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Sample records for plate interface rupture

  1. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1993-01-01

    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  2. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1993-01-01

    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  3. Seismic slip on an upper-plate normal fault during a large subduction megathrust rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephen P.; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of stress accumulation and release during subduction zone seismic cycles requires an understanding of the distribution of fault slip during earthquakes. Reconstructions of slip are typically constrained to a single, known fault plane. Yet, slip has been shown to occur on multiple faults within the subducting plate owing to stress triggering, resulting in phenomena such as earthquake doublets. However, rapid stress triggering from the plate interface to faults in the overriding plate has not been documented before. We have analysed seismic data from the magnitude 7.1 Araucania earthquake that occurred in the Chilean subduction zone in January 2011. We find that the earthquake, which was reported as a single event in global moment tensor solutions, was instead composed of two ruptures on two separate faults. We use 3-D full waveform simulations to better constrain the centroid of the second rupture. Within 12 s, a thrust earthquake (Mw 6.8) on the plate interface triggered a second large rupture on a normal fault 30 km away in the overriding plate (Mw 6.7). We define this set of events as a 'closely spaced doublet' (CSD). This configuration of partitioned rupture is consistent with normal-faulting mechanisms in the ensuing aftershock sequence. We conclude that plate interface rupture can trigger almost instantaneous slip in the overriding plate of a subduction zone. This shallow upper-plate rupture may be masked from teleseismic data, posing a challenge for real-time tsunami warning systems.

  4. Rupture across arc segment and plate boundaries in the 1 April 2007 Solomons earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick W.; Briggs, Richard W.; Frohlich, Cliff; Brown, Abel; Hornbach, Matt; Papabatu, Alison K.; Meltzner, Aron J.; Billy, Douglas

    2008-04-01

    The largest earthquakes are generated in subduction zones, and the earthquake rupture typically extends for hundreds of kilometres along a single subducting plate. These ruptures often begin or end at structural boundaries on the overriding plate that are associated with the subduction of prominent bathymetric features of the downgoing plate. Here, we determine uplift and subsidence along shorelines for the 1 April 2007 moment magnitude MW 8.1 earthquake in the western Solomon Islands, using coral microatolls which provide precise measurements of vertical motions in locations where instrumental data are unavailable. We demonstrate that the 2007 earthquake ruptured across the subducting Simbo ridge transform and thus broke through a triple junction where the Australian and Woodlark plates subduct beneath the overriding Pacific plate. Previously, no known major megathrust rupture has involved two subducting plates. We conclude that this event illustrates the uncertainties of predicting the segmentation of subduction zone rupture on the basis of structural discontinuities.

  5. Recovery of plate coupling at a ruptured asperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shingo; Nakatani, Masao; Kato, Naoyuki

    2013-05-01

    earthquake cycle simulations using rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) law have revealed that frictional coupling at a ruptured asperity starts immediately after dynamic slip because of logarithmically time-dependent healing. However, some Global Positioning System (GPS) inversion studies of the 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake suggest that afterslip continued for 7-8 months or longer in the deep seismogenic interface including asperities where M7 earthquakes repeatedly occurred. Nakatani and Scholz [] introduced the intrinsic cutoff time tcx in the logarithmically time dependent healing and pointed out that a long tcx could lead to delayed start of frictional coupling. Assuming RSF laws into which tcx was incorporated, we conducted a numerical simulation using a block spring model. We defined the time required to restore frictional coupling as Tcpl measured from the instant of dynamic slip. The value of Tcpl for tcx = 10-3 s was almost the same as Tcpl in the conventional law, which was on the order of 10 min in the case of the aging law. It increased approximately in proportion to tcx for short tcx (≤1 s), whereas Tcpl was not so sensitive to tcx for a long tcx (>1 s). Moreover, a long tcx cannot be reasonably assumed because the maximum slip velocity during dynamic slip decreased with increasing tcx, limiting the largest possible Tcpl to be months at most. Friction laws with two state variables, each having a different cutoff time, were also investigated. The maximum slip velocity was determined by the smaller cutoff time, and Tcpl was affected by the larger cutoff time. As a result, longer Tcpl became possible, although the values are still on time scale of months.

  6. Are rupture zone limits of great subduction earthquakes controlled by upper plate structures? Evidence from multichannel seismic reflection data acquired across the northern Ecuador-southwest Colombia margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, Jean-Yves; Marcaillou, Boris; Sage, FrançOise; Michaud, FrançOis; Agudelo, William; Charvis, Philippe; Graindorge, David; Gutscher, Marc-André; Spence, George

    2004-11-01

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the Ecuador-Colombia margin has produced four megathrust earthquakes during the last century. The 500-km-long rupture zone of the 1906 (Mw = 8.8) event was partially reactivated by three thrust events, in 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7), and 1979 (Mw = 8.2), whose rupture zones abut one another. Multichannel seismic reflection and bathymetric data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise show evidence that the margin wedge is segmented by transverse crustal faults that potentially correlate with the limits of the earthquake coseismic slip zones. The Paleogene-Neogene Jama Quininde and Esmeraldas crustal faults define a ˜200-km-long margin crustal block that coincides with the 1942 earthquake rupture zone. Subduction of the buoyant Carnegie Ridge is inferred to partially lock the plate interface along central Ecuador. However, coseismic slip during the 1942 and 1906 earthquakes may have terminated against the subducted northern flank of the ridge. We report on a newly identified Manglares crustal fault that cuts transversally through the margin wedge and correlates with the limit between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. During the earthquake cycle the fault is associated with high-stress concentration on the plate interface. An outer basement high, which bounds the margin seaward of the 1958 rupture zone, may act as a deformable buttress to seaward propagation of coseismic slip along a megathrust splay fault. Coseismic uplift of the basement high is interpreted as the cause for the 1958 tsunami. We propose a model of weak transverse faults which reduce coupling between adjacent margin segments, together with a splay fault and an asperity along the plate interface as controlling the seismogenic rupture of the 1958 earthquake.

  7. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  8. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along 1D frictional interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasi-static velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a 1D spring-block model of an extended frictional interface, for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons--Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates stead...

  9. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjaya Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP. He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  10. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  11. Energy Partition During In-plane Dynamic Rupture on a Frictional Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, A.; Shi, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We study properties of dynamic ruptures and the partition of energy between radiation and dissipative mechanisms using two-dimensional in-plane calculations with the finite element method. The model consists of two identical isotropic elastic media separated by an interface governed by rate- and state-dependent friction. Rupture is initiated by gradually overstressing a localized nucleation zone. Our simulations with model parameters representative of Homalite-100 indicate that different values of parameters controlling the velocity dependence of friction, the strength excess parameter and the length of the nucleation zone, can lead to the following four rupture modes: supershear crack-like rupture, subshear crack-like rupture, subshear single pulse and supershear train of pulses. High initial shear stress and weak velocity dependence of friction favor crack-like ruptures, while the opposite conditions favor the pulse mode. The rupture mode can switch from a subshear single pulse to a supershear train of pulses when the width of the nucleation zone increases. The elastic strain energy released over the same propagation distance by the different rupture modes has the following order: supershear crack, subshear crack, supershear train of pulses and subshear single pulse. The same order applies also to the ratio of kinetic energy (radiation) to total change of elastic energy for the different rupture modes. Decreasing the dynamic coefficient of friction increases the fraction of stored energy that is converted to kinetic energy. In the current study we use model parameters representative of rocks instead of Homalite-100, by modeling recent results of Kilgore et al. (2007) who measured and estimated various energy components in laboratory friction experiments with granite. We are also incorporating into the code ingredients that will allow us to study rupture properties and energy partition for cases with a bimaterial interface and dynamic generation of plastic strain

  12. Interaction of Rupture Zones of Adjacent Anchor Plates in an Analogical Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abbad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study which required the design and implementation of a model containing plastic granules powder to simulate a natural environment, is presented. The latter is subjected to the removal of "anchor plates." For each test, several digital photographs are taken to materialize different deformed configurations during the pullout process. These photos processed in couples by the 7D software (image correlation giving the evolution of the displacement field and plane strain analogical environment. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of the interference of rupture zones of neighboring anchors by reducing the axis between plates.

  13. The strength of polyaxial locking interfaces of distal radius plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeier, Konrad L; Hofmann, Gunther O; Mückley, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Currently available polyaxial locking plates represent the consequent enhancement of fixed-angle, first-generation locking plates. In contrast to fixed-angle locking plates which are sufficiently investigated, the strength of the new polyaxial locking options has not yet been evaluated biomechanically. This study investigates the mechanical strength of single polyaxial interfaces of different volar radius plates. Single screw-plate interfaces of the implants Palmar 2.7 (Königsee Implantate und Instrumente zur Osteosynthese GmbH, Allendorf, Germany), VariAx (Stryker Leibinger GmbH & Co. KG, Freiburg, Germany) und Viper (Integra LifeSciences Corporation, Plainsboro, NJ, USA) were tested by cantilever bending. The strength of 0 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees screw locking angle was obtained during static and dynamic loading. The Palmar 2.7 interfaces showed greater ultimate strength and fatigue strength than the interfaces of the other implants. The strength of the VariAx interfaces was about 60% of Palmar 2.7 in both, static and dynamic loading. No dynamic testing was applied to the Viper plate because of its low ultimate strength. By static loading, an increase in screw locking angle caused a reduction of strength for the Palmar 2.7 and Viper locking interfaces. No influence was observed for the VariAx locking interfaces. During dynamic loading; angulation had no influence on the locking strength of Palmar 2.7. However, reduction of locking strength with increasing screw angulation was observed for VariAx. The strength of the polyaxial locking interfaces differs remarkably between the examined implants. Depending on the implant an increase of the screw locking angle causes a reduction of ultimate or fatigue strength, but not in all cases a significant impact was observed.

  14. Regularization of rupture dynamics along bi-material interfaces: a parametric study and simulations of the Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Faults are often interfaces between materials with different elastic properties. This is generally the case of plate boundaries in subduction zones, where the ruptures extend for many kilometers crossing materials with strong impedance contrasts (oceanic crust, continental crust, mantle wedge, accretionary prism). From a physical point of view, several peculiar features emerged both from analogic experiments and numerical simulations for a rupture propagating along a bimaterial interface. The elastodynamic flux at the rupture tip breaks its symmetry, inducing normal stress changes and an asymmetric propagation. This latter was widely shown for rupture velocity and slip rate (e.g. Xia et al, 2005) and was supposed to generate an asymmetric distribution of the aftershocks (Rubin and Ampuero, 2007). The bimaterial problem coupled with a Coulomb friction law is ill-posed for a wide range of impedance contrasts, due to a missing length scale in the instantaneous response to the normal traction changes. The ill-posedness also results into simulations no longer independent of the grid size. A regularization can be introduced by delaying the tangential traction from the normal traction as suggested by Cochard and Rice (2000) and Ranjith and Rice (2000) δσeff α|v|+-v* δt = δσ (σn - σeff) where σeff represents the effective normal stress to be used in the Coulomb friction. This regularization introduces two delays depending on the slip rate and on a fixed time scale. In this study we performed a large number of 2D numerical simulations of in plane rupture with the spectral element method dynamic and we systematically investigated the effect of parameter selection on the rupture propagation, dissipation and radiation, by also performing a direct comparison with solutions provided by numerical and experimental results. We found that a purely time-dependent regularization requires a fine tuning rapidly jumping from a too fast, ineffective delay to a slow, invasive

  15. Laser shockwave technique for characterization of nuclear fuel plate interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Lévesque, D.; Monchalin, J.-P.; Lord, M.; Smith, J. A.; Rabin, B. H.

    2013-01-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  16. On the speed of fast and slow rupture fronts along frictional interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Scheibert, Julien; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The transition from stick to slip at a dry frictional interface occurs through the breaking of the junctions between the two contacting surfaces. Typically, interactions between the junctions through the bulk lead to rupture fronts propagating from weak and/or highly stressed regions, whose junctions break first. Experiments find rupture fronts ranging from quasi-static fronts with speeds proportional to external loading rates, via fronts much slower than the Rayleigh wave speed, and fronts that propagate near the Rayleigh wave speed, to fronts that travel faster than the shear wave speed. The mechanisms behind and selection between these fronts are still imperfectly understood. Here we perform simulations in an elastic 2D spring--block model where the frictional interaction between each interfacial block and the substrate arises from a set of junctions modeled explicitly. We find that a proportionality between material slip speed and rupture front speed, previously reported for slow fronts, actually holds ac...

  17. Developing framework to constrain the geometry of the seismic rupture plane on subduction interfaces a priori - A probabilistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Wald, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    A key step in many earthquake source inversions requires knowledge of the geometry of the fault surface on which the earthquake occurred. Our knowledge of this surface is often uncertain, however, and as a result fault geometry misinterpretation can map into significant error in the final temporal and spatial slip patterns of these inversions. Relying solely on an initial hypocentre and CMT mechanism can be problematic when establishing rupture characteristics needed for rapid tsunami and ground shaking estimates. Here, we attempt to improve the quality of fast finite-fault inversion results by combining several independent and complementary data sets to more accurately constrain the geometry of the seismic rupture plane of subducting slabs. Unlike previous analyses aimed at defining the general form of the plate interface, we require mechanisms and locations of the seismicity considered in our inversions to be consistent with their occurrence on the plate interface, by limiting events to those with well-constrained depths and with CMT solutions indicative of shallow-dip thrust faulting. We construct probability density functions about each location based on formal assumptions of their depth uncertainty and use these constraints to solve for the ‘most-likely’ fault plane. Examples are shown for the trench in the source region of the Mw 8.6 Southern Sumatra earthquake of March 2005, and for the Northern Chile Trench in the source region of the November 2007 Antofagasta earthquake. We also show examples using only the historic catalogues in regions without recent great earthquakes, such as the Japan and Kamchatka Trenches. In most cases, this method produces a fault plane that is more consistent with all of the data available than is the plane implied by the initial hypocentre and CMT mechanism. Using the aggregated data sets, we have developed an algorithm to rapidly determine more accurate initial fault plane geometries for source inversions of future

  18. Film rupture in the diffuse interface model coupled to hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, U; Velarde, M G; Neuffer, K; Pomeau, Y

    2001-09-01

    The process of dewetting of a thin liquid film is usually described using a long-wave approximation yielding a single evolution equation for the film thickness. This equation incorporates an additional pressure term-the disjoining pressure-accounting for the molecular forces. Recently a disjoining pressure was derived coupling hydrodynamics to the diffuse interface model [L. M. Pismen and Y. Pomeau, Phys. Rev. E 62, 2480 (2000)]. Using the resulting evolution equation as a generic example for the evolution of unstable thin films, we examine the thickness ranges for linear instability and metastability for flat films, the families of stationary periodic and localized solutions, and their linear stability. The results are compared to simulations of the nonlinear time evolution. From this we conclude that, within the linearly unstable thickness range, there exists a well defined subrange where finite perturbations are crucial for the time evolution and the resulting structures. In the remainder of the linearly unstable thickness range the resulting structures are controlled by the fastest flat film mode assumed up to now for the entire linearly unstable thickness range. Finally, the implications for other forms of disjoining pressure in dewetting and for spinodal decomposition are discussed.

  19. Rupture

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  20. Normalized rupture potential for small and large earthquakes along the Pacific Plate off Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Enescu, Bogdan; Woessner, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    We combine temporal variability in local seismic activity rates and size distributions to estimate the evolution of a Gutenberg-Richter-based metric, the normalized rupture potential (NRP), comparing differences between smaller and larger earthquakes. For the Pacific Plate off Japan, we study both complex spatial patterns and how they evolve over the last 18 years, and more detailed temporal characteristics in a simplified spatial selection, i.e., inside and outside the high-slip zone of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. We resolve significant changes, in particular an immediate NRP increase for large events prior to the Tohoku event in the subsequent high-slip patch, a very rapid decrease inside this high-stress-release area coupled with a lasting increase of NRP in the immediate surroundings. Even in the center of the Tohoku rupture, the NRP for large magnitudes has not dropped below the 12 year average and is not significantly different from conditions a decade before the M9 event.

  1. Ruptures along a frictional interface are described by Fracture Mechanics: Experiments in a "Laboratory Earthquake" along both dry and lubricated interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, J.; Svetlizky, I.; Bayart Schweizer, E.

    2014-12-01

    A dry frictional interface is composed of an ensemble of discrete contacts whose real contact area is orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal one. Slip is initiated when contacts are broken via propagating ruptures. Characterization of the dynamic fields that drive these ruptures and how they couple to the dissipative mechanisms on the interface are critical to our fundamental understanding of both frictional motion and earthquake dynamics. We experimentally investigate ruptures along rough spatially extended interfaces bounded by the same type of material. We perform simultaneous high-speed measurements (at μsec time scale) of the real contact area and the strain fields in the region surrounding propagating rupture tips. These measurements enable us to uncover the breakdown process near the tip of the slipping zone for rapidly propagating ruptures ranging from slow rupture fronts (~0.01CR) to nearly the Rayleigh wave speed, CR~1255m/s. These rupture fronts are quantitatively described by classical singular solutions for rapid shear cracks. These singular solutions, originally derived to describe brittle fracture, are in excellent agreement with the experiments for slow propagation, whereas some significant discrepancies arise as the rupture velocity approaches CR. The energy dissipated by the fracture of the contacts (fracture energy) is nearly constant throughout the entire rupture velocity range, while the size of the dissipative zone undergoes a 'Lorentz-like' contraction as the rupture velocity approaches CR. We then turn to both fully lubricated and partially lubricated interfaces and compare the dynamic strain fields measured to those of dry interfaces. The results of these studies are surprising. We will show that: Rapid rupture fronts still propagate in the stick-slip regime Although decreasing the overall friction coefficient along the interface, the addition of a lubricant significantly increases the fracture energy at the rupture tip In the fully

  2. Rupture dynamics along bimaterial interfaces: a parametric study of the shear-normal traction coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake ruptures often develop along faults separating materials with dissimilar elastic properties. Due to the broken symmetry, the propagation of the rupture along the bimaterial interface is driven by the coupling between interfacial sliding and normal traction perturbations. We numerically investigate in-plane rupture growth along a planar interface, under slip weakening friction, separating two dissimilar isotropic linearly elastic half-spaces, and we perform a parametric study of the classical Prakash-Clifton regularisation, for different material contrasts. In particular the mesh-dependence and the regularisation-dependence of the numerical solutions are analysed in this parameter space. When the regularisation involves a slip-rate dependent relaxation time, a characteristic sliding distance is identified below which numerical solutions no longer depend on the regularisation parameter, i.e. they are physically well-posed solutions. Such regularisation provides an adaptive high-frequency filter of the slip-induced normal traction perturbations, following the dynamic shrinking of the dissipation zone during the acceleration phase. In contrast, a regularisation involving a constant relaxation time leads to numerical solutions that always depend on the regularisation parameter since it fails in adapting to the shrinking of the process zone. Dynamic regularisation is further investigated using a non-local regularisation based on a relaxation time that depends on the dynamic length of the dissipation zone. Such reformulation is shown to provide similar results as the dynamic time scale regularisation proposed by Prakash-Clifton when the slip rate is replaced by the maximum slip rate along the sliding interface. This leads to the identification of a dissipative length scale associated with the coupling between interfacial sliding and normal traction perturbations, together with a scaling law between the maximum slip rate and the dynamic size of the process zone

  3. Elastostatic bending of a bimaterial plate with a circular interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, Nkem

    2015-08-01

    The elastostatic bending of an arbitrarily loaded bimaterial plate with a circular interface is analysed. It is shown that the deflections in the composite solid are directly related to the deflection in the corresponding homogeneous material by integral and differential operators. It is further shown that, by a simple transformation of elastic constants, the Airy stress function induced in the composite by a stretching singularity can be deduced from the deflection induced by a bending singularity. This result is significant for reduction of mathematical labour and for systematic construction of solutions for more complex structures with circular geometry.

  4. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pengwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  5. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded and Bolted Cold Plates with Al/Cu Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Suresh, M.; Sibi Varshan, M.

    2015-05-01

    An attempt is made to design and fabricate a cold plate with aluminum-copper dissimilar interface joined by friction stir welding. Optimum welding conditions for obtaining sound-quality corner and T joints with an aluminum-copper interface were established. Welded cross sections of the friction stir welded cold plate were analyzed to understand the bonding characteristics. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the fluid-flow characteristics and thermal resistance of friction stir welded cold plate and the resulted are compared with the conventional bolted cold plate configuration. For CFD modeling of a cold plate with a dissimilar interface, a new methodology is proposed. From the CFD analysis and experimental results, it is observed that friction stir welded cold plate offered better thermal performance compared to the bolted cold plate and it is due to the metallurgical bonding at the aluminum-copper interface with the dispersion of copper particles.

  6. Faulting within the Pacific plate at the Mariana Trench: Implications for plate interface coupling and subduction of hydrous minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Emry, E.L; Wiens, D.A; García-Castellanos, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate faulting within the incoming Pacific plate at the Mariana subduction trench to understand stresses within the bending plate, regional stresses acting upon the plate interface, and the extent of possible faulting-induced mantle serpentinization. We determine accurate depths by inverting teleseismic P and SH waveforms for earthquakes occurring during 1990-2011 with Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions. For earthquakes with Mw 5.0+, we determine centroid depths and sourc...

  7. Imaging the megathrust zone and Yakutat/Pacific plate interface in the Alaska subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Abers, G. A.; Li, J.; Christensen, D. H.; Rondenay, S.

    2013-12-01

    We image the subducted slab underneath a 450 km long transect of the Alaska subduction zone. Dense stations in southern Alaska are set up to investigate (1) the geometry and velocity structure of the downgoing plate and their relationship to slab seismicity, and (2) the interplate coupled zone where the great 1964 earthquake (magnitude 9.3) exhibited the largest amount of rupture. The joint teleseismic migration of two array datasets based on teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) reveals a prominent, shallow-dipping low-velocity layer at ~25-30 km depth in southern Alaska. Modeling of RF amplitudes suggests the existence of a thin (3-5 km) low-velocity layer (shear wave velocity of ~2.0-2.5 km/s) that is ~20-40% slower than underlying oceanic crustal velocities, and is sandwiched between the subducted slab and the overriding North America plate. The observed low-velocity megathrust layer (with P-to-S velocity ratio of 1.9-2.3) may be due to a thick sediment input from the trench in combination with elevated pore fluid pressure in the channel. The subducted crust below the low-velocity channel has gabbroic velocities with a thickness of ~15 km. Both velocities and thickness of the low-velocity channel abruptly increase downdip in central Alaska, which agrees with previously published results. Our image also includes an unusually thick low-velocity crust subducting with a ~20 degree dip down to 130 km depth at approximately 200 km inland beneath central Alaska. The unusual nature of this subducted segment has been suggested to be due to the subduction of the Yakutat terrane. We also show a clear image of the Yakutat and Pacific plate subduction beneath the Kenai Peninsula, and the along-strike boundary between them at megathrust depths. Our imaged western edge of the Yakutat terrane, at 25-30 km depth in the central Kenai along the megathrust, aligns with the western end of a geodetically locked patch with high slip deficit, and coincides with the boundary of

  8. Imaging megathrust zone and Yakutat/Pacific plate interface in Alaska subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Abers, G. A.; Li, J.; Christensen, D. H.; Calkins, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    We image the subducted slab underneath a 450 km long transect of the Alaska subduction zone. Dense stations in southern Alaska are set up to investigate (1) the geometry and velocity structure of the downgoing plate and their relation to slab seismicity, and (2) the interplate coupled zone where the great 1964 (magnitude 9.3) had greatest rupture. The joint teleseismic migration of two array datasets (MOOS, Multidisciplinary Observations of Onshore Subduction, and BEAAR, Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range) based on teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) using the MOOS data reveal a shallow-dipping prominent low-velocity layer at ~25-30 km depth in southern Alaska. Modeling of these RF amplitudes shows a thin (plate. The observed low-velocity megathrust layer (with P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) exceeding 2.0) may be due to a thick sediment input from the trench in combination of elevated pore fluid pressure in the channel. The subducted crust below the low-velocity channel has gabbroic velocities with a thickness of 11-12 km. Both velocities and thickness of the low-velocity channel abruptly increase as the slab bends in central Alaska, which agrees with previously published RF results. Our image also includes an unusually thick low-velocity crust subducting with a ~20 degree dip down to 130 km depth at approximately 200 km inland beneath central Alaska. The unusual nature of this subducted segment has been suggested to be due to the subduction of the Yakutat terrane. We also show a clear image of the Yakutat and Pacific plate subduction beneath the Kenai Peninsula, and the along-strike boundary between them at megathrust depths. Our imaged western edge of the Yakutat terrane, at 25-30 km depth in the central Kenai along the megathrust, aligns with the western end of the geodetically locked patch with high slip deficit, and coincides with the boundary of aftershock events from the 1964 earthquake. It seems plausible that this sharp change in the nature of

  9. Formulation and Application of a Physically-Based Rupture Probability Model for Large Earthquakes on Subduction Zones: A Case Study of Earthquakes on Nazca Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdyiar, M.; Galgana, G.; Shen-Tu, B.; Klein, E.; Pontbriand, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    -based rupture probability models for large earthquakes on subduction zones that is consistent with their true locking state and earthquake history. We will present the formulation of the proposed model and its application to the Nazca plate subduction zone.

  10. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLUTION FOR LAMINATED ORTHOTROPIC RECTANGULAR PLATES WITH VISCOELASTIC INTERFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wei; Ying Ji; Chen Weiqiu

    2006-01-01

    When a body consists completely or even partly of viscoelastic materials, its response under static loading will be time-dependent. The adhesives used to glue together single plies in laminates usually exhibit a certain viscoelastic characteristic in a high temperature environment. In this paper, a laminated orthotropic rectangular plate with viscoelastic interfaces,described by the Kelvin-Voigt model, is considered. A power series expansion technique is adopted to approximate the time-variation of various field quantities. Results indicate that the response of the laminated plate with viscoelastic interfaces changes remarkably with time, and is much different from that of a plate with spring-like or viscous interfaces.

  11. Derivation of XBIEM Kernels for Anti-plane/In-plane Problems and Implementation in Anti-plane Rupture Simulation Crossing Bimaterial Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, T.; Kame, N.

    2015-12-01

    We develop an extended boundary integral equation method (XBIEM) to analyse dynamic behavior of rupture crossing a medium interface in 2D. Many faults often lie near medium interfaces in the Earth's heterogeneous crust consisting of various types of rocks. Some faults cross the interfaces, and the theoretical analysis of their dynamic behavior has been awaited. In the development, we focus on the extended parts of XBIEM in comparison to the conventional BIEM, and derive all the 2D displacement and stress kernels in response to a unit boundary traction in explicit discretized forms, which are the ingredients in the extension of BIEM. The final forms of kernels are compact and easy to evaluate numerically. They are implemented in simulating dynamic anti-plane rupture propagation across a bimaterial interface allowing secondary interfacial rupture. Our analysis shows a significant effect of an interfacial medium contrast on the control of dynamic rupture propagation.

  12. Faulting within the Pacific plate at the Mariana Trench: Implications for plate interface coupling and subduction of hydrous minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emry, Erica L.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    We investigate faulting within the incoming Pacific plate at the Mariana subduction trench to understand stresses within the bending plate, regional stresses acting upon the plate interface, and the extent of possible faulting-induced mantle serpentinization. We determine accurate depths by inverting teleseismic P and SH waveforms for earthquakes occurring during 1990-2011 with Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions. For earthquakes with Mw 5.0+, we determine centroid depths and source time functions and refine the fault parameters. Results from Central Mariana indicate that all earthquakes are extensional and occur at centroid depths down to 11 km below the Moho. At the Southern Mariana Trench, extensional earthquakes continue to 5 km below the Moho. One compressional earthquake at 34 km below the seafloor suggests stronger plate interface coupling here. In addition, we model the stress distribution within the Pacific plate along two bathymetric profiles extending seaward from the Mariana subduction trench axis to better understand whether our earthquake depth solutions match modeled scenarios for plate bending under applied external forces. Results from our flexure models match the locations of extensional and compressional earthquakes and suggest that the Pacific plate at Southern Mariana is experiencing larger, compressional stresses, possibly due to greater interplate coupling. Additionally, we conclude that if extensional faulting promotes the infiltration of water into the subducting plate mantle, then the top 5-15 km of the Pacific plate mantle are partially serpentinized, and a higher percentage of serpentinization is located near the Central Mariana trench where extensional events extend deeper.

  13. Effects of Heat Treatment on Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Explosively Welded Ck60/St37 Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Majid; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of explosively welded Ck60 steel/St37 steel. The objective is to find an economical way for manufacturing bimetallic plates that can be used in the rolling stand of hot rolling mill units. The explosive ratio and stand-off distance are set at 1.7 and 1.5 t ( t = flyer thickness), respectively. Since explosive welding is accompanied by such undesirable metallurgical effects as remarkable hardening, severe plastic deformation, and even formation of local melted zones near the interface, heat treatment is required to overcome or alleviate these adverse effects. For this purpose, the composites are subjected to heat treatment in a temperature range of 600-700 °C at a rate of 90 °C/h for 1 h. Results demonstrate well-bonded composite plates with a wavy interface. In the as-welded case, vortex zones are formed along the interface; however, they are transformed into fine grains upon heat treatment. Microhardness is also observed to be maximum near the interface in the welded case before it decreases with increasing temperature. Shear strength is the highest in the as-welded specimen, which later decreases as a result of heat treatment. Moreover, the energy absorbed by the heat-treated specimens is observed to increase with increasing temperature so that the lowest value of absorbed energy belongs to the as-welded specimen. Finally, fractography is carried out using the scanning electron microscope to examine the specimens subjected to shear and impact tests. As a result of heat treatment, fracture surfaces exhibit dimpled ruptures and fail in the mixed mode, while failure in the as-welded specimens predominantly occurs in the brittle mode.

  14. Bond-slip behavior of CFRP plate-concrete interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, D. Y.; Park, S. K.; Hong, S. N.

    2011-11-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of the bond performance between a CFRP plate and concrete with respect to various compressive strengths of concrete and bond lengths of the CFRP plate as parameters. To consider stress conditions in the tensile zone of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, double-lap axial tension tests were conducted for eight specimens with CFRP plates bonded to concrete prisms. In addition, a simple linear bond-slip model for the CFRP plate/concrete joints, developed from the bond tests, was used. To verify the model proposed, a total of seven RC beams were strengthened with CFRP plates and tested in flexure employing various bond lengths, strengthening methods, and numbers of CFRP plates. A nonlinear finite-element analysis, with the bond-slip model incorporated in the DIANA program, was performed for the strengthened RC beams. Also, the results of flexural test and analytical predictions are found to be in close agreement in terms of yield and ultimate loads and ductility.

  15. How does the 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah Earthquake Rupture Connect to the Southern California Plate Boundary Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific - North American plate boundary in southern California is marked by several major strike slip faults. The 2010 M7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake ruptured 120 km of upper crust in Baja California to the US-Mexico border. The earthquake triggered slip along an extensive network of faults in the Salton Trough from the Mexican border to the southern end of the San Andreas fault. Earthquakes >M5 were triggered in the gap between the Laguna Salada and Elsinore faults at Ocotillo and on the Coyote Creek segment of the San Jacinto fault 20 km northwest of Borrego Springs. UAVSAR observations, collected since October of 2009, measure slip associated with the M5.7 Ocotillo aftershock with deformation continuing into 2014. The Elsinore fault has been remarkably quiet, however, with only M5.0 and M5.2 earthquakes occurring on the Coyote Mountains segment of the fault in 1940 and 1968 respectively. In contrast, the Imperial Valley has been quite active historically with numerous moderate events occurring since 1935. Moderate event activity is increasing along the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ), especially the trifurcation area, where 6 of 12 historic earthquakes in this 20 km long fault zone have occurred since 2000. However, no recent deformation has been detected using UAVSAR measurements in this area, including the recent M5.2 June 2016 Borrego earthquake. Does the El Mayor - Cucapah rupture connect to and transfer stress primarily to a single southern California fault or several? What is its role relative to the background plate motion? UAVSAR observations indicate that the southward extension of the Elsinore fault has recently experienced the most localized deformation. Seismicity suggests that the San Jacinto fault is more active than neighboring major faults, and geologic evidence suggests that the Southern San Andreas fault has been the major plate boundary fault in southern California. Topographic data with 3-4 cm resolution using structure from motion from

  16. Alaska Megathrust 2: Imaging the megathrust zone and Yakutat/Pacific plate interface in the Alaska subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHee; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Li, Jiyao; Christensen, Douglas; Calkins, Josh; Rondenay, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    We image the slab underneath a 450 km long transect of the Alaska subduction zone to investigate (1) the geometry and velocity structure of the downgoing plate and their relationship to slab seismicity and (2) the interplate coupled zone where the great 1964 earthquake (Mw 9.2) exhibited the largest amount of rupture. The joint teleseismic migration of two array data sets based on receiver functions (RFs) reveals a prominent, shallow-dipping low-velocity layer at ~25-30 km depth in southern Alaska. Modeling of RF amplitudes suggests the existence of a thin layer (Vs of ~2.1-2.6 km/s) that is ~20-40% slower than underlying oceanic crustal velocities, and is sandwiched between the subducted slab and the overriding plate. The observed megathrust layer (with Vp/Vs of 1.9-2.3) may be due to a thick sediment input from the trench in combination with elevated pore fluid pressure in the channel. Our image also includes an unusually thick low-velocity crust subducting with a ~20° dip down to 130 km depth at ~200 km inland beneath central Alaska. The unusual nature of this subducted segment results from the subduction of the Yakutat terrane crust. Our imaged western edge of the Yakutat terrane aligns with the western end of a geodetically locked patch with high slip deficit, and coincides with the boundary of aftershock events from the 1964 earthquake. It appears that this sharp change in the nature of the downgoing plate could control the slip distribution of great earthquakes on this plate interface.

  17. Interface contact profiles of a novel locking plate and its effect on fracture healing in goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Da-cheng; ZHAO Yu-feng; XING Shu-xing; WANG Ai-min

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interface characteristics of the new-designed locking plate (LP) and limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) and compare the fracture healing between LP and LC-DCP in a goat tibia fracture model.Methods: Eight-hole LP and LC-DCP were applied to fix flesh goat tibiae in a reproducible manner. The average pressure, force and interface contact area were calculated using Fuji prescale pressure sensitive film interposed among the plate and the bone and image analysis system. Eighthole LP and LC-DCP were applied to each tibia in a goat tibia fracture model. The fracture healing was evaluated by X-ray photography at postoperative 8 weeks. The goats were sacrificed at postoperative 12 weeks. Three-point bending test was conducted in the tibiae.Results: The interface contact of LP system was smaller than that ofLC-DCP (P<0.05), while interface contact force of LP system was higher than that of LC-DCP (P<0.05). Radiographs revealed that the fracture line disappeared in the LP group, while the fracture line was visible in DCP group at postoperative 8 weeks. At postoperative 12 weeks, the bending strength and bending load of fractured tibia were higher in LP group than in DCP group, respectively.Conclusion: The new-designed locking plate can significantly decrease the contact area on the bone interface,which further provides better fracture healing than conventional plates.

  18. Effect of two steel plate's interface on heat transfer under laser beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Jian Heng; Zhang Shi Wen; Gui Yuan Zhen; Wang Chun Yan; Tang Xiao Song; Zhang Da Yong

    2002-01-01

    It is supposed that there is a gap in the interface of two contacting steel plates due to thermal deformation under laser beam irradiation, and this gap will affect heat transfer in this interface obviously. This supposition is testified by experiments and simulation. This work is helpful to the study of the destruction mechanism under high power laser loading, and provides an effective way for anti-laser research

  19. Explosive scarf welding of aluminum to copper plates and their interface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashani, J.Z.; Bagheri, S.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-09-15

    Explosive welding was used to produce scarf joint between aluminum and copper plates. This process is known as explosive scarf welding (ESW). In a scarf joint, the final bond interface is oblique. In this study, chamfered end of aluminum and copper plates were joined explosively and named scarf joint, employing changes in chamfered angle at different stand-off distance and explosive loading. The geometry of scarf joint enables consideration of both flyer and base plate thickness and explosive loading and the effects on mechanical properties of interface such as bond shear strength and micro-hardness can be investigated. Mathematical models developed on the interface properties of scarf joint to make relationship between the bond shear strength and explosive loading ratio. To check the adequacy of developed models, mechanical properties of interface, such as bond shear strength was predicted and compared with actual values in explosive cladding process. The results show reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. Consequently, mathematical model which is based on scarf joints, can predict bond shear strength of cladding metals under desired explosive loading and flyer plate thickness. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Sprengschweissen von Aluminium - Kupferplatten und ihre Grenzflaecheneigenschaften. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Effect of Interface on Mechanical Property of Steel-mushy Al-20Sn Bonding Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of Fe-Al compound at interCace, which could determine the quantity of Fe-Al compound at the interface of steel-mushy Al-20Sn bonding plate, was used to characterize the interfacial structure of steel-mushy Al-20Sn bonding plate quantitatively.The effect of ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface on interfacial shear strength was investigated perfectly.The results show that the relationship between ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and interfacial shear strength is S = 3.3 + 1.91 t -0.0135 t2 ( where t is ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and S is interfacial shear strength ).When the ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface is 71% , the largest interfacial shear strength 70.9 MPa is got.This reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface is a quantitative criterion of interfacial embrittlement.When the ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface is higher than 71%, interfacial embrittlement will occur.

