-01

    为提高随机极性的修正连续相位扩展二元相移键控(MCP-EBPSK)调制信号的传输性能,对比了AWGN信道上自适应门限判决、BP神经网络和支持向量机(SVM)判决3种解调方式的解调性能,并引入了RS码和规则LDPC码来进行改善.根据随机极性MCP-EBPSK调制原理和数字冲击滤波器特殊滤波机理,设计了基于自适应门限判决、BP神经网络和SVM的解调器.同时,在这3种解调方式性能均不佳时,对RS码和规则LDPC编码的随机极性MCP-EBPSK传输性能进行了仿真.仿真结果表明:在AWGN信道上,自适应门限判决、BP神经网络和SVM三种解调方式的解调性能相差不大;当采用自适应门限判决且误码率为10-4时,RS码和规则LDPC码的编码增益分别约为4 dB和7 dB.因此,引入信道编码可显著改善随机极性MCP-EBPSK的传输性能.%In order to improve the transmission performance of random polar and modified extended binary phase shift keying with continuous phase (MCP-EBPSK) modulated signal, the demodulation performance of the adaptive threshold discrimination, BP neural network, and support vector machine (SVM) in additive white Gaussian noise(AWGN) channel is compared, then Reed-Solomon (RS) code and regular low-density parity-check (LDPC) code are introduced. According to the principle of MCP-EBPSK with random polar and the special filtering mechanism of digital impacting filter, the demodulators are designed based on adaptive threshold discrimination, BP neural network, and SVM. Meanwhile, when the demodulation performance of these demodulators is poor, the RS and regular LDPC coded MCP-EBPSK with random polar is also simulated. Simulation results show that in AWGN channel, the demodulation performance of adaptive threshold discrimination, BP neural network and SVM is almost the same; when adaptive threshold discrimination is used and BER is 10-4, the coding gain of RS code and regular LDPC is about 4 dB and 7 dB, respectively

  4. Considerations about Large Area___Low Cost Fast Imaging Photo-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, John; /Argonne; Attenkofer, Klaus; /Argonne; Delagnes, Eric; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Frisch, Henry; /Chicago U., EFI; Genat, Jean-Francois; /Paris U., VI-VII; Grabas, Herve; /Chicago U., EFI; Heintz, Mary K.; /Chicago U., EFI; May, Edward; /Argonne; Meehan, Samuel; /Argonne; Oberla, Eric; /Argonne; Ruckman, Larry L.; /Hawaii U.; Tang, Fukun; /Chicago U., EFI; Varner, Gary; /Hawaii U.; Vavra, Jaroslav; /SLAC; Wetstein, Matthew; /Argonne

    2012-05-07

    The Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors described in this contribution incorporate a photocathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalised by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and secondary emission materials. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test disks has demonstrated gains of the order of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photodetectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. If daisy chained, large detectors read at both ends with fast digitising integrated electronics providing zero-suppressed calibrated data should be produced at relatively low cost in large quantities.

  5. Functionalized Nano-Film Microchannel Plate: A Single High Aspect Ratio Device for High Resolution, Low Noise Astronomical Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to apply proven nano-film technology to enable Microchannel plate (MCP) devices to be manufactured on a range of insulating substrates and...

  6. Functionalized Nano-Film Microchannel Plate: A Single High Aspect Ratio Device for High Resolution, Low Noise Astronomical Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atomic layer deposited functional nano-film technology is used to manufacture Microchannel plate (MCP) devices capable of high gain / low ion feedback operation, on...

  7. Experimental study and clinical observation of minimum-contact plate in long bone fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-jian; FEI Jun; WANG Zheng-guo; YU Hong-jun; SUN Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To sutdy the mechanical properties and the clinical results of minimum-contact plate in the treatment of fractures. Methods: Four-point bending and torsion tests were conducted to compare the new minimum contact plate (MCP) with dynamic compression plate (DCP) and limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP). The fracture healing time and growth of bony callus were observed in 29 cases of long bone fracture fixed with MCP to evaluate the advantages of this kind of plate. Results: The 29 patients who underwent MCP were followed up from 6 to 14 months. The average healing time for femoral, tibial and humeral fractures was 12, 13 and 10 weeks, respectively. All fractures were healed. No displacement of fracture, screw pullout, deformation or break of the plate were found. Conclusions: The bending stiffness of MCP is significantly greater than that of DCP and LC-DCP (P<0.05). MCP can protect the periosteal blood supply against avascular osseous necrosis and accelerate bone healing. It is a kind of reliable and effective plate in treatment of fractures.

  8. Effects of 1-MCP on Post-Harvest Physiology of Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xi-sheng; WANG Zhi-hua; LI Zhi-qiang; ZHANG Zhi-yun; WANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. 402) was used to investigate the effects of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) treatment on ethylene production, respiration, vitamin C, chlorophyll, titratable acid,change of fruit color and rot. The results indicated that 1-MCP strongly inhibited ethylene production and respiration of tomato at very low concentration, delayed the incidence of climacteric peak of ethylene production and respiration. 1-MCP also delayed the decrease of vitamin C, chlorophyll and titratable acid during shelf life and storage significantly. Shelf and storage life of fruit treated with 1-MCP were extended at least 10 days at ambient (20 - 22℃ ) and 15 days at storage (9 - 11℃ ) temperature, respectively. Efficacy of 1-MCP on shelf and storage life was improved by increasing its concentration. After treatment of 1-MCP, rots were markedly lower than that of untreated fruit. 1-MCP treatment delayed the fruit color change.

  9. Design of a new vacuum Compton gamma-ray detector with clad metal electron-converter plate%复合金属发射极真空康普顿探测器结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩和同; 王群书; 夏良斌; 管兴胤; 谭新建; 张子川

    2009-01-01

    采用Ta-Al复合金属电子转换靶设计了一种厚窗真空型康普顿探测器,其对1.25 MeVγ射线的探测效率达到7.85×10~(-3)e/γ,比Fe发射极探测器的探测效率高出约2.5倍.探测器具有良好的封装加工和静态真空保持特性,可用于强流脉冲γ射线测量场合.%A newly designed vacuum Compton gamma-ray detector with Ta - Al clad-metal electron converter plate is described. The detecting efficiency for 1.25 MeV gamma-ray is 7. 85 × 10~(-3)e/γ, which is 2.5 times higher than that with Fe converter plate. The designed detector has the merits of well processed and static vacuum keeping and can be used for intense pulsed gamma ray detecting.

  10. The FUV detector for the cosmic origins spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J.; Zaninovich, J.; Welsh, B.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J.; Hull, J.; Gaines, G.; Buzasi, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a high throughput spectrometer that will be placed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the last servicing mission in the year 2003. COS will be the most sensitive UV spectrograph ever flown aboard HST and will investigate such fundamental issues as the ionization and baryon content of the intergalactic medium and the origin of large-scale structure of the Universe. The driving design goal for COS is to maximize throughput at a moderate spectral resolution of />20,000 using optics with very few reflections and detectors with high quantum efficiency in two bandpass channels: FUV (1150-1775Å) and NUV (1750-3200Å). The COS FUV detector, a windowless microchannel plate (MCP) detector, consists of two segments each 85mm×10mm concatenated end to end with a 9mm gap between them. The design is based on the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer detectors with identical format and front surface radius of curvature that matches the grating focal plane of the spectrograph. However, enhancements have been made in the design and fabrication of the MCPs, the photocathode, the delay line anode and the readout electronics. We discuss these design enhancements and their significance.

  11. Particle identification with the iTOP detector at Belle-II

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The Belle-II experiment and superKEKB accelerator will form a next generation B-factory at KEK, capable of running at an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than the Belle detector and KEKB. This will allow for the elucidation of many facets of the Standard Model by performing precision measurements of its parameters, and provide sensitivity to many rare decays that are currently inaccessible. This will require major upgrades to both the accelerator and detector subsystems. The imaging Time-of-propagation (iTOP) detector will be a new subdetector of Belle-II that will perform an integral role in Particle identification (PID). It will comprise 16 modules between the tracking detectors and calorimeter; each module consisting of a quartz radiator, approximately 2.5m in length, instrumented with an array of 32 micro-channel plate photodetectors (MCP-PMTs). The passage of charged particles through the quartz will produce a cone of Cherenkov photons that will propagate along the length of the quartz, and be de...

  12. The FUV detector for the cosmic origins spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J; Welsh, B; Siegmund, O; McPhate, J; Hull, J; Gaines, G; Buzasi, D L

    2002-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a high throughput spectrometer that will be placed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the last servicing mission in the year 2003. COS will be the most sensitive UV spectrograph ever flown aboard HST and will investigate such fundamental issues as the ionization and baryon content of the intergalactic medium and the origin of large-scale structure of the Universe. The driving design goal for COS is to maximize throughput at a moderate spectral resolution of >20,000 using optics with very few reflections and detectors with high quantum efficiency in two bandpass channels: FUV (1150-1775 A) and NUV (1750-3200 A). The COS FUV detector, a windowless microchannel plate (MCP) detector, consists of two segments each 85 mmx10 mm concatenated end to end with a 9 mm gap between them. The design is based on the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer detectors with identical format and front surface radius of curvature that matches the grating focal plane of the spectrogra...

  13. MCP-1 expressed by osteoclasts stimulates osteoclastogenesis in an autocrine/paracrine manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kana [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Orthopedic Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Ninomiya, Ken [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Sonoda, Koh-Hei [Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Hoshi, Hiroko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Orthopedic Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Iwasaki, Ryotaro [Division of Orthopedic Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Miyamoto, Hiroya [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Orthopedic Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); and others

    2009-06-05

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays a critical role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes. Here, we describe that multinuclear osteoclast formation was significantly inhibited in cells derived from MCP-1-deficient mice. MCP-1 has been implicated in the regulation of osteoclast cell-cell fusion; however defects of multinuclear osteoclast formation in the cells from mice deficient in DC-STAMP, a seven transmembrane receptor essential for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, was not rescued by recombinant MCP-1. The lack of MCP-1 in osteoclasts resulted in a down-regulation of DC-STAMP, NFATc1, and cathepsin K, all of which were highly expressed in normal osteoclasts, suggesting that osteoclast differentiation was inhibited in MCP-1-deficient cells. MCP-1 alone did not induce osteoclastogenesis, however, the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in MCP-1-deficient cells was restored by addition of recombinant MCP-1, indicating that osteoclastogenesis was regulated in an autocrine/paracrine manner by MCP-1 under the stimulation of RANKL in osteoclasts.

  14. Capacitively coupled pickup in MCP-based photodetectors using a conductive metallic anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelico, E.; Seiss, T.; Adams, B.; Elagin, A.; Frisch, H.; Spieglan, E.

    2017-02-01

    We have designed and tested a robust 20×20 cm2 thin metal film internal anode capacitively coupled to an external array of signal pads or micro-strips for use in fast microchannel plate photodetectors. The internal anode, in this case a 10 nm-thick NiCr film deposited on a 96% pure Al2O3 3 mm-thick ceramic plate and connected to HV ground, provides the return path for the electron cascade charge. The multi-channel pickup array consists of a printed-circuit card or glass plate with metal signal pickups on one side and the signal ground plane on the other. The pickup can be put in close proximity to the bottom outer surface of the sealed photodetector, with no electrical connections through the photodetector hermetic vacuum package other than a single ground connection to the internal anode. Two pickup patterns were tested using a small commercial MCP-PMT as the signal source: 1) parallel 50 Ω 25-cm-long micro-strips with an analog bandwidth of 1.5 GHz, and 2) a 20×20 cm2 array of 2-dimensional square 'pads' with sides of 1.27 cm or 2.54 cm. The rise-time of the fast input pulse is maintained for both pickup patterns. For the pad pattern, we observe 80% of the directly coupled amplitude. For the strip pattern we measure 34% of the directly coupled amplitude on the central strip of a broadened signal. The physical decoupling of the photodetector from the pickup pattern allows easy customization for different applications while maintaining high analog bandwidth.

  15. Effects of capillary reflection in the performance of the collimator of the Large Area Detector on board LOFT

    CERN Document Server

    Mineo, T; Martindale, A; Feldman, C; Campana, R; Cusumano, G; Feroci, M

    2014-01-01

    The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT) is one of the candidate missions selected by the European Space Agency for an initial assessment phase in the Cosmic Vision programme. It is proposed for the M3 launch slot and has broad scientific goals related to fast timing of astrophysical X-ray sources. LOFT will carry the Large Area Detector (LAD), as one of the two core science instruments, necessary to achieve the challenging objectives of the project. LAD is a collimated detector working in the energy range 2-50 keV with an effective area of approximately 10 m^2 at 8 keV. The instrument comprises an array of modules located on deployable panels. Lead-glass microchannel plate (MCP) collimators are located in front of the large-area Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) to reduce the background contamination from off-axis resolved point sources and from the diffuse X-ray background. The inner walls of the microchannel plate pores reflect grazing incidence X-ray photons with a probability that depends on energy. In ...

  16. Pilot Production of Large Area Microchannel Plates and Picosecond Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minot, M.; Adams, B.; Abiles, M.; Bond, J.; Craven, C.; Cremer, T.; Foley, M.; Lyashenko, A.; Popecki, M.; Stochaj, M.; Worstell, W.; Elam, J.; Mane, A.; Siegmund, O.; Ertley, C.

    2016-09-01

    Pilot production performance is reported for large area atomic layer deposition (ALD) coated microchannel plates (ALD-GCA-MCPs) and for Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors (LAPPD™) which incorporate them. "Hollowcore" glass capillary array (GCA) substrates are coated with ALD resistive and emissive layers to form the ALDGCA- MCPs, an approach that facilitates independent selection of glass substrates that are mechanically stronger and that have lower levels of radioactive alkali elements compared to conventional MCP lead glass, reducing background noise[1,2,3,4]. ALD-GCA-MCPs have competitive gain ( 104 each or 107 for a chevron pair ), enhanced lifetime and gain stability (7 C cm-2 of charge extraction), reduced background levels (0.028 events cm-2 sec-1) and low gamma-ray detection efficiency. They can be fabricated in large area (20cm X 20 cm) planar and curved formats suitable for use in high radiation environment applications, including astronomy, space instrumentation, and remote night time sensing. The LAPPD™ photodetector incorporates these ALD-GCA-MCPs in an all-glass hermetic package with top and bottom plates and sidewalls made of borosilicate float glass. Signals are generated by a bi-alkali Na2KSb photocathode, amplified with a stacked chevron pair of ALD-GCA-MCPs. Signals are collected on RF strip-line anodes integrated into to the bottom plates which exit the detector via pin-free hermetic seals under the side walls [5]. Tests show that LAPPDTMs have electron gains greater than 107, submillimeter spatial resolution for large (multiphoton) pulses and several mm for single photons, time resolution less than 50 picoseconds for single photons, predicted resolution less than 5 picoseconds for large pulses, high stability versus charge extraction[6], and good uniformity for applications including astrophysics, neutron detection, high energy physics Cherenkov light detection, and quantum-optical photon-correlation experiments.

  17. Application of Micro-channel Plate (MCP) in Magnetic Spectra Meter of Hot Electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between ultra-short pulse laser and solid target generates hot electrons. Owing to lowenergy of laser (10 J), there are not so many electrons. In order to improve resoling power of spectra meter,the solid angle of spectra meter must be very little. So the number of entering into the meter is very few.

  18. Transmission characteristics of x-ray in MCP collimator in parallel structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Li, Ye; Chen, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve the imaging quality of X-ray and reduce the effects of X-ray and scatter line on image, the adoption of X-ray collimator is the most effective method. MCP collimator in parallel structure can effectively reduce the ratio of X-ray and scatter line to reach on image plane, and reduce the atomization degree of images, so as to improve the image contrast. Through the establishment first-order radiation transmittance model of MCP collimator, test the performance of MCP collimator, it is prove that the MCP collimator can be used in the imaging system that consists of proximity of X-ray image intensifier, first-order radiation transmittance calculation formula of MCP absorption type collimator in parallel structure is reduced, obtain the transmittance distribution non cosine curve distribution of MCP collimator through calculating.

  19. IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, and IL-1RA hold promise as biomarkers for infection with M. tuberculosis in a whole blood based T-cell assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Rabna, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    for in-vitro diagnosis of tuberculosis - MCP-1, MCP-3 and IL-1RA - with the current established biomarker IFN-gamma and the newly described IP-10 and MCP-2. METHODS: Whole blood from 8 patents with active tuberculosis and from 7 healthy controls was stimulated with M. tuberculosis specific antigens......BACKGROUND: IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis antigens are used as in-vitro diagnostic tests for tuberculosis infection. The tests are highly specific but sensitivity may be impaired due to immuno-suppression. The objective of this small exploratory study was to compare three novel biomarkers...... and mitogen in the Quantiferon In Tube test tubes. Levels of biomarkers were measured using Luminex and ELISA (IFN-gamma). RESULTS: We found all five new biomarkers were expressed in significantly higher concentrations compared to IFN-gamma. IP-10 and MCP-3 levels in the un-stimulated samples were higher...

  20. Effective Evaluation of the Noise Factor of Microchannel Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the noise performance of microchannel plate (MCP, we have presented a method using the sine random signals with Poisson distribution as the noise-excitation for electron source. By using this method, the effective evaluation of noise characteristics of MCP has been implemented through measuring and analyzing its noise factor. The results have demonstrated that the noise factor of filmed MCP is lower than 1.8. Additionally, as the open area ratio and the input electron energy are 72% and 400 eV, respectively, the noise characteristics of unfilmed MCP are improved evidently. Moreover, larger open area ratio, higher input electron energy, and higher voltage across the MCP all can reduce effectively the noise factor within a certain range. Meanwhile, the ion barrier film extends the life of image tube but at the cost of an increased noise factor. Therefore, it is necessary that a compromise between the optimum thickness of ion barrier film, open area ratio, input electron energy, and voltage across the MCP must be reached.

  1. MCP-1 binds to oxidized LDL and is carried by lipoprotein(a) in human plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Philipp; Tafelmeier, Maria; Chittka, Dominik; Choi, Soo-Ho; Zhang, Li; Byun, Young Sup; Almazan, Felicidad; Yang, Xiaohong; Iqbal, Navaid; Chowdhury, Punam; Maisel, Alan; Witztum, Joseph L.; Handel, Tracy M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein oxidation plays an important role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) induces profound inflammatory responses in vascular cells, such as production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2], a key chemokine in the initiation and progression of vascular inflammation. Here we demonstrate that OxLDL also binds MCP-1 and that the OxLDL-bound MCP-1 retains its ability to recruit monocytes. A human MCP-1 mutant in which basic amino acids Arg-18 and Lys-19 were replaced with Ala did not bind to OxLDL. The MCP-1 binding to OxLDL was inhibited by the monoclonal antibody E06, which binds oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in OxLDL. Because OxPLs are carried by lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in human plasma, we tested to determine whether Lp(a) binds MCP-1. Recombinant wild-type but not mutant MCP-1 added to human plasma bound to Lp(a), and its binding was inhibited by E06. Lp(a) captured from human plasma contained MCP-1 and the Lp(a)-associated endogenous MCP-1 induced monocyte migration. These results demonstrate that OxLDL and Lp(a) bind MCP-1 in vitro and in vivo and that OxPLs are major determinants of the MCP-1 binding. The association of MCP-1 with OxLDL and Lp(a) may play a role in modulating monocyte trafficking during atherogenesis. PMID:23667177

  2. First experiments for the detection of simulated mammographic lesions. Digital full field mammography with a new detector with a double plate of pure selenium; Erste Untersuchungen zur Detektion simulierter mammographischer Laesionen. Digitale Vollfeldmammographie mit einem Doppelschicht-Selen-Detektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wenkel, E.; Adamietz, B.; Lell, M.; Anders, K.; Uder, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Abteilung Gynaekologische Radiologie, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Hermann, K.P. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The article describes an experimental phantom study of a system for digital full field mammography with a new digital detector with a double plate of pure selenium. The experiments were carried out with the new full field digital mammography system Amulet from FujiFilm. This system has a new detector (18 x 24 cm{sup 2}) on the basis of highly purified amorphous selenium (a-Se) with a pixel size of 50 {mu}m. The x-rays are converted into electric signals in the first plate which are read into the second plate with the help of an optical switch and demonstrated in the form of an image. In this way a better pixel size/volume and signal-to-noise ratio should be achieved. The object of the investigation was the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Model 152 A (Technical Performance Mo/Mo, 28 kV, 100 mAs). Five investigators with different experiences in mammography each received three images on a monitor with different random positions of the simulated lesions in the phantom for assessment. The detection rates were compared under the same conditions with the results of two other full field digital mammography systems. The median detection rate for all images and investigators for the new doubled plated a-Se detector with optical switch was 98.7%. For both other systems with a-Si or and a-Se detectors the detection rate was 89.8% or 97.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the detection rate of the simulated breast lesions for all three systems considering the interobserver and intraobserver variation. The first phantom study for the detection of simulated breast lesions with the new full field digital mammography system Amulet demonstrates equivalent results with the other systems used in the clinical routine. The trend towards superiority of the new system has to be confirmed in further clinical studies. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen einer Phantomstudie sollte untersucht werden, ob ein neues System zur digitalen Vollfeldmammographie, das mit einem

  3. MCP-1 promotes mural cell recruitment during angiogenesis in the aortic ring model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Alfred C; Fogel, Eric; Nicosia, Roberto F

    2010-09-01

    Rings of rat or mouse aorta embedded in collagen gels produce angiogenic outgrowths in response to the injury of the dissection procedure. Aortic outgrowths are composed of branching endothelial tubes and surrounding mural cells. Mural cells emerge following endothelial sprouting and gradually increase during the maturation of the neovessels. Treatment of aortic cultures with angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), an angiogenic factor implicated in vascular maturation and remodeling, stimulates the mural cell recruitment process. Ang-1 induces expression of many cytokines and chemokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, a signaling molecule required for mural cell recruitment, blocks Ang1-induced MCP-1 expression. Recombinant MCP-1 dose-dependently increases mural cell number while an anti-MCP-1 blocking antibody reduces it. In addition, antibody mediated neutralization of MCP-1 abrogates the stimulatory effect of Ang-1 on mural cell recruitment. Aortic rings from genetically modified mice deficient in MCP-1 or its receptor CCR2 have fewer mural cells than controls. MCP-1 deficiency also impairs the mural cell recruitment activity of Ang-1. Our studies indicate that spontaneous and Ang1-induced mural cell recruitment in the aortic ring of model of angiogenesis are in part mediated by MCP-1. These results implicate MCP-1 as one of the mediators of mural cell recruitment in the aortic ring model, and suggest that chemokine pathways may contribute to the assembly of the vessel wall during the angiogenesis response to injury.

  4. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  5. Enforced effect of tk-MCP-1 fusion gene in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Shuhui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The efficiency of HSV-tk/GCV system is not high because of insufficient gene transfer and incompletely initiative of host antineoplastic potency. The present study was designed to assess the antitumor efficacy of tk-MCP-1 on ovarian cancer in vitro and vivo. Methods A novel bicistronic expression system can help to improve the expression level of a gene in a stable manner. pLXSN/tk-MCP-1 co-expressing tk and MCP-1 genes was constructed using a pLXSN retroviral vector and an internal ribosome entry site sequence by restriction enzyme. Western blot was performed to determine tk and MCP-1 expression in the infected SKOV3. The GCV-sensitively tumoricidal activities of SKOV3/tk-MCP-1 with or without monocytes were compared to those of SKOV3 expressing HSV-tk or MCP-1. We investigated the growth of subcutaneous tumors in SCID mice immuno-reconstituted, and evaluated the antitumor effect of MCP-1 in conjunction with suicide gene. Results The significant GCV-sensitively tumoricidal activity of pLXSN/tk-MCP-1 was observed when compared with those of pLXSN/tk, pLXSN/MCP-1 and pLXSN/neo, especially when monocytes were added. The growth of subcutaneous tumors in SCID mice immuno-reconstituted was markedly suppressed by co-delivery of HSV-tk and MCP-1 genes, and the enhanced antitumor effect was associated with the recruitment of monocytes. Conclusion These results demonstrated pLXSN/tk-MCP-1 presented an enhanced antitumor effects on ovarian cancer by orchestration of immune responses.

  6. 30 CFR 22.10 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 22.10 Section 22.10 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS PORTABLE METHANE DETECTORS § 22.10 Approval plate. (a) Attachment to be made by manufacturers. (1) Manufacturers shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on each permissible methane...

  7. TORCH: A Large-Area Detector for Precision Time-of-Flight Measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Harnew, N

    2012-01-01

    The TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) is an innovative high-precision time-of-flight detector which is suitable for large areas, up to tens of square metres, and is being developed for the upgraded LHCb experiment. The TORCH provides a time-of-flight measurement from the imaging of photons emitted in a 1 cm thick quartz radiator, based on the Cherenkov principle. The photons propagate by total internal reflection to the edge of the quartz plane and are then focused onto an array of Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) photon detectors at the periphery of the detector. The goal is to achieve a timing resolution of 15 ps per particle over a flight distance of 10 m. This will allow particle identification in the challenging momentum region up to 20 GeV/c. Commercial MCPs have been tested in the laboratory and demonstrate the required timing precision. An electronics readout system based on the NINO and HPTDC chipset is being developed to evaluate an 8×8 channel TORCH prototype. The simulated performance...

  8. Evaluating the potential of IP-10 and MCP-2 as biomarkers for the diagnosis of TB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Bodmer, T; Maier, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of diagnostic tests based on IP-10 and MCP-2, and compare the performance with the Quantiferon-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) test.IP-10 and MCP-2 were determined in supernatants from whole blood stimulated with M.tuberculosis-specific antigens. Samples...

  9. The R&D of the 20 in. MCP-PMTs for JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaping; Huang, Guorui; Heng, Yuekun; Li, Dong; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Shulin; Li, Weihua; Ning, Zhe; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang; Tian, Jinshou; Wang, Xingchao; Wang, Xing; Wang, Yifang; Wei, Yonglin; Wang, Wenwen; Xia, Jingkai; Xin, Liwei; Zhao, Tianchi

    2016-07-01

    A new concept of large area photomultiplier based on MCPs was conceived for JUNO by the scientists in IHEP, and with the collaborative work of the MCP-PMT collaboration in China, 8 in. and 20 in. prototypes were produced. Test results show that this type of MCP-PMT can have good SPE performance as the traditional dynode type PMTs.

  10. THE EFFECT OF 1-MCP IN MAINTAINING THE QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan1

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of quality traits is important during storage of fresh-cut produce. Changes in firmness, in tomato for instance, are ethylene-mediated. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of the ethylene antagonist 1-MCP in maintaining the quality of tomato slices. Fruits of tomato cv. ‘Revolution’ were harvested at the ‘pink’ stage of maturity, treated with 1 L.L-1 1-MCP for 12 hours at 20 ºC, and sliced. Slices were stored as vertical stacks in closed plastic containers at 5 C for up to 10 days. Exposure of intact tomatoes to 1-MCP reduced ethylene production and respiration rate in slices, and produced firmer slices than when intact tomatoes were treated without 1-MCP. When intact tomatoes, at the ‘pink’ maturity stage were treated with several concentrations at 1-MCP (0.1, 1.0 or 10.0 L.L-1 at 20 C for 12 h, 1-MCP reduced both ethylene production and the respiration rate, delayed softening of the pericarp and inhibited loss in acidity when compared with slices from fruit not treated with 1-MCP. The most effective concentration of 1-MCP for inhibiting the ethylene-induced softening of tomato slices was 1 L.L-1.

  11. Study of the effects of 1-MCP to blueberry under cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shenchen; Chu, Huailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Yuan, Huwei; Qiu, Lingling; Zhao, Liang; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry is one of the thinnest exocarp fruits in the world, which is difficult to keep fresh due to the special structure of its skin. 1-Methlcyclopropene (1-MCP) is able to combine with ethylene(ETH) receptor. In this study we investigated the effect of 1-MCP on rotting rate, weight loss ratio, soluble sugar content, titratable acid content, antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosun ‘O Neal’ and ‘North Road’) under cold storage. 1-MCP reduced the rotting rate, weight loss ratio and MDA content, while keeping high-leveled stability in antioxidant enzyme activities, soluble sugar content and titratable acid content. These results showed the role of 1-MCP in alleviating the negative effects of blueberry and suggested that 1-MCP could be used as a preservative for keeping thin exocarp fruit in fresh.

  12. The MCP-8 gene and its possible association with resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Wan, Zi Yi; Xia, Jun Hong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Xiao Jun; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-09-01

    Mast cell proteases play an important role in the regulation of the immune response. We identified the cDNA of the mast cell protease 8 (MCP-8) gene and analyzed its genomic structure in tilapia. The ORF of the MCP-8 was 768 bp, encoding 255 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the MCP-8 gene was expressed predominantly in spleen, moderately in liver, blood, brain, gill, intestine, skin, and weakly expressed in kidney, muscle and eye. After a challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae, the gene was induced significantly (p 0.05). These results suggest that the MCP-8 gene play an important role in the resistance to S. agalactiae in tilapia. The SNP markers in the MCP-8 gene associated with the resistance to the bacterial pathogen may facilitate selection of tilapia resistant to the bacterial disease.

  13. Electron optics design of an 8-in. spherical MCP-PMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Tian, Jinshou; Qian, Sen; Zhao, Tianchi; Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng; He, Jianping; Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu; Chen, Lin; Guo, Lehui; Pei, Chengquan; Hui, Dandan

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the electron optical system of an 8-in. spherical MCP-PMT. The MCP assembly, the supporting pole and the supply voltages are carefully designed to optimize the photoelectron collection efficiency and the transit time spread. Coating the MCP nickel-chromium electrode with an additional high secondary emission material is employed to make a breakthrough on the collection efficiency. With the simulation software CST, the Finite Integration method and the Monte Carlo method are combined to evaluate the collection efficiency, the time properties and the Earth's magnetic field effects. Simulation results show that the photocathode active solid angle is over 3.5 πsr, the average collection efficiency can exceed 95% with the coated MCP and the mean transit time spread is 2.2 ns for a typical electric potential of 500 V applied between the photocathode and the MCP input facet. The prototype and the measured single photoelectron spectrum are also presented.

