WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate mating technique

  1. Plating of patella fractures: techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Mehta, Sanjay; Castaneda, Joaquin; French, Bruce G; Blanchard, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Operative treatment of displaced patella fractures with tension band fixation remains the gold standard, but is associated with a significant rate of complications and symptomatic implants. Despite the evolution of tension band fixation to include cannulated screws, surprisingly little other development has been made to improve overall patient outcomes. In this article, we present the techniques and outcomes of patella plating for displaced patella fractures and patella nonunions.

  2. Low-impact mating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  3. Chinese undergraduates' preferences for altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement: Evidence from Q-sort technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin; Wang, Mingming

    2017-04-01

    Human's preferences for altruistic mates have been confirmed by many researchers. Under the deep influence of Confucianism that authorised more parental control over offspring's mate selection, Chinese people's mating strategies and mate preferences may be different from what the evolutionary psychologists have suggested. This study used the Q-sort technique to assess the roles of altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement. A total of 200 university students participated in the Q-sort procedures and were asked to sort 50 traits (among which altruistic traits were mixed) according to their importance when choosing (or advertising to) a long-term (LT) or a short-term (ST) mate. Our findings were quite different from prior studies. When Chinese participants chose a mate or advertised themselves to a potential mate, kin altruism was considered to be the most important trait; altruistic traits were more preferred by males than by females and females tended to advertise themselves as more altruistic; preferences for altruistic traits showed no difference between LT and ST mate selections (or between personal advertisement to a LT and a ST mate).

  4. A Novel Technique to Perform Plating on Printed Circuit Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jayapoorani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research attempts to optimize the parameters for pulse plating of silver on printed circuit board. The idea here is to use pulse plating technique which is metal deposition by pulsed electrolysis method. Approach: Printed Circuit Boards (PCB plays a major role in all communication and electronics industry. Silver is a ductile and malleable metal which has 7% higher conductivity than copper. Here the electro deposit is influenced by current density, silver concentration in the bath, applied current type. Pulse plating technique is used in double sided printed circuit board especially in the case of plated through hole technique. Here exist a necessity to do plating which will deposit a metal wall in the substrate and it will connect between the components. Results: This method of pulse plating proves that it avoids the disadvantage of rough deposition that is caused due to DC plating in PCB's. Conclusion: The surface morphology and the grain size is measured using XRD analysis and it proves that the number of pin holes is reduced.

  5. Tubularized incised plate technique for recurrent hypospadias: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary techniques are unsatisfactory. ... TIP urethroplasty in the management of recurrent ... was used for quantitative data. .... erection and the risk of infection, especially in patients .... currently considered the best tool for complicated .... 10 Mustafa M. The concept of tubularized incised plate hypospadias repair for different ...

  6. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Mandibular Spanning Plate Technique Compared to Standard Plating Techniques to Treat Mandibular Symphyseal Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Richardson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical behavior of the spanning reconstruction plate compared to standard plating techniques for mandibular symphyseal fractures. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five human mandible replicas were used. Five unaltered synthetic mandibles were used as controls. Four experimental groups of different reconstruction techniques with five in each group were tested. Each synthetic mandible was subjected to a splaying force applied to the mandibular angle by a mechanical testing unit until the construct failed. Peak load and stiffness were recorded. The peak load and stiffness were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test at a confidence level of 95% (P<0.05. Results. The two parallel plates’ group showed statistically significant lower values for peak load and stiffness compared to all other groups. No statistically significant difference was found for peak load and stiffness between the control (C group, lag screw (LS group, and the spanning plate (SP1 group. Conclusions. The spanning reconstruction plate technique for fixation of mandibular symphyseal fractures showed similar mechanical behavior to the lag screw technique when subjected to splaying forces between the mandibular gonial angles and may be considered as an alternative technique when increased reconstructive strength is needed.

  7. Laser shockwave technique for characterization of nuclear fuel plate interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Lévesque, D.; Monchalin, J.-P.; Lord, M.; Smith, J. A.; Rabin, B. H.

    2013-01-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  8. Posterior coronal plating for tibial fractures: technique and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montu Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Tibial shaft fractures are straightforward to treat but when associated with soft tissue injury particularly at the nail entry/plate insertion site or there is significant comminution proximally or a large butterfly fragment/a second split component in the posterior coronal plane, it is a challenge to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present report is to describe the technique of posterior coronal plating in such a scenario and its advantages. Methods:Between July 2008 and June 2011, 12 patients were pro spectively treated by this approach using 4.5 mm broad dynamic compression plates. Results:The time of bony consolidation and full weight bearing averaged 21.7 weeks (range, 16-26 weeks. Patients were followed up for at least 24 months (range, 24-48 months. At 1 year postoper atively, no loss in reduction or alignment was observed. Mean Hospital for Lower Extremity Measurement Functional Score was 72.8 (range, 64-78. All patients were satisfied with their treatment outcomes. Conclusion:Direct posterior approach and fixation using prone position helps to visualise the fracture fragments and provide rigid fixation. The approach is simple and extensile easily, apart from advantages of less soft tissue and hardware problems compared to standard medial or lateral plating. Key words: Tibial fractures; Bone plates; Orthopedic procedures

  9. The Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO Technique with a Locking Compression Plate for Femoral Lengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsunaga,Tomonori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis technique using a locking compression plate (LCP has been used widely in trauma cases. Its advantages are that the MIPO technique does not interfere with the fracture site and thus provides improved biological healing, and that the LCP has excellent angular stability. Its use in bone lengthening, however, has not been established. In such cases, it is desirable to shorten the external skeletal fixation period as much as possible. Here, the MIPO technique using an LCP was applied to femoral distraction osteogenesis in an attempt to shorten the external skeletal fixation period. For femoral lengthening, the MIPO technique was performed in 2 stages. Orthofix external fixators (Orthofix, England were used to insert screws from the anterolateral side rather than from the lateral side of the femur for bone lengthening. When sufficient callus formation was detected postoperatively at the site of bone lengthening, and the absence of infection was ensured, limb draping was performed, including a whole external fixator, and then the MIPO technique was applied with an LCP. In 3 cases (5 limbs, the average duration of external skeletal fixation was 134days, the average external-fixation index was 24days/cm, and the average consolidation index was 22days/cm. The MIPO technique using an LCP made it possible to shorten the external skeletal fixation-wearing period in femoral lengthening.

  10. The strength of combined cytogenetic and mate-pair sequencing techniques illustrated by a germline chromothripsis rearrangement involving FOXP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaryan, Lusine; Stefanou, Eunice G; Hansen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    with many CCRs, none of the reported mate-pair sequenced complex rearrangements have been simultaneously studied with state-of-the art molecular cytogenetic techniques. Here, we studied chromothripsis-associated CCR involving chromosomes 2, 5 and 7, associated with global developmental and psychomotor delay...

  11. Lamb Wave Technique for Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characterization in Elastic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Since the acoustic nonlinearity is sensitive to the minute variation of material properties, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique(NUT) has been considered as a promising method to evaluate the material degradation or fatigue. However, there are certain limitations to apply the conventional NUT using the bulk wave to thin plates. In case of plates, the use of Lamb wave can be considered, however, the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave are completely different with the bulk wave, and thus the separate study for the nonlinearity of Lamb wave is required. For this work, this paper analyzed first the conditions of mode pair suitable for the practical application as well as for the cumulative propagation of quadratic harmonic frequency and summarized the result in for conditions: phase matching, non-zero power flux, group velocity matching, and non-zero out-of-plane displacement. Experimental results in aluminum plates showed that the amplitude of the secondary Lamb wave and nonlinear parameter grew up with increasing propagation distance at the mode pair satisfying the above all conditions and that the ration of nonlinear parameters measured in Al6061-T6 and Al1100-H15 was closed to the ratio of the absolute nonlinear parameters

  12. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  13. Improved Zone Plate Coded Imaging Technique by Using Four Special Designed Gabor Zone Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Lei-Feng; SHEN Yu-Ji; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; DING Yong-Kun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Direct-current component, high-order artifacts, and side lobe distortion provide serious drawbacks in the application of Fresnel zone plate coded imaging (ZPCI).The presentation provided here proposes a novel way to resolve all the above-mentioned problems.Four different Gabor zone plates are suggested to substitute the one Fresnel zone plate used in the conventional ZPCI.Perfect reconstruction will be obtained when integrally analysing the four coded images.Primary numerical simulation provided here shows good result.

  14. An Offline Technique for Localization of License Plates for Indian Commercial Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Satadal; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR) is a challenging area of research due to its importance to variety of commercial applications. The overall problem may be subdivided into two key modules, firstly, localization of license plates from vehicle images, and secondly, optical character recognition of extracted license plates. In the current work, we have concentrated on the first part of the problem, i.e., localization of license plate regions from Indian commercial vehicles as a significant step towards development of a complete ALPR system for Indian vehicles. The technique is based on color based segmentation of vehicle images and identification of potential license plate regions. True license plates are finally localized based on four spatial and horizontal contrast features. The technique successfully localizes the actual license plates in 73.4% images.

  15. Comparison of three different plating techniques for the dorsum of the distal radius: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peine, R; Rikli, D A; Hoffmann, R; Duda, G; Regazzoni, P

    2000-01-01

    Three different plating techniques were used on experimentally produced dorsally displaced distal radius fractures in cadavers and were tested in 4-point bending: a AO 3.5-mm T plate (group 1), two 2. 0-mm titanium plates 60 degrees to each other (group 2), and the AO pi plate (group 3). A metaphyseal defect was simulated by a dorsally open wedge osteotomy. The tests show that the 2-mm double-plating technique has superior stiffness and statistically equivalent bending and bone gap to failure compared with the AO 3.5-mm T plate or the pi plate when applied to the unstable distal radius fracture model. (J Hand Surg 2000; 25A:29-33. Copyright 2000 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand.).

  16. Interdigitated craniotomy: a simple technique to fix a bone flap with only a single plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Saito, Keiichi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-10-01

    In pterional craniotomy, fixation plates cause artifacts on postoperative radiological images; furthermore, they often disfigure the scalp in hairless areas. The authors describe a simple technique to fix a cranial bone flap with only a single plate underneath the temporalis muscle in an area with hair, rather than using a plate in a hairless area. The key to this technique is to cut the anterior site of the bone flap at alternate angles on the cut surface. Interdigitation between the bone flap and skull enables single-plate fixation in the area with hair, which reduces artifacts on postoperative radiological images and provides excellent postoperative cosmetic results.

  17. Impact of salivary gland hypertrophy virus infection on the mating success of male Glossina pallidipes: consequences for the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratian N Mutika

    Full Text Available Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus (GpSGHV that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH. Female Glossina pallidipes (Austen with SGH symptoms (SGH+ have reduced fecundity and SGH+ male G. pallidipes are unable to inseminate female flies. Consequently, G. pallidipes laboratory colonies with a high prevalence of SGH have been difficult to maintain and have collapsed on several occasions. To assess the potential impact of the release of SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes on the efficacy of an integrated control programme with a sterile insect technique (SIT component, we examined the mating efficiency and behaviour of male G. pallidipes in field cages in relation to SGH prevalence. The results showed in a field cage setting a significantly reduced mating frequency of 19% for a male G. pallidipes population with a high prevalence of SGH (83% compared to 38% for a male population with a low prevalence of SGH (7%. Premating period and mating duration did not vary significantly with SGH status. A high percentage (>80% of females that had mated with SGH+ males had empty spermathecae. The remating frequency of female G. pallidipes was very low irrespective of the SGH status of the males in the first mating. These results indicate that a high prevalence of SGH+ in G. pallidipes not only affects colony stability and performance but, in view of their reduced mating propensity and competitiveness, releasing SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes will reduce the efficiency of a sterile male release programme.

  18. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone (GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificial insemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical program function in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzyme restriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progenies following the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique was not under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breeding program using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzyme restriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates for breeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  19. INTEGRATED USE OF RAPID PROTOTYPING AND METAL PLATING TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO AIR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. ELANGOVAN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synergistic application of rapid prototyping and metal plating technologies for development of micro air vehicles (MAV with high strength-to-weight characteristic. Stereolithography and fused deposition techniques are employed to fabricate complex thermoplastic MAV prototypes with significant time-compression in production cycle. Electroless and electrolytic deposition processes are custom developed to deposit thin metallic foils of nickel and chromium over thermoplastic MAV prototypes. Plating plant with inherent provision for variation of process parameters is established and proof-of-concept studies are carried on plating of MAV prototypes. Experiments are conducted on metal plated thermoplastic test specimens for evaluating the mechanical behaviour and structural integrity properties. Present study is a conclusive demonstration of the use of layered manufacturing techniques in quick realisation of flight-worthy MAV systems.

  20. Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequa...

  1. High-accuracy thickness measurement of a transparent plate with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wang-Tsung; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wei-Yao; Chen, Yen-Liang; Su, Der-Chin

    2011-07-20

    In a modified Twyman-Green interferometer, the optical path variation is measured with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique, as the light beam is focused by a displaced microscopic objective on the front/rear surface of the test transparent plate. The optical path length variation is then measured similarly after the test plate is removed. The geometrical thickness of the test plate can be calculated under the consideration of dispersion effect. This method has a wide measurable range and a high accuracy in the measurable range.

  2. Pulsed remote field eddy current technique applied to non-magnetic flat conductive plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhanbin

    2013-12-01

    Non-magnetic metal plates are widely used in aviation and industrial applications. The detection of cracks in thick plate structures, such as multilayered structures of aircraft fuselage, has been challenging in nondestructive evaluation societies. The remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has shown advantages of deep penetration and high sensitivity to deeply buried anomalies. However, the RFEC technique is mainly used to evaluate ferromagnetic tubes. There are many problems that should be fixed before the expansion and application of this technique for the inspection of non-magnetic conductive plates. In this article, the pulsed remote field eddy current (PRFEC) technique for the detection of defects in non-magnetic conducting plates was investigated. First, the principle of the PRFEC technique was analysed, followed by the analysis of the differences between the detection of defects in ferromagnetic and non-magnetic plain structures. Three different models of the PRFEC probe were simulated using ANSYS. The location of the transition zone, defect detection sensitivity and the ability to detect defects in thick plates using three probes were analysed and compared. The simulation results showed that the probe with a ferrite core had the highest detecting ability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study were also validated by conducting experiments.

  3. Low Profile Mesh Plating for Patella Fractures: Video of a Novel Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Diederik O; Hickerson, Lindsay E; Warner, Stephen J; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2016-08-01

    Patella fractures can be challenging to treat particularly in the presence of inferior pole comminution. In this video we present a novel surgical technique for the treatment of patella fractures using a small fragment low profile mesh plate. Key points are the surgical exposure with direct visualization of the articular reduction, the preparation of the mesh plate to accommodate patellar anatomy and the augmentation of the construct using Krackow sutures to address inferior pole comminution. Low profile mesh plating allows for multiplanar fixation of patella fractures while avoiding implant and fixation problems related to tension band fixation. Our early experience with this technique is encouraging and it appears that this technique is useful for the treatment of the majority of patella fractures.

  4. A simple technique for double plating of extraarticular distal humeral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaby, Mohamed; Elhawary, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Plate fixation of extraarticular distal humeral shaft fracture is often difficult. Traditional techniques do not allow for stable fixation. A single DCP plate may have inadequate purchase in the distal fragment. The use of large plates extending distally over the lateral supracondylar ridge is often associated with pain and sometimes interferes with elbow range of motion. In this study, 22 patients with extra articular distal humeral fractures were managed with dual plating using a paratricipital approach. The first plate--a narrow DCP--was fixed on the dorsal surface of the humerus. The second plate--a small 3.5 reconstruction plate--was fixed on the dorsolateral surface. Elbow motion was started immediately after surgery. The average follow-up duration was 25 months. The mean elbow flexion/extension are was 4 degrees to 138 degrees. Infection was reported in two cases and was managed successfully with conservative measures. Postoperative radial nerve contusion was reported in one case with complete resolution within 3 months.

  5. Comparative study of some factors affecting enumeration of moulds using dilution plate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Bruguera, M T; Cabañes, F J

    1992-11-01

    The influence of dilution plating technique, nature of diluent, culture media and incubation period on the enumeration of moulds have been studied. Three new culture media containing Auramine, Gentian Violet and Malachite Green respectively have been induced in this study. No significant differences were observed between results obtained after 3, 5 and 7 days of incubation. Significantly higher recoveries were obtained using the surface-spread method than pour plate method. Using the first technique no effect of diluent was observed, and among the different culture media studied higher counts were obtained with medium containing Auramine.

  6. Impact localization for a composite plate using the spatial focusing properties of advanced signal processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A structural health monitoring technique for locating impact position in a composite plate is presented in this paper. The method employs a single sensor and spatial focusing properties of time reversal(TR) and inverse filtering(IF). We first examine the spatial focusing efficiency of both approaches at the impact position and its surroundings through impact experiments. The imaging results of impact localization show that the impact location can be accurately estimated in any position of the plate. Compared to existing techniques for locating impact or acoustic emission source, the proposed method has the benefits of using a single sensor and not requiring knowledge of anisotropic material properties and geometry of structures. Furthermore, it does not depend on a particular mode of dispersive Lamb waves that is frequently used in other ultrasonic testing of plate like structures.

  7. Application of Freeman Chain Codes: An Alternative Recognition Technique for Malaysian Car Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jusoh, Nor Amizam

    2011-01-01

    Various applications of car plate recognition systems have been developed using various kinds of methods and techniques by researchers all over the world. The applications developed were only suitable for specific country due to its standard specification endorsed by the transport department of particular countries. The Road Transport Department of Malaysia also has endorsed a specification for car plates that includes the font and size of characters that must be followed by car owners. However, there are cases where this specification is not followed. Several applications have been developed in Malaysia to overcome this problem. However, there is still problem in achieving 100% recognition accuracy. This paper is mainly focused on conducting an experiment using chain codes technique to perform recognition for different types of fonts used in Malaysian car plates.

  8. A double layer plaque assay using spread plate technique for enumeration of bacteriophage MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Jiemin; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriophage MS2 is used widely as a model organism to estimate pathogenic virus survival in various environments, and is usually quantified by plaque assay. Although current plaque assays work well in enumeration of MS2 in environmental samples, quantification of MS2 calls for better visibility and higher consistency. In an attempt to improve the visibility and consistency of the current plaque assay, spread plate technique was introduced, instead of the pour plate technique used commonly in existing methods. Other parameters that influence the outcome of the plaque assay were also compared. Using spread plate technique resulted in an increase of plaque size by approximately 50% and contributed to a better visibility. Addition of supplements (glucose, CaCl2 and thiamine); reduction of agar thickness and hardness, also contributed to enhanced plaque visibility and increased plaque count. Among all the conditions tested, a supplemented thin bottom agar (10ml 1% agar) and a supplemented thin top agar (10ml 0.45% agar) with spread plate technique gave the maximum countable plaques with a minimum standard deviation. When compared to other methods, it produced significantly higher plaque count and lower variation. The optimized plaque assay significantly improved visibility and consistency of the existing plaque assay methods and could be used in quantification of MS2.

  9. Simulation techniques for spatially evolving instabilities in compressible flow over a flat plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasistho, B.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, J.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present numerical techniques suitable for a direct numerical simulation in the spatial setting. We demonstrate the application to the simulation of compressible flat plate flow instabilities. We compare second and fourth order accurate spatial discretization schemes in combination w

  10. A Hybrid Technique for Real Time License Plate Localization with the aid of FFBPNNAPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji PI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle License Plate Recognition (VLPR is an imperative constituent in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS, which encircles three foremost phases essentially License Plate Localization (LPL, Character Segmentation (CS, Character Recognition (CR. In this paper, we have intended to introduce a novel License Plate Localization algorithm subjected to Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. This proposed scheme involves distinct phases of pre-processing, image de-noising and enhancement, feature extraction, Neural Network training and License Plate detection. Followed by the mining of assorted statistical features, geometrical features, edge features and texture features from the vehicular image, they are given as the input to Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN in order to localize the License Plate. During the training process, the parameters of the FFBPNN will be optimized using the eminent Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO algorithm in order to improve the Neural Network convergence performance. The License Plate Localization of our proposed technique is analyzed with simple Feed Forward Back propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The experimental outcomes demonstrate that the proposed procedure proficiently accomplishes an extremely high localization rate with elevated specificity (91.3%.

  11. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  12. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  13. Inspection of Space Station Cold Plate Using Visual and Automated Holographic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Melis, Matthew E.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    Real-time holography has been used to confirm the presence of non-uniformity in the construction of an International Space Station cold plate. Ultrasonic C-scans have previously shown suspected areas of cooling fin disbonds. But both neural-net processed and visual holography did not evidence any progressive permanent changes resulting from 3000 pressurization and relaxation cycles of a Dash 8 cold plate. Neural-net and visual inspections were performed of characteristic patterns generated from electronic time-average holograms of the vibrating cold plate. Normal modes of vibration were excited at very low amplitudes for this purpose, The neural nets were trained to flag very small changes in the mode shapes as encoded in the characteristic patterns. Both the whole cold plate and a zoomed region were inspected. The inspections were conducted before, after, and during pressurization and relaxation cycles of the cold plate. A water-filled cold plate was pressurized to 120 psig (827 kPa) and relaxed for each cycle. Each cycle required 5 seconds. Both the artificial neural networks and the inspectors were unable to detect changes in the mode shapes of the relaxed cold plate. The cold plate was also inspected visually using real-time holography and double-exposure holography. Regions of non-uniformity correlating with the C-scans were apparent, but the interference patterns did not change after 3000 pressurization and relaxation cycles. These tests constituted the first practical application of a neural-net inspection technique developed originally with support from the Director's Discretionary Fund at the Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  14. Review of the Potential of the Ni/Cu Plating Technique for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atteq ur Rehman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a better method for the metallization of silicon solar cells is integral part of realizing superior efficiency. Currently, contact realization using screen printing is the leading technology in the silicon based photovoltaic industry, as it is simple and fast. However, the problem with metallization of this kind is that it has a lower aspect ratio and higher contact resistance, which limits solar cell efficiency. The mounting cost of silver pastes and decreasing silicon wafer thicknesses encourages silicon solar cell manufacturers to develop fresh metallization techniques involving a lower quantity of silver usage and not relying pressing process of screen printing. In recent times nickel/copper (Ni/Cu based metal plating has emerged as a metallization method that may solve these issues. This paper offers a detailed review and understanding of a Ni/Cu based plating technique for silicon solar cells. The formation of a Ni seed layer by adopting various deposition techniques and a Cu conducting layer using a light induced plating (LIP process are appraised. Unlike screen-printed metallization, a step involving patterning is crucial for opening the masking layer. Consequently, experimental procedures involving patterning methods are also explicated. Lastly, the issues of adhesion, back ground plating, process complexity and reliability for industrial applications are also addressed.

  15. Guided-wave tomography imaging plate defects by laser-based ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Pil; Lim, Ju Young; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Contact-guided-wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and rough surfaces or complex geometric features. A non-contact setup with a laser-ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is quite attractive for guided-wave inspection. In the present work, we developed a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique using the laser-ultrasonic technique in a plate. A method for Lamb-wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulsed laser-ultrasonic transmitter and Michelson-interferometer receiver was developed. The defect shape and area in the images obtained using laser scanning, showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact online inspection and monitoring technique.

  16. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.D. [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, K.X., E-mail: kliu@pku.edu.cn [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, Q.Y.; Wang, J.T. [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, H.H.; Li, X.J. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  17. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. D.; Liu, K. X.; Chen, Q. Y.; Wang, J. T.; Yan, H. H.; Li, X. J.

    2009-09-01

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  18. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  19. Key techniques and applications of adaptive growth method for stiffener layout design of plates and shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaohong; Ji, Xuerong; Ma, Man; Hou, Jianyun

    2013-11-01

    The application of the adaptive growth method is limited because several key techniques during the design process need manual intervention of designers. Key techniques of the method including the ground structure construction and seed selection are studied, so as to make it possible to improve the effectiveness and applicability of the adaptive growth method in stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Three schemes of ground structures, which are comprised by different shell elements and beam elements, are proposed. It is found that the main stiffener layouts resulted from different ground structures are almost the same, but the ground structure comprised by 8-nodes shell elements and both 3-nodes and 2-nodes beam elements can result in clearest stiffener layout, and has good adaptability and low computational cost. An automatic seed selection approach is proposed, which is based on such selection rules that the seeds should be positioned on where the structural strain energy is great for the minimum compliance problem, and satisfy the dispersancy requirement. The adaptive growth method with the suggested key techniques is integrated into an ANSYS-based program, which provides a design tool for the stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Typical design examples, including plate and shell structures to achieve minimum compliance and maximum bulking stability are illustrated. In addition, as a practical mechanical structural design example, the stiffener layout of an inlet structure for a large-scale electrostatic precipitator is also demonstrated. The design results show that the adaptive growth method integrated with the suggested key techniques can effectively and flexibly deal with stiffener layout design problem for plates and shells with complex geometrical shape and loading conditions to achieve various design objectives, thus it provides a new solution method for engineering structural topology design optimization.

  20. Novel thin plate element theory based on a continuity re-relaxed technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Thin plate problem has been receiving much interest due to its wide application in engineering.In this paper,a novel thin plate element theory is proposed based on a continuity re-relaxed technique to avoid the high continuity requirement for thin plate formulation which needs the high computation cost.The problem is first discretized into a set of background cells with field nodes,and only deflection field is treated as the field variable.On top of the background cells,the integration domains are further formed.The curvatures over integration domains are restructured through the divergence theorem,and the continuity requirement of the trial deflection function for thin plate problems can be re-relaxed.The Galerkin weak form is then used to create the discretized system equations.The curvatures in the integration domains are constant,and the stiffness matrix of the system can be computed directly without numerical integration.The rotational essential boundary conditions are imposed in the process of curvature field construction.Some numerical examples are computed using the RPIM approximation function.The excellent results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. A quantitative damage imaging technique based on enhanced CCRTM for composite plates using 2D scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaze; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-10-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) non-contact areal scan system was developed to image and quantify impact damage in a composite plate using an enhanced zero-lag cross-correlation reverse-time migration (E-CCRTM) technique. The system comprises a single piezoelectric wafer mounted on the composite plate and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) for scanning a region in the vicinity of the PZT to capture the scattered wavefield. The proposed damage imaging technique takes into account the amplitude, phase, geometric spreading, and all of the frequency content of the Lamb waves propagating in the plate; thus, a reflectivity coefficients of the delamination is calculated and potentially related to damage severity. Comparisons are made in terms of damage imaging quality between 2D areal scans and 1D line scans as well as between the proposed and existing imaging conditions. The experimental results show that the 2D E-CCRTM performs robustly when imaging and quantifying impact damage in large-scale composites using a single PZT actuator with a nearby areal scan using LDV.

  2. Flaw Imaging Technique for Plate-Like Structures Using Scanning Laser Source Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changgil Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the longitudinal, shear, and surface waves have been very widely used as ultrasonic wave-based exploration methods to identify internal defects of host structures. In this context, a noncontact nondestructive testing (NDT method is proposed to detect the damage of plate-like structures and to identify the location of the damage. To achieve this goal, a scanning laser source actuation technique is utilized to generate a guided wave and scans a specific area to find damage location more precisely. The ND:YAG pulsed laser is used to generate Lamb wave and a piezoelectric sensor is installed to measure the structural responses. The measured responses are analyzed using 3-dimensional Fourier transformation (3D FT. The damage-sensitive features are extracted by wavenumber filtering based on the 3D FT. Then, flaw imaging techniques of a plate-like structure are conducted using the damage-sensitive features. Finally, the plates with notches are investigated to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed NDT approach.

  3. Discrete algebraic reconstruction technique: a new approach for superresolution reconstruction of license plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei Zefreh, Karim; van Aarle, Wim; Batenburg, K. Joost; Sijbers, Jan

    2013-10-01

    A new superresolution algorithm is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution license plate image from a set of low-resolution camera images. The reconstruction methodology is based on the discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART), a recently developed reconstruction method. While DART has already been successfully applied in tomographic imaging, it has not yet been transferred to the field of camera imaging. DART is introduced for camera imaging through a demonstration of how prior knowledge of the colors of the license plate can be directly exploited during the reconstruction of a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution images. Simulation experiments show that DART can reconstruct images with superior quality compared to conventional reconstruction methods.

  4. Standard practice for monitoring atmospheric SO2 using the sulfation plate technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a weighted average effective SO2 level for a 30-day interval through the use of the sulfation plate method, a technique for estimating the effective SO2 content of the atmosphere, and especially with regard to the atmospheric corrosion of stationary structures or panels. This practice is aimed at determining SO2 levels rather than sulfuric acid aerosol or acid precipitation. 1.2 The results of this practice correlate approximately with volumetric SO2 concentrations, although the presence of dew or condensed moisture tends to enhance the capture of SO2 into the plate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. ROLE OF LOW PROFILE PRECONTOURED DISTAL TIBIAL LOCKING PLATE USING MIPPO TECHNIQUE IN PILON FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Sunder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : Tibial pilon fracture – Spectrum of injury ranging from fractures caused by low energy rotational foces to fractures caused by high energy axial compression forces due to RTA/ fall from height with significant metaphyseal communition articular communition with diaphyseal extension. Almost 80% patients will have fibula fracture. The aim of the study is study the efficacy of LP PD DTP in the management of closed pilon fractures (OTA type A Type B and Type C 1 and open pilon fractures (Grade 1 Grade II Grade III A (Gustilo Anterson grading. 1. I have studied 21 patients of pilon fracture classified using AO/OTA classification Type A-metaphyseal; Type B–Partially articular; Type C Metaphyseal fracture with articular involvement. 2. Used LP/ PC/ Distal tibial plate using MIPPO technique in OTA–A, B and C 1 closed & grade I II Grade III A compound fractures. OBSERVATIONS: 1. In contrary to stages protocol (Ist external fixation with fibular plating after 2-3 Weeks ORIF/MIPPO with/Without bone grafting, it is done percutaneously or minimally invasive and it can be done on day 1 without any major soft tissue problem & post-operative infection. 2. Duration of stay in the hospital can be reduced. 3. Since it is done through calcaneal traction or femoral distractor – fibula length restored & plating may not be necessary all the time and fibula plating can be avoid if the soft tissue condition is not favorable for plating laterally. 4. Since it is done through calcaneal traction/femoral distractor inspite of ground glass communition–good reduction is almost always possible. 5. Since MIPPO–need for bone grafting in less. 6. As in staged protocol more time is spent in soft tissue healing and after 2–3 weeks, fractures reduction if difficult and almost impossible with indirect reduction and may warrant open reduction. I conclude that LP PC distal tibial plate using MIPPO technique offers several advantages over two staged protocol and improved

  6. The preparation technique optimization of epoxy/compressed expanded graphite composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao; Ming, Pingwen; Hou, Ming; Fu, Jie; Fu, Yunfeng; Luo, Xiaokuan; Shen, Qiang; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    Vacuum resin impregnation method has been used to prepare polymer/compressed expanded graphite (CEG) composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this research, three different preparation techniques of the epoxy/CEG composite bipolar plate (Compression-Impregnation method, Impregnation-Compression method and Compression-Impregnation-Compression method) are optimized by the physical properties of the composite bipolar plates. The optimum conditions and the advantages/disadvantages of the different techniques are discussed respectively. Although having different characteristics, bipolar plates obtained by these three techniques can all meet the demands of PEMFC bipolar plates as long as the optimum conditions are selected. The Compression-Impregnation-Compression method is shown to be the optimum method because of the outstanding properties of the bipolar plates. Besides, the cell assembled with these optimum composite bipolar plates shows excellent stability after 200 h durability testing. Therefore the composite prepared by vacuum resin impregnation method is a promising candidate for bipolar plate materials in PEMFCs.

  7. A simplified technique for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a screw-plate implanted over the Caspar distractor pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    The author presents a simplified technique for midline screw-plate fixation in fusion procedures after anterior cervical discectomy, in which the plate is introduced over the Caspar distractor pins. The Uniplate system used, with a single screw in each vertebral body, minimizes bone damage to the vertebral body as the screws can be fixed in the holes previously used for the Caspar distractor pins. This simplified version of the classical anterior cervical fusion technique saves surgical time, facilitates screw insertion, and obviates the need for manipulations to stabilize the plate before the screws are inserted. It provides immediate stability comparable to other plate systems. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report on cervical fusion with the Uniplate system with the plate being introduced over the Caspar distractor pins.

  8. Yerba Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)The body breaks down the caffeine in yerba mate to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  9. Differential performance of honey bee colonies selected for bee-pollen production through instrumental insemination and free-mating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of bee-pollen as a nutritional supplement or as a production-enhancing agent in livestock has increased the demand for this product worldwide. Despite the current importance of this niche within the apiculture industry, few studies have addressed the pollen production. We tested the performance of free-mated (FM and instrumentally inseminated queens (IQ in order to establish the effect of different breeding systems on pollen production. The F1 generation of IQ queens produced 153.95±42.83g/day, showing a significant improvement on the pollen production (2.74 times when compared to the parental generation (51.83±7.84g/day. The F1 generation of free-mated queens produced 100.07±8.23 g/day, which increased by 1.78 times when compared to the parental generation. Furthermore, we observed a statistically significant difference between the pollen production between colonies from the IQ and FM treatments. This study suggests that inseminated queens should be considered by beekeepers that aim to increase pollen production.

  10. Thermal performance of plate-fin heat exchanger using passive techniques: vortex-generator and nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshvaght-Aliabadi, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    This experimental study investigates the effects of vortex-generator (VG) and Cu/water nanofluid flow on performance of plate-fin heat exchangers. The Cu/water nanofluids are produced by using a one-step method, namely electro-exploded wire technique, with four nanoparticles weight fractions (i.e. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 %). Required properties of nanofluids are systematically measured, and empirical correlations are developed. A highly precise test loop is fabricated to obtain accurate results of the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. Experiments are conducted for nanofluids flow inside the plain and VG channels. Based on the experimental results, utilizing the VG channel instead of the plain channel enhances the heat transfer rate, remarkably. Also, the results show that the VG channel is more effective than the nanofluid on the performance of plate-fin heat exchangers. It is observed that the combination of the two heat transfer enhancement techniques has a noticeably high thermal-hydraulic performance, about 1.67. Finally, correlations are developed to predict Nusselt number and friction factor of nanofluids flow inside the VG channel.

  11. Lamb-Wave-Based Tomographic Imaging Techniques for Hole-Edge Corrosion Monitoring in Plate Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengjiang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel monitoring method for hole-edge corrosion damage in plate structures based on Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques. An experimental procedure with a cross-hole layout using 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs was designed. The A0 mode of the Lamb wave was selected, which is sensitive to thickness-loss damage. The iterative algebraic reconstruction technique (ART method was used to locate and quantify the corrosion damage at the edge of the hole. Hydrofluoric acid with a concentration of 20% was used to corrode the specimen artificially. To estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the real corrosion damage was compared with the predicted corrosion damage based on the tomographic method. The results show that the Lamb-wave-based tomographic method can be used to monitor the hole-edge corrosion damage accurately.

  12. A technique using a stellar spectrographic plate to measure terrestrial ozone column depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, A.Y.

    1995-08-01

    This thesis examines the feasibility of a technique to extract ozone column depths from photographic stellar spectra in the 5000--7000 Angstrom spectral region. A stellar spectrographic plate is measured to yield the relative intensity distribution of a star`s radiation after transmission through the earth`s atmosphere. The amount of stellar radiation absorbed by the ozone Chappuis band is proportional to the ozone column depth. The measured column depth is within 10% the mean monthly value for latitude 36{degree}N, however the uncertainty is too large to make the measurement useful. This thesis shows that a 10% improvement to the photographic sensitivity uncertainty can decrease the column depth uncertainty to a level acceptable for climatic study use. This technique offers the possibility of measuring past ozone column depths.

  13. A technique using a stellar spectrographic plate to measure terrestrial ozone column depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Alec Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This thesis examines the feasibility of a technique to extract ozone column depths from photographic stellar spectra in the 5000--7000 Angstrom spectral region. A stellar spectrographic plate is measured to yield the relative intensity distribution of a star`s radiation after transmission through the earth`s atmosphere. The amount of stellar radiation absorbed by the ozone Chappuis band is proportional to the ozone column depth. The measured column depth is within 10% the mean monthly value for latitude 36{degree}N, however the uncertainty is too large to make the measurement useful. This thesis shows that a 10% improvement to the photographic sensitivity uncertainty can decrease the column depth uncertainty to a level acceptable for climatic study use. This technique offers the possibility of measuring past ozone column depths.