  1. Development and propagation of a subduction plate interface: insight from hydro-thermo-mechanical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauville, Arthur; Furuichi, Mikito

    2017-04-01

    The deformation mechanisms of the subduction zone plate interface varies along its length, from seismic brittle deformation near the surface to aseismic viscous deformation further at depth. However, the initiation of a subduction interface, as well as the interplay between viscous and brittle deformation is still incompletely understood. Furthermore, in the shallower portions of the subduction zone, in particular in the accretion prism, water might play an important role in the localization of the decollement (i.e. shallower part of the subduction interface). In this study we model the development of a subduction plate interface from subduction initiation to prism development. We employ a numerical algorithm that solves the fully coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical using the staggered grid finite difference/marker-in-cell method. We first performed a parameter study varying the thermal age of the plate, shortening speed, sediment thickness and initial porosity distribution. In a second step numerical results are compared with geophysical data and samples from the Japan trench and the Nankai trough. Early results and numerical implementation will be presented.

  2. A variety of slip behaviors along plate interface and interplay among them before and after the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Obara, K.

    2013-12-01

    Prior to the 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan, two distinct sequences of foreshock migrations along the trench axis toward the mainshock epicenter were identified by an earthquake catalog created using a waveform correlation technique [Kato et al., 2012, Science]. In addition, the time history of quasi-static slip along the plate interface extracted from small repeating earthquakes shows that transient slip coincided with the two sequences of earthquake migrations. The transient slip first started to build up from mid- to late February. After the Mw 7.3 foreshock, the amount of transient slip increased abruptly to the north of the Mw 7.3 epicenter, though it slightly slowed down logarithmically with time, a phenomenon commonly observed in afterslip. In contrast, slip in the earthquake migration zone (to the south of the Mw 7.3 epicenter) increased almost linearly during the final phase. Geodetic measurements also detected transient deformation after the Mw 7.3 foreshock [Ohta et al., 2012, GRL]. These results provide strong evidence for the propagation of slow-slip events toward the Mw 9.0 epicenter. The slow-slip events may have caused stress loading onto the prospective hypocenter of the Mw 9.0 mainshock and prompted the initiation of unstable dynamic rupture. Similar stress loading by transient slip onto prospective hypocenter was identified by earthquake migrations prior to the 2008 Mw 6.8 interplate (Ibaraki-Oki) earthquake, and by geodetic measurement before the 2004 Mw 7.0 earthquake offshore of eastern Hokkaido [Murakami et al., 2006, GRL]. Stress loading by slow slip transients plays a crucial role to prompt initiation of dynamic rupture, provided that large-sized potential earthquake-nucleation patch is close to failure. After the Tohoku-Oki mainshock rupture, any subsequent seismicity along the plate interface in the foreshock area was abruptly terminated, and has remained very low ever since [Kato and Igarashi, 2012, GRL]. This

  3. Modeling and numerical simulation of static and dynamic behavior of multilayered plates with interface effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Smail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Multilayered structures the interface effects have a wide range of applications in aerospace, automotive and especially in civil engineering. The design and construction of these structures and the account for interface effects require special expertise in modeling, simulation and implementation. Many studies in this case were conducted to address these issues. The objective of this work is the modeling and numerical simulation of static and dynamic behaviors of beams and plates multilayered structures with different types of interfaces. The focus was on the prediction of the behavior of stresses; shears and displacements depending on thickness. The interface can be elastic or viscoelastic of small or large thickness. The state space method has been developed for this purpose. Various types of rolled arbitrary number of isotropic or anisotropic layers structures were considered. The three-dimensional behavior is obtained for different types of static and dynamic loading. The results were compared with those based on the model of Stroh and on the various existing theories of beams and plates. The methodological approach, developed here, will be applied to thick structures, functionally graded, bimorph or multilayer structures and possibly piezoelectric or viscoelastic layered structures with interface effect

  4. Gelation of a monoclonal antibody at the silicone oil-water interface and subsequent rupture of the interfacial gel results in aggregation and particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shyam B; Lewus, Rachael; Bee, Jared S; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2015-04-01

    The formation of viscoelastic gels by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) at the silicone oil-water interface was studied using interfacial shear rheology. At a concentration of 50 μg/mL, the mAb formed gels in less than 1 h, and the gelation time decreased with increasing protein concentration. To probe the effects of mechanical rupture of the interfacial gel layers, a layer of silicone oil was overlaid on the surface of aqueous solutions of mAb, and the interface was ruptured periodically with a needle. Rupture of the interfacial gel resulted in formation of subvisible particles and substantial losses of mAb monomer, which were detected by microflow imaging and quantified by size-exclusion chromatography, respectively. Resonance mass measurement showed that levels of both protein particles and silicone oil droplets increased as the gel was repeatedly ruptured with a needle. In contrast, in samples wherein the interfacial gels were not ruptured, much lower levels of aggregates and particles were detected. Addition of nonionic surfactants (polysorbate 20 or polysorbate 80) protected against aggregation and protein particle formation, with increased protection seen with increasing surfactant levels, and with the greatest inhibition observed in samples containing polysorbate 80.

  5. Repeating deep tremors on the plate interface beneath Kyushu, southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Suguru; Ide, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the subduction zone south of Kyushu Island, at the western extension of the Nankai subduction zone, southwest Japan, the age of the oceanic crust increases toward the south across the subducting Kyushu-Palau ridge. While tremor activity is very high in Nankai, tectonic tremors have only recently been discovered in Kyushu. In this study, we examined tremors beneath Kyushu using an improved version of the envelope correlation method. In doing so, we distinguished tremors from normal earthquakes and background noise using the criteria of source duration and the spectrum ratio between low and high frequencies. Accurate measurement of S- P times, using cross-correlation between vertical and horizontal seismograms, constrains the tremor depth precisely. Tremor activity is low and within a small region in southern Kyushu, where thick crust of the Kyushu-Palau ridge is being subducted, at depths between 35 and 45 km (i.e., shallower than intra-slab earthquakes by about 20 km), which is consistent with the location of the plate interface within uncertainties proposed in previous studies. Establishing precise depth estimates for tectonic tremors beneath Kyushu, which results from shear slip along the plate interface, is useful in defining the plate interface within the Nankai subduction zone.

  6. A new fluid-solid interface algorithm for simulating fluid structure problems in FGM plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtesad, A.; Shafiei, A. R.; Mahzoon, M.

    2012-04-01

    The capability to track material interfaces, especially in fluid structure problems, is among the advantages of meshless methods. In the present paper, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to investigate elastic-plastic deformation of AL and ceramic-metal FGM (Functionally Graded Materials) plates under the impact of water in a fluid-solid interface. Instead of using an accidental repulsive force which is not stable at higher pressures, a new scheme is proposed to improve the interface contact behavior between fluid and solid structure. This treatment not only prevents the interpenetration of fluid and solid particles significantly, but also maintains the gap distance between fluid and solid boundary particles in a reasonable range. A new scheme called corrected smooth particle method (CSPM) is applied to both fluid and solid particles to improve the free surface behavior. In order to have a more realistic free surface behavior in fluid, a technique is used to detect the free surface boundary particles during the solution process. The results indicate that using the proposed interface algorithm together with CSPM correction, one can predict the dynamic behavior of FGM plates under the impact of fluid very promisingly.

  7. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  8. Microstructure and Phase Constitution Near the Interface of Explosively Welded Aluminum/Copper Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Henryk; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, Lidia; Prażmowski, Mariusz

    2013-08-01

    The microstructure changes and the phase constitution within the layers close to the bonding interface strongly influence the properties of bimetallic strips. In this work, the layers near the interface of explosively welded aluminum and copper plates were investigated by means of microscopic observations, mostly with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX). The study was focused on the identification of the intermetallic phases, the possible interdiffusion between the copper and the aluminum, and the changes in the dislocation structure of the parent plates. In macro-/mesoscale, the interfaces were outlined by a characteristic sharp transition indicating that there was no mechanical mixing between the welded metals in the solid state. In micro-/nanoscale, the layers adhering to the interface show typical deformed microstructure features, i.e., structure refinement, elongated dislocation cells, slip bands, and microtwins (in copper plate). The internal microstructure of the intermetallic inclusion is composed mostly of dendrites. The electron diffractions and TEM/EDX chemical composition measurements revealed three crystalline equilibrium phases of the γ-Al4Cu9, η-AlCu, and Θ-Al2Cu type (the last one was dominant). However, most of the observed phases of the general Cu m Al n type (also crystalline) do not appear in the equilibrium Al-Cu phase diagram. Inside the intermetallic inclusions, no significant regularity in the phase distribution with respect to the parent sheets was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the processes occurring in the melt determined their local chemical composition.

  9. The role of frictional strength on plate coupling at the subduction interface

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Eh

    2012-10-01

    At a subduction zone the amount of friction between the incoming plate and the forearc is an important factor in controlling the dip angle of subduction and the structure of the forearc. In this paper, we investigate the role of the frictional strength of sediments and of the serpentinized peridotite on the evolution of convergent margins. In numerical models, we vary thickness of a serpentinized layer in the mantle wedge (15 to 25km) and the frictional strength of both the sediments and serpentinized mantle (friction angle 1 to 15, or static friction coefficient 0.017 to 0.27) to control the amount of frictional coupling between the plates. With plastic strain weakening in the lithosphere, our numerical models can attain stable subduction geometry over millions of years. We find that the frictional strength of the sediments and serpentinized peridotite exerts the largest control on the dip angle of the subduction interface at seismogenic depths. In the case of low sediment and serpentinite friction, the subduction interface has a shallow dip, while the subduction zone develops an accretionary prism, a broad forearc high, a deep forearc basin, and a shallow trench. In the high friction case, the subduction interface is steep, the trench is deeper, and the accretionary prism, forearc high and basin are all absent. The resultant free-air gravity and topographic signature of these subduction zone models are consistent with observations. We believe that the low-friction model produces a geometry and forearc structure similar to that of accretionary margins. Conversely, models with high friction angles in sediments and serpentinite develop characteristics of an erosional convergent margin. We find that the strength of the subduction interface is critical in controlling the amount of coupling at the seismogenic zone and perhaps ultimately the size of the largest earthquakes at subduction zones. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.; Klaeschen, D.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Scholl, D.

    2009-01-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the d??collement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados, where a uniform, continuous d??collement reflector has been imaged. In our study area, the plate interface reveals a spatially irregular, nonlinear pattern characterized by the morphological relief of subducted seamounts and thicker than average patches of underthrust sediment. The underthrust sediment is associated with a low velocity zone as determined from wide-angle data. Active underplating is not resolved, but likely contributes to the uplift of the large bivergent wedge that constitutes the forearc high. Our profile is located 100 km west of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake. The heterogeneous d??collement zone regulates the friction behavior of the shallow subduction environment where the earthquake occurred. The alternating pattern of enhanced frictional contact zones associated with oceanic basement relief and weak material patches of underthrust sediment influences seismic coupling and possibly contributed to the heterogeneous slip distribution. Our seismic images resolve a steeply dipping splay fault, which originates at the d??collement and terminates at the sea floor and which potentially contributes to tsunami generation during co-seismic activity. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Lamb wave dispersion in a PZT/metal/PZT sandwich plate with imperfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ilkay; Akbarov, Surkay D.; Sezer, Semih

    2016-07-01

    The Lamb wave dispersion in a PZT/Metal/PZT sandwich plate is investigated by employing the exact linear equations of electro-elastic waves in piezoelectric materials within the scope of the plane-strain state. It is assumed that at the interfaces between the piezoelectric face layers and metal core layer, shear-spring and normal-spring type imperfect conditions are satisfied. The degree of this imperfectness is estimated through the corresponding shear-spring and normal-spring type parameters which appear in the contact condition characterizing the transverse and normal displacements' discontinuity. The corresponding dispersion equation is derived, and as a result of the numerical solution to this equation, the dispersion curves are constructed for the first and second lowest modes in the cases where the material of the face layers is PZT and the material of the middle layer is Steel (St). Consequently, for the PZT/St/PZT sandwich plate, the study of the influence of the problem parameters such as the piezoelectric and dielectric constants, layer thickness ratios, non-dimensional shear-spring, and normal-spring type parameters, is carried out. In particular, it is established that the imperfectness of the contact between the layers of the plate causes a decrease in the values of the wave propagation velocity.

  12. Investigation of Interface Bonding Mechanism of an Explosively Welded Tri-Metal Titanium/Aluminum/Magnesium Plate by Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. T.; Wang, W. X.; Zhou, J.; Cao, X. Q.; Yan, Z. F.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2017-08-01

    A tri-metal titanium/aluminum/magnesium (Ti/Al/Mg) cladding plate, with an aluminum alloy interlayer plate, was fabricated for the first time by explosive welding. Nanoindentation tests and associated microstructure analysis were conducted to investigate the interface bonding mechanisms of the Ti/Al/Mg cladding plate. A periodic wavy bonding interface (with an amplitude of approximately 30 μm and a wavelength of approximately 160 μm) without a molten zone was formed between the Ti and Al plates. The bonding interface between the Al and the Mg demonstrated a similar wavy shape, but the wave at this location was much larger with an amplitude of approximately 390 μm and a wavelength of approximately 1580 μm, and some localized melted zones also existed at this location. The formation of the wavy interface was found to result from a severe deformation at the interface, which was caused by the strong impact or collision. The nanoindentation tests showed that the material hardness decreased with increasing distance from the bonding interface. Material hardness at a location was found to be correlated with the degree of plastic deformation at that site. A larger plastic deformation was correlated with an increase in hardness.

  13. Tremor Hypocenters Form a Narrow Zone at the Plate Interface in Two Areas of SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The tremor detectors developed for accurately locating tectonic tremor in Cascadia [Armbruster et al., JGR 2014] have been applied to data from the HINET seismic network in Japan. In the overview by Obara [Science 2002] there are three strong sources of tectonic tremor in southwest Japan: Shikoku, Kii Pen. and Tokai. The daily epicentral distributions of tremor on the HINET web site allow the identification of days when tremor in each source is active. The worst results were obtained in Shikoku, in spite of the high level of tremor activity observed there by others. This method requires a clear direct arrival of the S and P waves at the stations for coherence to be seen, so scattering and shear wave splitting are possible reasons for poor results there. Relatively wide station spacing, 19-30 km, is another possible reason. The best results were obtained in Tokai with stations STR, HRY and TYE spacing 18-19 km, and Kii Pen. with stations KRT, HYS and KAW spacing 15-22 km. In both of those areas the three station detectors see strong episodes of tremor. If detections with three stations are located by constraining them to the plate interface, a pattern of persistent sources is seen, with some intense sources. This is similar to what was seen in Cascadia. Detections with four stations give S and P arrival times of high accuracy. In Tokai the hypocenters form a narrow, 2-3 km thick, zone dipping to the north, consistent with the plate interface there. In Kii Pen. the hypocenters dip to the northwest in a thin, 2-3 km thick, zone but approximately 5 km shallower than a plate interface model for this area [Yoshioka and Murakami, GJI 2007]. The overlap of tremor sources in the 12 years analyzed here suggests relative hypocentral location errors as small as 2-3 km. We conclude that the methods developed in Cascadia will work in Japan but the typical spacing of HINET stations, ~20 km, is greater than the optimum distance found in analysis of data from Cascadia, 8 to 15 km.

  14. Influence of boundary conditions on the response of multilayered plates with cohesive interfaces and delaminations using a homogenized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Massabò

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress and displacement fields in multilayered composites with interfacial imperfections, such as imperfect bonding of the layers or delaminations, or where the plies are separated by thin interlayers allowing relative motion, have large variations in the thickness, with characteristic zigzag patterns and jumps at the layer interfaces. These effects are well captured by a model recently formulated by the author for multilayered plates with imperfect interfaces and affine interfacial traction laws (Massabò & Campi, Meccanica, 2014, in press; Compos Struct, 2014, 116, 311-324. The model defines a homogenized displacement field, which satisfies interfacial continuity, and uses a variational technique to derive equilibrium equations depending on only six generalized displacement functions, for any arbitrary numbers of layers and interfaces. The model accurately predicts stresses and displacements in simply supported, highly anisotropic, thick plates with continuous, sliding interfaces. In this paper the model is applied to wide plates with clamped edges and some inconsistencies, which have been noted in the literature for models based on similar approaches and have limited their utilization, are explained. A generalized transverse shear force is introduced as the gross stress resultant which is directly related to the bending moment in the equilibrium equations of multilayered structures with imperfect interfaces and substitutes for the shear force of single-layer theory. An application to a delaminated wide plate highlights the potential and limitations of the proposed model for the solution of fracture mechanics problems.

  15. Rupture mechanism and interface separation in foam rubber models of earthquakes: a possible solution to the heat flow paradox and the paradox of large overthrusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, James N.; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, Peggy A.

    1993-02-01

    Spontaneous stick-slip along the interface between stressed foam rubber blocks is a simple analog of earthquake rupture and stick-slip. Results from this model are used to elucidate the role of normal stress variations along the interface in the stick-slip process. Observations indicate significant normal interface vibrations and separation during slip, suggesting that dynamic changes in normal stress (rather than a drop in the coefficient of friction) may control stick-slip, as suggested, for example, by Tolstoi, Oden and Martins and Brune and co-workers. Observations of particle trajectories indicate that stick-slip shear motion is associated with various degrees of fault separation. For an asymmetric model, the motion is consistent with slipping motion of the type suggested by Schallamach and Price. For a symmetric model, the motion is similar to that suggested by Comninou and Dundurs. If interface waves of this type, involving separation during slip, occur in earthquakes, they may be a solution to the heat flow paradox, since a major part of the slip occurs during separation and during low normal stress. Thus frictional heat generation is reduced. Normal interface vibrations during stick-slip may explain the high corner frequency of P wave spectra and the generally high levels of P wave spectra beyond the corner frequency. Schallamach-Comninou type waves are consistent with the partial stress drop-abrupt locking-self healing models of Brune and Heaton.

  16. New evidences of rupture of crust and mantle in the subducted Nazca plate at intermediate-depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnotto, Silvana L.; Triep, Enrique G.; Giambiagi, Laura B.; Nacif, Silvina V.; Álvarez, Orlando

    2015-03-01

    Between 33°-36°S, the Nazca plate subducts below South American plate with an angle of ˜30°, and it is seismically active until ˜200-280 km depth. At 33.5°S, the seismicity decreases drastically at 120 km depth, just below the volcanic arc. In this paper, we studied a pair of associated earthquakes located in the area where the frequency of seismicity changes. The hypocenters of the Mw = 6.4, June 16th, 2000 and Mw = 5.7 January 7th, 2003 earthquakes were found nearby, adjacent to the oceanic Moho, closely associated with each other. The slip on the plane of the 2000 event produced Coulomb stress changes on the fault plane of 2003, both westward dipping, with a variation from ˜1 bar near the hypocenter of the latter to ˜0.1 bars in the deepest part of the plane. The two earthquakes combined process describes a normal focal mechanism, which cuts through the crust and breaks the mantle, reaching depths of ˜40 km below the Moho. The composed fault plane of the 2000 and 2003 events corresponds to a west-dipping normal fault with strike and dip consistent with those of the outer ridge faults. Thus, these events could be related to a preexisting fault originated in that environment reactivated at depth. The slip on the composed fault plane is consistent with the bending produced by the slab pull. Dehydration could be associated to these events.

  17. Multiple branching rupture of the 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.; Ji, Chen; Bassett, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Several source models have been proposed to explain the enigmatic 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake. The long-period data require a composite source model and can be fit with a normal-faulting subevent followed by one or more reverse-faulting subevents. The short-period data, in contrast, indicate a more compact rupture pattern around the epicenter. The lack of a unified source model reflects the complexity of the event. We analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of this earthquake with P wave back-projection from globally distributed stations in different frequency bands (low frequency: 0.05-0.2 Hz, high frequency: 0.2-2 Hz) and a multiple moment tensor inversion. The rupture propagation revealed by back-projection exhibits frequency-dependent behavior, with two branches of high-frequency-enriched bilateral rupture around the epicenter and a high-frequency-deficient rupture branch at the subduction interface. A composite source model with one Mw 8.0 normal-faulting earthquake east of the trench axis (seaward) followed by one Mw 8.1 reverse-faulting earthquake along the subduction interface west of the trench axis (landward) can explain the very long period data (200˜500 s). Combined with high-resolution swath bathymetry data, the back-projection images show that the azimuth of rupture branches east of the trench axis were controlled by the geometry of bending-related faults on the Pacific plate and that the rupture branch west of the trench axis may correlate with the along-strike fore-arc segmentation. The rupture along the subduction interface was triggered by the seaward rupture and a partially subducted normal fault may have played a key role in facilitating the triggering. The apparent normal-reverse faulting interactions pose a higher seismic risk to this region than their individual strands at the northernmost corner of the Tonga subduction zone.

  18. Ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface of steel-backed Al-graphite semi-solid bonding plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yun-hui; LIU Han-wu; ZHANG Jun; ZENG Da-ben; BA Li-min

    2007-01-01

    The ratio of Fe-Al compound at the bonding interface of solid steel plate to Al-7graphite slurry was used to characterize the interfacial structure of steel-Al-7graphite semi-solid bonding plate quantitatively. The relationship between the ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and bonding parameters (such as preheat temperature of steel plate. solid fraction of Al-7graphite slurry and rolling speed) was established by artificial neural networks perfectly. The results show that when the bonding parameters are 516 ℃ for preheat temperature of steel plate, 32.5% for solid fraction of Al-7graphite slurry and 12 mm/s for rolling speed.the reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound corresponding to the largest interfacial shear strength of bonding plate is obtained to be 70.1%.This reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound is a quantitative criterion of interfacial embrimement, namely, when the ratio of Fe-Al compound at intefface is larger than 70.1%.interfacial embrittlement will occur.

  19. Novel three-dimensional MALDI plate for interfacing high-capacity LC separations with MALDI-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattan, Stephen J; Vestal, Marvin L

    2008-12-01

    Novel matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) sample plates employing collimated-hole structures have been developed that allow capture and concentration of samples while simultaneously acting as a sink for carrier solvents. These plates were designed to provide an efficient interface between higher-capacity liquid chromatography (LC) separations and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). LC-MALDI using conventional plates can accommodate the low-flow (hole structures (CHS) with monolithic chromatography media filling the holes in the collimated-hole structures. These new plates retain all of the required features of conventional sample plates, commonly formed from stainless steel, but provide additional capacity for capturing and concentrating samples. Results are presented from reversed-phase separation of peptides on a 1 mm i.d. column operating at flow rate of 50 microL/min. Typically, 10 microL of effluent can be collected on a single spot, and sample and matrix dried on a 1 mm diameter spot, to yield about 30-fold enrichment of sample concentration in matrix crystals on the surface compared to the conventional plate. Sample loadings ranging from 1 fmol to 10 pmol/spot were investigated.

  20. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  1. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  2. Evaluation of the Interface Between Two Plates by the Lamb Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小民; 廉国选; 李明轩

    2001-01-01

    A new expression of the dispersion equation of the Lamb wave in an adhesive two-layered plate is presented. The bond rigidity of the adhesive plate is accounted for in terms of a spring model. The influence of the variations of the compliance constants of the spring on the dispersion feature of Lamb modes is numerically studied. The numerical results indicate that the deterioration of the bond rigidity may cause the phase velocity decrease and the frequency-shift for a given Lamb mode, thus having a possibility for the evaluation of the bonding state of the adhesive plate by using ultrasonic wave velocity measurements. The phase-tracing method is used to measure the phase velocities experimentally and the results for an adhesive plate of aluminium-aluminium are given to verify the theoretical predictions.

  3. Deformation and Metasomatic Evolution at the Subduction Plate Interface As Viewed from Study of HP/UHP Metamorphic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, G. E.; Penniston-Dorland, S.

    2014-12-01

    We provide a view of lithologic makeup, deformation, and fluid-rock interaction along the deep forearc to subarc plate interface, based on insights gained from study of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks. Exposures of plate-boundary shear zones on which we base our perspective represent 30-80 km depths and are on Catalina Island and at Monviso, Syros, and New Caledonia. Each contains highly deformed zones with schistose matrix, commonly with a large ultramafic component, containing bodies of less deformed mafic, sedimentary, and ultramafic rocks. These "blocks" have varying geometries, are up to km-scale, and can preserve disparate P-T histories reflecting dynamics of incorporation and entrainment. Sheared matrices contain high-variance, hydrous mineral assemblages in some cases resembling metasomatic zones ("rinds") at block-matrix contacts, and rinds and matrices have homogenized isotopic compositions reflecting extensive fluid-rock interaction. Shearing and related physical juxtaposition of disparate metasomatic rocks can result in mixed or 'hybrid' chemical compositions. The chlorite-, talc-, and amphibole-rich schists developed by these processes can stabilize H2O to great depth and influence its cycling. Fluids (hydrous fluids, silicate melts) released within slabs necessarily interact with highly deformed, lithologically hybridized zones at the plate interface as they ascend to potentially enter mantle wedges. Fluids bearing chemical/isotopic signatures of hybrid rocks appear capable of producing arc magma compositions interpreted as reflecting multiple, chemically distinct fluids sources. Geophysical signatures of these rheologically weak zones are equivocal but many recognize the presence of zones of low seismic velocity at/near the top of slabs and attribute them to hydrated rocks. Whether rocks from this interface buoyantly ascend into mantle wedges, indicated in some theoretical models, remains largely untested by field and geophysical observations.

  4. A novel diffusion model considering curvature radius at the bonding interface in a titanium/steel explosive clad plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao Jiang; Qiang Kang; Xiao-qian Yan

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces an element diffusion behavior model for a titanium/steel explosive clad plate characterized by a typical curved interface during the heat-treatment process. A series of heat-treatment experiments were conducted in the temperature range from 750°C to 950°C, and the effects of heat-treatment parameters on the microstructural evolution and diffusion behavior were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and electron-probe microanalysis. Carbon atoms within the steel matrix were observed to diffuse toward the titanium matrix and to aggregate at the bonding interface at 850°C or lower;in contrast, when the temperature exceeded 850°C, the mutual diffusion of Ti and Fe occurred, along with the diffusion of C atoms, resulting in the for-mation of Ti–Fe intermetallics (Fe2Ti/FeTi). The diffusion distances of C, Ti, and Fe atoms increased with increasing heating temperature and/or holding time. On the basis of this diffusion behavior, a novel diffusion model was proposed. This model considers the effects of vari-ous factors, including the curvature radius of the curved interface, the diffusion coefficient, the heating temperature, and the holding time. The experimental results show good agreement with the calculated values. The proposed model could clearly provide a general prediction of the elements’ diffusion at both straight and curved interfaces.

  5. Dynamic rupture of megathrust earthquakes with branching on splay faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somala, S.; Ampuero, J. P.; Lapusta, N.

    2010-12-01

    The accretionary prism of subduction margins generally contains splay faults that approach the surface at steeper angles than the megathrust interface. Rupture propagating onto splay faults during megathrust earthquakes can increase seafloor uplift significantly and contribute to the potential of tsunami. Another key aspect of tsunamigenic earthquakes is their relatively low radiation efficiency, which could be related to slow rupture at shallow depth due to frictionally stable fault properties. We present here results of numerical simulations of dynamic rupture on megathrust/splay fault systems that address the mechanical plausibility and characteristics of coseismic slip on splay faults. As a case study, we consider a possible earthquake scenario for the Nankai subduction zone. Previous dynamic rupture simulations (Wendt et. al., 2009) considered a splay fault that cuts through the overriding crust and reaches the surface more than 100 km away from the trench. We examine instead a model geometry based on seismic reflection profiling in Nankai, in which a megasplay fault branches off at around 50 km from the trench, cuts through the sedimentary wedge and reaches the seafloor at about 25 km from the trench. We first investigate the 2D dynamics of this splay fault system, governed by slip-weakening friction law. We compare rupture propagation on this faulting model using a finite-element code (PyLith) and a spectral element code (SEM2DPACK). We report on the favorable conditions for splay faults to rupture, the degree of slip partitioning and the effects of arresting rupture at different depths on the plate-boundary. We also show how well our work correlates with previous works on branched fault systems. We then select a small set of 3D simulations that illustrates the main aspects. Finally the effect of velocity-strengthening fault properties at shallow depth is studied in the context of rate-and-state friction, with particular emphasis on the conditions to produce

  6. Improving 6061-Al Grain Growth and Penetration across HIP-Bonded Clad Interfaces in Monolithic Fuel Plates: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Edwards, Randall L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, R. Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollis, Kendall J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lienert, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forsyth, Robert T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harada, Kiichi L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-05-06

    Grain penetration across aluminum-aluminum cladding interfaces in research reactor fuel plates is desirable and was obtained by a legacy roll-bonding process, which attained 20-80% grain penetration. Significant grain penetration in monolithic fuel plates produced by Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) fabrication processing is equally desirable but has yet to be attained. The goal of this study was to modify the 6061-Al in such a way as to promote a much greater extent of crossinterface grain penetration in monolithic fuel plates fabricated by the HIP process. This study documents the outcomes of several strategies attempted to attain this goal. The grain response was characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM) electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) as a function of these prospective process modifications done to the aluminum prior to the HIP cycle. The strategies included (1) adding macroscopic gaps in the sandwiches to enhance Al flow, (2) adding engineering asperities to enhance Al flow, (3) adding stored energy (cold work), and (4) alternative cleaning and coating. Additionally, two aqueous cleaning methods were compared as baseline control conditions. The results of the preliminary scoping studies in all the categories are presented. In general, none of these approaches were able to obtain >10% grain penetration. Recommended future work includes further development of macroscopic grooving, transferred-arc cleaning, and combinations of these with one another and with other processes.

  7. First principles calculation of stable structure and adhesive strength of plated Ni/Fe(100) or Cu/Fe(100) interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryota NAKANISHI; Koji SUEOKA; Seiji SHIBA; Makoto HINO; Koji MURAKAMI; Ken MURAOKA

    2009-01-01

    A study the with first principles calculation of the interfaces of the Ni layer or Cu layer on the Fe(100) surface formed with metal plating was performed. Ni or Cu atoms were shown to adopt the corresponding position to the bcc structure of the Fe(100) substrate. Other calculations showed that the interfaces of Ni (5 atomic layers)/Fe(100) (5 layers) or Cu (5 atomic layers)/Fe(100) (5 layers) had square lattices. The orientation relationship of Ni/Fe(100) interface corresponds to fcc-Ni(100)//bcc-Fe(100), Ni[011]//Fe[010], and Similar results were obtained for Cu/Fe(100) interfaces. This structure was supported by TEM analysis of plated Ni layer on Fe(100) surfaces. The adhesion strength of the Ni/Fe(100) interface evaluated by first principles calculation was higher than that of the Cu/Fe(100) interface. The experimental results of Hull cell iron plated with Ni or Cu supported the results of the calculation. These results indicate that the first principles calculation, which deals with the ideal interface at the atomic scale, has the potential to evaluate the adhesion strength of metallic material interfaces.

  8. A Serial Sample Loading System: Interfacing Multi-well plates with Microfluidic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rane, Tushar D.; Zec, Helena; Wang, Jeff Tza-Huei

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for novel high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. The robotic sample handling techniques currently used in these industries, although fast, are still limited to operating in multi-well plates with the sample volumes per reaction in the microliter regime. Digital microfluidics offers an alternative for reduction in sample volume consumption for HTS but lacks a reliable technique for transporting large num...

  9. Rupture of Achilles Tendon : Usefulness of Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Ki, Won Woo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Song Mun; Shin, Myeong Jin [Ulsan Medical College, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To differentiate a complete rupture of Achilles tendon from an incomplete one which is important because its treatment is quite different. And it is necessary to know the exact site of the rupture preoperatively. Fifteen cases of fourteen patients which were diagnosed as Achilles tendon rupture by ultrasonography and surgery were reviewed. We compared sonographic rupture site with surgical findings. Ultrasonographic criteria for differentiation of complete and incomplete rupture was defined as follows : the discreteness, which means the proximal intervening hypoechogenicity to the interface echogenicity of distal margin of ruptured tendon : the slant sign, which represents the interface of ruptured distal margin which was seen over the 3/4 of the thickness of the tendon without intervening low echogeneicity : the invagination sign, which means the echogenic invagination from Kager triangle into posterior aspect of Achilles tendon over the half thickness of the tendon. The sites of complete tendon rupture were exactly corresponded to surgical finding in four cases of ten complete ruptures. And the discrepancy between sonographic and surgical findings in the site of complete rupture was 1.2 {+-} 0.4 cm in six cases. Three of ten complete ruptures showed the discreteness sign, all of ten showed the slant sign and two of ten showed the invagination sign. It is helpful to differentiate a complete from incomplete rupture of the Achilles tendon and to localize the site of the complete rupture with the ultrasonographic evaluation

  10. Screw augmentation reduces motion at the bone-implant interface: a biomechanical study of locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Seifert, Robert; Rosslenbroich, Steffen B; Theisen, Christina; Wähnert, Dirk; Raschke, Michael J; Weimann, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Shear forces at the bone-implant interface lead to a loss of reduction after locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of the study was to analyze the roles of medial support screws and screw augmentation in failure loads and motion at the bone-implant interface after locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures. Unstable 3-part fractures were simulated in 6 pairs of cadaveric humeri and were fixed with a DiPhos-H locking plate (Lima Corporate, Udine, Italy). An additional medial support screw was implanted in 1 humerus of every donor. The opposite humerus was stabilized with a medial support screw and additional bone cement augmentation of the 2 anteriorly directed head screws. Specimens were loaded in the varus bending position. Stiffness, failure loads, plate bending, and the motion at the bone-implant interface were evaluated using an optical motion capture system. The mean load to failure was 669 N (standard deviation [SD], 117 N) after fixation with medial support screws alone and 706 N (SD, 153 N) after additional head screw augmentation (P = .646). The initial stiffness was 453 N/mm (SD, 4.16 N/mm) and 461 N/mm (SD, 64.3 N/mm), respectively (P = .594). Plate bending did not differ between the 2 groups. However, motion at the bone-implant interface was significantly reduced after head screw augmentation (P Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A serial sample loading system: interfacing multiwell plates with microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2012-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for novel high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. The robotic sample-handling techniques currently used in these industries, although fast, are still limited to operating in multiwell plates with the sample volumes per reaction in the microliter regime. Digital microfluidics offers an alternative for reduction in sample volume consumption for HTS but lacks a reliable technique for transporting a large number of samples to the microfluidic device. In this report, we develop a technique for serial delivery of sample arrays to a microfluidic device from multiwell plates, through a single sample inlet. Under this approach, a serial array of sample plugs, separated by an immiscible carrier fluid, is loaded into a capillary and delivered to a microfluidic device. Similar approaches have been attempted in the past, however, either with a slower sample loading device such as a syringe pump or vacuum-based sample loading with limited driving pressure. We demonstrated the application of our positive-pressure-based serial sample loading (SSL) system to load a series of sample plugs into a capillary. The adaptability of the SSL system to generate sample plugs with a variety of volumes in a predictable manner was also demonstrated.

  12. Rupture Process of the 1969 and 1975 Kurile Earthquakes Estimated from Tsunami Waveform Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioki, Kei; Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2016-12-01

    The 1969 and 1975 great Kurile earthquakes occurred along the Kurile trench. Tsunamis generated by these earthquakes were observed at tide gauge stations around the coasts of the Okhotsk Sea and Pacific Ocean. To understand rupture process of the 1969 and 1975 earthquakes, slip distributions of the 1969 and 1975 events were estimated using tsunami waveform inversion technique. Seismic moments estimated from slip distributions of the 1969 and 1975 earthquakes were 1.1 × 1021 Nm ( M w 8.0) and 0.6 × 1021 Nm ( M w 7.8), respectively. The 1973 Nemuro-Oki earthquake occurred at the plate interface adjacent to that ruptured by the 1969 Kurile earthquake. The 1975 Shikotan earthquake occurred in a shallow region of the plate interface where was not ruptured by the 1969 Kurile earthquake. Further, like a sequence of the 1969 and 1975 earthquakes, it is possible that a great earthquake may occur in a shallow part of the plate interface a few years after a great earthquake that occurs in a deeper part of the same region along the trench.

  13. Metamorphic sole formation and early plate interface rheology: Insights from Griggs apparatus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Hirth, Greg; Yamato, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500 m thick highly strained metamorphic rock units found beneath mylonitic banded peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites, as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are mainly composed of metabasalts deriving from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and metamorphosed up to granulite-facies conditions by heat transfer from the mantle wedge. Pressure-temperature peak conditions are usually estimated at 1.0±0.2 GPa and 800±100°C. The absence of HP-LT metamorphism overprint implies that metamorphic soles have been formed and exhumed during subduction infancy. In this view, metamorphic soles were strongly deformed during their accretion to the mantle wedge (corresponding, now, to the base of the ophiolite). Therefore, metamorphic soles and banded peridotites are direct witnesses of the dynamics of early subduction zones, in terms of thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology evolution across the nascent slab interface. Based on fieldwork and EBSD analyses, we present a detailed (micro-) structural study performed on samples coming from the Sumeini window, the better-preserved cross-section of the metamorphic sole of Oman. Large differences are found in the deformation (CPO, grain size, aspect ratio) of clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase, related to mineralogical changes linked with the distance to the peridotite contact (e.g., hardening due to the appearance of garnet and clinopyroxene). To model the incipient slab interface in laboratory, we carried out 5 hydrostatic annealing and simple-shear experiments on Griggs solid-medium apparatus. Deformation experiments were conducted at axial strain rates of 10-6 s-1. Fine-grained amphibolite was synthetized by adding 1 wt.% water to a (Mid-Ocean Ridge) basalt powder as a proxy for the metamorphic sole (amphibole + plagioclase + clinopyroxene ± garnet assemblage). To synthetize garnet, 2 experiments were carried out in hydrostatic conditions and with deformation at

  14. Cascadia tremor located near plate interface constrained by S minus P wave times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Mario; Creager, Kenneth C; Galluzzo, Danilo; Malone, Steve; Vidale, John E; Sweet, Justin R; Wech, Aaron G

    2009-01-30

    Nonvolcanic tremor is difficult to locate because it does not produce impulsive phases identifiable across a seismic network. An alternative approach to identifying specific phases is to measure the lag between the S and P waves. We cross-correlate vertical and horizontal seismograms to reveal signals common to both, but with the horizontal delayed with respect to the vertical. This lagged correlation represents the time interval between vertical compressional waves and horizontal shear waves. Measurements of this interval, combined with location techniques, resolve the depth of tremor sources within +/-2 kilometers. For recent Cascadia tremor, the sources locate near or on the subducting slab interface. Strong correlations and steady S-P time differences imply that tremor consists of radiation from repeating sources.