  14. 基于微通道板的电离室及其在同步辐射中的应用%Ionization chamber based on multichannel plate and its application on synchrotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊琴; 邹鹰; 陈振华; 薛莲; 王勇; 邰仁忠

    2016-01-01

    Background: The measurement of energy resolution is an essential task for commissioning a beamline in synchrotron radiation facility. The ionization chamber plays an important role in the evaluation of energy resolution. The conventional type based on electrode probe has the disadvantage of a low detection upper limit for energy resolution due to collision broadening on peak profiles by high working pressure (up to 1.33Pa). Purpose: To improve the upper limit of resolution measurement, we aim to set up and deploy the ionization chamber based on multichannel plate (MCP) in China, including vacuum system, gas inlet system, detection system and data acquisition and processing system.Methods: Taking advantage of high amplification of a MCP detector, gas ionization absorption spectra can be measured under much low working pressure (1.33×10−4Pa). By analyzing the width of absorption peak, the instrument broadening caused by a beam line can be obtained.Results: An ionization chamber based on MCP can achieve higher upper limit than those based on electrode probe in evaluating energy resolution. Conclusion: A MCP ionization chamber provides an important diagnosis for energy resolution in commissioning high performance beamlines.%在同步辐射装置中,气体电离室是定标光束线能量和评估能量分辨率的一个重要实验装置。为了摆脱电极探针式电离室的气体展宽对束线能量分辨率测定的限制,本文将微通道板(Microchannel Plate, MCP)应用于同步辐射光束线中的电离室,研制成功了具有高能量分辨率的电离吸收谱的探测系统。利用此系统测量标准气体在X射线入射时的电离吸收谱,通过分析测量所得谱线中吸收峰的展宽,可获得光束线的仪器展宽,本文以Ar的吸收谱为例给出了测量结果。

  15. Low energy electron microscopy imaging using Medipix2 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikharulidze, I.; Gastel, van R.; Schramm, S.; Abrahams, J.P.; Poelsema, B.; Tromp, R.M.; Molen, van der S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) and Photo-Emission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) predominantly use a combination of microchannel plate (MCP), phosphor screen and optical camera to record images formed by 10–20 keV electrons. We have tested the performance of a LEEM/PEEM instrument with a Medipix2

  16. High-resolution neutron radiography with microchannel plates: Proof-of-principle experiments at PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Hull, J. S.; Feller, W. B.; Lehmann, E.

    2009-06-01

    With the appearance of highly collimated and intense neutron beamlines, the resolution of radiographic experiments is often limited by the parameters of the neutron imaging detector. Neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) proved to be very efficient for conversion of a thermal or cold neutron into an electron pulse of up to 10 6 electrons preserving location of the neutron absorption within ˜15 μm. In this paper, we present the results of preliminary measurements performed with neutron-sensitive MCPs coupled with a Medipix2/Timepix active pixel sensor. A set of test objects was imaged at both thermal and cold neutron imaging beamlines of Paul Scherrer Institute. The spatial resolution of the detector operating at high counting rate mode was confirmed to be limited by the 55 μm pixel size of the Medipix2 readout. At the same time, event centroiding applied to the charge values measured with Timepix readout allowed individual neutron counting with spatial resolution on the scale of MCP pore spacing (11 μm in the present measurements). The ongoing improvement of the speed of the readout electronics should eliminate the low counting rate limitation of the latter high-resolution imaging.

  17. The Parameterization of Top-Hat Particle Sensors with Microchannel-Plate-Based Detection Systems and its Application to the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Gliese, Ulrik; Dorelli, John C.; Avanov, Levon A.; Barrie, Alexander C.; Chornay, Dennis J.; MacDonald, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Matthew P.; Pollock, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    The most common instrument for low energy plasmas consists of a top-hat electrostatic analyzer geometry coupled with a microchannel-plate (MCP)-based detection system. While the electrostatic optics for such sensors are readily simulated and parameterized during the laboratory calibration process, the detection system is often less well characterized. Furthermore, due to finite resources, for large sensor suites such as the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, calibration data are increasingly sparse. Measurements must be interpolated and extrapolated to understand instrument behavior for untestable operating modes and yet sensor inter-calibration is critical to mission success. To characterize instruments from a minimal set of parameters we have developed the first comprehensive mathematical description of both sensor electrostatic optics and particle detection systems. We include effects of MCP efficiency, gain, scattering, capacitive crosstalk, and charge cloud spreading at the detector output. Our parameterization enables the interpolation and extrapolation of instrument response to all relevant particle energies, detector high voltage settings, and polar angles from a small set of calibration data. We apply this model to the 32 sensor heads in the Dual Electron Sensor (DES) and 32 sensor heads in the Dual Ion Sensor (DIS) instruments on the 4 MMS observatories and use least squares fitting of calibration data to extract all key instrument parameters. Parameters that will evolve in flight, namely MCP gain, will be determined daily through application of this model to specifically tailored in-flight calibration activities, providing a robust characterization of sensor suite performance throughout mission lifetime. Beyond FPI, our model provides a valuable framework for the simulation and evaluation of future detection system designs and can be used to maximize instrument understanding with minimal calibration

  18. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  19. Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

  20. Nanosecond Gating Properties Of Proximity-Focused Microchannel-Plate Image Intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N. S.; Yates, G. J.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Ogle, J. W.; Detch, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    Some fundamental properties of 18-mm-diam gated proximity-focussed microchannel-plate (MCP) image intensifiers used as fast image shutters in the 1 to 10 ns range have been identified and studied. Light pulses (≍ 5-ps-wide) from a modelocked dye laser optically sample the gated MCP. Shuttering is achieved by applying a forward-biasing electrical gate pulse to the quiescently reverse-biased photocathode-MCP interface. Variable delay (≍ 30-ps jitter) between the gate pulse and the laser pulse permit tracing the MCP's optical response. Gating speeds, turn-on and turn-off patterns, the asymmetric spatial dependence of the MCP optical response, and resolution effects as functions of gate pulse width and photocathode-MCP bias have been characterized. Shutter times of >= 750 ps and <= 5 1p/mm resolution with the MCP fully on were observed. Variations in the intensity profiles of the phosphorl.s spatial response for uniform photocathode illumination are measured with a calibrated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) focus projection, scan (FPS) television camera and a high-speed video digitizer while photomultipliers (PMTs) monitor the laser pulse and the phosphor's spatially integrated output intensities. The characterization system, gating and biasing circuits, and experimental results will be presented.

  1. High-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight detector used to infer the D(t,n)(4)He and D(d,n)(3)He reaction yield and ion temperature on OMEGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C J; Glebov, V Yu; Goncharov, V N; Knauer, J P; Radha, P B; Regan, S P; Romanofsky, M H; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C

    2016-11-01

    Upgraded microchannel-plate-based photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMT's) with increased stability to signal-shape linearity have been implemented on the 13.4-m neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector at the Omega Laser Facility. This diagnostic uses oxygenated xylene doped with diphenyloxazole C15H11NO + p-bis-(o-methylstyryl)-benzene (PPO + bis-MSB) wavelength shifting dyes and is coupled through four viewing ports to fast-gating MCP-PMT's, each with a different gain to allow one to measure the light output over a dynamic range of 1 × 10(6). With these enhancements, the 13.4-m nTOF can measure the D(t,n)(4)He and D(d,n)(3)He reaction yields and average ion temperatures in a single line of sight. Once calibrated for absolute neutron sensitivity, the nTOF detectors can be used to measure the neutron yield from 1 × 10(9) to 1 × 10(14) and the ion temperature with an accuracy approaching 5% for both the D(t,n)(4)He and D(d,n)(3)He reactions.

  2. High-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight detector used to infer the D(t,n)4He and D(d,n)3He reaction yield and ion temperature on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Romanofsky, M. H.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-11-01

    Upgraded microchannel-plate-based photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMT's) with increased stability to signal-shape linearity have been implemented on the 13.4-m neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector at the Omega Laser Facility. This diagnostic uses oxygenated xylene doped with diphenyloxazole C15H11NO + p-bis-(o-methylstyryl)-benzene (PPO + bis-MSB) wavelength shifting dyes and is coupled through four viewing ports to fast-gating MCP-PMT's, each with a different gain to allow one to measure the light output over a dynamic range of 1 × 106. With these enhancements, the 13.4-m nTOF can measure the D(t,n)4He and D(d,n)3He reaction yields and average ion temperatures in a single line of sight. Once calibrated for absolute neutron sensitivity, the nTOF detectors can be used to measure the neutron yield from 1 × 109 to 1 × 1014 and the ion temperature with an accuracy approaching 5% for both the D(t,n)4He and D(d,n)3He reactions.

  3. A MCP1 fusokine with CCR2-specific tumoricidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liangping

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CCL2 chemokine is involved in promoting cancer angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis by malignancies that express CCR2 receptor. Thus the CCL2/CCR2 axis is an attractive molecular target for anticancer drug development. Methods We have generated a novel fusion protein using GMCSF and an N-terminal truncated version of MCP1/CCL2 (6-76 [hereafter GMME1] and investigated its utility as a CCR2-specific tumoricidal agent. Results We found that distinct to full length CCL2 or its N-truncated derivative (CCL2 5-76, GMME1 bound to CCR2 on mouse lymphoma EG7, human multiple myeloma cell line U266, or murine and human medulloblastoma cell lines, and led to their death by apoptosis. We demonstrated that GMME1 specifically blocked CCR2-associated STAT3 phosphorylation and up-regulated pro-apoptotic BAX. Furthermore, GMME1 significantly inhibited EG7 tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice, and induced apoptosis of primary myeloma cells from patients. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that GMME1 is a fusokine with a potent, CCR2 receptor-mediated pro-apoptotic effect on tumor cells and could be exploited as a novel biological therapy for CCR2+ malignancies including lymphoid and central nervous system malignancies.

  4. A role for MCP-1/CCR2 in interstitial lung disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt Dietrich

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial lung diseases (ILD are chronic inflammatory disorders leading to pulmonary fibrosis. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 promotes collagen synthesis and deletion of the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 protects from pulmonary fibrosis in ILD mouse models. We hypothesized that pulmonary MCP-1 and CCR2+ T cells accumulate in pediatric ILD and are related to disease severity. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 25 children with ILD and 10 healthy children. Levels of pulmonary MCP-1 and Th1/Th2-associated cytokines were quantified at the protein and the mRNA levels. Pulmonary CCR2+, CCR4+, CCR3+, CCR5+ and CXCR3+ T cells were quantified by flow-cytometry. Results CCR2+ T cells and MCP-1 levels were significantly elevated in children with ILD and correlated with forced vital capacity, total lung capacity and ILD disease severity scores. Children with lung fibrosis had significantly higher MCP-1 levels and CCR2+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared to non-fibrotic children. Conclusion The results indicate that pulmonary CCR2+ T cells and MCP-1 contribute to the pathogenesis of pediatric ILD and might provide a novel target for therapeutic strategies.

  5. Effect Of 1-MCP Treatment On Storage Potential Of Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzodak Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit cv. ’Faustine’ F1 were harvested at mature green and full-red stages and treated with 1 or 2 µl·l−1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP at 20 °C and 85-90% RH, for 21 hours to investigate the ability to delay ripening. Treated and control fruit were stored at 12.5 and 20 °C and 85-90% RH. Ethylene production, rate of respiration, weight loss, market value and storage life were determined after 4-week storage. Exposure of tomato fruit to 1-MCP reduced ethylene production and respiration rate of the fruit harvested at mature-green and full-red stages of maturity. Storage life and market value of tomato fruit depended on the treatment with 1-MCP, stage of maturity and storage temperature. Untreated fruits were characterized by the shortest storage life in comparison with the fruit treated with 1-MCP. The lowest market value was observed for tomato fruit harvested as a mature green, untreated with 1-MCP and stored at 20 °C. Treatment of tomato fruit with 1-MCP resulted in the reduction of natural weight loss during storage. These results suggest that 1-MCP treatment can be used in a commercial storage and trading system for tomatoes due to its ability to delay fruit ripening.

  6. NFAT5 Contributes to Osmolality-Induced MCP-1 Expression in Mesothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Küper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of the C-C chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in mesothelial cells in response to high glucose concentrations and/or high osmolality plays a crucial role in the development of peritoneal fibrosis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Recent studies suggest that in kidney cells osmolality-induced MCP-1 upregulation is mediated by the osmosensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5. The present study addressed the question of whether activation of NFAT5 by hyperosmolality, as present in PD fluids, contributes to MCP-1 expression in the mesothelial cell line Met5A. Hyperosmolality, induced by addition of glucose, NaCl, or mannitol to the growth medium, increased NFAT5 activity and stimulated MCP-1 expression in Met5A cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFAT5 attenuated osmolality-induced MCP-1 upregulation substantially. Hyperosmolality also induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB significantly decreased osmolality-induced MCP-1 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that high osmolalities activate the transcription factor NFAT5 in mesothelial cells. NFAT5 in turn upregulates MCP-1, likely in combination with NF-κB, and thus may participate in the development of peritoneal fibrosis during CAPD.

  7. The serum concentrations of leptin and MCP-1 independently predict low back pain duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Dagostino, Concetta; Buonocore, Ruggero; Aloe, Rosalia; Bonaguri, Chiara; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo

    2017-08-28

    Low back pain (LBP) is a very frequent condition, affecting most people at some point throughout their life. This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate a selected panel of cytokines and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with or without LBP. The study population consisted of 104 patients diagnosed with LBP (52 non-persistent and 52 persistent) and 52 healthy subjects with no LBP. Blood samples were collected for assessment of adiponectin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and C reactive protein (CRP). The duration of LBP was categorized as "no pain", "non-persistent LBP" and "persistent LBP". Higher values of CRP and lower concentrations of both leptin and MCP-1 were found in LBP patients compared to controls, whereas adiponectin did not differ among groups. MCP-1 was also lower in patients with non-persistent than in those with persistent LBP. Age, leptin (relative risk, 11.8; 95% CI, 3.9-35.8) and MCP-1 (relative risk, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.4) were independently associated with presence and duration of LBP. The combination of age, leptin and MCP-1 predicted 61% of the risk of LBP duration. The area under the curve of MCP-1 for distinguishing persistent from non-persistent LBP was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.54-0.76). Then results of our study suggest that leptin and MCP-1 may be promising biomarkers for diagnosis of acute LBP and its risk to become chronic.

  8. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Mariana Ruiz; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected duri

  9. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Mariana Ruiz; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected duri

  10. B-factory detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marlow, D R

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B sup 0->J/PSI K sub S decays and related modes.

  11. MCP-1 expression by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, R; Rolfe, M W; Standiford, T J; Burdick, M D; Rollins, B J; Strieter, R M

    1993-05-15

    Recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes are potentially critical regulatory events for control of pulmonary inflammation. Located at the boundary between the alveolar airspace and the interstitium, alveolar epithelial cells are ideally situated to regulate the recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes through the production of cytokines in response to inflammatory stimulation from the alveolar space. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the production of monocyte chemotactic polypeptide-1 (MCP-1), a protein that is chemotactic for and that activates monocytes, by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. Immunocytochemical staining using anti-murine JE, an antibody recognizing rat MCP-1, demonstrated cell-associated MCP-1 Ag throughout the monolayer. The intensity of staining was increased in response to IL-1 beta. When type II epithelial cells formed a tight monolayer on a filter support, there was polar secretion of MCP-1 Ag into the apical compartment by both control and IL-1-stimulated cells as measured by specific MCP-1 ELISA. Northern blot analysis revealed that IL-1 and TNF-alpha stimulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, whereas dexamethasone blocked MCP-1 expression by cells stimulated with IL-1. In contrast to previous results using transformed epithelial cell lines, MCP-1 mRNA was induced in these primary cultures directly by stimulation with LPS. These data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells may have an important and previously unrecognized role in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory processes in the lung by recruiting and activating circulating monocytes through the production of MCP-1.

  12. MCP-1 secretion in lung from nonsmoking patients with coal worker`s pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boitelle, A.; Gosset, P.; Vanhee, D.; Wallaert, B.; Tonnel, A.B. [Institut Pasteur, INSERM U416, Lille (France); Copin, M.C.; Gosselin, B. [Service d`anatomie et de cytologie pathologique, CHRU, Lille (France); Marquette, C.H. [Hopital A. Calmette, Clinique des maladies respiratoires, Lille (France)

    1997-03-01

    Exposure to coal dust leads to development of coal worker`s pneumoconiosis (CWP), a disease associated with accumulation of macrophages in lower respiratory tract. Mechanisms controlling monocyte recruitment are still poorly understood. Since monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is recognized as a potent chemotactic factor for blood monocytes, we tested for presence of MCP-1 in pulmonary compartment of patients with CWP. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 16 nonsmoking control subjects and 27 nonsmoking CWP patients (16 with simple pneumoconiosis (SP) and 11 with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF)) was analysed. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were purified by adherence and BALF was concentrated 10x by lyophilization. MCP-1 was measured in BALF and in 3 h AM supernatants using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Localization of MCP-1 in lung tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue sections from three patients with CWP and two control subjects. MCP-1 levels were higher in concentrated BALF from patients with SP or PMF (median 370 and 555 pg x mL{sup -1}, respectively) than in those form control subjects (median 11 pg x mL{sup -1}) (p<0.001). Released MCP-1 in AM supernatants was enhanced in patients with CWP (median 83 pg x mL{sup -1}) but compared to controls (median 41 pg x mL{sup -1}) this level did not reach significance. Although significantly increased, AM counts in BALF from patients with CWP did not correlate with MCP-1 levels. MCP-1 levels in BALF correlated with MCP-1 levels in AM supernatants ({rho}=0.47; p<0.02). Data demonstrate that: 1) patients with coal worker`s pneumoconiosis have a marked pulmonary overproduction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; and 2) in addition to alveolar macrophages, fibroblasts (probably myofibroblasts) and hyperplastic type II pneumocytes may also be responsible for this increased level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in coal worker`s pneumoconiosis. (EG) 29 refs.

  13. New Electron Cloud Detectors for the PS Main Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, Ch; Gilardoni, S; Taborelli, M; Neupert, H; Ferreira Somoza, J

    2014-01-01

    Electron cloud (EC) has already been observed during normal operation of the PS, therefore it is necessary to study its in fluence on any beam instability for the future LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU). Two new electron cloud detectors have been discussed, developed and installed during the Long Shutdown (LS1) in one of the PS main magnets. The first measurement method is based on current measurement by using a shielded button-type pick-up. Due to the geometry and space limitation in the PS magnet, the button-type pick-up made of a 96%Al2O3 block coated with a thin layer of solvent-based Ag painting, placed 30 degrees to the bottom part of the vacuum chamber was installed in the horizontal direction where the only opening of the magnet coil is. The other newly developed measurement method is based on detection of photons emitted by the electrons from the electron cloud impinging on the vacuum chamber walls. The emitted photons are reected to a quartz window. A MCP-PMT (Micro-Channel Plate Photomultiplier Tube) wit...

  14. High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Lehmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Butler, L.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dawson, M. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    The improved collimation and intensity of thermal and cold neutron beamlines combined with recent advances in neutron imaging devices enable high-resolution neutron radiography and microtomography, which can provide information on the internal structure of objects not achievable with conventional X-ray imaging techniques. Neutron detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution (important for the studies of dynamic processes) and low background count rate are among the crucial parameters defining the quality of radiographic images and tomographic reconstructions. The unique capabilities of neutron counting detectors with neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) and with Timepix CMOS readouts providing high neutron detection efficiency ({approx}70% for cold neutrons), spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 55 {mu}m and a temporal resolution of {approx}1 {mu}s-combined with the virtual absence of readout noise-make these devices very attractive for high-resolution microtomography. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of an MCP-Timepix detection system applied to microtomographic imaging, performed at the ICON cold neutron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The high resolution and the absence of readout noise enable accurate reconstruction of texture in a relatively opaque wood sample, differentiation of internal tissues of a fly and imaging of individual {approx}400 {mu}m grains in an organic powder encapsulated in a {approx}700 {mu}m thick metal casing.

  15. Quantitative analysis of the secretion of the MCP family of chemokines by muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2011-01-01

    by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) method for quantitative analysis resulted in the identification and generation of quantitative profiles of 59 growth factors and cytokines, including 9 classical chemokines. The members of the CC chemokine family of proteins such as monocyte chemotactic proteins 1, 2......, and 3 (MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-2/CCL8, and MCP-3/CCL7) showed a distinct pattern of secretion during differentiation. Further analysis using combinatorial RNA and protein approaches demonstrated that the MCPs are regulated via both post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Analyses...

  16. AB45. URO-MCP-1 mice: a model demonstrating UCPPS hallmark symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and objective Excessive production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) has been observed in various inflammatory, chronic pain, and bladder overactive conditions. We have observed that over half of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) express elevated MCP-1 in the urine. This study was to develop a mouse model that secretes MCP-1 by the urothelium to facilitate the study of IC/BPS in humans. Methods A 4.9 Kb transgene consisting of the uroplaki...

  17. MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) on board TARANIS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth; Hébert, Philippe; Le Mer-Dachard, Fanny; Ravel, Karen; Gaillac, Stéphanie

    2017-04-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNings and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite. Its main objective is to study impulsive transfers of energy between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment. It will be sun-synchronous at an altitude of 700 km. It will be launched from end-2018 for at least 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths (from gamma-rays to radio waves including optical). TARANIS instruments are currently in calibration and qualification phase. The purpose of this poster is to present the MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) scientific objectives and the sensor design, to show the performances of this instrument using the recent characterization, and at last to promote its products. The MicroCameras, developed by Sodern, are dedicated to the spatial description of TLEs and their parent lightning. They are able to differentiate sprite and lightning thanks to two narrow bands ([757-767 nm] and [772-782 nm]) that provide simultaneous pairs of images of an Event. Simulation results of the differentiation method will be shown. After calibration and tests, the MicroCameras are now delivered to CNES for integration on the payload. The Photometers, developed by Bertin Technologies, will provide temporal measurements and spectral characteristics of TLEs and lightning. There are key instrument because of their capability to detect on-board TLEs and then switch all the instruments of the scientific payload in their high resolution acquisition mode. Photometers use four spectral bands in the [170-260 nm], [332-342 nm], [757-767 nm] and [600-900 nm] and have the same field of view as cameras. The on-board TLE detection algorithm remote-controlled parameters have been tuned before launch using the electronic board and simulated or real events waveforms. The Photometers are now in the calibration and test phase. They will be delivered for integration in mid-2017.

  18. Relationships between serum MCP-1 and subclinical kidney disease: African American-Diabetes Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murea Mariana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 plays important roles in kidney disease susceptibility and atherogenesis in experimental models. Relationships between serum MCP-1 concentration and early nephropathy and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD were assessed in African Americans (AAs with type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods Serum MCP-1 concentration, urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and atherosclerotic calcified plaque (CP in the coronary and carotid arteries and infrarenal aorta were measured in 479 unrelated AAs with T2D. Generalized linear models were fitted to test for associations between MCP-1 and urine ACR, eGFR, and CP. Results Participants were 57% female, with mean ± SD (median age 55.6±9.5 (55.0 years, diabetes duration 10.3±8.2 (8.0 years, urine ACR 149.7±566.7 (14.0 mg/g, CKD-EPI eGFR 92.4±23.3 (92.0 ml/min/1.73m2, MCP-1 262.9±239.1 (224.4 pg/ml, coronary artery CP 280.1±633.8 (13.5, carotid artery CP 47.1±132.9 (0, and aorta CP 1616.0±2864.0 (319.0. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, HbA1c, BMI, and LDL, serum MCP-1 was positively associated with albuminuria (parameter estimate 0.0021, P=0.04 and negatively associated with eGFR (parameter estimate −0.0003, P=0.001. MCP-1 remained associated with eGFR after adjustment for urine ACR. MCP-1 levels did not correlate with the extent of CP in any vascular bed, HbA1c or diabetes duration, but were positively associated with BMI. No interaction between BMI and MCP-1 was detected on nephropathy outcomes. Conclusions Serum MCP-1 levels are associated with eGFR and albuminuria in AAs with T2D. MCP-1 was not associated with subclinical CVD in this population. Inflammation appears to play important roles in development and/or progression of kidney disease in AAs.

  19. Phyllostachys edulis compounds inhibit palmitic acid-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K Higa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phyllostachys edulis Carriere (Poaceae is a bamboo species that is part of the traditional Chinese medicine pharmacopoeia. Compounds and extracts from this species have shown potential applications towards several diseases. One of many complications found in obesity and diabetes is the link between elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs and chronic inflammation. This study aims to present a possible application of P. edulis extract in relieving inflammation caused by FFAs. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1 are transcription factors activated in response to inflammatory stimuli, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1. This study examines the effect of P. edulis extract on cellular production of MCP-1 and on the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in response to treatment with palmitic acid (PA, a FFA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MCP-1 protein was measured by cytometric bead assay. NF-κB and AP-1 nuclear localization was detected by colorimetric DNA-binding ELISA. Relative MCP-1 mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Murine cells were treated with PA to induce inflammation. PA increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and increased nuclear localization of NF-κB and AP-1. Adding bamboo extract (BEX inhibited the effects of PA, reduced MCP-1 production, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 subunits. Compounds isolated from BEX inhibited MCP-1 secretion with different potencies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PA induced MCP-1 production in murine adipose, muscle, and liver cells. BEX ameliorated PA-induced production of MCP-1 by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Two O-methylated flavones were isolated from BEX with functional effects on MCP-1 production. These results may represent a possible

  20. 1-MCP pretreatment prevents bud and flower abscission in Dendrobium orchids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uthaichay, N.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobium orchid inflorescences were treated for 4 h at 25 °C with or without 100¿500 nl/l 1-MCP and were then placed in water at 25 °C to follow abscission. In controls, depending on the experiment, 20¿80% of the floral buds and 0¿20% of the open flowers abscised within 1 week. The 1-MCP pretreatm

  1. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E. [Enrico Fermi Inst., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Attenkoffer, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J. [Enrico Fermi Inst., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Genat, J. F. [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3/LPNHE, Paris 75252 (France); Northrop, R. [Enrico Fermi Inst., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); May, E. N. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Varner, G. S. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wetstein, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  2. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  3. The Belle II Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  4. Role of MCP-1 in alcohol-induced aggressiveness of colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Wang, Siying; Qi, Yuanlin; Chen, Li; Frank, Jacqueline A; Yang, Xiuwei H; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate that alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition to promoting carcinogenesis, alcohol may also accelerate the progression of existing CRC. We hypothesized that alcohol may enhance the aggressiveness of CRC. In this study, we investigated the effect of alcohol on the migration/invasion and metastasis of CRC. Alcohol increased the migration/invasion of colorectal cancer cells (DLD1, HCT116, HT29, and SW480) in a concentration-dependent manner. Among these colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 cells were most responsive while HT29 cells were the least responsive to ethanol-stimulated cell migration/invasion. These in vitro results were supported by animal studies which demonstrated that ethanol enhanced the metastasis of colorectal cancer cells to the liver and lung. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays an important role in regulating tumor microenvironment and metastasis. Alcohol increased the expression of MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2 at both protein and mRNA levels. The pattern of alcohol-induced alterations in MCP-1 expression was consistent with its effect on migration/invasion; HCT116 cells displayed the highest up-regulation of MCP-1/CCR2 in response to alcohol exposure. An antagonist of CCR2 blocked alcohol-stimulated migration. Alcohol caused an initial cytosolic accumulation of β-catenin and its subsequent nuclear translocation by inhibiting GSK3β activity. Alcohol stimulated the activity of MCP-1 gene promoter in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Furthermore, knock-down of MCP-1/CCR2 or β-catenin was sufficient to inhibit alcohol-induced cell migration/invasion. Together, these results suggested that alcohol may promote the metastasis of CRC through modulating GSK3β/β-catenin/MCP-1 pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. St. John's Wort protein, p27SJ, regulates the MCP-1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Ruma; Deshmane, Satish L; Darbinian, Nune; Czernik, Marta; Khalili, Kamel; Amini, Shohreh; Sawaya, Bassel E

    2008-09-01

    St. John's Wort is commonly known for its antiviral, antidepressant, and cytotoxic properties, but traditionally St. John's Wort has also been used to treat inflammation. In this study, we sought to characterize the mechanisms used by St. John's Wort to treat inflammation by examining the effect of the recently isolated protein from St. John's Wort, p27SJ on the expression of MCP-1. By employing an adenovirus expression vector, we demonstrate that a low concentration of p27SJ upregulates the MCP-1 promoter through the transcription factor C/EBPbeta. In addition, we found that C/EBPbeta-homologous protein (CHOP) or siRNA-C/EBPbeta significantly reduced the ability of p27SJ to activate MCP-1 gene expression. Results from protein-protein interaction studies illustrate the existence of a physical interaction between p27SJ and C/EBPbeta in microglial cells. The use of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) led to the identification of a new cis-element that is responsive to C/EBPbeta within the MCP-1 promoter. Association of C/EBPbeta with MCP-1 DNA was not affected by the presence of p27SJ. The biological activity of MCP-1 produced by cultures of adenovirus-p27SJ transduced cells was increased relative to controls as measured by the transmigration of human Jurkat cells. Thus, we conclude that at high concentration, p27SJ is a potential agent that may be developed as a modulator of MCP-1 leading to the inhibition of the cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses.

  6. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 regulates macrophage cytotoxicity in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: In abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, macrophages are detected in the proximity of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs. We have previously demonstrated in a murine model of AAA that apoptotic SMCs attract monocytes and other leukocytes by producing MCP-1. Here we tested whether infiltrating macrophages also directly contribute to SMC apoptosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a SMC/RAW264.7 macrophage co-culture system, we demonstrated that MCP-1-primed RAWs caused a significantly higher level of apoptosis in SMCs as compared to control macrophages. Next, we detected an enhanced Fas ligand (FasL mRNA level and membrane FasL protein expression in MCP-1-primed RAWs. Neutralizing FasL blocked SMC apoptosis in the co-culture. In situ proximity ligation assay showed that SMCs exposed to primed macrophages contained higher levels of receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1/Caspase 8 containing cell death complexes. Silencing RIP1 conferred apoptosis resistance to SMCs. In the mouse elastase injury model of aneurysm, aneurysm induction increased the level of RIP1/Caspase 8 containing complexes in medial SMCs. Moreover, TUNEL-positive SMCs in aneurysmal tissues were frequently surrounded by CD68(+/FasL(+ macrophages. Conversely, elastase-treated arteries from MCP-1 knockout mice display a reduction of both macrophage infiltration and FasL expression, which was accompanied by diminished apoptosis of SMCs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that MCP-1-primed macrophages are more cytotoxic. MCP-1 appears to modulate macrophage cytotoxicity by increasing the level of membrane bound FasL. Thus, we showed that MCP-1-primed macrophages kill SMCs through a FasL/Fas-Caspase8-RIP1 mediated mechanism.

  7. SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40

  8. Die Analyse der Inhibition des Monozyten chemotaktischen Proteins-1 (MCP-1) und der Stimulation durch MCP-1 auf die Koloniebildung und die Zytokinexpression von Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region im FLAVINO-Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Körner, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Das Monozyten chemotaktische Protein-1 (MCP-1) ist ein CC-Chemokin, das in seiner Rolle als Chemoattraktor auf Monozyten in der Genese von Malignomen eine wesentliche Rolle spielt. Dabei kann es sowohl zur lokalen Tumorabwehr als auch zur Tumorgenese, Tumor-angiogenese und Metastasierung beitragen. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die MCP-1-Inhibition und die Stimulation durch MCP-1 auf die Koloniebildung und die Zytokinexpression von Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region (HNSCC) im ...