  14. New explosive welding technique to weld aluminum alloy and stainless steel plates using a stainless steel intermediate plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Izuma, T. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Siga (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Various aluminum alloys and stainless steel were explosively welded using a thin stainless steel intermediate plate inserted between the aluminum alloy driver and stainless steel base plates. At first. the velocity change of the driver plate with flying distance is calculated using finite-difference analysis. Since the kinetic energy lost by collision affects the amount of the fused layer generated at the interface between the aluminum alloy and stainless steel, the use of a thin stainless steel intermediate plate is effective for decreasing the energy dissipated by the collision. The interfacial zone at the welded interface is composed of a fine eutectic structure of aluminum and Fe[sub 4]Al[sub 13], and the explosive welding, process of this metal combination proceeds mainly by intensive deformation of the aluminum alloy. The weldable region for various aluminum alloys is decided by the change in collision velocity and kinetic energy lost by collision, and the weldable region is decreased with the increase in the strength of the aluminum alloy.

  15. A Technique for Removal of Forearm Dynamic Compression Plate with Stripped Screws: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Removal of plates is a procedure commonly performed by orthopaedic surgeons and stripped screws are probably the most common problem encountered during this procedure. Stripped screws are caused by slippage between the screwdriver and the screw. Due to the inherent difficulty in removing such screws, surgeons should be knowledgeable in techniques for their removal and should be equipped with the proper instruments to expedite the procedure. There are few published articles about such techniques. This report describes a technique for removal of plates with stripped screws. The tip of a stripped screw is approached from the far cortex and then reamed with a trephine reamer in the direction of the screw until both cortices are cleared. The plate is then removed with stripped screws attached. All the removals utilizing this technique to date have been successful with no complications, and this method is safe, efficient and technically easy to learn.

  16. A Baseline-Free Defect Imaging Technique in Plates Using Time Reversal of Lamb Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyunjo Jeong; Sungjong Cho; Wei Wei

    2011-01-01

    @@ We present an analytical investigation for a baseline-free imaging of a defect in plate-like structures using the time-reversal of Lamb waves.We first consider the flexural wave (A mode) propagation in a plate containing a defect, and reception and time reversal process of the output signal at the receiver.The received output signal is then composed of two parts: a directly propagated wave and a scattered wave from the defect.The time reversal of these waves recovers the original input signal, and produces two additional sidebands that contain the time-of- flight information on the defect location.One of the side-band signals is then extracted as a pure defect signal.A defect localization image is then constructed from a beamforming technique based on the time-frequency analysis of the side band signal for each transducer pair in a network of sensors.The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables the accurate, baseline-free imaging of a defect.

  17. The Deflection Plate Analyzer: A Technique for Space Plasma Measurements Under Highly Disturbed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Dutton, Ken; Martinez, Nelson; Smith, Dennis; Stone, Nobie H.

    2004-01-01

    A technique has been developed to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The present method is an extension of the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a mass measurement that does not include either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This reduces the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware as compared to classical mass analyzers. The new instrument design is called the Deflection Plate Analyzer (DPA) and can deconvolve multiple ion streams and analyze each stream for ion flux intensity (density), velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). The basic functionality of the DPA is discussed. The performance characteristics of a flight instrument as built for an electrodynamic tether mission, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), and the instrument s role in measuring key experimental conditions are also discussed.

  18. A multi-technique chemical characterization of a Stradivari decorated violin top plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagodi, M.; Canevari, C.; Bonizzoni, L.; Galli, A.; Maspero, F.; Martini, M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of the materials of a violin top plate made by Antonio Stradivari (17th century), with different diagnostic techniques and with an integrated and non-destructive analytical methodology to study surface coatings and decorations. The UV-induced visible fluorescence, optical digital microscopy, ED-XRF associated with micro-FTIR spectroscopy analysis, and dendrochronology were performed. The investigations were aimed to identify the presence of original varnish layers and to characterize the composition of the decorations, either the inlaid purflings or the composite false-inlay strip between them. Several results were achieved: (i) evidence of the absence of varnish layers on the surface as a result of extended and inappropriate restoring; (ii) identification of the dye used for the black layers of the purflings; (iii) characterization of the black matrix and the white elements of the decoration. Furthermore, a dendrochronological dating was performed. A copy of the top plate was realized with materials similar to those identified on the Stradivari original; the same analyses performed on the original model were carried out on the same areas of the copy.

  19. Measurement of refractive index of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate crystal plate using reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Chaudhary; A Molla; A Asfaw

    2009-10-01

    The paper reports the measurement of refractive indices and anisotropic absorption coefficients of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal in the form of thin plate using reflection ellipsometry technique. This experiment is designed in the Graduate Optics Laboratory of the Addis Ababa University and He–Ne laser ( = 632.8 nm), diode laser ( = 670.0 nm) and temperature-tuned diode laser ( = 804.4 and 808.4 nm), respectively have been employed as source. The experimental data for , are fitted to the Marquardt–Levenberg theoretical model of curve fitting. The obtained experimental data of refractive indices are compared with different existing theoretical and experimental values of KTP crystals and found to be in good agreement with them.

  20. Preparation and characterization of molybdenum powders with copper coating by the electroless plating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guangjun; WANG Dezhi

    2008-01-01

    Molybdenum powders with a diameter of approximately 3 μm were coated with copper using the electroless plating technique in the pH 12.5-13 and temperature range of 55-75℃.The optimization of the electroless copper bath was evaluated through the combination of process parameters like pH and temperature.The optimized values of pH and temperature were found to be 12.5 and 60℃,respectively,which attributes to the bright maroon color of the coating with an increase in weight of 46%.The uncoated and coated powders were subjected to microstructural studies using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD).An attempt was made to understand the growth mechanism of the coating.The diffusion-shrinkage autocatalytic model was suggested for copper growth on the molybdenum surface.

  1. Single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft with tubularized incised urethral plate technique for hypospadias reoperations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jing Ye; Ping Ping; Yi-Dong Liu; Zheng Li; Yi-Ran Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To report the experience with single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal grafts using the Snodgrass technique for complex redo cases. Methods: From May 2004 to December 2005, a total of 53 patients aged from 3 to 34 years old(average 11.62 ± 7.18 years) with failed previous hypospadias surgery were included in the present study. Indica- tions included urethral strictures and repair breakdown. The unhealthy urethra was unroofed from the meatus in the ventral midline, a buccal mucosal graft was inlayed between the incised urethral plate and fixed to the corporacavemosa. The neourethra was tubularized, and covered with subcutaneous (dartos) tissue and penile skin. Glanuloplasty was also performed in all cases. Outcome analysis included clinical follow-up, and endoscopy in 2 selected cases. Results: The buccal mucosal graft was 3.0-7.5 cm in length and 0.7-2.0 cm in width. All patients required glanuloplasty, with buccal mucosal grafts extended to the tip of the glans. After a follow-up of 14-30 months (mean 22.6 months), the total complication rate was 15.1%, with five cases of fistula and three cases of stricture. Conclusion: Inlaying dorsal buccal mucosal grafts applying the Snodgrass technique is a reliable method for creating a substitute urethral plate for tubularization. The recurrent rate of urethral stricture and fistula is at an acceptable level for redo cases. This approach represents an effective, simple and safe option for reoperations. (Asain J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 682- 686)

  2. Rapid Detection of Viable Microorganisms Based on a Plate Count Technique Using Arrayed Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behraad Bahreyni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of a miniaturized biosensor system that can be used for rapid detection and counting of microorganisms in food or water samples is described. The developed microsystem employs a highly sensitive impedimetric array of biosensors to monitor the growth of bacterial colonies that are dispersed across an agar growth medium. To use the system, a sample containing the bacteria is cultured above the agar layer. Using a multiplexing network, the electrical properties of the medium at different locations are continuously measured, recorded, and compared against a baseline signal. Variations of signals from different biosensors are used to reveal the presence of bacteria in the sample, as well as the locations of bacterial colonies across the biochip. This technique forms the basis for a label-free bacterial detection for rapid analysis of food samples, reducing the detection time by at least a factor of four compared to the current required incubation times of 24 to 72 hours for plate count techniques. The developed microsystem has the potential for miniaturization to a stage where it could be deployed for rapid analysis of food samples at commercial scale at laboratories, food processing facilities, and retailers.

  3. A refractive tilting-plate technique for measurement of dynamic contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Gregory T; Coles, Donald E

    2005-06-01

    The contact angle is a critical parameter in liquid interface dynamics ranging from liquid spreading on a solid surface on earth to liquid motion in partially filled containers in space. A refractive tilting-plate technique employing a scanning laser beam is developed to conduct an experimental study of a moving contact line, with the intention of making accurate measurements of the contact angle. The technique shows promise as an accurate and potentially fully automated means to determine the velocity dependence of the contact angle at the intersection of the interface between two transparent fluids with a transparent solid surface. Ray tracing calculations are included to reinforce the measurement concept. The principal experiments were conducted at speeds ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 mm/s, both advancing and receding, using an immiscible liquid pair (nonane/formamide) in contact with glass. The contact angle was found to depend for practical purposes only on the sign of the velocity and not on its magnitude for the range of velocities studied. Other observations revealed a bimodal behavior of the contact line that depends on which liquid first contacts the glass, with resulting drift in the dynamic contact angle with time.

  4. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  5. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Nath, S. K.; Peyada, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D) heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013) and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012). To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  6. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Nath S.K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013 and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012. To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  7. Numerical-perturbation technique for stability of flat-plate boundary layers with suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, H. L.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical-perturbation scheme is proposed for determining the stability of flows over plates with suction through a finite number of porous suction strips. The basic flow is calculated as the sum of the Blasius flow and closed-form linearized triple-deck solutions of the flow due to the strips. A perturbation technique is used to determine the increment a(ij) in the complex wavenumber at a given location x(j) due to the presence of a strip centered at x(i). The end result is a set of influence coefficients that can be used to determine the growth rates and amplification factors for any suction levels without repeating the calculations. The numerical-perturbation results are verified by comparison with interacting boundary layers for the case of six strips and the experimental data of Reynolds and Saric for single- and multiple-strip configurations. The influence coefficient form of the solution suggests a scheme for optimizing the strip configuration. The results show that one should concentrate the suction near branch I of the neutral stability curve, a conclusion verified by the experiments.

  8. Study on kinetics of hydrogen dissolution and hydrogen solubility in oxides using imaging plate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, K., E-mail: hashi@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ogata, K.; Nishikawa, M.; Tanabe, T. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Abe, S.; Akamaru, S.; Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Univ. of Toyama, Toyama (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Using a tritium imaging plate technique, kinetics of tritium dissolution and its solubility in several oxides were examined. Mirror-polished single crystals of alumina, spinel and zirconia were used as specimens, which were exposed to 133 Pa of a tritium(T)–deuterium(D) gas mixture (T/(T + D) ∼ 0.17) at temperatures ranging from 673 to 973 K for 1–5 h. The T surface activity on the specimens increased with increasing temperature and exposure time, it almost saturated at 873 K and reached 2 × 10{sup 5} Bq/cm{sup 2} (1 × 10{sup 14} T/cm{sup 2}), and no clear difference appeared among the types of specimens. The T activity in the oxide bulk also increased with temperature, in which there was a trend for the oxides: spinel ≧ zirconia ≧ alumina. In the T dissolution process for all oxides, the concentration gradient due to its diffusion was not observed even for short exposure times: the T density was almost uniform over the specimens in transition states and increased with exposure time up to the saturated value. These experimental results suggested that the rate-controlling process of T dissolution in the temperature region should be not its diffusion in the oxides but dissociation of hydrogen molecules (T–D mixture in this case) into atoms, its adsorption on the surface and/or T penetration from the surface into the bulk.

  9. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  10. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  11. An Experimentally Validated Numerical Modeling Technique for Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M J; Nellis, G F; Kelin, S A; Zhu, W; Gianchandani, Y

    2010-11-01

    Cryogenic and high-temperature systems often require compact heat exchangers with a high resistance to axial conduction in order to control the heat transfer induced by axial temperature differences. One attractive design for such applications is a perforated plate heat exchanger that utilizes high conductivity perforated plates to provide the stream-to-stream heat transfer and low conductivity spacers to prevent axial conduction between the perforated plates. This paper presents a numerical model of a perforated plate heat exchanger that accounts for axial conduction, external parasitic heat loads, variable fluid and material properties, and conduction to and from the ends of the heat exchanger. The numerical model is validated by experimentally testing several perforated plate heat exchangers that are fabricated using microelectromechanical systems based manufacturing methods. This type of heat exchanger was investigated for potential use in a cryosurgical probe. One of these heat exchangers included perforated plates with integrated platinum resistance thermometers. These plates provided in situ measurements of the internal temperature distribution in addition to the temperature, pressure, and flow rate measured at the inlet and exit ports of the device. The platinum wires were deposited between the fluid passages on the perforated plate and are used to measure the temperature at the interface between the wall material and the flowing fluid. The experimental testing demonstrates the ability of the numerical model to accurately predict both the overall performance and the internal temperature distribution of perforated plate heat exchangers over a range of geometry and operating conditions. The parameters that were varied include the axial length, temperature range, mass flow rate, and working fluid.

  12. The constraint method: A new finite element technique. [applied to static and dynamic loads on plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Szabo, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    An approch to the finite element method which utilizes families of conforming finite elements based on complete polynomials is presented. Finite element approximations based on this method converge with respect to progressively reduced element sizes as well as with respect to progressively increasing orders of approximation. Numerical results of static and dynamic applications of plates are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. Comparisons are made with plate elements in NASTRAN and the high-precision plate element developed by Cowper and his co-workers. Some considerations are given to implementation of the constraint method into general purpose computer programs such as NASTRAN.

  13. Development of nondestructive testing techniques for plated-through holes in multilayer printed circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P. L.; Mcmurtrey, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a nondestructive test with the capability to interrogate plated-through holes as small as 0.51 millimeters inside diameter is discussed. The system can detect defects such as holes, voids, cracks, and thin spots that reduce the current carrying capability of plates-through interconnects by 20 percent or more. Efforts were directed toward the design and fabrication of magnetic circuitry mutual coupling probes and to evaluate the effectiveness of these devices for detecting in multilayer board plated-through holes.

  14. STUDY OF OUTCOME OF DISTAL TIBIAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATES: BY BOTH OPEN REDUCTION AND MIPO TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikiran Nandiraju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tibia being the most common fractured long bone of the body; 1. Distal metaphyseal fractures comprise 5-7% of these injures; 2. With or without involving the articular surface. Encouraging results for open reduction and internal fixation (Plate osteosynthesis and closed manual reduction with osteosynthesis with minimal invasive percutaneous locking plates has been noted for lower third tibial fractures. Locking compression plate provides the advantage of anatomic reduction, stable fixation, preservation of blood supply, preventing joint stiffness, less soft tissue injury. METHODS AND MATERIAL This study included (40 patients with distal tibia fractures between 18-65 years presenting in the Department of Orthopaedics in Osmania Medical College and Osmania General Hospital .This is prospective study. These patients are treated with locking compression plates. RESULTS Patients were evaluated using AOFAS7 score for hindfoot scale (100 points. Excellent - 26 (65%, Good - 12 (30%, Fair - 2 (5% comparable to other studies. CONCLUSION Reduction and internal fixation of distal tibial fractures using locking compression plate medially by open and MIPO technique is one of the acceptable forms of treatment for lower third tibia including the articular surface with or without communication.

  15. Silver and tin plating as medieval techniques of producing counterfeit coins and their identification by means of micro-XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložek, M.; Trojek, T.

    2017-08-01

    Archaeological surveys and metal detector prospecting yield a great amount of coins from the medieval period. Naturally, some of these are counterfeit which an experienced numismatist can determine without using chemical methods. The production of counterfeit coins in the middle ages took place in castles, caves or other remote areas where waste from this activity can still be found today - copper sheets, technical ceramics and counterfeit coins. Until recently, it has been assumed that medieval counterfeit coins are made by silver-plating copper blanks using an amalgam. However, the performed analyses reveal that there are many more techniques of counterfeiting of coins. Other techniques were based on e.g. tin amalgam plating of the blanks or alloying so-called white metal with silver-like appearance from which the coins were minted. Current chemical analyses indicate that the coins were often tinned by hot dipping with no amalgamation. Micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as a suitable non-destructive method to identify present chemical elements in investigated artifacts and to quantify their concentrations. In addition, a quick technique telltale the plating was applied. This technique utilizes the detected fluorescence ratio Kα/Kβ of copper, which is the main ingredient of a lot of historical metallic materials.

  16. A new technique of fixation of radial head fractures using a modified tubular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guha A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Radial head fractures are fairly common, occurring in 17-44% of all elbow injuries. Mason Type 2 fractures may be fixed using mini fragment screws, this fixation often needing augmentation with a plate to make the construct rotationally stable. However, the drill holes needed to fix the plate to the radial head, carry the risk of inflicting more injury to the fractured fragments. In our case, the radial head fracture was fixed with a modified one-third tubular plate. The plate was cut through the distal hole and the two cut ends were bent into hooks. These two hooks were engaged into two breaches made on the margin of the radial head and this provided rotational stability to the head without causing further damage. The fracture healed well and the patient regained full movement in the elbow. We conclude that this method may be used to fix fractures of the radial head, which require additional support with a plate.

  17. Extensive Characterisation of Copper-clad Plates, Bonded by the Explosive Technique, for ITER Electrical Joints

    CERN Document Server

    Langeslag, S A E; Libeyre, P; Gung, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors will be extensively implemented in the large superconducting magnet coils foreseen to confine the plasma in the ITER experiment. The design of the various magnet systems imposes the use of electrical joints to connect unit lengths of superconducting coils by inter-pancake coupling. These twin-box lap type joints, produced by compacting each cable end in into a copper - stainless steel bimetallic box, are required to be highly performing in terms of electrical and mechanical prop- erties. To ascertain the suitability of the first copper-clad plates, recently produced, the performance of several plates is studied. Validation of the bonded interface is carried out by determining microstructural, tensile and shear characteristics. These measure- ments confirm the suitability of explosion bonded copper-clad plates for an overall joint application. Additionally, an extensive study is conducted on the suitability of certain copper purity grades for the various joint types.

  18. Evaluating surface energy components of asphalt binders using Wilhelmy Plate and Sessile Drop Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bahramian, Anohe

    2012-01-01

    In this Study, the surface energy was investigated for six penetration grade 70/100 bitumen binders. Wilhelmy Plate and the Sessile Drop were used to determine the contact angles. The purpose of this study was to compare the Wilhelmy Plate method with the Sessile Drop method, and to compare the significance of Owens-Wendt model with the significance of Acid Base model by correlating surface energy components. Better R2 –values were found for surface energy components by using the Owens-Wendt ...

  19. Experimental techniques for subnanosecond resolution of laser-launched plates and impact studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Stahl, D.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Dynamic Experimentation Div.

    1994-09-01

    Miniature laser-launched plates have applications in shock wave physics, studying dynamic properties of materials and can be used to generate experimental data in a manner similar to a laboratory gas gun for one-dimensional impact experiments. Laser-launched plates have the advantage of small size, low kinetic energy, and can be launched with ubiquitous laboratory lasers. Because of the small size and high accelerations (10{sup 7}--10{sup 10} g`s), improved temporal resolution and optical non-contact methods to collect data are required. Traditional mechanical in-situ gauges would significantly impair the data quality and do not have the required time response.

  20. 3-D thermo-mechanical laboratory modeling of plate-tectonics: modeling scheme, technique and first experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boutelier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental apparatus for 3-D thermo-mechanical analogue modeling of plate tectonic processes such as oceanic and continental subductions, arc-continent or continental collisions. The model lithosphere, made of temperature-sensitive elasto-plastic analogue materials with strain softening, is submitted to a constant temperature gradient causing a strength reduction with depth in each layer. The surface temperature is imposed using infrared emitters, which allows maintaining an unobstructed view of the model surface and the use of a high resolution optical strain monitoring technique (Particle Imaging Velocimetry. Subduction experiments illustrate how the stress conditions on the interplate zone can be estimated using a force sensor attached to the back of the upper plate and adjusted via the density and strength of the subducting lithosphere or the lubrication of the plate boundary. The first experimental results reveal the potential of the experimental set-up to investigate the three-dimensional solid-mechanics interactions of lithospheric plates in multiple natural situations.

  1. Characterization of Bond Strength of U-Mo Fuel Plates Using the Laser Shockwave Technique: Capabilities and Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Smith; D. L. Cottle; B. H. Rabin

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to-date on the implementation of new laser-based capabilities for characterization of bond strength in nuclear fuel plates, and presents preliminary results obtained from fresh fuel studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Characterization involves application of two complementary experimental methods, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging, collectively referred to as the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST), that allows the integrity, physical properties and interfacial bond strength in fuel plates to be evaluated. Example characterization results are provided, including measurement of layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of generated debonds (including kissing bonds). LST provides spatially localized, non-contacting measurements with minimum specimen preparation, and is ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterizing nuclear fuel plates are described, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed, with emphasis on demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of these methods. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability to distinguish bond strength variations between different fuel plates. Although additional development work is necessary to validate and qualify the test methods, these results suggest LST is viable as a method to meet fuel qualification requirements to demonstrate acceptable bonding integrity.

  2. Synthesis of Corrosion-resistant Nanocrystalline Nickle-copper Alloy Coatings by Pulse-plating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright and smooth nanocrystalline Monel-type Ni-Cu alloy gets deposited from complex citrate electrolyte by pulse electrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies have revealedthat the deposited Ni-Cu alloy was nanocrystalline in nature and it comprised a two-phase (fcc+Ll, mixture. The presence of twins could be seen in the nanocrystals. The Ni-Cu alloysprepared by pulse electrolysis were finer grained (- 2.5-28.5 nm than those deposited by direct current method. Nelson-Riley function has been used to calculate the lattice parameters for both the pulse current-plated and direct current-plated alloys from x-ray diffraction analysis. The microhardness values for pulse current-plated alloys were higher than for the direct currentplated alloys. The internal stresses of both the pulse current-deposited and the direct currentdeposited alloys have also been measured; the values were lower for pulse current-plated alloys. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies were carried out in aerated and deaerated neutral 3.0 Wt per cent NaCl solution and instantaneous corrosion current density of the plated alloy was determined and compared with the Monel-400 alloy. It was found that nanocrystalline pulse current-N,-35 8 Wt p;r cent copper alloy uxh~bitedlo wer instantaneous value of corros~onc urrent densirv than that of soeclrnens with direct current method and Monel-400 allov The d~ssolut~on ~ ~~~~-~ behaviour ofthe deposited nanocrystalline material was found to be more like general corrosion rather than localised corrosion as in the case of Monel-400 alloy.

  3. Repositioning and stabilization of the radial styloid process in comminuted fractures of the distal radius using a single approach: the radio-volar double plating technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi Matthias; Wahl Peter; Kohut Georges

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A possible difficulty in intra-articular fracture of the distal radius is the displacement tendency of the radial styloid process due to the tension of the brachioradialis tendon. Methods Ten patients treated within one year for complex distal radius fractures by double-plating technique with a radial buttress plate and volar locking plate, through a single volar approach, were followed prospectively during 24 months. Outcome measures included radiographic follow-up, range...

  4. Three-contrast, metal test pattern (Snellen E-plate) in evaluation of imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.

    A metal test pattern based on a minified Snellen-type E-plate was evaluated in testing six imaging techniques for chest radiography. The device consisted of three contrast zones and it was attached to the patient's back over the right lung during chest radiography. The values for visual detectability of the E-figures were compared with the film scores obtained by grading the radiographs with respect to visibility of diagnostically important anatomic details. The test plate proved to be a simple, quick and reproducible tool for testing several imaging techniques at the same time. The E-plate results were similar to those of the visual grading analysis in most respects. A few discrepancies existed, which were probably due to the inability of the test pattern to fully consider the effect of motion unsharpness and varying scattering conditions within the human thorax, as well as to great differences in roentgen ray absorption properties between Au and tissues. (orig.).

  5. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Costantini, Alberto; de Gasperis, Nicola; De Vita, Andrea; Lin, Bernard K H; Francone, Marco; Beccaglia, Mario A Rojas; Mastantuono, Marco

    2013-01-01

    One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P Latarjet procedure. Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level 4. Prospective case series, Treatment study.

  6. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  7. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan; Dandalo, Leonard C; Wood, Oliver R; Lobb, Leanne N; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-03-02

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to supplement the control of An. arabiensis was proposed for South Africa and is currently under investigation. The success of this technique is dependent on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males to compete with wild males for mates. As part of the research and development of the SIT technique for use against An. arabiensis in South Africa, radio-sensitivity and mating competitiveness of a local An. arabiensis sexing strain were assessed. The optimal irradiation dose inducing male sterility without compromising mating vigour was tested using Cobalt 60 irradiation doses ranging from 70-100 Gy. Relative mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory-reared males (GAMA strain) compared to fertile wild-type males (AMAL strain) for virgin wild-type females (AMAL) was investigated under laboratory and semi-field conditions using large outdoor cages. Three different sterile male to fertile male to wild-type female ratios were evaluated [1:1:1, 5:1:1 and 10:1:1 (sterile males: fertile, wild-type males: fertile, wild-type females)]. Irradiation at the doses tested did not affect adult emergence but had a moderate effect on adult survivorship and mating vigour. A dose of 75 Gy was selected for the competitiveness assays. Mating competitiveness experiments showed that irradiated GAMA male mosquitoes are a third as competitive as their fertile AMAL counterparts under semi-field conditions. However, they were not as competitive under laboratory conditions. An inundative ratio of 10:1 induced the

  8. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P. [Riso National Lab. (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  9. Clinical and radiological outcome after mini-open Latarjet technique with fixation of coracoid with Arthrex wedge mini-plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Deepak; Goyal, Ankit; Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Mohindra, Mukul; Mehta, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Technical faults leading to coracoid fractures during screw insertion and coracoid graft osteolysis are concerns with standard screw fixation techniques in Latarjet procedure. The purpose of this study is to share our experience using Arthrex wedge profile plate with mini-open technique for graft fixation, that ensures better load distribution between coracoid graft and glenoid. We did retrospective analysis of 24 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after failed arthroscopic Bankart's repair. Arthroscopic examination of affected shoulder was done in lateral position before making patient supine for open Latarjet. A low profile wedge plate (Arthrex) with two screws was used for the procedure. CT analysis was performed post-operatively at 6 months to see graft union and results were evaluated using the Rowe and Walch Duplay score. Mean follow-up time was 26 months. Postoperatively, mean forward elevation was 170.6 + 4.6° (loss of average 5.9°) and mean external rotation was 42.5 + 5.3° (loss of average 3.1°). All patients returned to their previous occupation. None reported to be having any recurrent subluxation. Functional assessment done using Rowe score and Walch Duplay score showed statistically significant improvement (p value 0.034). There were no implant-related complications and no case of coracoid graft osteolysis. Mini-open Latarjet with graft fixation with Arthrex mini-plate provides satisfactory outcome in patients who require reoperation due to dramatic bone loss and failed soft tissue reconstruction. The modified incision improves exposure enabling plate fixation and the secure fixation accelerates rehabilitation.

  10. Use of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and PCR-based techniques to assess intraspecific and interspecific matings of Armillaria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Kathiravetpillai Arumuganathan

    2001-01-01

    For assessments of intraspecific mating using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, two compatible basidiospore-derived isolates were selected from each of four parental basidiomata of North American Biological Species (NABS) X. The nuclear status in NABS X varied with basidiospore-derived isolates. Nuclei within basidiospore-derived isolates existed as haploids...

  11. Dissimilar material welding of rapidly solidified foil and stainless steel plate using underwater explosive welding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokamoto, Kazuyuki [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: hokamoto@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Nakata, Kazuhiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, Akihisa [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tsuda, Shota [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University (Japan); Tsumura, Takuya [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-03-20

    Rapidly solidified amorphous and metallic glass thin foils clad on a stainless steel base plate is attempted by employing underwater shock wave assembly. The conditions of the explosive welding are numerically analyzed and discussed based on the earlier welding limits. The thin foils successfully welded along the length of 50 mm show clear waves typically found in explosively welded interface. The interfacial microstructure characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopes shows evidence of excessive melting generated due to the trapping of metal jet in limited area.

  12. Design of an Automated Secure Garage System Using License Plate Recognition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern technologies have reached our garage to secure the cars and entrance to the residences for the demand of high security and automated infrastructure. The concept of intelligent secure garage systems in modern transport management system is a remarkable example of the computer interfaced controlling devices. License Plate Recognition (LPR process is one of the key elements of modern intelligent garage security setups. This paper presents a design of an automated secure garage system featuring LPR process. A study of templates matching approach by using Optical Character Recognition (OCR is implemented to carry out the LPR method. We also developed a prototype design of the secured garage system to verify the application for local use. The system allows only a predefined enlisted cars or vehicles to enter the garage while blocking the others along with a central-alarm feature. Moreover, the system maintains an update database of the cars that has left and entered into the garage within a particular duration. The vehicle is distinguished by the system mainly based on their registration number in the license plates. The tactics are tried on several samples of license plate’s image in both indoor and outdoor setting.

  13. A new technique for monitoring inhomogeneous deformation during flyer plate impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James D.; Grosch, Donald J.; Chocron, Sidney; Dannemann, Kathryn A.; Bigger, Rory P.; Moore, Thomas Z.; Kirchdoerfer, Trenton T.

    2017-01-01

    A new and unique experimental configuration was developed and demonstrated to measure the inhomogeneous deformation of heterogeneous materials during flyer plate impact tests. Flyer plate experiments were performed on a granite material with a small scale structure; strain rates ranged from 105 to 107 s-1. A cross section of an impacted target was monitored and photographed during, and immediately following, passage of the shock wave through the material. Up to fourteen images were taken during passage of the shock wave. This was accomplished using an ultra-high speed Imacon camera with very short exposure times; for example, in one experiment the exposure time was 5 nanoseconds with a framing rate of 5 million frames per second. Continuous wave lasers were used as the illumination source. Edge and notch filters were used to lessen the intensity of the impact flash in the image. The photographic data was analyzed using a digital image correlation (DIC) system. These experiments examined inhomogeneous deformation on a cut plane within an inhomogeneous geological (granite) target.

  14. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. Materials and Methods: A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. Results: The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P < 0.01. Discussion: To our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that show the causes of coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Clinical Relevance: Prospective case series, Treatment study.

  15. Image-based ELISA on an activated polypropylene microtest plate--a spectrophotometer-free low cost assay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2013-10-15

    In this communication, we report ELISA technique on an activated polypropylene microtest plate (APPµTP) as an illustrative example of a low cost diagnostic assay. Activated test zone in APPµTP binds a capture biomolecule through covalent linkage thereby, eliminating non-specific binding often prevalent in absorption based techniques. Efficacy of APPµTP is demonstrated by detecting human immunoglobulin G (IgG), human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Aspergillus fumigatus antibody in patient's sera. Detection is done by taking the image of the assay solution by a desktop scanner and analyzing the color of the image. Human IgE quantification by color saturation in the image-based assay shows excellent correlation with absorbance-based assay (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.992). Significance of the relationship is seen from its p value which is 4.087e-11. Performance of APPµTP is also checked with respect to microtiter plate and paper-based ELISA. APPµTP can quantify an analyte as precisely as in microtiter plate with insignificant non-specific binding, a necessary prerequisite for ELISA assay. In contrast, paper-ELISA shows high non-specific binding in control sera (false positive). Finally, we have carried out ELISA steps on APPµTP by ultrasound waves on a sonicator bath and the results show that even in 8 min, it can convincingly differentiate a test sample from a control sample. In short, spectrophotometer-free image-based miniaturized ELISA on APPµTP is precise, reliable, rapid, and sensitive and could be a good substitute for conventional immunoassay procedures widely used in clinical and research laboratories.

  16. Flat-plate techniques for measuring reflectance of macro-algae (Ulva curvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Schwarzschild, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We tested the consistency and accuracy of flat-plate spectral measurements (400–1000 nm) of the marine macrophyte Ulva curvata. With sequential addition of Ulva thallus layers, the reflectance progressively increased from 6% to 9% with six thalli in the visible (VIS) and from 5% to 19% with ten thalli in the near infrared (NIR). This progressive increase was simulated by a mathematical calculation based on an Ulva thallus diffuse reflectance weighted by a transmittance power series. Experimental and simulated reflectance differences that were particularly high in the NIR most likely resulted from residual water and layering structure unevenness in the experimental progression. High spectral overlap existed between fouled and non-fouled Ulva mats and the coexistent lagoon mud in the VIS, whereas in the NIR, spectral contrast was retained but substantially dampened by fouling.

  17. Depth profiling of hydrogen in ferritic/martensitic steels by means of a tritium imaging plate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Teppei, E-mail: t-otsuka@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tanabe, Tetsuo [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► We applied a tritium imaging plate technique to depth profiling of hydrogen in bulk. ► Changes of hydrogen depth profiles in the steel by thermal annealing were examined. ► We proposed a release model of plasma-loaded hydrogen in the steel. ► Hydrogen is trapped at trapping sites newly developed by plasma loading. ► Hydrogen is also trapped at surface oxides and hardly desorbed by thermal annealing. -- Abstract: In order to understand how hydrogen loaded by plasma in F82H is removed by annealing at elevated temperatures in vacuum, depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen were examined by means of a tritium imaging plate technique. Owing to large hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H, the plasma-loaded hydrogen easily penetrates into a deeper region becoming solute hydrogen and desorbs by thermal annealing in vacuum. However the plasma-loading creates new hydrogen trapping sites having larger trapping energy than that for the intrinsic sites beyond the projected range of the loaded hydrogen. Some surface oxides also trap an appreciable amount of hydrogen which is more difficult to remove by the thermal annealing.

  18. Novel management of distal tibial and fibular fractures with Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Ju, Wei-Na; Qi, Bao-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Anatomical characteristics, such as subcutaneous position and minimal muscle cover, contribute to the complexity of fractures of the distal third of the tibia and fibula. Severe damage to soft tissue and instability ensure high risk of delayed bone union and wound complications such as nonunion, infection, and necrosis. Patient concerns: This case report discusses management in a 54-year-old woman who sustained fractures of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula, with damage to overlying soft tissue (swelling and blisters). Plating is accepted as the first choice for this type of fracture as it ensures accurate reduction and rigid fixation, but it increases the risk of complications. Diagnosis: Closed fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula (AO: 43-A3). Interventions: After the swelling was alleviated, the patient underwent closed reduction and fixation with an Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO), ensuring a smaller incision and minimal soft-tissue dissection. Outcomes: At the 1-year follow-up, the patient had recovered well and had regained satisfactory function in the treated limb. The Kofoed score of the left ankle was 95. Lessons: Based on the experience from this case, the operation can be undertaken safely when the swelling has been alleviated. The minimal invasive technique represents the best approach. Considering the merits and good outcome in this case, we recommend the Acumed fibular nail and MIPO technique for treatment of distal tibial and fibular fractures. PMID:28328865

  19. Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Richard H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting.

  20. An attempt to increase efficacy of moth mating disruption by co-releasing pheromones with kairomones and to understand possible underlying mechanisms of this technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-02-01

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is used worldwide for management of the internal fruit feeding codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). There has been recent interest in the potential of improving mating disruption of C. pomonella, and potentially other insect species in general, by broadcasting combinations of pheromone and attractive host-plant kairomones. Given that such kairomones are attractive by themselves (often to both sexes), and also enhance male moth response to their pheromone, it is possible that the effects of competitive attraction and potentially other mechanisms of disruption might be increased. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that mating disruption of C. pomonella could be enhanced by co-deploying pheromone with either of two kairomones: (2E, 4Z)-2, 4-decadienoate (pear ester), or (E)-β-farnesene, as compared with various pheromone blend components alone. When deployed individually, each kairomone caused a low level of synthetic lure trap disruption and (E)-β-farnesene also caused disruption of mating as measured by tethering virgin females. However, combined release of either pear ester or (E)-β-farnesene with pheromone within the same dispenser or as a co-deployed dispenser treatment, respectively, did not increase the level of mating disruption as compared with deploying pheromone alone. Disruption efficacy did not decline when reducing the amount of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) in dispensers by fourfold, when combined with pear ester. C. pomonella readily were observed briefly approaching all dispenser types (with and without pheromone) in the field. Exposure of male C. pomonella to pear ester alone in a manner mimicking observed field exposures did not reduce the number of males able to contact a female-mimic pheromone lure in flight tunnel assays. Also, reduction of male moth behavioral response to pheromone was similar after exposure to codlemone alone, and codlemone and pear ester after exposures that mimicked those observed in

  1. 图像处理在车牌识别技术中的应用%Application of image processing in license plate recognition technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萌

    2014-01-01

    该课题论述了在车牌识别中运用到的各种数字图像处理技术,经过图像摄取、车牌图像预处理、VLP检测、字符分割、OCR、车牌识别几个过程构成了车牌牌照自动识别系统。图像处理在车牌识别技术中的应用方便了人们的生活。%This paper discusses all kinds of digital image processing technology to use in vehicle license plate recognition,image after ingestion,the license plate image preprocessing,VLP detection,character segmentation,OCR,license plate recognition process consists of automatic recognition system of vehicle license plate.Application of image processing in license plate recognition technique to facilitate people's life.