  15. Mechanics of cutaneous wound rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag

    2016-11-07

    A cutaneous wound may rupture during healing as a result of stretching in the skin and incompatibility at the wound-skin interface, among other factors. By treating both wound and skin as hyperelastic membranes, and using a biomechanical framework of interfacial growth, we study rupturing as a problem of cavitation in nonlinear elastic materials. We obtain analytical solutions for deformation and residual stress field in the skin-wound configuration while emphasizing the coupling between wound rupture and wrinkling in the skin. The solutions are analyzed in detail for variations in stretching environment, healing condition, and membrane stiffness.

  16. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digita...

  17. The 2 March 2016 Wharton Basin Mw 7.8 earthquake: High stress drop north-south strike-slip rupture in the diffuse oceanic deformation zone between the Indian and Australian Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Ammon, Charles J.; Dunham, Audrey; Koper, Keith D.

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse deformation zone between the Indian and Australian plates has hosted numerous major and great earthquakes during the seismological record, including the 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 event, the largest recorded intraplate earthquake. On 2 March 2016, an Mw 7.8 strike-slip faulting earthquake occurred in the northwestern Wharton Basin, in a region bracketed by north-south trending fracture zones with no previously recorded large event nearby. Despite the large magnitude, only minor source finiteness is evident in aftershock locations or resolvable from seismic wave processing including high-frequency P wave backprojections and Love wave directivity analysis. Our analyses indicate that the event ruptured bilaterally on a north-south trending fault over a length of up to 70 km, with rupture speed of ≤ 2 km/s, and a total duration of 35 s. The estimated stress drop, 20 MPa, is high, comparable to estimates for other large events in this broad intraplate oceanic deformation zone.

  18. Highly variable coastal deformation in the 2016 MW7.8 Kaikōura earthquake reflects rupture complexity along a transpressional plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. J.; Nissen, E. K.; Howarth, J. D.; Hamling, I. J.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Ries, W. F.; Jones, K.; Goldstien, S.; Cochran, U. A.; Villamor, P.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Mueller, C.; Berryman, K. R.; Strong, D. T.

    2017-09-01

    Coseismic coastal deformation is often used to understand slip on offshore faults in large earthquakes but in the 2016 MW 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake multiple faults ruptured across and sub-parallel to the coastline. Along ∼110 km of coastline, a rich dataset of coastal deformation comprising airborne lidar differencing, field surveying and satellite geodesy reveals highly variable vertical displacements, ranging from -2.5 to 6.5 m. These inform a refined slip model for the Kaikōura earthquake which incorporates changes to the slip on offshore faults and inclusion of an offshore reverse crustal fault that accounts for broad, low-amplitude uplift centered on Kaikōura Peninsula. The exceptional detail afforded by differential lidar and the high variability in coastal deformation combine to form the highest-resolution and most complex record of coseismic coastal deformation yet documented. This should prompt reassessment of coastal paleoseismic records that may not have considered multi-fault ruptures and high complexity deformation fields.

  19. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digitale...... kunst og kultur skabes, spredes og opleves igennem interfaces. Forfatterne undersøger og diskuterer interfacets æstetik, ideologi og kultur – og analyserer aktuel interfacekunst på tværs af musik, kunst, litteratur og film. Bogen belyser interfacets oprindelse i den kolde krigs laboratorier og dets...

  20. Kinematic rupture process of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and its main aftershocks from teleseismic and strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrat, S.; Madariaga, R.; Buforn, E.; Campos, J.; Asch, G.; Vilotte, J. P.

    2010-09-01

    We study a large Mw = 7.6 earthquake that occurred on 2007 November 14 in the Northern Chile seismic gap near the city of Tocopilla. Using a variety of seismic data we show that this earthquake ruptured only the lower part of the interplate seismic zone and generated a series of plate interface aftershocks. Two large aftershocks on 2007 November 15 ruptured the interplate zone oceanwards of the Mejillones Peninsula, a major geographical feature in the Antofagasta region. On 2007 December 16, a large Mw = 6.8 aftershock, that occurred near the southern bottom of the fault plane of the main event, is shown to be a slab-push earthquake located inside the subducted Nazca Plate and triggered by along slab compression. Aftershocks of this event demonstrate that it occurred on an almost vertical fault. The Tocopilla earthquake took place just after the installation of a new seismological network by Chilean, German and French researchers. The accelerometric data combined with far field seismic data provide a quite complete and consistent view of the rupture process. The earthquake broke a long (130 km) and narrow (about 30-50 km) zone of the plate interface just above the transition zone. Using a non-linear kinematic inversion method, we determined that rupture occurred on two well-defined patches of roughly elliptical shape. We discuss the consequences of this event for models of gap filling earthquakes in Chile proposed in the 1970s.

  1. Analysis of the effect of blocking mass at corner interface of two plates at arbitrary angles on transmission of plane bending waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vibration energy transmission at corner interface of two infinite plates rigidly jointed at arbitrary angles was studied by wave approach so as to investigate the effect of blocking mass used for reducing plane bending wave transmission. Two local coordinate systems were introduced and six new non-dimensional coefficients implying corresponding ratio governing characteristic impedances of plates or blocking mass were introduced to simplify formulations of transmission and reflection coefficients. Five samples were tested in experiment.Discussions were carried out based on the comparison between prediction and experiment in terms of insertion loss. It is concluded that blocking mass at corner interface acts like a "lowpass filter", effective for vibration attenuation above certain frequency. The value of TL and IL in "attenuation band" depends mainly on mass per unit length and band width of "attenuation band" on mass moment of inertia per unit length of the blocking mass.

  2. TH-C-19A-09: Quantification of Transmission and Backscatter Factors as a function of Distance to Inhomogeneity Interface for Three Types of Surgical Implant Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D; Mills, M; Wang, B [University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Carbon fiber materials have been increasingly used clinically, mainly in orthopedics, as an alternative to metallic implants because of their minimal artifacts on CT and MRI images. This study characterizes the transmission and backscatter property of carbon fiber plates (CarboFix Orthopedics, Herzeliya, Israel) with measurements for radiation therapy applications, and compares them to traditional Stainless Steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) metal materials. Methods: For the transmission measurements, 1-mm-thick test plate was placed upstream from a plane parallel Markus chamber, separated by various thicknesses of polystyrene plates in 0.5 cm increments between 0 and 5 cm. With this setup, we quantified the radiation transmission as a function of distance to the inhomogeneity interface. The LINAC source to detector distance was maintained at 100 cm and 200 MU was delivered for each measurement. Two 3-cm solid water phantoms were placed at the top and bottom to provide build up. All the measurements were performed for 6 MV and 18 MV photons. The backscatter measurements had the identical setup, except that the test plate was downstream of the chamber from radiation. Results: The carbon fiber plates did not introduce any measureable inhomogeneity effect on the transmission and backscatter factor because of its low atomic number. In contrast, traditional metal implant materials caused up to 15% dose difference at upstream and 25% backscatter at downstream from radiation. Such differences decrease as the distance to the inhomogeneity interface increases and become unmeasurable at distance of 3 cm and 1 cm for upstream and downstream, respectively. Conclusion: A new type of carbon fiber implant plate was evaluated and found to have minimal inhomogeneity effect in MV radiation beams. Patients would benefit from a carbon based implant over metal for radiation therapy due to their minimal backscatter and imaging artifacts.

  3. The 2014 Iquique Chile earthquake: Preparatory breaking processes of a locked asperity and natural constraints for fluid migration along the plate interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M.; Li, S.; Angiboust, S.; Schurr, B.; Bedford, J. R.; Oncken, O.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in pore fluid pressure are of paramount importance in controlling fault stability. Recent studies have focused on investigating the underlying causes of pore fluid pressure, but natural constraints for lateral fluid migration have not yet been described. Here, we investigate the evolution of the plate interface kinematics and fluid pressure migration leading up to the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake. We present the deformation evolution of the last decade from a combination of ~40 continuous and ~70 survey-type GPS. The slip distribution of Iquique event covered areas that were previously intermediately to highly locked and enclosed by creeping interface zones. The seismicity recorded in the years before the mainshock tended to encircle the central locked patch (~40 km length asperity), which itself exhibited a low amount of seismicity. This earthquake was preceded by a series of foreshocks and transient deformation that was initiated by an Mw=6.7 event and which lasted for 16 days. The observed transient GPS signals can be explained by deformation due to foreshocks, indicating that slow slip was not a dominant factor in the stress build up that led to the mainshock. Foreshocks initiated at the edge of the asperity and migrated along the plate interface towards the mainshock hypocentre. The spatial and temporal proximity to the mainshock, as well as the migration pattern of events suggest that the foreshocks and mainshock were mechanically coupled. We suggest that the Mw 6.7 (that likely occurred on a splay fault) is responsible for a transient pore fluid pressure increase in the plate interface region, hence diminishing the effective normal stress on the interface. This segment of the plate interface, presumably mechanically weakened by near-lithostatic pore fluid pressures, was subsequently subjected to a propagation of foreshocks. We propose that the 16-days seismicity swarm could represent the lateral propagation of a fluid front through the place

  4. interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipayan Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    macroscopic conservation equations with an order parameter which can account for the solid, liquid, and the mushy zones with the help of a phase function defined on the basis of the liquid fraction, the Gibbs relation, and the phase diagram with local approximations. Using the above formalism for alloy solidification, the width of the diffuse interface (mushy zone was computed rather accurately for iron-carbon and ammonium chloride-water binary alloys and validated against experimental data from literature.

  5. Adaptive Lagrange finite element methods for high precision vibrations and piezoelectric acoustic wave compu- tations in SMT structures and plates with nano interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the validity of (adaptive) Lagrange generalized plain finite element method(FEM) and plate element method for accurate analysis of acoustic waves in multi-layered piezoelectric structures with tiny interfaces between metal electrodes and surface mounted piezoelectric substrates. We have come to conclusion that the quantitative relationships between the acoustic and electric fields in a piezoelectric structure can be accurately determined through the proposed finite element methods. The higher-order Lagrange FEM proposed for dynamic piezoelectric computation is proved to be very accurate (prescribed relative error 0.02%-0.04%) and a great improvement in convergence accuracy over the higher order Mindlin plate element method for piezoelectric structural analysis due to the assumptions and corrections in the plate theories. The converged Lagrange finite element methods are compared with the plate element methods and the computed results are in good agreement with available exact and experimental data. The adaptive Lagrange finite element methods and a new FEA computer program developed for macro- and micro-scale analyses are reviewed, and recently extended with great potential to high-precision nano-scale analysis in this paper and the similarities between piezoelectric and seismic wave propagations in layered structures and plates are stressed.

  6. Adaptive Lagrange finite element methods for high precision vibrations and piezoelectric acoustic wave computations in SMT structures and plates with nano interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武; 洪涛

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the validity of (adaptive) Lagrange generalized plain finite element method (FEM) and plate element method for accurate analysis of acoustic waves in multi-layered piezoelectric structures with tiny interfaces between metal electrodes and surface mounted piezoelectric substrates. We have come to conclusion that the quantitative relationships between the acoustic and electric fields in a piezoelectric structure can be accurately determined through the proposed finite element methods. The higher-order Lagrange FEM proposed for dynamic piezoelectric computation is proved to be very accurate (prescribed relative error 0.02% - 0.04% ) and a great improvement in convergence accuracy over the higher order Mindlin plate element method for piezoelectric structural analysis due to the assumptions and corrections in the plate theories.The converged lagrange finite element methods are compared with the plate element methods and the computedresults are in good agreement with available exact and experimental data. The adaptive Lagrange finite elementmethods and a new FEA computer program developed for macro- and micro-scale analyses are reviewed, and recently extended with great potential to high-precision nano-scale analysis in this paper and the similarities between piezoelectric and seismic wave propagations in layered structures and plates are stressed.

  7. Structural and thermal control of seismic activity and megathrust rupture dynamics in subduction zones: Lessons from the Mw 9.0, 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriano, Claudio; Dionicio, Viviana; Miyake, Hiroe; Uchida, Naoki; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake ruptured a vast region of the northeast Japan Trench subduction zone in a way that had not been enough anticipated by earthquake and tsunami risk scenarios. We analyzed the Tohoku rupture combining high-frequency back-projection analysis with low frequency kinematic inversion of the co-seismic slip. Results support the to-day well-accepted broadband characteristics of this earthquake. Most of the seismic moment is released during the first 100 s, with large co-seismic slip (up to 55 m) offshore Miyagi in a compact region on the landward side of the trench. Coherent high-frequency radiation areas and relatively low co-seismic slip are a distinctive signature of the slab-mantle interface. The broadband characteristics of the Tohoku rupture are interpreted, integrating the seismic activity and structure information on the NE Japan forearc region, as a signature of along-dip segmentation and segment interactions, that result from thermal structure, plate geometry, material composition and fracture heterogeneities along the plate boundary interface. Deep mantle corner flow and low dehydration rates along the cold subduction slab interface lead to an extended seismogenic slab-mantle interface, with strong bi-material contrast controlling larger propagation distance in the downdip preferred rupture direction. Off Miyagi, plate bending below the mantle wedge, ∼142.3°E at ∼25 km depth, is associated with the eastern limit of the deep M7-8-class thrust-earthquakes, and of the strongest coherent high-frequency generation areas. The region of the slab-crust interface between the mantle wedge limit, ∼142.7°E at ∼20 km depth, and a trenchward plate bending, ∼143.2°E at ∼15 km, acted as an effective barrier resisting for many centuries to stress-loading gradient induced by deep stable sliding and large earthquakes along the slab-mantle interface. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake, whose hypocenter is located on the east side of the

  8. High-frequency seismic radiation during Maule earthquake (Chile, 27/02/2010, Mw 8.8) inferred by backprojection of P waves: evidence of activation of two distinct zones at the downdip part of the plate interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, M.; Tilmann, F. J.; Krueger, F.; Ehlert, L.; Lange, D.; Rietbrock, A.; Jenkins, J.; Hicks, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    zones of the subduction interface at different depths, the deeper of which is characterised by a large number of repeating event clusters (Rietbrock, Jenkins et al., this session). Thus, our backprojection analysis in combination with the aftershock distribution demonstrates the existence of a peculiar doubled downdip transition from seismogenic behaviour to stable sliding. We suspect fluids released from the downgoing plate to be the cause of the transitions in frictional behaviour because of (1) the co-location of high Vp/Vs ratios with the deep interface seismicity, (2) systematic decrease of depth of onset of deeper seismicity with younging incoming plate age, (3) patchy occurrence along-strike of deeper seismicity.

  9. Heterogeneous structure around the rupture area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), Japan, as revealed by aftershock observations using Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Yuya; Shinohara, Masanao; Takanami, Tetsuo; Murai, Yoshio; Yamada, Tomoaki; Hirata, Naoshi; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Mikada, Hitoshi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Uehira, Kenji; Takahashi, Narumi; Nishino, Minoru; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Sato, Takeshi; Araki, Ei'ichiro; Hino, Ryota; Uhira, Kouichi; Shiobara, Hajime; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in the area off southeastern Hokkaido Island, Japan, as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the island, which is on the North American Plate. The most recent large earthquake in this area, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), occurred on September 26, 2003. In order to investigate aftershock activity in the rupture area, 47 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were quickly deployed after the main shock. In the present study, we simultaneously estimate the hypocenters and 3-D seismic velocity models from the P- and S-wave arrivals of the aftershocks recorded by OBSs. The subducting plate is clearly imaged as a northwest dipping zone in which Vp is greater than 7 km/s, and the relocated hypocenters also show the subducting Pacific Plate. The aftershock distribution reveals that the dip angle of the plate boundary increases abruptly around 90 km from the Kuril Trench. The bending of the subducting plate corresponds to the southeastern edge of the rupture area. The island arc crust on the overriding plate has P-wave velocities of 6-7 km/s and a Vp/Vs of 1.73. A region of Vp/Vs greater than 1.88 was found north of the epicenter of the main shock. The depth of the high Vp/Vs region extends about 10 km upward from the plate interface. The plate boundary just below the high Vp/Vs region has the largest slip at the main rupture. A high Vp anomaly (~ 7.5 km/s) is found in the island arc crust in northeast part of the study area, which we interpret as a structural boundary related to the arc-arc collisional tectonics of the Hokkaido region, as the rupture of the main shock terminated at this high Vp region. We suggest that the plate interface geometry and the trench-parallel velocity heterogeneity in the landward plate are principal factors in controlling the rupture area of the main shock.

  10. Effect of glacial-interglacial sea-level changes on the displacement and stress field in the forearc and along the plate interface of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined seismological, space-geodetic and numerical studies have shown that the seismicity at subduction zones may be modulated by tides and glacier fluctuations on timescales of 1–100 a, because these changes in loads on Earth's surface are able to alter the stress field in the upper plate and along the plate interface. Here we use a two-dimensional finite-element model of a subduction zone to investigate how glacial-interglacial sea-level changes affect the forearc region and the plate interface. The model results show that a sea-level fall by 125 m over 100 ka causes up to 0.7 m of vertical displacement, with the maximum uplift occurring between the trench and the coast. The uplift signal induced by the sea-level fall decreases to zero ~20 km landward of the coastline. A subsequent sea-level rise by 125 m over 20 ka causes subsidence, which is again most pronounced in the submarine part of the forearc. The sea-level changes cause horizontal displacements of up to 0.12 m, which are directed seaward during sea-level fall and landward during sea-level rise. With respect to the stress field, the sea-level changes lead to variations in the vertical stress and the shear stress of up to 1.23 MPa and 0.4 MPa, respectively. The shear stress variations are highest beneath the coast, i.e. in the area where the sea-level changes cause the strongest flexure. The resulting Coulomb stress changes on the plate interface are of the order of 0.2–0.5 MPa and indicate that earthquakes are promoted during sea-level fall and delayed during sea-level rise. Our findings imply that eustatic sea-level changes during glacial-interglacial periods may have induced displacements and stress changes that were large enough to affect the seismic cycle of subduction thrusts.

  11. Mechanics of Multifault Earthquake Ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J. M.; Oskin, M. E.; Teran, O.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.2 produced the most complex rupture ever documented on the Pacific-North American plate margin, and the network of high- and low-angle faults activated in the event record systematic changes in kinematics with fault orientation. Individual faults have a broad and continuous spectrum of slip sense ranging from endmember dextral strike slip to normal slip, and even faults with thrust sense of dip slip were commonly observed in the aftershock sequence. Patterns of coseismic slip are consistent with three-dimensional constrictional strain and show that integrated transtensional shearing can be accommodated in a single earthquake. Stress inversions of coseismic surface rupture and aftershock focal mechanisms define two coaxial, but permuted stress states. The maximum (σ1) and intermediate (σ2) principal stresses are close in magnitude, but flip orientations due to topography- and density-controlled gradients in lithostatic load along the length of the rupture. Although most large earthquakes throughout the world activate slip on multiple faults, the mechanical conditions of their genesis remain poorly understood. Our work attempts to answer several key questions. 1) Why do complex fault systems exist? They must do something that simple, optimally-oriented fault systems cannot because the two types of faults are commonly located in close proximity. 2) How are faults with diverse orientations and slip senses prepared throughout the interseismic period to fail spontaneously together in a single earthquake? 3) Can a single stress state produce multi-fault failure? 4) Are variations in pore pressure, friction and cohesion required to produce simultaneous rupture? 5) How is the fabric of surface rupture affected by variations in orientation, kinematics, total geologic slip and fault zone architecture?

  12. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles tendon rupture Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Achilles (uh-KILL-eez) tendon rupture is an injury that affects the back ... but it can happen to anyone. The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the ...

  13. On plane stress state and stress free deformation of thick plate with FGM interface under thermal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubartowski, Damian; Ganczarski, Artur

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates the plane stress state and the stress free thermo-elastic deformation of FGM thick plate under thermal loading. First, the Sneddon-Lockett theorem on the plane stress state in an isotropic infinite thick plate is generalized for a case of FGM problem in which all thermo-mechanical properties are optional functions of depth co-ordinate. The proof is based on application of the Iljushin thermo-elastic potential to displacement type system of equations that reduces it to the plane stress state problem. Then an existence of the purely thermal deformation is proved in two ways: first, it is shown that the unique solution fulfils conditions of simultaneous constant temperature and linear gradation of thermal expansion coefficient, second, proof is based directly on stress type system of equations which straightforwardly reduces to compatibility equations for purely thermal deformation if only stress field is homogeneous in domain and at boundary. Finally, couple examples of application to an engineering problem are presented.

  14. Control of seafloor roughness on earthquake rupture behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Susan L.; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Deshon, Heather R.

    2003-05-01

    Earthquake rupture complexity is described for three recent large underthrusting earthquakes along the Costa Rican subduction zone, the 1983 Osa, 1990 Nicoya Gulf, and 1999 Quepos events. These earthquakes occurred in regions characterized by distinctly different morphologic features on the subducting plate. The 1990 and 1999 events occurred along linear projections of subducting seamount chains and had fairly simple earthquake rupture histories. Both events are interpreted as failure of the basal contact of closely spaced isolated seamounts acting as asperities. In contrast, the 1983 event occurred along the subducting Cocos Ridge and had a complex rupture history. Comparison of rupture characteristics of these large underthrusting earthquakes with size and location of subducting features provides evidence that seamounts can be subducted to seismogenic depths and that variations in seafloor bathymetry of the subducting plate strongly influence the earthquake rupture process.

  15. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  16. Conditions Under Which Megathrust Ruptures Propagate Through Shallow Velocity-Weakening Regions to the Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, E. M.; Kozdon, J. E.; Lotto, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted dynamic rupture simulations of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake to identify conditions that permit megathrust ruptures to reach the trench, even when the uppermost portion of the plate interface is frictionally stable. Our models incorporate rate-and-state friction featuring depth-dependent properties that transition from velocity-weakening at depth to velocity-strengthening beneath the accretionary prism. Earthquake nucleation is thus restricted to greater depths, consistent with the lack of shallow seismicity near the trench. Despite this, we find that unless the uppermost velocity-strengthening section of the fault extends beyond about 50 km along dip, ruptures propagating upward from depth break through to the trench. Stress changes, carried by seismic waves released by deep slip, provide the necessary driving force that maintains propagation even in the absence of frictional weakening and stress drop. In our present set of simulations, we assume ideally elastic response of the off-fault material. We therefore caution that our conclusions will likely be modified by the occurrence of plastic deformation within the accretionary prism, which we are planning to explore in the near future. Our models are calibrated through comparison with seafloor deformation measurements and onshore 1-Hz GPS data. We explore the ability of these data sets to constrain frictional properties along the plate interface, particularly in the near-trench region. Our modeling efforts thus far suggest strong trade-offs between stress drop along the deeper part of the fault and the shallow frictional properties. In addition to our preferred model featuring a shallow velocity-strengthening section, we can equally well fit the data with velocity-weakening properties extending all the way to the trench, provided we decrease the average stress drop by reducing the initial effective normal stress. We are also examining the signature of extreme shallow slip in hydroacoustic

  17. How geometry and structure control the seismic radiation : spectral element simulation of the dynamic rupture of the Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Vilotte, J.; Scala, A.

    2012-12-01

    The M 9.0, 2011 Tohoku earthquake, along the North American-Pacific plate boundary, East of the Honshu Island, yielded a complex broadband rupture extending southwards over 600 km along strike and triggering a large tsunami that ravaged the East coast of North Japan. Strong motion and high-rate continuous GPS data, recorded all along the Japanese archipelago by the national seismic networks K-Net and Kik-net and geodetic network Geonet, together with teleseismic data, indicated a complex frequency dependent rupture. Low frequency signals (fmeters), extending along-dip over about 100 km, between the hypocenter and the trench, and 150 to 200 km along strike. This slip asperity was likely the cause of the localized tsunami source and of the large amplitude tsunami waves. High-frequency signals (f>0.5 Hz) were instead generated close to the coast in the deeper part of the subduction zone, by at least four smaller size asperities, with possible repeated slip, and were mostly the cause for the ground shaking felt in the Eastern part of Japan. The deep origin of the high-frequency radiation was also confirmed by teleseismic high frequency back projection analysis. Intermediate frequency analysis showed a transition between the shallow and deeper part of the fault, with the rupture almost confined in a small stripe containing the hypocenter before propagating southward along the strike, indicating a predominant in-plane rupture mechanism in the initial stage of the rupture itself. We numerically investigate the role of the geometry of the subduction interface and of the structural properties of the subduction zone on the broadband dynamic rupture and radiation of the Tohoku earthquake. Based upon the almost in-plane behavior of the rupture in its initial stage, 2D non-smooth spectral element dynamic simulations of the earthquake rupture propagation are performed including the non planar and kink geometry of the subduction interface, together with bi-material interfaces

  18. [Exceptional iatrogenic ureteral rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vieira, Almudena; Valera-Sánchez, Zoraida; Sousa-Vaquero, José María; Palacios-González, Carmen; García-Poley, Antonio; Bernal-Bellido, Carmen; Alamo-Martínez, José María; Millán-López, Ana; Blanco-Domínguez, Manuel; Galindo-Galindo, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    Rupture of the ureter is an infrequent event that can have serious consequences. The most frequent cause is surgical iatrogenic ureter disease. Other possible causes are urological procedures and urographic studies. In our patient, which, to our knowledge, is the first to be reported in the literature, the ureteral rupture was produced by a traumatic urinary catheterism, because the balloon was filled inside the ureter. The normal presentation is nephritic colic, although acute abdomen is also a possibility. The possibility of ureteral rupture in abdominopelvic surgery or in urological techniques should be evaluated when patients present these clinical symptoms. Treatment is surgical, although in some cases conservative measures can be used.

  19. Attenuation tomography in the rupture area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather-Smith, Helen; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years several seismological studies have developed a detailed image of the megathrust interface between the subducting Nazca plate and and the overriding South American plate in the rupture area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake. Hicks et al. (2014) have published a high resolution 3D seismic tomography model and characterised the different regimes acting along the interface based on their seismic properties. A more detailed study by Moreno et al. (2014) showed that the seismic Vp/Vs ratio and inter-seismic locking determined from GPS measurements are correlated. Together these observations open up the possibility to map the rupture potential of possible future earthquakes, although the underlying processes are yet not fully understood and a more in depth analysis of other physical properties is needed. 3D seismic attenuation structure as well as seismic stress-drop distribution based on the aftershock seismicity are providing independent data sets to better constrain the physical processes acting along the subduction zone interface. As seismic attenuation is particularly sensitive to fluid saturation it opens up the possibility to study more directly the influence of fluids on aftershock activity as compared to standard velocity tomography studies. Based on our event catalogue of approximately 30,000 aftershocks we are currently selecting the most appropriate data set for the staggered 3D attenuation tomography. The inverted attenuation model will then be used to calculate seismic stress drop values for the complete aftershock catalogue. We will present our preliminary 3D attenuation model together with our stress drop estimates and compare our finding to the 3D velocity structure and slip distribution.

  20. Linking serpentinite geochemistry with tectonic evolution at the subduction plate-interface: The Voltri Massif case study (Ligurian Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannaò, E.; Scambelluri, M.; Agostini, S.; Tonarini, S.; Godard, M.

    2016-10-01

    , whereas mylonitic serpentinite is reset in its concentrations of FME and its B, Sr and Pb isotope compositions, due to interaction with sediment- and crust-derived fluids. The environment of this interaction is either compatible with (i) an outer-rise zone setting, with percolation of seawater-derived fluids enriched in sedimentary components into bending-related fault structures, or with (ii) subduction channel domains, where ascending sediment-derived slab fluids infiltrate slices of former oceanic serpentinite accreted to the plate interface domain. Influx of sediment-derived subduction fluids along major deformation zones in serpentinite modifies the element budget of the rocks, with important implications for element recycling and the tectonic history of serpentinite. The B, Sr and Pb isotopic systematics, coupled with FME concentration in serpentinites are particularly helpful geochemical tracers of interaction between different reservoirs in subduction-interface environments, and are more sensitive than the traditionally applied stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions.

  1. Ruptured episiotomia resutured primarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monberg, J; Hammen, S

    1987-01-01

    In a randomized study, 35 patients with ruptured episiotomy were treated in two ways. One group, treated with Clindamycin and primary resuture, did better than the other group, not resutured but spontaneously healed.

  2. Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heel cord tear; Calcaneal tendon rupture ... MRI scan to see what type of Achilles tendon tear you have. An MRI is a type ... partial tear means at least some of the tendon is still OK. A full tear means your ...

  3. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After ultrasound scan, uterine rupture was diagnosed and an ... delivery. The birth weights ranged between 2900 and 3200g. The last 2 .... abdominal pains and signs of shock, at which made up of altered blood and we think that the.

  4. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    distal tendon . Although these findings overlap with those seen in tendinopathy , the presence of bone marrow edema at the radial tuberosity and fluid in...the bicipitoradial bursa suggests a partial tear rather than tendinopathy .3 When the distal biceps tendon tear is complete, MR imaging shows...Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, 2006 Radiology Corner Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Contributors: CPT Michael

  5. Chest radiography in acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heystraten, F.M.; Rosenbusch, G.; Kingma, L.M.; Lacquet, L.K.; Boo, T. de; Lemmens, W.A.

    Of 123 patients who had suffered blunt trauma to the chest traumatic aortic rupture was eventually confirmed in 61 and absent in 62 patients. The chest radiographs of these patients were examined for 15 signs reported in the literature as being associated with traumatic aortic rupture. Although many individual signs were significantly more frequent in the aortic rupture group they were not useful in differentiating between patients with and those without rupture of the aorta. By using discriminant analysis combining 2 or 3 signs, patients were classified as having aortic rupture or not. The best discrimination between the two groups was obtained using the combined signs of a widened paratracheal stripe, and opacified pulmonary window, a widened right paraspinal interface and a displaced nasogastric tube.

  6. Insights into rupture processes of a laboratory-earthquake in dry and lubricated faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayart, Elsa; Svetlizky, Ilya; Fineberg, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of earthquakes requires us to understand the mechanisms of transition from static to sliding friction. The weakening of a fault is mediated by the propagation of rapid interfacial ruptures (earthquakes) that detach the solid contacts forming the frictional interface. By measuring the real contact area and strain fields near rough frictional interfaces, we have shown that these ruptures correspond to true shear cracks [1]. In particular, dynamic ruptures may spontaneously arrest at various locations along the interface. We show that a fracture-mechanics-based criterion can predict the location of the rupture arrest [2]. These results shed light on the selection of an earthquake's magnitude and arrest. Another interesting question is how interstitial fluids act to weaken a fault. By performing stick-slip experiments where the contacting surfaces are covered by a thin lubricating layer, we show that the established framework of fracture mechanics can also describe the measured strain fields when rupture of the interface takes place. A surprising result is that, although reducing the frictional strength of the interface (friction coefficient), lubricants actually significantly increase the fracture energy (amount of dissipated energy) during rupture. Thus surface lubrication, while strongly reducing the residual stresses in the wake of rupture propagation, actually toughens the contacting surfaces. [1] Svetlizky, I. & Fineberg, J. Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion. Nature 509, 205-208 (2014). [2] Bayart, E., Svetlizky, I. & Fineberg, J. Fracture mechanics determine the lengths of interface ruptures that mediate frictional motion. Nature Physics (2015).

  7. Influence of elastomeric seal plate surface chemistry on interface integrity in biofouling-prone systems: Evaluation of a hydrophobic "easy-release" silicone-epoxy coating for maintaining water seal integrity of a sliding neoprene/steel interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolina, Vincent L.

    The scientific hypothesis of this work is that modulation of the properties of hard materials to exhibit abrasion-reducing and low-energy surfaces will extend the functional lifetimes of elastomeric seals pressed against them in abrasive underwater systems. The initial motivation of this work was to correct a problem noted in the leaking of seals at major hydropower generating facilities subject to fouling by abrasive zebra mussel shells and extensive corrosion. Similar biofouling-influenced problems can develop at seals in medical devices and appliances from regulators in anesthetic machines and SCUBA diving oxygen supply units to autoclave door seals, injection syringe gaskets, medical pumps, drug delivery components, and feeding devices, as well as in food handling equipment like pasteurizers and transfer lines. Maritime and many other heavy industrial seal interfaces could also benefit from this coating system. Little prior work has been done to elucidate the relationship of seal plate surface properties to the friction and wear of elastomeric seals during sliding contacts of these articulating materials, or to examine the secondary influence of mineralized debris within the contacting interfaces. This investigation utilized the seal materials relevant to the hydropower application---neoprene elastomer against carbon steel---with and without the application of a silicone-epoxy coating (WearlonRTM 2020.98) selected for its wear-resistance, hydrophobicity, and "easy-release" capabilities against biological fouling debris present in actual field use. Analytical techniques applied to these materials before and after wear-producing processes included comprehensive Contact Angle measurements for Critical Surface Tension (CA-CST) determination, Scanning Electron Microscopic inspections, together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurements for determination of surface texture and inorganic composition, Multiple

  8. Fast fluid-flow events within a subduction-related vein system in oceanic eclogite: implications for pore fluid pressure at the plate interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taetz, Stephan; John, Timm; Bröcker, Michael; Spandler, Carl; Stracke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    been completed within ca. 3 years. The short-lived, pulse-like character of this process is in accordance with the notion that fluid flow related to oceanic crust dehydration at the blueschist-to-eclogite transition contributes to or even dominates episodic pore fluid pressure increases at the plate interface which may trigger slip events reported from many subduction zones.

  9. Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Got, Jean-Luc; Monteiller, Vadim; Monteux, Julien; Hassani, Riad; Okubo, Paul

    2008-01-24

    Hawaiian volcanoes are formed by the eruption of large quantities of basaltic magma related to hot-spot activity below the Pacific Plate. Despite the apparent simplicity of the parent process--emission of magma onto the oceanic crust--the resulting edifices display some topographic complexity. Certain features, such as rift zones and large flank slides, are common to all Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating similarities in their genesis; however, the underlying mechanism controlling this process remains unknown. Here we use seismological investigations and finite-element mechanical modelling to show that the load exerted by large Hawaiian volcanoes can be sufficient to rupture the oceanic crust. This intense deformation, combined with the accelerated subsidence of the oceanic crust and the weakness of the volcanic edifice/oceanic crust interface, may control the surface morphology of Hawaiian volcanoes, especially the existence of their giant flank instabilities. Further studies are needed to determine whether such processes occur in other active intraplate volcanoes.

  10. Rupture, waves and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    UENISHI, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  11. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  12. Complete Achilles tendon ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landvater, S J; Renström, P A

    1992-10-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures can be treated nonsurgically in the nonathletic or low-end recreational athletic patient, particularly those more than 50 years of age, provided the treating physician does not delay in the diagnosis and treatment (preferably less than 48 hrs and possibly less than 1 week). The patient should be advised of the higher incidence of re-rupture of the tendon when treated nonsurgically. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients who are young and athletic. This is particularly true because the major criticism of surgical treatment has been the complication rate, which has decreased to a low level and to a mild degree, usually not significantly affecting the repair over time. Surgical treatment in these individuals seems to be superior not only in regard to re-rupture but also in assuring the correct apposition of the tendon ends and in placing the necessary tension on the tendon to secure appropriate orientation of the collagen fibers. This in turn allows them to regain full strength, power, endurance, and an early return to sports. Surgery is also recommended for late diagnosed ruptures where there is significant lengthening of the tendon. Surgical technique should involve a medial incision to avoid the sural nerve, absorbable suture, and augmentation with fascia or tendon where there is a gap or late rupture. Postoperatively, the immobilization should be 7 to 10 days in a splint. A walking boot with early motion in plantar flexion or a short leg cast with the tendon under slight tension should thereafter be used for 4 to 5 weeks. An early and well-supervised rehabilitation program should be initiated to restore the patient to the preinjury activity level.

  13. Rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, V S

    1996-01-01

    Rupture of the plantar fascia in athletes engaged in sports that require running and jumping has been reported. However, spontaneous degenerative rupture of the plantar fascia is not well documented in the literature. This paper reports a patient with degenerative rupture of the plantar fascia.

  14. Focus on the Calabrian Arc subduction: interface, edges, break-off and the accretionary wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesano, Francesco E.; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Basili, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The accurately reconstructed geometry of the subduction interface is a crucial element for seismic and tsunami hazard studies that require realistic modelling of future earthquake ruptures. The Calabrian Arc is a cornerstone in the Mediterranean plate-tectonics puzzle and understanding its geometry and behavior may strongly contribute to estimating the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. Besides, it has occasionally be blamed to have generated some past large earthquakes and tsunamis, despite it shows no sign of significant seismic activity on the shallow portion of the interface. In addition, significant in-slab seismicity is recorded below 40 km depth and a rate of 1-5 mm/yr characterize the convergence between the two plates involved, Africa and Europe. An accurate 3D reconstruction of the Calabrian subduction plate interface based on the interpretation of ca. 9000 km of seismic reflection profiles, provided in the collaborative framework between Spectrum and INGV (CA-60), allows us to detail the architecture of the shallow part of the subduction interface (progressive development from north to south of the slab breakoff at 100-150 km depth. The detailed 3D reconstruction allows us to also estimate the rock volume involved in the accretionary wedge building and to compare the geometrical features of the subduction interface with the surficial ongoing processes (i.e. uplift rates) in the Calabrian Arc.