  9. Protective effects of MCP-1 inhibitor on a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xiong Zhou; Xue-Juan Zhu; Xiao-Ling Ding; Hong Zhang; Jian-Ping Chen; Hui Qiang; Hai-Feng Zhang; Qun Wei

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemokines and their receptors play key roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to establish a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) for investigating monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in the pathogenesis of the disease. We assessed the effects of the inhibitor of MCP-1, Bindarit, on SAP and explored the mechanisms underlying SAP. METHODS: Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a saline control group (group S), an SAP group (group P), and a Bindarit group (group T). The SAP model was induced by retrograde infusion of 4% sodium taurocholate into the bilio-pancreatic duct. Based on the SAP model, Bindarit was injected intraperitoneally in group T, and 0.5%methyl cellulose was injected intraperitoneally in groups S and P. In group S, saline was retrogradely infused into the bili-pancreatic duct. Serum amylase levels and the histological changes in the pancreas were assessed at different time-points in each group. Expression of MCP-1 in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). MCP-1 protein and mRNA expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Serum amylase levels in groups P and T were higher than those in group S. Serum amylase levels were signiifcantly lower in group T than in group P at 6 and 12 hours after operation. The levels of MCP-1 in serum at 6 and 12 hours after operation in group P were signiifcantly higher than in group S, and signiifcantly lower in group T than in group P at 6 and 12 hours after operation. The pathological damage in the pancreas was milder in group T than in group P. MCP-1 protein and mRNA expression levels in the pancreas were higher in groups P and T than in group S. These expression levels were positively correlated with the pathological damage of pancreatic tissues. The activity of MCP-1 in group T was

  10. IL-8 and MCP Gene Expression and Production by LPS-Stimulated Human Corneal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni M. Shtein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine time course of effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS on production of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP by cultured human corneal stromal cells. Methods. Human corneal stromal cells were harvested from donor corneal specimens, and fourth to sixth passaged cells were used. Cell cultures were stimulated with LPS for 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours. Northern blot analysis of IL-8 and MCP gene expression and ELISA for IL-8 and MCP secretion were performed. ELISA results were analyzed for statistical significance using two-tailed Student's t-test. Results. Northern blot analysis demonstrated significantly increased IL-8 and MCP gene expression after 4 and 8 hours of exposure to LPS. ELISA for secreted IL-8 and MCP demonstrated statistically significant increases (P<0.05 after corneal stromal cell stimulation with LPS. Conclusions. This paper suggests that human corneal stromal cells may participate in corneal inflammation by secreting potent leukocyte chemotactic and activating proteins in a time-dependent manner when exposed to LPS.

  11. Sinorhizobium meliloti chemotaxis to quaternary ammonium compounds is mediated by the chemoreceptor McpX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Karl Compton, K; Castañeda Saldaña, Rafael; Arapov, Timofey D; Keith Ray, W; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2017-01-01

    The bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti is attracted to seed exudates of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Since quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are exuded by germinating seeds, we assayed chemotaxis of S. meliloti towards betonicine, choline, glycine betaine, stachydrine and trigonelline. The wild type displayed a positive response to all QACs. Using LC-MS, we determined that each germinating alfalfa seed exuded QACs in the nanogram range. Compared to the closely related nonhost species, spotted medic (Medicago arabica), unique profiles were released. Further assessments of single chemoreceptor deletion strains revealed that an mcpX deletion strain displayed little to no response to these compounds. Differential scanning fluorimetry showed interaction of the isolated periplasmic region of McpX (McpX(PR) and McpX34-306 ) with QACs. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed tight binding to McpX(PR) with dissociation constants (Kd ) in the nanomolar range for choline and glycine betaine, micromolar Kd for stachydrine and trigonelline and a Kd in the millimolar range for betonicine. Our discovery of S. meliloti chemotaxis to plant-derived QACs adds another role to this group of compounds, which are known to serve as nutrient sources, osmoprotectants and cell-to-cell signalling molecules. This is the first report of a chemoreceptor that mediates QACs taxis through direct binding.

  12. Assessment of chemical composition of tomato fruits depending on the cultivar and 1-MCP treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wrzodak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiments on influence of 1-MCP treatment on the content of some chemical compounds in tomato fruits were performed. For the experiments two greenhouse cultivars of tomato were selected: ‘Faustine F1’ and ‘Habana F1’ (LSL type – long shelf life. Both tomato cultivars were grown on stakes in the field. Tomato fruits were harvested in mature green and full-red stages of maturity. Tomato fruit were treated with 1-MCP at the concentrations of 1.0 or 2.0 μl·l-1 and then stored at the temperature of 12.5°C or 20°C, and 85–90% of relative humidity in ambient atmosphere. Immediately after harvest and after 4 weeks of storage chemical analyses were carried out. The results showed some significant differences in the content of determined compounds depending on 1-MCP treatment, stage of maturity and storage temperature. Fruits of both cultivars showed a higher content of phenolics and dry matter in the case of fruits treated with 1-MCP. The highest content of lycopene was found in tomato fruits of both cultivars harvested in full-red stage, after storage at 20°C. Tomato fruits treated with 1-MCP were characterized by a lower content of lycopene and vitamin C compared to the untreated fruits.

  13. The production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 in tumor microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Teizo

    2017-02-08

    Infiltration of leukocytes is one of the hallmarks of the inflammatory response. Among the leukocyte populations, neutrophils are the first to infiltrate, followed by monocytes and lymphocytes, suggesting the presence of mediators that specifically recruit these cell types. Cytokine-like chemoattractants with monocyte chemotactic activity, such as lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor (LDCF) or tumor-derived chemotactic factor (TDCF), were reported as molecules that could play a critical role in the recruitment of monocytes into sites of immune responses or tumors; however, their identities remained unclear. In the 1980s, researchers began to test the hypothesis that leukocyte chemotactic activity is a part of the wider activities exhibited by cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). In 1987, we demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of a cytokine like chemoattractant with cell type-specificity (now known as the chemokine interleukin-8 or CXC chemokine ligand 8) that was different from IL-1. This led us to the purification of the second such molecule with monocyte chemotactic activity. This monocyte chemoattractant was found identical to the previously described LDCF or TDCF, and termed monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Isolation of MCP-1 created a revolution in not only inflammation but also cancer research that continues today, and MCP-1 has become a molecular target to treat patients with many diseases. In this review, I will first describe a history associated with the discovery of MCP-1 and then discuss complex mechanisms regulating MCP-1 production in tumor microenvironments.

  14. Exosomes derived from MSCs ameliorate retinal laser injury partially by inhibition of MCP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Shao, Hui; Su, Chang; Jiang, Yuanfeng; Chen, Xiteng; Bai, Lingling; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qiutang; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Although accumulated evidence supports the notion that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) act in a paracrine manner, the mechanisms are still not fully understood. Recently, MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos), a type of microvesicle released from MSCs, were thought to carry functional proteins and RNAs to recipient cells and play therapeutic roles. In the present study, we intravitreally injected MSCs derived from either mouse adipose tissue or human umbilical cord, and their exosomes to observe and compare their functions in a mouse model of laser-induced retinal injury. We found that both MSCs and their exosomes reduced damage, inhibited apoptosis, and suppressed inflammatory responses to obtain better visual function to nearly the same extent in vivo. Obvious down-regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in the retina was found after MSC-Exos injection. In vitro, MSC-Exos also down-regulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in primarily cultured retinal cells after thermal injury. It was further demonstrated that intravitreal injection of an MCP-1-neutralizing antibody promoted the recovery of retinal laser injury, whereas the therapeutic effect of exosomes was abolished when MSC-Exos and MCP-1 were administrated simultaneously. Collectively, these results suggest that MSC-Exos ameliorate laser-induced retinal injury partially through down-regulation of MCP-1. PMID:27686625

  15. Macrophage Migration Inhibitor Factor Upregulates MCP-1 Expression in an Autocrine Manner in Hepatocytes during Acute Mouse Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jieshi Xie; Le Yang; Lei Tian; Weiyang Li; Lin Yang; Liying Li

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitor factor (MIF), a multipotent innate immune mediator, is an upstream component of the inflammatory cascade in diseases such as liver disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a highly representative chemokine, is critical in liver disease pathogenesis. We investigated the role of MIF in regulating hepatocytic MCP-1 expression. MIF and MCP-1 expression were characterized by immunochemistry, RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunoblotting in CCl4-treated mouse liver an...

  16. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  17. CHANGES IN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MINIMALLY-PROCESSED YELLOW PITAHAYA TREATED WITH 1-MCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA COCK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades mecánicas de esfuerzo del límite de fluencia (sL, modulo de deformación (Ed, esfuerzo de ruptura (sF, y deformación de Hencky en la ruptura (eHF de muestras de pitahaya amarilla mínimamente procesada y tratadas con 200 μgL-1 de 1-MCP durante el almacenamiento a 10±1 °C y 85% de humedad relativa. Las muestras fueron sometidas a pruebas de compresión uniaxial hasta la ruptura. Los resultados mostraron que las muestras tratadas con 1-MCP presentaron los mayores valores del esfuerzo del límite de fluencia, modulo de elasticidad y esfuerzo de ruptura. Esto indica que la aplicación del 1-MCP proporciona mayor firmeza a la fruta y puede representar una alternativa para disminuir cambios indeseables de textura durante el almacenamiento.

  18. The study of the aging behavior on large area MCP-PMT

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Wen; Qi, Ming; Xia, Jing-Kai; Cheng, Ya-Ping; Ning, Zhe; Luo, Feng-Jiao; Heng, Yue-Kun; Liu, Shu-Lin; Si, Shu-Guang; Sun, Jian-Ning; Li, Dong; Wang, Xing-Chao; Huang, Guo-Rui; Tian, Jing-Shou; Wei, Yong-Lin; Liu, Hu-Lin; Li, Wei-Hua; Wang, Xing; Xin, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aging experiments of a novel type of large area MCP-PMT made by JUNO collaboration were conducted.In these aging experiments, the multi-photoelectron spectrum and single photoelectron spectrum were measured daily,as well as the MCP resistance of the second PMT before and after the experiment. Two PMTs were aged successivelyfor cross check. The first PMT was aged for 52 days, while the other one was aged for 84 days. In order to study the mechanism of the aging process, the high voltage on the second PMT was increased to accelerate its aging process when the cumulative output of charge from its anode was about 4 C. From our study, it can be known that large area MCP-PMT aging had a strong relationship with the related MCPs. In accordance with the PMT aging curve,a PMT aging model was setup and a general aging formula was given.

  19. [Effect of 1-MCP on senescence and quality in cold-stored edible podded pea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zheng, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lan; Feng, Lei; Su, Xin-Guo; Jiang, Yue-Ming

    2004-04-01

    The effects of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclo-propene) at 0.5, 1 and 2 muL/L on senescence and quality attributes in edible podded pea (Pisum sativum L.var.Saccharatum) during cold storage at 1 degrees C were investigated. The results indicated that treatments with 1 and 2 microL/L 1-MCP significantly inhibited respiratory rate, ethylene production and superoxide production, maintained higher levels of SOD, AsA-POD activities and chlorophyll and AsA contents, reduced the increases in MDA and fiber contents and decay index, thereby delayed the senescence process and quality deterioration. Treatment with 0.5 microL/L 1-MCP showed no significant effects on senescence and quality changes in harvested edible podded pea.

  20. Progress towards a 256 channel multi-anode microchannel plate photomultiplier system with picosecond timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J S; Ashton, T J R; Ross, D; Conneely, T

    2012-12-11

    Despite the rapid advances in solid state technologies such as the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers still offer a proven and practical technological solution for high channel count pixellated photon-counting systems with very high time resolution. We describe progress towards a 256 channel optical photon-counting system using CERN-developed NINO and HTDC ASICs, and designed primarily for time resolved spectroscopy in life science applications. Having previously built and demonstrated a 18 mm diameter prototype tube with an 8×8 channel readout configuration and <43 ps rms single photon timing resolution, we are currently developing a 40 mm device with a 32×32 channel readout. Initially this will be populated with a 256 channel electronics system comprising four sets of modular 64 channel preamplifier/discriminator, and time-to-digital converter units, arranged in a compact three dimensional configuration. We describe the detector and electronics design and operation, and present performance measurements from the 256 channel development system. We discuss enhancements to the system including higher channel count and the use of application specific on-board signal processing capabilities.

  1. Evaluation of nitrogen gas accumulated inside MCP during natural circulation operation of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. S.; Kim, Y. I.; Seo, J. K.; Park, C. T.; Lee, D. J.; Jang, M. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    With nitrogen used in pressurizer, primary coolant of SMART will contain dissolved nitrogen. The solubility of nitrogen gas in water is calculated as a function of temperature and pressure by Himmelblau equation based on Henry's law. It is found that the nitrogen concentration of primary coolant is highly dependent upon thermal-hydraulic parameters of the primary system, temperature, pressure and heatup rate. The accumulated nitrogen gas within MCP is evaluated based on the assumed natural convective flows established between SMART core and MCP. It is concluded that the natural circulation time is varied from 100 {approx} 1000 hrs according to the natural convection flows.

  2. Sensory Quality of ‘Cherry’ Tomatoes in Relation to 1-MCP Treatment and Storage Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Marek GAJEWSKI; Mazur, Katarzyna; Jadwiga RADZANOWSKA; Kowalczyk, Katarzyna; Marcinkowska, Monika; Klaudyna RYL; Karolina KALOTA

    2014-01-01

    1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene), the ethylene receptors blocker, is used in horticultural practice for prolonging ‘shelf-life’ of several species of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 1-MCP treatment on sensory characteristics of ‘cherry’ type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme) after 4-week storage. In the experiment the fruits were harvested at pink and light-red fruit stages (3rd and 5th stage, according to USDA classification), a...

  3. Effect Of 1-MCP Treatment On Storage Potential Of Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Wrzodak Anna; Gajewski Marek

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruit cv. ’Faustine’ F1 were harvested at mature green and full-red stages and treated with 1 or 2 µl·l−1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 20 °C and 85-90% RH, for 21 hours to investigate the ability to delay ripening. Treated and control fruit were stored at 12.5 and 20 °C and 85-90% RH. Ethylene production, rate of respiration, weight loss, market value and storage life were determined after 4-week storage. Exposure of tomato fruit to 1-MCP reduced ethylene production and respirati...

  4. MCP-1 Levels are Associated with Cardiac Remodeling but not with Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Faria, Ana Paula Cabral de; Sabbatini, Andrea; Corrêa, Nathalia Batista; Brunelli, Veridiana; Modolo, Rodrigo; Moreno, Heitor

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is a chronic, low-grade inflammation process associated with the release of cytokines and development of target organ damage. Deregulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels have been associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular complications; however, the mechanisms involved are complex and not fully understood. This study aimed to compare the levels of MCP-1 in patients with resistant (RH) versus mild-to-moderate (HTN) hypertension and their association with the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in all hypertensive subjects. We enrolled 256 hypertensive subjects: 120 RH and 136 HTN, investigating the relationship between circulating MCP-1 levels and blood pressure, biochemical data, hematologic profile, and cardiac damage within the RH and HTN groups. Plasma MCP-1 levels were measured by ELISA and LVH was assessed by echocardiography. We found no difference in MCP-1 levels between RH and HTN subjects. On the other hand, we encountered lower MCP-1 levels in patients with LVH (105 pg/mL [100 - 260 pg/mL] versus 136 pg/mL (100 - 200 pg/mL), p = 0.005, respectively] compared with those without LVH. A logistic regression model adjusted for body mass index (BMI), age, race, aldosterone levels, and presence of diabetes and RH demonstrated that median levels of MCP-1 (2.55 pg/mL [1.22 - 5.2 pg/mL], p = 0.01) were independently associated with LVH in the entire hypertensive population. Since MCP-1 levels were similar in both RH and HTN subjects and decreased in hypertensive patients with existing LVH, our study suggests a possible downregulation in MCP-1 levels in hypertensive individuals with LVH, regardless of hypertension strata. A hipertensão arterial é um processo crônico de baixo grau inflamatório, associado com liberação de citocinas e desenvolvimento de lesão em órgãos-alvo. A desregulação dos níveis de proteína quimiotática de monócitos-1 (MCP-1) tem sido associada com elevação da press

  5. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  6. Evaluation of the relative thermoluminescence efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors to low-energy heavy ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieszczyk, W.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.

    2013-01-01

    The most popular types of LiF-based thermoluminescent (TL) detectors, LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-N) and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N), have been investigated, with respect to their dose (fluence) response and relative TL efficiency to different ion species. The detectors were irradiated using the nitrogen, iron, krypt...

  7. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  8. Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2011-01-01

    Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors in 'Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Time of Flight Measurements 3.3.2.1 Scintillator hodoscopes 3.3.2.2 Parallel plate ToF detectors 3.3.3 Cherenkov Radiation 3.3.3.1 ...

  9. Identification of the mcpA and mcpM Genes, Encoding Methyl-Accepting Proteins Involved in Amino Acid and l-Malate Chemotaxis, and Involvement of McpM-Mediated Chemotaxis in Plant Infection by Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum (Formerly Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotypes I and III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Akiko; Oku, Shota; Kawasaki, Takeru; Tajima, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Sequence analysis has revealed the presence of 22 putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (mcp) genes in the Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum GMI1000 genome. PCR analysis and DNA sequencing showed that the highly motile R. pseudosolanacearum strain Ps29 possesses homologs of all 22 R. pseudosolanacearum GMI1000 mcp genes. We constructed a complete collection of single mcp gene deletion mutants of R. pseudosolanacearum Ps29 by unmarked gene deletion. Screening of the mutant collection revealed that R. pseudosolanacearum Ps29 mutants of RSp0507 and RSc0606 homologs were defective in chemotaxis to l-malate and amino acids, respectively. RSp0507 and RSc0606 homologs were designated mcpM and mcpA. While wild-type R. pseudosolanacearum strain Ps29 displayed attraction to 16 amino acids, the mcpA mutant showed no response to 12 of these amino acids and decreased responses to 4 amino acids. We constructed mcpA and mcpM deletion mutants of highly virulent R. pseudosolanacearum strain MAFF106611 to investigate the contribution of chemotaxis to l-malate and amino acids to tomato plant infection. Neither single mutant exhibited altered virulence for tomato plants when tested by root dip inoculation assays. In contrast, the mcpM mutant (but not the mcpA mutant) was significantly less infectious than the wild type when tested by a sand soak inoculation assay, which requires bacteria to locate and invade host roots from sand. Thus, McpM-mediated chemotaxis, possibly reflecting chemotaxis to l-malate, facilitates R. pseudosolanacearum motility to tomato roots in sand. PMID:26276117

  10. Research of MCP-1 expression in rat's retina injured by ischemia-reperfusion%MCP-1在大鼠视网膜缺血再灌注损伤中的表达及意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游志鹏; 姜德咏; 李国栋; 赵宏伟

    2003-01-01

    目的了解MCP-1在大鼠视网膜缺血再灌注损伤中的表达及意义.方法建立大鼠视网膜缺北血再灌注模型,以SABC法检测MCP-1在视网膜中的表达,统计学分析.结果MCP-1在视网膜缺血再灌注6 h开始表达,第24小时达到最高峰,48 h开始表达减弱.结论MCP-1在视网膜缺血再灌注损伤中起重要作用.%Objective:The retina ischemia- reperfusion injury is caused by many factors. A lot of cell factors take part in it. Many researches suggest MCP - 1 has special effect on leukocyte and lymphocyte. The research try to study the effect of MCP - 1 in rat's retina ischemia- reperfusion injury. Methods: To employ the rat's retina ischemia- reperfusion model and use SABC method to test the expression of MCP- 1 on retina. Results: There was no MCP - 1 expressed in retina after ischemia- reperfusion injury for one hour. MCP- 1 began to express in retina after ischemia- reperfusion injury for six hours, and expressed at most after ischemia- reperfusion injury for 24 hours. Then it began to decrease in 48 hours after ischemia - repeffusion injury, but it still expressed in retina in seventy- two hours after ischemia- reperfusion injury. Conclusions: MCP- 1 plays an important role in rat's retina ischemia- reperfusion injury.

  11. Involvement of spinal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cancer-induced bone pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Li-Na; Ji, Fu-Hai

    2012-05-23

    In this study, we examined the involvement of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the spinal cord of a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this model, CIBP was established by an intramedullary injection of Walker 256 cells into the tibia of rats. We observed a significant increase in expression levels of MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2 in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Furthermore, the intrathecal administration of an anti-MCP-1 neutralizing antibody attenuated the mechanical allodynia established in CIBP rats. Likewise, an intrathecal injection of exogenous recombinant MCP-1 induced a striking mechanical allodynia in naïve rats. These results suggest that increases in spinal MCP-1 and CCR2 expression are involved in the development of mechanical allodynia associated with bone cancer rats.

  12. Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

  13. Sensory Quality of ‘Cherry’ Tomatoes in Relation to 1-MCP Treatment and Storage Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene, the ethylene receptors blocker, is used in horticultural practice for prolonging ‘shelf-life’ of several species of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 1-MCP treatment on sensory characteristics of ‘cherry’ type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme after 4-week storage. In the experiment the fruits were harvested at pink and light-red fruit stages (3rd and 5th stage, according to USDA classification, and stored for 3 and 4 weeks at 12 oC, then moved to 20  sup>oC for 2 days to obtain marketable maturity. 1-MCP was applied after harvest in concentration of 1 ppm, for 12 hours at 18 oC. The plants belonging to the ‘Dasher F1’ cultivar were grown in a greenhouse in rockwool slabs and fruits were harvested in June. Sensory analysis was performed in expert panel with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA, using 12 sensory descriptors concerning smell, taste, flavour and texture of the fruits. Also semi-consumer test of liking was carried out. As the control freshly harvested red fruits at optimal consumer's maturity were used. The 1-MCP treated fruits harvested in the light-red stage were of better sensory quality than the untreated ones, similar to freshly harvested, but in the case of the pink fruits, the quality was rated lower. It can be concluded that 1-MCP treatment was effective in delaying ripening of the fruits by better keeping their firmness and colour, however in the case of fruits harvested in earlier stage, overall sensory quality and consumer acceptance was scored lower than for the freshly harvested ones, mainly due to more intensive sour taste and lower sweetness.

  14. Evaluation of the reactivity of sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus against the human MCP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Nóvoa, Ana; Teixeira, Natércia; Vasconcelos, Carlos Silva; Cerveira, Conceição; Castro e Melo, João; Carvalho, Manuel Cirne

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates metaphase chromosome protein 1 (MCP1), a nuclear antigen, as a diagnostic marker for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reactivity of sera from 114 Portuguese patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease or from healthy blood donors (HBD), against MCP1, produced in bacteria (bact-MCP1) or in its native form (native-MCP1), was determined by immunoblotting. Predictive and discriminative power of MCP1 reactivity for SLE diagnosis in disease-control groups was evaluated by logistic regression, its diagnostic value determined by receiver-operating characteristic analysis and compared with similar analysis of antinuclear antibody and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). We demonstrated that native-MCP1, in contrast to bact-MCP1, reacts with SLE sera with significant predictive and discriminative power versus other autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] ≤3.537 and ≥3.265; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] ≤0.643 and ≥0.636) or versus HBD (OR = 5.006; AUC = 0.671), showing a good diagnostic power with high specificity (82.1% versus HBD) and low sensitivity for SLE, similar to those of dsDNA. The reactivity of SLE sera with native-MCP1 was shown to be dependent on the presence of phosphorylated residues. Native-MCP1 was shown to have diagnostic value as a specific marker for SLE diagnosis and, therefore, is a suitable substrate for a new antibody test. The widely reported importance of phosphorylated epitopes as targets for autoantibodies in SLE could also be confirmed for native-MCP1.

  15. Application of MCP2515 in TTCAN Level 1 Node%MCP2515在TTCAN协议Level 1节点中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆栋; 张凤登; 刘荣鹏

    2007-01-01

    TCAN是基于CAN的时间触发的高层协议,具有确定性行为,因而适用于安全相关的场合.本文首先从参照时间、基本周期、系统信息阵、网络时间单元和全局时间五个方面对TTCAN协议进行分析,其后讲解了基于MCP2515的一个TTCAN协议Level 1节点的实现方案.

  16. X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Price, G J; Beijersbergen, M W; Fraser, G W; Bavdaz, M; Boutot, J P; Fairbend, R; Flyckt, S O; Peacock, A; Tomaselli, E

    2002-01-01

    Square-pore microchannel plate (MCP) X-ray optics of the 'lobster-eye' geometry have frequently been described in the literature. We have now investigated the use of a radial channel packing geometry which, in the context of an MCP pair slumped to the correct radii of curvature, can form a conic approximation to the Wolter Type I grazing incidence X-ray optic. Such an optic can provide a large effective area with very low mass and may be ideally suited for use in applications such as planetary imaging X-ray fluorescence. We present here the results of X-ray illumination of the first such optic, fabricated by Photonis SAS, France.

  17. A wide-field TCSPC FLIM system based on an MCP PMT with a delay-line anode

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Wolfgang, 1962-; Hirvonen, Liisa; Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Netz, Holger; Smietana, Stefan; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We report on the implementation of a wide-field time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) method for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). It is based on a 40 mm diameter crossed delay line anode detector, where the readout is performed by three standard TCSPC boards. Excitation is performed by a picosecond diode laser with 50 MHz repetition rate. The photon arrival timing is obtained directly from the microchannel plates, with an instrumental response of ∼190 to 230 ps full width at hal...

  18. Progress in Anodic Aluminum Oxide Microchannel Plates%阳极氧化铝微通道板研究的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 黄永刚; 刘辉; 李国恩

    2012-01-01

    微通道板(Microchannel Plates,MCP)是一种先进的电子倍增器件,在微光夜视等多个领域有着广泛的应用.传统铅硅酸盐玻璃微通道板(Lead Silicate Glass Microchannel Plates,LSG-MCP)越来越不能满足小孔径、高分辨率、环境友好等方面的要求,寻求替代产品成为研究热点.详细介绍了一种新型微通道板—阳极氧化铝微通道板(Anodic Aluminum Oxide Microchannel Plates,AAO-MCP)的研究进展,包括多孔AAO的特点、微通道的形成、功能层的制备、计算机模拟等.AAO-MCP具有孔径小、面积大、耐强磁场、工作温度范围宽等特点,应用前景广阔.最后分析了AAO-MCP存在的问题以及未来发展方向.%MicroChannel plates (MCP) are advanced electron multiplier devices, which are widely used in low-light-level night vision and other fields. The traditional lead silicate glass microchannel plates (LSG-MCP) are increasingly unable to meet the requirements of small diameter, high resolution and environment-friendness, so it is necessary to find some novel alternative materials and technology, such as anodic aluminum oxide microchannel plates (AAO-MCP). This paper describes the research progress of the AAO-MCP in details, including the characteristics of the porous AAO, the forming of microchannel, functional film preparation and computer simulation. AAO-MCP has some advantages, such as smaller channel diameter, large area, low sensitivity to strong magnetic field, and wide operating temperature range. Finally, the most difficult problems in AAO-MCP and the development in the future are presented.

  19. Decreased Motor Neuron Support by SMA Astrocytes due to Diminished MCP1 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jasmin E; Nguyen, TrangKimberly T; Grunseich, Christopher; Nofziger, Jonathan H; Lee, Philip R; Fields, Douglas; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Foran, Emily

    2017-05-24

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by severe, often fatal muscle weakness due to loss of motor neurons. SMA patients have deletions and other mutations of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in decreased SMN protein. Astrocytes are the primary support cells of the CNS and are responsible for glutamate clearance, metabolic support, response to injury, and regulation of signal transmission. Astrocytes have been implicated in SMA as in in other neurodegenerative disorders. Astrocyte-specific rescue of SMN protein levels has been shown to mitigate disease manifestations in mice. However, the mechanism by which SMN deficiency in astrocytes may contribute to SMA is unclear and what aspect of astrocyte activity is lacking is unknown. Therefore, it is worthwhile to identify defects in SMN-deficient astrocytes that compromise normal function. We show here that SMA astrocyte cultures derived from mouse spinal cord of both sexes are deficient in supporting both WT and SMN-deficient motor neurons derived from male, female, and mixed-sex sources and that this deficiency may be mitigated with secreted factors. In particular, SMN-deficient astrocytes have decreased levels of monocyte chemoactive protein 1 (MCP1) secretion compared with controls and MCP1 restoration stimulates outgrowth of neurites from cultured motor neurons. Correction of MCP1 deficiency may thus be a new therapeutic approach to SMA.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by the loss of motor neurons, but astrocyte dysfunction also contributes to the disease in mouse models. Monocyte chemoactive protein 1 (MCP1) has been shown to be neuroprotective and is released by astrocytes. Here, we report that MCP1 levels are decreased in SMA mice and that replacement of deficient MCP1 increases differentiation and neurite length of WT and SMN-deficient motor-neuron-like cells in cell culture. This study reveals a novel aspect of astrocyte

  20. Toward a noncytotoxic glioblastoma therapy: blocking MCP-1 with the MTZ Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salacz ME

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Salacz,1,2 Richard E Kast,3 Najmaldin Saki,4 Ansgar Brüning,5 Georg Karpel-Massler,6 Marc-Eric Halatsch6 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3IIAIGC Study Center, Burlington, VT, USA; 4Health Research Institute, Research Center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; 5Molecular Biology Laboratory, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 6Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany Abstract: To improve the prognosis of glioblastoma, we developed an adjuvant treatment directed to a neglected aspect of glioblastoma growth, the contribution of nonmalignant monocyte lineage cells (MLCs (monocyte, macrophage, microglia, dendritic cells that infiltrated a main tumor mass. These nonmalignant cells contribute to glioblastoma growth and tumor homeostasis. MLCs comprise of approximately 10%–30% of glioblastoma by volume. After integration into the tumor mass, these become polarized toward an M2 immunosuppressive, pro-angiogenic phenotype that promotes continued tumor growth. Glioblastoma cells initiate and promote this process by synthesizing 13 kDa MCP-1 that attracts circulating monocytes to the tumor. Infiltrating monocytes, after polarizing toward an M2 phenotype, synthesize more MCP-1, forming an amplification loop. Three noncytotoxic drugs, an antibiotic – minocycline, an antihypertensive drug – telmisartan, and a bisphosphonate – zoledronic acid, have ancillary attributes of MCP-1 synthesis inhibition and could be re-purposed, singly or in combination, to inhibit or reverse MLC-mediated immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and other growth-enhancing aspects. Minocycline, telmisartan, and zoledronic acid – the MTZ Regimen – have low-toxicity profiles and could be added to standard radiotherapy and temozolomide. Re-purposing older drugs has advantages of established safety and low

  1. Influência do 1-MCP na conservação pós-colheita de rosas cv. Vega Influence of 1-MCP on postharvest conservation of roses cv. Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia De Pietro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar aspectos da fisiologia pós-colheita de rosas cortadas cv. Vega, tratadas com diferentes concentrações de 1-metilcicloropropeno (1-MCP. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial composto por dois fatores: quatro tratamentos pós-colheita e quatro datas de avaliação (0; 4; 8; 12 dias. As flores foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: 1 Água destilada (controle; 2 1-MCP (100 ppb; 3 1-MCP (250 ppb; 4 1-MCP (500 ppb. Foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações: massa fresca, cor, turgescência, curvatura, taxa respiratória, conteúdo relativo de água, conteúdo de carboidratos solúveis, de redutores e de antocianina. Ao contrário do tratamento controle, todas as concentrações de 1-MCP foram eficientes para retardar a senescência das flores, porém, a concentração de 1-MCP a 500 ppb destacou-se pela melhor manutenção da qualidade, além de prolongar a vida decorativa das hastes até 19 dias.The objective of this work was to study aspects of postharvest physiology of cut roses cv. Vega, treated with different concentrations of 1-metilcloropropene (1-MCP. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design composed of two factors: four postharvest treatments and four dates of evaluation (0; 4; 8; 12 days. The following treatments were used: 1 distilled water; 2 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP 100 ppb; 3 1-MCP 250 ppb; 4 1-MCP 500 ppb. The following evaluations were made: fresh weight, color, turgor, curvature, respiration rate, relative water content, content of soluble carbohydrates, reducing and anthocyanin. Unlike treatment with distilled water, all concentrations of 1-MCP were effective in delaying the senescence of flowers; however, the concentration of 1-MCP at 500 ppb was highlighted by better maintenance of quality and extended decorate life stem up to 19 days.