  2. Non-contact ultrasonic technique for Lamb wave characterization in composite plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, M S; Yuan, F G

    2016-01-01

    A fully non-contact single-sided air-coupled and laser ultrasonic non-destructive system based on the generation and detection of Lamb waves is implemented for the characterization of A0 Lamb wave mode dispersion in a composite plate. An air-coupled transducer (ACT) radiates acoustic pressure on the surface of the composite and generates Lamb waves within the structure. The out-of-plane velocity of the propagating wave is measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). In this study, the non-contact automated system focuses on measuring A0 mode frequency-wavenumber, phase velocity dispersion curves using Snell's law and group velocity dispersion curves using Morlet wavelet transform (MWT) based on time-of-flight along different wave propagation directions. It is theoretically demonstrated that Snell's law represents a direct link between the phase velocity of the generated Lamb wave mode and the coincidence angle of the ACT. Using Snell's law and MWT, the former three dispersion curves of the A0 mode are easily and promptly generated from a set of measurements obtained from a rapid ACT angle scan experiment. In addition, the phase velocity and group velocity polar characteristic wave curves are also computed to analyze experimentally the angular dependency of Lamb wave propagation. In comparison with the results from the theory, it is confirmed that using the ACT/LDV system and implementing simple Snell's law method is highly sensitive and effective in characterizing the dispersion curves of Lamb waves in composite structures as well as its angular dependency.

  3. More than just a pretty face and a hot body: multiple cues in mate-choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Raulston, Tara; Rotolo, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Mate preferences have been well studied in social and evolutionary psychology. In two studies (N = 490), using two different measurement techniques, we examined mate preferences for the body and the face in the context of other traits. Results replicated prior research on mate preferences across the sex of the participant and mating duration but clarified the nature of preferences for physical attractiveness. Generally, physical attractiveness was a necessity in short-term mating and for men and traits like kindness were a necessity in long-term mating and for women. Men wanted a short-term mate who had a good body, likely because that body advertises fertility whereas both sexes wanted a mate with a nice face for a long-term mate, which is likely because the face is a cue based on structural properties related to health. Sex and mating-duration differences on preferences for attractive faces and bodies were robust to differences in measurement technique.

  4. Thermal radiation effects on MHD convecture flow over a vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium by perturbation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivasankaran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of thermal radiation on the problem of unsteady magneto-convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid past a semi-infinite vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium with time dependent suction. Perturbation technique is applied to transform the non-linear coupled governing partial differential equations in dimensionless form into a system of ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are solved analytically and the solutions for the velocity and temperature fields are obtained. For different values of the flow parameters, the values for Nusselt number and skin-friction co-efficient are calculated. It is observed that the increase in the radiation parameter implies the decrease in the boundary layer thickness and enhances the rate of heat transfer. The velocity decreases as the existence of magnetic field becomes stronger.

  5. Heat Transfer Analysis of Flat Plate Subjected to Multi-Jet Air Impingement using Principal Component Analysis and Computational Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniappan Chandramohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the variation in temperature, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of a hot plate subjected to multi-jet air impingement cooling to use the multi-objective optimization technique to arrive at optimum conditions. A flat plate of 15 cm x 10 cm is heated through a heating foil with a constant heat flux of 7667 W/m2. Air jets with and without swirling action are considered, fixing the distance of target surface from nozzle exit at 2D, 4D and 6D. Reynolds numbers 18000, 20000and 22000 and pipe diameters 8mm, 10mm and 12 mm have been considered for investigation. Experiments are designed and analyzed using Taguchi’s technique, coupled with principal component analysis for multi-variate optimization by calculating multi-response performance index (MRPI. Based on the observations made, it is concluded that lower H/D ratio and higher Reynolds number result in higher heat transfer coefficient, in accordance with the first principles. Heat transfer coefficient obtained for jets with swirl is compared with that of jet without swirling for the same Reynolds number and H/D ratio. Furthermore, it is concluded that introducing swirl results in increase of heat transfer coefficients for all the test conditions for 10mm and 12mm diameter jets. However for 8mm jet, introduction of swirl reduced the heat transfer rate for all the test conditions. From Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, it is found that significant contributions on outputs are due to the effect of H/D ratio and Reynolds number. Confirmation experiments with optimum condition result in improved heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number. Numerical simulation has also been performed with the optimum condition. It is observed that the simulation results are in consistence with the experimental results.

  6. Electroless-plating technique for fabricating thin-wall convective heat-transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, D. E.; Ballard, G. K.; Wilson, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for fabricating uniform thin-wall metallic heat-transfer models and which simulates a Shuttle thermal protection system tile is described. Two 6- by 6- by 2.5-in. tiles were fabricated to obtain local heat transfer rates. The fabrication process is not limited to any particular geometry and results in a seamless thin-wall heat-transfer model which uses a one-wire thermocouple to obtain local cold-wall heat-transfer rates. The tile is relatively fragile because of the brittle nature of the material and the structural weakness of the flat-sided configuration; however, a method was developed and used for repairing a cracked tile.

  7. Plate measurement techniques and reduction methods used by the West German satellite observers, and resulting consequences for the observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deker, H.

    1971-01-01

    The West German tracking stations are equipped with ballistic cameras. Plate measurement and plate reduction must therefore follow photogrammetric methods. Approximately 100 star positions and 200 satellite positions are measured on each plate. The mathematical model for spatial rotation of the bundle of rays is extended by including terms for distortion and internal orientation of the camera as well as by providing terms for refraction which are computed for the measured coordinates of the star positions on the plate. From the measuring accuracy of the plate coordinates it follows that the timing accuracy for the exposures has to be about one millisecond, in order to obtain a homogeneous system.

  8. Bicortical screw fixation of distal fibula fractures with a lateral plate: an anatomic and biomechanical study of a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Brenton F; Mercer, Deana; Firoozbakhsh, Keikhosrow; Larsen, Kenna; Decoster, Thomas A; Miller, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    One of the potential drawbacks of lateral plating of distal fibula fractures is less than satisfactory fixation of unicortical screws commonly placed in the distal fragment to avoid implant penetration of the ankle joint. This study examines the anatomy of the distal fibula, proposes new techniques for bicortical screw fixation and radiographic evaluation of screw placement, and compares pullout strength of unicortical versus bicortical screws in this area. Sixteen pairs of human cadaver feet were used in this study. It was found that a large percentage of the surface area of the distal fibula is nonarticular and that the distal fibula could be divided into 3 zones with distinct anatomic features. Zone I is defined as the distal most 1.5 cm of the fibula, zone II is the next 1 cm of fibula proximal to zone I, and zone III is defined as the fibula above the ankle joint, starting at just over 2.5 cm proximal to the tip of the fibula. We determined a safe corridor for bicortical screw placement by means of a lateral plate in each zone. An improved radiographic view is described for confirmation of extraarticular screw placement. Screw pullout testing was performed on 8 pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver fibulas. In both zone I and zone II, the bicortical screw fixation was significantly stronger than the unicortical screw fixation. In zone I, the average pullout strength for the bicortical screw fixation was 2.3 times higher than the unicortical screw fixation. In zone II, the average pullout strength for the bicortical screw fixation was 3.3 times higher than the unicortical screw fixation. This study shows that not only is bicortical screw placement in the distal fibula technically feasible, but it is also biomechanically stronger than unicortical placement in this area.

  9. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Lauren E; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B; Santiago, Brianna M; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2014-12-01

    A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63-82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  10. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipper, Lauren E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Binghamton University, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Vestal, NY 13902 (United States); Aristide, Xavier [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); North Babylon High School, 1 Phelps Lane North, Babylon, NY 11703 (United States); Bishop, Dylan P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Northport High School, 154 Laurel Hill Road, Northport, NY 11768 (United States); Joshi, Ishita [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); St Augustine Catholic High School, 2188 Rodick Road, Markham, ON L6C 1S3 (Canada); Kharzeev, Julia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Earl L. Vandermeulen High School, 350 Old Post Road, Port Jefferson, NY 11777 (United States); Patel, Krishna B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); John P. Stevens High School, 855 Grove Avenue, Edison, NJ 08820 (United States); Santiago, Brianna M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Connetquot High School, 190 7th Street, Bohemia, NY 11716 (United States); Joshi, Karan [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Dorsinvil, Kahille [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Sweet, Robert M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Soares, Alexei S., E-mail: soares@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  11. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  12. SEGMENTAL FRACTURE OF PROXIMAL SHAFT FEMUR OF POLIO AFFECTED PARALYTIC LIMB TREATED WITH 95 DEGREE ANGLED PLATE FIXATION BY MIPO TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subtrochanteric fractures extending below lesser trochanter are always difficult to treat and their higher incidence of unsatisfactory results are noted after operative treatment. There are various implants available for fixation but in this study we did 95 DEG ANGLED PLATE FIXATION BY MIPO TECHNIQUE

  13. Determination of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H by hydrogen depth profiling with a tritium imaging plate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, M.; Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering and Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Tokunaga, K. [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) and an oxide dispersion strengthened F82H (ODS-F82H) have been determined from depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen with a tritium imaging plate technique (TIPT) in the temperature range from 298 K to 523 K. Data on hydrogen diffusion coefficients, D, in F82H, are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =1.1*10{sup -7}exp(-16[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT). The present data indicate almost no trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion due to an excess entry of energetic hydrogen by the plasma loading, which results in saturation of the trapping sites at the surface and even in the bulk. In the case of ODS-F82H, data of hydrogen diffusion coefficients are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =2.2*10{sup -7}exp(-30[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT) indicating a remarkable trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion caused by tiny oxide particles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the bulk of F82H. Such oxide particles introduced in the bulk may play an effective role not only on enhancement of mechanical strength but also on suppression of hydrogen penetration by plasma loading.

  14. Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yang; Aijun Zeng; Xiangzhao Wang; Hua Wang; Feng Tang

    2008-01-01

    Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique is presented. The simultaneous phase shifting function is realized by an orthogonal grating, a diaphragm, an analyzer array, and a 4-quadrant detector. The intensities of the light beams from the four analyzers with different azimuths are measured simultaneously. The fast axis angle of the quarter-wave plate is obtained through the four light intensity values. In this method, rotating elements are not required, so real-time measurement is achieved.

  15. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  16. Detection of Thermal Sublethal Injury in Escherichia coli via the Selective Medium Plating Technique: Mechanisms and Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In food preservation, the synergistic combination of different technologies aims to maximize the total lethality of the process and minimize the intensity of each hurdle. This is especially the case when at least one of the treatments can cause sublethal (reparable) injury in a great proportion of the population, so that sublethally injured cells can end up being entirely inactivated by the other hurdle(s). The selective medium plating technique (SMPT) is extensively used to enumerate bacterial sublethal injury after inimical treatments, being sodium chloride added to the recovery medium to detect damaged bacterial envelopes. However, little work has been done to explain the reasons for the inability of sublethally injured cells to outgrow in selective agar media, whereas they are able to grow in non-selective agar. In the present paper, the performance of SMPT on Escherichia coli cells after heat treatments is explored by applying different selective agents in the recovery media, using mutants lacking factors involved in osmoregulation, and also by examining the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. In view of the results, the possibility of a specific toxic effect of Na+ as the main mechanism under SMPT was discarded, since the same level of sublethal injury was detected using KCl instead of NaCl. The synthesis of the osmoprotectant trehalose determined the maximum osmotolerance of intact cells to the selective agents, but was not crucial in the quantification of sublethal injury. Moreover, for the first time, the extent of sublethal injury detected via SMPT was directly correlated with the physical loss of integrity of the cell membrane in 99.999% of the initial population. This was achieved through statistical analysis of flow cytometry data using propidium iodide-exclusion technique when that dye was added before thermal treatments. The present work confirms the adequacy of SMPT as a tool for detecting the occurrence and quantity of sublethally injured cells

  17. Sex roles and mutual mate choice matter during mate sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond

    2012-06-01

    The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.

  18. Interspecific Cross-Mating Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Laboratory Strains: Implication of Population Density on Mating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcela, P; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Dieng, H; Kumara, T K

    2015-12-01

    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs.

  19. Hybrid Decompression and Fixation Technique Versus Plated 3-Vertebra Corpectomy for 4-Segment Cervical Myelopathy: Analysis of 81 Cases With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odate, Seiichi; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Soeda, Tsunemitsu

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective comparative study. The purpose of this study was to compare the stability and outcomes of a hybrid technique with those of a 3-vertebra corpectomy in the management of 4-segment cervical myelopathy. Patients with primarily ventral disease and loss of cervical lordosis are considered good candidates for anterior surgery. Cervical corpectomy is commonly performed in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. Corpectomies including >3 vertebraes entail an extremely high risk of reconstruction failure. To avoid the need to perform a 3-vertebra corpectomy, we use a hybrid decompression and fixation technique. This hybrid technique is a technique to obtain optimum decompression and fixation in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. A total of 81 patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy who underwent 4-segment cervical fixation with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. The hybrid technique involved combining a plated 2-vertebra corpectomy and single-level discectomy with stand-alone cage fixation. This technique was performed in 39 patients, and the plated 3-vertebra corpectomy was performed in 42 patients. Nine patients (21%) who underwent the plated 3-vertebra corpectomy were treated with halo immobilization, but no patient in the hybrid group required this treatment (P=0.002). There were fewer instances of reconstruction failure in the hybrid group than in the 3-vertebra corpectomy group (0% vs. 10%, respectively; P=0.048) and fewer instances of C5 palsy (3% vs. 17%, respectively; P vertebra corpectomy for 4-segment cervical fixation: a shorter graft bone and plate are required; the fixed segment has greater initial stability; postoperative external immobilization is simplified; and the risk of reconstruction failure and postoperative C5 palsy is reduced markedly.

  20. LATERAL APPROACH UNDER FLUROSCOPIC GUIDANCE WITH NONLOCKING CALCANEAL PLATE IS AN EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CLOSED CALCANEAL FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sobhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intra-articular calcaneal fractures which accounts for about 75% of calcaneal fractures is usually associated with poor functional outcome. The present was under taken to evaluate the efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced articular fractures of calcaneum in adults through lateral approach under fluroscopic guidance with non-locking calcaneal plate and ipsilateral iliac crest bone graft. 30 adult patients (25 males and 5 females with closed displaced intra articular fractures of calcaneum of less than 15 days constituted the study group. All cases were operated by lateral approach as described by Seligson, a modification of Gould’s technique under spinal anaesthesia. All machers Arthrosis Rating Scale were used for the evaluation of posttraumatic posterior facet degenerative changes. Primarily27 of all 35 wounds (77% healed without any form of wound complications. Excellent to good results noted in 3 (100% patients with preoperative Bohler´s angle larger or equal to 20° (n = 3 whereas patients with preoperative Bohler´s angle smaller than 20° (n=32 achieved excellent to good results in 16 cases (50% Clinically significant subtalararthrosis (Allmacher grade 2-4 noted in 7 cases (20% cases with Bohler´s angle smaller than 20° (n=32. In 5 cases, clinically significant complaints (Allmachers Arthrosis Rating Scale grades II to V noted. Therapeutic success of such fracture depends on timely open reduction and internal fixation with proper fracture reduction and early rehabilitation. Thus management of these injuries as well as complications should be performed in a specialized orthopaedics or traumatology center.

  1. A new technique for insertion of barrel plate over dynamic hip/compression lag screw:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer Naranje; Vivek Trikha

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic hip/compression screw (DHS/DCS) is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in orthopaedic practice.Sliding barrel plate over the DHS/DCS lag screw is one of the very crucial and at times uncomfortable and time consuming steps of DHS/DCS surgery especially when it comes to inexperienced surgeons and residents.Also in developing countries where not all standard instrumentation is always available,this crucial step becomes more time consuming.Here we present a case report of 58-year-old male patient with intertrochanteric fracture,in which we used a new device for insertion of barrel plate over DHS/DCS lag screw and found that a small DHS/DCS lag screw extension (sliding jig of barrel plate)can be very helpful to slide barrel plate over the DHS/DCS lag screw.

  2. A rapid technique for estimating the depth and width of a two-dimensional plate from self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanee, Salah; Essa, Khalid S.; Smith, Paul D.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid techniques for self-potential (SP) data interpretation are of prime importance in engineering and exploration geophysics. Parameters (e.g. depth, width) estimation of the ore bodies has also been of paramount concern in mineral prospecting. In many cases, it is useful to assume that the SP anomaly is due to an ore body of simple geometric shape and to use the data to determine its parameters. In light of this, we describe a rapid approach to determine the depth and horizontal width of a two-dimensional plate from the SP anomaly. The rationale behind the scheme proposed in this paper is that, unlike the two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) SP rigorous source current inversions, it does not demand a priori information about the subsurface resistivity distribution nor high computational resources. We apply the second-order moving average operator on the SP anomaly to remove the unwanted (regional) effect, represented by up to a third-order polynomial, using filters of successive window lengths. By defining a function F at a fixed window length (s) in terms of the filtered anomaly computed at two points symmetrically distributed about the origin point of the causative body, the depth (z) corresponding to each half-width (w) is estimated by solving a nonlinear equation in the form ξ(s, w, z) = 0. The estimated depths are then plotted against their corresponding half-widths on a graph representing a continuous curve for this window length. This procedure is then repeated for each available window length. The depth and half-width solution of the buried structure is read at the common intersection of these various curves. The improvement of this method over the published first-order moving average technique for SP data is demonstrated on a synthetic data set. It is then verified on noisy synthetic data, complicated structures and successfully applied to three field examples for mineral exploration and we have found that the estimated depth is in good agreement with

  3. Biomechanical comparison of anterior Caspar plate and three-level posterior fixation techniques in a human cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynelis, V C; Donaher, P A; Roach, R M; Kojimoto, H; Goel, V K

    1993-07-01

    Traumatic cervical spine injuries have been successfully stabilized with plates applied to the anterior vertebral bodies. Previous biomechanical studies suggest, however, that these devices may not provide adequate stability if the posterior ligaments are disrupted. To study this problem, the authors simulated a C-5 teardrop fracture with posterior ligamentous instability in human cadaveric spines. This model was used to compare the immediate biomechanical stability of anterior cervical plating, from C-4 to C-6, to that provided by a posterior wiring construct over the same levels. Stability was tested in six modes of motion: flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation. The injured/plate-stabilized spines were more stable than the intact specimens in all modes of testing. The injured/posterior-wired specimens were more stable than the intact spines in axial rotation and flexion. They were not as stable as the intact specimens in the lateral bending or extension testing modes. The data were normalized with respect to the motion of the uninjured spine and compared using repeated measures of analysis of variance, the results of which indicate that anterior plating provides significantly more stability in extension and lateral bending than does posterior wiring. The plate was more stable than the posterior construct in flexion loading; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The two constructs provide similar stability in axial rotation. This study provides biomechanical support for the continued use of bicortical anterior plate fixation in the setting of traumatic cervical spine instability.

  4. Based on the matlab license plate identification technique%基于matlab的车牌识别技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀光强

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,it will introduce a license plate recognition system which is based on MATLAB image processing,and put my own design after analyzing of the existing license plate recognition. In this paper, I adopt a kind of license plate location algorithm which is based on edge detection and morphological processing . The algorithm is faster and better real-time, on the plate size; as- pect ratio, plate type, license plate information such as whether the border is robust.%本文以MATLAB图像处理技术为基础,在分析了现有的车牌处理系统基础上提出了自己的设计方法。本文采用了基于边缘检测和形态学处理的车牌定位的算法,该算法速度较快且实时性较好,对车牌大小、宽高比、车牌类型、是否有边框等车牌信息具有鲁棒性。

  5. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2000-01-01

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  6. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2000-01-01

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  7. Modeling seismic wave propagation across the European plate: structural models and numerical techniques, state-of-the-art and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Andrea; Danecek, Peter; Molinari, Irene; Postpischl, Luca; Schivardi, Renata; Serretti, Paola; Tondi, Maria Rosaria

    2010-05-01

    Together with the building and maintenance of observational and data banking infrastructures - i.e. an integrated organization of coordinated sensor networks, in conjunction with connected data banks and efficient data retrieval tools - a strategic vision for bolstering the future development of geophysics in Europe should also address the essential issue of improving our current ability to model coherently the propagation of seismic waves across the European plate. This impacts on fundamental matters, such as correctly locating earthquakes, imaging detailed earthquake source properties, modeling ground shaking, inferring geodynamic processes. To this extent, we both need detailed imaging of shallow and deep earth structure, and accurate modeling of seismic waves by numerical methods. Our current abilities appear somewhat limited, but emerging technologies may enable soon a significant leap towards better accuracy and reliability. To contribute to this debate, we present here the state-of-the-art of knowledge of earth structure and numerical wave modeling in the European plate, as the result of a comprehensive study towards the definition of a continental-scale reference model. Our model includes a description of crustal structure (EPcrust) merging information deriving from previous studies - large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness, density, and seismic parameters. This a priori crustal model improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies

  8. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita; Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Koba, Yusuke; Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ohga, Saiji

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement.

  9. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  10. OSTEOSYNTHESIS OF PROXIMAL HUMERAL END FRACTURES WITH FIXED-ANGLE PLATE AND LOCKING SCREWS: TECHNIQUE AND RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marcio; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim; Brandão, Bruno Lobo; Motta Filho, Geraldo Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Describe the results of proximal humeral fractures surgically treated with the Philos locking plate system. Method: Between March 2003 and October 2004 we prospectively reviewed 24 of 26 patients with proximal humerus fractures treated with a Philos plate. The mean follow-up time was 12 months and the mean age of patients was 57 years. Six patients had four-part proximal humerus fractures, 11 patients had three-part proximal humerus fractures, and nine patients had two-part proximal humerus fractures. Clinical evaluation was performed using the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) criteria. Results: The mean UCLA score was 30 points (17-34). All fractures showed union. Three patients showed fracture union at varus position. The mean UCLA score for these patients was 27 points. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis with Philos plate provides a stable fixation method with good functional outcome. PMID:26998460

  11. Rolling--a new application technique for luminescent bacteria on high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Vera; Hohl, Christopher; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2011-05-13

    High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with bioluminescence detection using Vibrio fischeri bacteria can be used for screening for unknown substances. This is accomplished by dipping the HPTLC plate in an aqueous bacteria solution. Especially polar substances, however, can start to dissolve during this process, which leads to blurring and tailing of the zones on the plate. To overcome this disadvantage, we applied the bacteria solution by rolling. This method has been described for chemical derivatizations, but is very rarely used. The rolling device was made of commercially available household articles. Using octhilinone and methylparaben as test compounds, rolling was compared with dipping. Despite of performing the rolling process manually, the results were reproducible. Depending on the substance and its amount on the HPTLC plate, peaks were narrower, up to a factor of 4 higher and with a higher signal-to-noise ratio than after dipping.

  12. X-Ray diffraction technique applied to study of residual stresses after welding of duplex stainless steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monin, Vladimir Ivanovitch; Assis, Joaquim Teixeira de [Instituto Politecnico do Rio e Janeiro (IPRJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Turibus, Sergio Noleto; Payao Filho, Joao C., E-mail: sturibus@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Duplex stainless steel is an example of composite material with approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite phases. Difference of physical and mechanical properties of component is additional factor that contributes appearance of residual stresses after welding of duplex steel plates. Measurements of stress distributions in weld region were made by X-ray diffraction method both in ferrite and austenite phases. Duplex Steel plates were joined by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) technology. There were studied longitudinal and transverse stress components in welded butt joint, in heat affected zone (HAZ) and in points of base metal 10 mm from the weld. Residual stresses measured in duplex steel plates jointed by welding are caused by temperature gradients between weld zone and base metal and by difference of thermal expansion coefficients of ferrite and austenite phases. Proposed analytical model allows evaluating of residual stress distribution over the cross section in the weld region. (author)

  13. Scale-up from microtiter plate to laboratory fermenter: evaluation by online monitoring techniques of growth and protein expression in Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelbrecht Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, an enormous number of new bioprocesses have evolved in the biotechnology industry. These bioprocesses have to be developed fast and at a maximum productivity. Up to now, only few microbioreactors were developed to fulfill these demands and to facilitate sample processing. One predominant reaction platform is the shaken microtiter plate (MTP, which provides high-throughput at minimal expenses in time, money and work effort. By taking advantage of this simple and efficient microbioreactor array, a new online monitoring technique for biomass and fluorescence, called BioLector, has been recently developed. The combination of high-throughput and high information content makes the BioLector a very powerful tool in bioprocess development. Nevertheless, the scalabilty of results from the micro-scale to laboratory or even larger scales is very important for short development times. Therefore, engineering parameters regarding the reactor design and its operation conditions play an important role even on a micro-scale. In order to evaluate the scale-up from a microtiter plate scale (200 μL to a stirred tank fermenter scale (1.4 L, two standard microbial expression systems, Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha, were fermented in parallel at both scales and compared with regard to the biomass and protein formation. Results Volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa ranging from 100 to 350 1/h were obtained in 96-well microtiter plates. Even with a suboptimal mass transfer condition in the microtiter plate compared to the stirred tank fermenter (kLa = 370-600 1/h, identical growth and protein expression kinetics were attained in bacteria and yeast fermentations. The bioprocess kinetics were evaluated by optical online measurements of biomass and protein concentrations exhibiting the same fermentation times and maximum signal deviations below 10% between the scales. In the experiments, the widely applied green

  14. Bone splint technique and plating application in adolescent high-energy comminuted fracture of distal femur with bone defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui; DING Zhen-qi; ZHAI Wen-liang; KANG Liang-qi; YAO Xiao-tao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Comminuted fracture of distal femur is a common lower limb injury from traffic accidents, especially from motor accidents. Routine dynamic condylar screw ( DCS ) or 95-degree condylar plate ( CP ) sometimes cannot solve the bone defect in the center of alignment and contralateral diaphysis for the reason of absent screw anchor point, especially for AO C2. 2-2. 3 types.

  15. Mate choice turns cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F; Todd, P M

    1998-05-01

    Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based on sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles, cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned with domain-specific mental adaptations than with domain-general intelligence.

  16. Development of a technique to evaluate the performance of cooling headers and its applications in POSCO plate mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of thousands of liquid jet nozzles are widely used in controling cooling equipment to accelerate the cooling of hot plates. The holes of these nozzles become clogged or the hole size becomes smaller as foreign substances like grease, scrap, and mud containing cooling water are flushed through. In this case, cooling water sprays abnormally through the partially clogged or restricted nozzle. This causes inhomogeneous cooling of hot plates. The objective of this study is to develop an evaluation system of cooling headers including nozzles. This paper presents the method to evaluate the conditions of spraying nozzles. The sensor developed in this research measures the liquid column of spraying nozzles using differential pressure between the inside sensor block and ambient air. In addition, the results of a field test in a real, large factory are introduced in this paper.

  17. Development of a technique to evaluate the performance of cooling headers and its applications in POSCO plate mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Pil-Jong

    2016-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of liquid jet nozzles are widely used in controling cooling equipment to accelerate the cooling of hot plates. The holes of these nozzles become clogged or the hole size becomes smaller as foreign substances like grease, scrap, and mud containing cooling water are flushed through. In this case, cooling water sprays abnormally through the partially clogged or restricted nozzle. This causes inhomogeneous cooling of hot plates. The objective of this study is to develop an evaluation system of cooling headers including nozzles. This paper presents the method to evaluate the conditions of spraying nozzles. The sensor developed in this research measures the liquid column of spraying nozzles using differential pressure between the inside sensor block and ambient air. In addition, the results of a field test in a real, large factory are introduced in this paper.

  18. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one...

  19. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the deformation of an old building’s column retrofitted with steel plate in an in situ pushover test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shih-Heng Tung; Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-06-01

    An in situ pushover test is carried out on an old building of Guan-Miao elementary school in south Taiwan. Columns of this building are seismically retrofitted with steel plate. The DIC (digital-image-correlation) technique is used to measure the deformation of the retrofitted column. The result shows that the DIC technique can be successfully applied to measure the relative displacement of the column. Additionally, thismethod leads to the measurement of relative displacements formany points on the column simultaneously. Hence, the column deformation curve, rotation and curvature can be determined using interpolation method. The resulting curvaturediagram reveals that the phenomenon of plastic hinge occurs at about 2% storey drift ratio, and that the DIC technique can be applied to measure column deformation in a full scale in situ test.

  20. SynchroMate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, M.; Vetere, F.; Bunyan, M

    2005-01-01

    – that are less concerned with capturing and communicating information and more about the establishment and maintenance of social connection. Drawing on insights and inspiration gleaned from a recent field-based study of the role of interactive technologies within intimate relationships we outline our preliminary...... ideas concerning technologies to support phatic interaction. Using the materials collected during our fieldwork as design inspirations, we developed design sketches for phatic technologies intended to support playful connection between intimates. One of these sketches – SynchroMate – is presented...

  1. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro, E-mail: nohtomi@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Shinsho, Kiyomitsu [Graduate School of Human Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 7-2-10 Higashi-oku, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8551 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Genichiro [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Koba, Yusuke [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ohga, Saiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement. - Highlights: • Preliminary observations have been performed by a CCD for the CsI self-activation method. • It has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement. • Such application may provide a novel method for simple neutron distribution measurement.

  2. The Plate-Joystick technique to reduce proximal humeral fractures and nonunions with a varus deformity through the extended deltoid-splitting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C Michael; Inman, Dominic; Phillips, Sally-Anne

    2011-10-01

    Fractures and nonunions in which there is a varus deformity of the humeral head producing posterinferior subluxation of the articular surface are increasingly recognized as an important subgroup of proximal humeral fractures. Operative open reduction and internal fixation of these injuries is often recommended when the varus deformity is severe. We describe a simple technique to assist in the open reduction and locking plate stabilization of this challenging and complex fracture subtype using tools and implants that are readily available in most modern orthopaedic trauma operating rooms.

  3. Female Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Li-Wen Long

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about prospective mates is typically acquired in a sequential and cumulative fashion. The aim of this study was to examine whether a reject-the-worst strategy is more efficient than an accept-the-best strategy for women in response to serial information and to identify the point at which a woman will terminate her assessment of a prospective mate’s attributes. A pilot survey was conducted to determine the chronological order in which attribute information typically becomes available during the early stages of a relationship. Using this order of presentation, attributes were presented to participants one at a time. After participants specified their minimum acceptable percentile level for each attribute, they were given numerical feedback about the extent to which the prospect exceeded or failed to meet their standard. Participants were randomly assigned to either the accept-the-best condition (accept a date or request more information or the reject-the-worst condition (reject a date or request more information. Participants in the reject-the-worst condition requested more trait information before making a decision than those in the accept-the-best condition. This suggests that the costs of a false-negative error exceed those of a false-positive error and that in actively accepting a mate, women satisfice rather than optimize.

  4. i-mate6150

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日,i-mate Ultimate6150正式在香港开卖。作为i-mate Ultimate系列中唯一一款没有配备物理键盘的产品,当然也就成为了Ultimate系列四款机型中最具个性的产品。这款机型,从它黑色轮廓分明的外观也可以看出浓厚的商务氛围。Ultimate6150的键盘处设计很有特点,导航摇杆并没有像一般手机一样处于正中位置,而是偏右一些的不对称设计,这样的设计并没有影响操作的便利性,反而用左手托起手机背部,

  5. Variation in mating systems of salamanders: mate guarding or territoriality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitloff, Jennifer; Alcorn, Michael A; Graham, Sean P

    2014-07-01

    Two of the most common mating tactics in vertebrates are mate guarding and territoriality, yet much of the research on these strategies has focused on mating systems in birds, despite novel insights gained from studying less traditional systems. North American stream salamanders that comprise the Eurycea bislineata complex represent an excellent nontraditional system for comparing mating strategies because these species exhibit a continuum of male morphologies, diverse habitat associations, and various potential mating strategies. We studied two species within this complex that exhibit the extremes of this continuum, Eurycea aquatica (robust morph) and Eurycea cirrigera (slender morph). The larger head in males of E. aquatica is due to larger musculature around the jaw and may be associated with aggressive behavior. Therefore, we hypothesized that the robust morphology exhibited by males of E. aquatica provides benefits during either territorial defense or mate defense and that males of E. cirrigera would not exhibit aggression in either scenario. We found that neither species exhibited aggressive behavior to defend a territory. However, in the presence of a female, males of E. aquatica were significantly more aggressive toward intruding males than were males of E. cirrigera. Therefore, mate-guarding behavior occurs in E. aquatica, and the enlarged head of males likely aids in deterring rivals. This is the first demonstration of mate-guarding behavior in a plethodontid, the most speciose family of salamanders.

  6. Mate guarding and parental influence on mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that the degree to which parents control the mate choice of their children may explain differences in mate guarding across and within cultures was tested. Study 1, in a sample of 80 students from 30 different countries studying in The Netherlands, showed that the perceived level of pa

  7. Study of axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiyas Ud Din [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences -PIEAS, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Isotope Application Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology - PINSTECH, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: fac192@pieas.edu.pk; Imran Rafiq Chughtai; Mansoor Hameed Inayat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences - PIEAS, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal Hussain Khan [Isotope Application Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology - PINSTECH, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    Axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase which are parameters of fundamental importance in the design and operation of liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate columns have been investigated. Experiments for residence time distribution (RTD) analysis have been carried out for a range of pulsation frequency and amplitude in a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column with water as dispersed and kerosene as continuous phase using radiotracer technique. The column was operated in emulsion region and {sup 99m}Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate eluted from a {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator was used to trace the dispersed phase. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition and two points measurement method was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase. It has been observed that the axial mixing and holdup of dispersed phase increases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until a maximum value is achieved while slip velocity decreases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until it approaches a minimum value. Short lived and low energy radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate was found to be a good water tracer to study the hydrodynamics of a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column operating with two immiscible liquids, water and kerosene. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition was found to be a suitable model to describe the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase in the pulsed sieve plate extraction column.

  8. An Evaluation Method for the Suppression of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum by Soil Microorganisms Using the Dilution Plate Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Soil-borne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are one of the main factors responsible for the decline in crop yields in farmlands. Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum causes serious damage to various crops, and, thus, a feasible diagnostic method for soil-borne diseases is required. We herein examined a simple method to evaluate the suppressiveness of soil microorganisms against a pathogen by co-cultivating indigenous soil microorganisms and a pathogenic fungus (F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae). We inoculated F. oxysporum onto the center of agar medium plates mixed with a dilution series of a suspension of organic fertilizers or soil. After an approximately one-week cultivation, the growth degree of F. oxysporum was estimated based on the size of the colonies that formed on the plates. The growth degree of F. oxysporum significantly differed among the organic fertilizers tested, indicating the usefulness of the method for evaluating suppressiveness by organic fertilizers. Differences in the growth degrees of F. oxysporum were associated with the incidence of disease in spinach on soil treated with organic fertilizers and inoculated with a pathogenic F. oxysporum strain. These results suggested that this method provides some useful information on the suppressiveness of organic fertilizers and soil against Fusarium wilt.