  15. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  16. Rupture of Al matrix in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel by fission induced creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gwan Yoon; Sohn, Dong Seong [UNIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonnge (United States); Lee, Kyu Hong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This phenomenon was found specifically in the dispersion fuel plate with Si addition in the Al matrix to suppress interaction layer (IL) formation between UMo and Al. It is known that the stresses induced by fission induced swelling in U-Mo fuel particles are relieved by creep deformation of the IL, surrounding the fuel particles, that has a much higher creep rate than the Al matrix. Thus, when IL growth is suppressed, the stress is instead exerted on the Al matrix. The observed rupture in the Al matrix is believed to be caused when the stress exceeded the rupture strength of the Al matrix. In this study, the possibility of creep rupture of the Al matrix between the neighboring U-Mo fuel particles was examined using the ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) tool. The predicted rupture time for a plate was much shorter than its irradiation life indicating a rupture during the irradiation. The higher stress leads Al matrix to early creep rupture in this plate for which the Al matrix with lower creep strain rate does not effectively relieve the stress caused by the swelling of the U-Mo fuel particles. For the other plate, no rupture was predicted for the given irradiation condition. The effect of creeping of the continuous phase on the state of stress is significant.

  17. Stochastic modelling of a large subduction interface earthquake in Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois-Holden, C.; Zhao, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Wellington region, home of New Zealand's capital city, is cut by a number of major right-lateral strike slip faults, and is underlain by the currently locked west-dipping subduction interface between the down going Pacific Plate, and the over-riding Australian Plate. A potential cause of significant earthquake loss in the Wellington region is a large magnitude (perhaps 8+) "subduction earthquake" on the Australia-Pacific plate interface, which lies ~23 km beneath Wellington City. "It's Our Fault" is a project involving a comprehensive study of Wellington's earthquake risk. Its objective is to position Wellington city to become more resilient, through an encompassing study of the likelihood of large earthquakes, and the effects and impacts of these earthquakes on humans and the built environment. As part of the "It's Our Fault" project, we are working on estimating ground motions from potential large plate boundary earthquakes. We present the latest results on ground motion simulations in terms of response spectra and acceleration time histories. First we characterise the potential interface rupture area based on previous geodetically-derived estimates interface of slip deficit. Then, we entertain a suitable range of source parameters, including various rupture areas, moment magnitudes, stress drops, slip distributions and rupture propagation directions. Our comprehensive study also includes simulations from historical large world subduction events translated into the New Zealand subduction context, such as the 2003 M8.3 Tokachi-Oki Japan earthquake and the M8.8 2010 Chili earthquake. To model synthetic seismograms and the corresponding response spectra we employed the EXSIM code developed by Atkinson et al. (2009), with a regional attenuation model based on the 3D attenuation model for the lower North-Island which has been developed by Eberhart-Phillips et al. (2005). The resulting rupture scenarios all produce long duration shaking, and peak ground

  18. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L. LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

  19. Hidden Earthquake Potential in Plate Boundary Transition Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Kevin P.; Herman, Matthew; Govers, Rob

    2017-04-01

    Plate boundaries can exhibit spatially abrupt changes in their long-term tectonic deformation (and associated kinematics) at triple junctions and other sites of changes in plate boundary structure. How earthquake behavior responds to these abrupt tectonic changes is unclear. The situation may be additionally obscured by the effects of superimposed deformational signals - juxtaposed short-term (earthquake cycle) kinematics may combine to produce a net deformational signal that does not reflect intuition about the actual strain accumulation in the region. Two examples of this effect are in the vicinity of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ) along the west coast of North America, and at the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone, New Zealand. In the region immediately north of the MTJ, GPS-based observed crustal displacements (relative to North America (NAm)) are intermediate between Pacific and Juan de Fuca (JdF) motions. With distance north, these displacements rotate to become more aligned with JdF - NAm displacements, i.e. to motions expected along a coupled subduction interface. The deviation of GPS motions from the coupled subduction interface signal near the MTJ has been previously interpreted to reflect clock-wise rotation of a coastal, crustal block and/or reduced coupling at the southern Cascadia margin. The geologic record of crustal deformation near the MTJ reflects the combined effects of northward crustal shortening (on geologic time scales) associated with the MTJ Crustal Conveyor (Furlong and Govers, 1999) overprinted onto the subduction earthquake cycle signal. With this interpretation, the Cascadia subduction margin appears to be well-coupled along its entire length, consistent with paleo-seismic records of large earthquake ruptures extending to its southern limit. At the Hikurangi to Alpine Fault transition in New Zealand, plate interactions switch from subduction to oblique translation as a consequence of changes in lithospheric structure of

  20. One- / Two-Dimensional versus Three-Dimensional Rupture Propagation in Brittle Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Source dynamics of normal earthquakes is usually considered in the framework of 3D rupture in brittle solids. However, our understanding of mechanical details of actual 3D rupture is limited and most of the frequently utilized rupture criteria in earthquake science have been derived from 1D (or at most 2D) experiments. Typically, criteria based on 1D frictional observations of sliding materials are quite often employed in seismological simulations, but we are not sure whether these rupture criteria are really valid for the generation and complex propagation process of 3D rupture. Indeed, our recent experimental observations on dynamic rupture of monolithic brittle solids using a high-speed digital video camera system indicate rather complicated histories of rupture development in 3D solid materials but at the same time they show simple final rupture patterns (rupture networks). For example, by concurrently applying high-voltage electric discharge impulses, a controlled and geometrically plain dynamic rupture pattern can be really obtained in cylindrical concrete specimens, but the simple final rupture pattern is formed not by unidirectional rupture propagation but by multi-directional one. Another example of plain final rupture patterns can be found by dynamic experiments of ice spheres that impinge upon a flat polycarbonate or ice plate. Rupture of the ice spheres induced by the mechanical impact (free fall) shows two representative rupture patterns: (i) The ice sphere is mainly divided into three or four large segments of comparable size (similar to orange segments); and (ii) Only some portions near the bottom of the ice sphere are ruptured into pieces upon collision and a relatively large "top"-shaped part remains unbroken. Both experimental observations indicate generation of remarkably simple and frequently flat rupture surfaces in 3D specimens even without the clear existence of planes of weakness, but it seems difficult to explain the dynamic rupture

  1. Synergistic Effects of Stress-Rupture and Cyclic Loading on Strain Response of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperature in Oxidizing Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbiao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the synergistic effects of stress rupture and cyclic loading on the strain response of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs at elevated temperature in air have been investigated. The stress-strain relationships considering interface wear and interface oxidation in the interface debonded region under stress rupture and cyclic loading have been developed to establish the relationship between the peak strain, the interface debonded length, the interface oxidation length and the interface slip lengths. The effects of the stress rupture time, stress levels, matrix crack spacing, fiber volume fraction and oxidation temperature on the peak strain and the interface slip lengths have been investigated. The experimental fatigue hysteresis loops, interface slip lengths, peak strain and interface oxidation length of cross-ply SiC/MAS (magnesium alumino-silicate, MAS composite under cyclic fatigue and stress rupture at 566 and 1093 °C in air have been predicted.

  2. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  3. Pore Fluid Pressure and State of Stress Above the Plate Interface from Observations in a 3 Kilometer Deep Borehole: IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, H. J.; Saffer, D. M.; Hirose, T.; Castillo, D. A.; Kitajima, H.; Sone, H.

    2014-12-01

    During IODP Expedition 348 from October 2013 to January 2014, Site C0002 was drilled to more than 3000 meters' depth into the inner accretionary wedge at the Nankai Trough, setting a new depth record for scientific ocean drilling. It is the first hole to access the deep interior of an active convergent margin. Site C0002 is part of the NanTroSEIZE project off the Kii-Kumano region of Japan, designed to shed light on plate boundary fault zone processes near the up-dip edge of seismogenic locking and slip. The zone from 865 - 3056 meters below the sea floor was sampled via logging-while-drilling measurements, continuous sampling of drill cuttings, and limited coring. This interval was composed of lithified middle to late Miocene hemipelagic sediments and turbidites that are markedly deformed and dip steeply. P-wave speeds from sonic logs increase with depth to ~ 1600 meters, but are constant to slightly decreasing with depth from 1600 to 3050 meters. We hypothesize that this change in trend indicates the onset of elevated pore fluid pressure, but structural and lithologic factors may also play a role. We explore several methods for quantitative estimation of sonic-derived fluid pressure conditions in the inner wedge. A borehole leak-off test (LOT) and a series of borehole pressurization and injection tests were also performed, which we synthesize to estimate the least principal stress, or Shmin. Furthermore, downhole pressure while drilling (PWD) measurements recorded during borehole packoff events provide information on the maximum principal stress, SHmax. Taken together, the LOT and PWD observations suggest that the inner wedge at ~ 2000 meters depth is currently in a strike-slip stress regime, despite its position as the hanging wall of a main plate boundary thrust. This may be a transitional stress regime between shallow normal and deep thrust, controlled by depth-dependent magnitude of the tectonic convergence-related principal stress. Our results document for

  4. A case of testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    野俣, 浩一郎; 林, 幹男

    1987-01-01

    A case of testicular rupture is reported. A 26-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of testicular trauma. Ultrasound of the testis was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography revealed a disruption of the tunica albuginea and dense clusters of echoes in the tunica vaginalis. In the case of acute testicular trauma, this echo pattern suggests testicular rupture.

  5. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Do magnitudes of great subduction earthquakes depend on strength of mechanical coupling between the plates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan; Muldashev, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    The common thinking is that the magnitude of a great subduction earthquake correlates with the strength of mechanical coupling between slab and overriding plate. Based on this idea, Ruff and Kanamori (1980) suggested that maximum earthquake's magnitude is controlled by two parameters: age of subducting plate and plate convergence rate, when the youngest and the fastest slabs generate the largest earthquakes. This view was supported by many researches since then. However, since 1980 a number of great earthquakes, and particularly two largest earthquakes of the last 12 years, i.e. Great Sumatra/Andaman 2004 Earthquake and Tohoku 2011 earthquake, have violated the suggested correlation. We address the relation between strength of mechanical coupling and earthquake magnitude directly by cross-scale geodynamic modeling of seismic cycles of great subduction earthquakes. This modeling technique employs elasticity, non-linear transient viscous rheology, and rate-and-state friction at slab interface. It generates spontaneous earthquake sequences, and, by using an adaptive time-step algorithm, recreates the deformation process as observed naturally over single and multiple seismic cycles. We model seismic cycles for the great subduction earthquakes with different geometries of subducting plates, different static friction coefficients in subduction channels and different subduction velocities. Under the assumption that rupture length scales with the rupture width, our models demonstrate that maximum magnitudes of the earthquakes are exclusively controlled by the factors that increase rupture width. These factors are: low slab's dipping angle (the largest effect), low friction coefficient in subduction channel (smaller effect) and high subduction velocity (the smallest effect). Models suggest that maximum magnitudes of earthquakes do not correlate significantly with the magnitudes of normal and shear stresses at subduction interface. In agreement with observations, our models

  7. Splenic rupture following colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Francisco Guerra; Ignacio San Francisco; Fernando Pimentel; Luis Ibanez

    2008-01-01

    Colonoscopy is a safe and routinely performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for different colorectal diseases. Although the most common complications are bleeding and perforation, extracolonic or visceral injuries have also been described. Splenic rupture is a rare complication following colonoscopy, with few cases reported. We report a 60-year-old female who presented to surgical consultation 8 h after a diagnostic colonoscopy. Clinical, laboratory and imaging findings were suggestive for a massive hemoperitoneum. At surgery, an almost complete splenic disruption was evident, and an urgent splenectomy was performed. After an uneventful postoperative period, she was discharged home. Splenic injury following colonoscopy is considered infrequent. Direct trauma and excessive traction of the splenocolic ligament can explain the occurrence of this complication. Many times the diagnosis is delayed because the symptoms are due to colonic insufflation, so the most frequent treatment is an urgent splenectomy. A high index of suspicion needs an early diagnosis and adequate therapy.

  8. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  9. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra.

  10. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallah, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Tahere; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra. PMID:24024054

  11. Engineering geology study of the mechanism of non-mining ruptures of the shaft in the coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Yu, S.; Liu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    1996-12-31

    Non-mining ruptures of the shaft, which have continually taken place in the coal mining areas of East China in recent years, are a new kind of geological disaster. In this paper the characteristics of non-mining ruptures of shaft and its endangerment are presented. The engineering geological conditions of the shaft rupture are analysed. Based on the testing results of the mechanical parameters of soil and concrete interaction on the interface of soil and shaft wall, regarding the interface as interface elements, using elastic-lastic FEM, the interaction between soil and shaft wall is simulated when the dewatering deformation of the deep soil mass is taking place. The inherent mechanism of non-mining ruptures of the shaft are revealed. The research in this paper offered a geological theoretical basis for the prevention and cure of non-mining ruptures of the shaft. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  12. Swan probe: A nanoliter-scale and high-throughput sampling interface for coupling electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with microfluidic droplet array and multiwell plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di-Qiong; Zhu, Ying; Fang, Qun

    2014-11-04

    Mass spectrometry provides a versatile detection method for high-throughput drug screening because it permits the use of native biological substrates and the direct quantification of unlabeled reaction products. This paper describes the design and application of a Swan-shaped probe for high-throughput and nanoliter-scale analysis of biological samples in both a microfluidic droplet array and a multiwell plate with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The Swan probe is fabricated using a single capillary with quite low cost, and it consists of a U-shaped section with a micrometer-sized hole for sampling and a tapered tip for sample electrospray ionization. Continuous sample introduction was carried out under both sampling modes of push-pull and spontaneous injection by sequentially dipping the probe in the sample solutions and then removing them. High-throughput and reliable ESI-MS analysis was achieved in analyzing 256 droplets within 90 min with a peak height RSD of 12.6% (n = 256). To validate its potential in drug discovery, the present system was applied in the screening of inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and the measurement of the IC50 values of identified inhibitors.

  13. The 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla northern Chile earthquake sequence - along and across strike rupture segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, G.; Motagh, M.; Oncken, O.; Chong Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S. E.; Vilotte, J.

    2010-12-01

    In November 2007 a M7.7 earthquake occurred near the coastal town of Tocopilla in the southern part of a presumed seismic gap extending some 500 km along the northern Chile subduction zone. This major segment last broke in a magnitude ≧8.5 earthquake in 1877. Assuming a complete lock of the interface, it has accumulated more than 8 m of slip deficit. The contiguous segments to the north and south broke in M≧8 earthquakes in 2001 and 1995. Teams from Chile (Universidad Católica del Norte and Universidad de Chile), France (IPGP) and Germany (GFZ) started in 2006 to install semi-permanent multi-parameter observatories within the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) Initiative to monitor deformation at a variety of spatial and temporal scales in the final stage of the seismic cycle. At the time of the Tocopilla earthquake, 12 sites were equipped with seismic broadband and strong-motion sensors recording both the mainshock and its aftershock series. The earthquake rupture extended for about 160 km from the centre of the Mejillones peninsula (MP) to about 20 km north of the town of Tocopilla. Slip was confined to the depth range 30-55 km and concentrated in two patches in the north and south with a maximum of about 2.6 m. Hence the earthquake released only a fraction of the slip deficit and broke only the down-dip part of the plate interface, with the up-dip limit of the rupture approximately following the coastline. This poses the important question why rupture did not extend offshore, where the interface is presumably locked based on models of long-term interseismic deformation. We relocated more than 1000 aftershocks occurring in the week following the mainshock using hand-picked arrival times, cross-correlation based differential travel times and the double-difference algorithm. Despite the sparseness of the network, the aftershocks sharply define the plate interface. Seismicity in the first 24h is congruent to the slip distribution with the area

  14. Elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures: epicondylitis, biceps and triceps ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineer, Craig A; Ruch, David S

    2009-03-01

    Lateral and medial epicondylitis are common causes of elbow pain in the general population, with the lateral variety being more common than the medial by a ratio reportedly ranging from 4:1 to 7:1. Initially thought to be an inflammatory condition, epicondylitis has ultimately been shown to result from tendinous microtearing followed by an incomplete reparative response. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatment options have been employed in the treatment of epicondylitis, without the emergence of a single, consistent, universally accepted treatment protocol. Tendon ruptures about the elbow are much less frequent, but result in more significant disability and loss of function. Distal biceps tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males as a result of an event that causes a sudden, eccentric contraction of the biceps. Triceps tendon ruptures are exceedingly rare but usually have a similar etiology with a forceful eccentric contraction of the triceps that causes avulsion of the tendon from the olecranon. The diagnosis of these injuries is not always readily made. Complete ruptures of the biceps or triceps tendons have traditionally been treated surgically with good results. With regard to biceps ruptures, there continues to be debate about the best surgical approach, as well as the best method of fixation of tendon to bone. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review of the broad topics of elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures, but rather is a review of recently published information on the topics that will assist the clinician in diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  15. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method.

  16. Geophysics. Migrating tremor off southern Kyushu as evidence for slow slip of a shallow subduction interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Y; Yakiwara, H; Asano, Y; Shimizu, H; Uchida, K; Hirano, S; Umakoshi, K; Miyamachi, H; Nakamoto, M; Fukui, M; Kamizono, M; Kanehara, H; Yamada, T; Shinohara, M; Obara, K

    2015-05-08

    Detection of shallow slow earthquakes offers insight into the near-trench part of the subduction interface, an important region in the development of great earthquake ruptures and tsunami generation. Ocean-bottom monitoring of offshore seismicity off southern Kyushu, Japan, recorded a complete episode of low-frequency tremor, lasting for 1 month, that was associated with very-low-frequency earthquake (VLFE) activity in the shallow plate interface. The shallow tremor episode exhibited two migration modes reminiscent of deep tremor down-dip of the seismogenic zone in some other subduction zones: a large-scale slower propagation mode and a rapid reversal mode. These similarities in migration properties and the association with VLFEs strongly suggest that both the shallow and deep tremor and VLFE may be triggered by the migration of episodic slow slip events.

  17. Spontaneous rupture of unscarred gravid uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudut, Kolala S; Gouda, Hareesh S; Aramani, Sunil C; Patil, Raju H

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of gravid uterus during pregnancy is a rare entity. Overall incidence of rupture of uterus during pregnancy is 0.07%. The maternal and fetal prognoses are bad especially when the rupture occurs in an unscarred uterus. Fortunately, the sole major risk factor of spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus is preventable, which is "multiparity." In this article, we report the death of a pregnant woman and her unborn child because of spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus.

  18. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  19. Complete 40Ar resetting in an ultracataclasite by reactivation of a fossil seismogenic fault along the subducting plate interface in the Mugi Mélange of the Shimanto accretionary complex, southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonai, Satoshi; Ito, Shun; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tamura, Hajimu; Tomioka, Naotaka

    2016-08-01

    We used the K-Ar ages of clay-sized mineral grains to investigate the timing of activity on the Minami-Awa Fault, which is a fossil seismogenic fault along a subducting plate interface separating the coherent strata of the Shimanto accretionary complex to the north from the tectonic mélange to the south. The K-Ar ages from the matrix shale of the mélange range from 85 to 48 Ma and decrease with decreasing amount of detrital mica, indicating that they record a mixture of authigenic illite related to burial diagenesis and detrital mica. In contrast, the K-Ar ages of an ultracataclasite within the fault core are significantly younger, ranging from 29 to 23 Ma, and are unrelated to grain size and amount of detrital mica. This indicates that s Ar diffused completely from the ultracataclasite between 29 and 23 Ma, which postdates the formation of authigenic illite by at least several million years. The diffusion of 40Ar in the ultracataclasite was probably caused by frictional heating or high-temperature fluid migration that occurred when the fault was reactivated. The results indicate that seismogenic faults that separate tectonic mélange from coherent strata in accretionary complexes may slip, not only during accretion, but also long after accretion.

  20. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  1. Quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, L E; Werner, C M L; Heinzelmann, M

    2006-06-01

    Ruptures of the patellar and/or quadriceps tendon are rare injuries that require immediate repair to re-establish knee extensor continuity and to allow early motion. We evaluated 36 consecutive patients with quadriceps or patellar tendon rupture between 1993 and 2000. There were 37 primary ruptures, 3 reruptures, 21 quadriceps and 19 patellar tendon ruptures. Follow up examination (>24 months postoperatively) included the patient's history, assessment of risk factors, clinical examination of both knees, isometric muscle strength measurements and three specific knee scores, Hospital for Special Surgery Score, Knee Society Score and Turba Score, and a short form SF-36. We evaluated 29 patients (26 men) with 33 ruptures (16 patellar tendon, 17 quadriceps tendon). Seven patients were lost to follow up. We found no difference between the range of motion and muscle strength when the injured leg was compared to the non-injured leg. Risk factors did not influence the four scores, patient satisfaction, pain, muscle strength or range of motion. Multiple injured patients had a significant reduction in muscle strength and circumference, however patient satisfaction did not differ to the non-multiple injured patient group.

  2. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether...... untreated ruptures are associated with changes over time in magnetic resonance imaging findings, serologic markers, or self-reported breast symptoms. A baseline magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 1999 on 271 women who were randomly chosen from a larger cohort of women having cosmetic...... breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations...

  3. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.W.

    1983-02-01

    Potential rupture disk applications in geothermal operations are reviewed. Several wells manifolded together, to form the geothermal feed, cause erratic pressure. Rupture disks are used for relief. Flash tanks are equipped with rupture disks. Brine separators, heat exchanger shells, and turbine casings are protected by rupture disks. An analysis of geothermal steam will determine the rupture disk metal. Reverse Buckling disks are recommended over tension loaded disks for dealing with geothermal pressure cycling. Erratic temperature suggests that metals which retain tensile strength with temperature be used (Inconel is mentioned). In summary, geothermal projects represent an excellent rupture disk market.

  4. Fan-head shear rupture mechanism as a source of off-fault tensile cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation discusses the role of a recently identified fan-head shear rupture mechanism [1] in the creation of off-fault tensile cracks observed in earthquake laboratory experiments conducted on brittle photoelastic specimens [2,3]. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength) and self-sustaining tensile stress intensification along one side of the interface. The variation of tensile stress within the fan-head zone is like this: it increases with distance from the fracture tip up to a maximum value and then decreases. For the initial formation of the fan-head high local stresses corresponding to the fracture strength should be applied in a small area, however after completions of the fan-head it can propagate dynamically through the material at low shear stresses (even below the frictional strength). The fan-mechanism allows explaining all unique features associated with the off-fault cracking process observed in photoelastic experiments [2,3]. In these experiments spontaneous shear ruptures were nucleated in a bonded, precut, inclined and pre-stressed interface by producing a local pressure pulse in a small area. Isochromatic fringe patterns around a shear rupture propagating along bonded interface indicate the following features of the off-fault tensile crack development: tensile cracks nucleate and grow periodically along one side of the interface at a roughly constant angle (about 80 degrees) relative to the shear rupture interface; the tensile crack nucleation takes place some distance behind the rupture tip; with distance from the point of nucleation tensile cracks grow up to a certain length within the rupture head zone

  5. Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self

  6. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  7. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  8. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  9. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2017-05-18

    Many of Earth's great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent 'flapping' of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  10. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J.; Bhat, Harsha S.; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2017-05-01

    Many of Earth’s great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent ‘flapping’ of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  11. Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass - wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorum, T.; van Westen, C.J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, M.; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while par

  12. Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass - wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorum, Tolga; Westen, van Cees J.; Korup, Oliver; Meijde, van der Mark; Fan, Xuanmei; Meer, van der Freek D.

    2013-01-01

    The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while par

  13. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2014-01-01

    Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place...

  14. Evaluation of finger A3 pulley rupture in the crimp grip position - a magnetic resonance imaging cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Thomas; Uder, Michael; Janka, Rolf [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Adler, Werner [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schweizer, Andreas [Balgrist, University of Zurich, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoeffl, Isabelle [Klinikum Bamberg, Department of Pediatrics, Bamberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The correct diagnosis of an A3 pulley rupture is challenging for musculoskeletal radiologists. An A3 pulley rupture should in theory influence the shape of the proximal interphalangeal joint volar plate (VP) and the amount of bowstringing at level of the VP during finger flexion. The purpose of this study was to perform MRI with metric analysis of the VP configuration and VP bowstringing in cadaver fingers in the crimp grip position and to determine cut points for A3 pulley rupture. MRI in the crimp grip position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (fingers with A3 pulley rupture n = 16, fingers without A3 pulley rupture n = 5). The distances of the translation of the VP relative to the middle phalanx base, the distances between the flexor tendons and the VP body, and the distances between the flexor tendon and bone (TB) were measured. Statistical analysis showed significantly lower VP translation distances and significantly higher VP tendon distances if the A3 pulley was ruptured. A2 TB and A4 TB distances did not differ significantly in specimens with and without A3 pulley rupture. The optimal cut points for A3 pulley rupture were a VP translation distance <2.8 mm and a VP tendon distance >1.4 mm. Reduction of the VP translation distance and augmentation of the VP tendon distance are suitable indirect signs of A3 pulley rupture. (orig.)

  15. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  16. Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, N; Lee, K; Yegappan, M

    2007-11-01

    Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 30-year-old man with end-stage renal failure, who sustained this injury, and subsequently had surgical repair of both tendons on separate occasions. He has since regained full range of movement of both knees.

  17. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute tendon ruptures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daffner, R.H.; Lupetin, A.R.; Dash, N.; Riemer, B.L.

    1986-11-01

    The diagnosis of acute tendon ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee or the Achilles tendon of the ankle may usually be made by clinical means. Massive soft tissue swelling accompanying these injuries often obscures the findings, however. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can rapidly demonstrate these tendon ruptures. Examples of the use of MRI for quadriceps tendon, and Achilles tendon rupture are presented.

  19. Ultrasonography in traumatic rupture of Schilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Se Dong; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    Ultrasonography was performed prospectively in 16 patients with suspected rupture of Achilles tendon from March to October 1992 to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography. Ultrasonography examinations were done according to standard techniques, and then dynamic evaluations were performed during passive plantar flexion of the ankle. We reviewed 10 confirmed cases of ruptured tendons, among which 9 cases were confirmed by operation,and one by ultrasonography and MRI. ultrasonic results were compared with the findings at physical examination and surgery. The normal thickness of the Achilles tendons in healthy sides on ultrasonography ranged from 3 to 5mm.The ruptured tendons were 6-10mm thick at 1-2cm superior to the upper margin of Os Calcis. Rupture sites on ultrasonography were exactly predicted in 7 among the 9 operative cases. In on non-operative case, the rupture site on ultrasonography corresponded to that seen on MRI. Tendon bucking on dynamic ultrasonography was positive in all 4 complete ruptures. In 2 of the 6 partial ruptures which were near complete tears, tendon buckling was also observed. In conclusion, ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture, the differentiation between total and partial rupture, and in determining the rupture site. We consider ultrasonography of tendon as an important diagnostic toot that may guide the treatment plan in the traumatic rupture of the Achilles tendon

  20. The diagnosis of breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse; Conrad, Carsten;

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as performed according to a strict study protocol in diagnosing rupture of silicone breast implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 64 women with 118 implants, who had...... participated in either one or two study MRI examinations, aiming at determining the prevalence and incidence of silent implant rupture, respectively, and who subsequently underwent explantation. Implant rupture status was determined by four independent readers and a consensus diagnosis of either rupture...... (intracapsular or extracapsular), possible rupture or intact implant was then obtained. Strict predetermined rupture criteria were applied as described in this report and findings at surgery were abstracted in a standardised manner and results compared. RESULTS: At MRI, 66 implants were diagnosed as ruptured...

  1. Creation of the Cocos and Nazca plates by fission of the Farallon plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Throughout the Early Tertiary the area of the Farallon oceanic plate was episodically diminished by detachment of large and small northern regions, which became independently moving plates and microplates. The nature and history of Farallon plate fragmentation has been inferred mainly from structural patterns on the western, Pacific-plate flank of the East Pacific Rise, because the fragmented eastern flank has been subducted. The final episode of plate fragmentation occurred at the beginning of the Miocene, when the Cocos plate was split off, leaving the much reduced Farallon plate to be renamed the Nazca plate, and initiating Cocos-Nazca spreading. Some Oligocene Farallon plate with rifted margins that are a direct record of this plate-splitting event has survived in the eastern tropical Pacific, most extensively off northern Peru and Ecuador. Small remnants of the conjugate northern rifted margin are exposed off Costa Rica, and perhaps south of Panama. Marine geophysical profiles (bathymetric, magnetic and seismic reflection) and multibeam sonar swaths across these rifted oceanic margins, combined with surveys of 30-20 Ma crust on the western rise-flank, indicate that (i) Localized lithospheric rupture to create a new plate boundary was preceded by plate stretching and fracturing in a belt several hundred km wide. Fissural volcanism along some of these fractures built volcanic ridges (e.g., Alvarado and Sarmiento Ridges) that are 1-2 km high and parallel to "absolute" Farallon plate motion; they closely resemble fissural ridges described from the young western flank of the present Pacific-Nazca rise. (ii) For 1-2 m.y. prior to final rupture of the Farallon plate, perhaps coinciding with the period of lithospheric stretching, the entire plate changed direction to a more easterly ("Nazca-like") course; after the split the northern (Cocos) part reverted to a northeasterly absolute motion. (iii) The plate-splitting fracture that became the site of initial Cocos

  2. [Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, C; Lorbach, O; Engelhardt, M

    2010-12-01

    Ruptures of the quadriceps or patellar tendon are uncommon but extremely relevant injuries. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment with a stable suture construction are mandatory for a good postoperative clinical outcome. The standard methods of repair for quadriceps and patellar tendon injuries include the placement of suture loops through transpatellar tunnels. Reinforcement with either a wire cerclage or a PDS cord is used in patellar tendon repair. The PDS cord can also be applied as augmentation in quadriceps tendon repair. In secondary patellar tendon repair an autologous semitendinosus graft can be used. For chronic quadriceps tendon defects a V-shaped tendon flap with a distal footing is recommended. The different methods of repair should lead to early functional postoperative treatment. The clinical outcome after surgical treatment of patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures is mainly good.

  3. Bubble rupture in bubble electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rouxi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the distinctive properties and different applications of nanofibers, the demand of nanofibers increased sharply in recently years. Bubble electrospinning is one of the most effective and industrialized methods for nanofiber production. To optimize the set-up of bubble electrospinning and improve its mass production, the dynamic properties of un-charged and charged bubbles are studied experimentally, the growth and rupture process of a bubble are also discussed in this paper.

  4. Quadriceps tendon rupture - treatment results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare but rather serious injury. If this injury is not promptly recognized and early operated, it may lead to disability. This research was aimed at pointing out the results and complications of the quadriceps tendon rupture surgical treatment. Material and Methods. This retrospective multicentric study was conducted in a group of 29 patients (mostly elderly men. Lysholm knee scoring scale was used to evaluate the surgical results. The post-operative results were compared in relation to the type of tendon rupture reconstructions (acute or chronic, various surgical techniques, type of injuries (unilateral or bilateral as well as the presence or absence of comorbid risk factors in the patients. Results. The average value of a Lysholm score was 87.6. Excellent and satisfactory Lysholm score results dominated in our sample of patients. Better post-operative results were recorded in the group of patients without risk factors, in case of a bilateral injury, and in case of an acute injury. The best result was obtained after performing the reconstruction using anchors, and the worst result came after using Codivilla technique. Discussion and Conclusion. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment are an absolute imperative in management of this injury. We have not proven that a certain surgical technique has an advantage over the others. A comorbid risk factor is related to a lower Lysholm score. Despite a few cases of complications, we can conclude that the surgical treatment yields satisfactory results.

  5. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Tabraze; Leung, Edmund; McArdle, Kirsten; Pathak, Rajiv; Dalmia, Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Splenic rupture is a life-threatening condition characterized by internal hemorrhage, often difficult to diagnose. Colonoscopy is a gold standard routine diagnostic test to investigate patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as to those on the screening program for colorectal cancer. Splenic injury is seldomly discussed during consent for colonoscopy, as opposed to colonic perforation, as its prevalence accounts for less than 0.1%. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of collagen disorder was electively admitted for routine colonoscopy for surveillance of adenoma. She was admitted following the procedure for re-dosing of warfarin, which was stopped prior to the colonoscopy. The patient was found collapsed on the ward the following day with clinical shock and anemia. Computed tomography demonstrated grade 4 splenic rupture. Immediate blood transfusion and splenectomy was required. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy is extremely rare. Awareness of it on this occasion saved the patient's life. Despite it being a rare association, the seriousness warrants inclusion in all information leaflets concerning colonoscopy and during its consent.

  6. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.

  7. Effects of rupture complexity on local tsunami inundation: Implications for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of earthquake source complexity on the extent of inundation caused by the resulting tsunami. We simulated 100 scenarios with collocated sources of variable slip on the Hikurangi subduction interface in the vicinity of Hawke's Bay and Poverty Bay in New Zealand and investigated the tsunami effects on the cities of Napier and Gisborne. Rupture complexity was found to have a first-order effect on flow depth and inundation extent for local tsunami sources. The position of individual asperities in the slip distribution on the rupture interface control to some extent how severe inundation will be. However, predicting inundation extent in detail from investigating the distribution of slip on the rupture interface proves difficult. Assuming uniform slip on the rupture interface in tsunami models can underestimate the potential impact and extent of inundation. For example, simulation of an Mw 8.7 to Mw 8.8 earthquake with uniform slip reproduced the area that could potentially be inundated by equivalent nonuniform slip events of Mw 8.4. Deaggregation, to establish the contribution of different sources with different slip distributions to the probabilistic hazard, cannot be performed based on magnitude considerations alone. We propose two predictors for inundation severity based on the offshore tsunami wavefield using the linear wave equations in an attempt to keep costly simulations of full inundation to a minimum.

  8. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  10. A Bayesian Approach for Apparent Inter-plate Coupling in the Central Andes Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Culaciati, F. H.; Simons, M.; Genrich, J. F.; Galetzka, J.; Comte, D.; Glass, B.; Leiva, C.; Gonzalez, G.; Norabuena, E. O.

    2010-12-01

    We aim to characterize the extent of apparent plate coupling on the subduction zone megathrust with the eventual goal of understanding spatial variations of fault zone rheology, inferring relationships between apparent coupling and the rupture zone of big earthquakes, as well as the implications for earthquake and tsunami hazard. Unlike previous studies, we approach the problem from a Bayesian perspective, allowing us to completely characterize the model parameter space by searching a posteriori estimates of the range of allowable models instead of seeking a single optimum model. Two important features of the Bayesian approach are the possibility to easily implement any kind of physically plausible a priori information and to perform the inversion without regularization, other than that imposed by the way in which we parameterize the forward model. Adopting a simple kinematic back-slip model and a 3D geometry of the inter-plate contact zone, we can estimate the probability of apparent coupling (Pc) along the plate interface that is consistent with a priori information (e.g., approximate rake of back-slip) and available geodetic measurements. More generally, the Bayesian approach adopted here is applicable to any region and eventually would allow one to evaluate the spatial relationship between various inferred distributions of fault behavior (e.g., seismic rupture, postseismic creep, and apparent interseismic coupling) in a quantifiable manner. We apply this methodology to evaluate the state of apparent inter-seismic coupling in the Chilean-Peruvian subduction margin (12 S - 25 S). As observational constraints, we use previously published horizontal velocities from campaign GPS [Kendrick et al., 2001, 2006] as well as 3 component velocities from a recently established continuous GPS network in the region (CAnTO). We compare results from both joint and independent use of these data sets. We obtain patch like features for Pc with higher values located above 60 km

  11. Histologic analysis of ruptured quadriceps tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobisch, Per David; Bauman, Matthias; Weise, Kuno; Stuby, Fabian; Hak, David J

    2010-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries. Degenerative changes in the tendon are felt to be an important precondition for rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 45 quadriceps tendon ruptures in 42 patients. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occurred most often in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Men were affected six times as often as women. A tissue sample from the rupture-zone was obtained in 22 cases and histologic analysis was performed. Degenerative changes were present in only 14 (64%) of the 22 samples. We observed an increasing ratio of degenerative to nondegenerative tendons with increasing patient age. Our data suggests that quadriceps tendon rupture, especially in younger patients, can occur in the absence of pathologic tendon degeneration.

  12. Treatment of bronchial ruptures by delayed surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To study the causes that resulted in delayed surgery for bronchial ruptures and the results.Methods:The cases with the bronchial ruptures by the delayed surgery last decade were retrospectively reviewed.The causes and unsatisfactory results were analysed.Results:The severe complications usually occurred after the delayed surgery and the results were not as satisfactory as those by early surgery.Conclusion:The bronchial ruptures ought to be operated in the early stage after being wounded.

  13. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains...... and Sweden. Immediate weight-bearing was found to be safe and recommendable in non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. The novel ultrasound measurement showed excellent reliability and acceptable validity and agreement....

  14. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Troelsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment ofacute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains...... and Sweden. Immediate weight-bearing was found to be safe and recommendable in non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. The novel ultrasound measurement showed excellent reliability and acceptable validity and agreement....

  15. Pathological rupture of malarial spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokashi A

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of spontaneous rupture of malarial spleen are reported here. One of them was a male who was on chloroquine for an acute attack of malaria. While on therapy, he complained of pain in left hypochondrium followed by palpitations. The other patient was a female who was admitted for continuous dull aching pain and fever. In both the patients, exploratory laparotomy revealed an enlarged spleen with tear. Splenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed dilated congested sinusoid with follicular atrophy, and RBCs with malarial parasites. The post-operative course was smooth in both patients.