  2. Pixel Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh...

  3. Effect of acidosis on IL-8 and MCP-1 during hypoxia and reoxygenation in human NT2-N neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøyland, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Elena Didenko; Kvissel, Anne-Katrine; Almaas, Runar; Pharo, Anne; Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Rootwelt, Terje

    2006-10-03

    Inflammation probably plays a significant role in perinatal brain injury. To study the contribution of locally produced cytokines, the effect on cell death of addition of IL-8 and MCP-1 or antibodies to these, and the impact of acidosis, human postmitotic NT2-N neurons were exposed to 3 h of hypoxia and glucose deprivation and reoxygenated for 21 h. After 3 h of hypoxia with neutral medium, IL-8 was significantly increased compared to controls (150 (100-250)% vs. 100 (85-115)%, p=0.023). After 21 h of neutral reoxygenation, both IL-8 (380 (110-710)% vs. 150 (85-260)%, p=0.041) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (650 (440-2000)% vs. 310 (230-340)%, p=0.007) were significantly increased compared to controls. After 3 h of hypoxia, both IL-8 (p=0.002) and MCP-1 (p=0.008) were significantly lower in cells with acidotic compared with cells with neutral medium. Acidosis during reoxygenation, however, significantly increased IL-8 release, whereas MCP-1 release was diminished. Similar effects of acidosis were seen in normoxic controls. The cells also secreted RANTES and IP-10, but not 8 other cytokines tested. We found no effect on cell death, measured by MTT assay, of addition of IL-8, MCP-1 or antibodies to these. We conclude that human NT2-N neurons release IL-8 and MCP-1 during 21 h of reoxygenation after 3 h of hypoxia. Acidosis led to a differential effect on IL-8 and MCP-1, with increased IL-8 and decreased MCP-1, both during reoxygenation and in normoxic controls. IL-8 and MCP-1 had no effect on cell death.

  4. Angular resolution of stacked resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Deepak; Murgod, Lakshmi P

    2016-01-01

    We present here detailed derivations of mathematical expressions for the angular resolution of a set of stacked resistive plate chambers (RPCs). The expressions are validated against experimental results using data collected from the prototype detectors (without magnet) of the upcoming India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). In principle, these expressions can be used for any other detector with an architecture similar to that of RPCs.

  5. Development and progress in resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fang; WU Jian

    2004-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a robust and low cost gas detector, which is extensively used in high-energy physics, cosmic and astroparticle physics experiments. Over the past twenty years, as a particle detector,RPC has made remarkable progress. The main achievements, features and results of experiemantal tests including R&D and production of the RPCs by several Chinese groups in recent years are reported in this article.

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  7. Conservação da qualidade de caqui 'Fuyu' em ambiente refrigerado pela combinação de 1-MCP e atmosfera modificada Quality maintenance of 'Fuyu' persimmon in cold storage by combining 1-MCP and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Argenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisou os efeitos do inibidor da ação do etileno 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno, da AM (atmosfera modificada e do oxidante de etileno KMnO4 (permanganato de potássio sobre a qualidade de caqui 'Fuyu' após a armazenagem refrigerada. Os fatores 1-MCP, AM e KMnO4 foram combinados de quatro maneiras, correspondendo aos seguintes tratamentos: T1 Controle + AM + KMnO4;T2 1-MCP + AM + KMnO4; T3 1-MCP + AM, e T4 1-MCP + AA (AA=atmosfera do ar. Frutos maduro-firmes com coloração da casca predominantemente amarela foram colhidos em sete pomares comerciais no nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Parte dos frutos foi exposta a 0.3 µL L-1 de 1-MCP por 12 h em 24 h após a colheita. A seguir, os frutos foram armazenados sob AA ou sob AM induzida por bolsas de polietileno (0,04 mm de espessura, por 20; 40; 60 ou 80 dias a -0,1±0,8ºC. Dois sachês contendo 8,5 g de Alumina-KMnO4foram adicionados em cada uma das bolsas de polietileno dos tratamentos um e dois, antes de elas serem vedadas. Os frutos de cada período de armazenagem refrigerada foram analisados após 0; 3; 6 ou 9 dias de prateleira sob AA a 22±1ºC. O tratamento 1-MCP retardou o amolecimento da polpa, mas não afetou consistentemente o desenvolvimento de 'estrias' e manchas pretas na superfície dos frutos armazenados sob AM contendo KMnO4. A incidência de 'estrias' e manchas pretas em frutos tratados com 1-MCP e armazenados sob AM foi significativamente menor que a de frutos tratados com 1-MCP e armazenados sob AA. Houve efeitos aditivos do 1-MCP e AM na conservação da firmeza e na redução de danos por frio manifestados pela formação de textura gel-firme e manchas translúcidas na casca. O uso de KMnO4 não aumentou a conservação da qualidade dos frutos quando tratados com 1-MCP e armazenados sob AM. O desenvolvimento dos distúrbios da epiderme dependeu do pomar e de períodos de armazenagem e prateleira. No entanto, os benefícios da combinação de 1-MCP e

  8. CAN控制器芯片MCP2510在远程监测系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继国; 孙新亚

    2004-01-01

    介绍了CAN控制器芯片MCP2510的功能、结构和工作原理,提出了一种利用MCP2510芯片和MSP430单片机组成远程监测系统的方案,并通过硬件电路和软件的实现证明了其可行性和正确性,同时列举了MCP2510在使用中的一些注意事项.

  9. Position sensitive anodes for MCP read-out using induced charge measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jagutzki, O; Mergel, V; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Spillmann, U; Worth, L B C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the method of an indirect detection of a MCP charge avalanche projected onto a resistive layer (G. Battistoni, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth., 202 (1982) 459). If the sheet resistance is favourable one can detect the charge cloud by the capacitive coupling to an anode structure a few millimetres behind the layer. The anode structure can be, for example, a wedge-and-strip electrode pattern (M. Unverzagt, Diplomarbeit, Universitaet Frankfurt 1992, private communication) as it is used for directly collecting the electron avalanche from a MCP. Detection of the induced charge is beneficial in several respects. Firstly, image distortions produced by secondary electron mediated charge redistribution are eliminated. Secondly, the noise component due to quantized charge collection, commonly referred to as partition noise, is not present. In addition, the dielectric substrate can function both as an element of the vacuum enclosure and HV insulator, making the electrical connections easily accessible and ...

  10. State of art report for high temperature wear test of SMART MCP and CEDM bearing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Hu; Lee, Jae Seon; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Jong In

    2000-03-01

    Wear resistance properties of machine elements has been more critical in view of its significant effect on life extension, economics and material saving because it has been recognized that nearly 80 percent of damages of mechanical elements in the friction pairs are due to the material loss by wear. And wear properties have direct influence on the life of a machine in a great extend under extremely severe operating condition. Therefore highly improved wear properties of machine elements operating in such circumstances is heavily required. The purpose of this report is to survey current technology for high temperature wear test in order to establish the test plan for the life evaluation of SMART MCP and CEDM bearing materials. Friction and wear test will be done under high pressure (170 MPa) and high temperature (350 degree C) with water as lubricant to simulate the operating condition of the nuclear power reactor. Because pump type for MCP is selected as the caned motor pump which needs no mechanical sealing, the rotating shaft on which bearing is fully submerged by main coolant with high temperature. So MCP bearing operates without additional lubricant. CEDM is adopted as the ball-screw type with fine controllability. So the driving part is designed as the immersed-in type by main coolant. Therefore the anti-wear and reliability of driving parts are much consequent to guarantee the lifetime and the safety of the whole system. Tribometer adapted to high temperature and pressure circumstance is needed to execute bearing material testing. Test parameters are material, sliding speed, sliding distance and applied load. In order to identify the wear mechanism, optical microscope and surface roughness testers are required. The result of this report will provide an elementary data to develop bearing materials and to estimate bearing lifetime for the bearings of MCP and CEDM in SMART. (author)

  11. EFECTO DEL 1-METIL-CICLOPROPENO (1-MCP EN LA MADURACIÓN DE BANANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Chang-Yuen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia del 1-metil-ciclopropeno (1-MCP en la maduración del banano (Musa sp Cavendish, aplicado después del empaque en fruta para el mercado de EE.UU. y Europa. Se utilizó fruta de 3 diferentes compañías bananeras; la fruta fue expuesta a 0, 20 y 30 nl l-1 de 1-MCP, por 24 h. Posteriormente, fue sometida a simulación de transporte, según el mercado de destino (7 días EE.UU. y 15 días Europa. Finalizada la simulación se indujo el proceso de maduración con etileno. Las evaluaciones se realizaron cada 2 días, e incluyeron análisis de calidad externa (enfermedades poscosecha y desarrollo de color externo de la cáscara y de calidad interna (oBrix, firmeza, porcentaje de acidez titulable y tasa de produc ción de CO2. Una aplicación de 30 nl l-1 de 1-MCP, generó una ganancia de más de 4 días de vida de anaquel por encima de la fruta control.La apariencia externa y la calidad interna de la fruta no se vio afectada de forma negativa por la exposición al 1-MCP, aunque se recomienda realizar pruebas sensoriales con consumidores en los mercados de destino.

  12. State of art report for high temperature wear test of SMART MCP and CEDM bearing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Hu; Lee, Jae Seon; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Jong In

    2000-03-01

    Wear resistance properties of machine elements has been more critical in view of its significant effect on life extension, economics and material saving because it has been recognized that nearly 80 percent of damages of mechanical elements in the friction pairs are due to the material loss by wear. And wear properties have direct influence on the life of a machine in a great extend under extremely severe operating condition. Therefore highly improved wear properties of machine elements operating in such circumstances is heavily required. The purpose of this report is to survey current technology for high temperature wear test in order to establish the test plan for the life evaluation of SMART MCP and CEDM bearing materials. Friction and wear test will be done under high pressure (170 MPa) and high temperature (350 degree C) with water as lubricant to simulate the operating condition of the nuclear power reactor. Because pump type for MCP is selected as the caned motor pump which needs no mechanical sealing, the rotating shaft on which bearing is fully submerged by main coolant with high temperature. So MCP bearing operates without additional lubricant. CEDM is adopted as the ball-screw type with fine controllability. So the driving part is designed as the immersed-in type by main coolant. Therefore the anti-wear and reliability of driving parts are much consequent to guarantee the lifetime and the safety of the whole system. Tribometer adapted to high temperature and pressure circumstance is needed to execute bearing material testing. Test parameters are material, sliding speed, sliding distance and applied load. In order to identify the wear mechanism, optical microscope and surface roughness testers are required. The result of this report will provide an elementary data to develop bearing materials and to estimate bearing lifetime for the bearings of MCP and CEDM in SMART. (author)

  13. The BABAR Detector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e- B Factory operating at the upsilon 4S resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  14. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  15. The BABAR Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luth, Vera G

    2001-05-18

    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  16. Metal Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  17. Optical Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  18. Study on Fresh-keeping of Strawberry by Using 1-MCP-β-cyclodextrin%1-MCP-β-环糊精对草莓保鲜的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何飞

    2011-01-01

    研究了在7 m3密闭体积中用10 mg.L-1 1-MCP-β-环糊精溶液对草莓的保鲜效果。分别测定贮存过程中草莓的感官指标、失重率、总酸含量、可溶性糖含量及维生素C含量含量的变化。结果表面1-MCP-β-环糊精保鲜效果良好。%The effect of 1-MCP-β-cyclodextrin on the preservation of strawberry was studied.The changes in the organoleptic target,weight-loss rate,total acid,content of soluble saccharide and the content of the vitamin C of strawberry were determined during storage.The result indicated that the preservative effect of 1-MCP-β-cyclodextrin was remarkable.

  19. Qualidade de caqui 'Rama forte' após armazenamento refrigerado, influenciada pelos tratamentos 1-MCP e/ou CO2 Quality of 'Rama Forte' perssimon following cold torage influenced by 1-MCP and/or CO2treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos com CO2 e 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre a adstringência (índice de tanino, firmeza da polpa e distúrbios da epiderme em caqui 'Rama Forte'. Frutos foram tratados com 1-MCP por 24 h, logo após a colheita e/ou com alto CO2 (70% por 24 ou 48 h, um dia após a colheita ou após o armazenamento refrigerado (AR. Os caquis foram armazenados sob atmosfera modificada a 0 ºC, por 45 dias, e a seguir mantidos a 23 ºC, por 9 dias. Frutos-controle (não tratados com 1-MCP nem com CO2 amoleceram em três dias e perderam aproximadamente 50% da adstringência em 6 dias após o AR. A exposição ao CO2 acelerou a redução da adstringência. Esse efeito do CO2 foi menor em frutos tratados com 1-MCP, especialmente quando o CO2 foi aplicado após o AR, por apenas 24 h. O tratamento com 1-MCP inibiu o amolecimento e a redução da adstringência, especialmente nos frutos não tratados com CO2. O amolecimento de frutos tratados com 1-MCP foi maior quando a exposição ao CO2 ocorreu antes do AR. A combinação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP e alto CO2 reduziu a incidência de podridões e manchas translúcidas, mas não alterou o desenvolvimento de pintas pretas ('estrias'. Os resultados indicam que é possível induzir perda da adstringência sem excessiva perda da firmeza da polpa de caquis 'Rama Forte' após o AR pela associação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP logo após a colheita e alto CO2 após o AR.This study evaluated the effects of CO2 and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene treatments on astringency (tannin index, flesh firmness and skin disorders on 'Rama Forte' persimmon. Fruit were treated with 1-MCP for 24 h right after harvest and/or with high CO2 (70% CO2 balanced with air for 24 or 48 h, one day after harvest or after cold storage (CS. Fruit were stored in modified atmosphere for 45 days at 0ºC and then held at 23ºC for 9 days. Control fruit (untreated with neither 1-MCP nor CO2 softened in 3 days and lost about 50

  20. Ethylene and 1-MCP affect the postharvest behavior of yellow pitahaya fruits (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pitahaya or dragon fruit is one of the most representative exotic fruits that Colombia has, with an important, growing international market, but the cultivation and postharvest of this fruit lack sufficient technological support to be more competitive. Therefore, alternatives that provide good-quality products that meet market requirements are very important. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of a ripening retardant and ethylene application on the conservation and quality of pitahaya fruits and the possible changes during ripening associated with ethylene, for which a completely randomized design with three treatments was used, corresponding to the application of ethylene (ethephon, 3 mL L-1, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 600 mg L-1 and a control, with four replications, for a total of 12 experimental units. The fruits were stored at 18°C with 75% relative humidity. The 1-MCP application significantly decreased the loss of firmness, total soluble solids, loss of fresh mass and respiratory rate. Fruits from the control and ethylene treatment tended toward a climateric respiratory behavior. The total carotenoid content of the fruits was significantly higher in the ethylene application and the control treatment, which was consistent with the color change of the fruits. It can be concluded that the 1-MCP application reduced the ethylene action, slowing the ripening of the dragon fruits.

  1. Evaluating the potential of IP-10 and MCP-2 as biomarkers for the diagnosis of TB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Bodmer, T; Maier, C

    2008-01-01

    were obtained from 80 patients with culture and/or PCR proven TB, and 124 unexposed healthy controls; 86 high school students and 38 high school staff. IP-10 and MCP-2 test cut-offs were established based on ROC curve analysis.TB patients produced significantly higher levels of IP-10 (median 2158 pg.......ml(-1)) and MCP-2 (median 379 pg.ml(-1)) compared with IFN-gamma (median 215 pg.ml(-1), pTB patients; 0%, 3% and 0% of the high school students and 0%, 16%; and 3% of the staff. Agreement between tests was high >89% (kappa>0.......77). By combining IP-10 and IFN-gamma tests the detection rate increased among TB patients to 90% without a significant increase in positive responders among the students.In conclusion, IP-10 and MCP-2 responses to M.tuberculosis specific antigens could be used to diagnose infection. Combining IP-10 and IFN...

  2. The cross-validated AUC for MCP-logistic regression with high-dimensional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Ying

    2013-10-01

    We propose a cross-validated area under the receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curve (CV-AUC) criterion for tuning parameter selection for penalized methods in sparse, high-dimensional logistic regression models. We use this criterion in combination with the minimax concave penalty (MCP) method for variable selection. The CV-AUC criterion is specifically designed for optimizing the classification performance for binary outcome data. To implement the proposed approach, we derive an efficient coordinate descent algorithm to compute the MCP-logistic regression solution surface. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed method and its comparison with the existing methods including the Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) or Extended BIC (EBIC). The model selected based on the CV-AUC criterion tends to have a larger predictive AUC and smaller classification error than those with tuning parameters selected using the AIC, BIC or EBIC. We illustrate the application of the MCP-logistic regression with the CV-AUC criterion on three microarray datasets from the studies that attempt to identify genes related to cancers. Our simulation studies and data examples demonstrate that the CV-AUC is an attractive method for tuning parameter selection for penalized methods in high-dimensional logistic regression models.

  3. Ethylene and 1-MCP regulate major volatile biosynthetic pathways in apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotang; Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Forney, Charles; Campbell-Palmer, Leslie; Fillmore, Sherry; Wismer, Paul; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on apple fruit volatile biosynthesis and gene expression were investigated. Statistical analysis identified 17 genes that changed significantly in response to ethylene and 1-MCP treatments. Genes encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) and amino acid decarboxylases (AADC) were up-regulated during ripening and further enhanced by ethylene treatment. Genes related to fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, including acyl-carrier-proteins (ACPs), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MCAT), acyl-ACP-desaturase (ACPD), lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC2), β-oxidation, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHD), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD), and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) also increased during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment. Allene oxide synthase (AOS), alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2) decreased in ethylene-treated fruit. Treatment with 1-MCP and ethylene generally produced opposite effects on related genes, which provides evidence that regulation of these genes is ethylene dependent. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Data Acquisition Methods for an FPGA-Based Photon Counting Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambily, S.; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Mathew, Joice; Sreejith, A. G.; Nirmal, K.; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    MCP-based detectors are widely used in the ultraviolet (UV) region due to their low noise levels, high sensitivity and good spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed a compact near-UV (NUV) detector for high-altitude balloon and space flights, using off-the-shelf MCP, CMOS sensor, and optics. The detector is designed to be capable of working in the direct frame transfer mode as well in the photon counting mode for single photon event detection. The identification and centroiding of each photon event are done using an FPGA-based data acquisition and real-time processing system. In this paper, we discuss various algorithms and methods used in both operating modes, as well as their implementation on the hardware.

  5. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  6. Non-myeloid Cells are Major Contributors to Innate Immune Responses via Production of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein- 1(MCP-1/CCL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teizo eYoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2 is a chemokine regulating the recruitment of monocytes into sites of inflammation and cancer. MCP-1 can be produced by a variety of cell types, such as macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Notably, macrophages produce high levels of MCP-1 in response to proinflammatory stimuli in vitro, leading to the hypothesis that macrophages are the major source of MCP-1 during inflammatory responses in vivo. In stark contrast to the hypothesis, however, there was no significant reduction in MCP-1 protein or the number of infiltrating macrophages in the peritoneal inflammatory exudates of myeloid cell-specific MCP-1-deficient mice in response to i.p injection of thioglycollate or zymosan A. Furthermore, injection of LPS into skin air pouch also had no effect on local MCP-1 production in myeloid-specific MCP-1-deficient mice. Finally, myeloid-specific MCP-1-deficiency did not reduce MCP-1 mRNA expression or macrophage infiltration in LPS-induced lung injury. These results indicate that non-myeloid cells, in response to a variety of stimulants, play a previously unappreciated role in innate immune responses as the primary source of MCP-1.

  7. Adipocyte-derived monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) promotes prostate cancer progression through the induction of MMP-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Naohito; Hasumi, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yao, Masahiro; Uemura, Hiroji

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with prostate cancer development and progression, but the detailed mechanism is not clear. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted from cancer cells, stromal cells, and adipocytes, and it is involved in prostate cancer progression. Here we investigated the biological role of MCP-1 secreted from adipocytes for prostate cancer cells. Human pre-adipocytes (HPAds) were cultured and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Conditioned medium (CM) from HPAd cells was obtained using phenol red-free RPMI1640 medium. We performed a cytokine membrane array analysis to detect cytokines in the CM. To characterize the physiological function of MCP-1 in the CM, we performed an MTT-assay, a wound-healing and invasion assay with anti-MCP-1 antibody using three prostate cancer cell lines: DU145, LNCaP, and PC-3. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities were evaluated by gelatin zymography. A qPCR and Western blotting were used to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-2. The cytokine membrane array of the CM showed a strong signal of MCP-1compared to the control medium, and we thus focused our attention on MCP-1 in the CM. The CM up-regulated the cancer cell proliferation, and the neutralization by anti-MCP-1 antibody inhibited the proliferative effect of the prostate cancer cell lines. The CM greatly increased the invasive activity in the prostate cancer cell lines, and anti-MCP-1 antibody decreased the invasiveness. Gelatin zymography revealed that the CM markedly enhanced the enzymatic activity of MMP-2, and anti-MCP-1 antibody down-regulated its effect. MMP-2 mRNA expression was undetected and the MMP-2 protein level was unchanged between the control medium and CM in DU145 cells. MCP-1 from adipocytes enhances the growth and invasion activity of prostate cancer cells. The inhibition of MCP-1 derived from adipocytes might be an effective treatment for prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of pharmacological intervention on MIP-1α, MIP-1β and MCP-1 expression in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Jiang Dai; Yu-Yang Li; Hui-Ming Zeng; Xiong-An Liang; Zhi-Jie Xie; Zhi-Ang Zheng; Qin-Hui Pan; Yi-Xiong Xing

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression level of macrophage inflammatory protein-1(MIP-1)α, MIP-1β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) in with psoriasis vulgaris and explore the role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris.Methods:The level ofMIP-1α,MIP-1β andMCP-1 in peripheral blood from50 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and50 normal controls were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The correlation with psoriasis area and severity index(PASI) was analyzed.The level ofMIP-1α,MIP-1β andMCP-1 was compared between psoriasis vulgaris patients at active stage and resting stage.And the change inMIP-1α, MIP-1β andMCP-1 before and after therapy was also observed.Results:The content ofMIP-1α, MIP-1β andMCP-1 in patients with psoriasis vulgaris was(1342.78±210.30),(175.28±28.18) and (266.86±32.75) ng/L, respectively, significantly higher than those in control group(P<0.05).The expression level ofMIP-1α,MIP-1β andMCP-1 in peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris was positively correlated withPASI(P<0.01).After acitretin therapy, expression level ofMIP-1α,MIP-1β andMCP-1 in peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris was significantly decreased.Conclusions:Chemokine factorMIP-1α,MIP-1β andMCP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris.

  9. A compact immunoassay platform based on a multicapillary glass plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2014-05-23

    A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays.

  10. A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays.

  11. 牙龈卟啉单胞菌侵入对人血管内皮细胞分泌MCP-1影响的研究%Expression of MCP-1 in vascular endothelial cells invaded by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓辉; 徐静; 余溢; 欧阳玉玲; 吴亚菲

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过研究牙龈卟啉单胞菌(porphyrmonas gingivalis,P.g)侵入对人脐静脉内皮细胞(human umbilical vein endothelial cell,HUVEC)分泌单核细胞趋化蛋白(MCP-1)的影响,了解P.g对其趋化功能的影响.方法 建立P,g侵入HUVEC的体外模型,采用酶联免疫吸附法( ELISA)研究P.g381和P.g33277菌株侵入HUVEC 6、24 h后的培养上清液中MCP -1浓度.结果 ELISA结果显示当P.g381侵入HUVEC 6、24h和P.g33277侵入HUVEC 6 h时,HUVEC分泌的MCP -1水平升高(P<0.01);P,g33277侵入HUVEC 24 h时,HUVEC分泌的MCP -1水平恢复最初水平(P=0.46);P.g381诱导HUVEC表达MCP -1的水平高于P.g33277 (P <0.01).结论 P.g侵入HUVEC后可促进其表达MCP -1,从而上调其趋化功能,在牙周炎与心血管疾病的相关性中可能发挥作用.%Objective To investigate the expression of monocyte chemoattractanl protein-1 (MCP-1) in human umbilical vein endo-thetial cells ( HUVEC) invaded by porphyrroonas gingivalis (P. g). Methods The models of invasion of P. g into HUVEC were established in vitro. HUVEC were infected with either P. g381 or P. g33277 .then the expression of MCP-1 in supernatant was tested by ELISA. Results The expression of MCP-1 was signicantly upregulated in P. g381 -infected HUVEC at 6h and 24h and in P. g33277-infecled HUVEC at 6h{ P<0.01). The upregulalion ability of P.g381 was significantly greater than P. g33277(P<0.01). Conclusions These data demonstrate that the infection of P. g can increase the expression of MCP-1 and chemolactic function of HDVEC, which may play a role in the relationship between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  13. ALICE EXPERIMENT Time of Flight Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Charged particules are identified in ALICE by Time-Of-Flight (TOF); heavier particles are slower and it takes for them longer to reach the outer layers of the detector. For TOF system ALICE uses detectors called Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), like the prototype shown here.

  14. Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoukaz, A., E-mail: khoukaz@uni-muenster.de; Bonaventura, D.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.-K.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.

    2014-01-21

    An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in a vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCPs) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This information can directly be used for the reconstruction of vertex positions as well as for an input for numerical simulations of the reaction zone. The spatial resolution of the images is dominated by the granularity of the complete MCP device and was found to be in the order of σ≈100μm. -- Highlights: • We present a MCP system for a 2D real time visualization of cluster target beams. • With this device the vertex region of storage ring experiments can be investigated. • Time resolved 2D information about the target thickness distribution is accessible. • A spatial resolution of the MCP device of 0.1 mm was achieved. • The presented MCP system also allows for measurements on cluster masses.

  15. Crosstalk between Tumor Cells and Macrophages in Stroma Renders Tumor Cells as the Primary Source of MCP-1/CCL2 in Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Teizo; Liu, Mingyong; Chen, Xin; Li, Liangzhu; Wang, Ji Ming

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine MCP-1/CCL2 is produced by a variety of tumors and plays an important role in cancer progression. We and others previously demonstrated that the primary source of MCP-1 in several mouse tumors, including 4T1 breast cancer, M5076 sarcoma, and B16 melanoma, was stromal cells. In the present study, we identified that tumor cells were the primary source of MCP-1 in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), because MCP-1 mRNA was highly expressed in tumors grown in both wild type (WT) and MCP-1(-/-) mice with elevated serum MCP-1 levels. Since LLC cells isolated from tumors expressed low levels of MCP-1 in vitro, it appeared that the tumor-stromal cell interaction in a tumor microenvironment increased MCP-1 expression in LLC cells. In fact, co-culture of LLC cells with normal mouse peritoneal macrophages or normal lung cells containing macrophages increased MCP-1 expression by LLC cells. Macrophages from TNFα(-/-) mice failed to activate LLC cells and anti-TNFα neutralizing antibody abolished the effect of WT macrophages on LLC cells. When LLC cells were transplanted into TNFα(-/-) mice, the levels of MCP-1 mRNA in tumors and serum MCP-1 levels were markedly lower as compared to WT mice, and importantly, tumors grew more slowly. Taken together, our results indicate that TNFα released by tumor cell-activated macrophages is critical for increased MCP-1 production by tumors cells. Thus, disruption of tumor-stromal cell interaction may inhibit tumor progression by reducing the production of tumor-promoting proinflammatory mediators, such as MCP-1.

  16. Crosstalk between Tumor Cells and Macrophages in Stroma Renders Tumor Cells as the Primary Source of MCP-1/CCL2 in Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teizo eYoshimura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine MCP-1/CCL2 is produced by a variety of tumors and plays an important role in cancer progression. We and others previously demonstrated that the primary source of MCP-1 in several mouse tumors, including 4T1 breast cancer, M5076 sarcoma and B16 melanoma, was stromal cells. In the present study, we identified that tumor cells were the primary source of MCP-1 in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC, because MCP-1 mRNA was highly expressed in tumors grown in both WT and MCP-1-/- mice with elevated serum MCP-1 levels. Since LLC cells isolated from tumors expressed low levels of MCP-1 in vitro, it appeared that the tumor-stromal cell interaction in a tumor microenvironment increased MCP-1 expression in LLC cells. In fact, co-culture of LLC cells with normal mouse peritoneal macrophages or normal lung cells containing macrophages increased MCP-1 expression by LLC cells. Macrophages from TNFα-/- mice failed to activate LLC cells and anti-TNFα neutralizing antibody abolished the effect of WT macrophages on LLC cells. When LLC cells were transplanted into TNFα-/- mice, the levels of MCP-1 mRNA in tumors and serum MCP-1 levels were markedly lower as compared to WT mice, and importantly tumors grew more slowly. Taken together, our results indicate that TNFα released by tumor cell-activated macrophages is critical for increased MCP-1 production by tumors cells. Thus, disruption of tumor-stromal cell interaction may inhibit tumor progression by reducing the production of tumor-promoting proinflammatory mediators, such as MCP-1.