  9. A comparison of different NDE signal processing techniques based on waveform entropies applied to long fiber-graphite/epoxy-plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larche, Michael; Prowant, Mathew; Bruillard, Paul; Hagge, Tobias; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hughes, Michael; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-01

    This study compares different approaches for imaging the internal architecture of graphite/epoxy composites using backscattered ultrasound. Two cases are studied. In the first, near-surface defects in a thin graphite/epoxy plates are imaged. The backscattered waveforms were used to produce peak-to-peak, logarithm of signal energy, as well as entropy images of different types. All of the entropy images exhibit better border delineation and defect contrast than either the peak-to-peak or the logarithm of signal energy. The best results are obtained using the joint entropy of the backscattered waveforms with a reference function. Two different references are examined. The first is a reflection of the insonifying pulse from a stainless steel reflector. The second is an approximate optimum obtained from an iterative parametric search. The joint entropy images produced using this reference exhibit three times the contrast obtained in previous studies. These plates were later destructively analyzed to determine size and location of near-surface defects and the results are found to agree with the defect location and shape as indicated by the entropy images. In the second study, images of long carbon fibers (50% by weight) in polypropylene thermoplastic were obtained as a first step toward ultrasonic determination of the distributions of fiber position and orientation.

  10. A Comparison of Different NDE Signal Processing Techniques Based on Waveform Entropies Applied to Long Fiber Graphite/Epoxy Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larche, Michael R.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Bruillard, Paul J.; Hagge, Tobias J.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hughes, Michael S.; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-19

    This study compares different approaches for imaging the internal architecture of graphite/epoxy composites using backscattered ultrasound. Two cases are studied. In the first, near-surface defects in a thin graphite/epoxy plates are imaged. The same backscattered waveforms were used to produce peak-to-peak, logarithm of signal energy, as well as entropy images of different types. All of the entropy images exhibit better border delineation and defect contrast than the either peak-to-peak or logarithm of signal energy. The best results are obtained using the joint entropy of the backscattered waveforms with a reference function. Two different references are examined. The first is a reflection of the insonifying pulse from a stainless steel reflector. The second is an approximate optimum obtained from an iterative parametric search. The joint entropy images produced using this reference exhibit three times the contrast obtained in previous studies. These plates were later destructively analyzed to determine size and location of near-surface defects and the results found to agree with the defect location and shape as indicated by the entropy images. In the second study, images of long carbon graphite fibers (50% by weight) in polypropylene thermoplastic are obtained as a first step toward ultrasonic determination of the distributions of fiber position and orientation.

  11. Comparison of the Tight Rope Technique and Clavicular Hook Plate for the Treatment of Rockwood Type III Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Leyi; Wang, Te; Lu, Di; Hu, Wei; Hong, Jianjun; Chen, Hua

    2017-04-12

    Acromioclavicular joint dislocation is one of the most common shoulder problems and may lead to instability or degenerative changes. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the Tight Rope system and clavicular hook plate for Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in adults. This was a prospective, randomized study in a hospital setting. From January 2012 to December 2014, 69 patients with type III injury were reviewed. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was treated using the TightRope system and Group B with the clavicular hook plate. All participants were followed up for 12 months. Clinical outcomes, radiological results and postoperative complications were recorded. The length of incision was significantly shorter in Goup A than that in Group B. The blood loss of surgery was significantly less in the Group A. Significant difference could be found between the two groups regarding the Visual Analogue Scale scores one day after surgery, at the 3 and 12 months follow-up. There were no differences according to the improvement of the Constant-Murley score and the coracoclavicular distance between the groups. The two groups have similar clinical and radiological outcomes. Both treatments could relieve the pain of dislocation, improve the function of Acromioclavicular joint and rectify the coracoclavicular distance measured in plain films. However, the TightRope system exhibited some advantages in terms of length of incision, blood loss of surgery, the pain postoperatively and no need for a second surgery.

  12. Characterization of 2.25Cr1Mo welded ferritic steel plate by using diffractometric and ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Albertini, G.; Ceretti, M.; Rustichelli, F. [Ancona Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Medica; Castelnuovo, A.; Depero, L. [Univ. degli studi, Brescia.Fac. di ingegneria, dip. di ingegneria meccanica (Italy); Giamboni, S.; Gori, M. [Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI), Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Four different techniques (X-ray and neutron diffraction, ultrasonic birefringence and incremental hole drilling method) were applied for evaluating residual stress in a butt-welded ferritic steel palte. Measurements were carried out both before and after welding. Effects of post-welding heat treatment is also considered. A comparison between results obtained by using four different techniques is done.

  13. Mate Choice Copying in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waynforth, D

    2007-09-01

    There is substantial evidence that in human mate choice, females directly select males based on male display of both physical and behavioral traits. In non-humans, there is additionally a growing literature on indirect mate choice, such as choice through observing and subsequently copying the mating preferences of conspecifics (mate choice copying). Given that humans are a social species with a high degree of sharing information, long-term pair bonds, and high parental care, it is likely that human females could avoid substantial costs associated with directly searching for information about potential males by mate choice copying. The present study was a test of whether women perceived men to be more attractive when men were presented with a female date or consort than when they were presented alone, and whether the physical attractiveness of the female consort affected women's copying decisions. The results suggested that women's mate choice decision rule is to copy only if a man's female consort is physically attractive. Further analyses implied that copying may be a conditional female mating tactic aimed at solving the problem of informational constraints on assessing male suitability for long-term sexual relationships, and that lack of mate choice experience, measured as reported lifetime number of sex partners, is also an important determinant of copying.

  14. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  15. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied.

  16. Repositioning template for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flaps: an alternative technique to pre-plating and virtual surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrone, M; Crosetti, E; Succo, G

    2014-08-01

    Oral malignancies involving the mandibular bone require a complex reconstructive plan. Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is currently considered the best choice for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. This flap can be modelled with multiple osteotomies and can provide bone, muscle and skin for composite reconstruction. One of the most delicate aspects of mandibular reconstruction is the technique of bone modelling; the risk of prolonging the period of ischaemia and not restoring the correct maxillomandibular and occlusal relationships can ultimately lead to a higher rate of complications as well as poor aesthetic and functional results. Recently, there has been rising interest in virtual surgical planning and computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction in pre-operative planning; however, this is not always possible because of the costs involved and the set-up time for the entire procedure. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive technique for fibular free flap modelling and repositioning after segmental resection of the mandible; the technique entails the pre-operative preparation of a resin repositioning template on a stereolithographic model. This technique has been successfully applied in four cases: two cases underwent resection involving only the mandibular body, one case involving the mandibular body and symphysis and one case in which a ramus to ramus resection was performed. In this preliminary report, we show that the resin repositioning template is an easy, safe and useful tool for mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap.

  17. 应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗mallet骨折%Treatment of Mallet fractures with internal fixation using hook plate technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠哲; 易传军; 胡琪; 田光磊

    2009-01-01

    目的 介绍应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗mallet骨折的手术方法 及疗效.方法 2006年8月-2008年2月,应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗25例mallet骨折患者,其中Ⅰ B型18例,ⅡB型7例.采用2.0 mm Medicon微型直钢板制备1孔钩钢板,切开复位内固定骨折,术后行限制性远指间关节早期功能锻炼.结果 所有患者术后获2~18个月(平均10个月)随访,骨折均顺利愈合,愈合时间平均5周.术后疼痛程度和关节屈伸活动度评价:优14例,良9例,可2例,差0例;优良率为92%.术后未发生严重并发症.结论 应用钩钢板切开复位内固定技术治疗mllet骨折,复位牢固可靠,内固定物不固定骨折块和关节,允许早期关节活动,有效降低术后关节疼痛和关节活动受限,是治疗撕脱骨折块大于末节指骨基底关节面1/3 mallet骨折的有效方法 .%Objective To introduce the surgical techniques and clinical outcomes of trestment of Mallet fractures using hook plate internal fixation. Methods From August 2006 to February 2008, 25 cases of Mallet fractures were treated with hook plate internal fixation. There were 18 cases of Ⅰ B type fractures and 7 cases of Ⅱ B type fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using a one-hole hook plate fabricated from a 2.0 mm Medicon straight plate. Early postoperative protected motion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was allowed. Results All the cases were followed up for 2 to 18 months, with an average of 10 months. All the fractures healed successfully, with an average bone union time of 5 weeks. Functional evaluation included degree of pain and DIP joint flexion and extension. The results were rated as excellent in 14 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 2 cases and poor in 0 case. The overall good-excellent rate was 92%. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusion Treatment of Mallet fractures with hook plate internal fixation technique can achieve more tellable fixation

  18. Acoustic Emission tomography based on simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique to visualize the damage source location in Q235B steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Xu, Feiyun; Xu, Bingsheng

    2015-12-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) tomography based on Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART), which combines the traditional location algorithm with the SART algorithm by using AE events as its signal sources, is a new visualization method for inspecting and locating the internal damages in the structure. In this paper, the proposed method is applied to examine and visualize two man-made damage source locations in the Q235B steel plate to validate its effectiveness. Firstly, the Q235B steel plate with two holes specimen is fabricated and the pencil lead break (PLB) signal is taken as the exciting source for AE tomography.Secondly, A 6-step description of the SART algorithm is provided and the three dimensional(3D)image contained the damage source locations is visualized by using the proposed algorithm in terms of a locally varying wave velocity distribution. It is shown that the AE tomography based on SART has great potential in the application of structure damage detection. Finally, to further improve the quality of 3D imaging, the Median Filter and the Adaptive Median Filter are used to reduce the noises resulting from AE tomography. The experiment results indicate that Median Filter is the optimal method to remove Salt & Pepper noises.

  19. Repositioning template for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap: an alternative technique to pre-plating and virtual surgical planning

    OpenAIRE

    Berrone, M.; Crosetti, E.; Succo, G

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral malignancies involving the mandibular bone require a complex reconstructive plan. Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is currently considered the best choice for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. This flap can be modelled with multiple osteotomies and can provide bone, muscle and skin for composite reconstruction. One of the most delicate aspects of mandibular reconstruction is the technique of bone modelling; the risk of prolonging...

  20. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Parameters in Functionally Graded Material Plates with Cracks by Graded Finite Element Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finite element software ABAQUS and graded element method, we developed a dummy node fracture element, wrote the user subroutines UMAT and UEL, and solved the energy release rate component of functionally graded material (FGM plates with cracks. An interface element tailored for the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT was applied. Fixed cracks and moving cracks under dynamic loads were simulated. The results were compared to other VCCT-based analyses. With the implementation of a crack speed function within the element, it can be easily expanded to the cases of varying crack velocities, without convergence difficulty for all cases. Neither singular element nor collapsed element was required. Therefore, due to its simplicity, the VCCT interface element is a potential tool for engineers to conduct dynamic fracture analysis in conjunction with commercial finite element analysis codes.

  1. Evaluation of result of minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO technique in the treatment of fracture distal tibia: a prospective follow-up study from Chhattisgarh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar Jangde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background High speed motor vehicle accidents are on the rise over the past few years, a major cause of complex fractures of tibia. The main treatment aim of this type of fractures is reinstatement of the normal alignment and articular congruity. Although different surgical techniques are available, but minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO is most popular in minimal articular comminution and damage of soft tissue envelope. MIPO advantages are no periosteal dissections, no disruption of hematoma, stable fixation, early mobilization, less complications and relatively higher rates of union. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the functional and clinical outcomes of distal tibia fracture patients, treated by internal fixation by MIPO technique with locking compression plate (LCP. Methods Twenty patients with closed distal tibia fracture with or without intra articular extension treated with MIPO with LCP were prospectively followed for average duration of 18.45 months (range 5-30 months. Fractures were classified according AO classification into broad types. Results Average duration of injury-surgery interval was 12days. The age incidence was an average of 38.95 yrs. High occurrence of fracture was seen in labourer (65%, maximum cases (50% mode of injury was due to road traffic accidents. 75% of the patients showed radiologic union in 13-16 weeks, full weight bearing was achieved in 13-16 weeks. Overall achievement was 75% excellent, 10% good, 10% fair and 5% with poor result. Conclusion The present study confirmed that MIPO with LCP is an effective and safe treatment method in terms of union time and complications rate for distal tibia fracture.

  2. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  3. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  4. [Unstable fracture of the distal radius and its treatment: comparison of three techniques: external fixation, intramedullary pinning and AO plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, G R; Della Santa, D

    2001-06-01

    This retrospective study compares 94 distal radius fractures. Sixty one women (median age 66) and 33 men (median age 42) were reviewed clinically and radiologically by a surgeon not involved in treatment. Fractures were classified into three AO groups. Standard X-rays were used for radiological evaluation. Fractures of the distal ulna were evaluated separately. Chi-square tests, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Fisher's tests were used for statistical evaluation. Women presented mainly "A" type fractures. They were treated by intramedullary pinning. Forty two fractures were grafted, using autogenous bone for young patients and bone substitute for the elderly. Twelve scapholunate dissociations were recorded, all but one were detected in women, 50 years of age or more. Four were painfree, two presented climatic pain and six claimed pain during effort; none had snapping. Radio-ulnar laxity was similar with or without styloid fractures. External fixator and autogenous grafts appeared the most efficient technique for maintaining radial length. Ulnar head fractures were related to a significant higher incidence of sympathetic dystrophy with reduced prono-supination, a correlation not previously noted to your knowledge. This suggests that radius and ulnar head fracture should be classified independently. The amount of pain was not related to classification, internal fixation or gender.

  5. The evolution of mate choice and mating biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D; Morley, Josephine

    2003-03-22

    We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the underlying genetics and evolutionary dynamics of these models. We then argue that progress in understanding the evolution of mate choice is currently hampered by spurious distinctions among models and a misguided tendency to test the processes underlying each model as mutually exclusive alternatives. Finally, we suggest potentially fruitful directions for future theoretical and empirical research.

  6. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  7. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Conroy-Beam

    Full Text Available Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294 we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  8. Comparative study of the structure and corrosion behavior of Zr-20%Cr and Zr-20%Ti alloy films deposited by multi-arc ion plating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Farhat, E-mail: ilatahraf@yahoo.com [National Centre for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (DMME), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar, E-mail: mazhar@pieas.edu.pk [National Centre for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (DMME), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qasim, Abdul Mateen; Ahmad, Jamil; Naeem-ur-Rehman [National Centre for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (DMME), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Iqbal, Muhammad [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qureshi, Ammad H. [Materials Division, Pakistan Institute of Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2014-08-01

    The primary focus of the present work was to perform comparative study of the structure as well as corrosion behavior of two Zr-rich alloy films, i.e. Zr-20%Cr and Zr-20%Ti, as well as metallic Ti, Cr and Zr films, formed by multi-arc ion plating technique. The required alloy film composition was obtained by co-deposition with proper choice of current for the targets of the constituent metals. The deposited alloy film composition was determined by energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques, which were in close agreement with each other. The film thickness lied in the range of 550-620 nm. The crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction, which revealed the formation of nanocrystalline and semi-amorphous structures. The corrosion rates of the films were determined through weight loss measurement in 1 M, 6 M and 12 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) by ICP-AES analysis of the solution after immersion for 200-350 h. Anodic (potentiodynamic) polarization was also performed. Zr-20%Cr alloy film exhibited the best corrosion resistance, and its dissolution rate was less than 0.5 μm/year in 6 M HCl and about 4 μm/year in 12 M HCl. - Highlights: • Fine control over the stoichiometry of each alloy film • Development of either nano-crystalline or semi-amorphous alloy films • Development of highly corrosion resistant films.

  9. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  10. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants...

  11. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' pr...

  12. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel D.WIEGMANN; Lisa M.ANGELONI; Steven M.SEUBERT; J.Gordon WADE

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades rudimentary versions of thefixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers.The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period.In this paper,we review and extend results derived from these models,with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior.The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers-and,for applied purposes,researchers-assess prospective mates based on their quality,the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions.Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful,reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters.For some organisms,it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se.But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically,regardless of how the models are formulated.Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished.In addition,we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model.More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed.

  13. Parent-offspring conflict in mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Dubbs, Shelli L.

    2008-01-01

    Prevailing evolutionary approaches to human mating have largely ignored the fact that mating decisions are heavily influenced by parents and other kin. This is significant because parents and children often have conflicting mate preferences. We provide a brief review of how parents have influenced t

  14. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  15. Experimental Study on a Certain Antenna′s Microchannel Cold-plates Machined by Two Techniques%两种工艺下某天线微通道冷板特性的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁夏

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究不同工艺下微通道冷板的特性及成因.方法 以实验研究为基础,对两种工艺方式(增材制造和真空钎焊)下的某天线微通道冷板进行流动和传热分析.另外,还使用CT技术对两种冷板的内部结构进行成像.结果 获得了冷板特性数据和内部成像图片.结论 分析表明,增材制造的微通道冷板具有良好的性能,具备工程应用的潜力.%Objective To study the characteristics of microchannel cold-plates machined by different techniques and analyze the corresponding cause of formation. Methods Based on experimental study, the features of flow and heat transfer of the microchannel cold-plates processed by material additive manufacturing and vacuum brazing were analyzed. In addition, CT technology was used to image the inner structures of the two types of microchannel cold-plates. Results The characteristics and inner images of the cold-plates were obtained. Conclusion The analysis results indicated that the microchannel cold-plates machined by material additive manufacturing had good performance and could be applied in engineering projects.

  16. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  17. 钢板-混凝土组合受弯加固梁疲劳性能试验研究%Experimental research on fatigue behavior of RC beams strengthened by steel plate-concrete composite technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂建国; 王宇航

    2011-01-01

    Based on fatigue experiments on eight RC beams strengthened by steel plate-concrete composite (SPCC) technique, fatigue life and variation trend of strain under constant amplitude fatigue loading were studied.The experimental results show that the fatigue failure mode of steel plate-concrete composite beam is fatigue failure of the steel plates.The initial fatigue crack in steel plates appears near the welded toe of stud and then expansion though.But different from general RC beams, the fatigue failure mode of specimens is ductile.Amplitude of stress in steel plate has most important influence on fatigue behavior of RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.Level and amplitude of stress in steel plate should be controlled strictly in practical design and high strength steel and thin steel plate are not suitable for RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The pre-stress in steel plate can improve fatigue life of RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The S-N relation for tension steel plate welded with studs provided in ' Code for railway steel bridges design' is safe enough for the design of steel plates in RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The calculational method for fatigue life is proposed considering effects of stress level and stress amplitude.%通过对8根钢板-混凝土组合受弯加固简支梁(以下简称组合加固梁)的等幅疲劳加载试验,研究了组合加固梁在疲劳荷载作用下的寿命及应变变化规律.试验结果表明:组合加固梁的疲劳破坏是由钢板裂纹从栓钉焊趾处开始缓慢扩展直至贯通导致的,与普通钢筋混凝上梁相比,组合加固梁的疲劳破坏具有较好的延性;钢板应力幅对组合加同梁的疲劳性能影响较大,实际设计时应严格控制钢板的应力幅和应力上限,不宜采用高强钢材和较薄的钢板;加固层预应力可有效提高组合加固梁的疲劳性能;按TB 10002.2-2005中规定的焊有栓钉的受拉钢板的S-N关系对钢板-混凝

  18. Nuclear fusion occurs during mating in Candida albicans and is dependent on the KAR3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J; Miller, Mathew G; Chua, Penelope R; Maxon, Mary E; Johnson, Alexander D

    2005-02-01

    It is now well established that mating can occur between diploid a and alpha cells of Candida albicans. There is, however, controversy over when, and with what efficiency, nuclear fusion follows cell fusion to create stable tetraploid a/alpha cells. In this study, we have analysed the mating process between C. albicans strains using both cytological and genetic approaches. Using strains derived from SC5314, we used a number of techniques, including time-lapse microscopy, to demonstrate that efficient nuclear fusion occurs in the zygote before formation of the first daughter cell. Consistent with these observations, zygotes micromanipulated from mating mixes gave rise to mononuclear tetraploid cells, even when no selection for successful mating was applied to them. Mating between different clinical isolates of C. albicans revealed that while all isolates could undergo nuclear fusion, the efficiency of nuclear fusion varied in different crosses. We also show that nuclear fusion in C. albicans requires the Kar3 microtubule motor protein. Deletion of the CaKAR3 gene from both mating partners had little or no effect on zygote formation but reduced the formation of stable tetraploids more than 600-fold, as determined by quantitative mating assays. These findings demonstrate that nuclear fusion is an active process that can occur in C. albicans at high frequency to produce stable, mononucleate mating products.

  19. Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2013-10-01

    The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations.

  20. Female mate choice across mating stages and between sequential mates in flour beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, T Y; Lewis, S M

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have examined how female premating choice correlates with the outcome of copulatory and post-copulatory processes. It has been shown that polyandrous Tribolium castaneum females discriminate among males before mating based on olfactory cues, and also exert cryptic choice during mating through several mechanisms. This study tested whether a male's relative attractiveness predicted his insemination success during copulation. Bioassays with male olfactory cues were used to rank two males as more and less attractive to females; each female was then mated to either her more attractive male followed by less attractive male, or vice versa. Dissections immediately after second copulations revealed a significantly higher percent of successful inseminations for females that remated with more attractive males compared with those that remated with less attractive males. These results indicate that cryptic female choice during copulation reinforces precopulatory female choice in T. castaneum, and suggest that females could use cryptic choice to trade up to more attractive males, possibly gaining better phenotypic or genetic quality of sires.

  1. Mating order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard Lacerta vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitze, Patrick S; Cote, Julien; Clobert, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that directional female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice importantly contribute to non-random mating patterns. In species where females prefer larger sized males, disentangling different hypotheses leading to non-random mating patterns is especially difficult, given that male size usually correlates with behaviours that may lead to non-random mating (e.g. size-dependent emergence from hibernation, male fighting ability). Here we investigate female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). By sequentially presenting males in random order to females, we exclude non-random mating patterns potentially arising due to intra-sexual selection (e.g. male-male competition), trait-dependent encounter probabilities, trait-dependent conspicuousness, or trait-dependent emergence from hibernation. To test for order-dependent female mate choice we investigate whether the previous mating history affects female choice. We show that body size and body condition of the male with which a female mated for the first time were bigger and better, respectively, than the average body size and body condition of the rejected males. There was a negative correlation between body sizes of first and second copulating males. This indicates that female mate choice is dependent on the previous mating history and it shows that the female's choice criteria are non-static, i.e. non-directional. Our study therefore suggests that context-dependent female mate choice may not only arise due to genotype-environment interactions, but also due to other female mating strategies, i.e. order-dependent mate choice. Thus context-dependent female mate choice might be more frequent than previously thought.

  2. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Open reduction and internal fixation of OTA type C2-C4 fractures of the calcaneus with a triple-plate technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Alexander; Müller, Jochen; Regazzoni, Pietro; Babst, Reto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a surgical technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures with 3 AO mini-fragment plates and to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of a consecutive group of patients after a mean follow-up of 41.7 months. A series of 54 patients (16 women and 38 men) with 62 calcaneal fractures were treated over a period of 6.5 years. Forty-five patients with 50 calcaneal fractures were completely clinically and radiologically followed up. Clinical follow-up included assessment of range of motion, pain according to a visual analogue scale, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score, and the short-form 36 health survey. Radiological follow-up included plain axial and lateral radiographs and measurement of the Böhler's angle and Gissane's angle. Independent Student's t test and paired Student's t test were used alongside the chi-square test to compare clinical and radiological data and score values between different groups of patients. Eleven patients showed breakage of the osteosynthesis material during the healing process and 2 patients sustained deep wound infection requiring revision surgery. At the final follow-up all fractures had healed. The average range of motion was supination 26.4° (range 0° to 50°; SD 11.6°), pronation 15.4° (range 0° to 30°; SD 6.4°), dorsal extension 14.3° (range -10° to 30°; SD 8.0°), and plantarflexion 39.6° (range 20° to 65°; SD 11.7°). Patients with OTA type C4 fractures achieved significantly lower supination (p fracture types. The mean visual analog scale pain score was 3.6 (range 0 to 8; SD 2.3) points, average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score was 70.8 (range 33 to 100; SD 17.1) points, and the mean short-form 36 score was 60.98 (range 22.9 to 93.0; SD 18.4) points. The mean postoperative Böhler's angle was 28.9° (range 8° to 38°; SD 7.1°), which decreased to 23.6° (range 4

  4. Cautions on the Use of National Standard Method for Aerobic Plate Count in Food and Rapid Detection Techniques for Aerobic Plate Count%食品中茵落总数的国标法测定注意事项及快速检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维雅

    2012-01-01

    菌落总数是食品微生物检测的一个重要项目,也是评价食品卫生安全性最常用的指标之一,其结果的准确度和可信度直接影响评价的可靠性。该文总结了食品中菌落总数的国标法检测注意事项,并介绍了近年来常用的几种食品菌落总数的快速检测技术。%The aerobic plate count is important in the food microbiological examination and widely used in evaluation of food hygiene and safety. The reliability of evaluations is depended on the accuracy and the credibility of the aerobic plate count. This paper summarized some cautions on the use of national standard method for aerobic plate count in food microbiological examination, and reviewed some common rapid detection techniques for aerobic plate count in food microbiological study in recent years.

  5. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  6. [Optimisation of the visualisation technique for optical paths through intraocular lenses for characterisation of multifocal imaging properties of Fresnel-zone plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiß, S; Forbrig, J; Guthoff, R F; Terwee, T; Stolz, H; Siewert, S; El-Tamer, A; Hinze, U; Chichkov, B N; Stachs, O

    2014-12-01

    The utilisation of the diffractive properties of Fresnel zone plates offers the possibility of intraocular lens designs with multiple foci. Such intraocular lenses can be manufactured by two-photon polymerisation (2PP). This paper explains the underlying concept and shows the principles for visualisation of the focus properties of such implants.

  7. Progress in Research of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Technique for the Plate-Like Structure Defect Detection%板状结构缺陷电磁超声导波检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 王悦民; 孙丰瑞; 申传俊

    2012-01-01

    The recent research advances in Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer technique for the plate-ike structure defect detection were reviewed. An important introduction about progresses in Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Technique for the plate-like structure defect detection was given including lamb wave generation with EMAT, design and optimization of EMAT, ultrasonic guided wave focusing technique and imaging technique. Some direction or issues which should be further researched and its benefit for this technique to be popularized and applied were put out also.%概述了国内外板状结构缺陷电磁超声导波检测技术的研究进展。从激发兰姆波的电磁超声换能器(EMAT)技术、EMAT的优化设计、超声导波聚焦、EMAT接收信号超声波成像技术等方面,对板状结构缺陷无损检测技术取得的突破进行了评述。提出了有待进一步解决的问题。

  8. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  9. A novel mating approach for genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Severino F; Mengshoel, Ole J; Pinter, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Genetic algorithms typically use crossover, which relies on mating a set of selected parents. As part of crossover, random mating is often carried out. A novel approach to parent mating is presented in this work. Our novel approach can be applied in combination with a traditional similarity-based criterion to measure distance between individuals or with a fitness-based criterion. We introduce a parameter called the mating index that allows different mating strategies to be developed within a uniform framework: an exploitative strategy called best-first, an explorative strategy called best-last, and an adaptive strategy called self-adaptive. Self-adaptive mating is defined in the context of the novel algorithm, and aims to achieve a balance between exploitation and exploration in a domain-independent manner. The present work formally defines the novel mating approach, analyzes its behavior, and conducts an extensive experimental study to quantitatively determine its benefits. In the domain of real function optimization, the experiments show that, as the degree of multimodality of the function at hand grows, increasing the mating index improves performance. In the case of the self-adaptive mating strategy, the experiments give strong results for several case studies.

  10. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up...

  11. Mapping the double-strand breaks at the mating-type locus in fission yeast by genomic sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Egel, R; Nielsen, Olaf

    1989-01-01

    In fission yeast mating-type switching is initiated by the formation of a double-strand DNA break at the mating-type locus. A prerequisite for generation of the break is some 'imprinting' of the DNA in the previous cell cycle. We have used the technique of genomic sequencing to map the position o...

  12. Polyandry and alternative mating tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D; Svensson, Erik I

    2013-03-05

    Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research.

  13. Variation in human mate choice: simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; Verweij, Karin J H; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents ([Formula: see text] individuals) to test for genetic and family environmental influences on mate choice, while controlling for and not controlling for the effects of assortative mating. Key traits were analyzed, including height, body mass index, age, education, income, personality, social attitudes, and religiosity. This revealed near-zero genetic influences on male and female mate choice over all traits and no significant genetic influences on mate choice for any specific trait. A significant family environmental influence was found for the age and income of females' mate choices, possibly reflecting parental influence over mating decisions. We also tested for evidence of sexual imprinting, where individuals acquire mate-choice criteria during development by using their opposite-sex parent as the template of a desirable mate; there was no such effect for any trait. The main discernible pattern of mate choice was assortative mating; we found that partner similarity was due to initial choice rather than convergence and also at least in part to phenotypic matching.

  14. Direct costs and benefits of multiple mating: Are high female mating rates due to ejaculate replenishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Amy M; Kelly, Clint D

    2016-03-01

    Females often mate more than is necessary to ensure reproductive success even when they incur significant costs from doing so. Direct benefits are hypothesized to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females only receive an ejaculate from their mate still realize increased fitness from multiple mating. Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, we experimentally test the hypothesis that multiple mating via monandry or polyandry increases female fitness by replenishing ejaculates, thereby allowing females to produce more offspring for a longer period of time. We found that higher rates of female mating significantly increased lifetime fecundity and oviposition independent of whether females mated with one or two males. Further, although interactions with males significantly increased rates of injury or death, females that replenished ejaculates experienced an increased rate and duration of oviposition, demonstrating that the immediate benefits of multiple mating may greatly outweigh the long-term costs that mating poses to female condition and survival. We suggest that ejaculate replenishment is a driving factor of high mating rates in females that do not receive external direct benefits from mating and that a comparative study across taxa will provide additional insight into the role that ejaculate size plays in the evolution of female mating rates.

  15. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts.

  16. Electrician's Mate 3 & 2: Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual provides information related to the tasks assigned to the Electrician's Mate Third and Second Class who operate and maintain power and lighting systems and associated equipment. Individual chapters deal with: career challenges for the Electrician's Mate, safety precautions, test equipment, electrical installations, A-C power…

  17. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  18. Mate choice on fallow deer leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M; Robertson, A

    1989-08-10

    Leks, on which males defend small clustered mating territories, may have evolved because of the unusual opportunities they provide for female choice of mating partners, and several studies of lek-breeding animals have demonstrated correlations between the mating success of males and their phenotype or behaviour. However, these could arise because (1) females select mates on the basis of male phenotypic traits; (2) males interfere with each other's mating attempts; or (3) females show preferences for particular mating territories, and larger or stronger males are more likely to win access to these territories. Here we report that when fallow bucks on a traditional lek were experimentally induced to change their territories, differences in the mating success of bucks persisted, whereas differences in the position of their territories relative to the centre of the lek did not. The observation that bucks rarely interfered with their neighbours' harems and females moved freely between bucks suggests that females choose their mates on the basis of male phenotype rather than territory type or location. In this population, the immediate factor affecting the movements of females between males was the size of a buck's harem.

  19. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A note on mate allocation for dominance handling in genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of non-additive genetic effects in animal breeding is important because it increases the accuracy of breeding value prediction and the value of mate allocation procedures. With the advent of genomic selection these ideas should be revisited. The objective of this study was to quantify the efficiency of including dominance effects and practising mating allocation under a whole-genome evaluation scenario. Four strategies of selection, carried out during five generations, were compared by simulation techniques. In the first scenario (MS, individuals were selected based on their own phenotypic information. In the second (GSA, they were selected based on the prediction generated by the Bayes A method of whole-genome evaluation under an additive model. In the third (GSD, the model was expanded to include dominance effects. These three scenarios used random mating to construct future generations, whereas in the fourth one (GSD + MA, matings were optimized by simulated annealing. The advantage of GSD over GSA ranges from 9 to 14% of the expected response and, in addition, using mate allocation (GSD + MA provides an additional response ranging from 6% to 22%. However, mate selection can improve the expected genetic response over random mating only in the first generation of selection. Furthermore, the efficiency of genomic selection is eroded after a few generations of selection, thus, a continued collection of phenotypic data and re-evaluation will be required.

  1. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

  2. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  3. Age Variation in Mating Strategies and Mate Preferences: Beliefs versus Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Bleske-Rechek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted three studies to (1 investigate individuals' beliefs about change in mating desires over the course of emerging adulthood and (2 determine whether those beliefs reflect actual variation in mating desires among emerging adults of varied ages (late teens through twenties. In Study 1, 103 men and women gave their thoughts on how college students change, if at all, in what they most desire in a relationship and relationship partner as they move from being incoming freshmen to graduating seniors. In Studies 2 and 3, using a college sample and then an internet sample (n s = 288 and 307, men and women between the ages of 18 and 26 completed mating strategies inventories and allotted a limited number of “mate dollars” to 10 mate characteristics. Findings suggest that although emerging adults believe that their peers' mating desires change systematically over time, emerging adults' self-reported mating desires vary little with age.

  4. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  5. The evolution of multiple mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowaty, Patricia Adair

    2012-01-01

    Polyandry is a paradox: why do females mate multiple times when a single ejaculate often provides enough sperm for lifetime egg production? Gowaty et al. addressed explanations for polyandry in Drosophila pseudoobscura from the perspective of hypotheses based on sex differences in costs of reproduction (CoR). Contrary to CoR, Gowaty et al. showed that (1) a single ejaculate was inadequate for lifetime egg production; (2) polyandry provided fitness benefits to females beyond provision of adequate sperm and (3) fitness benefits of polyandry were not offset by costs. Here, I discuss predictions of the ad hoc hypotheses of CoR and three alternative hypotheses to CoR to facilitate a discussion and further development of a strong inference approach to experiments on the adaptive significance of polyandry for females. Each of the hypotheses makes testable predictions; simultaneous tests of the predictions will provide a strong inference approach to understanding the adaptive significance of multiple mating. I describe a sex-symmetric experiment meant to evaluate variation in fitness among lifelong virgins (V); monogamous females and males with one copulation (MOC); monogamous females and males with multiple copulations (MMC); PAND, polyandrous females; and PGYN, polygynous males. Last, I recommend the study of many different species, while taking care in choice of study species and attention to the assumptions of specific hypotheses. I particularly urge the study of many more Drosophila species both in laboratory and the wild to understand the “nature of flies in nature,” where opportunities and constraints mold evolutionary responses. PMID:22223093

  6. 插入钢板技术在治疗胫骨下段开放性骨折中的运用疗效%Curative Effect of Plate Insertion Technique in Treatment of Open Fracture of Distal Tibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility of plate insertion technique in the treatment of open fracture of distal tibia. Methods 53 patients with open fracture of distal tibia were treated with plate insertion technique. Curative effects were evaluated according to operation time, blood loss, healing of incision, and fracture healing. Results Of all the 53 patients, average operation time and median intraoperative blood loss was 40 min and 150 ml. 50 cases of incision healing for class a grade, 3 case incision around lo-cal scabby, not for special treatment, take out stitches on time, incision healed smoothly. Conclusion The curative effect of plate insertion technique in the treatment of open fracture of distal tibia is obvious.%目的:探讨在胫骨下段开放性骨折患者中应用插入钢板技术的可行性。方法53例胫骨下段开放性骨折患者采用插入钢板技术,通过统计手术时间、出血量;观察切口愈合、骨折愈合四个方面来进行疗效评估。结果53例患者手术时间平均40 min,术中失血量平均150 mL;50例切口愈合等级为甲级,3例切口周围局部结痂,未进行特殊治疗,按时拆线,切口顺利愈合。结论插入钢板技术在胫骨下段开放性骨折的治疗中具备相当的疗效。

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  8. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs against this

  9. Apparatus and method for explosive bonding to edge of flyer plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1991-09-01

    The invention is an apparatus and a process for the explosive joining of a flyer plate and a base plate. The apparatus consists of a flyer plate positioned over a base plate. The flyer plate has a notch containing a filler material in intimate contact with the flyer plate. An adhesive means holds a ribbon explosive partially overlapping the notch in the flyer plate. A detonating means initiates the ribbon explosive that drives the flyer plate to accomplish a high velocity, angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and effacing bonding, resulting in electron sharing linkups between the plates. An unbonded tab fractures at a base of the notch leaving a bond to an edge of the attached flyer plate.

  10. Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and time is short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghitella, Robin M; Weigel, Emily G; Head, Megan; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-09-01

    Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in the laboratory to determine the impact of variation in mate availability on sexual signaling, competition, and mating decisions that are made throughout life. Field surveys revealed within season heterogeneity in mate availability across breeding sites, providing evidence for the variation necessary for the evolution of plastic preferences. In our laboratory study, males from both female-biased and male-biased treatments invested most in sexual signaling late in life, although they competed most early in life. Females became more responsive to courtship over time, and those experiencing female-biased, but not male-biased sex ratios, relaxed their mating decisions late in life. Our results suggest that social experience and age interact to affect sexual signaling and female mating decisions. Flexible behavior could mediate the potentially negative effects of environmental change on population viability, allowing reproductive success even when preferred mates are rare.