  16. Ruptured jejunum following Heimlich maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaboni, R M; Brathwaite, C E; Dwyer, W A

    1986-01-01

    The Heimlich maneuver, over time, has proved to be a useful resuscitative procedure in the management of cases with airway occlusion secondary to foreign body. Medical treatments, however, can have side effects, and this maneuver is no exception. A previously unreported complication is presented, that of jejunal rupture. The proper application of the maneuver minimizes the number of side effects; however, since they do occur, it is suggested that all persons subject to this maneuver be subsequently evaluated by a physician as soon after the incident as is practicable.

  17. The rupture in visual language:

    OpenAIRE

    Kula, Ömür; Kula, Omur

    2006-01-01

    The shift of arts from conventional forms of canvas-painting and sculpture to collage, ready-mades, installations and performances as it had occurred in the history of western art follow a linear and natural unfolding in parallel with sociopolitical evolvements. In the case of Turkish visual arts, this kind of a transformation projects to the time period between 1960s to 1990s where the face of arts change not smoothly but rather in the form of a 'rupture' as new tendencies are embraced, prac...

  18. Alteration and dehydration of subducting oceanic crust within subduction zones: implications for décollement step-down and plate-boundary seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Jun; Inoue, Sayako; Tanikawa, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hamada, Yohei; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Gaku

    2017-04-01

    The alteration and dehydration of predominantly basaltic subducting oceanic crustal material are thought to be important controls on the mechanical and hydrological properties of the seismogenic plate interface below accretionary prisms. This study focuses on pillow basalts exposed in an ancient accretionary complex within the Shimanto Belt of southwest Japan and provides new quantitative data that provide insight into clay mineral reactions and the associated dehydration of underthrust basalts. Whole-rock and clay-fraction X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the progressive conversion of saponite to chlorite proceeds under an almost constant bulk-rock mineral assemblage. These clay mineral reactions may persist to deep crustal levels ( 320 °C), possibly contributing to the bulk dehydration of the basalt and supplying fluid to plate-boundary fault systems. This dehydration can also cause fluid pressurization at certain horizons within hydrous basalt sequences, eventually leading to fracturing and subsequent underplating of upper basement rock into the overriding accretionary prism. This dehydration-induced breakage of the basalt can explain variations in the thickness of accreted basalt fragments within accretionary prisms as well as the reported geochemical compositions of mineralized veins associated with exposed basalts in onland locations. This fracturing of intact basalt can also nucleate seismic rupturing that would subsequently propagate along seismogenic plate interfaces.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Mechanical model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Haijun; ZHANG; Mei; ZHANG; Yun

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque is the main trigger of acute cardiovascular events, but the mechanism of plaque rupture is still unknown. We have constructed a model describing the motion of the fibrous cap of the plaque using the theory of elastic mechanics and studied the stability of the plaque theoretically. It has shown that plaque rupture is the result of a dynamic interplay between factors intrinsic to the plaque itself and extrinsic factors. We have proposed a new mechanism of plaque rupture, given a new explanation about the nonlinear dynamic progress of atherosclerosis and suggested a method to identify the vulnerable plaques to manage atherosclerosis.

  20. Delayed presentation of traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.; Magill, H.L.; Black, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    A child with urine ascites as a delayed manifestation of post-traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture is presented. The diagnosis was suggested by abdominal CT scan and confirmed with a cystogram. While uncommon, late presentation of intraperitoneal bladder rupture following trauma may occur from masking of a primary laceration or development of secondary rupture at the site of a hematoma in the bladder wall. Since CT may be a primary diagnostic study performed following abdominal trauma, the radiologist should be aware of CT findings suggesting bladder rupture and of the possibility of delayed presentation of this injury.

  1. Stress rupture properties of GH4169 superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Lu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available GH4169 alloy is a nickel-based superalloy extensively used in the aircraft engine industry because of its excellent mechanical properties and good fabrication ability. The mechanical properties of the GH4169 at high temperature, rupture stress under severe condition deserves a close attention. In this paper, the creep rupture of the GH4169 alloy under constant load and different temperatures from 550 °C to 700 °C conditions is systematically evaluated and major impact factors in the stress rupture behavior are analyzed. Furthermore, an improving method for the alloy stress rupture is proposed.

  2. Stress Transfer Processes during Great Plate Boundary Thrusting Events: A Study from the Andaman and Nicobar Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V.; Rajendran, K.

    2010-12-01

    The response of subduction zones to large earthquakes varies along their strike, both during the interseismic and post-seismic periods. The December 26, 2004 earthquake nucleated at 3° N latitude and its rupture propagated northward, along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, terminating at 15°N. Rupture speed was estimated at about 2.0 km per second in the northern part under the Andaman region and 2.5 - 2.7 km per second under southern Nicobar and North Sumatra. We have examined the pre and post-2004 seismicity to understand the stress transfer processes within the subducting plate, in the Andaman (10° - 15° N ) and Nicobar (5° - 10° N) segments. The seismicity pattern in these segments shows distinctive characteristics associated with the outer rise, accretionary prism and the spreading ridge, all of which are relatively better developed in the Andaman segment. The Ninety East ridge and the Sumatra Fault System are significant tectonic features in the Nicobar segment. The pre-2004 seismicity in both these segments conform to the steady-state conditions wherein large earthquakes are fewer and compressive stresses dominate along the plate interface. Among the pre-2004 great earthquakes are the 1881 Nicobar and 1941 Andaman events. The former is considered to be a shallow thrust event that generated a small tsunami. Studies in other subduction zones suggest that large outer-rise tensional events follow great plate boundary breaking earthquakes due to the the up-dip transfer of stresses within the subducting plate. The seismicity of the Andaman segment (1977-2004) concurs with the steady-state stress conditions where earthquakes occur dominantly by thrust faulting. The post-2004 seismicity shows up-dip migration along the plate interface, with dominance of shallow normal faulting, including a few outer rise events and some deeper (> 100 km) strike-slip faulting events within the subducting plate. The September 13, 2002, Mw 6.5 thrust faulting earthquake at

  3. Total Hip Arthroplasty for Implant Rupture after Surgery for Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yu; Ochi, Hironori; Watari, Taiji; Matsumoto, Mikio; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Treatment methods for delayed union and nonunion of atypical femoral fracture are still controversial. Moreover, no treatment method has been established for implant rupture caused by delayed union and nonunion. We encountered a 74-year-old female in whom nonunion-induced implant rupture occurred after treatment of atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture with internal fixation using a long femoral nail. It was unlikely that sufficient fixation could be obtained by repeating osteosynthesis alone. Moreover, the patient was elderly and early weight-bearing activity was essential for early recovery of ADL. Based on these reasons, we selected one-stage surgery with total hip arthroplasty and osteosynthesis with inverted condylar locking plate as salvage procedures. Bone union was achieved at 6 months after surgery. This case illustrated that osteosynthesis-combined one-staged total hip arthroplasty could be considered as one of the options for nonunion-induced implant rupture of atypical femoral subtrochanteric fracture. PMID:27818818

  4. Total Hip Arthroplasty for Implant Rupture after Surgery for Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ozaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment methods for delayed union and nonunion of atypical femoral fracture are still controversial. Moreover, no treatment method has been established for implant rupture caused by delayed union and nonunion. We encountered a 74-year-old female in whom nonunion-induced implant rupture occurred after treatment of atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture with internal fixation using a long femoral nail. It was unlikely that sufficient fixation could be obtained by repeating osteosynthesis alone. Moreover, the patient was elderly and early weight-bearing activity was essential for early recovery of ADL. Based on these reasons, we selected one-stage surgery with total hip arthroplasty and osteosynthesis with inverted condylar locking plate as salvage procedures. Bone union was achieved at 6 months after surgery. This case illustrated that osteosynthesis-combined one-staged total hip arthroplasty could be considered as one of the options for nonunion-induced implant rupture of atypical femoral subtrochanteric fracture.

  5. Large Steel Tank Fails and Rockets to Height of 30 meters - Rupture Disc Installed Incorrectly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Selig, Robert Simon; Kragh, Eva K.

    2016-01-01

    responsible for the failure was an estimated 60 kPa. A rupture disc rated at tank from being covered by the European Pressure Equipment Directive. This safeguard failed and it was later discovered that the rupture disc had been installed upside......At a brewery, the base plate-to-shell weld seam of a 90-m3 vertical cylindrical steel tank failed catastrophically. The 4 ton tank “took off” like a rocket leaving its contents behind, and landed on a van, crushing it. The top of the tank reached a height of 30 m. The internal overpressure...... down. The organizational root cause of this incident may be a fundamental lack of appreciation of the hazards of large volumes of low-pressure compressed air or gas. A contributing factor may be that the standard piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) symbol for a rupture disc may confuse and lead...

  6. Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dennis; Stinner, Daniel; Mir, Hassan

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures requires a high index of suspicion and thorough history-taking to assess for medical comorbidities that may predispose patients to tendon degeneration. Radiographic assessment with plain films supplemented by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging when the work-up is equivocal further aids diagnosis; however, advanced imaging is often unnecessary in patients with functional extensor mechanism deficits. Acute repair is preferred, and transpatellar bone tunnels serve as the primary form of fixation when the tendon rupture occurs at the patellar insertion, with or without augmentation depending on surgeon preference. Chronic tears and disruptions following total knee arthroplasty are special cases requiring reconstructions with allograft, synthetic mesh, or autograft. Rehabilitation protocols generally allow immediate weight-bearing with the knee locked in extension and crutch support. Limited arc motion is started early with active flexion and passive extension and then advanced progressively, followed by full active range of motion and strengthening. Complications are few but include quadriceps atrophy, knee stiffness, and rerupture. Outcomes are excellent if repair is done acutely, with poorer outcomes associated with delayed repair.

  7. Diversity of the 2014 Iquique's foreshocks and aftershocks: clues about the complex rupture process of a Mw 8.1 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ríos, Sergio; Ruiz, Sergio; Maksymowicz, Andrei; Leyton, Felipe; Fuenzalida, Amaya; Madariaga, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    We study the foreshocks and aftershocks of the 1 April 2014 Iquique earthquake of Mw 8.1. Most of these events were recorded by a large digital seismic network that included the Northern Chile permanent network and up to 26 temporary broadband digital stations. We relocated and computed moment tensors for 151 events of magnitude Mw ≥ 4.5. Most of the foreshocks and aftershocks of the Iquique earthquake are distributed to the southwest of the rupture zone. These events are located in a band of about 50 km from the trench, an area where few earthquakes occur elsewhere in Chile. Another important group of aftershocks is located above the plate interface, similar to those observed during the foreshock sequence. The depths of these events were constrained by regional moment tensor (RMT) solutions obtained using the records of the dense broad band network. The majority of the foreshocks and aftershocks were associated to the interplate contact, with dip and strike angles in good agreement with the characteristics of horst and graben structures (>2000 m offset) typical of the oceanic Nazca Plate at the trench and in the outer rise region. We propose that the spatial distribution of foreshocks and aftershocks, and its seismological characteristics were strongly controlled by the rheological and tectonics conditions of the extreme erosive margin of Northern Chile.

  8. Diversity of the 2014 Iquique's foreshocks and aftershocks: clues about the complex rupture process of a Mw 8.1 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ríos, Sergio; Ruiz, Sergio; Maksymowicz, Andrei; Leyton, Felipe; Fuenzalida, Amaya; Madariaga, Raúl

    2016-03-01

    We study the foreshocks and aftershocks of the 1 April 2014 Iquique earthquake of Mw 8.1. Most of these events were recorded by a large digital seismic network that included the Northern Chile permanent network and up to 26 temporary broadband digital stations. We relocated and computed moment tensors for 151 events of magnitude Mw ≥ 4.5. Most of the foreshocks and aftershocks of the Iquique earthquake are distributed to the southwest of the rupture zone. These events are located in a band of about 50 km from the trench, an area where few earthquakes occur elsewhere in Chile. Another important group of aftershocks is located above the plate interface, similar to those observed during the foreshock sequence. The depths of these events were constrained by regional moment tensor (RMT) solutions obtained using the records of the dense broad band network. The majority of the foreshocks and aftershocks were associated to the interplate contact, with dip and strike angles in good agreement with the characteristics of horst and graben structures (>2000 m offset) typical of the oceanic Nazca Plate at the trench and in the outer rise region. We propose that the spatial distribution of foreshocks and aftershocks, and its seismological characteristics were strongly controlled by the rheological and tectonics conditions of the extreme erosive margin of Northern Chile.

  9. The Clavicular Hook Plate: Consequences in Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasenan, Jeevan; Badhe, Sachin; Cresswell, Timothy; De Beer, Joe

    2007-10-01

    The small fragment AO clavicular hook plate is indicated for certain fractures of the lateral end of clavicle and for symptomatic acromio-clavicular joint dislocations where there is rupture of the stabilizing ligaments. The complex anatomy and biomechanics of the acromio-clavicular joint can lead to complications that result in damage to the joint itself or acromial erosion. In addition, the rotator cuff complex is at risk of injury when inserting the plate. We report three cases where patients who underwent hook plate fixation subsequently required removal of the implant due to complications previously unreported in current literature.

  10. Tracheal rupture post-emergency intubation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Billè; Luca Errico; Francesco Ardissone; Luciano Cardinale

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal rupture is an uncommon and potentially lifethreatening complication of endotracheal intubation. We present a case of intrathoracic tracheal rupture in a female patient who required emergent endotracheal intubation for acute respiratory distress related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Possible contributing factors to tracheal injury included overinflation of the tube cuff, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic steroid use. The patient underwent surg...

  11. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  12. Ruptured liver abscess in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of 17-day-old neonate, diagnosed to have ruptured liver abscess secondary to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus infection. The child presented with septicemia and abdominal distension. On exploration, there was pyoperitoneum with ruptured liver abscess.

  13. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin.

  14. Migraine before rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Gurary, Natalia M; Sakovich, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA.......Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA....

  15. Investigating the deformation of upper crustal faults at the N-Chilean convergent plate boundary at different scales using high-resolution topography datasets and creepmeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewiak, O.; Victor, P.; Ziegenhagen, T.; Oncken, O.

    2012-04-01

    The Chilean convergent plate boundary is one of the tectonically most active regions on earth and prone to large megathrust earthquakes as e. g. the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake which ruptured a mature seismic gap in south-central Chile. In northern Chile historical data suggests the existence of a seismic gap between Arica and Mejillones Peninsula (MP), which has not ruptured since 1877. Further south, the 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake ruptured the subduction interface between MP and Taltal. In this study we investigate the deformation at four active upper plate faults (dip-slip and strike-slip) located above the coupling zone of the subduction interface. The target faults (Mejillones Fault - MF, Salar del Carmen Fault - SCF, Cerro Fortuna Fault - CFF, Chomache Fault - CF) are situated in forearc segments, which are in different stages of the megathrust seismic cycle. The main question of this study is how strain is accumulated in the overriding plate, what is the response of the target faults to the megathrust seismic cycle and what are the mechanisms / processes involved. The hyper arid conditions of the Atacama desert and the extremely low erosion rates enable us to investigate geomorphic markers, e .g. fault scarps and knickpoints, which serve as a record for upper crustal deformation and fault activity about ten thousands years into the past. Fault scarp data has been acquired with Differential-GPS by measuring high-resolution topographic profiles perpendicular to the fault scarps and along incised gullies. The topographic data show clear variations between the target faults which possibly result from their position within the forearc. The surveyed faults, e. g. the SCF, exhibit clear along strike variations in the morphology of surface ruptures attributed to seismic events and can be subdivided into individual segments. The data allows us to distinguish single, composite and multiple fault scarps and thus to detect differences in fault growth initiated

  16. Plates made with solid waste from the recycled paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, M; Gohr Pinheiro, I; Valle, J A B

    2010-02-01

    The results of assays carried out on plates used in the construction industry, manufactured entirely with solid wastes of a recycled paper plant, are presented and compared with the results obtained using agglomerated wood and plywood plates. Previous results had shown that wastes are composed essentially of polymers when these wastes are generated by recycled paper produced with the "waved type II" shavings. These solid wastes were placed in a mold that was heated and pressed with a hydraulic press in order to obtain the plates. The waste-produced plates were submitted to tests for humidity, swelling, water absorption, density, modulus of rupture-static bending, modulus of elasticity and direct screw withdrawal. These same assays had been carried out on two types of commercial wood plates, agglomerated wood and plywood, in order to compare the results with those obtained with the waste plate. Waste plates had similar behavior to the agglomerated wood plate, but it was possible to distinguish greater flexibility in the waste-produced plate and a significant difference in the tests for swelling and water absorption which showed the waste plate had a better performance than the agglomerated wood and plywood plates.

  17. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  18. Thermal regime from bottom simulating reflectors along the N Ecuador - S Colombia margin: relation between tectonic segmentation, thermal variation and the limit of the seismic rupture zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaillou, B.; Spence, G.; Collot, J.; Wang, K.; Ribodetti, A.

    2005-12-01

    In the North Ecuador South Columbian (NESC) convergent margin (0°N) three megathrust events, in 1942, 1958 and 1979, present rupture zones that abut one another. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and bathymetric data acquired during the SISTEUR (2000) and AMADEUS (2005) cruises highlighted that the margin comprises four transverse segments (called, from south to north, the Esmeraldas, Manglares, Tumaco and Patia segments), each with clearly different tectonic and structural patterns. The central Manglares and Tumaco segments are separated by the newly discovered NW trending Manglares fault that matches the boundary between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. North of the fault, the fore-arc basin is shortened deformed and uplifted, while to the south the fore-arc basin, located landward of a prominent Outer Basement High (OBH), is widely subsiding and undeformed. Moreover, to the north of the Manglares fault, the underthrusting Nazca plate present an intense normal faulting is absent to the south. To investigate the relationships between seismogenesis and thermal structure along the plate boundary, we conducted thermal modelling constrained by sediment heat flow measurements and by heat flow derived from Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) on MCS lines collected during the SISTEUR and AMADEUS cruises. Just landward of the deformation front in the region of the Tumaco segment, a zone of anomalously low heat flow values is present and results in a thermal segmentation of the margin consistent with the tectonic segmentation. Finite-element thermal models carried out for each thermal segment show that: The along-strike heat flow variations are produced by changes in the age of the oceanic plate, the dip of the decollement and hydrothermal cooling due to the subduction of the strongly faulted part of the Nazca crust. The hypocenters for both the 1958 and 1979 earthquakes occurred at a depth on the interface where the temperature is ~160°C. For the seismogenic zone

  19. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-08-01

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth’s major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength-velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  20. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  1. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  2. Should the ruptured renal allograft be removed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, P; Porter, K A; Krom, R A; Uchida, K; West, J C; Weil, R; Starzl, T E

    1979-07-01

    During a 16-month period when 93 renal transplants were performed, eight kidney graft ruptures were detected within 18 days of transplantation, without evidence of venous obstruction. Six grafts were removed at the time of an exploratory operation for rupture and only one showed signs of probable irreversible rejection when examined by microscopy. Two graft ruptures were repaired and one of these grafts has had good long-term function 22 months later. These observations suggest that if bleeding at the site of grafts has had good long-term function 22 months later. These observations suggest that if bleeding at the site of graft rupture can be securely controlled and if the conditions of the patient and of the graft are favorable except for the rupture, it may be possible to save more than one of eight grafts.

  3. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations across interacting faults: The Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during a large earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a smaller fault sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g., 2002 M7.9 Denali USA and 2010 M7.1 Darfield New Zealand earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial fault and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of more moderate magnitude. This was the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a finite element model to simulate propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence, in particular, the ground displacement. The two slip patches inferred from finite fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure.

  4. Segmentation Along the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon Fault Zone: Implications for Rupture Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakian, V. J.; Bormann, J. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G. M.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault zone (NIRC) is an active component of the southern California strike-slip fault system in the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Despite its close proximity to densely populated coastal regions of Southern California, the NIRC fault geometry and expected earthquake behavior are poorly constrained. As a result of these uncertainties, current hazard models lack critical information regarding potential earthquake magnitudes and ground shaking caused by rupture on the offshore portion of the fault. Here, we present an improved characterization of the NIRC fault zone's architecture and segmentation. We employ nested marine seismic reflection data of varying vertical resolutions to map the NIRC location, strike, dip, and stepovers based on subsurface observations. These reflection data were collected in 1979, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013. We identify four main geometrical fault segments separated along strike by three stepovers between 0.5 and 3 km in width, whereby width is measured as the horizontal distance between fault strands or termini. Empirical studies of rupture propagation show that past earthquake ruptures in other regions have propagated across discontinuities of this width. We additionally employ a quantitative approach to constrain the potential earthquake magnitude for the NIRC fault zone by modeling the coulomb stress changes that result from possible rupture initiation scenarios. Earthquakes initiated on the central fault strand by Carlsbad Canyon favor through-going rupture across the entire length of the NIRC fault zone. Additionally, the modeling results suggest that the southernmost stepover by La Jolla may act as an inhibitor to through-going rupture due to the strike and dip of the adjacent fault despite the stepover's short width. Finally, our stress modeling results suggest that the maximum potential magnitude of an earthquake rupturing all of the mapped offshore segments of the NIRC fault zone is Mw 7.5.

  5. Long-Wavelength Rupturing Instability in Surface-Tension-Driven Benard Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J. B.; Hook, Stephen J. Van; Becerril, Ricardo; McCormick, W. D.; Swinney, H. L.; Schatz, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid layer with a free upper surface and heated from below is subject to thermocapillary-induced convective instabilities. We use very thin liquid layers (0.01 cm) to significantly reduce buoyancy effects and simulate Marangoni convection in microgravity. We observe thermocapillary-driven convection in two qualitatively different modes, short-wavelength Benard hexagonal convection cells and a long-wavelength interfacial rupturing mode. We focus on the long-wavelength mode and present experimental observations and theoretical analyses of the long-wavelength instability. Depending on the depths and thermal conductivities of the liquid and the gas above it, the interface can rupture downwards and form a dry spot or rupture upwards and form a high spot. Linear stability theory gives good agreement to the experimental measurements of onset as long as sidewall effects are taken into account. Nonlinear theory correctly predicts the subcritical nature of the bifurcation and the selection between the dry spot and high spots.

  6. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  7. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  8. Rolling process and bonding mechanism of micro-arc oxidation 6061 aluminium alloy clad plate%微弧氧化6061铝合金复合板轧制工艺及结合机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艺; 吴国瑞; 张胜超; 张学术; 杨猛

    2014-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation 6061 aluminium alloy clad plate was prepared by rolling which confirm the rolling composite feasibility of aluminum alloy plate .Bonding strength of the plate was tested by tear method and stripped surface was analyzed by SEM and EDS .The results show that aluminum alloy plate and micro-arc oxidation 6061 aluminium alloy plate can be bonded by rolling at the condition of rolling tempreture above 400 ℃and rolling reduction above 40%.During rolling, hardened layer on the aluminium alloy plate surface and ceramic layer on the micro-arc oxidation aluminium alloy plate surface ruptures , and ceramic particles involving in the interface bonding position , thus let the fresh aluminum alloy of the two plates extrude and the metallurgical bonding is obtained .%用轧制法制备了内含微弧氧化陶瓷颗粒的6061铝合金复合板,证实了微弧氧化铝合金板轧制复合可行性。用撕裂法测试了复合板的结合强度,对复合板剥离面进行了SEM和EDS分析。结果表明,在热轧温度不低于400℃,同时压下率不低于40%的轧制条件下,铝合金板/微弧氧化铝合金板通过轧制可以实现结合。在轧制时铝合金表面硬化层、微弧氧化铝合金表面陶瓷层破裂,陶瓷颗粒卷入界面结合处,复合板两侧铝合金新鲜金属挤出实现冶金结合。

  9. Rupture Processes of the Mw8.3 Sea of Okhotsk Earthquake and Aftershock Sequences from 3-D Back Projection Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, P. R.; Hung, S. H.; Meng, L.

    2014-12-01

    On May 24, 2013, the largest deep earthquake ever recorded in history occurred on the southern tip of the Kamchatka Island, where the Pacific Plate subducts underneath the Okhotsk Plate. Previous 2D beamforming back projection (BP) of P- coda waves suggests the mainshock ruptured bilaterally along a horizontal fault plane determined by the global centroid moment tensor solution. On the other hand, the multiple point source inversion of P and SH waveforms argued that the earthquake comprises a sequence of 6 subevents not located on a single plane but actually distributed in a zone that extends 64 km horizontally and 35 km in depth. We then apply a three-dimensional MUSIC BP approach to resolve the rupture processes of the manishock and two large aftershocks (M6.7) with no a priori setup of preferential orientations of the planar rupture. The maximum pseudo-spectrum of high-frequency P wave in a sequence of time windows recorded by the densely-distributed stations from US and EU Array are used to image 3-D temporal and spatial rupture distribution. The resulting image confirms that the nearly N-S striking but two antiparallel rupture stages. The first subhorizontal rupture initially propagates toward the NNE direction, while at 18 s later it directs reversely to the SSW and concurrently shifts downward to 35 km deeper lasting for about 20 s. The rupture lengths in the first NNE-ward and second SSW-ward stage are about 30 km and 85 km; the estimated rupture velocities are 3 km/s and 4.25 km/s, respectively. Synthetic experiments are undertaken to assess the capability of the 3D MUSIC BP for the recovery of spatio-temporal rupture processes. Besides, high frequency BP images based on the EU-Array data show two M6.7 aftershocks are more likely to rupture on the vertical fault planes.

  10. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  11. Patellar tendon: From tendinopathy to rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rosso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Patellar tendinopathy is very common in patients complaining of anterior knee pain. Its aetiology is still unclear, but neovascularisation seems to play a role. Different treatments have been proposed overtime, from rehabilitation to platelet-rich-plasma injections, but there is no agreement on the best treatment protocol. The final stage of patellar tendinopathy is patellar tendon rupture. In these cases surgical treatment is often required. The aim of this literature review is to focus on the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of both patellar tendinopathy and rupture. We report the conservative treatments proposed for patellar tendinopathy and the surgical techniques described for its rupture.

  12. Plantar fascia rupture: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, C; Guntner, P; Ericsäter, J; Turan, I

    1997-01-01

    Two patients with spontaneous medial plantar fascia rupture due to a definite injury with no prior symptoms, were referred to our institution. Clinically, there was a tender lump in the sole, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment was sufficient in curing the acute total rupture. Endoscopic release was used on the partially ruptured plantar fascia, but it is probably more optimal in the acute phase. The literature provides no comparative data on operative or nonoperative treatment efficacy for this rare condition.

  13. RUPTURED RUDIMENTARY HORN PREGNANCY OF UNICORNUATE UTERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus can sometimes be associated with rudimentary horn. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and usually ends up in rupture. Diagnosis is difficult and can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and is usually detected after rupture. We report a case of G1P1 with rudimentary horn pregnancy which raised suspicion on ultr asound and was later diagnosed by MR imaging. Patient refused termination and presented next day with shock. Laparotomy revealed ruptured right rudimentary horn pregnancy.

  14. Gastric rupture after the Heimlich maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, M; Cogbill, T H

    1996-01-01

    Since 1975, the Heimlich maneuver has been widely applied to relieve upper airway obstruction caused by aspirated material. Life-threatening complications have been documented following this simple procedure. We report two cases of gastric rupture after use of the Heimlich maneuver. Both patients experienced pulmonary and abdominal symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by the demonstration of free intraperitoneal air on an upright chest roentgenogram. Full-thickness gastric rupture along the lesser curvature of the stomach was repaired in both patients; one patient died. Abdominal pain or persistent abdominal distention despite nasogastric suction after the Heimlich maneuver should prompt evaluation for possible gastric rupture.

  15. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least

  16. Laminar Plunging Jets - Interfacial Rupture and Inception of Entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Aravind

    Interfacial rupture and entrainment are commonly observed, e.g., air bubbles within a container being filled with water from a faucet. The example involves a liquid jet (density, rho, and viscosity, η) plunging into a receiving pool of liquid. Below a critical liquid-jet velocity, the interface develops a cusp-like shape within the receiving pool. The cusp becomes sharper with increasing liquid-jet velocity, and at a critical velocity ( Vc), the interface between the liquid and the surrounding fluid (density, rho0, and viscosity, η0) ruptures. Interfacial tension (sigma) can no longer preserve the integrity of the interface between the two immiscible fluids, and the plunging jet drags/entrains surrounding fluid into the receiving pool. Subsequently, the entrained fluid breaks up into bubbles within the receiving pool. The focus of this dissertation is the numerical prediction of the critical entrainment inception velocities for laminar plunging jets using the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) method, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to simulate multi-fluid flows. Canonical to bottle-filling operations in the industry is the plunging-jet configuration -- the liquid jet issues from a nozzle and plunges into a container filled with liquid. Simulations of this configuration require capturing flow phenomena over a large range of length scales (4 orders of magnitude). Results show severe under-prediction of critical entrainment velocities when the maximum resolution is insufficient to capture the sharpening, and eventual rupture, of the interfacial cusp. Higher resolutions resulted in computational meshes with prohibitively large number of cells, and a drastic reduction in time-step values. Experimental results in the literature suggest at least a 100-fold increase in the smallest length scale when the entrained fluid is a liquid instead of air. This narrows the range of length scales in the problem. We exploit the experimental correlation between critical capillary

  17. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Bomfim, Lucas Novais [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Maceio, AL, (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. (author)

  18. Creep-rupture reliability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

  19. Achilles tendon rupture in atypical patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a significant injury, and the likelihood of a good recovery is directly associated with early diagnosis and appropriate referral. Such injuries are commonly assessed and identified by practitioners working in 'minors' areas of emergency departments or urgent care settings. The literature frequently describes rupture of the Achilles tendon as 'typically sport-related' affecting 'middle-aged weekend warriors', but this aetiology accounts for only about 70% of such injuries. Factors such as the natural ageing process, obesity and use of some commonly prescribed medications, can increase the risk of developing a tendinopathy and subsequent rupture, often from a seemingly insignificant incident. However, research suggests that injuries in this patient population are more likely be missed on first examination. This article describes risk factors that should alert clinicians to the possibility of Achilles tendon rupture in 'atypical' patient populations.

  20. Spontaneous splenic rupture in typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, G; Kamili, M. A.; Rashid, S; Mansoor, A; Lone, B. A.; Allaqaband, G. Q.

    1994-01-01

    Three cases of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi infection presenting as spontaneous splenic rupture are presented. One patient died and two recovered completely. This is a previously unreported presentation of typhoid fever.

  1. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  2. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurevich, Andrey V

    2009-06-01

    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  3. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    .3/100,000 deliveries. Multiparity (RR 8.99 (95% CI 1.86-43.29)), induction of labour (RR 3.26 (95% CI 1.24-8.57)), epidural analgesia (RR 10.78 (95% CI 4.25-27.39)), and augmentation by oxytocin (RR 9.50 (95% CI 3.15-28.63)) were associated with uterine rupture. Induction of labour was not significantly related...... to uterine rupture when adjusted for parity, epidural analgesia and augmentation by oxytocin. CONCLUSION: Although uterine rupture is rare, its association with epidural analgesia and augmentation of labour with oxytocin in multipara should be considered. Thus, vigilance should be exercised when labour...... is obstructed and there is need for epidural analgesia and/or augmentation by oxytocin in multiparous women. Due to the rare occurrence of uterine rupture caution should be exerted when interpreting the findings of this study....

  4. Micromechanical properties and collagen composition of ruptured human achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Kovanen, Vuokko; Hölmich, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive.......The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive....

  5. Quadriceps tendon rupture through a superolateral bipartite patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G William; O'Connor, Daniel P; Elkousy, Hussein A

    2007-10-01

    We report a case of a quadriceps tendon rupture through a bipartite patella. Although quadriceps tendon ruptures and patella fractures are common, rupture through a bipartite patella fragment is rare. This case was managed similar to a quadriceps rupture with an excellent result.

  6. Interface Characteristics of Wood-hybrid Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEFenglian; ZHAOGuangjie

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the current interface characteristics of wood-hybrid composites, this paper starts off from the concept of composite interface and general theory of interface form, then the inner-surface and microstructure of wood and the interface characteristics of composites, such as wood- inorganic, wood-plastic and wood- metal made by electroless plating technique, are concluded and discussed in detail. Meanwhile,on the basis of that, some points of view about how to develop the wood-hybrid composites interface research in the future are also proposed.

  7. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  8. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Talving

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  9. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  10. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  11. Pressurized bellows flat contact heat exchanger interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Fred E. (Inventor); Howell, Harold R. (Inventor); Winkler, Roger V. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is an interdigitated plate-type heat exchanger interface. The interface includes a modular interconnect to thermally connect a pair or pairs of plate-type heat exchangers to a second single or multiple plate-type heat exchanger. The modular interconnect comprises a series of parallel, plate-type heat exchangers arranged in pairs to form a slot therebetween. The plate-type heat exchangers of the second heat exchanger insert into the slots of the modular interconnect. Bellows are provided between the pairs of fins of the modular interconnect so that when the bellows are pressurized, they drive the plate-type heat exchangers of the modular interconnect toward one another, thus closing upon the second heat exchanger plates. Each end of the bellows has a part thereof a thin, membrane diaphragm which readily conforms to the contours of the heat exchanger plates of the modular interconnect when the bellows is pressurized. This ensures an even distribution of pressure on the heat exchangers of the modular interconnect thus creating substantially planar contact between the two heat exchangers. The effect of the interface of the present invention is to provide a dry connection between two heat exchangers whereby the rate of heat transfer can be varied by varying the pressure within the bellows.

  12. Interface dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interface dermatitis includes diseases in which the primary pathology involves the dermo-epidermal junction. The salient histological findings include basal cell vacuolization, apoptotic keratinocytes (colloid or Civatte bodies, and obscuring of the dermo-epidermal junction by inflammatory cells. Secondary changes of the epidermis and papillary dermis along with type, distribution and density of inflammatory cells are used for the differential diagnoses of the various diseases that exhibit interface changes. Lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, lichen planus, graft versus host disease, erythema multiforme, fixed drug eruptions, lichen striatus, and pityriasis lichenoides are considered major interface diseases. Several other diseases (inflammatory, infective, and neoplastic may show interface changes.

  13. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  14. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...... of an interface are invisible and not easy to describe....

  15. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  16. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly to the devel...

  17. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong [Shilla General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture.

  18. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

    2015-01-01

    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair.

  19. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...... have caused major failures. In the Netherlands, a major black out was caused by interface problems in 150kV cable terminations, causing a cascade of breakdowns. There is a need to investigate the reasons for this and other similar breakdowns.The major problem is expected to lie in the interface between...... two different materials. Environmental influence, surface treatment, defects in materials and interface, design, pressure and rubbing are believed to have an effect on interface degradation. These factors are believed to increase the possibility of partial discharges (PD). PD will, with time, destroy...

  20. Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in eleven cats with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindner, Julia K; Bielecki, Malgorzata J; Scharvogel, Stefan; Meiler, Diane

    2016-11-23

    To report the surgical procedure, intra- and postoperative complications, and short-term follow-up of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) in feline patients with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture using a 2.0 or 2.4 mm Synthes(®) TPLO plate. Prospective study. Eleven cats with a CrCL rupture were included in the study. Inspection of intra-articular structures was carried out via arthroscopy or arthrotomy. Each patient was re-examined one and 10 days after surgery. Orthopaedic examination and follow-up radiographs were obtained four to 12 weeks postoperatively. Two meniscopathies and one partial CrCL rupture were detected. Minor intra-operative complications occurred in five cats (suboptimal positioning of the plate [n = 3], proximal fibular fracture [n = 1], a visible osteotomy gap [n = 1]). Postoperatively, minor complications were detected in three cats (mild patellar desmitis [n = 2], superficial wound infection [n = 1]). No additional surgical reintervention, graded as major complication, was necessary. Four to eight weeks postoperatively, all cats showed no to mild intermittent lameness. Complete bone union was apparent within four to 12 weeks. Owners reported a high level of comfort and mobility during the last follow-up. The preliminary results of this study support the use of TPLO in cats, but larger case numbers are needed to evaluate its practicability, as well as long-term outcome (>1 year), especially evaluating the development and the clinical relevance of osteoarthritis.

  1. Do liquid films rupture due to the so-called hydrophobic force or migration of dissolved gases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakashev, Stoyan I; Nguyen, Anh V

    2009-04-09

    Liquid films between hydrophobic (water-repellent) interfaces are not stable. The film rupture has been attributed to the so-called hydrophobic attraction. In this paper microinterferometry experiments show that gases inherently dissolved in water have a significant effect on the film rupture. Specifically, films of ultrapure deionized water in contact with degassed oil (squalene) were stable for as long as 35 min, while the water films in contact with nondegassed oil had a lifetime of seconds. These films ruptured at film thicknesses of approximately 150 nm. The degassed oil was also purposely left in contact with air. The oil-in-water emulsion films formed between degassed oil left in contact with air for a long period of time did not last longer than a few seconds and ruptured at significantly high thicknesses (about 800 nm). The degassing effect did not change the interfacial potential (about -65 mV) and the electrical double-layer repulsion between the squalene-water interfaces. Migration of dissolved gases between oil and water caused the rupture phenomena observed.

  2. Light microscopic histology of quadriceps tendon ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Del Buono, Angelo; Spiezia, Filippo; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-11-01

    To assess histological changes and possible differences in the quadriceps of patients undergoing open repair of the tendon after spontaneous rupture, and subjects with no history of tendon pathology. Biopsies were harvested from the quadriceps tendon of 46 patients (34 men, 12 women) who had reported unilateral atraumatic quadriceps tendon rupture and had undergone surgical repair of the tendon. Samples were also harvested from both the tendons in 11 (N = 11 × 2) patients, nine males and two females, dying from cardiovascular disorders. For each tendon, three slides were randomly selected and examined under light microscopy, and assessed using a semiquantitative grading scale (range 0-21) which considers fibre structure, fibre arrangement, rounding of the nuclei, regional variations in cellularity, increased vascularity, decreased collagen stainability, and hyalinisation. The pathological sum-score averaged 19.2 ± 3.7 in ruptured tendons and 5.6 ± 2.0 in controls, and all variables considered were significantly different between the two groups, showing an association between tendon abnormalities and rupture (0.05 tendons increases the risk of rupture.