  17. MCP2515在TTCAN协议Level 1节点中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆栋; 张凤登; 刘荣鹏

    2007-01-01

    TCAN是基于CAN的时间触发的高层协议,具有确定性行为,因而适用于安全相关的场合。本文首先从参照时间、基本周期、系统信息阵、网络时间单元和全局时间五个方面对TTCAN协议进行分析,其后讲解了基于MCP2515的一个TTCAN协议Level 1节点的实现方案。

  18. Physical, chemical and sensory changes of refrigerated yellow pitahaya treated preharvest with 1-mcp

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Serna Cock; Laura Sofía Torres Valenzuela; Alfredo Ayala Aponte

    2013-01-01

    El efecto de la aplicación de soluciones acuosas de 0, 200 y 400 mg L de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) en pitahaya amarilla en precosecha (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw) fue evaluado. Se midieron los cambios en pérdida de peso, cambio total de la coloración, azucares totales, acidez titulable, ácido ascórbico y análisis sensorial. La pitahaya fue almacenada bajo refrigeración (10°C y 85% de humedad relativa por 29 días). Dos tipos de empaque (Cajas para exportación y canastillas plá...

  19. Phenolic excipients of insulin formulations induce cell death, pro-inflammatory signaling and MCP-1 release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Weber

    2015-01-01

    Insulin solutions displayed cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory potential caused by phenol or m-cresol. We speculate that during insulin pump therapy phenol and m-cresol might induce cell death and inflammatory reactions at the infusion site in vivo. Inflammation is perpetuated by release of MCP-1 by activated monocytic cells leading to enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells. To minimize acute skin complications caused by phenol/m-cresol accumulation, a frequent change of infusion sets and rotation of the infusion site is recommended.

  20. Myocardial production and release of MCP-1 and SDF-1 following myocardial infarction: differences between mice and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palasubramaniam Dharshan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell homing to the heart is mediated by the release of chemo-attractant cytokines. Stromal derived factor -1 alpha (SDF-1a and monocyte chemotactic factor 1(MCP-1 are detectable in peripheral blood after myocardial infarction (MI. It remains unknown if they are produced by, and released from, the heart in order to attract stem cells to repair the damaged myocardium. Methods Murine hearts were studied for expression of MCP-1 and SDF-1a at day 3 and day 28 following myocardial infarction to determine whether production is increased following MI. In addition, we studied the coronary artery and coronary sinus (venous blood from patients with normal coronary arteries, stable coronary artery disease (CAD, unstable angina and MI to determine whether these cytokines are released from the heart into the systemic circulation following MI. Results Both MCP-1 and SDF-1a are constitutively produced and released by the heart. MCP-1 mRNA is upregulated following murine experimental MI, but SDF-1a is suppressed. There is less release of SDF-1a into the systemic circulation in patients with all stages of CAD including MI, mimicking the animal model. However MCP-1 release from the human heart following MI is also suppressed, which is the exact opposite of the animal model. Conclusions SDF-1a and MCP-1 release from the human heart are suppressed following MI. In the case of SDF-1a, the animal model appropriately reflects the human situation. However, for MCP-1 the animal model is the exact opposite of the human condition. Human observational studies like this one are paramount in guiding translation from experimental studies to clinical trials.

  1. Characterization of endocannabinoid-mediated induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells involving mast cells and MCP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Austin R; Hegde, Venkatesh L; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2014-04-01

    Endocannabinoids are lipid-signaling molecules found in the nervous system; however, their precise role in the periphery is unclear. In the current study, we observed that a single i.p. administration of AEA caused rapid induction of MDSCs. The MDSCs contained a mixture of granulocytic and monocytic subtypes and expressed Arg-1 and iNOS. The MDSCs suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro and used iNOS to mediate their effect. Moreover, adoptive transfer of MDSCs led to suppression of mBSA-induced DTH. Through the use of pharmacological inhibition, as well as genetic knockout mice, we found that the induction of MDSCs by AEA was CB1-dependent. The induction of MDSCs by AEA was reduced significantly in mast cell-deficient mice, while maintained in LPS-insensitive mice, showing that the induction of MDSCs by AEA was dependent, at least in part, on mast cells and independent of TLR4. Chemokine analysis of AEA- treated WT mice showed an early spike of MCP-1, which was decreased in Kit(W/W-sh) mice, showing a role of mast cells in the secretion of MCP-1 in response to AEA. Also, use of antibodies against MCP-1 or mice deficient in MCP-1 confirmed the role played by MCP-1. Interestingly, MCP-1 played a significant role in the induction of monocytic but not granulocytic MDSCs. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that endocannaboinids activate CB1 on mast cells to induce MCP-1, which facilitates recruitment of monocytic MDSCs.

  2. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in patients with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni: evidences of subclinical renal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia P Hanemann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate renal markers and the biomarker MCP-1 in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni. This is a cross-sectional study with 85 patients aged 5 to 48 years, with a confirmed diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni through the Kato-Katz method. The patients were divided in three groups: control (G-I; infected by S. mansoni before treatment (G-II and infected by S. mansoni after treatment (G-III. Renal function was evaluated by tubular and glomerular biomarkers and through urinary MCP-1. Patients' mean age was 23.2 ± 13 years. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding tubular and glomerular function evaluated through the traditional biomarkers. MCP-1 was higher in G-II and G-III, when compared to G-I; p=0.009 and p=0.007, respectively. There was no difference when comparing groups G-II and G-III (p=0.892. Although it was not different among the groups, there was a significant correlation between albuminuria and MCP-1. There was a significant increase in urinary MCP-1 levels in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni, which was associated with albuminuria. This protein has a role in the recruitment of monocytes to injury and inflammation sites . The increase of MCP-1 in the urine evidences that there is silent renal inflammation in these patients and the inflammatory status is not interrupted by specific treatment of the offending agent. Our findings suggest that urinary MCP-1 can be a sensitive marker of renal injury in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni.

  3. Atraso do amadurecimento de banana 'Maçã' pelo 1-MCP, aplicado previamente à refrigeração Ripening delay of 'Apple' banana submitted to 1-MCP, prevoiously applied to refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Costa Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes períodos de exposição da banana 'Maçã' a 50 ppb de 1-MCP (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 e 24 horas sobre sua vida pós-colheita e qualidade. Após exposição ao 1-MCP, os frutos verde-maturos foram armazenados por 30 dias em câmaras com temperatura de 13ºC ± 0,5 e umidade relativa de 95%. Em seguida, as bananas foram armazenadas à temperatura de 20ºC ± 1, até amarelecimento completo da casca. A exposição de banana 'Maçã' a 50 ppb de 1-MCP, por 9 horas, retardou em 7 dias o seu amadurecimento, em comparação a frutos não expostos ao 1-MCP, após 30 dias de armazenamento refrigerado (13ºC, sem prejuízos à sua aparência e composição química. A exposição de banana 'Maçã' a 50 ppb de 1-MCP, por 3 e 6 horas, não estendeu sua vida pós-colheita, tampouco alterou sua composição química. Embora a exposição de banana 'Maçã' a 50 ppb de 1-MCP, por 12 e 24 horas, tenha retardado o seu amadurecimento, promoveu alterações indesejáveis na casca do fruto. Logo, a aplicação de 50 ppb de 1-MCP, por 9 horas, antes da refrigeração, constitui-se numa alternativa viável para prolongar o período de comercialização da banana.The aim of this work was to evaluate 'Apple' banana different periods exposure effect to 50 ppb of 1-MCP (0, 3, 6, 9 and 24 hours on its postharvest life and quality. Mature-green fruits were stored for 30 days in chambers at 13ºC + 0,5 and relative humidity 95%, after exposure to 1-MCP. Then, the bananas were stored at 20ºC + 1 until peel complete yellowing. 'Apple' banana to 50 ppb of 1-MCP exposure during 9 hours delayed in seven days the fruit ripening, comparing to fruit control, after 30 days of cool storage (13ºC, without changing its appearance and chemical composition. The exposure of 'Apple' banana to 50 ppb of 1-MCP for 3 and 6 hours did not extend its postharvest life; neither changed its chemical composition. Although the exposure of

  4. Calorimeter detectors

    CERN Document Server

    de Barbaro, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Although the instantaneous and integrated luminosity in HL-LHC will be far higher than the LHC detectors were originally designed for, the Barrel calorimeters of the four experiments are expected to continue to perform well  throughout the Phase II program. The conditions for the End-Cap calorimeters are far more challenging and whilst some detectors will require relatively modest changes, others require far more substantial upgrades. We present the results of longevity and performance studies for the calorimeter systems of the four main LHC experiments and outline the upgrade options under consideration. We include a discussion of the R&D required to make the final technology choices for the upgraded detectors.

  5. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  6. Targeting tumor-associated macrophages and inhibition of MCP-1 reduce angiogenesis and tumor growth in a human melanoma xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Silvina; Bravo, Alicia I; Guglielmotti, Angelo; van Rooijen, Nico; Maschi, Fabricio; Vecchi, Annunciata; Mantovani, Alberto; Mordoh, José; Wainstok, Rosa

    2007-08-01

    Chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 are key agonists that attract macrophages to tumors. In melanoma, it has been previously shown that variable levels of MCP-1/CCL2 appear to correlate with infiltrating macrophages and tumor fate, with low to intermediate levels of the chemokine contributing to melanoma development. To work under such conditions, a poorly tumorigenic human melanoma cell line was transfected with an expression vector encoding MCP-1. We found that M2 macrophages are associated to MCP-1+ tumors, triggering a profuse vascular network. To target the protumoral macrophages recruitment and reverting tumor growth promotion, clodronate-laden liposomes (Clod-Lip) or bindarit were administered to melanoma-bearing mice. Macrophage depletion after Clod-Lip treatment induced development of smaller tumors than in untreated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-CD31 antibody revealed scarce vascular structures mainly characterized by narrow vascular lights. Pharmacological inhibition of MCP-1 with bindarit also reduced tumor growth and macrophage recruitment, rendering necrotic tumor masses. We suggest that bindarit or Clod-Lip abrogates protumoral-associated macrophages in human melanoma xenografts and could be considered as complementary approaches to antiangiogenic therapy.

  7. Pós colheita de bananas-maçã submetidas ao 1-MCP e armazenadas á temperatura ambiente Postharvest of 'apple' banana submetted to 1-MCP and storage in room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marque Pinheiro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Bananas da cultivar Maçã foram adquiridas no estádio dois de coloração da casca (verde maturos e submetidas à ação de 1-MCP. O 1-MCP foi aplicado por 12 horas nas seguintes concentrações: 0 (controle, 50, 100, 150, 200 hL.L-1. Após aplicação, os frutos foram armazenados à temperatura ambiente (temperatura média 20ºC ± 1 e umidade relativa 80% ± 5 e avaliados à medida que atingiam os graus 3, 5 e 7 de coloração da casca. O tratamento com 1-MCP atrasou o início do amadurecimento de bananas-maçã armazenadas sob temperatura ambiente, baseado nas primeiras mudanças de coloração da casca. A aplicação de 1-MCP em bananas-maçã, ditou maiores valores de perda de massa e relação polpa/casca (nos graus 5 e 7 de coloração da casca. O 1-MCP, nas doses 100, 150 e 200 hL.L-1 de 1-MCP promoveu desverdecimento desuniforme e tonalidade avermelhada na casca. O tratamento 50 hL.L-1 de 1-MCP é o mais adequado, por promover a extensão da vida pós-colheita de bananas-maçã da cultivar armazenadas sob temperatura ambiente sem afetar a coloração da casca dos frutos, apresentando qualidade, baseando-se na cor da casca, firmeza, acidez titulável, pH e sólidos solúveis, semelhante ao controle.Mature green 'Apple' bananas were submitted to five concentrations of 1-MCP (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 hL.L-1 for 12 hours. After treatment, the fruits were stored at room temperature (20ºC ± 1 and 80% ± 5 RH and analyzed at 3,5 and 7 color degree of peel. The treatment with 1-MCP delayed the start of the ripening based in the first changes of peel color. The treatment of 'Apple' bananas with 1-MCP promoted higher values of mass loss and pulp/peel ratio (5 and 7 degrees of color peel. The fruits treated with 100, 150 and 200 nL.L-1 of 1-MCP showed heterogeneous degreening and development of red color on the peel. 1-MCP at 50 nL.L-1 was the most appropriated treatment for promoting the extension of postharvest life of 'Apple' bananas stored

  8. Aplicação de 1-MCP em caqui 'quioto' armazenado sob refrigeração e atmosfera controlada Effect of 1-MCP applied at different times during cold and Ca storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o efeito do 1-MCP aplicado em diferentes épocas durante o armazenamento refrigerado (AR e em atmosfera controlada (AC sobre a qualidade do caqui cv. Quioto. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 30 frutos, e os tratamentos foram os seguintes: armazenamento refrigerado (AR; armazenamento refrigerado(AR + 1-MCP (1000ppb no início do armazenamento; armazenamento refrigerado(AR +1-MCP (1000ppb no final do armazenamento; armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC com 1kPa de O2 e AC 5kPa de CO2 e AC com 1kPa de O2 e 5kPa de CO2 + 1-MCP no fim do armazenamento, após 2 meses de armazenamento a -0,5ºC mais 5 dias de exposição dos frutos a 10ºC e 3 dias a 20ºC. No armazenamento refrigerado, o 1-MCP, aplicado tanto no início do armazenamento como no final, proporcionou maior firmeza de polpa. Para os parâmetros: sólidos solúveis totais, podridão e escurecimento da película, não houve diferença estatística entre os tratamentos. Conclui-se que a aplicação de 1-MCP, tanto no início como no final do armazenamento mantém elevada a firmeza de polpa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1-MCP applied at different period during the cold storage (CS and in controlled atmosphere (CA on the quality of 'Quioto'. Persimmon. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 30 fruits and the tested treatments were: cold storage (CS, cold storage + 1-MCP (1000ppb in the beginning of the storage, cold storage + 1-MCP (1000ppb in the end of the storage period; storage in controlled atmosphere (CA with 1kPa of O2 and 5kPa of CO2 and 1kPa of O2 and 5kPa of CO2 + 1-MCP in the end of the storage, after 2 months of storage at -0.5ºC, plus 5 days at 10ºC and 3 days at 20ºC. In the cooled storage, the 1-MCP, applied as in the beginning of the storage as in the end of the storage, provided greater pulp firmness

  9. Nano-oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition on microchannel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun

    2015-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) as a key part is a kind of electron multiplied device applied in many scientific fields. Oxide thin films such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (ZnO:Al2O3) as conductive layer and pure aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as secondary electron emission (SEE) layer were prepared in the pores of MCP via atomic layer deposition (ALD) which is a method that can precisely control thin film thickness on a substrate with a high aspect ratio structure. In this paper, nano-oxide thin films ZnO:Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared onto varied kinds of substrates by ALD technique, and the morphology, element distribution, structure, and surface chemical states of samples were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Finally, electrical properties of an MCP device as a function of nano-oxide thin film thickness were firstly studied, and the electrical measurement results showed that the average gain of MCP was greater than 2,000 at DC 800 V with nano-oxide thin film thickness approximately 122 nm. During electrical measurement, current jitter was observed, and possible reasons were preliminarily proposed to explain the observed experimental phenomenon.

  10. XMASS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Nishiie, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Ueshima, K; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Nishitani, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Motoki, D; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

    2013-01-01

    The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and $^{7}$Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

  11. XMASS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hieda, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Hiraide, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hirano, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Ogawa, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); and others

    2013-07-11

    The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

  12. Armazenamento refrigerado de ameixas 'Laetitia' com uso de 1-MCP e indução de perda de massa fresca Cold storage of 'Laetitia' plums treated with 1-MCP and induced to loss of fresh mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlani de Oliveira Alves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da temperatura de armazenamento, do uso de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP e da indução de perda de massa fresca (IPMF na qualidade de ameixas 'Laetitia'. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: -0,5°C; 0,5°C; 0,5°C em combinação com a indução de perda de massa fresca (IPMF; e 0,5°C após tratamento com aplicação de 1-MCP (1,0µL L-1. Frutos armazenados a 0,5°C e tratados com 1-MCP apresentaram os menores valores da taxa respiratória e da taxa de produção de etileno após quatro dias de exposição em condição ambiente (23°C / 60% de UR. Na saída da câmara fria não houve diferença entre tratamentos. Os frutos armazenados por 30 dias a 0,5°C, em combinação com a IPMF ou 1-MCP, apresentaram na saída da câmara maior firmeza de polpa. Porém, após quatro dias, apenas os frutos armazenados a 0,5°C e tratados com 1-MCP apresentaram maior firmeza de polpa. O índice de cor vermelha, na saída da câmara, foi menor nos frutos armazenados a -0,5°C e a 0,5°C após tratamento com 1-MCP, não sendo observada diferença entre os tratamentos após quatro dias de exposição dos frutos em temperatura ambiente. O armazenamento a -0,5°C proporcionou melhor preservação dos atributos de textura dos frutos do que a 0,5°C, e nesta temperatura o tratamento com 1-MCP proporcionou os melhores resultados. O armazenamento a 0,5°C em relação a -0,5°C causou incremento na incidência de degenerescência da polpa após quatro dias de exposição dos frutos em condição ambiente. A melhor temperatura para o armazenamento refrigerado de ameixas 'Laetitia' é de -0,5°C. O uso do 1-MCP e a IPMF contribuem para a manutenção da qualidade dos frutos durante o armazenamento, e o efeito do 1-MCP persiste após o armazenamento.This research was carried out to study the effects of storage temperature, treatment with 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP, and induction of fresh mass loss (IFML on quality of 'Laetitia

  13. Peritonitis, peritoneal inflammation and membrane permeability: a longitudinal study of dialysate and serum MCP-1 in stable patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amir R; Little, Mark A; Henriksson, Marie; Tam, Frederick W K; Brown, Edwina A

    2007-01-01

    Increase in peritoneal membrane permeability (D/P) correlates with systemic and peritoneal markers of inflammation and neoangiogenesis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) is a potent chemoattractant and activator of monocytes/macrophages. We measured the serum (sMCP-1) and dialysate MCP-1 (dMCP-1) concentrations of stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and studied various factors affecting MCP-1 production. We also looked at the correlation of dMCP-1 concentrations with change in D/P over 12 months. Forty-five stable prevalent and 6 new PD patients (22 CAPD, 29 APD) were studied. Median PD duration was 21 months (range 1-114). D/P was measured by standardized peritoneal equilibration test (PET). Patients with recent peritonitis within 3 months of the start of study were excluded. MCP-1 concentrations were measured in serum, overnight dialysate and post-PET dialysate, both at baseline and at 12 months by ELISA. On univariate analysis, post-PET dMCP-1 concentrations positively correlated with sMCP-1 (p=0.0002), duration of PD (p=0.02), dialysate volume (p=0.001), peritoneal creatinine clearance (p=0.0002) and D/P (p=0.001). There was a negative correlation with residual renal function (p=0.001). dMCP-1 concentrations were higher in patients with past peritonitis (p=0.001). On multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with dMCP-1 were sMCP-1 (p=0.003) and past peritonitis (p=0.001). Thirty patients completed this study, and D/P rose by > 0.1 in 20% patients. dMCP-1 concentrations were higher in baseline and 12-month samples in patients with change in D/P >0.1. We conclude that dMCP-1 concentrations are related to past peritonitis and serum MCP-1. It is difficult to interpret the relationship of dMCP-1 with change in D/P over time due to the small number of patients.

  14. Resistive Plate Chamber Efficiency & Rate Capability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candocia, Max

    2012-10-01

    Bakelite-based resistive plate chambers (RPCs) are particle detectors commonly used in muon trigger systems for high-energy physics experiments. Bakelite RPCs combine fast response, sufficient position resolution and low cost, and they can be operated at instantaneous background rates up to approximately 1.5 kHz/cm^2. Current and future collider experiments will demand operation of trigger RPCs under background rates higher than what is currently achieved. The rate capability is related to the bulk and surface conductivities of the Bakelite material used for the plates bordering the active gas volume in the RPCs. At the LHC and RHIC, these surfaces are coated with linseed oil, which lowers the surface resistivity of the Bakelite, which, to a point, improves the rate capability of the detectors. We have doped our own plates with various concentrations of carbon black. Over the past year we have tested RPCs with Bakelite plates of different resistivity using cosmic ray muons and radioactive Fe55 sources to emulate different levels of background in the detector. Results on the RPC efficiencies at different background rates and for different Bakelite coatings will be presented.

  15. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  16. Advanced Photon Counting Imaging Detectors with 100ps Timing for Astronomical and Space Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O.; Vallerga, J.; Welsh, B.; Rabin, M.; Bloch, J.

    In recent years EAG has implemented a variety of high-resolution, large format, photon-counting MCP detectors in space instrumentation for satellite FUSE, GALEX, IMAGE, SOHO, HST-COS, rocket, and shuttle payloads. Our scheme of choice has been delay line readouts encoding photon event position centroids, by determination of the difference in arrival time of the event charge at the two ends of a distributed resistive-capacitive (RC) delay line. Our most commonly used delay line configuration is the cross delay line (XDL). In its simplest form the delay-line encoding electronics consists of a fast amplifier for each end of the delay line, followed by time-to-digital converters (TDC's). We have achieved resolutions of advantages over "frame driven" recording devices for some important applications. For example we have built open face and sealed tube cross delay line detectors used for biological fluorescence lifetime imaging, observation of flare stars, orbital satellites and space debris with the GALEX satellite, and time resolved imaging of the Crab Pulsar with a telescope as small as 1m. Although microchannel plate delay line detectors meet many of the imaging and timing demands of various applications, they have limitations. The relatively high gain (107) reduces lifetime and local counting rate, and the fixed delay (10's of ns) makes multiple simultaneous event recording problematic. To overcome these limitations we have begun development of cross strip readout anodes for microchannel plate detectors. The cross strip (XS) anode is a coarse (~0.5 mm) multi-layer metal and ceramic pattern of crossed fingers on an alumina substrate. The charge cloud is matched to the anode period so that it is collected on several neighboring fingers to ensure an accurate event charge centroid can be determined. Each finger of the anode is connected to a low noise charge sensitive amplifier and followed by subsequent A/D conversion of individual strip charge values and a hardware

  17. Vps13-Mcp1 interact at vacuole-mitochondria interfaces and bypass ER-mitochondria contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Peter, Arun T; Herrmann, Beatrice; Antunes, Diana; Rapaport, Doron; Dimmer, Kai Stefan; Kornmann, Benoît

    2017-10-02

    Membrane contact sites between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, mediated by the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex, are critical for mitochondrial homeostasis and cell growth. Defects in ERMES can, however, be bypassed by point mutations in the endosomal protein Vps13 or by overexpression of the mitochondrial protein Mcp1. How this bypass operates remains unclear. Here we show that the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mcp1 functions in the same pathway as Vps13 by recruiting it to mitochondria and promoting its association to vacuole-mitochondria contacts. Our findings support a model in which Mcp1 and Vps13 work as functional effectors of vacuole-mitochondria contact sites, while tethering is mediated by other factors, including Vps39. Tethered and functionally active vacuole-mitochondria interfaces then compensate for the loss of ERMES-mediated ER-mitochondria contact sites. © 2017 John Peter et al.

  18. Radio-photoluminescence of highly irradiated LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, Barbara; Obryk, Barbara; Hodyr, Krzysztof; Gieszczyk, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The radio-photoluminescent (RPL) characteristics of LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP) thermoluminescent detectors, routinely used in radiation protection dosimetry, were investigated after irradiation with ultra-high electron doses ranging up to 1 MGy. The photoluminescence of both types of LiF detectors was stimulated by a blue light (460 nm) and measured within a spectral window around 530 nm. The RPL dose response was found to be linear up to 50 kGy and sublinear in the range of 50 kGy to 1 MGy for MCP detectors and linear up to 3 kGy and next sublinear in the range from 5 kGy to 1 MGy for MTS detectors. For both type of LiF detectors RPL signal is saturated for doses higher than 100 kGy. The observed differences between MCP and MTS may suggest, that the RPL effect in LiF is not entirely governed by intrinsic defects (F2 and F3+ centers), but impurities may also have a significant influence. Due to the non-destructive character of the RPL measurement, it is suggested to apply combined RPL/TL readouts, ...

  19. Insulin resistance is associated with MCP1-mediated macrophage accumulation in skeletal muscle in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patsouris

    Full Text Available Inflammation is now recognized as a major factor contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, while the mechanisms and consequences associated with white adipose tissue inflammation are well described, very little is known concerning the situation in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro and in vivo, how skeletal muscle inflammation develops and how in turn it modulates local and systemic insulin sensitivity in different mice models of T2D and in humans, focusing on the role of the chemokine MCP1. Here, we found that skeletal muscle inflammation and macrophage markers are increased and associated with insulin resistance in mice models and humans. In addition, we demonstrated that intra-muscular TNFα expression is exclusively restricted to the population of intramuscular leukocytes and that the chemokine MCP1 was associated with skeletal muscle inflammatory markers in these models. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exposure of C2C12 myotubes to palmitate elevated the production of the chemokine MCP1 and that the muscle-specific overexpression of MCP1 in transgenic mice induced the local recruitment of macrophages and altered local insulin sensitivity. Overall our study demonstrates that skeletal muscle inflammation is clearly increased in the context of T2D in each one of the models we investigated, which is likely consecutive to the lipotoxic environment generated by peripheral insulin resistance, further increasing MCP1 expression in muscle. Consequently, our results suggest that MCP1-mediated skeletal muscle macrophages recruitment plays a role in the etiology of T2D.

  20. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  1. Monocytes infiltrate the pancreas via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway and differentiate into stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Ino

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that monocytes possess pluripotent plasticity. We previously reported that monocytes could differentiate into hepatic stellate cells. Although stellate cells are also present in the pancreas, their origin remains unclear. An accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+CD45(- cells was observed in the pancreases and livers of chimeric mice, which were transplanted with a single hematopoietic stem cell isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice and treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Because the vast majority of EGFP(+CD45(- cells in the pancreas expressed stellate cell-associated antigens such as vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, procollagen-I, and α-smooth muscle actin, they were characterized as pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs. EGFP(+ PaSCs were also observed in CCl4-treated mice adoptively transferred with monocytes but not with other cell lineages isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and angiotensin II (Ang II increased in the pancreas of CCl4-treated mice and their respective receptors, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, were expressed on Ly6C(high monocytes isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. We examined the effect of an AT1R antagonist, irbesartan, which is also a CCR2 antagonist, on the migration of monocytes into the pancreas. Monocytes migrated toward MCP-1 but not Ang II in vitro. Irbesartan inhibited not only their in vitro chemotaxis but also in vivo migration of adoptively transferred monocytes from peripheral blood into the pancreas. Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the numbers of EGFP(+F4/80(+CCR2(+ monocytic cells and EGFP(+ PaSCs in the pancreas of CCl4-treated chimeric mice receiving EGFP(+ bone marrow cells. A specific CCR2 antagonist RS504393 inhibited the occurrence of EGFP(+ PaSCs in injured mice. We propose that CCR2(+ monocytes migrate into the pancreas possibly via the

  2. Semiconductor Detectors; Detectores de Semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-07-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  3. High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Abiad, R.; Hull, J.

    2003-05-01

    A new photon counting, imaging readout for microchannel plate sensors, the cross strip (XS) anode, has been investigated. Charge centroiding of signals detected on two orthogonal layers of sense strip sets are used to derive photon locations. The XS anode spatial resolution (<3 μm FWHM) exceeds the spatial resolution of most direct charge sensing anodes, and does so at low gain (<2×10 6). The image linearity and fidelity are high enough to resolve and map 7 μm MCP pores, offering new possibilities for astronomical and other applications.

  4. High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes in photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, D. A.; DeFazio, J.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Glazenborg, R.; Kernen, E.

    2016-04-01

    Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors, which is demonstrated with an MCP photomultiplier tube for single and multi-photoelectron detection.

  5. An integrated single photon detector array using porous anodic alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melai, J.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M.; Visschers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work is fabrication of a photon detector array made using IC compatible wafer-scale post-processing stepts. Plans will be presented to outline these fabrication steps. The detector comprises an integrated Micro-Channel-Plate and an imaging chip like Medipix2. The aim of the work is fa

  6. Analysis of Stability of a gaseous Muon Detector in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Maheshwari, Bhagesh

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to analyze the stability of the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPCs) gaseous muon detectors based on the current drawn by the detector and eventually spots aging effects after 10 years from the construction of the chambers.

  7. Comparative study of ionization chamber detectors vis-a-vis a CCD detector for dispersive XAS measurement in transmission geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poswal, A. K.; Agrawal, A.; Bhattachryya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Sahoo, N. K. [Applied Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai -400 085 (India)

    2013-02-05

    We have designed and fabricated parallel plate ionization chamber detectors and voltage vs. current characteristics (V-I curve) of the detectors were recorded with synchrotron radiation to qualify for use in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. After qualifying the ionization chambers, the detectors were used in the dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-08) at INDUS-2 SRS in Turbo-XAS geometry. Using the same setup and under the same setting, XAS spectra were also recorded with a CCD detector and the observation on relative performance of the ionization chamber vis-a-vis the CCD detector is presented in this paper.

  8. The Successful Operation of Hole-type Gaseous Detectors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Pereiale, L; Iacobaeus, C; Francke, T; Lund-Jensen, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Tokanai, F

    2004-01-01

    We have demonstrated that hole-type gaseous detectors, GEMs and capillary plates, can operate up to 77 K. For example, a single capillary plate can operate at gains of above 10E3 in the entire temperature interval between 300 until 77 K. The same capillary plate combined with CsI photocathodes could operate perfectly well at gains (depending on gas mixtures) of 100-1000. Obtained results may open new fields of applications for capillary plates as detectors of UV light and charge particles at cryogenic temperatures: noble liquid TPCs, WIMP detectors or LXe scintillating calorimeters and cryogenic PETs.

  9. A novel ZVS high voltage power supply for micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Qin, Hong; Wu, Shengli

    2017-04-01

    A novel resonant high voltage power supply (HVPS) with zero voltage switching (ZVS), to reduce the voltage stress on switching devices and improve conversion efficiency, is proposed. The proposed HVPS includes a drive circuit, a transformer, several voltage multiplying circuits, and a regulator circuit. The HVPS contains several secondary windings that can be precisely regulated. The proposed HVPS performed better than the traditional resistor voltage divider, which requires replacing matching resistors resulting in resistor dispersibility in the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). The equivalent circuit of the proposed HVPS was established and the operational principle analyzed. The entire switching element can achieve ZVS, which was validated by a simulation and experiments. The properties of this HVPS were tested including minimum power loss (240 mW), maximum power loss (1 W) and conversion efficiency (85%). The results of this research are that the proposed HVPS was suitable for driving the micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). It was therefore adopted to test the MCP-PMT, which will be used in Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment II in China.