  11. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates. PMID:20219732

  12. Female mate fidelity in a Lek mating system and its implications for the evolution of cooperative lekking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, E H

    2013-02-01

    The extent and importance of female mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems are poorly known. Fidelity may contribute to high variance in male reproductive success when it favors attractive mates or may stabilize social interactions if females are faithful to mating sites rather than males. Using 12 years of data on genetic mate choice in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), I investigated the frequency of fidelity within and between years, whether females were faithful to individual males or to mating sites across years, and whether fidelity favored attractive males. Mate fidelity occurred in 41.7% of 120 between-year comparisons and was observed for 41.1% of 73 individual females that had the opportunity to mate faithfully. Females were not more likely to mate at prior mating sites when previous mates were replaced. Faithful females mated with the same male in up to four consecutive years but were not disproportionately faithful to attractive partners. Mating history influences current mate choice, and fidelity in this lekking system apparently represents active mate choice by females but little is not cited in the text. Please provide a citation or mark this reference for deletion.consensus in mate choices among faithful females. This study underscores the prevalence of mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems and emphasizes the need to consider the larger context of lifetime reproductive behavior when interpreting patterns of female choice.

  13. High-frequency techniques for RCS prediction of plate geometries and a physical optics/equivalent currents model for the RCS of trihedral corner reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis C.

    1993-01-01

    Part 1 of this report continues the investigation, initiated in previous reports, of scattering from rectangular plates coated with lossy dielectrics. The hard polarization coefficients given in the last report are incorporated into a model, which includes second- and third-order diffractions, for the coated plate. Computed results from this model are examined and compared to measured data. A breakdown of the contribution of each of the higher-order terms to the total radar cross section (RCS) is given. The effectiveness of the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) model in accounting for the coating effect is investigated by examining a Physical Optics (PO) model which incorporates the equivalent surface impedance approximation used in the UTD model. The PO, UTD, and experimental results are compared. Part 2 of this report presents a RCS model, based on PO and the Method of Equivalent Currents (MEC), for a trihedral corner reflector. PO is used to account for the reflected fields, while MEC is used for the diffracted fields. Single, double, and triple reflections and first-order diffractions are included in the model. A detailed derivation of the E(sub theta)-polarization, monostatic RCS is included. Computed results are compared with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) results for validation. The PO/MEC model of this report compares very well with the FDTD model, and it is a much faster model in terms of computational speed.

  14. 42号CNTT板式道岔铺设施工技术%Construction Techniques for Laying No.42 CNNT Plate-Type Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅建兵

    2012-01-01

    42号CNTT板式道岔由转辙器、连接段和辙叉三部分组成,线形为复合曲线,具有容许通过速度高、高安全性等特点。以京沪高速铁路徐州东站42号CNTT板式道岔铺设施工为依托,介绍了道岔铺设的工艺流程、钢轨焊接及精调方法,为今后同类工程施工提供了良好的借鉴。%The No.42 CNTT Plate-type Switch is made up of a switch,a connective section and some frogs.With the characteristics of allowing high-speed passage,being high in safety,etc.,the linearity of the switch is of the multi-curve linearity.With the laying construction of the No.42 CNTT Plate-type Switch at the Xuzhou East Station of the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway as a practical example,the construction processes for laying the switch,the rail-welding and fine-rail-adjustment methods are introduced in the paper,which may serve as a good reference for the construction of other similar projects in the future.

  15. Status and mating success amongst visual artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller's evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, male artists with greater artistic success had a mating strategy based on longer term relationships. Overall the results provide partial support for the sexual selection hypothesis for the function of visual art.

  16. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  17. Comparison of an automated most-probable-number technique with traditional plating methods for estimating populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli associated with freshly processed broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J E; Stern, N J; Oakley, B B; Seal, B S

    2011-09-01

    An instrument (TEMPO) has been developed to automate the most-probable-number (MPN) technique and reduce the effort required to estimate some bacterial populations. We compared the automated MPN technique with traditional microbiological plating methods and Petrifilm methods for estimating the total viable count of aerobic microorganisms (TVC), total coliforms (CC), and Escherichia coli populations (EC) on freshly processed broiler chicken carcasses (postchill whole carcass rinse [WCR] samples) and cumulative drip-line samples from a commercial broiler processing facility. Overall, 120 broiler carcasses, 36 prechill drip-line samples, and 40 postchill drip-line samples were collected over 5 days (representing five individual flocks) and analyzed by the automated MPN and direct agar plating and Petrifilm methods. The TVC correlation coefficient between the automated MPN and traditional methods was very high (0.972) for the prechill drip samples, which had mean log-transformed values of 3.09 and 3.02, respectively. The TVC correlation coefficient was lower (0.710) for the postchill WCR samples, which had lower mean log values of 1.53 and 1.31, respectively. Correlations between the methods for the prechill CC and EC samples were 0.812 and 0.880, respectively. The estimated number of total aerobes was generally greater than the total number of coliforms or E. coli recovered for all sample types (P methods and the automated MPN method.

  18. HOW MATE AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES FILIAL CANNIBALISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deal, Nicholas D S; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-01-01

    .... To explain this, we hypothesize that sexual selection against filial cannibalism and/or the tendency to acquire larger broods under conditions of high mate availability discourages filial cannibalism...

  19. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  20. Associations between body morphology, mating success and mate preferences among Slovak males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fedor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with male mating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality.

  1. Mating scars reveal mate size in immature female blue shark Prionace glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calich, H J; Campana, S E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the size and maturity status of the male blue sharks Prionace glauca attempting to mate with small, immature females in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between male curved fork length (LFC ) and jaw gape was used in conjunction with the diameter of the mating scar to estimate the LFC and infer the maturity status of the male shark that produced the mating scar. The results indicate that mature males with a mean ± s.d. LFC of 218 cm ± 23 cm were attempting to mate with sexually immature females. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sampl...

  3. Biological efficacy evaluation of mating disruption against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, in grape in glasshouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, T; Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2013-01-01

    The grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is an important pest of grapes. In Belgium, severe losses of production appeared due to the presence of L. botrona in grapes commercially grown in glasshouses. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards after being tested for several years. In other (European) countries, mating disruption is already applied in grapes but there is no registration in Belgium for use in grapes. Searching for an interesting residue free technique for application in small glasshouses, we evaluated the effect of mating disruption for control of L. botrana under protected conditions (glasshouse trials) during three consecutive years (2010-2012). A prerequisite for successful mating disruption is the treatment of large contiguous areas, as the pheromone product will not remain in sufficient quantities on narrow sites and, moreover, a larger portion of the crop remains at risk from migrating mated females. The glasshouses are rather small, however, we hypothesized that these so called border effects are not present due to the secluded spaces of the glasshouses. Pheromone dispensers were deployed and flights of L botrano moths were monitored (pheromone traps/UV-traps) during the whole time period of the trials. In the mating disrupted glasshouses hardly any moth was caught anymore in pheromone traps, in contrast to UV-traps or catches by pheromone traps in comparable non-mating disrupted glasshouse compartments. This indicates the incapability of the males to localize sex pheromone sources, and hence, the inability of finding females for mating. In line with these flight monitoring data, the nearly absence or strongly decreased L. botrana caused damage symptoms in the mating disrupted glasshouses demonstrates the benefits of the mating disruption technique under protected conditions of grape growing in glasshouses.

  4. Collaborative study comparing the spiral plate and aerobic plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, J E; Donnelly, C B; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1977-07-01

    The spiral plate count method is a semiautomated plating technique that greatly reduces manpower and material costs normally associated with the pour plating technique. In this collaborative study, 8 laboratories compared the spiral and pour plating techniques, using 4 samples each of 3 products: frozen pumpkin pie, frozen chicken pot pie, and shampoo. The results show that 10 of the 12 comparisons of means of the pour and spiral methods were not significantly different; 2 values were significant at alpha = 0.01. Overall, the components of variance were less than that of the current milk standard, and the replicate per cent coefficient of variation was satisfactory. This study indicates that the spiral plate method is an acceptable alternative to the pour plate method; the spiral plate method has been adopted as official first action.

  5. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  6. Reproduction in free-ranging Propithecus verreauxi: estrus and the relationship between multiple partner matings and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, D K; Whitten, P L

    1996-05-01

    Female sifaka mate selectively with one or more resident and/or non-resident males during the breeding season. Various adaptive explanations have been advanced to explain why female primates mate with multiple males including that 1) females seek to confuse paternity and thereby forestall male infanticide and/or ensure male infant care or 2) females seek to ensure fertilization. Assessing the power of fertilization insurance to explain mating patterns in females requires information on the temporal relationship between mating and ovarian hormones. The hormonal correlates of reproduction and mating in free-ranging Propithecus verreauxi were investigated using excreted steroids as indices of reproductive state. Solid-phase extraction and radioimmunoassay techniques were used to measure unconjugated estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) in 485 desiccated fecal samples collected from five female sifaka before and during the breeding season at Beza Mahafaly, Madagascar. Results suggest that behavioral estrus was characterized by 10 to 15-day elevations in E(2); hormonal activity was observed to be similar to pseudo-estrus reported for other lemur species; apparent conception was associated with sustained P4 elevations beginning 1 to 3 days post-estrus with gestational phase elevations of E2 beginning 42 to 45 days post-conception; and mating with multiple partners appeared not to be a prerequisite to fertilization, as conception resulted from both monoandrous and polyandrous matings. These preliminary data suggest that fertilization insurance is not adequate to explain polyandrous mating in sifaka at Beza Mahafaly.

  7. Sexual behavior, cannibalism, and mating plugs as sticky traps in the orb weaver spider Leucauge argyra (Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Barrantes, Gilbert

    2011-07-01

    Unpublished field observations in Leucauge argyra, a tropical orb weaver spider, suggest the occurrence of conspicuous mating plugs that could reduce or prevent remating attempts. Otherwise, the sexual behavior of this species remains unknown. The aims of this study were to describe the courtship behavior and copulation in L. argyra and investigate mating plug formation in this species. Fourteen virgin females and 12 plugged females were exposed to up to three males and checked for mating plug formation. Of the 12 virgins that copulated, nine produced plugs (five immediately after copulation), and the five plugged females that copulated produced another mating plug immediately after copulation. We did not detect the transfer of any male substance during copulation but observed a whitish liquid emerging from female genital ducts. Plug formation was positively associated with male twanging during courtship. One virgin and four plugged females cannibalized males. In seven trials with virgins and in three trials with plugged females, the male's palp adhered to a substance that emerged from female genital ducts and spread on her genital plate. The male had to struggle energetically to free his glued palp; two of these males were cannibalized while trying to release their palps. Females seem to determine copulation duration by altering the timing of mating plug formation and through sexual cannibalism. This is the first case reported of a mating plug as a sticky trap for males.

  8. Variable mating behaviors and tropical biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Cannon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current theoretical studies on mechanisms promoting species co-existence in diverse communities assume that species are fixed in their mating behavior. Each species is a discrete evolutionary unit, even though most empirical evidence indicates that inter-specific gene flow occurs in plant and animal groups. Here, in a data-driven meta-community model of species co-existence, we allow mating behavior to respond to local species composition and abundance. While individuals primarily out-cross, species maintain a diminished capacity for selfing and hybridization. Mate choice is treated as a variable behavior, which responds to intrinsic traits determining mate choice and the density and availability of sympatric inter-fertile individuals. When mate choice is strongly limited, even low survivorship of selfed offspring can prevent extinction of rare species. With increasing mate choice, low hybridization success rates maintain community level diversity for extended periods of time. In high diversity tropical tree communities, competition among sympatric congeneric species is negligible, because direct spatial proximity with close relatives is infrequent. Therefore, the genomic donorship presents little cost. By incorporating variable mating behavior into evolutionary models of diversification, we also discuss how participation in a syngameon may be selectively advantageous. We view this behavior as a genomic mutualism, where maintenance of genomic structure and diminished inter-fertility, allows each species in the syngameon to benefit from a greater effective population size during episodes of selective disadvantage. Rare species would play a particularly important role in these syngameons as they are more likely to produce heterospecific crosses and transgressive phenotypes. We propose that inter-specific gene flow can play a critical role by allowing genomic mutualists to avoid extinction and gain local adaptations.

  9. Variation in human mate choice: Simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Heath, A.C.; Martin, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents (N > 20,000 individuals) to test for genetic and famil

  10. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  11. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Hamidou; Damiens, David; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Fatherhaman, Omnia; Lees, Rosemary S; Roux, Olivier; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Tripet, Fréderic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Sterile and untreated males four to six days of age were released in large cages (~1.75 sq m) with females of similar age at the following ratios of sterile males: untreated males: untreated virgin females: 100:100:100, 300:100:100, 500:100:100 (three replicates of each) and left for two days. Competitiveness was determined by assessing the egg hatch rate and the insemination rate, determined by dissecting recaptured females. An additional experiment was conducted with a ratio of 500:100:100 and a mating period of either one or two days. Two controls of 0:100:100 (untreated control) and 100:0:100 (sterile control) were used in each experiment. When males and females consort for two days with different ratios, a significant difference in insemination rate was observed between ratio treatments. The competitiveness index (C) of sterile males compared to controls was 0.53. The number of days of exposure to mates significantly increased the insemination rate, as did the increased number of males present in the untreated: sterile male ratio treatments, but the number of days of exposure did not have any effect on the hatch rate. The comparability of the hatch rates between experiments suggest that An. coluzzii mating competitiveness experiments in large cages could be run for one instead of two days, shortening the required length of the experiment. Sterilized males were half as competitive as untreated males, but an effective release ratio of at least five sterile for one untreated male has the potential to impact the fertility of

  12. HOW MATE AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES FILIAL CANNIBALISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Nicholas D S; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-03-01

    Parents sometimes eat their young to reduce the consequences of brood overcrowding, for nutritional gain, and/or to redirect investment toward future reproduction. It has been predicted that filial cannibalism should be more prevalent when mate availability is high as parents can more easily replace consumed young. Reviewing the available evidence--which comes almost exclusively from studies of paternal caring fish--we find support in some species, but not others. To explain this, we hypothesize that sexual selection against filial cannibalism and/or the tendency to acquire larger broods under conditions of high mate availability discourages filial cannibalism. Additionally, filial cannibalism might occur when mate availability is low to facilitate survival until access to mates improves. Since attractiveness can also influence remating opportunities, we review its effect on filial cannibalism, finding that attractive parents engage in less filial cannibalism. More research is needed to determine if this relationship is a result of individuals showing adaptive plasticity in filial cannibalism based on self-perceived attractiveness, or if the attractiveness of individuals is reduced by their propensity to commit filial cannibalism. More generally, to advance our understanding of how mate availability influences filial cannibalism, future studies should also focus on a wider range of taxa.

  13. Social Inclusion Facilitates Interest in Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a life history framework, variability across an organism's lifespan necessitates trade-offs between behaviors that promote survival and those that promote reproduction. Adopting this perspective, the current work investigates how social acceptance or rejection can influence the differential priority placed on mating and survival motivations. Because social acceptance is an important survival-related cue (i.e., group living provides protection from predators and sharing of resources, we predicted that recent experiences of social acceptance should increase people's motivation to mate. In support of this prediction, Study 1 found that participants who were included in an electronic ball-toss game showed more interest in mating (regardless of the potential mate's attractiveness than excluded and control participants. In Study 2, participants who recalled an experience of social acceptance viewed sexual affiliation as more important than did participants in rejection and control conditions. Collectively, these results suggest an adaptive trade-off such that interest in mating increases upon satiation of affiliative needs. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the experience of social acceptance can have unique effects and should not be treated as the sole comparison condition when studying social rejection.

  14. Mate-Choice Copying in Single and Coupled Women: The Influence of Mate Acceptance and Mate Rejection Decisions of other Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship.

  15. Mate-choice copying in single and coupled women: the influence of mate acceptance and mate rejection decisions of other women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-26

    Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model) mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target) and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship.

  16. Condition-dependent mate choice: A stochastic dynamic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Alicia M; Mills, Alex F

    2014-09-01

    We study how changing female condition during the mating season and condition-dependent search costs impact female mate choice, and what strategies a female could employ in choosing mates to maximize her own fitness. We address this problem via a stochastic dynamic programming model of mate choice. In the model, a female encounters males sequentially and must choose whether to mate or continue searching. As the female searches, her own condition changes stochastically, and she incurs condition-dependent search costs. The female attempts to maximize the quality of the offspring, which is a function of the female's condition at mating and the quality of the male with whom she mates. The mating strategy that maximizes the female's net expected reward is a quality threshold. We compare the optimal policy with other well-known mate choice strategies, and we use simulations to examine how well the optimal policy fares under imperfect information.

  17. RNA-sequencing elucidates the regulation of behavioural transitions associated with the mating process in honey bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Fabio; Brown, Mark J F; Vergoz, Vanina; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-07-31

    Mating is a complex process, which is frequently associated with behavioural and physiological changes. However, understanding of the genetic underpinnings of these changes is limited. Honey bees are both a model system in behavioural genomics, and the dominant managed pollinator of human crops; consequently understanding the mating process has both pure and applied value. We used next-generation transcriptomics to probe changes in gene expression in the brains of honey bee queens, as they transition from virgin to mated reproductive status. In addition, we used CO2-narcosis, which induces oviposition without mating, to isolate the process of reproductive maturation. The mating process produced significant changes in the expression of vision, chemo-reception, metabolic, and immune-related genes. Differential expression of these genes maps clearly onto known behavioural and physiological changes that occur during the transition from being a virgin queen to a newly-mated queen. A subset of these changes in gene expression were also detected in CO2-treated queens, as predicted from previous physiological studies. In addition, we compared our results to previous studies that used microarray techniques across a range of experimental time-points. Changes in expression of immune- and vision-related genes were common to all studies, supporting an involvement of these groups of genes in the mating process. Our study is an important step in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating post-mating behavioural transitions in a natural system. The weak overlap in patterns of gene expression with previous studies demonstrates the high sensitivity of genome-wide approaches. Thus, while we build on previous microarray studies that explored post-mating changes in honey bees, the broader experimental design, use of RNA-sequencing, and focus on Australian honey bees, which remain free from the devastating parasite Varroa destructor, in the current study, provide unique insights

  18. Trans-syndesmotic fibular plating for fractures of the distal tibia and fibula with medial soft tissue injury: report of 6 cases and description of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciadini, Marcus F; Manson, Theodore T; Shah, Swapnil B

    2013-03-01

    This report presents a retrospective review of several cases of distal fractures of the tibia and fibula with significant injury to the medial soft tissues treated either primarily or in staged fashion with fixed-angle trans-syndesmotic fixation. This fixation strategy was used in an effort to minimize further surgical trauma and implant load in the zone of soft tissue injury. Ten patients were identified between September 2002 and November 2010 who presented to a level I trauma center with fractures of the distal tibia and fibula associated with open medial wounds (9 patients) or extensive closed medial degloving injury (1 patient). They were all treated with trans-syndesmotic plating of the distal fibula. Two patients were lost to follow-up after initial treatment, and an additional 2 patients had follow-up durations of only 6.5 and 3 months, respectively. This left 6 patients with an average of 23.3 months of follow-up (range: 14-36 months). Radiographs and medical records were reviewed, and clinical and radiographic results were evaluated. All 6 patients had radiographic evidence of bony healing and had resumed weight bearing. Two patients required additional bone graft surgery to encourage healing, 1 of whom also required free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair. One patient resumed weight bearing earlier than instructed and experienced mild but acceptable loss of reduction. No patients developed wound infections of either the medial traumatic or lateral surgical wounds, although, as noted above, 1 of the patients with a nonunion required medial free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair because of incompetent medial soft tissues. Trans-syndesmotic fixation has previously been described as providing enhanced fixation of diabetic and osteoporotic ankle fractures but has not, to our knowledge, been described for the treatment of higher energy traumatic injuries. Specifically, the valgus distal tibial fracture, frequently associated

  19. Mate sampling and choosiness in the sand goby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Kai; Lehtonen, Topi K

    2013-08-22

    To date, mate choice studies have mostly focused on establishing which mates are chosen or how the choices are performed. Here, we combined these two approaches by empirically testing how latency to mate is affected by various search costs, variation in mate quality and female quality in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Our results show that females adjust their mating behaviour according to the costs and benefits of the choice situation. Specifically, they mated sooner when access to males was delayed and when the presence of other females presented a mate sampling cost. We also found a positive link between size variation among potential mating partners and spawning delay in some (but not all) experimental conditions. By contrast, we did not find the number of available males or the females' own body size ('quality') to affect mating latency. Finally, female mating behaviour varied significantly between years. These findings are notable for demonstrating that (i) mate sampling time is particularly sensitive to costs and, to a lesser degree, to variation among mate candidates, (ii) females' mating behaviour is sensitive to qualitative rather than to quantitative variation in their environment, and (iii) a snapshot view may describe mate sampling behaviour unreliably.

  20. Development Trends of Continuous Selective Gold Plating Techniques for Connectors%接插件端子连续选择性镀金工艺的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣光; 黄皓

    2011-01-01

    The development of continuous selective gold plating technology for connectors is focused on the improvement of gold layer quality and reducing of production cost. In the pretrearment process, the application of chemical or electrochemical polishing and pre-plating techniques could enhance the brightness and the appearance of connector surface. Meanwhile, new-style barrier layer and combined different barrier layers could reduce the pore density, and then increase the density of barrier layer so as to prevent the diffusion between substrate and gold layer. Finally the addition of new additives, discoloration protective agents and environment-friendly material-gold potassium citrate instead of toxic gold potassium cyanide in gold-plating techniques were introduced.%接插件端子连续选择性镀金工艺技术的发展趋势,主要是围绕提高镀金层技术质量,降低镀金成本.介绍了在端子镀金前处理工序中,增加化学抛光或电化学抛光以及预镀工艺等,提高端子基材表面光亮度,来改善镀金层的外观质量.开发新的镀金中间阻挡层和应用中间阻挡层组合工艺技术,减少镀金中间阻挡层孔隙,提高阻挡层致密性.防止铜合金基材金属扩散迁移到镀金层表面.介绍了镀金新添加剂应用,如防沉积(置换)的微酸性镀金、自封孔的微酸性镀金、钴合金镀金工艺等.应用防变色保护剂降低镀金层厚度.介绍了应用环保新材料丙尔金替代有毒氰化亚金钾镀金工艺.

  1. The technique of detecting the laser-ultrasonic vector displacement with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer waves in a plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yongdong; QIAN Menglu

    2003-01-01

    Generally, a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer is only able to detect the out-of-plane component of a displacement field; while the in-plane component often has the information about the material which cannot be found in this out-of-plane component. In this paper, based on a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer set-up for detecting the out-of-plane component of a laser generated acoustic field, a technique is developed to detect both the out-of-plane and inplane displacement components simultaneously with a novel two-channel confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  2. The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image...... of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe...... the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattès examples, and tuning sequences of matings....

  3. Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Robert J.; Weißschuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

    Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

  4. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2006-03-07

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sample of British poets, visual artists, and other adults. We show that two components of schizotypy are positively correlated with mating success. For one component, this relationship is mediated by creative activity. Results are discussed in terms of the evolution of human creativity and the genesis of schizophrenia.

  5. LCP crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of VcmN, a MATE transporter from Vibrio cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakizako, Tsukasa [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshiki [Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Hipolito, Christopher J. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Kuroda, Teruo [Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ishitani, Ryuichiro [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Suga, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nureki, Osamu, E-mail: nureki@bs.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2016-06-22

    A V. cholerae MATE transporter was crystallized using the lipidic cubic phase (LCP) method. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected from single crystals obtained in a sandwich plate and a sitting-drop plate to resolutions of 2.5 and 2.2 Å, respectively. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters, one of the multidrug exporter families, efflux xenobiotics towards the extracellular side of the membrane. Since MATE transporters expressed in bacterial pathogens contribute to multidrug resistance, they are important therapeutic targets. Here, a MATE-transporter homologue from Vibrio cholerae, VcmN, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP). X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution from a single crystal obtained in a sandwich plate. The crystal belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.3, b = 93.7, c = 100.2 Å. As a result of further LCP crystallization trials, crystals of larger size were obtained using sitting-drop plates. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution from a single crystal obtained in a sitting-drop plate. The crystal belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.9, b = 91.8, c = 100.9 Å. The present work provides valuable insights into the atomic resolution structure determination of membrane transporters.

  6. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  7. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  8. Basidiomycete Mating Type Genes and Pheromone Signaling▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

  9. Functional pleiotropy and mating system evolution in plants: frequency-independent mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Otto, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Mutations that alter the morphology of floral displays (e.g., flower size) or plant development can change multiple functions simultaneously, such as pollen export and selfing rate. Given the effect of these various traits on fitness, pleiotropy may alter the evolution of both mating systems and floral displays, two characters with high diversity among angiosperms. The influence of viability selection on mating system evolution has not been studied theoretically. We model plant mating system evolution when a single locus simultaneously affects the selfing rate, pollen export, and viability. We assume frequency-independent mating, so our model characterizes prior selfing. Pleiotropy between increased viability and selfing rate reduces opportunities for the evolution of pure outcrossing, can favor complete selfing despite high inbreeding depression, and notably, can cause the evolution of mixed mating despite very high inbreeding depression. These results highlight the importance of pleiotropy for mating system evolution and suggest that selection by nonpollinating agents may help explain mixed mating, particularly in species with very high inbreeding depression. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. A mathematical model of the mating signal transduction pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Ivan Milac

    1998-09-14

    Outline of two major goals in my proposal for this fellowship. First goal having no previous training in biology, was to become knowledgeable of the paradigms, experimental techniques, and current research interests of molecular biology. Second goal was to construct a mathematical model of the mating signal transduction pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  11. The present-day number of tectonic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The number of tectonic plates on Earth described in the literature has expanded greatly since the start of the plate tectonic era, when only about a dozen plates were considered in global models of present-day plate motions. With new techniques of more accurate earthquake epicenter locations, modern ways of measuring ocean bathymetry using swath mapping, and the use of space based geodetic techniques, there has been a huge growth in the number of plates thought to exist. The study by Bird (2003) proposed 52 plates, many of which were delineated on the basis of earthquake locations. Because of the pattern of areas of these plates, he suggested that there should be more small plates than he could identify. In this paper, I gather together publications that have proposed a total of 107 new plates, giving 159 plates in all. The largest plate (Pacific) is about 20 % of the Earth's area or 104 Mm2, and the smallest of which (Plate number 5 from Hammond et al. 2011) is only 273 km2 in area. Sorting the plates by size allows us to investigate how size varies as a function of order. There are several changes of slope in the plots of plate number organized by size against plate size order which are discussed. The sizes of the largest seven plates is constrained by the area of the Earth. A middle set of 73 plates down to an area of 97,563 km2 (the Danakil plate at number 80, is the plate of median size) follows a fairly regular pattern of plate size as a function of plate number. For smaller plates, there is a break in the slope of the plate size/plate number plot and the next 32 plates follow a pattern of plate size proposed by the models of Koehn et al. (2008) down to an area of 11,638 km2 (West Mojave plate # 112). Smaller plates do not follow any regular pattern of area as a function of plate number, probably because we have not sampled enough of these very small plates to reveal any clear pattern.

  12. Mate value asymmetry and relationship satisfaction in female opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Natalia; Danel, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of studies highlight positive assortative mating in terms of various aspects of mate value. However, there is a lack of studies that directly show how both partners' mate value and mate value differences are related to the satisfaction in heterosexual relationship. In the present study, the authors focused on women and analyzed how their mate value self-assessment and perception of their partners' mate value are related to female relationship satisfaction. The authors also classified them under 3 categories of couples defined by partners' mate value discrepancy, that is, in which a woman has higher, lower, and equal mate value than does her male partner. Women's relationship satisfaction was positively related to the perception of their partners' mate value but negatively correlated to their mate value self-assessment. Moreover, relationship satisfaction was the lowest in the category where woman has higher self-assessed mate value. The level of women's relationship satisfaction did not differ in 2 other categories of relationships. Our results suggest that women's perception of mate value and mate value asymmetry may significantly affect women's satisfaction from their relationships. The authors provide several possible, evolutionary-based explanatory mechanisms.

  13. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion.

  14. Electromagnetic ultrasonic detection method for steel plate based on phase control technique%基于相控技术的钢板电磁超声检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨理践; 刘珂丞; 高松巍; 邢燕好

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the electromagnetic ultrasonic echo signal in the steel plate,an electromagnetic ultrasonic detection method for steel plate based on phase control technique was proposed.The phase control focusing technique and the transduction mechanism of electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer in steel plate were studied,and the excitation transducer array was composed of multi array elements.With the time delay rule,the equiphase superposition of ultrasonic was achieved in the target area,and the ultrasonic focusing was realized.In addition,the experimental verification was carried out on Q235 steel plate with the discrete structure.The results show that the proposed method can effectively compensate the phase deviation caused by the sound path difference between exciting and receiving transducers.When the excitation voltage is consistent,the amplitude of the echo signal received at 658 mm from the transducer array increases as 2 times as that of echo signal with the single excitation of central transducer.With the three-element excitation transducer array detection method,the ultrasonic focusing of defects can be realized.Furthermore,the amplitude of defect echo signal at 520 mm increases as 1.83 times as that of echo signal with the single excitation of central transducer.%为了提高钢板中电磁超声回波信号,提出了一种基于相控技术的钢板电磁超声检测方法.研究了相控聚焦技术和钢板中电磁超声换能器的换能机理,通过多阵元组成激发换能器阵列,运用延时法使超声波在目标区等相位叠加,实现超声波聚焦,并在 Q235钢板上采用分立式结构进行实验验证.结果表明:该方法有效弥补了收发换能器间声程差引起的相位偏移,激励电压一致时,658 mm处接收的回波信号幅值提高为中心换能器单独激发时的2倍;采用三阵元激励换能器阵列检测方法可实现缺陷处的超声波聚焦,520 mm 处缺陷回波幅

  15. Female genital morphology and mating behavior of Orchestina (Arachnida: Araneae: Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias; Izquierdo, Matías; Carrera, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The unusual reproductive biology of many spider species makes them compelling targets for evolutionary investigations. Mating behavior studies combined with genital morphological investigations help to understand complex spider reproductive systems and explain their function in the context of sexual selection. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising a variety of species with complex internal female genitalia. Data on oonopid phylogeny are preliminary and especially studies on their mating behavior are very rare. The present investigation reports on the copulatory behavior of an Orchestina species for the first time. The female genitalia are described by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Females of Orchestina sp. mate with multiple males. On average, copulations last between 15.4 and 23.54min. During copulation, the spiders are in a position taken by most theraphosids and certain members of the subfamily Oonopinae: the male pushes the female back and is situated under her facing the female's sternum. Males of Orchestina sp. possibly display post-copulatory mate-guarding behavior. The female genitalia are complex. The genital opening leads into the uterus externus from which a single receptaculum emerges. The dorsal wall of the receptaculum forms a sclerite serving as muscle attachment. A sclerotized plate with attached muscles lies in the posterior wall of the uterus externus. The plate might be used to lock the uterus during copulation. The present study gives no direct evidence for cryptic female choice in Orchestina sp. but suggests that sexual selection occurs in the form of sperm competition through sperm mixing.

  16. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating: The Case of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In pre-industrial societies parents exercise a strong influence over the mating decisions of their offspring. As modern pre-industrial societies approximate the way of life in ancestral human societies, human mating behavior should be seen as the outcome of a co-evolutionary process between parental and offspring's mating choice. Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences, which enable them to select those mates and in-laws who maximize their inclusive fitness. Following Trivers' (1974 theory of parent-offspring conflict, it is hypothesized that in-law and mating preferences substantially overlap, but also differ with respect to the beauty trait of a mating candidate. This hypothesis is tested on a sample of 292 parents. It is found that the two sets of preferences are strongly correlated, while beauty is preferred significantly more in a mating partner than in an in-law.

  17. Molecular determinants of ligand selectivity for the human multidrug and toxin extruder proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Bethzaida; Ekins, Sean; Morales, Mark; Wright, Stephen H

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs had similar apparent affinities for MPP, with K(tapp) values of 4.4 and 3.7 μM for MATE1 and MATE2-K, respectively. Selectivity was assessed for both transporters from IC(50) values for 59 structurally diverse compounds. Whereas the two transporters discriminated markedly between a few of the test compounds, the IC(50) values for MATE1 and MATE2-K were within a factor of 3 for most of them. For hMATE1 there was little or no correlation between IC(50) values and the individual molecular descriptors LogP, total polar surface area, or pK(a). The IC(50) values were used to generate a common-features pharmacophore, quantitative pharmacophores for hMATE1, and a bayesian model suggesting molecular features favoring and not favoring the interaction of ligands with hMATE1. The models identified hydrophobic regions, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, MATE1 and MATE2-K were found to have markedly overlapping selectivities for a broad range of cationic compounds, including representatives from seven novel drug classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs.

  18. Unconscious Factors in Choice of a Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer, Lilly

    1971-01-01

    If the selection of a spouse is based on the unconscious wish to correct disturbances which previously existed in the parent child relationship, the marriage is threatened from the start. This article examines motivations derived from early developmental phases which form convictions which later become the nucleus for mate choice. (Author/CJ)

  19. Husband's Esteem Predicts his Mate Retention Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Holden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available delity or prevent their defection from the relationship. These tactics include low-risk acts that render the current relationship more attractive by bestowing benefits on the woman, as well as cost-inflicting acts that render defection from the relationship risky or dangerous for her. Previous research has linked men's mate retention behavior with men's mate value (value as a current or potential partner using women's reports. The current research addresses limitations of that research using self-reports and cross-spousal reports from 107 married couples concerning their self-esteem and their esteem for their partner. The results indicate that the level of esteem that wives have for their husbands is positively associated with their perception of their husband's use of positive inducements and negatively associated with their husband's self-reported use of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors (i.e., Direct Guarding, Intersexual Negative Inducements, and Intrasexual Negative Inducements. The level of self-esteem reported by men was negatively associated with their self-reported direct guarding behavior. Discussion explores the possibility that esteem—both self-esteem and esteem from one's partner—functions as an internal gauge of relative mate value.

  20. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  1. Genetic Analysis of Distorted Segregation Ratio of Mating Types Among Basidiospores in Lentinula edodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shui-ming; LIN Fan-xue

    2008-01-01

    This study prepared 17 strains of Lentinula edodes, including wild and cultivated strains as materials, and statistically analyzed the ratios of spores from different aspects via mating types' analysis and the OWE-SOJ technique. The results from this study first systematically identified skewed expected distribution of mating-type factors segregation in Lentinula edodes spores has commonly statistical meanings in wild and cultivated strains. Genetic analysis of positive and negative parental-recombined fruiting showed that the nuclear type of F1 progeny spores among those strains segregated through theoretical distribution mainly depended on the combined state of parental dikaryons, and the predominant spores were those with the mating type identical to the dikaryotic parent, indicating that the genetic basis of segregation distortion of spores is different from that of protoplast monokaryons in which the B factor takes predominant responsibility for that phenomenon, and it cooperates A factor with B factor to influence the ratio of spores.

  2. Ancient mercury-based plating methods: combined use of surface analytical techniques for the study of manufacturing process and degradation phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, Gabriel Maria; Guida, Giuseppe; Angelini, Emma; Di Carlo, Gabriella; Mezzi, Alessio; Padeletti, Giuseppina

    2013-11-19

    may contribute to cultural heritage preservation, thus extending the applicability of the surface analytical techniques.

  3. Influence of mating frequency on sow reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, J; Dial, G D; Trigg, T; Davies, P; King, V L

    1998-12-01

    Gilts and sows were bred one, two, or three times during a single estrous period in a commercial herd for evaluating the effect of mating frequency on reproductive performance. Estrus detection started at approximately 0630 daily by applying back pressure to females with the presence of a mature boar. Natural mating was used. Gilts detected in estrus were mated in the morning of d 1 (AM), the morning of d 1 and 2 (AM-AM), and the morning and afternoon of d 1 and morning of d 2 (AM-PM-AM) for mating frequencies 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Sows were bred in the AM, AM-AM, AM-PM-AM (1), and morning of d 1 and morning and afternoon of d 2 [AM-AM-PM (2)] for mating frequency 1, 2, 3 (1), and 3 (2), respectively. Breeding events in the morning and afternoon started at approximately 0730 and 1530. Females were randomly assigned to a mating frequency. Boars were randomly assigned to each breeding event. In total, 256 gilts and 766 sows were involved in the study. Gilts with a single mating (76.5%, P = .06) and triple matings (80.4%, P .1) in the farrowing rates of sows were observed between mating frequencies 1, 2, 3 (1), and 3 (2). Double-mated gilts had more (P .3) in total born and pigs born alive in sows between mating frequencies. We concluded that triple-mating gilts and sows did not improve farrowing rate and litter size compared with single and double matings. There were no differences in farrowing rate and litter size between double- and single-mated sows. Gilts with double matings had a larger litter size than those with a single mating.