  3. Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarac Momir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a potentially lethal state. Only half of patients with ruptured AAA reach the hospital alive. The alternative for open reconstruction of this condition is endovascular repair (EVAR. We presented a successful endovascular reapir of ruptured AAA in a patient with a number of comorbidities. Case report. A 60-year-old man was admitted to our institution due to diffuse abdominal pain with flatulence and belching. Initial abdominal ultrasonography showed an AAA that was confirmed on multislice computed tomography scan angiography which revealed a large retroperitoneal haematoma. Because of patient’s comorbidites (previous surgery of laryngeal carcinoma and one-third laryngeal stenosis, arterial hypertension and cardiomyopathy with left ventricle ejection fraction of 30%, stenosis of the right internal carotid artery of 80% it was decided that endovascular repair of ruptured AAA in local anaesthesia and analgosedation would be treatment of choice. Endovascular grafting was achieved with aorto-bi-iliac bifurcated excluder endoprosthesis with complete exclusion of the aneurysmal sac, without further enlargment of haemathoma and no contrast leakage. The postoperative course of the patient was eventless, without complications. On recall examination 3 months after, the state of the patient was well. Conclusion. The alternative for open reconstruction of ruptured AAA in haemodynamically stable patients with suitable anatomy and comorbidities could be emergency EVAR in local anesthesia. This technique could provide greater chances for survival with lower intraoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality, as shown in the presented patient.

  4. Dynamic rupture processes inferred from laboratory microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelègue, François. X.; Schubnel, Alexandre; Nielsen, Stefan; Bhat, Harsha S.; Deldicque, Damien; Madariaga, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    We report macroscopic stick-slip events in saw-cut Westerly granite samples deformed under controlled upper crustal stress conditions in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted under triaxial loading (σ1>σ2=σ3) at confining pressures (σ3) ranging from 10 to 100 MPa. A high-frequency acoustic monitoring array recorded particle acceleration during macroscopic stick-slip events allowing us to estimate rupture speed. In addition, we record the stress drop dynamically and we show that the dynamic stress drop measured locally close to the fault plane is almost total in the breakdown zone (for normal stress >75 MPa), while the friction f recovers to values of f > 0.4 within only a few hundred microseconds. Enhanced dynamic weakening is observed to be linked to the melting of asperities which can be well explained by flash heating theory in agreement with our postmortem microstructural analysis. Relationships between initial state of stress, rupture velocities, stress drop, and energy budget suggest that at high normal stress (leading to supershear rupture velocities), the rupture processes are more dissipative. Our observations question the current dichotomy between the fracture energy and the frictional energy in terms of rupture processes. A power law scaling of the fracture energy with final slip is observed over 8 orders of magnitude in slip, from a few microns to tens of meters.

  5. Jet drops from microbubble rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Bartlett, Casey; Bird, James

    2014-11-01

    When a bubble bursts at an interface, the surface energy creates an upward jet that can break into smaller droplets. Extensive research has demonstrated that the size of the droplets depends on the size of the initial bubbles. Yet this research has almost entirely been conducted for bubbles that are larger than 100 microns. As the bubbles approach 100 microns, the linear relation seems to deviate, although there have not been systematic experiments in this regime - mainly because these smaller bubbles and the even smaller droplets that they create have been difficult to visualize in the past. Here we directly measure the jetting phenomena for bubbles that are smaller than 100 micron using a combination of microfluidics and high-speed photography, and we relate our results to theory. Lab Name: Interfacial Fluidic Dynamics Laboratory Faculty Mentor's Name: James C. Bird.

  6. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  7. Heterogeneous structure around the rupture area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw=8.0), Japan, as revealed by aftershock observations using Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Yuya; SHINOHARA, MASANAO; Takanami, Tetsuo; Murai, Yoshio; Yamada, Tomoaki; Hirata, Naoshi; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi; KANAZAWA, Toshihiko; KANEDA, YOSHIYUKI; Mikada, Hitoshi; SAKAI, Shin'ichi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Uehira, Kenji; TAKAHASHI, NARUMI; NISHINO, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in the area off southeastern Hokkaido Island, Japan, as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the island, which is on the North American Plate. The most recent large earthquake in this area, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), occurred on September 26, 2003. In order to investigate aftershock activity in the rupture area, 47 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were quickly deployed after the main shock. In the present study, we simultaneously estim...

  8. Ruptured venous aneurysm of cervicomedullary junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ruptured venous aneurysm is often seen with arterio-venous malformation (AVM or developmental venous anomaly (DVA. However, isolated venous aneurysm is unusual. Case Description: We present a case of ruptured venous aneurysm that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH. Digital substraction angiography (DSA revealed a saccular contrast filling pouch in the left lateral aspect of cervicomedullary junction (CMJ. Endovascular intervention was not a viable option. During surgery, a saccular pliable structure approx. 1.5 Χ 1 cm was found in the subarachnoid space that was clipped and excised. There were no arterial feeders, no evidence of surrounding AVM, and no dilated perimedullary vein. Conclusion: This is perhaps the first reported case of ruptured venous aneurysm (without associated AVM of CMJ, which was successfully managed surgically. The possible etiologies remain an unnoticed head trauma or a congenital vessel wall abnormality. Surgically clipping and excision remains the treatment of choice for such lesion.

  9. The Identity Process in Times of Ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2016-01-01

    revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contexts and how they create alternative social relations as they engage in prefigurative politics. The findings......This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011...... shed light on how ruptures trigger a process of reflexivity, adaptive learning, and sense-making that facilitates coping and the reconstruction of a positive identity after ruptures. It also suggests that the narration of the experience of rupture through storytelling creates a heightened sense...

  10. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  11. The Identity Process in Times of Ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011...... revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contexts and how they create alternative social relations as they engage in prefigurative politics. The findings...... shed light on how ruptures trigger a process of reflexivity, adaptive learning, and sense-making that facilitates coping and the reconstruction of a positive identity after ruptures. It also suggests that the narration of the experience of rupture through storytelling creates a heightened sense...

  12. Creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Y. T.

    1980-01-01

    A 'material modeling' methodology for predicting the creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites is proposed. In this approach the parameters (obtained from short-term tests) required to make the predictions are the three principal creep compliance master curves and their corresponding quasi-static strengths tested at room temperature (22 C). Using these parameters in conjunction with a failure criterion, creep rupture envelopes can be generated for any combination of in-plane loading conditions and ambient temperature. The analysis was validated experimentally for one composite system, the T300/934 graphite-epoxy system. This was done by performing short-term creep tests (to generate the principal creep compliance master curves with the time-temperature superposition principle) and relatively long-term creep rupture tensile tests of off-axis specimens at 180 C. Good to reasonable agreement between experimental and analytical results is observed.

  13. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  14. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  18. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  19. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  4. Validation of the rupture properties of the 2001 Kunlun, China (Ms = 8.1), earthquake from seismological and geological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Song, T.R.-A.; Mooney, W.D.

    2009-01-01

    We determine the finite-fault slip distribution of the 2001 Kunlun earthquake (Ms = 8.1) by inverting teleseismic waveforms, as constrained by geological and remote sensing field observations. The spatial slip distribution along the 400-km-long fault was divided into five segments in accordance with geological observations. Forward modelling of regional surface waves was performed to estimate the variation of the speed of rupture propagation during faulting. For our modelling, the regional 1-D velocity structure was carefully constructed for each of six regional seismic stations using three events with magnitudes of 5.1-5.4 distributed along the ruptured portion of the Kunlun fault. Our result shows that the average rupture velocity is about 3.6 km s-1, consistent with teleseismic long period wave modelling. The initial rupture was almost purely strike-slip with a rupture velocity of 1.9 km s-1, increasing to 3.5 km s-1 in the second fault segment, and reaching a rupture velocity of about 6 km s-1 in the third segment and the fourth segment, where the maximum surface offset, with a broad fault zone, was observed. The rupture velocity decelerated to a value of 3.3 km s-1 in the fifth and final segment. Coseismic slip on the fault was concentrated between the surface and a depth of about 10 km. We infer that significant variations in rupture velocity and the observed fault segmentation are indicative of variations in strength along the interface of the Kunlun fault, as well as variations in fault geometry. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  5. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yee Leong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  6. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  7. Gravid med spontan ruptur af arteria uterina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women....

  8. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raakhi Mistry, MBChB

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.

  9. Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.

  10. ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURE AND PLATELET RICH PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Zedde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Achilles tendon rupture is currently one of the most frequent injuries in athletes. Such rupture may be caused by a sudden dorsiflexion of the ankle, pushing off with the weight bearing forefoot while extending the knee or violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot. The treatment goal consists of restoring the normal tendon length and tension, as well as the function and strength of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex. The biological repair process can be enhanced in all stages of recovery with the use of PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma without any side effects.

  11. Rupture of the plantar fascia in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R; Jones, R; Silva, T

    1978-06-01

    Symptoms resembling those of plantar fasciitis were seen in six athletes who were thought to have a partial rupture of the plantar fascia. Treatment, which included the use of crutches, anti-inflammatory agents, strapping of the arch, and ice packs, was successful in all but one patient who had a painful mass in the area of the previous rupture. After surgical excision of the painful mass and release of the fascia, he recovered. Five of the six athletes had been previously treated with repeated local injections of steroid.

  12. POVRATAK SPORTSKIM AKTIVNOSTIMA POSLIJE RUPTURE AHILOVE TETIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kezunović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals of the treatment of sports injuries is athletes’ early return to normal sporting activities. Time when the athletes will return to normal sporting activities, after Achilles tendon acute rupture, depends on the level of sports involvement. Average time of return to sport is usually between 5-6 months after rupture. Patients, who are treated using postoperative functional cast, can expect an average return to their sport a month earlier than those who after surgery used solid cast immobilization. The most important signs that indicate possible slow rehabilitation process are the pain and swelling after activity and late recovery of the tissue.

  13. Mycotic aneurysm rupture of the descending aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gufler, H.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Nesbitt, E.; Hauenstein, K.H. [Department of Radiology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    A 69-year-old diabetic male with salmonella bacteremia developed hypovolemic shock and swelling of the neck. A CT examination revealed massive mediastinal hemorrhage extending into the neck soft tissues caused by false aneurysm rupture of the descending thoracic aorta. Aortography showed continuous extravasation from a large leak at the medial side of the descending thoracic aorta. Although surgical intervention was immediately performed, the patient died 3 weeks later from multiple-organ failure. In this report, CT and angiographic findings of mycotic aneurysm rupture are presented and a review is given. (orig.) With 2 figs., 11 refs.

  14. Analysis of the Illapel Mw = 8.3 Thrust Earthquake Rupture Zone Using GOCE-Derived Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Orlando; Pesce, Agustina; Gimenez, Mario; Folguera, Andres; Soler, Santiago; Chen, Wenjin

    2016-08-01

    Satellite gravimetry has proven to be a useful tool to identify mass anomalies along a subduction interface, interpreted as heterogeneities related to the rupture process during megathrust earthquakes. In the last years, different works, reinforced with data derived from satellite gravity missions as GRACE and now GOCE, have analyzed not only the static component of the Earth gravity field, but also its temporal variations and relation to the seismic cycle. In particular, during the last decade, the Chilean margin has been affected by three megathrust earthquakes (with Mw >8): Maule 2010 Mw = 8.8, Pisagua 2014 Mw = 8.2 and recently the Mw = 8.3 Illapel event. Then, the recently completed GOCE mission (November 2009 to November 2013) offered a unique opportunity to study the Maule February 2010 and Pisagua April 2014 events by means of gravity gradients, directly measured at satellite height altitudes, which allowed mapping density heterogeneities with greater detail than the gravity anomaly which has been used in most studies up to now. In the present work, we use the last GOCE model (GO_CONS_GCF_2_DIR_R5), the one of higher spatial resolution (N = 300, λ/2 ≈ 66 km) derived from satellite-only data. The methodology used is the same as that to study the previous events, with the addition that now we derived a relation between the associated depths of a causative mass with a determined degree of the spherical harmonic expansion. This allowed to "decompose" the gravimetric signal, by cutting off the degree/order of the harmonic expansion, as depth increases. From this analysis, we found that prominent oceanic features such as the Challenger fracture zone and the Juan Fernandez ridge played a key role in latitudinal seismic segmentation for the Illapel earthquake rupture zone, acting as barriers/attenuators to the seismic energy release. We compared the slip model from Tilmann et al. (Geophysical Research Letters 43: 574-583. doi:10.1002/2015GL066963, 2016) for the

  15. Analysis of the Illapel Mw = 8.3 Thrust Earthquake Rupture Zone Using GOCE-Derived Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Orlando; Pesce, Agustina; Gimenez, Mario; Folguera, Andres; Soler, Santiago; Chen, Wenjin

    2017-01-01

    Satellite gravimetry has proven to be a useful tool to identify mass anomalies along a subduction interface, interpreted as heterogeneities related to the rupture process during megathrust earthquakes. In the last years, different works, reinforced with data derived from satellite gravity missions as GRACE and now GOCE, have analyzed not only the static component of the Earth gravity field, but also its temporal variations and relation to the seismic cycle. In particular, during the last decade, the Chilean margin has been affected by three megathrust earthquakes (with Mw >8): Maule 2010 Mw = 8.8, Pisagua 2014 Mw = 8.2 and recently the Mw = 8.3 Illapel event. Then, the recently completed GOCE mission (November 2009 to November 2013) offered a unique opportunity to study the Maule February 2010 and Pisagua April 2014 events by means of gravity gradients, directly measured at satellite height altitudes, which allowed mapping density heterogeneities with greater detail than the gravity anomaly which has been used in most studies up to now. In the present work, we use the last GOCE model (GO_CONS_GCF_2_DIR_R5), the one of higher spatial resolution ( N = 300, λ/2 ≈ 66 km) derived from satellite-only data. The methodology used is the same as that to study the previous events, with the addition that now we derived a relation between the associated depths of a causative mass with a determined degree of the spherical harmonic expansion. This allowed to "decompose" the gravimetric signal, by cutting off the degree/order of the harmonic expansion, as depth increases. From this analysis, we found that prominent oceanic features such as the Challenger fracture zone and the Juan Fernandez ridge played a key role in latitudinal seismic segmentation for the Illapel earthquake rupture zone, acting as barriers/attenuators to the seismic energy release. We compared the slip model from Tilmann et al. (Geophysical Research Letters 43: 574-583. doi:10.1002/2015GL066963, 2016) for the

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  17. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  18. Uniform California earthquake rupture forecast, version 2 (UCERF 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E.H.; Dawson, T.E.; Felzer, K.R.; Frankel, A.D.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Parsons, T.; Petersen, M.D.; Stein, R.S.; Weldon, R.J.; Wills, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP, 2007) presents the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2). This model comprises a time-independent (Poisson-process) earthquake rate model, developed jointly with the National Seismic Hazard Mapping Program and a time-dependent earthquake-probability model, based on recent earthquake rates and stress-renewal statistics conditioned on the date of last event. The models were developed from updated statewide earthquake catalogs and fault deformation databases using a uniform methodology across all regions and implemented in the modular, extensible Open Seismic Hazard Analysis framework. The rate model satisfies integrating measures of deformation across the plate-boundary zone and is consistent with historical seismicity data. An overprediction of earthquake rates found at intermediate magnitudes (6.5 ??? M ???7.0) in previous models has been reduced to within the 95% confidence bounds of the historical earthquake catalog. A logic tree with 480 branches represents the epistemic uncertainties of the full time-dependent model. The mean UCERF 2 time-dependent probability of one or more M ???6.7 earthquakes in the California region during the next 30 yr is 99.7%; this probability decreases to 46% for M ???7.5 and to 4.5% for M ???8.0. These probabilities do not include the Cascadia subduction zone, largely north of California, for which the estimated 30 yr, M ???8.0 time-dependent probability is 10%. The M ???6.7 probabilities on major strike-slip faults are consistent with the WGCEP (2003) study in the San Francisco Bay Area and the WGCEP (1995) study in southern California, except for significantly lower estimates along the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults, owing to provisions for larger multisegment ruptures. Important model limitations are discussed.

  19. Spatio-temporal mapping of plate boundary faults in California using geodetic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Arrowsmith, Ramon; DeLong, Stephen B.

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific–North American plate boundary in California is composed of a 400-km-wide network of faults and zones of distributed deformation. Earthquakes, even large ones, can occur along individual or combinations of faults within the larger plate boundary system. While research often focuses on the primary and secondary faults, holistic study of the plate boundary is required to answer several fundamental questions. How do plate boundary motions partition across California faults? How do faults within the plate boundary interact during earthquakes? What fraction of strain accumulation is relieved aseismically and does this provide limits on fault rupture propagation? Geodetic imaging, broadly defined as measurement of crustal deformation and topography of the Earth’s surface, enables assessment of topographic characteristics and the spatio-temporal behavior of the Earth’s crust. We focus here on crustal deformation observed with continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) from NASA’s airborne UAVSAR platform, and on high-resolution topography acquired from lidar and Structure from Motion (SfM) methods. Combined, these measurements are used to identify active structures, past ruptures, transient motions, and distribution of deformation. The observations inform estimates of the mechanical and geometric properties of faults. We discuss five areas in California as examples of different fault behavior, fault maturity and times within the earthquake cycle: the M6.0 2014 South Napa earthquake rupture, the San Jacinto fault, the creeping and locked Carrizo sections of the San Andreas fault, the Landers rupture in the Eastern California Shear Zone, and the convergence of the Eastern California Shear Zone and San Andreas fault in southern California. These examples indicate that distribution of crustal deformation can be measured using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), Global Navigation

  20. Drainage, rupture, and lifetime of deionized water films: effect of dissolved gases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phong T; Nguyen, Anh V

    2010-03-02

    Gas bubbles coalesce in deionized (DI) water because the water (foam) films between the bubbles are not stable. The so-called hydrophobic attraction has been suggested as the cause of the film instability and the bubble coalescence. In this work, microinterferometry experiments show that foam films of ultrapure DI water can last up to 10 s and the contact time between the two gas bubble surfaces at close proximity (approximately 1 microm separation distance) significantly influences the film drainage, rupture, and lifetime. Specifically, when the two bubbles were first brought into contact, the films instantly ruptured at 0.5 microm thickness. However, the film drainage rate and rupture thickness sharply decreased and the film lifetime steeply increased with increasing contact time up to 10 min, but then they leveled off. The constant thickness of film rupture was around 35 nm. Possible contamination was vigorously investigated and ruled out. It is argued that migration of gases inherently dissolved in water might cause the transient behavior of the water films at the short contact time. The film drainage rate and instability at the long contact time were analyzed employing Eriksson et al.'s phenomenological theory of long-range hydrophobic attraction (Eriksson, J. C.; Ljunggren, S.; Claesson, P. M., J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 1989, 85, 163-176) and the hypothesis of water molecular structure modified by dissolved gases, and the extended Stefan-Reynolds theory by incorporating the mobility of the air-DI-water interfaces.

  1. Rupture directivity of micro-earthquakes along the San Andreas fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E.; Rubin, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Theoretically, it is expected that earthquakes occurring on an interface separating materials with different elastic properties might have a preferential rupture propagation direction. To test for this, we searched for indications of directivity by examining spectral ratios of multiple pairs of nearby earthquakes at azimuthally distributed seismic stations. By taking the spectral ratios, this technique is capable of canceling path and station terms in seismic spectra. It differs from a typical empirical Green's Function approach in that it compares events with similar sizes as well as events with significant size differences. The spectral ratios are fitted with a simple forward model, in which a bidirectional earthquake source is composed of two point sources moving at constant velocities in opposite directions (assumed to be horizontal). Each bidirectional earthquake has four model parameters: the lengths of the two rupture halves running in opposite directions, and their propagation velocities. A priori information concerning the total rupture length of bidirectional events are computed from catalog magnitude using a moment-magnitude relation and a 3MPa stress drop on an equidimensional rupture. The a priori rupture velocity is peaked at 0.8Vs and constrained to be smaller than Vs. Since identical earthquakes would produce frequency-independent spectral ratios at all azimuths, determining the initiation points of earthquakes requires variability in event size and/or relative directivity. The relocated catalog of Rubin [2002] was used to define 78 clusters of repeating earthquakes along the central San Andreas fault. The spectral ratios of all combinations of earthquake pairs in each cluster were fitted with synthetic spectral ratios at stations with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and coherence. The inversion results show that, as might have been expected, differences in rupture processes (duration and relative directivity) of the earthquakes within most

  2. Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.

  3. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  4. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture during Pregnancy: Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After ultrasound scan, uterine rupture was diagnosed and an emergency .... Uterine rupture in multiparity occurs usually during labour. We think that our patient may have had uterine scar from ... abdominal pains and signs of shock, at which.

  5. Source rupture process of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake: how did the two subparallel faults rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miho; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Kubo, Hisahiko

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (MW 6.6) occurred about a month after the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (MW 9.0), and it is thought to have been induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. After the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, two subparallel faults (the Itozawa and Yunodake faults) were identified by field surveys. The hypocenter was located nearby the Itozawa fault, and it is probable that the Itozawa fault ruptured before the Yunodake fault rupture. Here, we estimated the source rupture process of the 2011 Hamadori earthquake using a model with two subparallel faults based on strong motion data. The rupture starting point and rupture delay time of the Yunodake fault were determined based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The results show that the Yunodake fault started to rupture from the northern deep point 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture. The estimated slip distribution in the shallow part is consistent with the surface slip distribution identified by field surveys. Time-dependent Coulomb failure function changes (ΔCFF) were calculated using the stress change from the Itozawa fault rupture in order to evaluate the effect of the rupture on the Yunodake fault. The ΔCFF is positive at the rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture; therefore, it is concluded that during the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, the Yunodake fault rupture was triggered by the Itozawa fault rupture.

  6. Modelling ground rupture due to groundwater withdrawal: applications to test cases in China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, A.; Teatini, P.; Janna, C.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Ye, S.; Carreón-Freyre, D.

    2015-11-01

    The stress variation induced by aquifer overdraft in sedimentary basins with shallow bedrock may cause rupture in the form of pre-existing fault activation or earth fissure generation. The process is causing major detrimental effects on a many areas in China and Mexico. Ruptures yield discontinuity in both displacement and stress field that classic continuous finite element (FE) models cannot address. Interface finite elements (IE), typically used in contact mechanics, may be of great help and are implemented herein to simulate the fault geomechanical behaviour. Two main approaches, i.e. Penalty and Lagrangian, are developed to enforce the contact condition on the element interface. The incorporation of IE incorporation into a three-dimensional (3-D) FE geomechanical simulator shows that the Lagrangian approach is numerically more robust and stable than the Penalty, thus providing more reliable solutions. Furthermore, the use of a Newton-Raphson scheme to deal with the non-linear elasto-plastic fault behaviour allows for quadratic convergence. The FE - IE model is applied to investigate the likely ground rupture in realistic 3-D geologic settings. The case studies are representative of the City of Wuxi in the Jiangsu Province (China), and of the City of Queretaro, Mexico, where significant land subsidence has been accompanied by the generation of several earth fissures jeopardizing the stability and integrity of the overland structures and infrastructure.

  7. Formation Mechanism of Oxide Inclusion on the Interface of Hot-Rolled Stainless Steel Clad Plates%热轧不锈钢复合板界面氧化物夹杂的形成机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 张心金; 刘会云; 殷福星

    2013-01-01

    The inclusions on the bonded interface were analyzed by optical microscopy (OA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the formation mechanism of oxide inclusions was investigated and discussed. The results show that the inclusions are mainly made of oxides. The chemical composition of oxide inclusions can also be related to vacuum degree inside the clad metal slab, in which silicon dominated at the vacuum degree of 15 Pa or higher and the aluminum did at the vacuum degree of 0. 1 Pa or lower. It can be considered that the oxide inclusions were formed due to the oxidation of aluminum, silicon, manganese elements diffusing from the inside to interfaces to be bonded of metals. The experimental results also indicate that oxidation also become more evident with the reduction in vacuum degree, and the proportion of oxide inclusions increases to 50% from 15% with the decrease of vacuum degree from 0. 1 Pa to near 15 Pa.%以不锈钢-低合金钢复合板为研究对象,利用光学显微镜及扫描电镜对复合界面附近的夹杂物进行了分析.研究发现,不锈钢复合板界面处夹杂物主要为氧化物,其成分与复合界面处的真空度有关.在较低的真空度下(真空度大于15 Pa),氧化物夹杂的成分以硅为主,在较高的真空度下(真空度小于0.1 Pa),夹杂的成分以铝为主.界面氧化物夹杂主要是由于高温下钢中的Al、Si和Mn等元素向复合界面处扩散并被氧化形成的.由试验结果也可知,随着真空度的降低,界面氧化也变得更加明显,当真空度的值从0.1Pa增加到20 Pa左右时,界面氧化物的体积分数从15%提高到了50%.

  8. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  9. The electrocardiogram in traumatic right atrial rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Berg, MP

    1999-01-01

    We:report the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who had a traumatic rupture of the right atrium. On admission an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded which is highly remarkable and, retrospectively, suggestive for the diagnosis. The patient died soon after the EGG, and the diagnosis was m

  10. TREATMENT OF OLD ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Koryshkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1998 to 2010 32 patients (14 men, 18 women, aged 15-65 years, underwent surgical treatment for old Achilles tendon rupture. In all cases correct diagnosis was made not earlier than 1 month after injury. The importance of clinical Thompson test and sonographic examination for diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is underlined. For the restoration of Achilles tendon V-Y plasty was used. Surgery was performed in a period of 1 to 13 months in patients with subcutaneous Achilles tendon ruptures. Follow-up results of patients in the postoperative period ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean follow-up 1 year 7 months. Date of observation in the postoperative period ranged from 6 months to 19 years. Marginal necrosis wound occurred in 3 (10% patients, re-rupture of the Achilles tendon to tendon suture zone - in one patient, even in one patient on day 14 became infected. Violations of the foot innervation were no detected.

  11. Plantar fascia rupture associated with corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, J R

    1994-07-01

    A series of 37 patients, all with a presumptive diagnosis of plantar fascia rupture, is presented. All had had prior heel pain diagnosed as plantar fasciitis, and all had been treated with corticosteroid injection into the calcaneal origin of the fascia. One third described a sudden tearing episode in the heel, while the rest had a gradual change in symptoms. Most of the patients had relief of the original heel pain, which had been replaced by a variety of new foot problems, including dorsal and lateral midfoot pain, swelling, foot weakness, metatarsal pain, and metatarsal fracture. In all 37 patients, there was a palpable diminution in the tension of the plantar fascia on the involved side, and footprints often showed a flattening of the involved arch. Magnetic resonance imaging done on one patient showed attenuation of the plantar fascia. From these observations and data, the author concluded that plantar fascia rupture had occurred. Treatment following rupture included supportive shoes, orthoses, and time. The majority had resolution of their new symptoms, but this often took 6 to 12 months to occur. In the remainder, there were persisting symptoms. Corticosteroid injections, although helpful in the treatment of plantar fasciitis, appear to predispose to plantar fascia rupture.

  12. Muscle rupture associated with statin use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekhart, C.; Jong, L.A.W.; Gross-Martirosyan, L.; Hunsel, F. van

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Statins are used in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. They are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. Statins have been linked to musculoskeletal adverse drug reactions. However muscle rupture has not been discussed as an adverse drug reaction to statins so far. The aim of this

  13. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Emergency assessment and diagnosis as well as scrotal exploration are important components of the management of acute testicular rupture. Analysis of the literature proves that timely surgical intervention is crucial; early intervention results in higher rates of preservation and avoids the need for an orchidectomy.

  14. Diagnosis and management of testicular ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jill C; McAninch, Jack W

    2006-02-01

    Testicular ruptures are a common occurrence in scrotal trauma that can go undetected ifa thorough examination or scrotal ultrasonography is not performed. Timely operative exploration and reconstruction is the standard of care and leads to high testicular salvage rates with hormonal, reproductive, and cosmetic benefits for the patient.

  15. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  16. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  17. [Simultaneous rupture of a patellar tendon and contralateral quadriceps tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horas, U; Ernst, S; Meyer, C; Halbsguth, A; Herbst, U

    2006-09-01

    The simultaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare injury; only occasional reports exist about the bilateral simultaneous rupture of the patellar tendon. Degenerative changes of the tendon due to drugs or diseases lead to the rupture. We describe two cases of simultaneous rupture of the patellar and contralateral quadriceps tendons; only one patient had special risks. We report the management of therapy and the functional results using the Lysholm score and Knee Rating Scale.

  18. A case of splenic torsion and rupture presenting as ruptured ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdatta Lahiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Splenic torsion with rupture of spleen is an extremely rare phenomenon. The clinical picture mimics several common conditions which are causes of acute abdomen and so it is seldom detected pre-operatively. An 18 year old female patient was admitted with an acute abdomen and shock. The provisional diagnosis was of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Peri-operatively we found a spontaneous rupture of the spleen following torsion along with early intrauterine pregnancy. Splenectomy was carried out and patient recovered well. Our report confirms that this rare entity can present as an acute abdomen which is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively and can masquerade as ruptured ectopic pregnancy in women of childbearing age group.

  19. Updated Rupture Model for the M7.8 October 28, 2012, Haida Gwaii Earthquake as Constrained by GPS-Observed Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykolaishen, L.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; James, T. S.; de Lange Boom, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sinnott, D.

    2014-12-01

    The M7.8 low-angle thrust earthquake off the west coast of southern Haida Gwaii on October 28, 2012, provided Canadian scientists the opportunity to study a local large thrust earthquake and has provided important information towards an improved understanding of geohazards in coastal British Columbia. Most large events along the Pacific-North America boundary in this region have involved strike-slip motion, such as the 1949 M8.1 earthquake on the Queen Charlotte Fault. In contrast along the southern portion of Haida Gwaii, the young (~8 Ma) Pacific plate crust also underthrusts North America and has been viewed as a small-scale analogy of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Initial seismic-based rupture models for this event were improved through inclusion of GPS observed coseismic displacements, which are as large as 115 cm of horizontal motion (SSW) and 30 cm of subsidence. Additional campaign-style GPS surveys have since been repeated by the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) at seven vertical reference benchmarks throughout Haida Gwaii, significantly improving the coverage of coseismic displacement observations in the region. These added offsets were typically calculated by differencing a single occupation before and after the earthquake and preliminary displacement estimates are consistent with previous GPS observations from the Geological Survey of Canada. Addition of the CHS coseismic offset estimates may allow direct inversion of the GPS data to derive a purely GPS-based rupture model. To date, cumulative postseismic displacements at six sites indicate up to 6 cm of motion, varying in azimuth between SSW and SE. Preliminary postseismic timeseries curve fitting to date has utilized a double exponential function characteristic of mantle relaxation. The current postseismic trends also suggest afterslip on the deeper plate interface beneath central Haida Gwaii along with possible induced aseismic slip on a deeper segment of the Queen Charlotte Fault located offshore

  20. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high p

  1. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-02-03

    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  2. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  3. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, underground mining industry has developed high-technology mass mining methods to optimise the productivity at deep levels. Such massive extraction induces high-level stress redistribution generating seismic events around the mining works, threatening safety and economics. For this reason mining irregular deep ore bodies calls for steadily enhanced scientific practises and technologies to guarantee the mine environment to be safer and stable for the miners and the infrastructures. INERIS, within the framework of the FP7 European project I2Mine and in partnership with the Swedish mining company Boliden, has developed new methodologies in order to monitor both quasi-static stress changes and ruptures in a seismic prone area. To this purpose, a unique local permanent microseismic and stress monitoring network has been installed into the deep-working Garpenberg mine situated to the north of Uppsala (Sweden). In this mine, ore is extracted using sublevel stoping with paste fill production/distribution system and long-hole drilling method. This monitoring network has been deployed between about 1100 and 1250 meter depth. It consists in six 1-component and five 3-component microseismic probes (14-Hz geophones) deployed in the Lappberget area, in addition to three 3D stress monitoring cells that focus on a very local exploited area. Objective is three-fold: to quantify accurately quasi-static stress changes and freshly-induced stress gradients with drift development in the orebody, to study quantitatively those stress changes versus induced detected and located microseismic ruptures, and possibly to identify quasi-static stress transfer from those seismic ruptures. Geophysical and geotechnical data are acquired continuously and automatically transferred to INERIS datacenter through the web. They are made available on a secured web cloud monitoring infrastructure called e.cenaris and completed with mine data. Such interface enables the visualisation of the

  4. Multiscale modeling of membrane rearrangement, drainage, and rupture in evolving foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saye, Robert I; Sethian, James A

    2013-05-10

    Modeling the physics of foams and foamlike materials, such as soapy froths, fire retardants, and lightweight crash-absorbent structures, presents challenges, because of the vastly different time and space scales involved. By separating and coupling these disparate scales, we have designed a multiscale framework to model dry foam dynamics. This leads to a predictive and flexible computational methodology linking, with a few simplifying assumptions, foam drainage, rupture, and topological rearrangement, to coupled interface-fluid motion under surface tension, gravity, and incompressible fluid dynamics. Our computed results match theoretical analyses and experimentally observed physical effects, including thin-film drainage and interference, and are used to study bubble rupture cascades and macroscopic rearrangement. The developed multiscale model allows quantitative computation of complex foam evolution phenomena.

  5. Interfacial stability and self-similar rupture of evaporating liquid layers under vapor recoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Duan, Fei

    2016-12-01

    We investigate interfacial stability of an evaporating viscous liquid layer above/below a horizontal heated substrate in the framework of a long-wave model that accounts for surface tension, positive/negative gravity, and evaporation effects of mass loss and vapor recoil. With the time-dependent linear stability analysis, it is found that the interface instability is enhanced by vapor recoil with time using an effective growth rate. The destabilizing mechanism of vapor thrust competes with the stabilizing surface tension, and the effects of the latter are not asymptotically negligible near rupture, reflected by a rescaled effective interfacial pressure. A two-dimensional nonlinear evolution is investigated for the quasi-equilibrium evaporating layers with different evaporative conditions for Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and sessile layers. For weak mass loss and strong vapor recoil, the well-defined capillary ridges emerge around a deepening narrow valley with increasing wavelength under a positive gravity, while, on the basis of initial condition, main and secondary droplets are either coalesced partially or separated by a sharp dry-out point under a negative gravity. The rupture location depends strongly on the characteristics of a given initial condition, except for the random perturbation. For both the cases, an increase in the modified evaporation number tends to reduce the rupture time tr and droplet thickness remarkably. Similarity analysis along with numerical strategy is presented for the final stage of touch-down dynamics, determined by a physical balance between the vapor recoil and capillary force. The evaporation-driven rupture with a significant vapor recoil and negligible mass loss is shown to contain a countably infinite number of similarity solutions whose horizontal and vertical length scales behave as (tr - t)1/2 and (tr - t)1/3. The first similarity solution represents a stable single-point rupture.

  6. Gesture Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Take away mouse and keyboard. Now, how do you interact with a computer? Especially one that has a display that is the size of an entire wall. One possibility is through gesture interfaces. Remember Minority Report? Cool stuff, but that was already five years ago.. So, what is already possible now an

  7. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Desi

  8. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...

  9. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duru, Kenneth, E-mail: kduru@stanford.edu [Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dunham, Eric M. [Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface in an elastic solid is a useful idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across fault zones and tractions acting on the fault are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging. In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated for many wavelengths away from the fault. Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods. We present a high order accurate finite difference method for: a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration; b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along nonplanar faults; and c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography. We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators in space. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. The finite difference stencils used in this paper are sixth order accurate in the interior and third order accurate close to the boundaries. However, the method is applicable to any spatial operator with a diagonal norm satisfying the SBP property. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge–Kutta scheme, thus yielding a globally fourth order accurate method in both space and time. We show numerical simulations on band limited self-similar fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture

  10. A concept of PWR using plate and shell heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: luciano.ondir@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In previous work it was verified the physical possibility of using plate and shell heat exchangers for steam generation in a PWR for merchant ships. This work studies the possibility of using GESMEX commercial of the shelf plate and shell heat exchanger of series XPS. It was found it is feasible for this type of heat exchanger to meet operational and accidental requirements for steam generation in PWR. Additionally, it is proposed an arrangement of such heat exchangers inside the reactor pressure vessel. Such arrangement may avoid ANSI/ANS51.1 nuclear class I requirements on those heat exchangers because they are contained in the reactor coolant pressure barrier and play no role in accidental scenarios. Additionally, those plates work under compression, preventing the risk of rupture. Being considered non-nuclear safety, having a modular architecture and working under compression may turn such architectural choice a must to meet safety objectives with improved economics. (author)

  11. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  12. Theoretical Investigation of Calculating Temperatures in the Combining Zone of Cu/Fe Composite Plate Jointed by Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Y. D.; Zhang, W. J.; Kong, X. Q.; Zhao, X.

    2016-03-01

    The heat-transfer behavior of the interface of Flyer plate (or Base Plate) has great influence on the microcosmic structures, stress distributions, and interface distortion of the welded interface of composite plates by explosive welding. In this paper, the temperature distributions in the combing zone are studied for the case of Cu/Fe composite plate jointed by explosive welding near the lower limit of explosive welding. The results show that Flyer plate (Cu plate) and Base Plate (Fe plate) firstly almost have the same melting rate in the explosive welding process. Then, the melting rate of Cu plate becomes higher than that of Fe plate. Finally, the melt thicknesses of Cu plate and Fe plate trend to be different constants, respectively. Meanwhile, the melting layer of Cu plate is thicker than that of Fe plate. The research could supply some theoretical foundations for calculating the temperature distribution and optimizing the explosive welding parameters of Cu/Fe composite plate to some extent.