  10. MCP-1 Stimulates MMP-9 Expression via ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathways in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ci-Qiu Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in the formation and development of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Methods: We examined protein expression profiles using a protein array and found that MCP-1 was the most highly expressed protein in AAA tissues compared with normal aortas. To investigate the potential mechanism of MCP-1 involvement in the pathogenesis of AAA, we treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs with human recombinant MCP-1. Results: MCP-1 was the most highly expressed protein in AAA tissues compared with normal aorta; matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression was also significantly increased. Treatment with MCP-1 significantly increased the expression and activation of MMP-9 and activated the three major mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, MCP-1-induced secretion of MMP-9 was inhibited by U0126 (inhibitor of the ERK 1/2 pathway and SB203580 (inhibitor of the p38 MAPK pathway, but not SP600125 (inhibitor of the JNK1/2 pathway. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that MCP-1 stimulates secretion of MMP-9 directly through the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK mediated pathways in HASMCs. Thus, inhibition of this molecular mechanism might be a potential therapeutic target in the non-surgical treatment of AAA.

  11. 1.5-NM PROJECTION STRUCTURE OF HELA-CELL PROSOME-MCP (PROTEASOME) PROVIDED BY 2-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERKINS, GA; BERGSMASCHUTTER, W; KEEGSTRA, W; ARNBERG, AC; COUX, O; SCHERRER, K

    1994-01-01

    We grew two-dimensional crystals of HeLa cell prosomes, also called multicatalytic proteinases (MCP) and proteasomes, for a structure determination by electron microscopy. The molecules were arranged in side views in these crystals. The crystals have p21 plane group symmetry with one particle per

  12. Effects of 1-MCP onthe post-harvest quality of the orange cv. Pera stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to analyse the effects of 1-MCP upon the post-harvest quality of the orange cv. Pera stored for 45 days at a temperature of 7 ºC. The fruit was divided into four treatments, and then submitted to the application of three concentrations of 1-methylciclopropene (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0µL.L-1 for a period of 12 hours.The fruitwas again then stored at a temperature of 7 ºC. The rate of respiration was determined, together withcoloration of the epidermis, SS, TA, ratio, vitamin C, total carotenoids, phenolic compounds, total and reducing sugars, weight loss and juice yield. The data were submitted to analysis of variance (F-Test, and the averages were analysed by regression (P≤0.05. According to the results, it could be seen that higher doses of 1-MCP may have caused chemical stress to the orangesunder evaluation, being responsible for the increasein the rate of respiration.Achange in coloration of the epidermis from green to yellow/orange was delayed by the application of 1-MCP; the application of 1-MCP did not cause any alteration to such chemical characteristics as SS, TA, ratio, carotenoids, phenolic compounds or sugars.

  13. Association between new onset diabetic retinopathy and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) polymorphism in Japanese type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyo; Katakami, Naoto; Osonoi, Takeshi; Saitou, Miyoko; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Kawamori, Dan; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-06-01

    We longitudinally evaluated the association between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) A-2518G polymorphism and new onset of diabetic retinopathy in 758 type 2 diabetic patients. The new onset of retinopathy increased with the increase of the number of G alleles, even after adjustment for age, HbA1c levels, and duration of diabetes.

  14. 1.5-NM PROJECTION STRUCTURE OF HELA-CELL PROSOME-MCP (PROTEASOME) PROVIDED BY 2-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERKINS, GA; BERGSMASCHUTTER, W; KEEGSTRA, W; ARNBERG, AC; COUX, O; SCHERRER, K

    1994-01-01

    We grew two-dimensional crystals of HeLa cell prosomes, also called multicatalytic proteinases (MCP) and proteasomes, for a structure determination by electron microscopy. The molecules were arranged in side views in these crystals. The crystals have p21 plane group symmetry with one particle per un

  15. Effectiveness of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP Combination with Nisin-EDTA Treatment of Fresh-cut Kiwifruit for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was made to determine the effects of 1-MCP (1 &muL L-1 pretreated combined with Nisin-EDTA (0.02 M on fresh-cut kiwifruit slices. Physico-chemical attributes of kiwifruit slices were evaluated every 3 days during storage. The fresh-cut kiwifruits pre-treated with 1-MCP, Nisin-EDTA coating and their combination showed better preservation quality and compared with the control slices during the entire storage period. 1-MCP showed an ability to relieve the pulp softening extent and inhibit total chlorophyll content decrease. Lower Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO and higher ascorbic acid were observed in Nisin-EDTA treated samples which also showed a less total bacteria count compared with the control in the end storage. Moreover, the combination of 1-MCP and Nisin-EDTA was more effective than individual treatment on maintaining the quality of fresh-cut kiwifruit, which suggested that this may be a healthy alternative method for fresh-cut kiwifruit.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS resistive plate chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattani, Giordano, E-mail: giordano.cattani@cern.ch [INFN and University of Rome & #x27; Tor Vergata& #x27; , via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    An overview and results of the effort to monitor and measure the relevant quantities of the Resistive Plate Chamber detectors are presented, addressing in particular three aspects. First, the full exploitation of the high-precision tracking provided by ATLAS Monitored Drift Tubes when measuring the performance of the RPCs. Second, the use of a dedicated data stream to achieve the required statistics. Last, the central role of GRID facilities in providing the necessary computing resources.

  17. An adventitial IL-6/MCP1 amplification loop accelerates macrophage-mediated vascular inflammation leading to aortic dissection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Brian C.; Lee, Chang; Sun, Hong; LeJeune, Wanda; Recinos, Adrian; Ju, Xiaoxi; Spratt, Heidi; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Milewicz, Dianna; Tilton, Ronald G.; Brasier, Allan R.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular inflammation contributes to cardiovascular diseases such as aortic aneurysm and dissection. However, the precise inflammatory pathways involved have not been clearly defined. We have shown here that subcutaneous infusion of Ang II, a vasopressor known to promote vascular inflammation, into older C57BL/6J mice induced aortic production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1. Production of these factors occurred predominantly in the tunica adventitia, along with macrophage recruitment, adventitial expansion, and development of thoracic and suprarenal aortic dissections. In contrast, a reduced incidence of dissections was observed after Ang II infusion into mice lacking either IL-6 or the MCP-1 receptor CCR2. Further analysis revealed that Ang II induced CCR2+CD14hiCD11bhiF4/80– macrophage accumulation selectively in aortic dissections and not in aortas from Il6–/– mice. Adoptive transfer of Ccr2+/+ monocytes into Ccr2–/– mice resulted in selective monocyte uptake into the ascending and suprarenal aorta in regions of enhanced ROS stress, with restoration of IL-6 secretion and increased incidence of dissection. In vitro, coculture of monocytes and aortic adventitial fibroblasts produced MCP-1– and IL-6–enriched conditioned medium that promoted differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, induced CD14 and CD11b upregulation, and induced MCP-1 and MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that leukocyte-fibroblast interactions in the aortic adventitia potentiate IL-6 production, inducing local monocyte recruitment and activation, thereby promoting MCP-1 secretion, vascular inflammation, ECM remodeling, and aortic destabilization. PMID:19920349

  18. Effect of DPA and 1-MCP on chemical compounds related to superficial scald of Granny Smith apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moggia, C.; Moya-Leon, M. A.; Pereira, M.; Yuri, J. A.; Lobos, G. A.

    2010-07-01

    Research was carried out to study the mode of action of diphenylamine (DPA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), on control of superficial scald of Granny Smith apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), and its relation with chemical compounds. Fruit was harvested from a commercial orchard in Chile, 182 and 189 days after full bloom and received the following treatments: DPA (2,000 ppm); 1-MCP (1.2 ppm) and control (no treatment). All fruit was stored for 4 or 6 months at 0 degree centigrade. A completely randomized factorial design was used (2 harvest dates by 3 post harvest treatments). Monthly measurements were made on maturity indices, ethylene production rate (EPR), scald related compounds [a-farnesene (AF), conjugated trienes (CT), total anti-oxidants (AO)], and cell membrane stability. Following 4 and 6 months of storage, plus 7 days at 20 degree centigrade, scald was evaluated. After 6 months, DPA-treated fruit, from both harvests, showed similar firmness, EPR and AO, compared to the control. However, AF and CT were lower, and cell membrane stability higher. Conversely, 1-MCP-treated fruit showed a noticeable EPR suppression and AF inhibition, along with higher firmness, lower CT and AO, compared to the control and DPA. Furthermore, cell membrane stability was superior to that of the control and similar to that of the DPA. Treated fruit (DPA and 1-MCP) showed an important reduction in scald compared to the control. The effect of 1-MCP on the investigated compounds and the reduction in scald, confirms that ethylene plays a major role on its development. (Author) 50 refs.

  19. Signal pathways underlying homocysteine-induced production of MCP-1 and IL-8 in cultured human whole blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-kun ZENG; You-fei GUAN; Daniel G REMICK; Xian WANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To elucidate the mechanisms underlying homocysteine (Hcy)-induced chemokine production. Methods: Human whole blood was pretreated with inhibitors of calmodulin (CaM), protein kinase C (PKC), protein tyrosine kinase(PTK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-κB and activators of PPARγ for 60 min followed by incubation with Hcy 100 μmol/L for 32 h. The levels of mitogen chemokine protein (MCP)-1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results: Inhibitors of PKC (calphostin C, 50-500 nmol/L and RO-31-8220, 10-100 nmol/L), CaM(W7, 28-280 μmol/L), ERK1/2 MAPK (PD 98059, 2-20 μmol/L), p38 MAPK(SB 203580, 0.6-6 μmol/L), JNK MAPK (curcumin, 2-10 μmol/L), and NF-κB(PDTC, 10-100 nmol/L) markedly reduced Hcy 100 μmol/L-induced production of MCP-1 and IL-8 in human cultured whole blood, but the inhibitors of PTK(genistein, 2.6-26 μmol/L and tyrphostin, 0.5-5 μmol/L) had no obvious effect on MCP-1 and IL-8 production. PPARγ activators (ciglitazone 30 μmol/L and troglitazone 10 μmol/L) depressed the Hcy-induced MCP-1 production but not IL-8 production in the cultured whole blood. Conclusion: Hcy-induced MCP-1 and IL-8 production is mediated by activated signaling pathways such as PKC,CaM, MAPK, and NF-κB. Our results not only provide clues for the signal transduction pathways mediating Hcy-induced chemokine production, but also offer a plausible explanation for a pathogenic role of hyperhomocysteinemia in these diseases.

  20. MCP-1 -2518 A/G functional polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to active pulmonary tuberculosis in Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Selma, Walid; Harizi, Hedi; Boukadida, Jalel

    2011-11-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays crucial role in protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT). In this study, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -2518 A/G (rs 1024611) of MCP-1 affect the susceptibility to active tuberculosis (TB) in Tunisian populations. Genomic DNA from patients with active TB (168 cases of pulmonary TB and 55 cases of extrapulmonary TB) and ethnically controls (150 cases) was genotyped for the MCP-1 -2518 A/G SNP by polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). We observed that -2518 G allele and GG genotype (high MCP-1 producer) frequencies were significantly more elevated in active pulmonary TB group in comparison to control group [34 vs. 22%; P = 0.0007; 15 vs. 5%, P corrected for the number of genotypes (Pc) = 0.015; respectively]. Additionally, they were associated with increased risk development of this clinical form of TB [odds ratio (OR) = 1.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.26-2.66; OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.28-7.76; respectively]. However, wild type allele -2518 A and AA genotype were over-represented in control group (78 and 62%) and seem to be protective factors against TB. Moreover, -2518 AA genotype was more frequent in control group and was associated with resistance against development of active pulmonary TB (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.89, Pc = 0.03). Our findings confirm the key role of -2518 A/G SNP of MCP-1 and support its association with resistance/susceptibility to the development of active pulmonary TB in the Tunisian population.

  1. Secreted Ectodomain of SIGLEC-9 and MCP-1 Synergistically Improve Acute Liver Failure in Rats by Altering Macrophage Polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takanori; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Matsushita, Yoshihiro; Hirata, Marina; Matsubara, Kohki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Effective treatments for acute liver failure (ALF) are still lacking. We recently reported that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) into the D-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced rat ALF model improves the liver injury. However, the specific factors in SHED-CM that are responsible for resolving ALF remain unclear. Here we found that depleting SHED-CM of two anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage inducers—monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (sSiglec-9)—abolished its ability to resolve rat ALF. Furthermore, treatment with MCP-1/sSiglec-9 alone dramatically improved the survival of ALF rats. This treatment induced anti-inflammatory M2, suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis, and promoted hepatocyte proliferation. Treatment with an M2-depletion reagent (mannosylated clodronate liposomes) suppressed the recovery. In addition, MCP-1 and sSiglec-9 synergistically promoted the M2 differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages via CCR2, accompanied by the production of multiple liver-regenerating factors. The conditioned medium from MCP-1/sSiglec-9-activated M2 macrophages, but not from interleukin-4-induced ones, suppressed the D-Gal- and LPS-induced apoptosis of primary hepatocytes and promoted their proliferation in vitro. The unique combination of MCP-1/sSiglec-9 ameliorates rat ALF by inhibiting hepatocellular apoptosis and promoting liver regeneration through the induction of anti-inflammatory/tissue-repairing M2 macrophages. PMID:28272428

  2. Systemic increase in human maternal circulating CD14+CD16- MCP-1+ monocytes as a marker of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardou, Marc; Hadi, Tarik; Mace, Guillaume; Pesant, Matthieu; Debermont, Julie; Barrichon, Marina; Wendremaire, Maeva; Laurent, Nicole; Sagot, Paul; Lirussi, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of pregnancy and labor on the proportion and level of activation of monocyte subpopulations in human pregnancy. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from healthy nonpregnant women (n = 6); women in the third-trimester of healthy pregnancies (n = 18) and women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (n = 46), just before delivery for the last 2 groups. Monocyte subpopulations were characterized by flow cytometry using CD14, CD16, and activation level using macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and CCR2 antibodies. The relative proportion of each monocyte subset in nonpregnant women was similar to that in women with healthy or complicated pregnancies. However, pregnancy was associated with a significant decrease in MCP-1 expressing monocytes (79.5% ± 19.8% vs 9.3% ± 6.8% and 11.9% ± 8.3% for nonpregnant, healthy pregnancy, and preterm premature rupture of membranes (respectively, P labor was associated with a return to nonpregnant values for the proportion of MCP-1 expressing monocytes in both normal (74.4% ± 16.9) and preterm premature rupture of membranes pregnancy (68.4% ± 35.6), irrespective of the mode of delivery (vaginal or cesarean section). This was not observed in women who delivered without spontaneous labor onset. CCR-2 (MCP-1 receptor) expression was not modified in monocytes at the time of labor, but was significantly increased in granulocytes (3646 ± 1080 vs 7338 ± 2718 for nonlaboring and laboring preterm premature rupture of membranes, respectively, P labor, our results suggest the downregulation of activation levels of monocytes, via MCP-1 expression might be involved in maternofetal immune tolerance. Monocyte reactivation might be associated with labor. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FGFR3 promotes angiogenesis-dependent metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via facilitating MCP-1-mediated vascular formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Jing, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Xi; Ma, Ding; Jin, Zhijian; Yang, Weiping; Qiu, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    The biological role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) in tumor angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been discussed before. Our previous work had indicated FGFR3 was overexpressed in HCC, and silencing FGFR3 in Hu7 cells could regulate tumorigenesis via down-regulating the phosphorylation level of key members of classic signaling pathways including ERK and AKT. In the present work, we explored the role of FGFR3 in angiogenesis-dependent metastasis by using SMMC-7721 and QGY-7703 stable cell lines. Our results indicated FGFR3 could regulate in vitro cell migration ability and in vivo lung metastasis ability of HCC, which was in accordance with increased angiogenesis ability in vitro and in vivo. Using the supernatant from SMMC-7721/FGFR3 cells, we conducted a human angiogenesis protein microarray including 43 angiogenesis factors and found that FGFR3 modulated angiogenesis and metastasis of HCC mainly by promoting the protein level of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Silencing FGFR3 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) could reduce MCP-1 level in lysates and supernatant of QGY-7703 cells and SMMC-7721 cells. Silencing MCP-1 in QGY-7703 or SMMC-7721 cells could induce similar phenotypes compared with silencing FGFR3. Our results suggested FGFR3 promoted metastasis potential of HCC, at least partially if not all, via facilitating MCP-1-mediated angiogenesis, in addition to previously found cell growth and metastasis. MCP-1, a key medium between HCC cells and HUVECs, might be a novel anti-vascular target in HCC.

  4. Microchannel plate fabrication using glass capillary arrays with Atomic Layer Deposition films for resistance and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popecki, M. A.; Adams, B.; Craven, C. A.; Cremer, T.; Foley, M. R.; Lyashenko, A.; O'Mahony, A.; Minot, M. J.; Aviles, M.; Bond, J. L.; Stochaj, M. E.; Worstell, W.; Elam, J. W.; Mane, A. U.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Ertley, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Granoff, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) have been used for many years in space flight instrumentation as fast, lightweight electron multipliers. A new MCP fabrication method combines a glass substrate composed of hollow glass capillary arrays with thin film coatings to provide the resistive and secondary electron emissive properties. Using this technique, the gain, resistance, and glass properties may be chosen independently. Large-area MCPs are available at moderate cost. Secondary emission films of Al2O3 and MgO provide sustained high gain as charge is extracted from the MCP. Long lifetimes are possible, and a total extracted charge of 7 C/cm2 has been demonstrated. Background rates are low because the glass substrate has little radioactive potassium 40. Curved MCPs are easily fabricated with this technique to suit instrument symmetries, simplifying secondary electron steering and smoothing azimuthal efficiency.

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  8. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  9. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  14. Multi-anode microchannel arrays - New detectors for imaging and spectroscopy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, J. G.; Bybee, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Consideration is given to the construction and operation of multi-anode microchannel array detector systems having formats as large as 256 x 1024 pixels. Such arrays are being developed for imaging and spectroscopy at soft X-ray, ultraviolet and visible wavelengths from balloons, sounding rockets and space probes. Both discrete-anode and coincidence-anode arrays are described. Two types of photocathode structures are evaluated: an opaque photocathode deposited directly on the curved-channel MCP and an activated cathode deposited on a proximity-focused mesh. Future work will include sensitivity optimization in the different wavelength regions and the development of detector tubes with semitransparent proximity-focused photocathodes.

  15. Research on metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes and their infrared / millimeter wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shu-qin; Zhu, Chen-guang; Wang, Li-hong; Ou'yang, De-hua; Pan, Gong-pei

    2016-10-01

    Copper-plated and silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes, which were prepared by using chemical plating technology, were used to jam infrared detector and millimeter-wave radar. It was tested for the conductivity and infrared jamming performance of plating and also the RCS (Radar Cross Section) performance of millimeter-wave radar. Test results showed that the prepared metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes have obvious conductivity, and infrared total radiation energy of silver plating and copper plating had approximately increased 32% and 21% respectively. Through determination, the millimeter-wave reflecting property and RCS of silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes were higher than that of copper-plated cellulose nitrate flakes. Therefore, silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes can be used as an effective infrared / millimeter wave composite jamming material.

  16. Mechanical design and development of TES bolometer detector arrays for the Advanced ACTPol experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan T; Beall, James A; Choi, Steve K; Crowley, Kevin T; Devlin, Mark J; Duff, Shannon M; Gallardo, Patricio M; Henderson, Shawn W; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Simon, Sara M; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Ullom, Joel N; Vavagiakis, Eve M; Wollack, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling ~5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline profile leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at t...

  17. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  18. Express of NF-kB65 and MCP-1 in intermittent hypoxia rats%间歇缺氧大鼠 NF-kBp65以及MCP-1的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓梅; 樊荣; 黄晓颖; 林乾顶; 王良兴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of NF-kBp65 and MCP-1 in serum and heart muscle in intermittent hypoxia rats. Methods There are thirty SD rats were randomly assigned into three groups: control group, intermittent hypoxia group and continuing hypoxia group, which were exposed to air, intermittent hypoxia and continuing hypoxia respectively 8h/d for 35d.Then the blood and heart samples were collected, and the NF-kBp65 and MCP-1 levels in serum and in heart tissue were measured with ELISA and Western blot respectively. Results Compared to the control group the contents of NF-kBp65 and MCP-1 in serum and heart were increased both in intermittent hypoxia group and continuing hypoxia group. Conclusion NF-kBp65 and MCP-1 in heart and blood of intermittent hypoxia rats, which may be associated with the activation of NF-kB by hypoxia.%  目的探讨间歇缺氧对大鼠血清以及心肌中 NF-kBp65以及 MCP-1含量的影响.方法清洁 SD 大鼠30只,随机分成3组(每组10只):正常对照组、间歇缺氧组、持续缺氧组,普通饲料饲养.正常对照组:常压、常氧下饲养;间歇低氧组:每90s一循环,氧舱内低氧浓度维持在6%~8%,持续10s 以上;持续低氧组:氧舱内氧浓度维持在8%~11%.每天早上9:00动物入舱,至下午5:00试验结束,每天持续8h,连续35d.然后经右颈动脉抽血,处死大鼠分离其心脏,采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA 法)测定血清中 NF-kBp65以及 MCP-1含量,采用免疫印迹法测定大鼠心肌中 NF-kBp65以及 MCP-1的含量.结果与正常对照组相比,在间歇缺氧组以及持续缺氧组中大鼠血清以及心肌中 NF-kBp65以及 MCP-1的含量明显增加.结论间歇缺氧可导致 NF-kB 的激活,从而导致大鼠血清以及心肌中 NF-kBp65以及 MCP-1的表达增加.

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  20. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  1. Focal plane detector for QDD spectrography in Institute of Nuclear Study and detector for SMART 2nd focal plane in RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchi, Yoshihide [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study

    1996-09-01

    The focal plane detector for QDD spectrography in Institute of Nuclear Study was composed of drift space and a proportional counter tube, and the latter is composed of position detector and two delta E detector for recognizing the particles. In this detector, a uniform parallel electric field can be obtained by placing a guard plate at the same height as that of a drift plate outer place of the detector. On the other hand, the detector for SMART 2nd focal plate in RIKEN is composed of drift space and a single wire proportional counter, and has two cathode read out single wire drift counters set so as to hold the focal plane. (G.K.)

  2. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jash, Abhik; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with three kind of features grossly. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  3. Recent advances with THGEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressler, S; Moleri, L; Pitt, M; Rubin, A; Breskin, A

    2013-01-01

    The Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) is a simple and robust electrode suitable for large area detectors. In this work the results of extensive comparative studies of the physical properties of different THGEM-based structures are reviewed. The focus is on newly suggested THGEM-like WELL configurations as well as on recently developed characterization methods. The WELL structures are single-sided THGEM electrodes directly coupled to different anode readout electrodes. The structures differ by the coupling concept of the bottom THGEM electrode to the metallic readout pads: a Thick WELL (THWELL) with direct coupling; the Resistive WELL (RWELL) and the Segmented Resistive WELL (SRWELL) coupled through thin resistive films deposited on insulating sheets and a Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL) coupled through a plate of high bulk resistivity. The results are compared to that of traditional double-sided THGEM electrodes followed by induction gaps - in some cases with moderate additional multiplication within th...

  4. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  5. Improvements in Boron Plate Coating Technology for Higher Efficiency Neutron Detection and Coincidence Counting Error Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    This informal report presents the measurement data and information to document the performance of the advanced Precision Data Technology, Inc. (PDT) sealed cell boron-10 plate neutron detector that makes use of the advanced coating materials and procedures. In 2015, PDT changed the boron coating materials and application procedures to significantly increase the efficiency of their basic corrugated plate detector performance. A prototype sealed cell unit was supplied to LANL for testing and comparison with prior detector cells. Also, LANL had reference detector slabs from the original neutron collar (UNCL) and the new Antech UNCL with the removable 3He tubes. The comparison data is presented in this report.

  6. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2017-06-27

    Alpha particle detecting devices are disclosed that have a chamber that can hold a fluid in a tensioned metastable state. The chamber is tuned with a suitable fluid and tension such that alpha emitting materials such as radon and one or more of its decay products can be detected. The devices can be portable and can be placed in areas, such as rooms in dwellings or laboratories and used to measure radon in these areas, in situ and in real time. The disclosed detectors can detect radon at and below 4 pCi/L in air; also, at and below 4,000 pCi/L or 300 pCi/L in water.

  7. Ação do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP na vida de prateleira da banana 'maçã' Action of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on shelf life of 'apple' banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, em diferentes concentrações, sobre a vida pós-colheita e sob as variáveis associadas aos atributos de qualidade de banana 'Maçã'. Frutos verde-maturos foram submetidos a cinco concentrações de 1-MCP (0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 etaL.L-1, por 12 horas, e foram analisados durante o amadurecimento sob condição ambiente (20±1ºC e 80±5% UR. O tratamento com 50 etaL.L-1 de 1-MCP atrasou o início do amadurecimento das bananas em aproximadamente 8 dias, baseando-se nas primeiras mudanças de coloração da casca, enquanto os tratamentos 100; 150 e 200 etaL.L-1 atrasaram-no em aproximadamente 10 dias. Observou-se, durante o amadurecimento, o amaciamento dos frutos, associado à conversão de amido em açúcares e ao aumento na solubilização péctica e na atividade da pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG. A aplicação de 50 etaL.L-1de 1-MCP é a mais adequada por promover a extensão da vida de prateleira de bananas 'Maçã', preservando sua qualidade com base nas análises de açúcares solúveis totais, pectinas total e solúvel, firmeza e aparência externa ao final do armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the 1-MCP, at different concentrations, on quality and shelf life of 'Apple' banana. Green mature fruits were submitted to five concentrations of 1-MCP (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 etaL.L-1, for 12 hours and analyzed during the ripening at room temperature (20ºC ± 1 and 80% ± 5 RH . The 1-MCP at 50 etaL.L-1 delayed, in 8 days, the begining of the ripening, based in the first changes of peel color, whereas 100, 150 and 200 etaL.L-1 treatments delayed the begining of the ripening in 10 days, in comparison to the control. The softening of the fruits, associated to the conversion of starch in sugar and the increasing in the pectic solubilization and activity of pectinmethylsterase and polygalacturonase, was observed during the ripening

  8. Effect of 1-MCP-β-CD on Vase Quality of Cut Carnation Flowers%1-MCP-β-环糊精对香石竹切花保鲜作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈均志; 王瑾; 邵超群

    2009-01-01

    对香石竹切花(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)用不同体积浓度的1-MCP-β-环糊精溶液处理不同的时间,观察其外观形态品质和生理生化指标,得知以50 mg/L的1-MCP-β-环糊精溶液在7 m3的密闭体系中处理8 h效果最佳.能极大提高香石竹切花的观赏价值,减少萎蔫程度,延缓开放,延迟香石竹切花叶片质膜相对透性下降,并对叶片叶绿素含量变化有一定的影响.

  9. A Fault-Tolerant Filtering Algorithm for SINS/DVL/MCP Integrated Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalman filter (KF, which recursively generates a relatively optimal estimate of underlying system state based upon a series of observed measurements, has been widely used in integrated navigation system. Due to its dependence on the accuracy of system model and reliability of observation data, the precision of KF will degrade or even diverge, when using inaccurate model or trustless data set. In this paper, a fault-tolerant adaptive Kalman filter (FTAKF algorithm for the integrated navigation system composed of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, a Doppler velocity log (DVL, and a magnetic compass (MCP is proposed. The evolutionary artificial neural networks (EANN are used in self-learning and training of the intelligent data fusion algorithm. The proposed algorithm can significantly outperform the traditional KF in providing estimation continuously with higher accuracy and smoothing the KF outputs when observation data are inaccurate or unavailable for a short period. The experiments of the prototype verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus induces MCP-1 secretion by human monocytes via TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Eric; Fiola, Stéphanie; Olivier, Martin; Gosselin, Jean

    2007-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus infecting the majority of the human adult population in the world. TLR2, a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, has been implicated in the immune responses to different viruses including members of the herpesvirus family, such as human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and varicella-zoster virus. In this report, we demonstrate that infectious and UV-inactivated EBV virions lead to the activation of NF-kappaB through TLR2 using HEK293 cells cotransfected with TLR2-expressing vector along with NF-kappaB-Luc reporter plasmid. NF-kappaB activation in HEK293-TLR2 cells (HEK293 cells transfected with TLR2) by EBV was not enhanced by the presence of CD14. The effect of EBV was abrogated by pretreating HEK293-TLR2 cells with blocking anti-TLR2 antibodies or by preincubating viral particles with neutralizing anti-EBV antibodies 72A1. In addition, EBV infection of primary human monocytes induced the release of MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1), and the use of small interfering RNA targeting TLR2 significantly reduced such a chemokine response to EBV. Taken together, these results indicate that TLR2 may be an important pattern recognition receptor in the immune response directed against EBV infection.

  11. Activated V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells trigger granulocyte functions via MCP-2 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrati, Chiara; Cimini, Eleonora; Sacchi, Alessandra; Bordoni, Veronica; Gioia, Cristiana; Casetti, Rita; Turchi, Federica; Tripodi, Marco; Martini, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells display a broad antimicrobial activity by directly killing infected cells and by inducing an effective adaptive immune response. The activation of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells by aminobisphosphonate drugs such as zoledronic acid (ZOL) results in a massive release of cytokines and chemokines that may induce a bystander activation of other immune cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of soluble factors released by ZOL-activated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells to induce granulocyte activation. We showed that soluble factors released by ZOL-stimulated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells activate granulocytes by inducing their chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and alpha-defensins release. Proteomic analysis allowed us to identify a number of cytokines and chemokines specifically released by activated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. Moreover, MCP-2 depletion by neutralizing Ab revealed a critical role of this chemokine in induction of granulocyte alpha-defensins release. Altogether, these data show a Vgamma9Vdelta2-mediated activation of granulocytes through a bystander mechanism, and confirm the wide ability of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-lymphocytes in orchestrating the immune response. In conclusion, an immune modulating strategy targeting Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells may represent a key switch to induce an effective and well-coordinated immune response, and can be proposed as a way to strengthen the immune competence during infectious diseases.

  12. Ultraviolet imaging detectors for the GOLD mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J.; Curtis, T.; Jelinsky, S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Hull, J.; Tedesco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The GOLD mission is a NASA Explorer class ultraviolet Earth observing spectroscopy instrument that will be flown on a telecommunications satellite in geostationary orbit in 2018. Microchannel plate detectors operating in the 132 nm to 162 nm FUV bandpass with 2D imaging cross delay line readouts and electronics have been built for each of the two spectrometer channels for GOLD. The detectors are "open face" with CsI photocathodes, providing 30% efficiency at 130.4 nm and 15% efficiency at 160.8 nm. These detectors with their position encoding electronics provide 600 x 500 FWHM resolution elements and are photon counting, with event handling rates of > 200 KHz. The operational details of the detectors and their performance are discussed.