  4. Assortative mating by unwed biological parents of adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C; Roberts, M K

    1977-04-22

    Analyses of data obtained from 662 unwed couples whose children were relinquished for adoption reveal that biological parents of adopted children mate assortatively. For physical characters, assortative mating of unwed parents was similar to that of wed parents; for behavior characters, however, there was less assortative mating by the unwed parents. Because assortative mating inflates estimates of genetic parameters in adoption studies, future studies should collect information on both biological parents.

  5. Mating first, mating more: biological market fluctuation in a wild prosimian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Norscia

    Full Text Available In biology, economics, and politics, distributive power is the key for understanding asymmetrical relationships and it can be obtained by force (dominance or trading (leverage. Whenever males cannot use force, they largely depend on females for breeding opportunities and the balance of power tilts in favour of females. Thus, males are expected not only to compete within their sex-class but also to exchange services with the opposite sex. Does this mating market, described for humans and apes, apply also to prosimians, the most ancestral primate group? To answer the question, we studied a scent-oriented and gregarious lemur, Propithecus verreauxi (sifaka, showing female dominance, promiscuous mating, and seasonal breeding. We collected 57 copulations involving 8 males and 4 females in the wild (Berenty Reserve, South Madagascar, and data (all occurrences on grooming, aggressions, and marking behaviour. We performed the analyses via exact Spearman and matrix correlations. Male mating priority rank correlated with the frequency of male countermarking over female scents but not with the proportion of fights won by males over females. Thus, males competed in an olfactory tournament more than in an arena of aggressive encounters. The copulation frequency correlated neither with the proportion of fights won by males nor with the frequency of male countermarking on female scents. Male-to-female grooming correlated with female-to-male grooming only during premating. Instead, in the mating period male-to-female grooming correlated with the copulation frequency. In short, the biological market underwent seasonal fluctuations, since males bargained grooming for sex in the mating days and grooming for itself in the premating period. Top scent-releasers gained mating priority (they mated first and top groomers ensured a higher number of renewed copulations (they mated more. In conclusion, males maximize their reproduction probability by adopting a double

  6. Mating first, mating more: biological market fluctuation in a wild prosimian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    In biology, economics, and politics, distributive power is the key for understanding asymmetrical relationships and it can be obtained by force (dominance) or trading (leverage). Whenever males cannot use force, they largely depend on females for breeding opportunities and the balance of power tilts in favour of females. Thus, males are expected not only to compete within their sex-class but also to exchange services with the opposite sex. Does this mating market, described for humans and apes, apply also to prosimians, the most ancestral primate group? To answer the question, we studied a scent-oriented and gregarious lemur, Propithecus verreauxi (sifaka), showing female dominance, promiscuous mating, and seasonal breeding. We collected 57 copulations involving 8 males and 4 females in the wild (Berenty Reserve, South Madagascar), and data (all occurrences) on grooming, aggressions, and marking behaviour. We performed the analyses via exact Spearman and matrix correlations. Male mating priority rank correlated with the frequency of male countermarking over female scents but not with the proportion of fights won by males over females. Thus, males competed in an olfactory tournament more than in an arena of aggressive encounters. The copulation frequency correlated neither with the proportion of fights won by males nor with the frequency of male countermarking on female scents. Male-to-female grooming correlated with female-to-male grooming only during premating. Instead, in the mating period male-to-female grooming correlated with the copulation frequency. In short, the biological market underwent seasonal fluctuations, since males bargained grooming for sex in the mating days and grooming for itself in the premating period. Top scent-releasers gained mating priority (they mated first) and top groomers ensured a higher number of renewed copulations (they mated more). In conclusion, males maximize their reproduction probability by adopting a double tactic and by

  7. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wittert Gary; Cumming Robert; Pitts Marian; McLachlan Robert I; Holden Carol A; Ehsani Johnathon P; de Kretser David M; Handelsman David J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate disease (PD), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD) in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS). Methods ...

  8. Evidence for mate guarding behavior in the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria J. Bennett; Winston P. Smith; Matthew G. Betts

    2011-01-01

    Discerning the intricacies of mating systems in butterflies can be difficult, particularly when multiple mating strategies are employed and are cryptic and not exclusive. We observed the behavior and habitat use of 113 male Taylor's checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha taylori). We confirmed that two distinct mating strategies were...

  9. The malleability of mate selection in speed-dating events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.; Nelemans, S.A.; Karremans, J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined to what extent individual mate selectivity could be explained by characteristics of the mating market. Specifically, we hypothesized that females’ selectivity would be more malleable, or context-dependent, than males’ mate selectivity (cf. Baumeister, 2000; Gangestad & Simpson,

  10. Cultural Variation in Parental Influence on Mate Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Duncan, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions underlying current psychological theories of human mating, throughout much of human history parents often controlled the mating behavior of their children. In the present research, the authors tested the hypothesis that the level of parental influence on mating is associated

  11. Cultural Variation in Parental Influence on Mate Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Duncan, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions underlying current psychological theories of human mating, throughout much of human history parents often controlled the mating behavior of their children. In the present research, the authors tested the hypothesis that the level of parental influence on mating is associated

  12. Post-mating clutchy piracy in an amphibian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Barluenga, M.; Palanca, A.; Vences, M.; Meyer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition after multiple mating has been observed in many animals1,4-7 and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple p

  13. Post-mating clutchy piracy in an amphibian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Barluenga, M.; Palanca, A.; Vences, M.; Meyer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition after multiple mating has been observed in many animals1,4-7 and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple

  14. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... analysis of beam structures is presented and includes both upper and lower-bound solution techniques. The remaining chapters are devoted to plates. The classic elastic plate theories are presented. The plastic yield line theory for plates is presented including both upper and lower-bound techniques...

  15. Residual stresses of thin, short rectangular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonian, A. T.; Danyluk, S.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the residual stresses in thin, short rectangular plates is presented. The analysis is used in conjunction with a shadow moire interferometry technique by which residual stresses are obtained over a large spatial area from a strain measurement. The technique and analysis are applied to a residual stress measurement of polycrystalline silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film growth technique.

  16. A REVIEW PAPER ON RECOGNIZE AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE AND BLURRED NUMBER PLATES

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Soni*, Dr.Raman Chadha, Sukhmeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    This review paper provides a brief survey on various recognition techniques for automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) in image processing. ANPR is real –time embedded system which uses number plate to identify the vehicle. This expertise is in advance popularity in security and traffic installations. License plate recognition system is an application of computer vision. Computer vision is a method of using a computer to take out high level information from a digital image. The usele...

  17. Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile van Lieshout

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings.

  18. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  19. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  20. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Mate choice: from sexual cues to cognitive adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have successfully combined sexual selection theory and empirical research to compile lists of sexual attractiveness cues used in human mate choice. But a list of inputs is not the same as a normative or descriptive model of a psychological adaptation. We need to shift from cataloguing sexual cues to modelling cognitive adaptations for mate choice. This theoretical chapter addresses how to make this transition in three parts. The introduction discusses four general problems with cue cataloguing as an evolutionary psychology research strategy: animals' promiscuous flexibility of cue use; cue use being marginal to cognition; cue use being marginal to the hard game-theoretical aspects of mate choice; and cue use being uninformative about the exact adaptive functions of mate choice. The middle section develops six critiques of current mate choice research: the obsession with sex difference; the over-emphasis on physical rather than behavioural cues; the assumption of weighted linear models of cue integration; the avoidance of game-theoretical problems of mutual choice and assortative mating; the neglect of co-evolution between mate choice heuristics and the cues that they select; and the failure to understand that mate choice is only worth doing if potential mates show significant genetic variance. The conclusion outlines a new normative and descriptive framework for mate choice, centred on the use of brutally efficient search heuristics that exploit the informational structure of human genotypes, phenotypes and populations to make good mate choices.

  2. Improvement of the bonding strength of Al/Cu transition joint made by single-shot explosive welding technique using Cu intermediate plate. Cu chukanzai wo mochiita doji bakusetsuho ni yoru Al/Cu izai tsugite no setsugo kyodo no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izuma, T.; Niwatsukino, T. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M. (Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Improvement of the bonding strength of Al/Cu transition joints was tried by single-shot explosive welding technique using a Cu intermediate plate (Cu-IP). As the preliminary experiment, a relatively thin Al alloy plate (4 mm in thickness) and Cu plate (2.5 mm) were bonded by explosive welding to study the effect of bonding conditions on interfacial zone (IZ) structure and bonding strength. As a result, the thickness of IZs increased with an explosive mass involving reduction of bonding strengths, and the use of Cu-IP was effective in reducing the energy applied to IZ because the energy contributed to formation of IZ. As the fabrication experiment of practical Al/Cu transition joints, a pure Al plate and pure Cu plate of 20 mm in thickness and Cu-IPs of 1.0 and 1.5 mm were bonded by explosive welding. As a result, the IZ thickness was 20-70 [mu]m and 5 [mu]m without/with Cu-IP, respectively, and the joint showed the same tensile strength as the base Al plate, suggesting possible production of practical Al/Cu electrical transition joints. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  6. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  7. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  12. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  13. Socioeconomic Development and Shifts in Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Stone

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mate preferences shift according to contexts such as temporal duration of mateship sought and ecological prevalence of parasites. One important cross-cultural context that has not been explored is a country's socioeconomic development. Because individuals in less developed countries are generally less healthy and possess fewer resources than those in more developed countries, displays of health and resources in a prospective long-term partner were hypothesized to be valued more in populations in which they are rare than in populations in which they are more common. We also predicted negative correlations between development and preferences for similar religious background and a desire for children. We found strong support for the health hypothesis and modest support for the resource acquisition potential hypothesis. We also found an unpredicted positive correlation between development and importance ratings for love. Discussion addresses limitations of the current research and highlights directions for future cross-cultural research on mating psychology.

  14. Mating strategy, disgust, and food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith; Lewis, David M G; Alley, Thomas R; Buss, David M

    2015-02-01

    Food neophobia and disgust are commonly thought to be linked, but this hypothesis is typically implicitly assumed rather than directly tested. Evidence for the connection has been based on conceptually and empirically unsound measures of disgust, unpublished research, and indirect findings. This study (N = 283) provides the first direct evidence of a relationship between trait-level food neophobia and trait-level pathogen disgust. Unexpectedly, we also found that food neophobia varies as a function of sexual disgust and is linked to mating strategy. Using an evolutionary framework, we propose a novel hypothesis that may account for these previously undiscovered findings: the food neophilia as mating display hypothesis. Our discussion centers on future research directions for discriminatively testing this novel hypothesis.

  15. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  16. Sport Participation Influences Perceptions of Mate Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extracurricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.

  17. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  18. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnerfeldt, Susanne; Hailer, Frank; Nord, Maria; Vilà, Carles

    2008-01-28

    There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have

  19. Sport participation influences perceptions of mate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael

    2012-02-22

    Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.

  20. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L, alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  1. Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence fro...

  2. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mohammadzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here.Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features.After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed.Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2 which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  3. Sexual imprinting in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, Tamas; Gyuris, Petra; Weisfeld, Glenn E

    2004-06-07

    Animal and human studies have shown that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity, a tendency referred to as homogamy. Several authors have suggested that a specific innate recognition mechanism, phenotypic matching, allows the organism to detect similar others by their resemblance to itself. However, several objections have been raised to this theory on both empirical and theoretical grounds. Here, we report that homogamy in humans is attained partly by sexual imprinting on the opposite-sex parent during childhood. We hypothesized that children fashion a mental model of their opposite-sex parent's phenotype that is used as a template for acquiring mates. To disentangle the effects of phenotypic matching and sexual imprinting, adopted daughters and their rearing families were examined. Judges found significant resemblance on facial traits between daughter's husband and her adoptive father. Furthermore, this effect may be modified by the quality of the father-daughter relationship during childhood. Daughters who received more emotional support from their adoptive father were more likely to choose mates similar to the father than those whose father provided a less positive emotional atmosphere.

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  5. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  6. Lifetime mating opportunities and male mating behaviour in sexually cannibalistic praying mantids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell

    1998-04-01

    I examined the number of lifetime mating opportunities and mating behaviour of males in two sexually cannibalistic species, the Mediterranean, Iris oratoria, and bordered, Stagmomantis limbata, praying mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae). Two approaches estimated the number of lifetime mating opportunities: direct observations of intersexual encounters in the field, and an encounter model. I collected behavioural observations, together with ecological data for use in the model, over three field seasons. The ecological data included an assessment of the feeding condition of S. limbata females in nature; the females fed at a level comparable to females maintained on an abundant diet in the laboratory. As for the number of mating opportunities, individual males of both species encountered two or more females, as predicted by the model. I observed no male, however, in more than one copulation. This result could reflect individual variation in the times and places of sexual activity or an actual low number of mating opportunities in the field. Furthermore, a higher percentage of I. oratoria males encountered two or more females than S. limbata males, as the model indicates. Fewer mating opportunities could lead to greater selection upon S. limbata males to ensure paternity at each mating, which can explain the longer copulation times observed for S. limbata males. I considered two hypotheses about male behaviour in light of the number of lifetime encounters with females: male suicide and male reduction of the risk of cannibalism. Behavioural observations do not strongly support male suicide in either species. Certain male behaviours, such as the nature of copulatory position and, in captivity, mounting females from the rear, are consistent with the idea that males behave so as to reduce the probability that they are cannibalized during intersexual encounters. Moreover, male I. oratoria preferentially mount well-fed, fecund females in captivity. Taken together, these results

  7. Mate choice and human stature: homogamy as a unified framework for understanding mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Raymond, Michel; Godelle, Bernard; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-08-01

    Assortative mating for human height has long attracted interest in evolutionary biology, and the phenomenon has been demonstrated in numerous human populations. It is often argued that mating preferences generate this pattern, but other processes can also induce trait correlations between mates. Here, we present a methodology tailored to quantify continuous preferences based on choice experiments between pairs of stimuli. In particular, it is possible to explore determinants of interindividual variations in preferences, such as the height of the chooser. We collected data from a sample of 200 individuals from France. Measurements obtained show that the perception of attractiveness depends on both the height of the stimuli and the stature of the individual who judged them. Therefore, this study demonstrates that homogamy is present at the level of preferences for both sexes. We also show that measurements of the function describing this homogamy are concordant with several distinct mating rules proposed in the literature. In addition, the quantitative approach introduced here fulfills metrics that can be used to compare groups of individuals. In particular, our results reveal an important disagreement between sexes regarding height preferences in the context of mutual mate choice. Finally, both women and men prefer individuals who are significantly taller than average. All major findings are confirmed by a reanalysis of previously published data.

  8. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  9. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  10. Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Steven A; Stockley, Paula

    2014-05-01

    Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation.

  11. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  12. Low-Impact Mating System for Docking Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L.; Robertson, Brandan; Carroll, Monty B.; Le, Thang; Morales, Ray

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a low-impact mating system suitable for both docking (mating of two free-flying spacecraft) and berthing (in which a robot arm in one spacecraft positions an object for mating with either spacecraft). The low-impact mating system is fully androgynous: it mates with a copy of itself, i.e., all spacecraft and other objects to be mated are to be equipped with identical copies of the system. This aspect of the design helps to minimize the number of unique parts and to standardize and facilitate mating operations. The system includes a closed-loop feedback control subsystem that actively accommodates misalignments between mating spacecraft, thereby attenuating spacecraft dynamics and mitigating the need for precise advance positioning of the spacecraft. The operational characteristics of the mating system can be easily configured in software, during operation, to enable mating of spacecraft having various masses, center-of-gravity offsets, and closing velocities. The system design provides multi-fault tolerance for critical operations: for example, to ensure unmating at a critical time, a redundant unlatching mechanism and two independent pyrotechnic release subsystems are included.

  13. Resistance to Mate Guarding Scale in Women: Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita J. Cousins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One individual's actions may affect the evolutionary fitness of another individual. Sexually antagonistic coevolution occurs when one partner's behavior decreases the fitness of the other partner (Rice, 1996. This conflict pressures the other partner to counter these disadvantageous actions. Mate guarding is a mate retention tactic aimed at keeping a partner from cheating. Mate guarding may reduce mate choice, especially for extra pair mates. Therefore, some individuals may resist their partner's mate guarding tactics. We developed a scale to measure resistance to mate guarding and tested it in women (N = 1069. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA, six theoretically sound factors emerged and explained 69% of the variance. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed strong support for the six original subscales as well as for the overall scale. The subscales had high reliability. The validity of the Resistance to Mate Guarding Scale was also excellent. Women who stated they used more resistance to mate guarding strategies also indicated that they had partners who mate guarded more, were less invested in their relationships, felt their partners were more controlling, had a more avoidant attachment style, and had a more unrestricted sociosexual orientation.

  14. Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Lisa L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affects male gene expression. Results We used Drosophila genome arrays to identify changes in gene expression profiles that occur in mated male heads. Forty-seven genes differed between mated and control heads 2 hrs post mating. Many mating-responsive genes are highly expressed in non-neural head tissues, including an adipose tissue called the fat body. One fat body-enriched gene, female-specific independent of transformer (fit, is a downstream target of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy, a genetic pathway that regulates Drosophila reproductive behaviors as well as expression of some fat-expressed genes; three other mating-responsive loci are also downstream components of this pathway. Another mating-responsive gene expressed in fat, Juvenile hormone esterase (Jhe, is necessary for robust male courtship behavior and mating success. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that mating causes changes in male head gene expression profiles and supports an increasing body of work implicating adipose signaling in behavior modulation. Since several mating-induced genes are sex-determination hierarchy target genes, additional mating-responsive loci may be downstream components of this pathway as well.

  15. Mixed boundary conditions for piezoelectric plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    For plate bending and stretching problems in piezoelectric materials,the reciprocal theorem and the general solution of piezoelasticity are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order.A decay analysis technique is used to establish necessary conditions that the prescribed data on the edge of the plate must satisfy in order that it should generate a decaying state within the plate.For the case of axisymmetric bending and stretching of a circular plate,these decaying state conditions are obtained explicitly for the first time when the mixed conditions are imposed on the plate edge.They are then used for the correct formulation of boundary conditions for the interior solution.

  16. Chaotic Motion of Corrugated Circular Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large deflection theory of thin anisotropic circular plates was used to analyze the bifurcation behavior and chaotic phenomena of a corrugated thin circular plate with combined transverse periodic excitation and an in-plane static boundary load. The nonlinear dynamic equation for the corrugated plate was derived by employing Galerkin's technique. The critical conditions for occurrence of the homoclinic and subharmonic bifurcations as well as chaos were studied theoretically using the Melnikov function method. The chaotic motion was also simulated numerically using Maple, with the Poincaré map and phase curve used to evaluate when chaotic motion appears. The results indicate some chaotic motion in the corrugated plate. The method is directly applicable to chaotic analysis of an isotropic circular plate.

  17. How to optimize the drop plate method for enumerating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, B; Hamilton, M; Heersink, J

    2001-03-01

    The drop plate (DP) method can be used to determine the number of viable suspended bacteria in a known beaker volume. The drop plate method has some advantages over the spread plate (SP) method. Less time and effort are required to dispense the drops onto an agar plate than to spread an equivalent total sample volume into the agar. By distributing the sample in drops, colony counting can be done faster and perhaps more accurately. Even though it has been present in the laboratory for many years, the drop plate method has not been standardized. Some technicians use 10-fold dilutions, others use twofold. Some technicians plate a total volume of 0.1 ml, others plate 0.2 ml. The optimal combination of such factors would be useful to know when performing the drop plate method. This investigation was conducted to determine (i) the standard deviation of the bacterial density estimate, (ii) the cost of performing the drop plate procedure, (iii) the optimal drop plate design, and (iv) the advantages of the drop plate method in comparison to the standard spread plate method. The optimal design is the combination of factor settings that achieves the smallest standard deviation for a fixed cost. Computer simulation techniques and regression analysis were used to express the standard deviation as a function of the beaker volume, dilution factor, and volume plated. The standard deviation expression is also applicable to the spread plate method.

  18. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males in laboratory and semi-field cages: release ratios and mating competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakacherry, Odessa; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie Roger Lionel

    2014-04-01

    To control the container-breeding mosquito and major vector of dengue and chikungunya Aedes albopictus, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is proposed as a component of integrated vector management programs in endemic areas. For the technique to be successful, released males, sterilized with 35 Gy of ionizing radiation during the pupal stage, must be able to compete for mating opportunities with wild counterparts and successfully copulate with wild females to induce sterility in the population. Any reduction in competitiveness can be compensated for by increasing the ratio of released sterile to wild males, a ratio which must be optimized for effectiveness and efficiency. Fruit fly SIT programs use field enclosures to test the competitiveness of sterile males to monitor the quality of the colony and adjust release ratios. This is laborious and time consuming, and for mosquito programs it would be advantageous if similarly useful results could be obtained by smaller scale laboratory tests, conducted on a more regular basis. In the present study we compared the competitiveness, as measured by hatching rate of resulting egg batches, of irradiated males measured in small and large laboratory cages and semi-field enclosures in a greenhouse setting, when competing in a 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 ratio with fertile males. The sterile males were found to be equally competitive when compared to unirradiated counterparts, and a 5:1 ratio was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, the fertility of the female populations, irrespective of cage size. Variability in hatch rate in eggs laid by individual females and so-called indeterminate matings, when we could not be certain whether a female had mated a fertile or a sterile male, could be investigated by closer investigation of mating status and the frequency of multiple matings in Ae. albopictus. The laboratory results are encouraging for the effectiveness of the SIT using irradiated males of this species, and we support further

  19. Mating system drives negative associations between morphological features in Schistosomatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Sophie; Desdevises, Yves; Portela, Julien; Boissier, Jérôme

    2010-08-10

    Sexual morphological features are known to be associated with the mating systems of several animal groups. However, it has been suggested that morphological features other than sexual characteristics could also be constrained by the mating system as a consequence of negative associations. Schistosomatidae are parasitic organisms that vary in mating system and can thus be used to explore links between the mating system and negative associations with morphological features. A comparative analysis of Schistosomatidae morphological features revealed an association between the mating system (monogamous versus polygynandrous) and morphological characteristics of reproduction, nutrition, and locomotion. The mating system drives negative associations between somatic and sexual morphological features. In monogamous species, males display a lower investment in sexual tissues and a higher commitment of resources to tissues involved in female transport, protection, and feeding assistance. In contrast, males of polygynandrous species invest to a greater extent in sexual tissues at the cost of reduced commitment to female care.

  20. Mating system drives negative associations between morphological features in Schistosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltran Sophie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual morphological features are known to be associated with the mating systems of several animal groups. However, it has been suggested that morphological features other than sexual characteristics could also be constrained by the mating system as a consequence of negative associations. Schistosomatidae are parasitic organisms that vary in mating system and can thus be used to explore links between the mating system and negative associations with morphological features. Results A comparative analysis of Schistosomatidae morphological features revealed an association between the mating system (monogamous versus polygynandrous and morphological characteristics of reproduction, nutrition, and locomotion. Conclusions The mating system drives negative associations between somatic and sexual morphological features. In monogamous species, males display a lower investment in sexual tissues and a higher commitment of resources to tissues involved in female transport, protection, and feeding assistance. In contrast, males of polygynandrous species invest to a greater extent in sexual tissues at the cost of reduced commitment to female care.

  1. Mate choice in fruit flies is rational and adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Fedina, Tatyana Y; Pletcher, Scott D; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2017-01-17

    According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that female behaviours and cues act redundantly in mate detection and assessment, as rational mate choice largely persists when visual or chemical sensory modalities are impaired, but not when both are impaired. Transitivity in mate choice demonstrates that the quality of potential mates varies significantly among genotypes, and that males and females behave in such a way as to facilitate adaptive mate choice.

  2. Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

  3. Characterization of Al-responsive citrate excretion and citrate-transporting MATEs in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Many plant species excrete organic acids into the rhizosphere in response to aluminum stress to protect sensitive cells from aluminum rhizotoxicity. When the roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a major source of pulp production, were incubated in aluminum-toxic medium, citrate released into the solution increased as a function of time. Citrate excretion was inducible by aluminum, but not by copper or sodium chloride stresses. This indicated that citrate is the major responsive organic acid released from the roots of this plant species to protect the root tips from aluminum damage. Four genes highly homologs to known citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins, named EcMATE1-4, were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning techniques. Their predicted proteins included 12 membrane spanning domains, a common structural feature of citrate-transporting MATE proteins, and consisted of 502-579 amino acids with >60 % homology to orthologous genes in other plant species. One of the homologs, designated EcMATE1, was expressed in the roots more abundantly than in the shoots and in response to both Al and low pH stresses. Ectopic expression of EcMATE1 and 3 in tobacco hairy roots enhanced Al-responsive citrate excretion. Pharmacological characterization indicated that Al-responsive citrate excretion involved a protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process. These results indicate that citrate excretion through citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins is one of the important aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

  4. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  5. Microchannel Plate Imaging Detectors for the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Stock, J.; Marsh, D.

    1992-01-01

    There has been significant progress over the last few years in the development of technologies for microchannel plate imaging detectors in the Ultraviolet (UV). Areas where significant developments have occurred include enhancements of quantum detection efficiency through improved photocathodes, advances in microchannel plate performance characteristics, and development of high performance image readout techniques. The current developments in these areas are summarized, with their applications in astrophysical instrumentation.

  6. Treatment of middle-third clavicle fractures using anterior plating with a dynamic compression plate (DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Padmanabhan; Joshi, Meera; Shilston, Sophie; Wallace, Donald; Pearce, Oliver J

    2013-03-01

    Significantly displaced midshaft clavicle fractures can be managed operatively to restore anatomy and allow early mobilization. Several techniques have described using precontoured anatomically designed plates placed on the superior surface of the bone or reconstruction plates contoured by the surgeon placed either superiorly or anteriorly. We describe the use of the dynamic compression plate placed anteriorly on the clavicle in treating these fractures and discuss the relative advantages of this technique. We have a case series of 8 patients over a 2-year period, who were followed up and all went on to successful fracture union.

  7. Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom. PMID:21496492

  8. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B T Ramesha; M D Yetish; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; Jaboury Ghazoul; R Uma Shaanker

    2011-06-01

    The styles of flowers may represent an arena for pollen competition in the race to fertilize ovules. Accordingly, selection should favour a longer ‘race’ to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. Sampling across a taxonomically diverse range of wild and outcrossed species, we found that the distribution of style lengths within plants were skewed towards longer styles, as predicted. In self-pollinated domesticated species, where discrimination among pollen is less important, we found no such pattern. We conclude that style length is under directional selection towards longer styles as a mechanism for mate choice among pollen of variable quality.

  9. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  10. Ríete con las Mates

    OpenAIRE

    López González, M. Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Este articulo presenta la exposición “Ríete con las Mates: Viñetas Cómicas Matemáticas” que el Grupo de Innovación Educativa (GIE) “Pensamiento Matemático" de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) ha confeccionado con la colaboración de alumnos de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos de la UPM. El trabajo quiere poner de manifiesto la utilidad de las exposiciones como recurso docente en la enseñanza de las matemáticas

  11. Fungal mating pheromones: choreographing the dating game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom.

  12. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  13. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P

    2015-01-07

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most 'model' species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions.

  14. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most ‘model’ species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448

  15. Social discrimination of cage-mates and non-cage-mates by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samantha; Burman, Oliver; Mendl, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The ability to discriminate between group-mates and non-group-mates likely underpins the occurrence of affiliative and aggressive behaviour towards 'in-group' and 'out-group' individuals. Here we present two experiments aimed at testing the ability of rats (Rattus norvegicus) to discriminate between cage-mate (CM: animals residing in the subject's home cage) and non-cage-mate (NCM) conspecifics. In experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate between different exemplars of CM and NCM using a lever pressing task employing symmetrical reinforcement. Subjects did not reach performance criterion, but they did show some evidence of discrimination between the two types of stimuli. In experiment 2, we employed a digging task to determine if rats can discriminate between odour cues from CM and NCM presented simultaneously on two sand-filled bowls. Subjects reached performance criterion on the first pair of odours, and on three more different pairs of CM and NCM odours. The results of a reversal task, using a fifth pair of odours, indicate that the rats were using a common factor to discriminate between social cues from CM and NCM conspecifics, rather than learning each pair independently. Possible candidates include a group-specific odour cue, or the development of a CM/NCM category concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen LU, Qiao WANG, Mingyi TIAN, Jin XU, Jian LV, Aizhi QIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle, Glenea cantor (F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, were investigated. Upon encounter, a male approached a female, mounted her, grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi, and attempted to mate. Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h. Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success, the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait, the bursa copulatrix length, and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length. Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate, suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition. Under a female-biased sex ratio, more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers, suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice. Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating. During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert, and as a result, males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success [Current Zoology 59 (2 : 257-264, 2013]. 

  17. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

    2013-12-22

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes.

  18. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morgado-Santos

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation. In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction.

  19. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen LU; Qiao WANG; Mingyi TIAN; Jin XU; Jian LV; Aizhi QIN

    2013-01-01

    Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle,Glenea cantor (F.)(Coleoptera:Cerambycidae),were investigated.Upon encounter,a male approached a female,mounted her,grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi,and attempted to mate.Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h.Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success,the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait,the bursa copulatrix length,and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length.Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate,suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition.Under a female-biased sex ratio,more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers,suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice.Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating.During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert,and as a result,males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success.

  20. The role of personality and intelligence in assortative mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorial, Sergio; Martin-Buro, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Assortative mating is the individuals' tendency to mate with those who are similar to them in some variables, at a higher rate than would be expected from random. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of assortative mating through the Big Five model of personality and two measures of intelligence using Spanish samples. The sample consisted of 244 Spanish couples. It was divided into two groups according to relationship time. The effect of age, educational level and socioeconomic status was controlled. The results showed strong assortative mating for intelligence and moderate for personality. The strongest correlations for Personality were found in Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness.

  1. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  2. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Sefc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay.

  3. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado-Santos, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation) or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation). In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction. PMID:26181664

  4. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears

  5. Molecular genetic analyses of mating pheromones reveal intervariety mating or hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Fan, Jinjiang; Stein, Birgit; Behr, Melissa J; Samsonoff, William A; Wickes, Brian L; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2002-09-01

    The sexual mating of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is important for pathogenesis studies because the fungal virulence is linked to the alpha mating type (MAT(alpha)). We characterized C. neoformans mating pheromones (MF(alpha) 1 and MFa1) from 122 strains to understand intervariety hybridization or mating and intervariety virulence. MF(alpha) 1 in three C. neoformans varieties showed (a) specific nucleotide polymorphisms, (b) different copy numbers and chromosomal localizations, and (c) unique deduced amino acids in two geographic populations of C. neoformans var. gattii. MF(alpha) 1 of different varieties cross-hybridized in Southern hybridizations. Their phylogenetic analyses showed purifying selection (neutral evolution). These observations suggested that MAT(alpha) strains from any of the three C. neoformans varieties could mate or hybridize in nature with MATa strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans. A few serotype A/D diploid strains provided evidence for mating or hybridization, while a majority of A/D strains tested positive for haploid MF(alpha) 1 identical to that of C. neoformans var. grubii. MF(alpha) 1 sequence and copy numbers in diploids were identical to those of C. neoformans var. grubii, while their MFa1 sequences were identical to those of C. neoformans var. neoformans; thus, these strains were hybrids. The mice survival curves and histological lesions revealed A/D diploids to be highly pathogenic, with pathogenicity levels similar to that of the C. neoformans var. grubii type strain and unlike the low pathogenicity levels of C. neoformans var. neoformans strains. In contrast to MF(alpha) 1 in three varieties, MFa1 amplicons and hybridization signals could be obtained only from two C. neoformans var. neoformans reference strains and eight A/D diploids. This suggested that a yet undiscovered MFa pheromone(s) in C. neoformans var. gattii and C. neoformans var. grubii is unrelated to, highly divergent from, or rarer than that in C

  6. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  7. Embryonic mortality in buffalo naturally mated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of embryonic mortality in three different period of year in buffaloes naturally mated. The trial was carried out in a buffalo farm located in Caserta province between 2000-2006. In this period were registered natural insemination on 200 buffaloes. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out on Day 30, confirmed on Day 45 and every 15th days until 90 days after natural mating. Buffaloes that were pregnant on Day 30 but not on Day 45 or Day 90 were considered to have undergone embryonic (EM or fetal mortality (FM respectively. EM and FM were 8.8% and 13.4% respectively throughout the experimental period. A high incidence (P<0.01 of FM was found in the transitional period (December-March than in other months of the year. The incidence of embryonic mortality was significantly (P<0.01 higher between 28-60 days of gestation and lower after 71 day of gestation. The higher fetal mortality found in this study could be due the lower serum levels of progesterone normally found in transitional period in buffalo cows.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag by electroless plating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Lizhi; Liu, Wenping; Wu, Yuxian; He, Zeqiang, E-mail: csuhzq@163.com

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} cathode materials have been synthesized by citric acid-assisted combustion method. • LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag cathode materials with 4 wt% silver in Ag{sup 0} state coating layer on the surface of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} have been prepared by electroless plating technique. • The Ag-coating improves the electronic conductivity and the surface stability of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}. • LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag exhibit enhanced cycling stability and rate capability. - Abstract: Silver (Ag) coated LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} (LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag) was prepared by electroless plating method. The microstructure, surface morphology and electronic conductivity of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic conductivity tests. The results showed that 4 wt% silver was tightly coated in Ag{sup 0} state on the surface of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} to form a uniform Ag-coating layer of about 30 nm. Electrochemical tests stated clearly that the cycling performance of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag was more stable and the rate capability was more outstanding than that of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} due to the coating of Ag on the surface of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} by improving the electronic conductivity, preventing LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} from being attacked by electrolyte, decreasing the electrochemical polarization during cycling and increasing the lithium ion diffusion coefficient on cathode materials.

  9. Osteotomia valgizante de tíbia com placa "calço" de Puddu: apresentação de técnica Valgus tibial osteotomy with "wedge" plate of Puddu: technique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Ellera Gomes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar os resultados iniciais, obtidos com a osteotomia valgizante de adição de tíbia, fixada com placa calço descrita por Puddu. Foram operados 29 joelhos em 27 pacientes para correção de geno-varo, sendo que, em apenas um paciente o procedimento bilateral teve objetivo profilático. O seguimento foi de 3 a 28 meses com média de 14 meses. A osteotomia proximal de tíbia foi feita de forma oblíqua iniciando na inserção distal do ligamento colateral medial em direção ao tubérculo de Gerdy. A osteotomia foi aberta e fixada com uma placa calço de Puddu. O espaço aberto da osteotomia foi preenchido por enxerto autólogo de ilíaco. A carga total era dada com 45 dias de pós-operatório. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que entre 4 a 6 meses os pacientes tiveram uma significativa melhora na sintomatologia indutora do procedimento cirúrgico. A avaliação final mostrou 27 resultados satisfatórios e apenas 2 regulares. Como conclusão essa técnica tornou a osteotomia de tíbia um procedimento reprodutível com resultados previsíveis com excelente manutenção no pós-operatorio da correção obtida no trans-operatório.The objective of this paper is to present the initial results obtained with the valgus tibial osteotomy, fixed with the wedge plate described by Puddu. This surgery was performed in 29 knees, in 27 patients, for correction of genu-varum, and as a profilatic measure in only one patient. The follow up time was from 3 to 28 months with average of 14 months. The proximal tibial osteotomy was done in an oblique way with start in the distal insertion of the colateral medial ligament and directed to the Gerby tubercle. The osteotomy was opened and fixed with a wedge plate of Puddu. The space opened by the osteotomy was filled with autologous iliac graft. Total weightbearing was allowed 45 days after surgery. The results show that in 4 to 6 months patients had a significant improvement of

  10. Indirect mate choice, direct mate choice and species recognition in a bower-building cichlid fish lek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genner, M J; Young, K A; Haesler, M P; Joyce, D A

    2008-09-01

    Sexual selection arising through female mate choice typically favours males with larger, brighter and louder signals. A critical challenge in sexual selection research is to determine the degree to which this pattern results from direct mate choice, where females select individual males based on variation in signalling traits, or indirect mate choice, where male competition governs access to reproductively active females. We investigated female mate choice in a lekking Lake Malawi cichlid fish, Hemitilapia oxyrhynchus, in which males build and aggressively defend sand 'bowers'. Similar to previous studies, we found that male reproductive success was positively associated with bower height and centrality on the lek. However, this pattern resulted from males holding these territories encountering more females, and thus their greater success was due to indirect mate choice. Following initial male courtship, an increase in the relative mating success of some males was observed, but this relative increase was unrelated to bower size or position. Crucially, experimentally manipulating bowers to resemble those of a co-occurring species had no appreciable effect on direct choice by females or male spawning success. Together, these results suggest indirect mate choice is the dominant force determining male-mating success in this species, and that bowers are not signals used in direct mate choice by females. We propose that, in this species, bowers have a primary function in intraspecific male competition, with the most competitive males maintaining larger and more central bowers that are favoured by sexual selection due to higher female encounter rates.