  13. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion

    2016-04-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  14. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  15. Ruptured Pebbles - a coseismic and paleoseismic indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismüller, Christopher; Reicherter, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    To increase the understanding of paleo-earthquakes and deformation patterns, and the propagation of surface waves in the proximity of active faults, we use the mainly disregarded features of ruptured or broken pebbles within in a clayey matrix. Deformation of unconsolidated sediments (alluvium, colluvium) due to earthquake ruptures is a long investigated topic, including the degradation of the fault scarp. However, during many trenching studies aligned pebbles along the fault planes have been described, and attributed to coseismic deformation. Over the last decades, we have found many ruptured pebbles in trenches at active faults with historic earthquakes, but also aligned (rotated?) pebbles. Here, we describe ruptured pebbles from a Pleistocene debris flow near the coastline between the towns Carboneras and Mojácar (SE Spain), East of the Sierra Cabrera. The outcrop is on-fault at the transition of the active Carboneras and Palomares faults (major historical earthquakes with M 7 in 1518 and 1522), implying proximity to the earthquakes epicenters. The Carboneras (NE-SW), Gafarillos (E-W) and Palomares (NNE-SSW) faults form major faults in eastern Andalucia. The outcrop contains ruptured pebbles in an only slightly consolidated, Pleistocene debris flow with 50 % matrix content. Similar near-fault ruptured pebbles have already been observed in the Carrizales quarry near Baelo Claudia, S Spain, and many other sites (e.g., Italy, Greece, Russia), but always in the proximity of active faults. We measured the fractures of 100 pebbles as planes, if possible, or trend, in case no measureable plane was accessible. Complementary 3D-models of the outcrop and each ruptured pebble were created using Structure from Motion, allowing us to further study the pebbles morphology and geometry. Mode II and conjugate fractures are prevailing in the pebbles and the lack of surface-loading such as striations and dissolution pits neglects clast-interaction. Un-cemented shear planes

  16. [Conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, T; Gaulke, R; Imrecke, J; Krettek, C; Stübig, T

    2010-09-01

    The conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures has developed further over the last 20 years and is basically possible for 60-80% of patients. The treatment leads to success if the indications obtained by dynamic sonography are correctly interpreted (adaptation of the tendon ends up to 20 degrees plantar flexion), if the patient presents sufficient compliance and the physiotherapy is increasingly intensified depending on tendon healing. Modern ortheses allow an increased equinus position and therefore improved protection of the healing tendon. If these factors are present a relatively low re-rupture rate of only 7% can be achieved. The decisive advantage of conservative functional therapy is the avoidance of specific operative risks, such as infection and injury to the sural nerve. After removal of the orthesis the tendon should continue to be modeled using shoe insoles and raised heels.

  17. RARE PRESENTATION OF RUPTURED RUDIMENTARY HORN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shergill Harbhajan K, Grover Suparna, Chhabra Ajay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a rare occurrence for the rudimentary horn of uterus to harbour a pregnancy and the usual outcome is devastating leading to a spontaneous rupture in second trimester with the patient presenting in shock with massive intra-peritoneal haemorrhage and if appropriate management is not instituted in time it may lead to high rate of mortality. We report an unusual case of rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy who presented as a chronic ectopic with an adnexal mass and surprisingly with no sign of shock. Diagnosis is often difficult in such a situation which puts the treating gynaecologist in dilemma. High clinical suspicion supplemented with radiological findings helped clinch the diagnosis and laparotomy was performed followed by resection of the rudimentary horn to prevent future complications.

  18. Plaque rupture in humans and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Stephen M; Galis, Zorina S; Rosenfeld, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the many studies of murine atherosclerosis, we do not yet know the relevance of the natural history of this model to the final events precipitated by plaque disruption of human atherosclerotic lesions. The literature has become particularly confused because of the common use of terms...... such as "instability", "vulnerable", "rupture", or even "thrombosis" for features of plaques in murine model systems not yet shown to rupture spontaneously and in an animal surprisingly resistant to formation of thrombi at sites of atherosclerosis. We suggest that use of conclusory terms like "vulnerable" and "stable...... that various forms of data have implicated in plaque progression. For example, formation of the fibrous cap, protease activation, and cell death in the necrotic core can be well described and have all been modeled in well-defined experiments. The relevance of such well-defined, objective, descriptive...

  19. Case report: rupture of popliteal artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altino Ono Moraes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An 83-year-old female patient with a history of prior endovascular treatment to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm presented with intense pain and edema in the left leg, with hyperemia and localized temperature increase. Doppler ultrasonography revealed a voluminous aneurysm of the popliteal artery with a contained rupture, and hematoma involving the popliteal fossa and the medial and anterior surfaces of the knee causing compression of the popliteal vein. Endovascular repair was accomplished with covered stents and the rupture was confirmed. during the procedure The aneurysm was excluded and the signs and symptoms it had caused resolved completely, but during the postoperative period the patient developed sepsis of pulmonary origin and died.

  20. Anatomy of the Dead Sea transform: Does it reflect continuous changes in plate motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, U.S.; Rybakov, M.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.; Hassouneh, M.; Frieslander, U.; Batayneh, A.T.; Goldschmidt, V.; Daoud, M.N.; Rotstein, Y.; Hall, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    A new gravity map of the southern half of the Dead Sea transform offers the first regional view of the anatomy of this plate boundary. Interpreted together with auxiliary seismic and well data, the map reveals a string of subsurface basins of widely varying size, shape, and depth along the plate boundary and relatively short (25-55 km) and discontinuous fault segments. We argue that this structure is a result of continuous small changes in relative plate motion. However, several segments must have ruptured simultaneously to produce the inferred maximum magnitude of historical earthquakes.

  1. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2014-04-01

    Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains to be clarified, particularly the role of weight-bearing during early rehabilitation. Also, there is a need for a clinically applicable and accurate measurement to detect patients in risk of developing Achilles tendon elongation. The aim of this PhD thesis was to evaluate non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. In study I, a cross-sectional survey was performed investigating the chosen treatment protocols across Scandinavia. In study II, the effect of immediate weight-bearing on patient reported and functional outcomes was investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In study III, the effect of immediate weight-bearing on the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex was investigated in an RCT. In study IV, validity, reliability and agreement of a novel ultrasound measurement of Achilles tendon length and elongation was tested. Study I found surgery to be the preferred treatment in 83% of departments in Denmark, 92% in Norway, 65% in Sweden, and 30% in Finland (p tendon complex. Study IV showed excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC 0.96, SEM 3.7 mm and MDC 10.3 mm), inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.97, SEM 3.3 mm and MDC 9.3 mm) and validity (measurement error 2%). Treatment algorithms across Scandinavia showed considerable variation, though operative treatment and controlled early weight-bearing was the preferred treatment in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Immediate weight-bearing was found to be safe and recommendable in non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. The novel ultrasound measurement showed excellent reliability and acceptable validity and agreement.

  2. Spontaneous rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahstrom, J P

    1988-01-01

    In this study, rupture of the plantar fascia was seen in five feet, of which four had had plantar fasciitis. At the time of the injury, which is an acceleration type of motion, there is severe pain in the heel followed by the development of ecchymosis in the sole and toward the heel of the foot. With conservative symptomatic care, the acute symptoms as well as the plantar fasciitis symptoms subside, generally allowing full activity in 3 to 4 weeks.

  3. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  4. Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Montazeri; Bahman Farhangi; Mahmood Montazeri

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering ...

  5. Extending Alaska's plate boundary: tectonic tremor generated by Yakutat subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wech, Aaron G.

    2016-01-01

    The tectonics of the eastern end of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone are complicated by the inclusion of the Yakutat microplate, which is colliding into and subducting beneath continental North America at near-Pacific-plate rates. The interaction among these plates at depth is not well understood, and further east, even less is known about the plate boundary or the source of Wrangell volcanism. The drop-off in Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ) seismicity could signal the end of the plate boundary, the start of aseismic subduction, or a tear in the downgoing plate. Further compounding the issue is the possible presence of the Wrangell slab, which is faintly outlined by an anemic, eastward-dipping WBZ beneath the Wrangell volcanoes. In this study, I performed a search for tectonic tremor to map slow, plate-boundary slip in south-central Alaska. I identified ∼11,000 tremor epicenters, which continue 85 km east of the inferred Pacific plate edge marked by WBZ seismicity. The tremor zone coincides with the edges of the downgoing Yakutat terrane, and tremors transition from periodic to continuous behavior as they near the aseismic Wrangell slab. I interpret tremor to mark slow, semicontinuous slip occurring at the interface between the Yakutat and North America plates. The slow slip region lengthens the megathrust interface beyond the WBZ and may provide evidence for a connection between the Yakutat slab and the aseismic Wrangell slab.

  6. Radiological evaluation of sinus valsalva rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yul; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    We obtained the following results by reviewing the radiographic findings of 15 cases of Sinus valsalva rupture who were diagnosed surgically at Seoul National University Hospital since 1979. 1. Among distribution was from 15 years to 40 years with the mean age of 24 years. Among the 15 cases, 9 cases were male and 7 were female. 2. Ruptured sinus is right coronary sinus projecting to right ventricle in all 15 cases. Combined diseases are ventricular septal defect in 12 cases, Aortic Valvular heart disease in 4 cases, and narrowing of right ventricular outflow tract in 2 cases, and aneurysmal dilatation of right pulmonary artery in 1 cases. 3. Chest X-ray findings were that of left to right shunt, i.e, cardiomegaly, increased pulmonary vascularity but were normal in 3 cases. 4. Aortography showed sequential leakage of dye from right coronary sinus to right ventricle and finally to pulmonary artery in 9 cases, and in 9 cases of them the leakage is directly to right ventricular outflow tract without filling of sinus portion of the ventricle., i.e., type I. 5. The leakage was well shown in left ventricular diastolic phase and not shown in systolic phase. 6. Ventricular septal defects were not detected definitely in spite of taking left ventriculography. 7. Cine angiography is essential for detecting accurate site, degree and direction of sinus valsalva rupture and other associated cardiac abnormality.

  7. Endovascular treatment for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng LI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aims to prove the effectiveness and safety of endovascular interventional therapy for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm.Methods The imaging data,methods of endovascular treatment,and clinical results of 12 patients suffering from ruptured basilar apex aneurysms from January 2001 to December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed.The 12 patients were composed of 5 males and 7 females,and their ages ranged from 21 years to 58 years.Results Nine patients suffered from narrow-necked aneurysms,which were directly embolized,and the other three suffered from wide-necked aneurysms,which were embolized using a microstent.Eight aneurysms were completely embolized,and the other four were partly embolized.No rebleeding occurred within the follow-up period of 12 months to 36 months,and all patients recovered well without neurological defects.Conclusions Therefore,endovascular treatment for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm is a semi-invasive,safe,and effective method.

  8. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment.

  9. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  10. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...

  11. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...

  12. Effects of Apparent Supersonic Ruptures for Strike-slip Rupture: Should We Consider it in the Seismic Hazard Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, M. B.; Shao, G.; Ji, C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent numerical studies indicated that the supersonic rupture could produce larger off-fault damage at distant sites than the sub-shear rupture, due to the famous "mach cone" effect (Dunham and Archuleta, 2005; Bhat et al, 2007). These results were obtained using the steady-state rupture simulations in a half-space earth. For more realistic layered or 3D earth models, we should also consider the effects of apparent supersonic rupture, i.e., the deep rupture is still in a speed slower than the local shear velocity, but faster than the near surface S or even the P wave velocity. The apparent super-shear rupture could excite the mach effect, but how large it is has not yet been quantitatively addressed. In this study, we explore this possibility by performing numerical simulations for pure strike-slip ruptures on a vertical fault inside various layered earth models.

  13. Simultaneous reconstruction of quadriceps tendon rupture after TKA and neglected Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Jae Ho; Han, Seung Hwan; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Oh, Kyung Soo

    2010-05-12

    We report a case of simultaneous reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and neglected Achilles tendon rupture, which occurred before TKA with an ipsilateral hamstring autograft. A 64-year-old woman presented with persistent right knee pain. She also had right heel pain and had received multiple steroid injections at the knee joint and heel. On examination, she showed osteoarthritis in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee joint and an Achilles tendon rupture in the ipsilateral limb. There was skin dimpling and the proximal portion of tendon was migrated. We performed TKA, and the postoperative course was satisfactory. She returned 3 months postoperatively, however, with skin dimpling around the suprapatellar area and weakness of knee extension. Her ankle symptoms were also aggravated because she could not use the knee joint freely. We performed simultaneous reconstruction of the quadriceps tendon and the Achilles tendon using an ipsilateral hamstring autograft.Hamstring autograft offers a good alternative treatment option for rupture repair, particularly with concommitant ruptures of multiple sites when primary repair is not possible or the viability of repaired tissue is poor.

  14. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  17. Which Dynamic Rupture Parameters can be Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrat, S.; Olsen, K.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    We use finite-difference simulations in models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake to examine which dynamic rupture parameters may be recovered for large crustal earthquakes. By trial-and-error inversion Peyrat et al. (2001) found two simple models with constant slip-weakening friction which generated a satisfactory fit between synthetic and observed strong motion data: an asperity model, with spatially-varying initial stress and constant yield stress, and a barrier model with constant initial stress and spatially-varying yield stress. However, there is some evidence from inversion of seismic data for large earthquakes (i.e., Ide and Takeo, 1997, for the 1995 Kobe earthquake), that the slip-weakening distance Dc may vary spatially. In particular, Ide and Takeo found a larger Dc in the shallower parts of the crust compared to the deeper parts. Possible causes of such variation include the increase of elastic rigidity with depth and a fundamentally different friction in the near-surface layers. Here, we examine the effects of laterally and vertically varying Dc on the strong motion synthetics computed by our dynamic rupture models. We generate an alternative barrier model with constant initial and yield stress but spatially-varying Dc which, as our two previous rupture models of the Landers event, generate synthetics in agreement with strong motion data. Thus, we have constructed three well-posed mechanical models of the Landers earthquake that satisfy available strong motion data and which are end-members of a large family of dynamically correct models. Our findings confirm an earlier hypothesis that barrier and asperity models of an earthquake generate similar signature in the seismic radiation (Madariaga, 1979). Therefore, it may not be possible to separate stress and Dc using rupture modeling. Instead, we propose to characterize dynamic rupture propagation by the local non-dimensional parameter κ introduced by Madariaga and Olsen (2000), which is expressed in

  18. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  19. Joint modeling of teleseismic and tsunami wave observations to constrain the 16 September 2015 Illapel, Chile, Mw 8.3 earthquake rupture process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linyan; Lay, Thorne; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Ye, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    The 16 September 2015 Illapel, Chile, Mw 8.3 earthquake ruptured ~170 km along the plate boundary megathrust fault from 30.0°S to 31.6°S. A patch of offshore slip of up to 10 m extended to near the trench, and a patch of ~3 m slip occurred downdip below the coast. Aftershocks fringe the large-slip zone, extending along the coast from 29.5°S to 32.5°S between the 1922 and 1971/1985 ruptures. The coseismic slip distribution is determined by iterative modeling of teleseismic body waves as well as tsunami signals recorded at three regional DART stations and tide gauges immediately north and south of the rupture. The tsunami observations tightly delimit the rupture length, suppressing bilateral southward extension of slip found in unconstrained teleseismic-wave inversions. The spatially concentrated rupture area, with a stress drop of ~3.2 MPa, is validated by modeling DART and tide gauge observations in Hawaii, which also prove sensitive to the along-strike length of the rupture.

  20. Subducting an old subduction zone sideways provides insights into what controls plate coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyners, Martin; Eberhart-Phillips, Donna; Bannister, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The Hikurangi Plateau has had two episodes of subduction beneath New Zealand - firstly at ca. 100 Ma during north-south convergence with Gondwana, and currently during east-west convergence between the Pacific and Australian plates. As a result of this ninety-degree change in convergence direction, an old subduction zone is now being subducted sideways, and the tectonic history of the subducted plate varies dramatically along the strike of the Hikurangi Margin. Here we identify the location of the underplated Hikurangi Plateau along the shallow part of the Hikurangi Margin, using results from both relocated seismicity and seismic tomography. Next we decipher the tectonic history of the plateau along strike, particularly in terms of the hydration state of the plateau, and the nature of any sedimentary rock units capping the plateau. We then use this information to understand plate coupling at two scales: on the large scale, the southward transition from typical subduction in the North Island to continental collision in the South Island; and at a smaller scale, the strong lateral change from a high deficit in slip rate at the plate interface in the southern North Island to a low deficit in slip rate in the northeastern North Island. We find that the southward transition from subduction to continental collision is controlled by the plateau being more dehydrated to the south, as a result of being more deeply subducted at the Gondwana margin. The southward transition from localized slip at the plate interface to distributed upper plate deformation with no active plate interface occurs in Cook Strait and is relatively sharp. The high deficit in slip rate at the plate interface in the southern North Island is likely due to a relatively smooth plate interface from sedimentary rocks capping the Hikurangi Plateau, an impermeable terrane in the overlying plate, and the hydrated plateau acting in concert to produce an interseismically sealed plate interface. Further northeast

  1. Ligamentous rupture of the ACL associated with dislocated fracture of the proximal tibial physis in a 12-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köpke Julian

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dislocated fracture of the proximal physeal plate of the tibia with or without metaphyseal fragment is rare in children. This unusual fracture classically excludes rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament due to the ligament's stability. A combination of both injuries has not been previously published in the literature. Case presentation The authors report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a dislocated fracture (Salter-Harris II of the proximal tibia combined with ligamentous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament after a sporting accident.

  2. Coupling geodynamic earthquake cycles and dynamic ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Iris; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Heuret, Arnauld

    2016-04-01

    Studying the seismicity in a subduction zone and its effects on tsunamis requires diverse modelling methods that span spatial and temporal scales. Hundreds of years are necessary to build the stresses and strengths on a fault, while consequent earthquake rupture propagation is determined by both these initial fault conditions and the feedback of seismic waves over periods of seconds up to minutes. This dynamic rupture displaces the sea floor, thereby causing tsunamis. The aim of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulations of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project is to study all these aspects and their interactions. Here, we present preliminary results of the first aspects in this modelling chain: the coupling of a seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) code to the dynamic rupture model SeisSol. STM models of earthquake cycles have the advantage of solving multiple earthquake events in a self-consistent manner concerning stress, strength and geometry. However, the drawback of these models is that they often lack in spatial or temporal resolution and do not include wave propagation. In contrast, dynamic rupture models solve for frictional failure coupled to seismic wave propagation. We use the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org) based on an ADER-DG discretization allowing high-order accuracy in space and time as well as flexible tetrahedral meshing. However, such simulations require assumptions on the initial fault stresses and strengths and its geometry, which are hard to constrain due to the lack of near-field observations and the complexity of coseismic conditions. By adapting the geometry as well as the stress and strength properties of the self-consistently developing non-finite fault zones from the geodynamic models as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture models, the advantages of both methods are exploited and modelling results may be compared. Our results show that a dynamic rupture can be triggered spontaneously and that the propagating rupture is

  3. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  4. Missed Iatrogenic Bladder Rupture Following Normal Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Vidyasagar H; Wagaskar, Vinayak G; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2015-10-01

    Bladder rupture following caesarian section is well documented complications. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture following normal vaginal delivery is very rare. Hereby, we present a case report of intraperitoneal bladder rupture presented late following normal vaginal delivery. We report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture following uneventful outlet forceps delivery in a 22-year-old primi gravid woman with gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal macrosomia who presented with large urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Emergent exploratory laparotomy with repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture helped to prevent its potential complications. Postpartum patients who undergo episiotomy or perineal repair may land up in unnoticed urinary retention which may rarely terminate in spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. Awareness of its manifestations amongst emergency physician would help to initiate appropriate timely management.

  5. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  6. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  7. Timing of Surface-Rupturing Earthquakes on the Philippine Fault Zone in Central Luzon Island, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, H.; Daligdig, J. A.; Goto, H.; Tungol, N. M.; Kondo, H.; Nakata, T.; Okuno, M.; Sugito, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Philippine fault zone is an arc-parallel left-lateral strike-slip fault zone related to oblique subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Philippine island arc. The fault zone extends for about 1300 km from the Luzon Island southward to the Mindanao Island. This fault zone has been seismically active with more than 10 earthquakes greater than M7 in the last century. The July 16, 1990, Luzon earthquake was the largest event that produced 120-km-long surface rupture along the Digdig fault. The coseismic displacement was predominantly left-lateral strike-slip with maximum slip of about 6 m. The Philippine fault zone in the Luzon Island consists of four left-stepping en echelon faults: the San Manuel, San Jose, Digdig, and Gabaldon faults from north to south. Historical documents and geomorphic data suggest that the San Manuel and Gabaldon faults ruptured most recently during historical earthquakes in 1796 and 1645, respectively. However, paleoseismic activities and slip rates for these faults were poorly constrained. In order to reconstruct chronology of surface-rupturing earthquakes, we excavated multiple trenches across these faults in the past three years. We have excavated two sites, San Gregorio and Puncan sites, across the Digdig fault. At the both sites, we identified near vertical fault zones that contain evidence for four surface-rupturing earthquakes during the past 2000 years, including the 1990 rupture. The timing of the penultimate earthquake is constrained to prior to 1400 AD, suggesting that the Digdig fault did not rupture during the 1645 earthquake. The average recurrence interval of the Digdig fault is about 600 years. A left-lateral slip rate of 8-13 mm/yr was obtained for the Digdig fault based on stream offsets and age of alluvial fan at San Juan in the central portion of the fault. For the San Jose fault, we excavated two trenches north of downtown San Jose. The sediments exposed on the trench walls were warped into a monocline by

  8. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  9. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. L. L. van de Kimmenade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture.

  10. Misdiagnosed Uterine Rupture of an Advanced Cornual Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Linus Hastrup Sant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability.

  11. Misdiagnosed uterine rupture of an advanced cornual pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Christian Linus Hastrup; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2012-01-01

    Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination...... and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability....

  12. Venous rupture complicating hemodialysis access angioplasty: percutaneous treatments and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La, Young Jong; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyoung; Hong, Hyun Suk; Kwon, Gui Hyang; Choi, Duk Lin; Ynag, Sung Boo [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous management and prognosis in venous rupture during angioplasty of hemodialytic arteriovenous fistulas. Among 814 patients who underwent angioplasty on account of inadequate hemodialysis, 63(39 women and 24 men aged 20-78 (mean, 55.8) years) were included in this study. All 63 had peripheral venous stenosis. Venous rupture was diagnosed when contrast leakage was seen at venography after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). In order to manage venous rupture, the sites at which this occurred were compressed manually for 3-5 minutes or blood flow was blocked with a balloon catheter for the same period. In one case, a stent was inserted at the rupture site. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we investigated the patency rate of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in cases of successful PTA. We also compared PTA patency rates in cases with and without peripheral venous rupture. Venous rupture occurred in 38 cephalic, 16 brachial, and 9 basilic veins. In 63 patients, bleeding stopped and in 54 (85.7 %) of thee, PTA was successful. Among the nine failed cases, dilatation was incomplete in five, though bleeding had stopped. In patients with brachial and cephalic vein rupture the venous tract at the rupture site was not located. Two patients underwent surgery: one of these experienced brachial venous rupture, with incontrollable bleeding, and the other had nerve compression symptoms due to hematoma. Among 54 patients in whom PTA was successful, the primary and secondary six-months rates for angioaccess were 47.9% and 81.2%, and the mean patency period was 6.1 and 15.8 months, respectively. In cases of non-venous rupture, the mean patency period was 9.6 months, significantly longer than in cases involving venous rupture (p=0.02). Venous rupture occurring during the PTA of hemodialytic AVF can be managed percutaneously.

  13. Alliance ruptures, impasses, and enactments: a relational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Jeremy D; Kraus, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Alliance ruptures, impasses, and transference-countertransference enactments are inevitable in therapy. A growing body of evidence suggests that repairing ruptures in the alliance is related to positive outcome (Safran, Muran, & Eubanks-Carter, 2011). Our research program has led to the development of training methods to enhance therapists' abilities to detect and work constructively with alliance ruptures and negative therapeutic process (Safran et al., 2014). This article outlines relevant theoretical underpinnings, intervention principles, and empirical findings.

  14. MRI in flexor tendon rupture after collagenase injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurana, Shruti [Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi (India); Wadhwa, Vibhor [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Amirlak, Bardia [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication following collagenase injection to relieve contractures. These patients require a close follow-up and in the event of tendon rupture, a decision has to be made whether to repair the tendon or manage the complication conservatively. The authors report the utility of MRI in the prognostication and management of a patient with Dupuytren's contracture, who underwent collagenase injection and subsequently developed flexor digitorum profundus tendon rupture. (orig.)

  15. Insight into electric field-induced rupture mechanism of water-in-toluene emulsion films from a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Desislava; Pisov, Stoyan; Panchev, Nikolay; Nedyalkova, Miroslava; Madurga, Sergio; Proykova, Ana

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a model, which we have designed to get insight into the development of electro-induced instability of a thin toluene emulsion film in contact with the saline aqueous phase. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrate the role of charge accumulation in the toluene-film rupture induced by a DC electric field. Two ensembles—NVT and NPT—are used to determine the critical value of the external field at which the film ruptures, the charge distribution and capacitance of the thin film, number densities, and the film structure. The rupture mechanism as seen from this model is the following: in both NVT and NPT ensembles, condenser plates, where the charge density is maximal, are situated at the very border between the bulk aqueous (water) phase and the mixed layer. No ion penetration is observed within the toluene core, thus leaving all the distribution of charges within the mixed zone and the bulk phase that could be attributed to the formation of hydration shells. When the critical electric field is reached within a certain time after the field application, electric discharge occurs indicating the beginning of the rupturing process. The MD simulations indicate that the NPT ensemble predicts a value of the critical field that is closer to the experimental finding.

  16. Kinetics of hole nucleation in biomembrane rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Evan [Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Smith, Benjamin A, E-mail: evanse@bu.edu [Departments of Physics and Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A6 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    The core component of a biological membrane is a fluid-lipid bilayer held together by interfacial-hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions, which are balanced for the most part by acyl chain entropy confinement. If biomembranes are subjected to persistent tensions, an unstable (nanoscale) hole will emerge at some time to cause rupture. Because of the large energy required to create a hole, thermal activation appears to be requisite for initiating a hole and the activation energy is expected to depend significantly on mechanical tension. Although models exist for the kinetic process of hole nucleation in tense membranes, studies of membrane survival have failed to cover the ranges of tension and lifetime needed to critically examine nucleation theory. Hence, rupturing giant ({approx}20 {mu}m) membrane vesicles ultra-slowly to ultra-quickly with slow to fast ramps of tension, we demonstrate a method to directly quantify kinetic rates at which unstable holes form in fluid membranes, at the same time providing a range of kinetic rates from <0.01 to >100 s{sup -1}. Measuring lifetimes of many hundreds of vesicles, each tensed by precision control of micropipette suction, we have determined the rates of failure for vesicles made from several synthetic phospholipids plus 1:1 mixtures of phospho- and sphingo-lipids with cholesterol, all of which represent prominent constituents of eukaryotic cell membranes. Plotted on a logarithmic scale, the failure rates for vesicles are found to rise dramatically with an increase in tension. Converting the experimental profiles of kinetic rates into changes of activation energy versus tension, we show that the results closely match expressions for thermal activation derived from a combination of meso-scale theory and molecular-scale simulations of hole formation. Moreover, we demonstrate a generic approach to transform analytical fits of activation energies obtained from rupture experiments into energy landscapes characterizing the

  17. 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture and evaluate the related factors associated with prognosis.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 28 consecutive patients, 18 men and 10 women, with severe ocular rupture admitted to the Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1999 and January 2002. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years, mean 29.5years. All operations were performed by the first author.All patients underwent standard 3-port pars plana vitrectomy with scleral encircling buckle,endophotocoagulation, and tamponaded with silicone oil.Lensectomy were performed on 15 eyes. 360-degree retinotomy and retinectomy were performed at anterior equator on 16 eyes, and posterior equator on 12 eyes.Results: During operation, all patients were confirmed to have vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, in which hemorrhagic ciliary body detachment was found in 9 eyes, suprachoroidal hemorrhage in 12 eyes,retinal twisting like flower stalk in 11 eyes, and retinal incarceration in 17 eyes. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 26 cases, ranged from 6 months to 46 months.Retinal reattachment achieved in 20 eyes (76. 9%), in which three patients' retina was reattached after revitrectomy. The silicone oil was removed at the fourth month in 8 eyes postoperatively. Corrected visual acuity of 0.02 or more was in 14 eyes (70. 0%) among the 20patients with reattached retina. Visual acuity of 0.05 or more was in 7 eyes ( 35.0 % ), and 0.1 or more was in 3eyes. The best visual acuity was 0.3 in 1 eye.Conclusions: Retinectomy may improve the prognosis of severe ocular rupture and save the visual function of some patients.

  18. Hypervelocity Impact on Interfaces: A Molecular-Dynamics Simulations Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Martina E.; Owens, Eli T.; Leonard, Robert H.; Cockburn, Bronwyn C.

    2008-03-01

    Silicon/silicon nitride interfaces are found in micro electronics and solar cells. In either application the mechanical integrity of the interface is of great importance. Molecular-dynamics simulations are performed to study the failure of interface materials under the influence of hypervelocity impact. Silicon nitride plates impacting on silicon/silicon nitride interface targets of different thicknesses result in structural phase transformation and delamination at the interface. Detailed analyses of atomic velocities, bond lengths, and bond angles are used to qualitatively examine the respective failure mechanisms.

  19. Bladder rupture causing pseudo acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Andrea Avena Smeili

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder rupture is a rare condition associated with significant morbidityand mortality. It is classified into traumatic, nontraumatic or idiopathic andspontaneous. The nonspecific initial clinical presentation is followed bydiscomfort in the lower abdomen, oliguria, hematuria and ascitis. Laboratoryabnormalities simulate the picture of acute renal failure and occurs by amechanism called auto reverse dialysis, with absorption of excreta throughthe peritoneal membrane. The authors describe a case of bladder rupturein morphologically and functionally normal urinary bladder associated withalcohol intake in young healthy man, manifested by abdominal discomfort,pseudo renal failure and massive ascitis. The diagnosis was made by anabdominal multidetector computed tomography confirmed by the finding of7 cm laceration at laparotomy.

  20. Closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii in wakeboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Swanson, Britta L; Bannar, Stephen M

    2012-06-01

    Closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii is a rare injury. In this report, two cases of closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii after wakeboard traumas are described. Both patients presented with a swollen arm, weakness during flexion, and a mass in the affected forearm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed displacement of the biceps brachii into the forearm. The rupture was successfully treated with muscle removal in one case and muscle repair in the other. In patients with a wakeboard trauma and similar presentations, closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii should be suspected.

  1. Thrombosis and morphology of plaque rupture using optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jun; CHEN Yun-dai; TIAN Feng; LIU Hong-bin; CHEN Lian; SUN Zhi-jun; REN Yi-hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombosis following plaque rupture is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome,but not all plaque ruptures lead to thrombosis.There are limited in vivo data on the relationship between the morphology of ruptured plaque and thrombosis.Methods We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate the morphology of plaque rupture and its relation to coronary artery thrombosis in patients with coronary heart disease.Forty-two patients with coronary artery plaque rupture detected by OCT were divided into two groups (with or without thrombus) and the morphological characteristics of ruptured plaque,including fibrous cap thickness and broken cap site,were recorded.Results The fibrous cap of ruptured plaque with thrombus was significantly thinner compared to caps without thrombus ((57.00±17.00) μm vs.(96.00±48.00) μm; P=0.0076).Conclusions Plaque rupture associated with thrombosis occurs primarily in plaque covered by a thin fibrous cap.Thick fibrous caps are associated with greater stability of ruptured plaque.

  2. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  3. Rupture Process During the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: Zigzag-Along-Dip Rupture Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuwaki, Ryo; Yagi, Yuji; Aránguiz, Rafael; González, Juan; González, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    We constructed a seismic source model for the 2015 M W 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquake, which was carried out with the kinematic waveform inversion method adopting a novel inversion formulation that takes into account the uncertainty in the Green's function, together with the hybrid backprojection method enabling us to track the spatiotemporal distribution of high-frequency (0.3-2.0 Hz) sources at high resolution by using globally observed teleseismic P-waveforms. A maximum slip amounted to 10.4 m in the shallow part of the seismic source region centered 72 km northwest of the epicenter and generated a following tsunami inundated along the coast. In a gross sense, the rupture front propagated almost unilaterally to northward from the hypocenter at event at the down-dip edge of the seismic source region. High-frequency sources tends to be distributed at deeper parts of the slip area, a pattern also documented in other subduction zone megathrust earthquakes that may reflect the heterogeneous distribution of fracture energy or stress drop along the fault. The weak excitation of high-frequency radiation at the termination of rupture may represent the gradual deceleration of rupture velocity at the transition zone of frictional property or stress state between the megathrust rupture zone and the swarm area.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  6. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  7. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  9. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  14. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  16. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  17. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  18. Long-term results after repair of ruptured and non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Ilija B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be repaired by elective procedure while asymptomatic, or immediately when it is complicated - mostly due to rupture. Treating abdominal aneurysm electively, before it becomes urgent, has medical and economical reason. Today, the first month mortality after elective operations of the abdominal aorta aneurysm is less than 3%; on the other hand, significant mortality (25%-70% has been recorded in patients operated immediately because of rupture of the abdominal aneurysm. In addition, the costs of elective surgical treatment are significantly lower. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to compare long-term survival of patients that underwent elective or immediate repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (due to rupture, and to find out the factors influencing the long-term survival of these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Through retrospective review of prospectively collected data of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, 56 patients that had elective surgery and 35 patients that underwent urgent operation due to rupture of abdominal aneurysm were followed up. Only the patients that survived 30 postoperative days were included in this review, and were followed up (ranging from 2 to 126 months. Electively operated patients were followed during 58.82 months on the average (range 7 to 122, and urgently operated were followed over 52.26 months (range 2 to 126. There was no significant difference of the length of postoperative follow-up between these two groups. RESULTS During this period, out of electively operated and immediately operated patients, 27 and 22 cases died, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0,05a of long-term survival between these two groups. Obesity and early postoperative complications significantly decreased long-term survival of both electively and immediately operated patients. Graft infection, ventral hernia, aneurysm of

  19. Survival of Heterogeneous Stress Distributions Created by Precursory Slip at Frictional Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiguet, Mathilde; Kammer, David S.; Gillet, Philippe; Molinari, Jean-François

    2013-10-01

    We study the dynamics of successive slip events at a frictional interface with finite-element simulations. Because of the viscous properties of the material, the stress concentrations created by the arrest of precursory slip are not erased by the propagation of the following rupture but reappear with the relaxation of the material. We show that the amplitude of the stress concentrations follows an exponential decay, which is controlled by the bulk material properties. These results highlight the importance of viscosity in the heterogeneous stress state of a frictional interface and reveal the “memory effect” that affects successive ruptures.

  20. Earthquake behavior of variable rupture- scale on active faults and application of the cascade-rupturing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻学泽

    2001-01-01

    This study reveals preliminarily the earthquake behavior of variable rupture-scale on active faults of the Chinese mainland, that is that on an individual fault portion earthquake¢s rupture-scale varies cycle to cycle, and hence earthquake¢s strength changes with time. The tendency of this variation has no necessity. On defining relative size of rupture scales, a statistical result shows that it is of the lowest probability that ruptures with the same scale occur in two successive cycles. While the rupture¢s scale in the preceding cycle is 2small2, the probability of the follow-ing rupture¢s scale being 2large2 is as many as 0.48. While the rupture¢s scale in the preceding cycle is 2middle2, the probability of the succeeding rupture being 2small2 or 2large2 scale is 0.69 or 0.25. While the rupture¢s scale in the preceding cycle is 2large2, the probability must be zero for the following rupture with 2large2 scale, and is 0.36 or 0.64 for the following rupture with 2small2 or 2middle2 scale. The author introduces and improves the cascade-rupturing model, and uses it to describe the variability and complexity of rupture scale on individual fault portions. Basic features of some active strike-slip faults on which cascade ruptures have occurred are summarized. Basing on these features the author proposes principles of cascade-rupture segmentation for this type of faults. As an ex-ample to application, the author segments one portion of the Anninghe fault zone, western Sichuan, for its future cascade rupture, and further assesses the probable strength and its corresponding probability of the coming earth-quake.