  13. Simulation of the effects of coated material SEY property on output electron energy distribution and gain of microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Wang, Xingchao; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Chunliang; Liu, Hulin; Chen, Ping; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang; Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu; Tian, Liping; Hui, Dandan; Guo, Lehui

    2016-12-01

    To obtain a high spatial resolution of a image intensifier based on microchannel plate (MCP), the long tail in the exit energy distribution of the output electrons (EDOE) is undesirable. The existing solution is increasing the penetration depth of the MCP output electrode, which will result in a serious gain reduction. Coating the MCP output electrode with efficient secondary electron yield (SEY) materials is supposed to be an effective approach to suppress the unfavorable tail component in the EDOE without negative effects on the gain. In our work, a three-dimensional MCP single channel model is developed in CST STUDIO SUITE to systematically investigate the dependences of the EDOE and the gain on the SEY property of the coated material, based on the Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method. The results show that besides the high SEY of the coated material, the low incident energy corresponding to the peak SEY is another essential element affecting the electron yield in the final stage of multiplication and suppressing the output energy spread.

  14. High Frequency Design Considerations for the Large Detector Number and Small Form Factor Dual Electron Spectrometer of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Joseph T.; Gliese, Ulrik B.; Cao, N. T.; Zeuch, M. A.; White, D.; Chornay, D. J; Lobell, J. V.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Mariano, A. J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Each half of the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) of the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission utilizes a microchannel plate Chevron stack feeding 16 separate detection channels each with a dedicated anode and amplifier/discriminator chip. The desire to detect events on a single channel with a temporal spacing of 100 ns and a fixed dead-time drove our decision to use an amplifier/discriminator with a very fast (GHz class) front end. Since the inherent frequency response of each pulse in the output of the DES microchannel plate system also has frequency components above a GHz, this produced a number of design constraints not normally expected in electronic systems operating at peak speeds of 10 MHz. Additional constraints are imposed by the geometry of the instrument requiring all 16 channels along with each anode and amplifier/discriminator to be packaged in a relatively small space. We developed an electrical model for board level interactions between the detector channels to allow us to design a board topology which gave us the best detection sensitivity and lowest channel to channel crosstalk. The amplifier/discriminator output was designed to prevent the outputs from one channel from producing triggers on the inputs of other channels. A number of Radio Frequency design techniques were then applied to prevent signals from other subsystems (e.g. the high voltage power supply, command and data handling board, and Ultraviolet stimulation for the MCP) from generating false events. These techniques enabled us to operate the board at its highest sensitivity when operated in isolation and at very high sensitivity when placed into the overall system.

  15. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  16. Pixel Vertex Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel vertex detectors are THE instrument of choice for the tracking of charged particles close to the interaction point at the LHC. Hybrid pixel detectors, in which sensor and read-out IC are separate entities, constitute the present state of the art in detector technology. Three of the LHC detectors use vertex detectors based on this technology. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as ...

  17. A wide-field TCSPC FLIM system based on an MCP PMT with a delay-line anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Netz, Holger; Smietana, Stefan; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    We report on the implementation of a wide-field time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) method for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). It is based on a 40 mm diameter crossed delay line anode detector, where the readout is performed by three standard TCSPC boards. Excitation is performed by a picosecond diode laser with 50 MHz repetition rate. The photon arrival timing is obtained directly from the microchannel plates, with an instrumental response of ˜190 to 230 ps full width at half maximum depending on the position on the photocathode. The position of the photon event is obtained from the pulse propagation time along the two delay lines, one in x and one in y. One end of a delay line is fed into the "start" input of the corresponding TCSPC board, and the other end is delayed by 40 ns and fed into the "stop" input. The time between start and stop is directly converted into position, with a resolution of 200-250 μm. The data acquisition software builds up the distribution of the photons over their spatial coordinates, x and y, and their times after the excitation pulses, typically into 512 × 512 pixels and 1024 time channels per pixel. We apply the system to fluorescence lifetime imaging of cells labelled with Alexa 488 phalloidin in an epi-fluorescence microscope and discuss the application of our approach to other fluorescence microscopy methods.

  18. Effect of One-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on preservation of green walnut fruit and kernel traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liuqing; Feng, Wenyu; Li, Fang; Xu, Jingying; Ma, Yanping; Ma, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the ethylene receptor competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and the legally approved disinfectant chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on preservation of the green walnut fruit during storage was investigated. Green Chinese walnut fruit cv. Xilin No.2 was harvested on commercial maturity and stored at 0-1 °C after the fruit was treated by water (control), 80 mg L(-1)ClO2 (ClO2), 0.5 μL L(-1)1-MCP (1-MCP), or combination treatment of 80 mg L(-1) ClO2 with either 0.1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2) or 0.5 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.5 1-MCP+ ClO2). During storage, respiration, ethylene production, phenolics content, antioxidative activity, weight changes, decay of the fruit and kernel traits of acid value, peroxide value,free fatty were measured. All treatments decreased postharvest respiration intensity in different degrees and inhibited ethylene production peak. ClO2 increased the total phenol and flavonoid content of the green fruit compared with other treatments and the control (P < 0.05), but not did the total antioxidant activity for this treatment. After 42-day storage, ClO2 remained higher fresh weight and lower decay index than control, while 1-MCP increased the fruit decay index. Final acid values of kernel from ClO2, control and 0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2 were not different from their initial values, which from 0.5 1-MCP increased. Final peroxide value for kernel from ClO2 showed no change during storage but increased at least 1.0-fold for other treatments. ClO2 preserved 99.9 % of initial free fatty acid, similar to that for the control (99.8 %), whereas 0.5 1-MCP preserved only 95.7 %. ClO2 is of potential in decay retardation and kernel traits maintenance of green walnut fruit, whereas the 1-MCP has a negative effect for decay control on walnut.

  19. Plasma cytokines eotaxin, MIP-1α, MCP-4, and vascular endothelial growth factor in acute lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relster, Mette Marie; Holm, Anette; Pedersen, Court

    2017-01-01

    Major overlaps of clinical characteristics and the limitations of conventional diagnostic tests render the initial diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary disorders difficult. In this pilot study, we analyzed the predictive value of eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α...... to predict the etiology and severity. Eotaxin and MCP-4 were significantly lower in patients with C-reactive protein ≥100, and MIP-1α was significantly higher in the patients with CURB-65 > 3, but the predictive power was low. In conclusion, further evaluation, including more patients, is required to assess...... the full potential of eotaxin, MCP-4, MIP-1α, and VEGF as biomarkers for LRTI because of their low predictive power and a high interindividual variation of cytokine levels....

  20. Aumento da expressão do MCP-1 coroidal e escleral em modelo experimental de hipercolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogil José de Almeida Torres

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar experimentalmente que a dieta rica em colesterol provoca aumento da expressão da MCP-1 na coroide e esclera. MÉTODO: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: GN (grupo dieta normal, composto por 8 coelhos (8 olhos, recebeu ração padrão para coelhos, durante 4 semanas; GH (grupo hipercolesterolêmico, composto por 13 coelhos (13 olhos, recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1% por 8 semanas. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 8ª semana para o GH e 4ª semana para o GN foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais e os olhos foram submetidos à análise imuno-histoquímica com o anticorpo anti-MCP-1. RESULTADOS: A dieta provocou significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001. Houve significativo aumento da expressão da MCP-1 na coroide e esclera dos animais do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica em coelhos induz ao aumento da expressão do MCP-1 na coroide e esclera.

  1. Association of MCP-1-2518A/G polymorphism with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Deng, Chuiwen; Hu, Chaojun; Li, Jing; Wen, Xiaoting; Wu, Ziyan; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Fengchun; Li, Yongzhe

    2016-05-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to estimate whether combined evidence shows the association between the MCP-1-2518A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Relevant articles dated to July 2014 were acquired from the PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and CNKI databases. The number of the genotypes and/or alleles for the MCP-1-2518A/G in cases and control subjects was extracted, and statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 11.2 software. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were used to calculate the risk of autoimmune diseases with the MCP-1-2518A/G. Significant increased risk of autoimmune diseases could be found for A allele vs. G allele (OR = 1.616, 95 % CI 1.027-2.542, P = 0.038) and AA + AG vs. GG (OR = 1.616, 95 % CI 1.027-2.542, P = 0.038) in Asian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and for A allele vs. G allele (OR = 1.383, 95 % CI 1.142-1.676, P = 0.022) and AA vs. AG + GG (OR = 1.575, 95 % CI 1.361-1.823, P < 0.001) in European patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In addition, when comparison of European patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and without LN, significant association between patients with LN and without LN also could be found for AA vs. AG + GG (OR = 0.713, 95 % CI 0.545-0.933, P = 0.014). This meta-analysis showed that the MCP-1-2518-A allele confers susceptibility to Asian patients with RA and European patients with CD.

  2. Alteration of Endothelin 1, MCP-1 and Chromogranin A in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing pulmonary vein isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackermair, K; Clauss, S; Voigt, T; Klier, I; Summo, C; Hildebrand, B; Nickel, T; Estner, H L; Kääb, S; Wakili, R; Wilbert-Lampen, U

    2017-01-01

    The relation between arrhythmias and stress is known. The aim of our current study was to elucidate whether plasma levels of previously described stress parameters are altered in highly symptomatic patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) per se and in patients undergoing ablation therapy by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). 96 patients with AF undergoing PVI were recruited. Plasma levels of Endothelin-1 (ET-1), MCP-1 and Chromogranin-A (CGA) were measured before and three months after ablation completed with clinical follow-up with respect to AF recurrence. Additionally, we examined 40 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers as a reference. Symptomatic AF patients showed increased levels of ET-1 compared to healthy controls (2.62pg/ml vs. 1.57pg/ml; pPVI (2.96pg/ml vs. 2.57pg/ml;p = 0.02). The temporal comparison revealed decreased ET-1 levels in patients without (2.57pg/ml vs. 2.33pg/ml; pPVI. Baseline MCP-1 was increased in AF patients vs. controls (268pg/ml vs. 227 pg/ml; p = 0.03). Both groups, with and without AF after PVI, showed an increase of MCP-1 compared to baseline (268pg/ml vs. 349pg/ml;pPVI showed an increase of CGA (14.2ng/ml vs. 20.7ng/ml;pPVI. Our study demonstrated dysregulated levels of ET-1, MCP-1 and CGA in symptomatic AF patients. We could demonstrate an association between ET-1 to presence or absence of AF. Furthermore, we could show that a decrease of ET-1 as well as an increase of CGA after PVI, representing a trend towards control cohort levels, were both associated with restoration of sinus rhythm. These results provide new insights into the role of stress-related biomarkers in AF and AF treatment by ablation therapy.

  3. Interaction of vascular smooth muscle cells and monocytes by soluble factors synergistically enhances IL-6 and MCP-1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Frister, Adrian; Wang, Song; Ludwig, Andreas; Behr, Hagen; Pippig, Susanna; Li, Beibei; Simm, Andreas; Hofmann, Britt; Pilowski, Claudia; Koch, Susanne; Buerke, Michael; Rose-John, Stefan; Werdan, Karl; Loppnow, Harald

    2009-04-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms contribute to atherogenesis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and IL-6 are potent mediators of inflammation. Both contribute to early atherogenesis by luring monocytes and regulating cell functions in the vessel wall. MCP-1 and IL-6 production resulting from the interaction of invading monocytes with local vessel wall cells may accelerate atherosclerosis. We investigated the influence of the interaction of human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with human mononuclear cells (MNCs) or monocytes on IL-6 and MCP-1 production in a coculture model. Interaction synergistically enhanced IL-6 and MCP-1 production (up to 30- and 10-fold, respectively) compared with separately cultured cells. This enhancement was mediated by CD14-positive monocytes. It was dependent on the SMC-to-MNC/monocyte ratio, and as few as 0.2 monocytes/SMC induced the synergism. Synergistic IL-6 production was observed at the protein, mRNA, and functional level. It was mediated by soluble factors, and simultaneous inhibition of IL-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 completely blocked the synergism. IL-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were present in the cultures. Blockade of the synergism by soluble glycoprotein 130Fc/soluble IL-6 receptor, as well as the induction of synergistic IL-6 production by costimulation of SMCs with IL-1, TNF-alpha, and hyper-IL-6, suggested the involvement of IL-6 trans-signaling. The contribution of IL-6 was consistent with enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation. The present data suggest that SMC/monocyte interactions may augment the proinflammatory status in the tissue, contributing to the acceleration of early atherogenesis.

  4. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  5. Resposta da aplicação do 1-MCP em frutos de mamoeiro 'Golden' em diferentes estádios de maturação Responses of 1-MCP applications in 'Golden' papaya fruits on differents maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Silva de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de fatores que influenciam no processo de amadurecimento é fundamental para o planejamento do processo de comercialização, principalmente em frutos com padrão de respiração climatérico e perecível, como é o caso do mamão. Nesse trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação do 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre o amadurecimento de frutos de mamoeiro nos estádios 0; 1 e 2 de maturação. O 1-MCP diminui a produção de etileno (≈79% e a taxa respiratória (≈45%, principalmente em frutos no estádio 0 de maturação. O uso deste inibidor da ação do etileno retardou a perda de coloração verde da casca dos frutos, principalmente em frutos nos estádios 0 e 1 de maturação. Houve redução na perda de firmeza do fruto e do mesocarpo nos estádios 1 e 2. Entretanto, em frutos no estádio 0 de maturação, a firmeza do mesocarpo manteve-se alta, o que pode comprometer a aceitação destes frutos pelo consumidor. O teor de sólidos solúveis não foi influenciado pela aplicação do 1-MCP. O efeito do 1-MCP na redução da atividade das enzimas PME e PG foi maior em frutos nos estádios 0 e 1 de maturação em comparação a frutos no estádio 2 de maturação. A atividade da PME demonstrou crescente aumento ao longo do período de armazenamento, porém a atividade da PG permaneceu baixa ao longo dos cinco primeiros dias, com aumento posterior. Os resultados mostraram que a PME exerce influência significativa na perda de firmeza da polpa nos primeiros dias, com atuação posterior da PG. O 1-MCP mostrou-se eficiente em retardar o processo de amadurecimento de frutos de mamoeiro, tornando-se mais eficiente quando associado a estádios de maturação iniciais.The study of factors that influence the process of ripening is critical for planning the marketing process, mainly in standard breathing climacteric and perishing fruits, as it is the case of papaya. In this work it was evaluated the effect of the application of 1-MCP (1

  6. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  7. The impacting filter bank design for MCP-EBPSK multicarrier demodulation%用于多路MCP-EBPSK信号解调的冲击滤波器组设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志敏; 吴乐南; 陈贤卿

    2012-01-01

    修正的随机极性连续相位扩展的二元相移键控调制(MCP-EBPSK)通过随机化调制指数的符号,并加入功率谱调节系数,进一步降低了连续相位扩展的二元相移键控(CP-EBPSK)调制信号功率谱中的线谱分量,使得功率谱占用带宽更窄,信息传输更加的高效高速.多载波作为高频谱利用率的复用调制方式,与MCP-EBPSK结合势必会带来更高的系统性能,因此本文对用于解调单路MCP-EBPSK信号的冲击滤波器进行初步改进,通过添加陷波零点来抑制旁路干扰,设计出带陷波的冲击滤波器组.引入量子粒子群优化算法对加入陷波的冲击滤波器组进行优化得到滤波器组系数,仿真显示即使时频混叠的子载波间不满足正交关系,利用各冲击滤波器中心频率处极陡峭的陷波选频特性依然可以实现各子载波的正确解调.因此,设计的冲击滤波器组可以用于子载波无保护间隔的多路MCP-EBPSK信号解调.%The modified pseudo-random extended binary phase shift keying with continous phase ( MCP-EBPSK) could effectively reduce the spectral line compared with the continuous phase extended BPSK( CP-EBPSK) , which could narrow the power spectrum by adding the modified coefficients and randomizing the sign of the modulation index of CP-EBPSK, finally realized the efficient and high data rate transmission. Multiplexing as a high spectral efficiency technique, combined with the MCP-EBPSK would certainly bring better performance. In this paper we improved the impacting filter and designed the filter bank by adding zeros to the impacting filters at the notch frequencies to depress the inter-channel interference (ICI). Use the QPSO (Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm to obtain the filter bank's parameters, the simulation shown that though the subcarriers were time-frequency aliasing and nonorthogonal, the impacting filter bank could separate the composite signal and demodulated properly

  8. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1992-01-01

    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  9. Pile-up detector for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Baskov, V A; Kim, V; Polyansky, V V; Verdi, A; Verdi, A.

    1999-01-01

    99-014 In this article we propose to use a dedicated pile-up detector --- 180 degree Cherenkov calorimeter which measures energies of gamma-quanta being produced in ppinteractions by the Cherenkov radiation intensity --- to ensure the conditions which will allow LHCb to work with luminosity 4--5 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . The calorimeter consists of a multiplicator with the width corresponding to the maximum of particles in an electromagnetic shower, behind which a quartz plate is situated where shower particles produce Cherenkov radiation. The pile-up detector is situated at the 180 degree angle relative to the LHCb spectrometer.

  10. CCL2/MCP-I genotype-phenotype relationship in latent tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Hussain

    Full Text Available Among the known biomarkers, chemokines, secreted by activated macrophages and T cells, attract groups of immune cells to the site of infection and may determine the clinical outcome. Association studies of CCL-2/MCP-1 -2518 A/G functional SNP linked to high and low phenotypes with tuberculosis disease susceptibility have shown conflicting results in tuberculosis. Some of these differences could be due the variability of latent infection and recent exposure in the control groups. We have therefore carried out a detailed analysis of CCL-2 genotype SNP -2518 (A/G transition with plasma CCL-2 levels and related these levels to tuberculin skin test positivity in asymptomatic community controls with no known exposure to tuberculosis and in recently exposed household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. TST positivity was linked to higher concentrations of plasma CCL2 (Mann Whitney U test; p = 0.004 and was more marked when the G allele was present in TST+ asymptomatic controls (A/G; p = 0.01. Recent exposure also had a significant effect on CCL-2 levels and was linked to the G allele (p = 0.007. Therefore association studies for susceptibility or protection from disease should take into consideration the PPD status as well as recent exposure of the controls group used for comparison. Our results also suggest a role for CCL-2 in maintaining the integrity of granuloma in asymptomatic individuals with latent infection in high TB burden settings. Therefore additional studies into the role of CCL-2 in disease reactivation and progression are warranted.

  11. Semiconductor Yield Analysis and Multi-Chip Package (MCP) Die Pairing Optimization using Machine Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall Goodwin; Russell Miller; Eugene Tuv; Alexander Borisov

    2006-01-01

    Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Statistical Learning are related mathematical fields which utilize computer algorithms to create models for the purposes of data description and/or prediction. Some well known examples include biometric identification and authorization systems, speech recognition and user targeted internet advertising. Statistical Learning, which we will use in this paper, also has many applications in semiconductor manufacturing.Some of the challenging characteristics of semiconductor data include high dimensionality, mixtures of categorical and numeric data, non-randomly missing data, non-Gaussian and multimodal distributions, nonlinear complex relationships, noise, outliers and temporal dependencies. These challenges are becoming particularly acute as the quantity of available data increases and the ability to trace lots, wafers, die, and packages throughout the full fab, wafer test, assembly and final test manufacturing flow improves. Statistical-learning techniques are applied to address these challenges. In this paper we discuss the advancement and applications of Tree based classification and regression methods to semiconductor data. We begin the paper with a description of the problem, followed by and overview of the statistical-learning techniques we use in our case studies. We then describe how the challenges presented by semiconductor data were addressed with original extensions to tree-based and kernel-based methods. Next, we review four case studies: home sales price prediction, signal identification/separation, final speed bin classification and die pairing optimization for Multi-Chip Packages (MCP). Results from the case studies demonstrate how statistical-learning addresses the challenges presented by semiconductor manufacturing data and enables improved data discovery and prediction when compared to traditional statistical approaches.

  12. Antifungal activity of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in postharvest mango fruit and its possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangbin; Lei, Huanhuan; Ma, Xiuyan; Lai, Tongfei; Song, Hongmiao; Shi, Xuequn; Li, Jiangkuo

    2017-01-16

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important postharvest diseases in mango fruit, often causing huge economic losses. In this study, the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose in postharvest mango fruit and the mechanisms involved were investigated. 1-MCP induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, damaged the mitochondria and destroyed the integrity of plasma membrane of spores of C. gloeosporioides, significantly suppressing spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. 1-MCP also decreased the decay incidence and lesion expansion of mango fruit caused by C. gloeosporioides. For the first time this study demonstrated that 1-MCP suppressed anthracnose of postharvest mango fruit by directly inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides, thus providing a promising strategy for disease control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A fast, low power and low noise charge sensitive amplifier ASIC for a UV imaging single photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, A.; Cumming, H. S.; Varner, G.; Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Virta, V.

    2017-04-01

    NASA has funded, through their Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, the development of a cross strip (XS) microchannel plate (MCP) detector with the intention to increase its technology readiness level (TRL), enabling prototyping for future NASA missions. One aspect of the development is to convert the large and high powered laboratory Parallel Cross Strip (PXS) readout electronics into application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to decrease their mass, volume, and power consumption (all limited resources in space) and to make them more robust to the environments of rocket launch and space. The redesign also foresees to increase the overall readout event rate, and decrease the noise contribution of the readout system. This work presents the design and verification of the first stage for the new readout system, the 16 channel charge sensitive amplifier ASIC, called the CSAv3. The single channel amplifier is composed of a charge sensitive amplifier (pre-amplifier), a pole zero cancellation circuit and a shaping amplifier. An additional output stage buffer allows polarity selection of the output analog signal. The operation of the amplifier is programmable via serial bus. It provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of around 600 e^- and a baseline gain of 10 mV/fC. The full scale pulse shaped output signal is confined within 100 ns, without long recovery tails, enabling up to 10 MHz periodic event rates without signal pile up. This ASIC was designed and fabricated in 130 nm, TSMC CMOS 1.2 V technology. In addition, we briefly discuss the construction of the readout system and plans for the future work.

  14. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2013-01-01

    During LS1, the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) collaboration is focusing its efforts on installation and commissioning of the fourth endcap station (RE4) and on the reparation and maintenance of the present system (1100 detectors). The 600 bakelite gaps, needed to build 200 double-gap RE4 chambers are being produced in Korea. Chamber construction and testing sites are located at CERN, in Ghent University, and at BARC (India). At present, 42 chambers have been assembled, 32 chambers have been successfully tested with cosmic rays runs and 7 Super Modules, made by two chambers, have been built at CERN by a Bulgarian/Georgian/Italian team and are now ready to be installed in the positive endcap. The 36 Super Modules needed to complete the positive endcap will be ready in September and installation is scheduled for October 2013. The Link-Board system for RE4 is under construction in Naples. Half of the system has been delivered at CERN in June. Six crates (Link-Board Boxes) and 75 boards, needed to instrument t...

  15. Spiral ligament fibrocyte-derived MCP-1/CCL2 contributes to inner ear inflammation secondary to nontypeable H. influenzae-induced otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim David J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM, one of the most common pediatric infectious diseases, causes inner ear inflammation resulting in vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss. Previously, we showed that spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs recognize OM pathogens and up-regulate chemokines. Here, we aim to determine a key molecule derived from SLFs, contributing to OM-induced inner ear inflammation. Methods Live NTHI was injected into the murine middle ear through the tympanic membrane, and histological analysis was performed after harvesting the temporal bones. Migration assays were conducted using the conditioned medium of NTHI-exposed SLFs with and without inhibition of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2. qRT-PCR analysis was performed to demonstrate a compensatory up-regulation of alternative genes induced by the targeting of MCP-1/CCL2 or CCR2. Results Transtympanic inoculation of live NTHI developed serous and purulent labyrinthitis after clearance of OM. THP-1 cells actively migrated and invaded the extracellular matrix in response to the conditioned medium of NTHI-exposed SLFs. This migratory activity was markedly inhibited by the viral CC chemokine inhibitor and the deficiency of MCP-1/CCL2, indicating that MCP-1/CCL2 is a main attractant of THP-1 cells among the SLF-derived molecules. We further demonstrated that CCR2 deficiency inhibits migration of monocyte-like cells in response to NTHI-induced SLF-derived molecules. Immunolabeling showed an increase in MCP-1/CCL2 expression in the cochlear lateral wall of the NTHI-inoculated group. Contrary to the in vitro data, deficiency of MCP-1/CCL2 or CCR2 did not inhibit OM-induced inner ear inflammation in vivo. We demonstrated that targeting MCP-1/CCL2 enhances NTHI-induced up-regulation of MCP-2/CCL8 in SLFs and up-regulates the basal expression of CCR2 in the splenocytes. We also found that targeting CCR2 enhances NTHI-induced up-regulation of MCP-1/CCL2 in SLFs. Conclusions Taken together, we suggest that

  16. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus), but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) and Hare (Lepus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus) or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus). Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often revealed in situations of

  17. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus and Hare (Lepus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loo Wessel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus. Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often

  18. Analogue saturation limit of single and double 10 mm microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnes, J. S.; Conneely, T. M.; Horsfield, C. J.

    2016-11-01

    Photek are a well-established supplier of microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to the inertial confinement fusion community. The analogue signals produced at the major inertial confinement fusion facilities cover many orders of magnitude, therefore understanding the upper saturation limit of MCP-PMTs to large low rate signals takes on a high importance. Here we present a study of a single and a double MCP-PMT with 10 mm diameter active area. The saturation was studied for a range of optical pulse widths from 4 ns to 100 ns and at a range of electron gain values: 103 to 104 for the single and 104 to 106 for the double. We have shown that the saturation level of ˜1.2 nC depends only on the integrated charge of the pulse and is independent of pulse width and gain over this range, but that the level of charge available in deep saturation is proportional to the operating gain.

  19. Reduced expression of collagen VI alpha 3 (COL6A3) confers resistance to inflammation-induced MCP1 expression in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesta, Stephane; Guntur, Kalyani; Majumdar, Ishita Deb; Akella, Syamala; Vishnudas, Vivek K; Sarangarajan, Rangaprasad; Narain, Niven R

    2016-08-01

    Collagen VI alpha 3 (COL6A3) is associated with insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. In this study, the role of COL6A3 in human adipocyte function was characterized. Immortalized human preadipocyte cell lines stably expressing control or COL6A3 shRNA were used to study adipocyte function and inflammation. COL6A3 knockdown increased triglyceride content, lipolysis, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, and mRNA expression of key adipogenic genes (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, glucose transporter, adiponectin, and fatty acid binding protein), indicating increased adipocyte function and insulin sensitivity. However, COL6A3 knockdown decreased basal adipocyte chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 [CCL2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1)] mRNA expression, reduced secreted protein levels, and abrogated tumor necrosis factor-α- and lipopolysaccharide-induced MCP1 mRNA expression. In addition, while control adipocytes co-cultured with THP1 macrophages showed a threefold increase in adipocyte MCP1 mRNA expression, in COL6A3 knockdown adipocytes MCP1 mRNA expression was unaltered by co-culturing. Lastly, in normal differentiated adipocytes, matrix metalloproteinase-11 treatment reduced expression of COL6A3 protein, MCP1 mRNA, MCP1 secretion, and abrogated tumor necrosis factor-α- and lipopolysaccharide-induced MCP1 mRNA expression and protein secretion. COL6A3 knockdown in adipocytes leads to the development of a unique state of inflammatory resistance via suppression of MCP1 induction. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-08-01

    White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR.

  1. Effect of Ethylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on color and Firmness of Red and Breaker Stage Tomato Stored at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, T.N.; Farneti, B.; Woltering, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The red color of the tomato fruit during ripening is due to the presence lycopene, a compound known for its antioxidant property. This compound is influenced by temperature, ethylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment. It was believed that ethylene application at chilling temperature could help increase the amount of lycopene content of tomato fruits. In addition, application of 1-MCP was assumed to reduce the action of ethylene on production of lycopene content and decrease loss of f...

  2. Effect of the Cooling System and 1-MCP on the Incidence of Superficial Scald in ‘Granny Smith’ Apples Efecto del Sistema de Enfriamiento y 1-MCP sobre la Incidencia de Escaldado Superficial en Manzanas ‘Granny Smith’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Moggia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the effects of two cooling systems and the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFreshTM on the incidence of superficial scald in apples (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Granny Smith. Fruit were collected from a commercial orchard (Colbún, Maule Region, Chile during 2004-2005 season. A completely randomized design was used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, using cooling systems (normal and step-wise cooling and application of 1-MCP (0 and 625 nL L-1 i.a. as the main factors. Fruit from normal cooling were kept at 0 °C throughout the storage period (180 days. Step-wise cooling consisted of storing the fruit at 10 °C for 10 days; 4 °C for the next 20 days and 0 °C for the remaining 150 days. Every month, maturity indices and the chemicals, global antioxidant content (AO, α-farnesene (AF and conjugated trienes (TC, were measured. Incidence of superficial scald was determined after 180 days of storage, plus 10 days at 20 °C . The application of 1-MCP with both cooling systems was capable of maintaining firmness values around 8,2 kg up to the end of the storage period, as well as decreasing the concentration of AF, TC and AO during storage. Incidence of superficial scald on fruit with 1-MCP was 0%, regardless of the type of cooling. Among treatments without 1-MCP, step-wise-cooling was more effective in preventing superficial scald, resulting in 1.3% incidence compared to 75.6% with the normal cooling system. Nevertheless, from the fourth month onwards firmness was lower than that required for export.Se desarrolló un estudio para determinar el efecto de dos sistemas de enfriamiento y la aplicación de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, SmartFreshTM sobre la incidencia de escaldado superficial en manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Granny Smith, colectadas de un huerto comercial (Colbún, Región del Maule, Chile durante la temporada 2004-2005. El ensayo consistió en un diseño completamente al azar con

  3. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  6. Growth Factors: Production of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1/JE) by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: Effect on the Migration and Proliferation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. X.; Talati, B. R.; Janakiraman, N.; Chapman, R. A.; Gautam, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) have been shown to modulate in vitro proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Whether bone marrow stromal cells produce chemokines and the physiological role they may have in the regulation of hematopoiesis has largely remained unexamined. We have examined the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/JE) in bone marrow stromal cells and its effect on the migration and proliferation of murine hematopoietic progenitor cells. Freshly derived murine bone marrow stromal cells were found to secrete abundant amounts of MCP-1/JE, which was further increased upon stimulation of stromal cells with pro-inflammatory agents LPS, IL1-alpha, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha. Although culture supernatant conditioned by stromal cells exhibited chemotactic activity toward hematopoietic progenitor cells, the chemotactic activity was not due to MCP-1/JE. Furthermore, rMCP-1/JE also failed to induce migration of progenitor cells. MCP-1/JE, however, caused 20 to 30% increase in the clonal expansion of progenitor cells. Thus, although MCP-1/JE does not chemoattract hematopoietic progenitor cells it may have a role in their proliferation and clonal expansion.