  11. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9 ± 0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2 ± 1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

  12. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  15. 化学复合沉积镍磷-碳纤维的性能研究%Research on Compound Chemical Plating Technique of Nickel-Phosphorus Alloy and Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秉余; 穆柏椿; 由向群

    2001-01-01

    研究了镀液纤维浓度对镀层纤维含量的影响规律,探讨了碳纤维提高Ni-P合金复合镀层的硬度和耐磨性的机理。结果表明,镀层碳纤维含量随镀液碳纤维浓度的增加先提高后降低,当镀液中碳纤维含量为6g/L时,镀层中碳纤维含量达到最高值(24.1%,体积分数)。碳纤维的加入使镀层硬度和耐磨性显著提高,镀态下和经400℃×1h时效处理后的镀层硬度分别为634HV和1319HV,比同一状态下Ni-P镀层的硬度分别高35%和61%;500℃×1h时效后的耐磨性是Ni-P镀层的6倍,是38CrMoAl钢氮碳共渗层的7倍。%The effects of compound chemical plating technique of nickel-phosphorus alloy and carbon fiber content in the solution on the hardness and wear resistance of coating are researched.The results show that the carbon fiber content in coating increases first,then decreases with the carbon fiber density in solution.When the carbon fiber density is 6g/L,the carbon fiber content in coating reach to a maximun (24.1%,vol.).The hardness of the coatings with carbon fiber in as-coated and aged in 400 ℃×1h is 434HV and 1319HV respectively,35% and 61% higher than that of Ni-P coating in the same state.After 500℃×1h aging,the wear resistance of coating with carbon fiber is over 6 times as that of normal nickel-phosphorus alloy coating and 7 times as that of nitrocarburized case of steel 38CrMoAl.The mechanism of carbon fiber and the wear resistance are also explored.

  16. Sperm economy between female mating frequency and male ejaculate allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply is a major question in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, if females accept matings more than once, ejaculates from different males compete for fertilization (sperm competition), which confronts males with the decision of how to allocate their reproductive resources to each mating event. Although most existing models have examined either female mating frequency or male ejaculate allocation while assuming fixed levels of the opposite sex's strategies, these strategies are likely to coevolve. To investigate how the interaction of the two sexes' strategies is influenced by the level of sperm limitation in the population, we developed models in which females adjust their number of allowable matings and males allocate their ejaculate in each mating. Our model predicts that females mate only once or less than once at an even sex ratio or in an extremely female-biased condition, because of female resistance and sperm limitation in the population, respectively. However, in a moderately female-biased condition, males favor partitioning their reproductive budgets across many females, whereas females favor multiple matings to obtain sufficient sperm, which contradicts the predictions of most existing models. We discuss our model's predictions and relationships with the existing models and demonstrate applications for empirical findings.

  17. Mutual mate choice for olorful traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  18. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  19. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...

  20. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, Andra; Weeda, Anne C.; de Boer, Jetske G.; Hoffmeister, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex deter

  1. Educational and social class assortative mating in fertile British couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Positive assortative mating for education and social position has been widely reported in a number of countries, but very few studies have tested whether or not educational or social class homogamy is related to differential fertility. This study examined the relationship between educational and social class assortative mating and fertility in a British national cohort. The analyses were based on 7452 husband-wife pairs from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). The mean fertility was 3.22 children per couple; the number of children significantly increased from higher to lower social classes and from the more educated to the less educated. The extent of assortative mating for social class and educational level was related to fertility; as educational assortative mating decreased so did the average number of children, whereas the opposite trend was observed for social class. When assortative mating for education and social class were considered together, educational assortative mating was the more significant predictor of the number of children and educationally homogamous couples had higher fertility independent of their social class assortative mating. The relationship between assortative mating and fertility for education and social class appeared to be acting in the opposite direction.

  2. A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jackson T; Frazho, Jean K; Randell, Susan C

    2012-02-01

    An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

  3. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  4. Control of moth pests by mating disruption: Successes and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardé, R.T.; Minks, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Male moths generally find their mates by following the females' pheromone plume to its source. A formulated copy of this message is used to regulate mating of many important pests, including pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella, oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and tomato pinworm Keiferia ly

  5. Mutual mate choice for olorful traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  6. Mating success follows duet dancing in the Java sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Midori

    2017-01-01

    Mutual interactions between sexes have multiple signalling functions. Duet singing in songbirds is related to mutual mate guarding, joint resource defence, and signalling commitment. Coordinated visual displays of mating pairs are thought to perform similar functions, but are less well understood. The current study evaluated mutual interactions in an Estrildid species to explore the relative importance of duet dancing and male singing in mating success of pairs in a first encounter. When Java sparrows (Lonchura oryzivora) court prospective mates, only males sing. However, both males and females perform courtship dances, often in a duet-like manner. These dances are typically terminated by female copulation solicitation displays (CSDs). In the current study, we observed higher mating success when courtship dances were mutually exchanged, and when males sang. However, the sex initiating the courtship did not affect mating success. Most females produced CSDs after duet dancing but before hearing the entire song, indicating that duet dancing played a crucial role in mating. This finding highlights an unexplored aspect of duetting behaviour in the process of mutual mate choice. These results conflict with the majority of past songbird research, which has interpreted songs as primary behavioural sexual signals. PMID:28273111

  7. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding.

  8. Mutual Mate Choice for Colorful Traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  9. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  10. Mating type sequences in asexually reproducing Fusarium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenényi, Z.; Moretti, A.; Waalwijk, C.; Oláh, B.; Hornok, L.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avena

  11. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; van Wijk, Michiel; Ke, Gao; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Schal, Coby; Groot, Astrid T.

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent forms of chemical mate guarding. In moths, more long-range female sex pheromones have been identified than in any other animal group, and males often display with close-range sex pheromones, yet odor-based post-copulatory mate guarding has not been described in moths so far. We tested the hypothesis that the male sex pheromone in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens perfumes the female and functions as an anti-aphrodisiac. Indeed, virgin females perfumed with male pheromone extract, or with its main component, mated significantly less than control virgin females, and this effect persisted for two successive nights. This chemical mate guarding strategy was disadvantageous for H. virescens females, because the reproductive output of twice-mated females was significantly higher than that of once-mated females. Since the female and male sex pheromones are biosynthetically related in this and other moth species, chemical mate guarding may also impose selection pressure on the long-range female sex pheromone channel and consequently affect the evolution of sexual communication. PMID:27934963

  12. Mating system of the amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSRF. Cacho

    Full Text Available The species, Pterophyllum scalare distinguishes itself by its breeding behavior, involving competition for territory, sexual partners, courtship and parental care. The purpose of this study was to identify the mating system adopted by this species of fish. Twenty males and twenty females were observed under semi-natural and experimental conditions to test the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Under semi-natural conditions, after the third breeding cycle, the couples changed mates. Under experimental conditions, the couples changed partners after the first breeding cycle. Under experimental conditions, mate recognition was investigated through the preference of the females, indicated by the time they spent with the males. The females were available or not for courtship from new males, depending on their aggressiveness or submission. The larger and more aggressive males obtained new mating opportunities while the submissive males were rejected by the females. The mated fish were aggressive towards intruders in the presence of the mate, protecting their pair bond. In the interval between breeding cycles, the couples did not display aggression towards intruders, confirming the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Best mate selection by the females and the opportunity of new matings for both sexes influenced the reproductive success of this species.

  13. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  14. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2011-01-01

    , especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition...

  15. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  16. The evolution and significance of male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2011-12-01

    The distinct reproductive roles of males and females, which for many years were characterised in terms of competitive males and choosy females, have remained a central focus of sexual selection since Darwin's time. Increasing evidence now shows that males can be choosy too, even in apparently unexpected situations, such as under polygyny or in the absence of male parental care. Here, we provide a synthesis of the theory on male mate choice and examine the factors that promote or constrain its evolution. We also discuss the evolutionary significance of male mate choice and the contrasts in male versus female mate choice. We conclude that mate choice by males is potentially widespread and has a distinct role in how mating systems evolve.

  17. The relationship between health and mating success in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian 

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans. PMID:28280558

  18. The relationship between health and mating success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans.

  19. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men...... being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games — the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game — in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were...... not significantly larger in the attractive observer group than in the non-attractive observer group. Exploratory analyses did reveal, however, that amongst participants with an attractive observer only, dispositional generosity had a strongly positive effect on altruism while dispositional dominance had a negative...

  20. Optimal mate choice patterns in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Eliassen, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sexual selection for the evolution, dynamics and adaptation of organisms is well known for many species. However, the topic is rarely studied in marine plankton, the basis of the marine food web. Copepods show behaviors that suggest the existence of sexually selected traits......, and recent laboratory experiments identified some selected morphological traits. Here, we use a ‘life history-based’ model of sex roles to determine the optimal choosiness behavior of male and female copepods for important copepod traits. Copepod females are predicted to be choosy at population densities...... typically occurring during the main breeding season, whereas males are not. The main drivers of this pattern are population density and the difference in non-receptive periods between males and females. This suggests that male reproductive traits have evolved mainly due to mate competition. The model can...

  1. Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Genome elimination - whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent - is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict.

  2. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis with Conventional Compression Plate for Diaphyseal Tibia Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM Anuar-Ramdhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The diaphyseal tibia fracture is best treated with intramedullary nail but in some cases where the nail is not applicable, plate fixation will be the next option of fixation. The extensile anterior approach is normally used for conventional compression plate fixation in tibia shaft fractures. The extensive surgical dissection may devitalizes the bony fragments and interfere with the fracture union as well as soft tissue healing. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO provides good preservation of blood supply and fracture hematoma at the fracture site thus promotes biological bone healing. The use of indirect reduction techniques and small skin incisions to introduce the plate is technically demanding and requires fluoroscopy exposures throughout the surgery, being some of its drawbacks. We recommend MIPO for conventional compression plate fixation in tibial shaft fractures in view of the reduced surgical trauma to the surrounding soft tissue and good functional outcome.

  3. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  4. The technique of preserving fibrosis plate and shallow suture used in Kasai portoenterostomy%保留肝门部纤维板和肝肠浅缝吻合在 Kasai手术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董淳强; 董昆; 张诚; 刘如意; 刘强; 陈超; 杨体泉

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨保留肝门部纤维板和应用肝肠浅缝吻合在 Kasai 手术(KPE)中的应用价值。方法回顾性分析2012年3月至2014年12月在本院进行 KPE 的胆道闭锁(BA)病例临床资料,病例纳入标准:Ohi III 型 BA,手术年龄<120 d,无合并其他畸形。手术方式包括扩大肝门部病变切除范围的 KPE 手术(EPE)、应用保留肝门部纤维板和肝肠浅缝吻合的改进 KPE 手术(MKPE)和腹腔镜 MKPE手术(LMKPE),并以此进行病例分组,对 BA 的术前临床资料、术后胆汁排量、术后黄疸清除率、胆管炎发作率和累计自体肝生存率进行比较。结果EPE 31例,MKPE 23例,LMKPE 14例,各组手术年龄、体重、术前肝功能指标、肝外胆管 Ohi 亚型和术中肝纤维化 Weerasooriya 分级比较均无统计学差异(P >0.05)。术后第1周胆汁排量各组比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),第2、6周 MKPE 和 LMKPE 均高于 EPE(P <0.05),而 MKPE 与 LMKPE 比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。术后黄疸清除率和累计自体肝生存率,MKPE(87%,87%)和 LMKPE(85.7%,85.7%)均高于 EPE(41.9%,41.9%),P 值均<0.05),而 MKPE 与 LMKPE 比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。术后胆管炎 EPE (22.6%)、MKPE (34.8%)和 LMKPE(14.3%)比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论在 KPE 中保留纤维板和应用肝肠浅缝吻合有利于 BA 获得较好的术后效果。%Objetive To explore the technique of preserving fibrosis plate and shallow suture used in Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE). Methods A retrospective analysis was made on the BA (Inclusive criteria:Ohi type Ⅲ,preoperative age 0.05).In BD,there was no difference in groups during 1 week (P >0.05),but at the time of 2,6 weeks ,MKPE,LMKPE were higher than EPE(P 0.05).There were higher JF ratio and SNL in MKPE (87%,87%)and LMKPE (85.7%,85.7%)than EPE (41

  5. Temporal variation in size-assortative mating and male mate choice in a spider with amphisexual care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rafael R.; Gonzaga, Marcelo O.

    2017-04-01

    Males should be more selective when they have a high investment in reproduction, especially in species with biparental or paternal care. In this context, male mate choice can promote size-assortative mating (SAM) when (1) large males win intrasexual disputes, (2) large females are more fecund, and (3) males prefer larger females to smaller ones. In the spider Manogea porracea, males exhibit high reproductive investment by building their webs above those of females and exhibiting extended care of offspring in the absence of females. Under these circumstances, we expect the occurrence of SAM and male preference for large females. Herein, we performed observations and experiments in the field to evaluate the hypotheses that (1) M. porracea mates assortatively by size and (2) SAM is influenced by male mate choice. Furthermore, we measured variables that could affect mating patterns, the sex ratios, and densities of both sexes. Pairing in M. porracea was positively size-assortative in 2012, but not in 2013. Large males won most disputes for mates and preferred larger females, which produced more eggs. The inconsistency in detection of SAM was due to population dynamics, namely variations in sex ratio and population density across the breeding season. Furthermore, we found that the significance of male mate choice on sexual selection of body size in M. porracea strongly depends on the competition intensity for mating opportunities. The traditional sexual selection hypothesis of SAM needs to be reviewed and must include measures of competition intensity.

  6. The cost of mating: influences of life history traits and mating strategies on lifespan in two closely related Yponomeuta species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.C.; Campos Louçã, J.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and

  7. Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, K R; Sinervo, B

    2000-12-19

    Alternative male mating strategies within populations are thought to be evolutionarily stable because different behaviors allow each male type to successfully gain access to females. Although alternative male strategies are widespread among animals, quantitative evidence for the success of discrete male strategies is available for only a few systems. We use nuclear microsatellites to estimate the paternity rates of three male lizard strategies previously modeled as a rock-paper-scissors game. Each strategy has strengths that allow it to outcompete one morph, and weaknesses that leave it vulnerable to the strategy of another. Blue-throated males mate-guard their females and avoid cuckoldry by yellow-throated "sneaker" males, but mate-guarding is ineffective against aggressive orange-throated neighbors. The ultradominant orange-throated males are highly polygynous and maintain large territories; they overpower blue-throated neighbors and cosire offspring with their females, but are often cuckolded by yellow-throated males. Finally, yellow-throated sneaker males sire offspring via secretive copulations and often share paternity of offspring within a female's clutch. Sneaker males sire more offspring posthumously, indicating that sperm competition may be an important component of their strategy.

  8. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  9. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  10. Social exclusion and female mating behavior: rejected women show strategic enhancement of short-term mating interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Donald F; Young, Steven G; Brown, Christina M; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2012-08-22

    Because cost asymmetries in sexual reproduction have historically enabled women to exchange sexual access for other resources, including social resources, we tested the possibility that social exclusion would lead women to display an elevated preference for short-term mating strategies in the service of reaffiliation. In Study 1, women were given false feedback to manipulate social inclusion or exclusion prior to indicating their endorsement of short and long-term mating behaviors. Socially excluded women indicated greater interest in short-term mating and reduced interest in long-term mating. In Study 2, women wrote about a social inclusion, social exclusion, or control experience and then indicated their preference for different male body types. Women in the social exclusion condition preferred more muscular male partners--a pattern of preference typical of short-term mating--than women in the other conditions. Collectively, these results are consistent with a social exchange theory of women's sexual behavior following social exclusion.

  11. MATESOFT: a program for deducing parental genotypes and estimating mating system statistics in haplodiploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moilanen, A.; Sundström, L.; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects......breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects...

  12. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  13. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  14. Wear performance of self-mating contact pairs of TiN and TiAlN coatings on orthopedic grade Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Kim, C Y; Kim, D W; Lee, I S; Lee, G H; Park, J C; Lee, S J; Lee, K Y

    2010-08-01

    Both titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) have shown great wear resistance potential in metallic medical devices as protective, hard thin film coatings. In the present study, the effects of TiN and TiAlN coating layers on the wear performance of Ti-6Al-4V were compared and analyzed. TiN and TiAlN coatings with a thickness of 3 microm were deposited by a cathodic vacuum arc ion plating technique on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Wear tests were conducted by using a pin-on-disk-type tribotester with a point contact self-mating pair in a linear reciprocal motion. A sliding distance of 20 mm per cycle at 1 Hz was used under a load of 15 N under ambient conditions with no lubricant. The wear resistance of TiN and TiAlN coatings is superior to that of uncoated Ti-6Al-4V at the early stage of sliding contact. Until a measurable amount of wear was detected, the number of sliding cycles of the TiAlN coating pair was longer than TiN. After the first detection of wear from the coating layers, the rate of wear of the TiN coating pairs was significantly higher than that of TiAlN (p TiN from the viewpoint of wear resistance under the test conditions used in this study.

  15. Plate on Plate Osteosynthesis for the Treatment of Nonhealed Periplate Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Arealis; Nikolaou, Vassilios S.; Andrew Lacon; Neil Ashwood; Mark Hamlet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present our technique for the treatment of periplate fractures. Methods. From 2009 to 2012 we treated three patients. In all cases the existing plate was left and the new one placed over the existing. Locking screws were placed through both plates. The other screws in the new plate were used as best suited the fracture. Results. In all cases less than 6 months had passed between fractures. None of the original fractures had healed. Mean followup was 2 ...

  16. The sound transmission of finite ribbed plates using a variational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Many lightweight structures consist of plates being stiffened by ribs. The rib stiffeners can significantly change the vibration field and the radiation behavior of the structure. These type of structures has thus often been studied in the past. However, there is a lack of simplified expressions...... for the sound transmission of these structures. Therefore, simplified expressions for the sound transmission of finite single leaf ribbed plates are derived, using a variational technique based on integral equations of the fluid loaded plate....

  17. Calibration and equivalency analysis of image plate scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G. Jackson, E-mail: williams270@llnl.gov; Maddox, Brian R.; Chen, Hui [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kojima, Sadaoki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Millecchia, Matthew [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A universal procedure was developed to calibrate image plate scanners using radioisotope sources. Techniques to calibrate scanners and sources, as well as cross-calibrate scanner models, are described to convert image plate dosage into physical units. This allows for the direct comparison of quantitative data between any facility and scanner. An empirical relation was also derived to establish sensitivity response settings for arbitrary gain settings. In practice, these methods may be extended to any image plate scanning system.

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  20. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  1. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  3. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  8. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  10. Mating with stressed males increases the fitness of ant queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schrempf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to sexual conflict theory, males can increase their own fitness by transferring substances during copulation that increase the short-term fecundity of their mating partners at the cost of the future life expectancy and re-mating capability of the latter. In contrast, sexual cooperation is expected in social insects. Mating indeed positively affects life span and fecundity of young queens of the male-polymorphic ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, even though males neither provide nuptial gifts nor any other care but leave their mates immediately after copulation and die shortly thereafter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that mating with winged disperser males has a significantly stronger impact on life span and reproductive success of young queens of C. obscurior than mating with wingless fighter males. CONCLUSIONS: Winged males are reared mostly under stressful environmental conditions, which force young queens to disperse and found their own societies independently. In contrast, queens that mate with wingless males under favourable conditions usually start reproducing in the safety of the established maternal nest. Our study suggests that males of C. obscurior have evolved mechanisms to posthumously assist young queens during colony founding under adverse ecological conditions.

  11. Asymmetry in sexual pheromones is not required for ascomycete mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Sá, Joana; Murray, Andrew

    2011-08-23

    We investigated the determinants of sexual identity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The higher fungi are divided into the ascomycetes and the basidiomycetes. Most ascomycetes have two mating types: one (called α in yeasts and MAT1-1 in filamentous fungi) produces a small, unmodified, peptide pheromone, and the other (a in yeasts and MAT1-2 in filamentous fungi) produces a peptide pheromone conjugated to a C-terminal farnesyl group that makes it very hydrophobic. In the basidiomycetes, all pheromones are lipid-modified, and this difference is a distinguishing feature between the phyla. We asked whether the asymmetry in pheromone modification is required for successful mating in ascomycetes. We cloned receptor and pheromone genes from a filamentous ascomycete and a basidiomycete and expressed these in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to generate novel, alternative mating pairs. We find that two yeast cells can mate even when both cells secrete a-like or α-like peptides. Importantly, this is true regardless of whether the cells express the a- or α-mating-type loci, which control the expression of other, sex-specific genes, in addition to the pheromones and pheromone receptors. We demonstrate that the asymmetric pheromone modification is not required for successful mating of ascomycete fungi and confirm that, in budding yeast, the primary determinants of mating are the specificity of the receptors and their corresponding pheromones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Restrictive mating by females on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebigre, C; Alatalo, R V; Siitari, H; Parri, S

    2007-10-01

    In bird species with pair bonds, extra-pair matings could allow females to choose genetically superior males. This is not needed in lekking species because female choice is not constrained by pairing opportunities. However, polyandry has been reported in most lekking species studied so far. Using 12 microsatellite loci, we determined the paternity of 135 broods of black grouse sampled between 2001 and 2005 (970 hatchlings and 811 adult birds genotyped). The paternity assignments were combined to lek observations to investigate the mating behaviour of black grouse females. About 10% of the matings seemed to take place with males displaying solitarily. Forty per cent of the copulations between males displaying on the studied leks and radio-tagged females were not recorded. This was due to difficulties in identifying the females and because our observations did not cover all the possible time for matings. However, females of the undetected copulations had chosen males that were already known to be successful on the leks. There was a strong consistency between the observations and true paternity, even when the copulation was disturbed by a neighbouring male. Multiple mating and multiple paternities were rare. We can now confidently ascertain that most females mate only once with one male for the whole clutch. This mating behaviour requires that a single insemination is sufficient to fertilize a clutch and that females can determine whether the sperm has been successfully transferred. Grouse Tetraoninae with many lekking species may be the only bird taxon that has evolved these traits.

  13. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Reparaz

    Full Text Available Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D, using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.

  14. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reparaz, Laura B; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc; Doutrelant, Claire; Visser, Marcel E; Caro, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D), using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.

  15. Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Barluenga, Marta; Palanca, Antonio; Vences, Miguel; Meyer, Axel

    2004-09-16

    Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians and fishes that release gametes into water. Here we report 'clutch piracy' in a montane population of the common frog Rana temporaria, a reproductive behaviour previously unknown in vertebrates with external fertilization. Males of this species clasp the females and the pair deposits one spherical clutch of eggs. No parental care is provided. 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them as they would do a female and fertilize the eggs that were left unfertilized by the 'parental' male. This behaviour does not seem to be size-dependent, and some males mate with a female and perform clutch piracy in the same season. Piracy affected 84% of the clutches and in some cases increased the proportion of eggs fertilized, providing direct fitness benefits both for the pirate males and the females. Sexual selection--probably caused by a strong male-biased sex ratio--occurs in this population, as indicated by size-assortative mating; however, clutch piracy may reduce its impact. This provides a good model to explore how alternative mating strategies can affect the intensity of sexual selection.

  16. What uses are mating types? The "developmental switch" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-04-01

    Why mating types exist at all is subject to much debate. Among hypotheses, mating types evolved to control organelle transmission during sexual reproduction, or to prevent inbreeding or same-clone mating. Here I review data from a diversity of taxa (including ciliates, algae, slime molds, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes) to show that the structure and function of mating types run counter the above hypotheses. I argue instead for a key role in triggering developmental switches. Genomes must fulfill a diversity of alternative programs along the sexual cycle. As a haploid gametophyte, an individual may grow vegetatively (through haploid mitoses), or initiate gametogenesis and mating. As a diploid sporophyte, similarly, it may grow vegetatively (through diploid mitoses) or initiate meiosis and sporulation. Only diploid sporophytes (and not haploid gametophytes) should switch on the meiotic program. Similarly, only haploid gametophytes (not sporophytes) should switch on gametogenesis and mating. And they should only do so when other gametophytes are ready to do the same in the neighborhood. As argued here, mating types have evolved primarily to switch on the right program at the right moment. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  18. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  19. Age-related mate choice in the wandering albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouventin; Lequette; Dobson

    1999-05-01

    We studied mate choice in the wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, using data from 32 years of banding returns in the population of the Crozet Islands. We studied mating choices in a single year, when the Crozet Islands population was male biased (8:5, males:females). Thus, we expected that females might show great flexibility of choice of partners. Because age and experience might influence mate choice, we tested the expectation that females would choose the oldest and most experienced males for pair bonding. Pair bonds usually last until one member of the pair dies (0.3% of the birds 'divorce'), so mate choice should be especially important. We found that the ages of males and females in both displaying and bonded (breeding) pairs were significantly correlated. These age-associated pairings were not a passive phenomenon, but appeared to be due to an active process of selection of mates of similar age. First-time breeders sought mates of similar age, but preferred those with the most experience. Remating, experienced birds whose mates had died did not pair with individuals of significantly similar age, but predominantly paired with other widowed birds that, on average, were also relatively old. Mate fidelity in wandering albatrosses may be due to the cost of finding and bonding with a new mate. Pair bonds, and thus breeding, took an average of 3.2 and 2.3 years to establish, for males and females, respectively. Thus, remating exerts a potential average reproductive cost of about 15% of lifetime reproductive success. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. Stiffener layout design technique of plate structures based on adaptive growth mechanism%基于自适应成长原理的板壳结构加强筋分布设计技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓红; 郭春星; 季学荣

    2012-01-01

    将自然界分枝系统形态自适应成长机理应用于板壳结构加强筋分布设计中,深入讨论板壳结构加强筋分布设计技术.应用ANSYS APDL二次开发语言进行编程,使提出的设计原理方便地应用于实际工程设计.整个应用程序包含前处理、优化迭代及后处理三个模块.前处理模块建立设计对象的基结构,基结构由基本板壳结构和初始加强筋组成.基本板壳结构可采用ANSYS中的建模模块创建或直接导入由其他CAE软件建立的几何模型,而初始加强筋由基本板壳结构上的节点连接而成的梁单元构成.优化迭代模块包含“选种”、灵敏度分析、分歧/成长/退化等功能.采用变量扰动法,基于ANSYS有限元分析模块计算活动加强筋的近似灵敏度.根据自然界分枝系统形态形成机理进行加强筋的分歧/成长/退化.最后由后处理模块输出设计结果.以若干典型的设计案例说明所提出方法的有效性,并通过与ANSYS的结构拓扑优化设计模块的设计结果比较说明了所提出方法的可行性.%The adaptive growth method of stiffener layout on plate structures is inspired from the growth mechanism of the branch systems in nature. This paper studied the implemental techniques of the design method on the platform of the commercial FEA software ANSYS. The APDL language was used to program the growth method, and the approach was comprised of three phases, which were pre-process, optimal iteration, and post-process. In the phase of the pre-process, a ground structure was constructed, which included a basic shell structure and initial baby stiffeners. The basic shell structure can be constructed by the modeling module of ANSYS or imported its geometric model constructed by other CAE software. And the initial baby stiffeners were formed by the nodes of shell elements of the basic shell structure. The optimal iteration included seeding, sensitivity analysis and growth

  1. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  2. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  3. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  4. Quantitative morphometric study of the subaxial cervical vertebrae end plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hang; Fang, Xiangyi; Huang, Dageng; Yu, Chengcheng; Zhao, Songchuan; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-02-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has been gradually adopted as an alternative for the treatment of cervical degenerative disease. However, there is a large discrepancy between footprints of currently available cervical disc prostheses and anatomic dimensions of cervical end plates. This study aimed to accurately and comprehensively quantify the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic morphology of the cervical vertebral end plate and provide a theoretical basis for designing appropriate disc prostheses. Moreover, we introduced a novel geometric and mechanical model for 3D reconstruction techniques of the cervical end plate. A descriptive study of the geometry of the middle and lower cervical vertebral end plates in cadaveric spines was carried out. A total of 138 cervical vertebral end plates were digitized using an optical 3D range scanning system, and then each end plate was reconstructed using the digitized image. For each end plate, the morphologic characteristics of six surface curves and the end plate concavity depth were symmetrically chosen and depicted. The cranial end plates (relative to the disc) were concave and the caudal end plates were relatively flat at all disc levels, with mean concavity depths of 2.04 and 0.69 mm, respectively. For the caudal end plates, the end plate concavity apex was most often (81.42%) located in the posterior portion, whereas in the cranial end plates, the distribution was relatively even. For the sagittal curves, the foremost point and the rearmost point on the middle curve had a more forward position than those in the left curve and the right curve. Regarding the frontal plane curves, the length of the middle curve was longer than that of the anterior curve and posterior curve. For the cranial end plate, the maximal mean depth was the middle curve, whereas for the caudal end plate, the maximum depth was the posterior curve. There is marked morphologic asymmetry, in that the cranial end plate is more concave than the corresponding

  5. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    Cohesive-zone finite element modeling is often the technique of choice when dealing with extensive crack growth in large-scale ductile sheet metal structures. Shell elements with in-plane dimensions much larger than the plate thickness are typically employed to discretize the structure, and thus...

  6. Dynamics of a reinforced viscoelastic plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Andrianov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations and static bending deformation of a viscoelastic reinforced plate are considered. Analytical solutions are derived. An asymptotic technique, based on the homogenization method, is used for this purpose. In addition, a special perturbation approach is employed. An example is given for the purpose of illustration. The approximate analytical expressions are shown to adequately meet the requirements of optimal structural design.

  7. Point of Impact Prediction in Anisotropic Fiber Reinforced Composite Plates from the Acoustic Emission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, T.; Das, S.; Jata, K. V.

    2008-02-01

    A newly developed optimization based method is followed to locate the point of impact in anisotropic composite plates for which conventional triangulation technique fails. The new technique works for both anisotropic and isotropic plates. Experiments are carried out by dropping a steel ball on a graphite-epoxy composite plate and picking up acoustic signals by passive transducers adhesively bonded to the plate at different locations. Predicted points of impact are compared with the true impact point.

  8. Optimizing Casimir torque between corrugated metallic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Robson B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Paulo A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Casimir effect plays a major role in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS). Besides the normal Casimir force between metallic or dielectric plates, the observation of the lateral Casimir force between corrugated plates opens novel possibilities of micro-mechanical control. The lateral force results from breaking the translational symmetry along directions parallel to the plates by imprinting periodic corrugations on both metallic plates. As the rotational symmetry is broken by this geometry, a Casimir torque arises when the corrugations are not aligned. We calculate the Casimir torque between two parallel metallic plates with surface profiles in the form of 'fans' with arbitrary relative spatial orientation. As compared to the case of anisotropic dielectric plates, the torque per unit area is increased by up to three orders of magnitude for a given separation distance. The experiment proposed here can be performed with torsion pendulum techniques for separation distances as large as 1 μm. From the point of view of fundamental physics, this torque makes possible a precise experimental investigation of the non-trivial geometry dependence of the Casimir effect. We follow the scattering approach and calculate the Casimir energy up to second order in the corrugation amplitudes, taking into account nonspecular reflections, polarization mixing and the finite conductivity of the metals. We investigate the experimental conditions that optimize the effect. (author)

  9. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-08-01

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth’s major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength-velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  10. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  11. Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonski Piotr G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predict size-assortative mating and its evolutionary consequences has been less explored. Mate-grasping by males, using specialized adaptive morphologies of their forelegs, midlegs or even antennae wrapped around female body at specific locations, is a general mating strategy of many animals, but the contribution of the mechanics of this wide-spread behavior to the evolution of mating behavior and sexual size dimorphism has been largely ignored. Results Here, we explore the consequences of a simple, and previously ignored, fact that in a grasping posture the position of the male's grasping appendages relative to the female's body is often a function of body size difference between the sexes. Using an approach taken from robot mechanics we model coercive grasping of females by water strider Gerris gracilicornis males during mating initiation struggles. We determine that the male optimal size (relative to the female size, which gives the males the highest grasping force, properly predicts the experimentally measured highest mating success. Through field sampling and simulation modeling of a natural population we determine that the simple mechanical model, which ignores most of the other hypothetical counter-balancing selection pressures on body size, is sufficient to account for size-assortative mating pattern as well as species-specific sexual dimorphism in body size of G. gracilicornis. Conclusion The results indicate how a simple and previously overlooked physical mechanism

  12. Nonlinearities in mating sounds of American crocodiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Tina P; Perc, Matjaz

    2009-09-01

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyze the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). We capture its dynamics by analyzing a recording of the singing activity during mating time. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and thereby reveal that the attractor needs no less than five degrees of freedom to fully evolve in the embedding space, which suggests that a rather complex nonlinear dynamics underlies its existence. Prior to investigating the dynamics more precisely, we test whether the reconstructed attractor satisfies the notions of determinism and stationarity, as a lack of either of these properties would preclude a meaningful further analysis. After positively establishing determinism and stationarity, we proceed by showing that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the recording is positive, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system, confirming that dynamical nonlinearities are an integral part of the examined sound-producing apparatus. At the end, we discuss that methods of nonlinear time series analysis could yield instructive insights and foster the understanding of vocal communication among certain reptile species.

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of yellow oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, hybrids obtained by interspecies mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnina, A G; Tan, Yee Shin; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Vikineswary, S

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus citrinopileatus (yellow oyster mushroom) has an attractive shape and yellow colour but the fragile texture complicates packaging, and its strong aroma is unappealing to consumers. This study aimed to improve the characteristics and yield of P. citrinopileatus by interspecies mating between monokaryotic cultures of P. citrinopileatus and P. pulmonarius. Ten monokaryon cultures of the parental lines were crossed in all combinations to obtain hybrids. Eleven compatible mating pairs were obtained and cultivated to observe their sporophore morphology and yield. The selected hybrid, i.e. P1xC9, was beige in colour while hybrid P3xC8 was yellow in colour. Their sporophores had less offensive aroma, improved texture and higher yield. The DNA sequences of these hybrids were found to be in the same clade as the P. citrinopileatus parent with a bootstrap value of 99%. High bootstrap values indicate high genetic homology between hybrids and the P. citrinopileatus parent. The biological efficiencies of these hybrids P1xC9 (70.97%) and P3xC8 (52.14%) were also higher than the P. citrinopileatus parent (35.63%). Interspecies hybrids obtained by this mating technique can lead to better strains of mushrooms for genetic improvement of the Pleurotus species.

  14. Mating disruption of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): effect of pheromone formulations and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dvora; Zahavi, Tirtza; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Harari, Ally Rachel

    2005-02-01

    The reluctance of Israeli vine growers to adopt the mating disruption technique to control the moth Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. has been attributed to the high cost of this method compared with that of traditional insecticide control. In this study, we tested the possibility of reducing the cost, first by testing different pheromone formulations (and thus open the market for competition) and second by reducing the pheromone concentration used in vineyards. Comparisons were made between two pheromone formulations--Shin-Etsu (Tokyo, Japan) at 165 g/ha and Concep (Sutera, Bend, OR) at 150 g/ha--and between two concentrations of Shin-Etsu, 165 and 110 g/ha. Pheromone dispensers were placed at the onset of the second moth generation. Comparison of the numbers of clusters infested with eggs and larvae of L. botrana showed no significant differences in the performance, either between the two formulations, or between the two tested concentrations. The results suggest that 1) the two formulations are equally effective, and 2) a low pheromone concentration is sufficient to maintain good control of small populations of L. botrana. However, when the population is high, pest control efficacy is not improved by increasing the pheromone concentration. Therefore, in the interest of reducing the relatively high cost of mating disruption, we emphasize that increasing the pheromone concentration does not provide improved control of high populations of L. botrana. The cost of mating disruption can be diminished by reducing the applied pheromone concentration and by using the least expensive pheromone formulations

  15. Small cages with insect couples provide a simple method for a preliminary assessment of mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Françoise; Guerin, Patrick M; Charmillot, Pierre-Joseph; Kehrli, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density). The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia botrana, two major pests in vineyards. Cages consisted of a cubic metal frame of 35 cm sides, which was covered with a mosquito net of 1500 μm mesh size. Cages were installed in the centre of pheromone-treated and untreated vineyards. In several trials, 1 to 20 couples of grape moths per cage were released for one to three nights. The proportion of mated females was between 15 to 70% lower in pheromone-treated compared to untreated vineyards. Overall, the exposure of eight couples for one night was adequate for comparing different control schemes. Small cages may therefore provide a fast and cheap method to compare the effectiveness of pheromone dispensers under standardised semi-field conditions and may help predict the value of setting-up large-scale field trials.

  16. Small Cages with Insect Couples Provide a Simple Method for a Preliminary Assessment of Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Briand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density. The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia botrana, two major pests in vineyards. Cages consisted of a cubic metal frame of 35 cm sides, which was covered with a mosquito net of 1500 μm mesh size. Cages were installed in the centre of pheromone-treated and untreated vineyards. In several trials, 1 to 20 couples of grape moths per cage were released for one to three nights. The proportion of mated females was between 15 to 70% lower in pheromone-treated compared to untreated vineyards. Overall, the exposure of eight couples for one night was adequate for comparing different control schemes. Small cages may therefore provide a fast and cheap method to compare the effectiveness of pheromone dispensers under standardised semi-field conditions and may help predict the value of setting-up large-scale field trials.

  17. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Alves Santos Berté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU, frutooligossacarídeos (FOS e a polidextrose (PD, avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firmeza, consistência e coesividade, análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05 do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais.The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU, fructooligosaccharides (FOS and polidextrose (PD, evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis (firmness, consistence, cohesiveness, sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05 of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

  18. Inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommen, Joachim G; Bakker, Theo C M

    2006-06-22

    Negative effects of inbreeding are well documented in a wide range of animal taxa. Hatching success and survival of inbred offspring is reduced in many species and inbred progeny are often less attractive to potential mates. Thus, individuals should avoid mating with close kin. However, experimental evidence for inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in vertebrates is scarce. Here, we show that gravid female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) when given the choice between a courting familiar brother and a courting unfamiliar non-sib prefer to mate with the non-sib and thus avoid the disadvantages of incest. We controlled for differences in males' body size and red intensity of nuptial coloration. Thus, females adjust their courting behaviour to the risk of inbreeding.

  19. determinants of mate selection choice among university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    This study sought to identify factors that determine mate selection choice among .... become unemployed, lack career motivation or show laziness (Betzig,. 1989). .... (2005) which revealed that emotional characteristics, personality traits.

  20. Assessment of Long-Term Mate Preferences in Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atari, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    ... = religiosity/chastity, and S = status/resources. These male-specific dimensions of mate preferences showed satisfactory concurrent and convergent validity as well as high internal consistency coefficients...

  1. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...... that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf...... Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts....

  2. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  3. Do as we wish: Parental tactics of mate choice manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2013-08-01

    The mate choices of children do not always meet with the approval of their parents. As a consequence, the latter employ a battery of tactics that they use to manipulate the mating behavior of the former. This paper offers the first taxonomy of parental tactics of mate choice manipulation. In particular, in Study 1, 57 semi-structured interviews revealed 72 acts that parents employ to influence their children, and 27 that they employ to influence their children's partners. In Study 2, 405 parents rated how likely they were to use these acts to influence their daughters' and sons' mate choices. Factor analysis of participants' responses revealed 12 manipulation tactics that parents use on their children, and four manipulation tactics that they use on their children's partners.

  4. Assortative mating by occupational status during early industrialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdeman, R.L.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    According to the logic of industrialism thesis during industrialization, the influence of, achieved characteristics on mate selection increased, while the influence of ascribed, characteristics decreased. Other processes that accompanied industrialization, such as, the development of mass communicat

  5. Sexual selection and physical attractiveness : Implications for mating dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangestad, S W

    1993-09-01

    Sexual selection processes have received much attention in recent years, attention reflected in interest in human mate preferences. Among these mate preferences are preferences for physical attractiveness. Preferences in and of themselves, however, do not fully explain the nature of the relationships that individuals attain. A tacit negotiation process underlies relationship formation and maintenance. The notion that preferences for physical attractiveness evolved under parasite-driven "good genes" sexual selection leads to predictions about the nature of trade-offs that individuals make between mates' physical attractiveness and investment potential. These predictions and relevant data are explored, with a primary emphasis on women's preferences for men's qualities. In addition, further implications of trade-offs are examined, most notably (a) the impact of environmental variations on the nature of mating and (b) some effects of trade-offs on infidelity and male attempts to control women.

  6. Constructing rational maps with cluster points using the mating operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we show that all admissible rational maps with fixed or period two cluster cycles can be constructed by the mating of polynomials. We also investigate the polynomials which make up the matings that construct these rational maps. In the one cluster case, one of the polynomials must be an $n$-rabbit and in the two cluster case, one of the maps must be either $f$, a "double rabbit", or $g$, a secondary map which lies in the wake of the double rabbit $f$. There is also a very simple combinatorial way of classifiying the maps which must partner the aforementioned polynomials to create rational maps with cluster cycles. Finally, we also investigate the multiplicities of the shared matings arising from the matings in the paper.

  7. Assortative mating by occupational status during early industrialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdeman, R.L.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    According to the logic of industrialism thesis during industrialization, the influence of, achieved characteristics on mate selection increased, while the influence of ascribed, characteristics decreased. Other processes that accompanied industrialization, such as, the development of mass

  8. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...... that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf...... Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts....

  9. Indexing device ensures proper mating of electrical connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. M.; Simmons, W. H.

    1965-01-01

    Indexing splines with modified standard male and female connectors eliminates the possibility of incorrect mating. Large stock quantities of differently indexed connectors are unnecessary since connectors from a single stock can be indexed as desired at installation time.

  10. UX_Mate: from facial expressions to UX evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staiano, Jacopo; Menendez Blanco, Maria; Battocchi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose and evaluate UX_Mate, a non-invasive system for the automatic assessment of User eXperience (UX). In addition, we contribute a novel database of annotated and synchronized videos of interactive behavior and facial expressions. UX_Mate is a modular system which tracks facial...... expressions of users, interprets them based on pre-set rules, and generates predictions about the occurrence of a target emotional state, which can be linked to interaction events. The system simplifies UX evaluation providing an indication of event occurrence. UX_Mate has several advantages compared to other...... state of the art systems: easy deployment in the user's natural environment, avoidance of invasive devices, and extreme cost reduction. The paper reports a pilot and a validation study on a total of 46 users, where UX_Mate was used for identifying interaction difficulties. The studies show encouraging...

  11. Social inclusion facilitates risky mating behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2011-07-01

    Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies.

  12. Sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS), jealousy and mate retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Riley, Charlene

    2010-10-02

    Previous research has investigated the manner in which absolute height impacts on jealousy and mate retention. Although relative height is also important, little information exists about the potential influence of sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) within established relationships. The current study investigated the relationship between SDS and the satisfaction, jealousy and mate retention behaviors reported by men and women. Heterosexual men (n = 98) and women (n = 102) completed a questionnaire. Men in high SDS relationships reported the lowest levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy, although the impact of SDS on relationship satisfaction was less clear. SDS was not associated with the overall use of mate retention strategies; SDS did however affect the use of three specific strategies (vigilance, monopolization of time, love and care). SDS did not affect women's relationship satisfaction, jealousy (cognitive, behavioral, or emotional) or the use of mate retention strategies (with the exception of resource display).

  13. Simulated spaceflight effects on mating and pregnancy of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Howard, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The mating of rats was studied to determine the effects of: simulated reentry stresses at known stages of pregnancy, and full flight simulation, consisting of sequential launch stresses, group housing, mating opportunity, diet, simulated reentry, and postreentry isolation of male and female rats. Uterine contents, adrenal mass and abdominal fat as a proportion of body mass, duration of pregnancy, and number and sex of offspring were studied. It is found that: (1) parturition following full flight simulation was delayed relative to that of controls; (2) litter size was reduced and resorptions increased compared with previous matings in the same group of animals; and (3) abdominal fat was highly elevated in animals that were fed the Soviet paste diet. It is suggested that the combined effects of diet, stress, spacecraft environment, and weightlessness decreased the probability of mating or of viable pregnancies in the Cosmos 1129 flight and control animals.

  14. Color change in acrylic resin processed in three ways after immersion in water, cola, coffee, mate and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldemarin, Renato F A; Terra, Priscila C; Pinto, Luciana R; Camacho, Fernanda Faot Guilherme B

    2013-01-01

    Denture bases may undergo color change over time induced by pigment accumulation within their body; however there is a lack of information regarding the role of yerba mate tea in this process. This work evaluated the effect of five common beverages, including yerba mate tea, on color changes of acrylic denture base resins processed in three different ways. Three different processing techniques were used (P1--microwave irradiation/microwave activated resin; P2--heat polymerization/conventional heat activated resin and P3--microwave irradiation/conventional heat polymerized resin) to make twenty five resin discs each (3.0 mm thick x 20 mm diameter), totaling seventy-five resin discs. The discs made with each technique were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5) and placed in the following solutions: G1-water; G2-cola; G3-coffee; G4-yerba mate tea; G5-red wine, for 30 days at 37 degrees C. The solutions were renewed every 3 days. Color change on the CIE-L*a*b* scale was measured with a Konica-Minolta CR-10 colorimeter and compared with original L* a* and b* values of each specimen prior to immersion. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and showed no difference among techniques and significant statistical differences among solutions (p water and cola, which were undistinguishable from each other; coffee produced the second lowest color change; yerba mate tea produced second greatest color change, while the greatest color change was produced by red wine. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that almost all the solutions used can change color in acrylic resin, especially yerba mate tea, considered distinguishable by professionals, and red wine, considered distinguishable by patients and clinically unacceptable.

  15. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  16. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Dora; Barrios, Enrique; Zanetti, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the topic was conducted. The epidemiological studies are presented by cancer site; experimental works are examined in dedicated sections; and the discussion combines epidemiological and experimental evidence. Almost all epidemiological studies shared similar methodology: hospital-based, case-control studies where participants were personally interviewed on the main risk factors, using similar questionnaires. Several studies found an association between the temperature of the mate infusion and oral, esophageal, and/or laryngeal cancer risks; while a few focused on carcinogenic contaminants introduced during the industrial processing of the leaves. The cancer most frequently mentioned in association with hot mate with bombilla (drunk through a metal straw) was the esophagus. Size, exposure assessment, methods of analysis, and quality were different among the studies reviewed. The results varied greatly. The higher risk estimate (odds ratio = 34.6) was found for women who drank 1 L or more daily; for men it was only 4.8. Risk increased with duration, daily quantity, and temperature at drinking. The synergic action between mate, alcohol, and tobacco was a clear result in several studies, and in some, nutritional deficiencies and poor oral hygiene played a role. No increased risk was associated with cold mate beverages. The role of hot mate in increasing the risk of cancer of esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity seems to be supported by several epidemiological studies. The temperature could act by damaging the

  17. How early life experience shapes mate preference in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, António José da Silva, 1990-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Mate choice is an evolutionary process with a profound impact in species morphology, behavioural displays and overall success. We are interested in understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the assortative mate choice exhibited by Mus musculus musculus females when given a choice between a male of their own subspecies and a male from the closely related subspeci...

  18. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  19. Evolution of mating within the Candida parapsilosis species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M; McGee, Conor F; Lynch, Denise B; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MTLα, and 2 were MTLa/α heterozygotes. The C. orthopsilosis isolates belonged to two divergent groups, as characterized by restriction patterns at MTL, which probably represent subspecies. We sequenced both idiomorphs from each group and showed that they are 95% identical and that the regulatory genes are intact. In contrast, 18 isolates of C. metapsilosis contain only MTLα idiomorphs. Our results suggest that the role of MTL in determining cell type is being eroded in the C. parapsilosis species complex. The population structure of C. orthopsilosis indicates that mating may occur. However, expression of genes in the mating signal transduction pathway does not respond to exposure to alpha factor. C. parapsilosis is also nonresponsive, even when the GTPase-activating protein gene SST2 is deleted. In addition, splicing of introns in MTLa1 and MTLa2 is defective in C. orthopsilosis. Mating is not detected. The alpha factor peptide, which is the same sequence in C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, can induce a mating response in Candida albicans. It is therefore likely either that mating of C. orthopsilosis takes place under certain unidentified conditions or that the mating pathway has been adapted for other functions, such as cross-species communication.

  20. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  1. Selecting the form of plate corrugations of heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, V.F.; Nagornyi, V.E.; Dolinskii, V.M.; Kolokolova, T.G.; Chekhov, O.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors, in the interest of enhancing the thermal efficiency of plate-type heat exchangers, seek to optimize the pattern and size of the corrugations and surface area of these plates as well as their thickness by assessing the corrosion and scale protection afforded by thermoplastic coatings applied to the carbon steels used in the plates. They test the coatings for the effects of pressure, temperature, and various corrosive media, and demonstrate a parametric technique for optimizing pressure and temperature distribution over the corrugated area, for reducing the potential for deformation, and for prolonging plate durability.

  2. Friendship as a Relationship Infiltration Tactic during Human Mate Poaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Mogilski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has characterized human mate poaching as a prevalent alternative mating strategy that entails risks and costs typically not present during general romantic courtship and attraction. This study is the first to experimentally investigate friendship between a poacher and his/her target as a risk mitigation tactic. Participants (N = 382 read a vignette that differed by whether the poacher was male/female and whether the poacher and poached were friends/acquaintances. Participants assessed the likelihood of the poacher being successful and incurring costs. They also rated the poacher and poached on several personality and mate characteristics. Results revealed that friendship increased the perceived likelihood of success of a mate poaching attempt and decreased the perceived likelihood of several risks typically associated with mate poaching. However, friend-poachers were rated less favorably than acquaintance-poachers across measures of warmth, nurturance, and friendliness. These findings are interpreted using an evolutionary perspective. This study complements and builds upon previous findings and is the first experimental investigation of tactics poachers may use to mitigate risks inherent in mate poaching.

  3. A cognitive framework for mate choice and species recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Steven M; Rand, A Stanley; Ryan, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Mating decisions contribute to both the fitness of individuals and the emergence of evolutionary diversity, yet little is known about their cognitive architecture. We propose a simple model that describes how preferences are translated into decisions and how seemingly disparate patterns of preference can emerge from a single perceptual process. The model proposes that females use error-prone estimates of attractiveness to select mates based on a simple decision rule: choose the most attractive available male that exceeds some minimal criterion. We test the model in the tungara frog, a well-characterized species with an apparent dissociation between mechanisms of mate choice and species recognition. As suggested by our model results, we find that a mate attraction feature alters assessments of species status. Next, we compare female preferences in one-choice and two-choice tests, contexts thought to emphasize species recognition and mate choice, respectively. To do so, we use the model to generate maximum-likelihood estimators of preference strengths from empirical data. We find that a single representation of preferences is sufficient to explain response probabilities in both contexts across a wide range of stimuli. In this species, mate choice and species recognition are accurately and simply summarized by our model. While the findings resolve long-standing anomalies, they also illustrate how models of choice can bridge theoretical and empirical treatments of animal decisions. The data demonstrate a remarkable congruity of perceptual processes across contexts, tasks, and taxa.

  4. Female mate-choice behavior and sympatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Lachlan, Robert F; Servedio, Maria R

    2005-10-01

    Many models have investigated how the process of speciation may occur in sympatry. In these models, individuals are either asexual or mate choice is determined by very simple rules. Females, for example, may be assumed either to compare their phenotype to that of a potential mate, preferring to mate with similar males (phenotype matching), or to possess preference genes that determine which male phenotype they prefer. These rules often do not reflect the mate-choice rules found in empirical studies. In this paper, we compare these two modes of female choice with various types of sexual imprinting. We examine the efficacy of different mate-choice behavior in causing divergence in male traits under simple deterministic one-locus population genetic models as well as under polygenic, individual-based simulations based on the models of Dieckmann and Doebeli (1999). We find that the inheritance mechanism of mate choice can have a large effect on the ease of sympatric speciation. When females imprint on their mothers, the result of the model is similar to phenotype matching, where speciation can occur fairly easily. When females imprint on their fathers or imprint obliquely, speciation becomes considerably less likely. Finally, when females rely on preference genes, male trait evolution occurs easily, but the correlation between trait and preference can be weak, and interpreting these results as speciation may be suspect.

  5. Recent advances in the bioactive properties of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Helena Ferreira Cuelho

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. is a perennial shrub of Aquifoliaceae family that grows naturally in South America and is cultivated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. The aim of this review is to summarize concisely recent advances published in the last 4 years on the antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and antimutagenic activities of yerba mate. For this, a search was made in some of the databases on the web as PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline. There are several studies in the literature reporting the effects of yerba mate in the metabolic profile related to diabetes and obesity. Among the findings of the researches are the reduction of body weight, liver triglycerides and white adipose tissue. It also increases the levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin, reduces blood glucose and insulin resistance and contributes to a lower rate of growth of adipose tissue. Regarding the antioxidant properties, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin are the compounds that contribute to the antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract also protects the red cells of hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide. In mutagenesis, researches suggest that dicaffeoylquinic acids in yerba mate could be potential anti-cancer agents. Saponins in leaves of yerba mate prevent the in?ammation and colon cancer in vitro. Already in skin cancer, oral and topic treatment of rats exposed at ultraviolet radiation with mate tea prevented the lipid peroxidation and DNA damage.

  6. Both geography and ecology contribute to mating isolation in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Schwartz

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation--either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longer a challenge. The difficulty, rather, is in determining the mechanisms involved in the progress of adaptive divergence to speciation once barriers to gene flow are already present. Here, we present results of both laboratory and field experiments with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata from different environments, who do not show complete reproductive isolation despite adaptive divergence. We investigate patterns of mating isolation between populations that do and do not exchange migrants and show evidence for both by-product and reinforcement mechanisms depending on female ecology. Specifically, low-predation females discriminate against all high-predation males thus implying a by-product mechanism, whereas high-predation females only discriminate against low-predation males from further upstream in the same river, implying selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Our study thus confirms that mechanisms of adaptive speciation are not necessarily mutually exclusive and uncovers the complex ecology-geography interactions that underlie the evolution of mating isolation in nature.

  7. Parameter Estimation in Active Plate Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araujo, A. L.; Lopes, H. M. R.; Vaz, M. A. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper two non-destructive methods for elastic and piezoelectric parameter estimation in active plate structures with surface bonded piezoelectric patches are presented. These methods rely on experimental undamped natural frequencies of free vibration. The first solves the inverse problem...... through gradient based optimization techniques, while the second is based on a metamodel of the inverse problem, using artificial neural networks. A numerical higher order finite element laminated plate model is used in both methods and results are compared and discussed through a simulated...

  8. Fuzzy Vibration Control of a Smart Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradova, Aliki D.; Stavroulakis, Georgios E.

    2013-04-01

    Vibration suppression of a smart thin elastic rectangular plate is considered. The plate is subjected to external disturbances and generalized control forces, produced, for instance, by electromechanical feedback. A nonlinear controller is designed, based on fuzzy inference. The initial-boundary value problem is spatially discretized by means of the time spectral method. The implicit Newmark-beta method is employed for time integration. Two numerical algorithms are proposed. The techniques have been implemented within MATLAB with the use of the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Representative numerical results are given.

  9. ANFIS Modelling of Flexible Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. M. Al-Khafaji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an investigation into the performance of system identification using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS technique for the dynamic modelling of a twodimensional flexible plate structure. It is confirmed experimentally, using National Instrumentation (NI Data Acquisition System (DAQ and flexible plate test rig that ANFIS can be effectively used for modelling the system with highly accurate results. The accuracy of the modelling results is demonstrated through validation tests including training and test validation and correlation tests.

  10. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  11. Moire interferometry for vibration analysis of plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asundi, A.; Cheung, M. T.

    1987-12-01

    Moire interferometry is used to locate nodal regions and measure vibration amplitudes of sinusoidally vibrating square plates. The high sensitivity afforded by this technique makes possible the study of plate vibrations at high frequencies and low amplitudes. The initial pattern is modulated by the zero-order Bessel function representing the vibratory motion. The fringe (or fringes) with best contrast indicate the nodal regions, while the higher order fringes, describing loci of points vibrating with the same amplitude, have decreasing contrast which is improved by spatial filtering.

  12. Same-sex gaze attraction influences mate-choice copying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2010-02-09

    Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. The proximate mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying remain unknown. To address this question, we tracked the gaze of men and women as they viewed a series of photographs in which a potential mate was pictured beside an opposite-sex partner; the participants then indicated their willingness to engage in a long-term relationship with each potential mate. We found that both men and women expressed more interest in engaging in a relationship with a potential mate if that mate was paired with an attractive partner. Men and women's attention to partners varied with partner attractiveness and this gaze attraction influenced their subsequent mate choices. These results highlight the prevalence of non-independent mate choice in humans and implicate social attention and reward circuitry in these decisions.

  13. The Cost of Mating: Influences of Life History Traits and Mating Strategies on Lifespan in Two Closely Related Yponomeuta Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and thus reproductive fitness. We tested an extension of this idea and compared male and female lifespan of two closely related Yponomeuta species with different degree of polyandry. Our results confirmed the theoretical prediction that male lifespan is fine-tuned to female receptive lifespan; once-mated males and females of both polyandrous species had an equal lifespan. However, the degree of polyandry was not reflected in male relative to female lifespan. The observed similar female and male lifespan could largely be attributed to a dramatic reduction of female lifespan after mating.

  14. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  15. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W.; Schuett, Gordon W.; Repp, Roger A.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F.; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  16. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulon W Clark

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  17. Reproductive consequences of mate quantity versus mate diversity in a wind-pollinated plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandepitte, K.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Honnay, O.

    2009-07-01

    Since most pollen travels limited distances in wind-pollinated plants, both the local quantity and diversity of mates may limit female reproductive success. Yet little evidence exists on their relative contribution, despite the importance of viable seed production to population dynamics. To study how variation in female reproductive success is affected by the quantity versus the diversity of surrounding mates contributing pollen, we integrated pollination experiments, data on natural seed set and seed viability, and AFLP genetic marker data in the wind-pollinated dioecious clonal forest herb Mercurialis perennis. Pollination experiments indicated weak quantitative pollen limitation effects on seed set. Among-population crosses showed reduced seed viability, suggesting outbreeding depression due to genetic divergence. Pollination with pollen from a single source did not negatively affect reproductive success. These findings were consistent with results of the survey of natural female reproductive success. Seed set decreased with the distance to males in a female plants' local neighborhood, suggesting a shortage of pollen in isolated female plants, and increased with the degree of local genetic diversity. Spatial isolation to other populations and population size did not affect seed set. None of these variables were related to seed viability. We conclude that pollen movement in M. perennis is likely very limited. Both male proximity and the local degree of genetic diversity influenced female reproductive success.

  18. A Vehicle License Plate Detection and Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid W. Maglad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Automatic vehicle license plate detection and recognition is a key technique in most of traffic related applications and is an active research topic in the image processing domain. Different methods, techniques and algorithms have been developed for license plate detection and recognitions. Approach: Due to the varying characteristics of the license plate from country to country like numbering system, colors, language of characters, style (font and sizes of license plate, further research is still needed in this area. Results: In most of the Middle East countries, they use the combination of Arabic and English letters, along with their countries logo. Thus, it makes the localization of plate number, the differentiation between Arabic and English letters and logo’s object and finally the recognition of those characters become a more challenging research task. The use of artificial neural network has proved itself beneficial for plate recognition, but it has not been applied for the plate detection. Radial Basis Function (RBF neural network is used both for the detection and recognition of Saudi Arabian license plates. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed approach has been tested on 200 front images of national license plate of Saudi Arabia. A higher percentage of accuracy has been obtained to show that the significant of this approach. The study could be further investigated in other Middle East countries.

  19. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Bone plates, bone screws, finite element analysis, jaw fixation techniques, mandible, mandibular .... model is built up, in similar way to building block construction, .... shows advantages, such as granting intraoral route, minimal.

  20. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar spinal tuberculosis with kyphotic deformity with surgical techniques of Z-plate-ⅡTM internal fixation apparatus system%胸腰椎结核的手术内固定治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝晖; 李康华; 刘文和; 李兵; 李龙

    2006-01-01

    [目的]探讨Z-plate-ⅡTM前路内固定技术治疗胸腰椎结核合并后凸畸形的疗效.[方法]总结行Z-plate-ⅡTM前路内固定技术治疗胸腰椎结核合并后凸畸形患者68例,随访时间2.2~6.3 a,平均3.3 a.内容包括植骨融合率、截瘫恢复情况和后凸畸形矫正状况.[结果]所有患者均显示骨性融合;45例合并截瘫的患者中,症状完全改善25例,部分改善15例;治愈率55.56%,好转率33.33%,合计恢复率为88.89%.术后后凸畸形平均矫正28.9°,随访2.2~6.3 a,平均3.3 a,后凸角度平均丢失2.7°.[结论]Z-plate-ⅡTM前路内固定技术可恢复脊柱的即刻稳定性,有利于骨融合,促进截瘫恢复和防止截瘫复发,矫正及预防后凸畸形.

  1. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  2. Inversion for the driving forces of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Inverse modeling techniques have been applied to the problem of determining the roles of various forces that may drive and resist plate tectonic motions. Separate linear inverse problems have been solved to find the best fitting pole of rotation for finite element grid point velocities and to find the best combination of force models to fit the observed relative plate velocities for the earth's twelve major plates using the generalized inverse operator. Variance-covariance data on plate motion have also been included. Results emphasize the relative importance of ridge push forces in the driving mechanism. Convergent margin forces are smaller by at least a factor of two, and perhaps by as much as a factor of twenty. Slab pull, apparently, is poorly transmitted to the surface plate as a driving force. Drag forces at the base of the plate are smaller than ridge push forces, although the sign of the force remains in question.

  3. Inversion for the driving forces of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Inverse modeling techniques have been applied to the problem of determining the roles of various forces that may drive and resist plate tectonic motions. Separate linear inverse problems have been solved to find the best fitting pole of rotation for finite element grid point velocities and to find the best combination of force models to fit the observed relative plate velocities for the earth's twelve major plates using the generalized inverse operator. Variance-covariance data on plate motion have also been included. Results emphasize the relative importance of ridge push forces in the driving mechanism. Convergent margin forces are smaller by at least a factor of two, and perhaps by as much as a factor of twenty. Slab pull, apparently, is poorly transmitted to the surface plate as a driving force. Drag forces at the base of the plate are smaller than ridge push forces, although the sign of the force remains in question.

  4. Surgical approaches for minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, A; Lewis, D

    2009-01-01

    Fracture stabilisation techniques continue to evolve and to provide approaches which minimise the iatrogenic trauma associated with surgery. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) is a recently described method of biological internal fixation performed by introducing a bone plate via small insertional incisions that are made remote to the fracture site. The plate is slid adjacent to the bone in an epiperiosteal tunnel connecting the two insertional incisions. Screws are placed in the plate through the insertional incisions or via additional stab incisions made over the holes in the plate. In this paper we describe the surgical approaches used to perform MIPO in humeral, radial, femoral and tibial fractures in dogs. We found that these approaches allowed safe insertion of the plate without grossly damaging neuro-vascular structures. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcome of MIPO in dogs.

  5. Plasticity of the mate choice mind: courtship evokes choice-like brain responses in females from a coercive mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S M T; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

    2014-04-01

    Female mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, and determining molecular underpinnings of female preference variation is important for understanding mating character evolution. Previously it was shown that whole-brain expression of a synaptic plasticity marker, neuroserpin, positively correlates with mating bias in the female choice poeciliid, Xiphophorus nigrensis, when exposed to conspecific courting males, whereas this relationship is reversed in Gambusia affinis, a mate coercive poeciliid with no courting males. Here we explore whether species-level differences in female behavioral and brain molecular responses represent 'canalized' or 'plastic' traits. We expose female G. affinis to conspecific males and females, as well as coercive and courting male Poecilia latipinna, for preference assays followed by whole-brain gene expression analyses of neuroserpin, egr-1 and early B. We find positive correlations between gene expression and female preference strength during exposure to courting heterospecific males, but a reversed pattern following exposure to coercive heterospecific males. This suggests that the neuromolecular processes associated with female preference behavior are plastic and responsive to different male phenotypes (courting or coercive) rather than a canalized response linked to mating system. Further, we propose that female behavioral plasticity may involve learning because female association patterns shifted with experience. Compared to younger females, we found larger, more experienced females spend less time near coercive males but associate more with males in the presence of courters. We thus suggest a conserved learning-based neuromolecular process underlying the diversity of female mate preference across the mate choice and coercion-driven mating systems.

  6. Female mating preferences and offspring survival: testing hypotheses on the genetic basis of mate choice in a wild lekking bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Kempenaers, Bart; Duval, Emily H

    2014-02-01

    Indirect benefits of mate choice result from increased offspring genetic quality and may be important drivers of female behaviour. 'Good-genes-for-viability' models predict that females prefer mates of high additive genetic value, such that offspring survival should correlate with male attractiveness. Mate choice may also vary with genetic diversity (e.g. heterozygosity) or compatibility (e.g. relatedness), where the female's genotype influences choice. The relative importance of these nonexclusive hypotheses remains unclear. Leks offer an excellent opportunity to test their predictions, because lekking males provide no material benefits and choice is relatively unconstrained by social limitations. Using 12 years of data on lekking lance-tailed manakins, Chiroxiphia lanceolata, we tested whether offspring survival correlated with patterns of mate choice. Offspring recruitment weakly increased with father attractiveness (measured as reproductive success, RS), suggesting attractive males provide, if anything, only minor benefits via offspring viability. Both male RS and offspring survival until fledging increased with male heterozygosity. However, despite parent-offspring correlation in heterozygosity, offspring survival was unrelated to its own or maternal heterozygosity or to parental relatedness, suggesting survival was not enhanced by heterozygosity per se. Instead, offspring survival benefits may reflect inheritance of specific alleles or nongenetic effects. Although inbreeding depression in male RS should select for inbreeding avoidance, mates were not less related than expected under random mating. Although mate heterozygosity and relatedness were correlated, selection on mate choice for heterozygosity appeared stronger than that for relatedness and may be the primary mechanism maintaining genetic variation in this system despite directional sexual selection.

  7. Computational modelling of long bone fractures fixed with locking plates - How can the risk of implant failure be reduced?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nassiri, M

    2013-03-01

    The Locking Compression Plate (LCP) is part of a new plate generation requiring an adapted surgical technique and new thinking about commonly used concepts of internal fixation using plates. Knowledge of the fixation stability provided by these new plates is very limited and clarification is still necessary to determine how the mechanical stability and the risk of implant failure can best be controlled.

  8. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  9. Female mate choice across spatial scales: influence of lek and male attributes on mating success of blue-crowned manakins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, Renata; Loiselle, Bette A; Parker, Patricia G; Blake, John G

    2009-05-22

    Lekking males compete for females within and among leks, yet female choice is expected to work differently at each of these spatial scales. We used paternity analyses to examine how lek versus male attributes influence mate choice in the blue-crowned manakin Lepidothrix coronata. We tested the hypotheses that females prefer (i) to mate at larger leks where a larger number of potential mates can be assessed, (ii) to mate with unrelated or highly heterozygous males expected to produce high-quality offspring, (iii) to mate with males that display at higher rates, and that (iv) display honestly reflects male genetic quality. Our results show that (i) males at larger leks are not more likely to sire young, although females nesting close to small leks travel further to reach larger leks, (ii) siring males are not less related to females or more heterozygous than expected, (iii) within a lek, high-display males are more likely to sire young, and (iv) both male heterozygosity and display rate increased with lek size, and as a result display does not reliably reflect male genetic quality across leks. We suggest that female mate choice in this species is probably driven by a Fisherian process rather than adaptive genetic benefits.

  10. Choosing mates based on the diet of your ancestors: replication of non-genetic assortative mating in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Najarro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Assortative mating has been a focus of considerable research because of its potential to influence biodiversity at many scales. Sharon et al. (2010 discovered that an inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster mated assortatively based on the diet of previous generations, leading to initial reproductive isolation without genetic evolution. This behavior was reproduced by manipulating the microbiome independently of the diet, pointing to extracellular bacterial symbionts as the assortative mating cue. To further investigate the biological significance of this result, we attempted to reproduce this phenomenon in an independent laboratory using different genotypes and additional mating assays. Supporting the previous result, we found that a different inbred strain also mated assortatively based on the diets of previous generations. However, we were unable to generate assortative mating in an outbred strain from North Carolina. Our results support the potential for non-genetic mechanisms to influence reproductive isolation, but additional work is needed to investigate the importance of this mechanism in natural populations of Drosophila.

  11. Menstrual Cycle Changes in Mate Preferences for Cues Associated with Genetic Quality: The Moderating Role of Mate Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Millar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the influence of mate value and fertility status on women's implicit and explicit preferences for male traits associated with genetic quality. It was hypothesized that a woman low in mate value would experience greater fluctuation across her menstrual cycle in her preferences for characteristics associated with genetic quality than a woman high in mate value. Specifically, a low mate value woman during the non-fertile part of the cycle would experience a reduction in a desire for traits associated with health and reproductive success. To test the hypothesis, the college age female participants completed two measures of mate value and a self-report measure designed to gauge fertility status. Then the participants performed an Implicit Associations Test (IAT designed to measure implicit associations with a male trait related to genetic quality and a questionnaire designed to measure their explicit responses to the same trait. As predicted, mate value moderated the relationship between fertility status and implicit preferences.

  12. Mate choice and uncertainty in the decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Angeloni, Lisa M

    2007-12-21

    The behavior of females in search of a mate determines the likelihood that a high quality male is encountered in the search process and alternative search strategies provide different fitness returns to searchers. Models of search behavior are typically formulated on an assumption that the quality of prospective mates is revealed to searchers without error, either directly or by inspection of a perfectly informative phenotypic character. But recent theoretical developments suggest that the relative performance of a search strategy may be sensitive to any uncertainty associated with the to-be-realized fitness benefit of mate choice decisions. Indeed, uncertainty in the decision process is inevitable whenever unobserved male attributes influence the fitness of searchers. In this paper, we derive solutions to the sequential search strategy and the fixed sample search strategy for the general situation in which observed and unobserved male attributes affect the fitness consequences of female mate choice decisions and we determine how the magnitude of various parameters that are influential in the standard models alter these more general solutions. The distribution of unobserved attributes amongst prospective mates determines the uncertainty of mate choice decisions-the reliability of an observed male character as a predictor of male quality-and the realized functional relationship between an observed male character and the fitness return to searchers. The uncertainty of mate choice decisions induced by unobserved male attributes has no influence on the generalized model solutions. Thus, the results of earlier studies of these search models that rely on the use of a perfectly informative male character apply even if an observed male trait does not reveal the quality of prospective mates with certainty. But the solutions are sensitive to any changes of the distribution of unobserved male attributes that alter the realized functional relationship between an observed

  13. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  14. Dynamic response of visco-elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadıoǧlu, Fethi; Tekin, Gülçin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis about the dynamic response characteristics of visco-elastic plates is given. To construct the functional in the Laplace-Carson domain for the analysis of visco-elastic plates based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, functional analysis method is employed. By using this new energy functional in the Laplace-Carson domain, moment values that are important for engineers can be obtained directly with excellent accuracy and element equations can be written explicitly. Three-element model is considered for modelling the visco-elastic material behavior. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain by utilizing mixed finite element formulation are transformed to the time domain using the Durbin's inverse Laplace transform technique. The proposed mixed finite element formulation is shown to be simple to implement and gives satisfactory results for dynamic response of visco-elastic plates.

  15. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  18. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...