  7. Distribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 A-2518G) and chemokine receptor (CCR2-V64Ι) gene variants in hyperbilirubinemic newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narter, Fatma; Bireller, Elif Sinem; Engin, Can; Catmakas, Tolga; Narter, Fehmi; Ergen, Arzu; Cakmakoglu, Bedia

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most crucial syndromes, which is characterized by high levels of bilirubin, especially when it occurs in newborns. Bilirubin has cytoprotective properties with an antioxidant function and plays several major roles in the inflammation process with its members such as chemokines. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the C-C chemokine family and it has been associated with the inflammatory process. There are no data on the chemokine and its receptor genotypes in hyperbilirubinemic newborns to show their distribution. The aim of this study is to investigate the genotypic relationship of MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2-V64Ι with hyperbilirubinemia in Turkish newborns. A total of 85 newborns were included in the study: 20 infants with hyperbilirubinemia (hyperbilirubinemic group) and 65 infants without hyperbilirubinemia (non-hyperbilirubinemic group). Genotyping of MCP-1 A-2518G and CCR2-V64Ι gene polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP, respectively. MCP-1 GG genotype in patients was higher than the controls and this genotype had 2.69 times higher risk for hyperbilirubinemic neonates (P: 0.20). The frequency of MCP-1 A-2518G G+ genotype in patients was higher than the controls (55.0% and 38.5%, respectively). The results of our preliminary study suggest that MCP-1 G+ genotype has the ability to increase the hyperbilirubinemia risk of newborns. These results should be focused on to research on a larger scale to confirm the findings.

  8. A Two Dimension Position Sensitive Microchannel Plate Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    A Two Dimension Position Sensitive Microchannel Plate DetectorATwoDimensionPositionSensitiveMicrochannelPlateDetector¥LinYuan...

  9. Silicon Microchannel Plate Large Area UV Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for high-quantum-efficiency, high-resolution, low-cost photodetectors for the far-UV spectral range, Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  10. submitter The TORCH detector R&D;: Status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, T; Castillo García, L; Cussans, D; Föhl, K; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Harnew, N; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Ros García, A; van Dijk, M

    2017-01-01

    TORCH (Timing Of internally Reflected CHerenkov photons) is a time-of-flight detector for particle identification at low momentum. It has been originally proposed for the LHCb experiment upgrade. TORCH is using plates of quartz radiator in a modular design. A fraction of the Cherenkov photons produced by charged particles passing through this radiator propagate by total internal reflection, they emerge at the edges and are subsequently focused onto fast, position-sensitive single-photon detectors. The recorded position and arrival time of the photons are used to precisely reconstruct their trajectory and propagation time in the quartz. The on-going R&D; programme aims at demonstrating the TORCH basic concept through the realization of a full detector module and has been organized on the following main development lines: micro-channel plate photon detectors featuring the required granularity and lifetime, dedicated fast front-end electronics preserving the picosecond timing information provided by single p...

  11. A modified commercial scanner as an image plate for table-top optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado-Rojo, S; Lorenzana, H E; Baonza, V G

    2008-12-09

    A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive optical detector for table-top applications is described here. Based on a commercial high resolution office scanner coupled to a projection on plate, it enables a large image plate surface, allowing recording of large images without systematic errors associated to coupling optics' aberrations. Several tests on distance-dependent and steady interference patterns will be presented and discussed. The extension to other types of optical measurement by substituting the projection on plate is proposed.

  12. Recent experimental results and developments on the resistive plate chambers for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Guida, R; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vitulo, P; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F

    2001-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) have been chosen as dedicated trigger detectors for the CMS experiment at the LHC. The expected severe operating conditions have required an intense research and development activity on these detectors over the past years. Experimental results on overall performance of large chambers, rate capability, ageing and photon sensitivity are reviewed. In all of these tests the detector has proven to achieve good enough performance for successful use at the LHC. (6 refs).

  13. Silicon detectors for neutrino oscillation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    do Couto e Silva, E

    1998-01-01

    This note describes the technique of using a target equipped with high resolution silicon microstrip detectors for the detection of the topological signature of decays in neutrino oscillation ex periments. Two detectors are presented. The first detector is installed in the NOMAD spectrometer at the CERN SPS neutrino beam. The target consists of four layers passive boron carbide plate s (total mass of 45 kg) interleaved with five layers of silicon microstrip detectors. A total of 600 single--sided silicon microstrip detectors are used amounting to a total area of 1.14 m$^2$. The silicon tracker is made with the longest ladders built to date (72 cm). During the 1997 run about 8000 charged current interactions were estimated to have occurred in the target and data tak ing will continue in 1998. For these events it will be possible to perform a precise measurement of both vertex and kinematical variables. The second detector was installed in September 1997 in a CERN PS pion beam to investigate the possibility of ...

  14. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  15. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  16. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  17. The MINOS Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Grashorn, A H E W

    2005-01-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

  18. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  19. The TALE Tower Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  20. High-dose neutron detector project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-10

    These are the slides for a progress review meeting by the sponsor. This is an update on the high-dose neutron detector project. In summary, improvements in both boron coating and signal amplification have been achieved; improved boron coating materials and procedures have increase efficiency by ~ 30-40% without the corresponding increase in the detector plate area; low dead-time via thin cell design (~ 4 mm gas gaps) and fast amplifiers; prototype PDT 8” pod has been received and testing is in progress; significant improvements in efficiency and stability have been verified; use commercial PDT 10B design and fabrication to obtain a faster path from the research to practical high-dose neutron detector.

  1. Alignment of the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cervera-Villanueva, A

    2000-01-01

    This note describes the alignment of the NOMAD-STAR detector. This is the B/sub 4/C-silicon target installed in the NOMAD spectrometer in 1997. NOMAD-STAR is composed of modules of 12 silicon detectors each giving a total length of 72 cm. Ten of these modules (called ladders) are assembled to form a layer. There are five layers interleaved with passive boron carbide plates. The total surface of silicon is 1.14 m /sup 2/. Energetic muons from the flat-top of the CERN SPS cycle provide the necessary information to perform a very precise software alignment. This alignment is needed to ensure that the impact parameter measurement needed for the identification of taus in a detector like NOMAD-STAR will not be limited by the error in the alignment. (15 refs).

  2. The Coincident Fission Fragment Detector (CFFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhle, A.; Hammerton, K.; Kohley, Z.; Yurkon, J.; Stiefel, K.

    2017-08-01

    A Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) based fission detector system, called the Coincident Fission Fragment Detector (CFFD), has been developed for the ReA3 re-accelerator facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Binary reaction kinematics are reconstructed based on position and time-of-flight measurements of fission fragments. Large area PPACs provide 1 ns level time resolution and mm level position resolution. The detectors allow measurements of fission product angular and mass distributions of heavy-ion induced fusion reactions. The 30 cm by 40 cm active area of each PPAC provides large solid angle coverage well suited for measurements of low intensity rare-isotope beams (RIBs).

  3. High-dose neutron detector project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-10

    These are the slides for a progress review meeting by the sponsor. This is an update on the high-dose neutron detector project. In summary, improvements in both boron coating and signal amplification have been achieved; improved boron coating materials and procedures have increased efficiency by ~ 30-40% without the corresponding increase in the detector plate area; low dead-time via thin cell design (~ 4 mm gas gaps) and fast amplifiers; prototype PDT 8” pod has been received and testing is in progress; significant improvements in efficiency and stability have been verified; use commercial PDT 10B design and fabrication to obtain a faster path from the research to practical high-dose neutron detector.

  4. The Effect of Post-Resistance Exercise Amino Acids on Plasma MCP-1 and CCR2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Wells

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment and infiltration of classical monocytes into damaged muscle is critical for optimal tissue remodeling. This study examined the effects of an amino acid supplement on classical monocyte recruitment following an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm ingested supplement (SUPP or placebo (PL immediately post-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL, immediately (IP, 30-min (30P, 1-h (1H, 2-h (2H, and 5-h (5H post-exercise to assess plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, myoglobin, cortisol and insulin concentrations; and expressions of C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2, and macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b on classical monocytes. Magnitude-based inferences were used to provide inferences on the true effects of SUPP compared to PL. Changes in myoglobin, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were similar between treatments. Compared to PL, plasma MCP-1 was “very likely greater” (98.1% likelihood effect in SUPP at 2H. CCR2 expression was “likely greater” at IP (84.9% likelihood effect, “likely greater” at 1H (87.7% likelihood effect, “very likely greater” at 2H (97.0% likelihood effect, and “likely greater” at 5H (90.1% likelihood effect in SUPP, compared to PL. Ingestion of SUPP did not influence CD11b expression. Ingestion of an amino acid supplement immediately post-exercise appears to help maintain plasma MCP-1 concentrations and augment CCR2 expression in resistance trained men.

  5. Fast photon counting imaging system based on MCP%基于MCP的快速光子计数成像系统的设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2012-01-01

    通常基于MCP的阳极探测系统获得图像的速度受到噪声和信号处理速度的限制,影响了图像的时间分辨率和空间分辨率.介绍了一种快速光子计数成像探测器,使用的阳极结构避免了需要高信噪比的信号测量电路,及模拟信号到数字信号的转换,缩短了电子信号处理的时间,能有效提高图像质量.阳极面板依据格雷码编码方式划分区域,因此从微通道板出来的电子云在位敏阳极上的质心位星,由成对电极上的电荷比较值来确定,省略了由模拟信号变为数字信号的过程.所以对比较器的要求较高,要有高的运算速度,前端电子学具有高速、低噪、线性的特性.在此对快速先子计数成像系统提出了整体设计方案,并得到初步的实验结果,证实方案可行.%The image acquisition speed of positive pole detection system with MCP is usually limited by noise and signal processing speed, which reduce the time resolution and space resolution. A fast photon counting imaging system is introduced in this paper. The anode structure used in the detector avoids the demand of the signal detection circuit which requires high signal to noise ratio and analogue to digital conversion, curtails the time of signal processing* and improves the image quality effectively. The anode panel is divided according to the coding mode of Gray code, so the centroid position of electronic cloud on the position sensitive anode, coming form MCP, is determined by charge comparing values on pairs of electrodes. It omits the converting process of analogue signal to digital signal. Therefore, it requires very high-speed comparators. The front-end electronics has the characteristics of high-speed, low-noise and linear response. A design scheme of the fast photon counting imaging system is put forward in the article. The preliminary experiment results have been achieved. It confirms that the scheme is feasible.

  6. Aumento da expressão do MCP-1 coroidal e escleral em modelo experimental de hipercolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rogil José de Almeida Torres; Lucia Noronha; Antonio Marcelo Barbante Casella; Thaís Isabel Lumikoski; Leonardo Brandão Précoma; Caroline Luzia de Almeida Torres; Andréa Luchini; Mario Claudio Soares Sturzeneker; Dalton Bertolim Précoma

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar experimentalmente que a dieta rica em colesterol provoca aumento da expressão da MCP-1 na coroide e esclera. MÉTODO: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: GN (grupo dieta normal), composto por 8 coelhos (8 olhos), recebeu ração padrão para coelhos, durante 4 semanas; GH (grupo hipercolesterolêmico), composto por 13 coelhos (13 olhos), recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1% por 8 semanas. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colester...

  7. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  10. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  11. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  13. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  18. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  20. Increased Eotaxin and MCP-1 Levels in Serum from Individuals with Periodontitis and in Human Gingival Fibroblasts Exposed to Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulniute, Rima; Palmqvist, Py; Majster, Mirjam; Holm, Cecilia Koskinen; Zwicker, Stephanie; Clark, Reuben; Önell, Sebastian; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lerner, Ulf H.; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of tooth supporting tissues resulting in periodontal tissue destruction, which may ultimately lead to tooth loss. The disease is characterized by continuous leukocyte infiltration, likely mediated by local chemokine production but the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated. There are no reliable serologic biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontitis, which is today based solely on the degree of local tissue destruction, and there is no available biological treatment tool. Prompted by the increasing interest in periodontitis and systemic inflammatory mediators we mapped serum cytokine and chemokine levels from periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. We used multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeling and identified monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin as clearly associated with periodontitis along with C-reactive protein (CRP), years of smoking and age, whereas the number of remaining teeth was associated with being healthy. Moreover, body mass index correlated significantly with serum MCP-1 and CRP, but not with eotaxin. We detected higher MCP-1 protein levels in inflamed gingival connective tissue compared to healthy but the eotaxin levels were undetectable. Primary human gingival fibroblasts displayed strongly increased expression of MCP-1 and eotaxin mRNA and protein when challenged with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), key mediators of periodontal inflammation. We also demonstrated that the upregulated chemokine expression was dependent on the NF-κΒ pathway. In summary, we identify higher levels of CRP, eotaxin and MCP-1 in serum of periodontitis patients. This, together with our finding that both CRP and MCP-1 correlates with BMI points towards an increased systemic inflammatory load in patients with periodontitis and high BMI. Targeting eotaxin and MCP-1 in periodontitis may result in reduced leukocyte infiltration and inflammation in

  1. Inhibitory effect of microRNA-27b on interleukin 17 (IL-17)-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K D; Shen, Y; Wei, X; Zhang, F Q; Liu, Y Y; Ma, L

    2016-07-14

    We investigated the effect of microRNA-27b (miR-27b), a gene expression regulatory factor, on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) stimulated by interleukin 17 (IL-17). After IL-17 had been added to H9C2 cardiomyocytes, an miR-27b mimic was transfected into the H9C2 cells. The mRNA expression levels of miR-27b and MCP1 in the H9C2 cells were detected by SYBR green I fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of MCP1 protein in the H9C2 cells. The expression of MCP1 mRNA in the H9C2 cells began to increase 2 h after IL-17 stimulation, reached a peak at 4 h, and then decreased. The MCP1 protein level increased gradually in the 24 h following IL-17 stimulation. After transfection with the miR-27b mimic, the expression of miR-27b in the H9C2 cells significantly increased than that in the miRNA negative control group (P < 0.01). The MCP1 mRNA and protein levels in the miR-27b mimic + IL-17 group were significantly reduced than that in the miRNA negative control + IL-17 group (P < 0.01). miR-27b inhibited IL-17-induced MCP1 expression in the H9C2 cells, which demonstrates that treatment with microRNA could alleviate myocardial injury in viral myocarditis.

  2. Increased Eotaxin and MCP-1 Levels in Serum from Individuals with Periodontitis and in Human Gingival Fibroblasts Exposed to Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Elisabeth A; Kindstedt, Elin; Sulniute, Rima; Palmqvist, Py; Majster, Mirjam; Holm, Cecilia Koskinen; Zwicker, Stephanie; Clark, Reuben; Önell, Sebastian; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lerner, Ulf H; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of tooth supporting tissues resulting in periodontal tissue destruction, which may ultimately lead to tooth loss. The disease is characterized by continuous leukocyte infiltration, likely mediated by local chemokine production but the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated. There are no reliable serologic biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontitis, which is today based solely on the degree of local tissue destruction, and there is no available biological treatment tool. Prompted by the increasing interest in periodontitis and systemic inflammatory mediators we mapped serum cytokine and chemokine levels from periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. We used multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeling and identified monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin as clearly associated with periodontitis along with C-reactive protein (CRP), years of smoking and age, whereas the number of remaining teeth was associated with being healthy. Moreover, body mass index correlated significantly with serum MCP-1 and CRP, but not with eotaxin. We detected higher MCP-1 protein levels in inflamed gingival connective tissue compared to healthy but the eotaxin levels were undetectable. Primary human gingival fibroblasts displayed strongly increased expression of MCP-1 and eotaxin mRNA and protein when challenged with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), key mediators of periodontal inflammation. We also demonstrated that the upregulated chemokine expression was dependent on the NF-κΒ pathway. In summary, we identify higher levels of CRP, eotaxin and MCP-1 in serum of periodontitis patients. This, together with our finding that both CRP and MCP-1 correlates with BMI points towards an increased systemic inflammatory load in patients with periodontitis and high BMI. Targeting eotaxin and MCP-1 in periodontitis may result in reduced leukocyte infiltration and inflammation in

  3. Development and characterisation of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Barnstedt, J

    2002-01-01

    We report on the development of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system. The detector concept is based on standard 25 mm diameter microchannel plate image intensifiers made by Proxitronic in Bensheim (Germany). Modifications applied to these image intensifiers are the use of three microchannel plates instead of two and a high resistance ceramics plate used instead of the standard phosphor output screen. A wedge and strip anode mounted directly behind the high resistance ceramics plate was used as a read out device. This wedge and strip anode picks up the image charge of electron clouds emerging from the microchannel plates. The charge pulses are fed into four charge amplifiers and subsequently into a digital position decoding electronics, achieving a position resolution of up to 1024x1024 pixels. Mounting the anode outside the detector tube is a new approach and has the great advantage of avoiding electrical feedthroughs from the anode so that the standard image intensifier fabrication process...

  4. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  5. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  6. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  7. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Klaus Mönig

    2007-11-01

    Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  8. 1- MCP 处理对鸡蛋果常温贮藏效果的影响%Effects of 1 - MCP Treatment on Qualities of Passion Fruit at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 李颖; 邱松山; 刘杰凤

    2016-01-01

    为延长鸡蛋果常温贮藏期品质,维持其较好的营养价值,分别采用0.50μL/L 和1.0μL/L 的1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)结合 PE 袋对鸡蛋果进行了保鲜处理,分析了鸡蛋果货架期间失重率,感官品质,可溶性固形物、维生素 C 的质量分数,质构特性等指标,并研究了其常温贮藏条件下的果实保鲜效果。结果表明:采用1.0μL/L 的1-MCP 结合 PE 袋处理过的果实在货架末期的失重率为0.39%,感官品质明显优于对照组,样品可溶性固形物质量分数维持在7.00%,维生素 C 的质量分数为28 mg/100 g ,硬度及黏度分别为800 g 和90 g/s ,均显著高于对照组果实。综合比较,1.0μL/L 1-MCP 结合 PE 袋处理能有效延缓果实的后熟衰老,确保货架期鸡蛋果果实品质。%In this paper we explore the effects of 1 - methylcyclopropene (1 -MCP) together with PE film treatment on passion fruit at room temperature ,and analyze the changes of weight loss rate ,soluble solids ,the content of vitamin C and its texture characteristic changes of samples during shelf life .Results show that after the treatment of 1 .0 μL/L 1 -MCP combined with PE film ,the weightlessness rate of sam-ple is 0 .39% ,soluble solids content is 7 .00 % ,the content of Vc is 28 mg/100 g ,the hardness and viscosity are respectively 800 g and 90 g/s ,and the quality of fruits in the end of shelf life is significantly higher than that of control group .Therefore 1 .0 μL/L 1 -MCP together with PE film treatment can effectively inhibit fruit metabolism ,regulate these physiological changes related to the aging process ,and play a better role in preservation .

  9. Single photon scans of various multianode PMTs and XP85012 MCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Christian [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Spatially resolved single Cherenkov photon detection is an essential requirement in building a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH). We have set up a test stand to conduct single photon XY-scans in order to test and qualify different sensor devices for the CBM-RICH detector which is currently being designed as part of the future Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. Combining a pulsed laser source and step-motor XY-table with a self-triggered multi-channel acquisition system based on the nXYter readout ASIC allows to measure many different characteristic features of the sensor devices. Quantities like spatial resolved detection efficiency, spatial resolution, single photon response, channel-to-channel gain uniformity, after-pulsing, cross-talk, dark noise and active area can all be deduced from a single data set and thus allow for a comprehensive comparison of the evaluated sensors. For the CBM RICH, we currently foresee the Hamamatsu H8500 2'' or R11265 1'' MAPMTs as baseline solution, alternatively we also consider using Photonis XP85012 MCPs. We present a detailed comparison of these sensor devices, including first measurements of the new H12700 MAPMT from Hamamatsu.

  10. The OSMOND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-11

    The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  11. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  12. EFECTO DEL EMPAQUE Y DEL 1-MCP SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS, QUÍMICAS Y FISIOLÓGICAS DE PITAHAYA AMARILLA EFEITO DA EMBALAGEM E DO 1-MCP SOB AS PROPRIEDADES QUÍMICAS, FÍSICAS E FISIOLÓGICAS DA PITAHAYA AMARELA EFFECT OF PACKAGING AND 1-MCP ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PITAHAYA YELLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En pitahaya amarilla entera con grado de madurez 3, se evaluó el efecto del empaque (canastillas plásticas y cajas de cartón tipo exportación y la aplicación de soluciones acuosas de 1-Metilciclopropeno (200 y 400 µgL-1, sobre la pérdida de peso, firmeza, color, sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, tasa respiratoria y tiempo de vida comercial. Se encontró que en los dos empaques, la aplicación de soluciones acuosas de 200 y 400 µgL-1 de 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP disminuyó los cambios en acidez, tasa respiratoria y color, sin embargo, aumentó la pérdida de peso durante el almacenamiento. El tipo de empaque afectó significativamente la pérdida de peso, los sólidos solubles y el color. La aplicación de 200 µgL-1 de 1-MCP generó menor variación en la luminosidad y en la coloración verde-amarilla en la fruta. Concentraciones de 200 y 400 µgL-1 de 1-MCP y el empaque en canastillas plásticas para mercado local permitieron prolongar el tiempo de vida comercial de la pitahaya amarilla 3 días. Los resultados de este estudio confirman además que la pitahaya amarilla es una fruta climatérica.Na pitahaya amarela inteira com grau tres de madures, foi avallado os efeitos da embalagem (cestos de plástico e caixas de papelão tipo exportação e a aplicação de soluções aquosas de 1-metilciclopropeno (200 e 400 µgL-1 sobre a perda de peso, firmeza, cor, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez, taxa de respiração e tempo de vida comercial. Foi observado que nas duas embalagens, a aplicação de soluções aquosas de 200 e 400 µgL-1 de 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP reduziu as variações na acidez, taxa de respiração e cor, no entanto, aumentou a perda de peso durante o armazenamento. 0 tipo da embalagem afetou significativamente a perda de peso, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, e acor. A aplicação de 200 µgL-1 de 1-MCP gerou menor variação na luminosidade e na cor verde-amarela no fruto. Concentrações de 200 e 400

  13. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  14. Muscle glycogen depletion following 75-km of cycling is not linked to increased muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA expression and protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Christopher Nieman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine response to heavy exertion varies widely for unknown reasons, and this study evaluated the relative importance of glycogen depletion, muscle damage, and stress hormone changes on blood and muscle cytokine measures. Cyclists (N=20 participated in a 75-km cycling time trial (168±26.0 min, with blood and vastus lateralis muscle samples collected before and after. Muscle glycogen decreased 77.2±17.4%, muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA increased 18.5±2.8-, 45.3±7.8-, and 8.25±1.75-fold, and muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 protein increased 70.5±14.1%, 347±68.1%, and 148±21.3%, respectively (all, P<0.001. Serum myoglobin and cortisol increased 32.1±3.3 to 242±48.3 mg/mL, and 295±27.6 to 784±63.5 nmol/L, respectively (both P<0.001. Plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 increased 0.42±0.07 to 18.5±3.8, 4.07±0.37 to 17.0±1.8, and 96.5±3.7 to 240±21.6 pg/mL, respectively (all P<0.001. Increases in muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA were unrelated to any of the outcome measures. Muscle glycogen depletion was related to change in plasma IL-6 (r=0.462, P=0.040, with change in myoglobin related to plasma IL-8 (r=0.582, P=0.007 and plasma MCP-1 (r=0.457, P=0.043, and muscle MCP-1 protein (r=0.588, P=0.017; cortisol was related to plasma IL-8 (r=0.613, P=0.004, muscle IL-8 protein (r=0.681, P=0.004, and plasma MCP-1 (r=0.442, P=0.050. In summary, this study showed that muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA expression after 75-km cycling was unrelated to glycogen depletion and muscle damage, with change in muscle glycogen related to plasma IL-6, and changes in serum myoglobin and cortisol related to the chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1.

  15. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene transfer prevents vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by interfering with the MCP-3/CCR2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Ma, Dandan; Liu, Yue; Li, Hui; Chi, Jinyu; Liu, Wenxiu; Lin, Fang; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Minling; Zhao, Yong; Yin, Xinhua

    2015-11-01

    Increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation substantially contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. The importance of inflammation in VSMC proliferation is now being recognized. Preventing the inflammatory response is one therapeutic strategy that can be used to inhibit atherosclerosis in the clinic. The present study, using RNA interference and gene transfer techniques, was conducted to investigate the effect of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) on VSMC proliferation that is a result of TNF-α stimulation, and whether overexpression of the tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene could prevent VSMC proliferation by blocking the MCP-3/CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway. Mouse VSMCs were infected in vitro with recombinant adenoviruses containing either mouse MCP-3-shRNA (Ad-MCP-3-shRNA), the TFPI gene (Ad-TFPI), or the negative control, which was shRNA encoding the sequence for EGFP (Ad-EGFP) or DMEM only. The cells were then stimulated with TNF-α for different time periods on the third day after gene transfer. The data show that VSMC proliferation in the Ad-MCP-3-shRNA and Ad-TFPI groups was markedly decreased using BrdU ELISA and MTT assays; MCP-3-shRNA and TFPI inhibited the expression of MCP-3 and CCR2 after long-term stimulation and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT after short-term stimulation, as shown by ELISA and western blot analysis. This study provides convincing evidence that clarifies the effect of the proinflammatory factor MCP-3 in promoting VSMC proliferation. Our data also show, for the first time, that TFPI has an anti-proliferative role in TNF-α stimulated-VSMCs at least partly by interfering with the MCP-3/CCR2 pathway and then via suppression of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. We conclude that TFPI gene transfer may be a safe and effective therapeutic tool for treating atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia.

  16. A novel gas-filled detector for synchrotron radiation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocsis, Menyhert [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: kocsis@esrf.fr; Boesecke, P. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Carbone, D. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Herve, C. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Becker, B. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Diawara, Y. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Durst, R. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Khazins, D. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); He, B. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Medved, S. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Sedov, V. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Thorson, T. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Wachter, G. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    We describe in this paper the performance under synchrotron radiation of a sealed gaseous detector, Vantec-1, operating at high pressure and less prone to discharges. It is consequently operating at high gain (>10{sup 5}) at high local counting rates up to 10{sup 6} cps/mm{sup 2}. To achieve these characteristics, a thin resistive layer is used on a glass plate between the mesh and the readout anode. The performance achieved with this detector is suited for applications in X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation. This detector has shown high reliability over time under harsh synchrotron radiation environment and robustness in manufacturing environment.

  17. Prokaryotic expression and in vitro functional analysis of IL-1β and MCP-1 from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ly, Lan H; McMurray, David N

    2013-06-01

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an excellent animal model for studying human tuberculosis (TB) and also for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases. One of the major roadblocks in effective utilization of this animal model is the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In order to address this issue, guinea pig interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were efficiently cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the expressed proteins in soluble form from both the genes were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The biological activity of recombinant guinea pig IL-1β was demonstrated by its ability to drive proliferation in thymocytes, and the recombinant guinea pig MCP-1 exhibited chemotactic activity for guinea pig resident peritoneal macrophages. These biologically active recombinant guinea pig proteins will facilitate an in-depth understanding of the role they play in the immune responses of the guinea pig to TB and other diseases.

  18. PEG-albumin plasma expansion increases expression of MCP-1 evidencing increased circulatory wall shear stress: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Makena Hightower

    Full Text Available Treatment of blood loss with plasma expanders lowers blood viscosity, increasing cardiac output. However, increased flow velocity by conventional plasma expanders does not compensate for decreased viscosity in maintaining vessel wall shear stress (WSS, decreasing endothelial nitric oxide (NO production. A new type of plasma expander using polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb causes supra-perfusion when used in extreme hemodilution and is effective in treating hemorrhagic shock, although it is minimally viscogenic. An acute 40% hemodilution/exchange-transfusion protocol was used to compare 4% PEG-Alb to Ringer's lactate, Dextran 70 kDa and 6% Hetastarch (670 kDa in unanesthetized CD-1 mice. Serum cytokine analysis showed that PEG-Alb elevates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, a member of a small inducible gene family, as well as expression of MIP-1α, and MIP-2. MCP-1 is specific to increased WSS. Given the direct link between increased WSS and production of NO, the beneficial resuscitation effects due to PEG-Alb plasma expansion appear to be due to increased WSS through increased perfusion and blood flow rather than blood viscosity.

  19. The inhibitory effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on MCP-1 and type I procollagen expression in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Ho; Wang, Qwa-Fun; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Shee, Jia-Jen; Chen, Jung-Chou; Chen, Ke-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hsin; Su, Jyan-Gwo J; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2009-10-29

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a popular folk medicine that has been used for treatment of hepatitis in Asia. Our previous study demonstrates that Gynostemma pentaphyllum n-butanol extract inhibits the onset and improves the recovery of CCl(4)-induced liver fibrogenesis in rats and inhibits PDGF-induced rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) proliferation. In this study, the effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract on cytokines and type I procollagen expression was analyzed. Rat HSCs were treated with PDGF, Gynostemma pentaphyllum n-butanol extract, RP-18-Gyp fraction, rapamycin or vehicle. Rat cytokine antibody array chip or ELISA kit was used for cytokines detection. Intracellular protein expression was detected by Western blotting, mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. RP-18-Gyp fraction is the more purified gypenosides fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum n-butanol extract. In cell proliferation, the inhibitory effect of 200 microg/ml RP-18-Gyp fraction is similar to 500 microg/ml Gynostemma pentaphyllum n-butanol extract. Furthermore, both of them have the ability of decreasing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA expression and protein release and inhibiting type I procollagen protein expression. Both of Gynostemma pentaphyllum n-butanol extract and its more purified RP-18-Gyp fraction have the biological activities in the inhibition of cell proliferation, MCP-1 release and type I procollagen expression in rat HSCs. These data could provide the evidence to support for the traditional use of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in hepatitis.

  20. Profiling of differentially expressed chemotactic-related genes in MCP-1 treated macrophage cell line using human cDNA arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Xing Bian; Hong Miao; Lei Qiu; Dong-Mei Cao; Bao-Yu Guo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the global gene expression of chemotactic genes in macrophage line U937 treated with human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) through the use of ExpreeChipTMHO2 cDNA array.METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from MCP-1 treated macrophage line U937 and normal U937 cells, reversely transcribed to cDNA, and then screened in parallel with HO2 human cDNA array chip. The scanned result was additionally validated using RT-PCR.RESULTS: The result of cDNA array showed that one chemotactic-related gene was up-regulated more than two-fold (RANTES) and seven chemotactic-related genes were down-regulated more than two-fold (CCR1, CCR5,ccl16, GROβ, GROγ, IL-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein 2) in MCP-1 treated U937 cells at mRNA level.RT-PCR analysis of four of these differentially expressed genes gave results consistent with cDNA array findings.CONCLUSION: MCP-1 could influence some chemokine and receptor expressions in macrophages in vitro. MCP-1mainly down-regulates the expression of chemotactic genes influencing neutrophilic granulocyte expression (GROβ, GROγ, IL-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein 2), and the mRNA level of CCR5, which plays a critical role in many disorders and illnesses.