  1. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulation Across a Complex Fault System: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes ruptures sometimes take place on a secondary fault and surprisingly do not activate an adjacent major one. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is a classic case where rupture occurred on a blind thrust while the adjacent San Andreas Fault was not triggered during the process. Similar to Loma Prieta, the Mw7.0, January 12 2010, Haiti earthquake also ruptured a secondary blind thrust, the Léogâne fault, adjacent to the main plate boundary, the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, which did not rupture during this event. Aftershock relocalizations delineate the Léogâne rupture with two north dipping segments with slightly different dip, where the easternmost segment had mostly dip-slip motion and the westernmost one had mostly strike-slip motion. In addition, an offshore south dipping structure inferred from the aftershocks to the west of the rupture zone coincides with the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault, a region of increase in Coulomb stress increase. In this study, we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake in a complex fault system of multiple segments identified by the aftershock relocations. We suppose a background stress regime that is consistent with the type of motion of each fault and with the regional tectonic regime. We initiate a nucleation on the east segment of the Léogâne fault by defining a circular region with a 2 km radius where shear stress is slightly greater than the yield stress. By varying friction on faults and background stress, we find a range of plausible scenarios. In the absence of near-field seismic records of the event, we score the different models against the static deformation field derived from GPS and InSAR at the surface. All the plausible simulations show that the rupture propagates from the eastern to the western segment along the Léogâne fault, but not on the Enriquillo fault nor on the Trois Baies fault. The best-fit simulation shows a significant increase of shear stresses on the Trois Baies

  2. Diagnostic Modalities in Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Eskicioğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor is known as Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM. Early and correct diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent fetal and maternal risks that can be life threatening. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic ability of the tests in PROM. Materials and Methods: Nitrazine test, fern test, amnio-dye test, biochemical tests (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental alpha microglobulin-1 were evaluated in terms of effectiveness in diagnosis of PROM. Results: A gold standard method has not yet been defined in PROM. Diagnostic tests (nitrazine test, fern test, Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 “IGFBP-1” and Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 “PAMG-1” should be used when the diagnosis is not certain following history, examination with sterile speculum and ultrasonography evaluation. Conclusion: IGFBP-1 and PAMG-1 are tests based on bedside immunochromatographic method. Especially, PAMG-1 comes into prominence with its high sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Ruptures of the distal biceps tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James P; Shreve, Mark C; Youm, Thomas; Strauss, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Distal biceps ruptures occur most commonly in middle-aged males and result from eccentric contraction of the biceps tendon. The injury typically presents with pain and a tearing sensation in the antecubital fossa with resultant weakness in flexion and supination strength. Physical exam maneuvers and diagnostic imaging aid in determining the diagnosis. Nonoperative management is reserved for elderly, low demand patients, while operative intervention is generally pursued for younger patients and can consist of nonanatomic repair to the brachialis or anatomic repair to the radial tuberosity. Anatomic repair through a one-incision or two-incision approach is commonplace, while the nonanatomic repairs are rarely performed. No clear advantage exists in operative management with a one-incision versus two-incision techniques. Chronic ruptures present a more difficult situation, and allograft augmentation is often necessary. Common complications after repair include transient nerve palsy, which often resolves, and heterotopic ossification. Despite these possible complications, most studies suggest that better patient outcomes are obtained with operative, anatomic reattachment of the distal biceps tendon.

  4. The Reasons of Steam Pipeline Elbow Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesjasz A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the reasons for steam pipeline’s elbow material rupture, made of steel 13CrMo4-5 (15HM that is being used in the energetics. Based on the mechanical properties in the ambient temperature (Rm, Rp0,2 and elongation A5 and in the increased temperature (Rp0,2t it was found, that the pipeline elbow’s material sampled from the ruptured area has lower Rp0,2 i Rp0,2t by around 2% than it is a requirement for 13CrMo4-5 steel in it’s base state. The damage appeared as a result of complex stress state, that substantially exceeded the admissible tensions, what was the consequence of considerable structure degradation level. As a result of the microstructure tests on HITACHI S4200 microscope, the considerable development of the creeping process associates were found. Also the advances progress of the microstructure degradation was observed, which is substantial decomposition of bainite and multiple, with varied secretion size, and in most cases forming the micro cracks chains. With the use of lateral micro sections the creeping voids were observed, that creates at some places the shrinkage porosities clusters and micro pores.

  5. Probability of rupture of multiple fault segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.J.; Schwerer, E.

    2000-01-01

    Fault segments identified from geologic and historic evidence have sometimes been adopted as features limiting the likely extends of earthquake ruptures. There is no doubt that individual segments can sometimes join together to produce larger earthquakes. This work is a trial of an objective method to determine the probability of multisegment ruptures. The frequency of occurrence of events on all conjectured combinations of adjacent segments in northern California is found by fitting to both geologic slip rates and to an assumed distribution of event sizes for the region as a whole. Uncertainty in the shape of the distribution near the maximum magnitude has a large effect on the solution. Frequencies of individual events cannot be determined, but it is possible to find a set of frequencies to fit a model closely. A robust conclusion for the San Francisco Bay region is that large multisegment events occur on the San Andreas and San Gregorio faults, but single-segment events predominate on the extended Hayward and Calaveras strands of segments.

  6. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  7. Rupture of Right Ventricular Free Wall Following Ventricular Septal Rupture in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy with Right Ventricular Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, June Min; Hong, Sung Jin; Chung, In Hyun; Lee, Hye Young; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Byun, Young Sup; Kim, Byung Ok; Rhee, Kun Joo

    2017-01-01

    Most patients diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathies are expected to almost completely recover, and their prognosis is excellent. However, complications can occur in the acute phase. We present a case of a woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with right ventricular involvement who developed a rupture of the right ventricular free wall following ventricular septal rupture, as a consequence of an acute increase in right ventricular afterload by left-to-right shunt. Our case report illustrates that takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be life threatening in the acute phase. Ventricular septal rupture in biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a harbinger of cardiac tamponade by right ventricular rupture.

  8. Eastern Indian Ocean microcontinent formation driven by plate motion changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J. M.; Williams, S. E.; Halpin, J. A.; Wild, T. J.; Stilwell, J. D.; Jourdan, F.; Daczko, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    The roles of plate tectonic or mantle dynamic forces in rupturing continental lithosphere remain controversial. Particularly enigmatic is the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, with plume-driven thermal weakening commonly inferred to facilitate calving. However, a role for plate tectonic reorganisations has also been suggested. Here, we show that a combination of plate tectonic reorganisation and plume-driven thermal weakening were required to calve the Batavia and Gulden Draak microcontinents in the Cretaceous Indian Ocean. We reconstruct the evolution of these two microcontinents using constraints from new paleontological samples, 40Ar/39Ar ages, and geophysical data. Calving from India occurred at 101-104 Ma, coinciding with the onset of a dramatic change in Indian plate motion. Critically, Kerguelen plume volcanism does not appear to have directly triggered calving. Rather, it is likely that plume-related thermal weakening of the Indian passive margin preconditioned it for microcontinent formation but calving was triggered by changes in plate tectonic boundary forces.

  9. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

  10. Continued Trenchward Procession of Upper Plate GPS Sites Following the 2012 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T. E.; Newman, A. V.; Protti, M.

    2015-12-01

    When studying subduction zone deformation one is often forced to consider a region significantly landward of the trench. The Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica presents a unique opportunity to obtain rich datasets from land in relatively close proximity to an active megathrust. A recent moment magnitude (Mw) 7.6 earthquake in September 2012 on this portion of the Middle America Trench affords an opportunity to constrain the ongoing postseismic deformation on the subduction interface between the Cocos and Caribbean plates. GPS campaigns occupying 22 sites were undertaken immediately following the earthquake in September-December 2012 and most recently in March 2015. Combined with data from a network of 17 continuous GPS in the region, we analyze the spatial and temporal changes in the postseismic velocity field. Another campaign is planned for 2017, in conjunction with our ongoing analysis of the continuous GPS network. After 2.5 years, campaign GPS results indicate significant trenchward motion of at least 7 cm, relative to a fixed Caribbean plate, for all sites up to the volcanic chain. Maximum values of 22 cm are observed above and updip of the coseismic rupture zone. The trench-parallel component of the displacement field is small, with few deviations between sites. Together these observations are substantially more self-similar over a larger region than what was observed for the coseismic offset. This implies that there may be a low stress differential across the upper plate, suggesting that the subduction interface environment, including the mainshock and surrounding area, has remained relatively weak following the earthquake. By utilizing a dense and long-term geodetic network we will report on initial modeling that aims to characterize the evolution of afterslip. The effect of regional aftershocks, including an Mw 6.5 in October 2012, and viscoelastic mantle relaxation will be considered to establish the necessity of such effects in robustly accounting for

  11. 3D velocity structure of the outer forearc of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone; implications for the 1958 megathrust earthquake rupture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, A.; Charvis, P.; Garcia Cano, L.; Marcaillou, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2005, we conducted an onshore-offshore 3D refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic experiment over the rupture zone of the 1958 subduction earthquake that occurred near the border between Colombia and Ecuador. This earthquake was part of a sequence of 3 large ruptures (1942, Mw=7.8; 1958, Mw=7.7; 1979, Mw=8.2), which successively broke from south to north the segments of the megathrust that had been ruptured in 1906 by a single, very large magnitude (8.8) earthquake. Using first arrival traveltime inversion, we constructed a well-defined Vp velocity model of the plate boundary and of the upper and lower plates, down to 25 km depth. The model reveals a 5-km thick, low velocity zone in the upper plate, located immediately above the interplate contact. Because similar low-velocity zones are commonly observed along margins made of oceanic or island-arc accreted terranes, we suggest that the low-velocity zone might result from the alteration and hydration of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the upper plate basement, rather than from hydrofracturing alone. Sediments underplated beneath the inner wedge might contribute to the low-velocity zone but it is unlikely that they are several kilometers thick. Nevertheless, fluids expelled by the compaction and dehydration of those underplated sediments possibly favor the alteration of the overlying rocks. The low-velocity zone is spatially coincident with the 1958 rupture area. Near the toe of the margin, the model shows a low velocity gradient in the outer wedge that we interpret as a zone of highly faulted and fractured rocks or of poorly consolidated sediments. This low velocity/low gradient region forms the oceanward limit of the rupture zones of both the 1958 and the 1979 earthquakes. We suggest that the two earthquake ruptures were arrested by the low velocity zone because its low rigidity contributed to dissipate most of the seismic energy and of the coseismic strain/stress. This might be the reason why the 1958

  12. Spontaneous rupture of hydatid cyst due to strain-defecation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koray Daş; Selim Sözen; Abdurrahman Selçuk Uzun; Ebru Menekşe; Faruk Karateke; Ilhan Bali

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of strain-induced spontaneous rupture of hydatid cyst. Hydatid cyst rupture was diagnosed in a 19-year-old girl who presented with swelling and pain in the the right upper quadrant of sudden onset after straining for defecation.

  13. Morphological predictors of posterior communicating artery aneurysms rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Lv; Yibin Fang; Ying Yu; Jinyu Xu; Jianmin Liu; Qinghai Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The conflicting findings of previous morphological studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the different locations of aneurysms. We aimed to determine the independent risk factors of aneurysm rupture by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysms. Methods:In 89 PcomA aneurysms (58 ruptured, 31 unruptured), clinical and morphological characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent predictors for the rupture status of PcomA aneurysms. Results:In univariate analyses, the aneurysm dome size, aspect ratio, size ratio, dome‐to‐neck ratio, and inflow angle were significant parameters. With multivariate analyses, only the aneurysm dome size and inflow angle were significantly associated with the rupture status of PcomA aneurysms. Conclusions:Morphology was related with rupture of PcomA aneurysms. The aneurysm dome size and inflow angle were found to be the independent parameters characterizing the rupture status of PcomA aneurysms.

  14. Unusual Cause of Acute Abdomen—Ruptured Retroperitoneal Paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Kay Yau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Its clinical presentation and laparoscopic features have seldom been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma that presented as acute abdomen, and its subsequent management.

  15. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes.

  16. Spontaneous rupture of a liver hemangioma. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Paredes, María Pilar; Martínez Fernández, Josefa; Morales González, Álvaro; Pardo-García, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a liver hemangioma is a very uncommon disease, but extremely seriousness because it is associated to a 75% of mortality caused by hipovolemic shock. A case of an spontaneous rupture of liver hemangioma, which was previously unknow, is presented.

  17. Hemorrhagic shock due to spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt José A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous rupture of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare event; however, it is potentially fatal. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of pheochromocytoma followed by an extensive retroperitoneal hematoma and hypovolemic shock. The correct diagnostic assessment determined the adequate surgical approach and a favorable outcome for the patient.

  18. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  19. Interfaces habladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Soto Sanfiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y piensa al fenómeno de las Interfaces habladas (IH desde variados puntos de vista y niveles de análisis. El texto se ha concebido con los objetivos específicos de: 1.- procurar una visión panorámica de aspectos de la producción y consumo comunicativo de las IH; 2.- ofrecer recomendaciones para su creación y uso eficaz, y 3.- llamar la atención sobre su proliferación e inspirar su estudio desde la comunicación. A pesar de la creciente presencia de las IF en nues-tras vidas cotidianas, hay ausencia de textos que las caractericen y analicen por sus aspectos comunicativos. El trabajo es pertinente porque el fenómeno significa un cambio respecto a estadios comunica-tivos precedentes con consecuencias en las concepciones intelectuales y emocionales de los usuarios. La proliferación de IH nos abre a nue-vas realidades comunicativas: hablamos con máquinas.

  20. Dynamic rupture modeling of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake with an unstructured 3D spectral element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    On March 11th 2011, a Mw 9 earthquake stroke Japan causing 28000 victims and triggering a devastating tsunami that caused severe damage along the Japanese coast. The exceptional amount of data recorded by this earthquake, with thousands of sensors located all over Japan, provides a great opportunity for seismologist and engineers to investigate in detail the rupture process in order to better understand the physics of this type of earthquakes and their associated effects, like tsunamis. Here we investigate, by means of dynamic rupture simulations, a plausible mechanism to explain key observations about the rupture process of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, including the spatial complementarity between high and low frequency aspects of slip (e.g, Simons et al, Science 2011, Meng et al, GRL 2011). To model the dynamic rupture of this event, we use a realistic non-planar fault geometry of the megathrust interface, using the unstructured 3D spectral element open source code SPECFEM3D-SESAME, in which we recently implemented the dynamic fault boundary conditions. This implementation follows the principles introduced by Ampuero (2002) and Kaneko et al. (2008) and involves encapsulated modules plugged into the code. Our current implementation provides the possibility of modeling dynamic rupture for multiple, non-planar faults governed by slip-weakening friction. We successfully verified the code in several SCEC benchmarks, including a 3D problem with branched faults, as well as modeling the rupture of subduction megathrust with a splay fault, finding results comparable to published results. Our first set of simulations is aimed at testing if the diversity of rupture phenomena during the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake (see Ampuero et al in this session) can be overall reproduced by assuming the most basic friction law, linear slip-weakening friction, but prescribing a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the critical slip weakening distance Dc and initial fault stresses. Our

  1. Use of fluroquinolone and risk of Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Jacob; Obel, Niels; Hallas, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several case-control studies have reported that the use of fluoroquinolone increases the risk of rupture of the Achilles tendon. Our aim was to estimate this risk by means of a population-based cohort approach. SETTING: Data on Achilles tendon ruptures and fluoroquinolone use were...... retrieved from three population-based databases that include information on residents of Funen County (population: 470,000) in primary and secondary care during the period 1991-1999. A study cohort of all 28,262 first-time users of fluoroquinolone and all incident cases of Achilles tendon ruptures were...... identified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rate of Achilles tendon ruptures among users and non-users of fluoroquinolones and the standardised incidence rate ratio associating fluoroquinolon use with Achilles tendon rupture were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Between 1991 and 2002 the incidence...

  2. Spontaneous rupture of multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özen Ö

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Özkan Özen, Alptekin Tosun, Çiğdem Akgül Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey Abstract: Hemoperitoneum due to nontraumatic liver rupture is rare. The most common cause of nontraumatic rupture of the liver is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The other causes of nontraumatic liver ruptures are peliosis hepatis, polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, preeclampsia, metastatic carcinoma, and other primary liver tumors. In this report, we present the computed tomography findings of spontaneous liver rupture in a 52-year-old male patient due to multifocal HCC, with the diagnosis proven by surgical specimen. Keywords: computed tomography, hemoperitoneum, liver, nontraumatic liver rupture

  3. Incidence of plantar fascia ruptures following corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul; Cashdollar, Michael R; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Fuge, LaDonna

    2010-12-01

    Plantar fasciitis is commonly treated with corticosteroid injections to decrease pain and inflammation. Therapeutic benefits often vary in terms of efficacy and duration. Rupture of the plantar fascia has been reported as a possible complication following corticosteroid injection. A retrospective chart review of 120 patients who received corticosteroid injection for plantar fasciitis was performed at the authors' institution to determine the incidence of plantar fascia rupture. The plantar fascia rupture was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Various factors were analyzed, including the number of injections, interval between injections, body mass index (BMI), and activity level. Four patients (2.4%) consequently experienced plantar fascia rupture following an average of 2.67 injections. The average BMI of these patients was 38.6 kg/m². The authors conclude that corticosteroid injection therapy appears to be a safe and effective form of nonoperative treatment with minimal complications and a relatively low incident of plantar fascia rupture.

  4. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as hemoperitoneum mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a pleomorphic mesenchynal sarcoma. It is uncommonly arises primarily from the intra-peritoneal cavity. Primary peritoneal MFH with tumor bleeding and rupture is rare. We describe the imaging features of a 70-year-old patient presenting with ruptured hemorrhagic peritoneal MFH at subhepatic area, accompanied by massive hemoperitoneum,mimicking a ruptured pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a large heterogeneous enhanced subhepatic mass with adjacent liver, gallbladder and colon invasion. Tumor hemorrhage and rupture complicated with peritoneal seeding and massive bloody ascites were also detected.Angiography showed a hypervascular tumor fed by enlarged right hepatic arteries, cystic artery and omental branches of gastroepiploic artery. The patient underwent laparotomy for tumor resection, but the tumor recurred one month after operation. To our knowledge, the CT appearance of ruptured intraperitoneal MFH complicated by hemoperitoneum has not been previously described.

  5. [Histologic chorioamnionitis prevalence in patients with premature rupture membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-de la Torre, José Ignacio; Delgado-Rosas, Antonio; Gonzélez-Cantú, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Search Histologic Chorioamnionitis frequency in patients in week 28 (+/-) and pregnancy with premature rupture of membranes. Retrospective and observational study in which we studied all patients who came between June 28, 2011 and November 15, 2011 to receive obstetric care in the service of Tocochirurgical of the University Hospital of Saltillo, with greater than or equal 28 weeks of pregnancy. 598 patients were studied, and the frequency of premature rupture of membranes with histologic chorioamnionitis at term patients was, respectively, 1.7 and 5.3% in preterm labor. In the total sample frequency of histologic chorioamnionitis was 0.6% (4 patients) and, of these, 25% were term and 75% with preterm rupture. In patients with premature rupture of membranes the clinical chorioamnionitis was 0% valued by the criteria of Gibbs. The premature rupture of membranes is a risk factor important for histological chorioamnionitis. To decrease risk factors and possible complications, an established protocol must be taken.

  6. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  7. Anomalous statistics of aftershock sequences generated by supershear ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathikrit Bhattacharya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most earthquake ruptures propagate with speeds smaller than the Rayleigh wave velocity of the medium. These are called sub- Rayleigh ruptures. However, under suitable conditions, segments of otherwise sub- Rayleigh seismogenic ruptures can occasionally accelerate to speeds higher than the local shear wave velocity, giving rise to so-called supershear ruptures. The occurrence of supershear ruptures is usually associated with a locally higher value of pre-stress on the fault segment compared to the sub-Rayleigh segments of the same fault. Additionally, shear stress changes generated by the supershear rupture are radiated out unattenuated to distances comparable to the depth of rupture instead of rapidly decaying at much smaller distances from the rupture. This leads to aftershocks being distributed away from the fault on the supershear segment. This study attempts to verify whether these pre- and postseismic stress conditions and the resultant spatial aftershock distributions lead to discernible features in the statistical properties of the aftershock sequences of the earthquakes known to be associated with supershear ruptures. We analyze the Gutenberg-Richter scaling, the modified Omori law and Båth’s law for the aftershock sequences of two supershear mainshocks: the 1979 MW 6.5 Imperial Valley (California and 2002 MW 7.9 Denali (Alaska earthquakes. We observe that the b-value is always higher in the supershear zone than the rest of the sequence. We also observe that there is no systematic trend in the exponent of the modified Omori law when comparing the aftershocks in the supershear zone with the rest of the aftershocks. We argue that the b-value anomaly can be explained in terms of the off-fault distribution of aftershocks around the supershear segment of the rupture.

  8. Hot-rolled Process of Multilayered Composite Metal Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For multi-layer plate, it is a difficult problem to increase product yield rate and improve bonding interface quality. A high yield hot-rolled method of multilayered plate was proposed. The raw strips and plate were fixed by argon arc welding. The combined billet was put into a metal box and vacuum pumped, and then heated and rolled by multi passes at the temperature of 1000-1200℃. The 67 layered plate with the thickness of 2.5mm was successfully produced. The interfacial microstructures and diffusion behavior were investigated and analyzed by optical microscopy and scan electronic microscopy. The tensile and shear strength were tested,and the shear fractures were analyzed. The results show that the multilayered plate yield rate is more than 90% by two steps billet combination method and rolling process optimization. The good bonding interface quality is obtained, the shear strength of multilayered plate reaches 241 MPa. Nickel interlayer between 9Cr18 and 1Cr17 can not only prevent the diffusion of carbon, but also improve the microstructure characteristics.

  9. Ruptured Giant Omphalocele. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel González Valdez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele is one of the abdominal wall defects. It can be associated with other malformations including imperforate anus, agenesis of the colon, bladder exstrophy and cardiovascular disease, frequently leading to non-viable fetuses. A case of a female newborn who was prematurely delivered (35.3 weeks in Belize with low birth weight (1860 g is presented. This first-born child required emergency surgery at ten hours of life for ruptured giant omphalocele associated with tetralogy of Fallot, hypoglycemia, and severe general malaise. The aim of this report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in such cases. Given the appropriate prenatal diagnosis implemented in Cuba, it is unusual for Cuban doctors, except those working abroad, to treat these patients; hence, this paper may be useful in the teaching context.

  10. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, S. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: suateren@atauni.edu.tr; Kantarci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Okur, A. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented.

  11. Essentials of anterior cruciate ligament rupture management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, Stephen A; Sawyer, Gregory A; Hulstyn, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common knee injury and an understanding of current medical knowledge regarding its management is essential. Accurate and prompt diagnosis requires an awareness of injury mechanisms and risk factors, common symptoms and physical/radiologic findings. Early mobilization and physical therapy improves outcomes regardless of treatment modality. Many older patients regain sufficient stability and function after non-operative rehabilitation. Early ACL reconstruction is appropriate for younger patients and those who engage in activities requiring frequent pivoting and rapid direction changes. ACL surgery involves reconstruction of the torn ligament tissue with various replacement graft options, each with advantages and disadvantages. The guidance of a knowledgeable and experienced therapist is required throughout an intensive and prolonged rehabilitation course. Generally excellent outcomes and low complication rates are expected, but treatment does not prevent late osteoarthritis.

  12. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.W.

    1983-02-01

    All geothermal operations begin similarly in that oil field type drilling methods are used to produce a geothermal well that will produce naturally occurring steam or hot water. In some cases, parallel wells are drilled for the purpose of injecting water into one of the 2 to provide additional water that can be heated and returned from the remaining bore, thus enhancing the output. All geothermal operations also conclude similarly, with the heat-spent condensate (brine) being re-injected into the ground, if for no other purpose than disposal. In steam operations (vs. hot water), a condensing unit is required to convert any remaining steam into brine before re-injection. The potential rupture disk applications are outlined.

  13. Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Farhangi, Bahman; Montazeri, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering a high volume of the air to the rectum in a short time. There are only a few reports regarding the similar cases. Here, a case of pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture was reported in a 53 year-old male following an inappropriate fun.

  14. Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Montazeri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering a high volume of the air to the rectum in a short time. There are only a few reports regarding the similar cases. Here, a case of pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture was reported in a 53 year-old male following an inappropriate fun.

  15. Soft, Brown Rupture: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with Ruptured PIP Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Godwin, FRCS

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to rupture. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants.

  16. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  17. Numerical simulation of droplet evaporation between two circular plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bam, Hang Jin; Son, Gi Hun [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Numerical simulation is performed for droplet evaporation between two circular plates. The flow and thermal characteristics of the droplet evaporation are numerically investigated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and mass fraction in the liquid and gas phases. The liquid-gas interface is tracked by a sharp-interface level-set method which is modified to include the effects of evaporation at the liquid-gas interface and contact angle hysteresis at the liquid-gas-solid contact line. An analytical model to predict the droplet evaporation is also developed by simplifying the mass and vapor fraction equations in the gas phase. The numerical results demonstrate that the 1-D analytical prediction is not applicable to the high rate evaporation process. The effects of plate gap and receding contact angle on the droplet evaporation are also quantified.

  18. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  19. Three-dimensional velocity structure of the outer fore arc of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone and implications for the 1958 megathrust earthquake rupture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cano, Lina Constanza; Galve, Audrey; Charvis, Philippe; Marcaillou, Boris

    2014-02-01

    In 2005, an onshore, offshore 3-D refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic experiment was conducted along the convergent margin at the border between Colombia and Ecuador, over the rupture zone of the 1958, Mw 7.6 subduction earthquake. A well-defined Vp velocity model of the plate boundary and upper and lower plates was constructed, down to 25 km depth, using first arrival traveltimes inversion. The model reveals a several kilometers thick, low-velocity zone in the upper plate, located immediately above the interplate contact. This low-velocity zone might be related to alteration and fracturing of the mafic and ultramafic rocks, which composed the upper plate in this area by fluids released by the lower plate with possible contributions from sediment underplating. Near the toe of the margin, the model shows a low-velocity gradient in the outer wedge, which is interpreted as highly faulted and fractured rocks. This low-velocity/low-gradient region appears to limit the oceanward extension of the rupture zones of the 1958 and 1979 earthquakes, possibly because coseismic deformation and uplift of the outer margin wedge dissipates most of the seismic energy.

  20. Analysis of Solid-Liquid Interface Behavior during Continuous Strip-Casting Process Using Sharp-Interface Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbum Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous strip casting (CSC has been developed to fabricate thin metal plates while simultaneously controlling the microstructure of the product. A numerical analysis to understand the solid-liquid interface behaviors during CSC was carried out and used to identify the solidification morphologies of the plate, which were then used to obtain the optimum process conditions. In this study, we used a modified level contour reconstruction method and the sharp-interface method to modify the interface tracking, and we performed a simulation analysis to identify the differences in the material properties that affect the interface behavior. The effects of the process parameters such as the heat transfer coefficient and extrusion velocity on the behavior of the solid-liquid interface are estimated and also used to improve the CSC process.

  1. Roles of bulk carbon content on grain size, carbide reactions and intergranular rupture life in 2.25cr martensitic heat resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyun Je; Heo, Nam Hoe; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2016-11-01

    The steel of a higher bulk carbon content shows the denser precipitation distribution of carbides after the solution treatment followed by tempering. Such a carbide distribution produces the smaller prior austenite grain size after the welding simulation at a high temperature. Because the equilibrium segregation concentration of phosphorus decreases with decreasing prior austenite grain size, the specimen of the higher bulk carbon content shows therefore the longer intergranular rupture life. The rupture life is also increased by the partitioning of phosphorus pre-segregated at prior austenite grain boundary/carbide interfaces onto the fresh surface of precipitates formed on the surface of pre-formed carbides. The intergranular rupture life is additionally increased by the repulsive segregation between carbon and phosphorus which decreases the overall phosphorus segregation concentration at the prior austenite grain boundaries.

  2. Comparison of earthquake source parameters and interseismic plate coupling variations in global subduction zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, S. L.; Moyer, P. A.; Stankova-Pursley, J.

    2010-12-01

    Geodetically determined interseismic coupling variations have been found in subduction zones worldwide. These coupling variations have been linked to heterogeneities in interplate fault frictional conditions. These connections to fault friction imply that observed coupling variations are also important in influencing details in earthquake rupture behavior. Because of the wealth of newly available geodetic models along many subduction zones, it is now possible to examine detailed variations in coupling and compare to seismicity characteristics. Here we use a large catalog of earthquake source time functions and slip models for moderate to large magnitude earthquakes to explore these connections, comparing earthquake source parameters with available models of geodetic coupling along segments of the Japan, Kurile, Kamchatka, Peru, Chile, and Alaska subduction zones. In addition, we use published geodetic results along the Costa Rica margin to compare with source parameters of small magnitude earthquakes recorded with an onshore-offshore network of seismometers. For the moderate to large magnitude earthquakes, preliminary results suggest a complex relationship between earthquake parameters and estimates of strongly and weakly coupled segments of the plate interface. For example, along the Kamchatka subduction zone, these earthquakes occur primarily along the transition between strong and weak coupling, with significant heterogeneity in the pattern of moment scaled duration with respect to the coupling estimates. The longest scaled duration event in this catalog occurred in a region of strong coupling. Earthquakes along the transition between strong and weakly coupled exhibited the most complexity in the source time functions. Use of small magnitude (0.5 Osa Peninsula relative to the Nicoya Peninsula, mimicking the along-strike variations in calculated interplate coupling.

  3. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  4. Pulse-Like Rupture Induced by Three-Dimensional Fault Zone Flower Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian

    2014-07-04

    © 2014, Springer Basel. Faults are often embedded in low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) caused by material damage. Previous 2D dynamic rupture simulations (Huang and Ampuero, 2011; Huang et al., 2014) showed that if the wave velocity contrast between the LVFZ and the country rock is strong enough, ruptures can behave as pulses, i.e. with local slip duration (rise time) much shorter than whole rupture duration. Local slip arrest (healing) is generated by waves reflected from the LVFZ–country rock interface. This effect is robust against a wide range of fault zone widths, absence of frictional healing, variation of initial stress conditions, attenuation, and off-fault plasticity. These numerical studies covered two-dimensional problems with fault-parallel fault zone structures. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and geometries that are more typical of natural fault zones, including complexities such as flower structures with depth-dependent velocity and thickness, and limited fault zone depth extent. This investigation requires high resolution and flexible mesh generation, which are enabled here by the high-order accurate arbitrary high-order derivatives discontinuous Galerkin method with an unstructured tetrahedral element discretization (Peltieset al., 2012). We show that the healing mechanism induced by waves reflected in the LVFZ also operates efficiently in such three-dimensional fault zone structures and that, in addition, a new healing mechanism is induced by unloading waves generated when the rupture reaches the surface. The first mechanism leads to very short rise time controlled by the LVFZ width to wave speed ratio. The second mechanism leads to generally longer, depth-increasing rise times, is also conditioned by the existence of an LVFZ, and persists at some depth below the bottom of the LVFZ. Our simulations show that the generation of slip pulses by these two mechanisms is robust to the depth extent of the LVFZ and to the position of the hypocenter

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  7. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in a 4-pack. Whether ... Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor ...

  13. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  14. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  16. Study on the Hinge-joined Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify and perfect the theory of hinge-joined plate method and make it serve the bridge design better, this paper was written based on an actual bridge, and the ANSYS finite element model was established. Compared the hinge-joined plate method results with the analysis results and through the investigation and data analysis, it could be found that the assumption that the hinge-joined plate theory for the board lateral force transmission is reasonable, but the assuming hinge joints that only withstand shear stress and just have the shear checking is unreasonable. At the same time, this paper also proved that the strength reduction getting from the old and new concrete interface should be taken into account when using the hinge-joined plate method to calculate the transverse distribution coefficient and the effects on overall stiffness that the joint depth and thickness of deck pavement to the beam bridge.

  17. Multilayer Clad Plate of Stainless Steel/Aluminum/Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jiawei; PANG Yuhua; LI Ting

    2011-01-01

    The 3, 5, 20 layer clad plate from austenitic stainless steel, pure aluminum and aluminum alloy sheets were fabricated in different ways. The stretch and interface properties were measured. The result shows that 20 layer clad plate is better than the others. Well-bonded clad plate was successfully obtained in the following procedure: Basic clad sheet from 18 layer A11060/A13003sheets was firstly obtained with an initial rolling reduction of 44% at 450 ℃, followed by annealing at 300 ℃, and then with reduction of 50% at 550 ℃ from STS304 on each side. The best 20 layer clad plate was of 129 MPa bonding strength and 225 MPa stretch strength.

  18. Total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This was a retrospective case-control study on total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee, aimed to compare patella fractures with tendinous ruptures. METHODS: The sample included 190 patients and 198 total ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus. All patients were evaluated by the same examiner after a minimum one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Tendinous ruptures occurred most frequently in men, in younger patients, and had better clinical and functional outcomes when compared with patella fractures; however, the former presented higher levels of thigh atrophy. Patella fractures occurred most frequently in women and in older patients and caused most frequently caused residual pain, muscle weakness, and limitations in daily activities. Comminuted fractures were related to high-energy trauma, lower clinical and functional outcomes, and higher levels of residual pain and osteosynthesis failure. Early removal of osteosynthesis material was related to better outcomes. Regarding the tendinous ruptures, over half of the patients presented risk conditions for tendinous degeneration; a longer delay until surgery was related to lower Kujala scores. CONCLUSION: The surgical repair of bilateral ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes, which were better for tendinous ruptures when compared with patella fractures. However, these lesions are associated with non-negligible levels of residual pain, muscle weakness, atrophy, and other complications.

  19. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion.

  20. Pectoralis major ruptures in professional American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C

    2014-09-01

    Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.

  1. Rupture of the uterus in Malawi and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, P J

    1977-09-01

    This paper describes the presenting features and possible etiology of 115 cases of rupture of the uterus occurring in Malawi and Tanzania. The series included 62 spontaneous ruptures, 24 traumatic ruptures, and 29 scar ruptures. The rupture was complete in 100 cases but the peritoneum was intact in 15. 72 cases involved obstructed labor and 29 occurred in women with previous cesarean sections. Only 22% of subjects were grand multiparae (7 or more pregnancies), and the average parity was 4.5. Classical symptoms and signs either did not occur or were late in appearing in most cases, and none of the women complained of a tearing or bursting sensation. 23 of the cases died during treatment. Sterilization is recommended in cases where the initial rupture extends into or is primarily situated in the upper segment of the uterus due to the probability of recurrence. Delays in reaching medical care and a lack of medical facilities contribute to the incidence of uterine rupture in developing countries. Careful screening for at-riskmothers and use of partograms to diagnose cephalopelvic disproportion during labor would diminish the occurrence of this complication, however. Also recommended is avoidance of unnecessary cesarean section procedures and extreme caution in the management of patients with uterine scars. The limitation of family size and improvements in maternal haalth education are further important preventive measures.

  2. Holocene Pacific North American plate interaction in southern Alaska: Implications for the Yakataga seismic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, John C.; Plafker, George

    1980-10-01

    The St. Elias, Alaska, earthquake (magnitude 7.1 Ms) on February 28, 1979, occurred along the complex Pacific North American plate boundary between Yakutat Bay and Prince William Sound, rupturing only a fraction of the seismic gap identified in that region. To aid in evaluating the potential for, and likely site of, a future earthquake occurring in the remainder of the gap, we have formulated a kinematic model of neotectonic deformation in southern Alaska from available geologic and seismic data. In this model the part of the North American plate bordering on the Gulf of Alaska is divided into three subblocks, which are partially coupled to the Pacific plate. On the basis of the model, the gap-filling rupture or ruptures would most likely be along the north-dipping thrust faults of the Pamplona zone between Icy Bay and the eastern end of the Aleutian Trench. If the accumulated strain of 3.8 m postulated for this region were released suddenly in one event involving the remainder of the gap, the result would be an earthquake as large as magnitude 8.

  3. Holocene Pacific - North American plate interaction in southern Alaska: implications for the Yakataga seismic gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, J.C.; Plafker, G.

    1980-01-01

    The St. Elias, Alaska, earthquake (magnitude 7.1 MS) on February 28, 1979, occurred along the complex Pacific-North American plate boundary between Yakutat Bay and Prince William Sound, rupturing only a fraction of the seismic gap identified in that region. To aid in evaluating the potential for, and likely site of, a future earthquake occurring in the remainder of the gap, we have formulated a kinematic model of neotectonic deformation in southern Alaska from available geologic and seismic data. In this model the part of the North American plate bordering on the Gulf of Alaska is divided into three subblocks, which are partially coupled to the Pacific plate. On the basis of the model, the gap-filling rupture or ruptures would most likely be along the north-dipping thrust faults of the Pamplona zone between Icy Bay and the eastern end of the Aleutian Trench. If the accumulated strain of 3.8 m postulated for this region were released suddenly in one event involving the remainder of the gap, the result would be an earthquake as large as magnitude 8. -Authors

  4. Dynamic rupture and crushing of an extruded tube using artificial neural network (ANN) approximation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Marzbanrad; Behrooz Mashadi; Amir Afkar; Mostafa Pahlavani

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study of the crushing of thin-walled circular aluminum tubes has been carried out to investigate the crashworthiness behaviors under axial impact loading. These kinds of tubes are usually used in automobile and train structures to absorb the impact energy. Previous researches show that thin-walled circular tube has the highest energy absorption under axial impact amongst different structures. In this work, the crushing between two rigid flat plates and the tube rupture by 4 and 6 blades cutting tools is modeled with the help of ductile failure criterion using the numerical method. The tube material is aluminum EN AW-7108 T6 and its length and diameter are 300 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Using the artificial neural network (ANN), the most important surfaces of energy absorption parameters, including the maximum displacement of the striker, the maximum axial force, the specific energy absorption and the crushing force efficiency in terms of impact velocity and tube thickness are obtained and compared to each other. The analyses show that the tube rupture by the 6 blades cutting tool has more energy absorption in comparison with others. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that tube cutting with the help of multi-blades cutting tools is more stable, controllable and predictable than tube folding.

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganestam, Ann; Barfod, Kristoffer; Klit, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture remains debated. Patient-reported outcome measures have become cornerstones in treatment evaluations. The Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) has been developed for this purpose but requires additional validation. The purpose of the present...... study was to validate a Danish translation of the ATRS. The ATRS was translated into Danish according to internationally adopted standards. Of 142 patients, 90 with previous rupture of the Achilles tendon participated in the validity study and 52 in the reliability study. The ATRS showed moderately...

  6. Rupture of the triceps tendon — A case series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atin Jaiswal; Naiman Deep Kacchap; Yashwant Singh Tanwar; Devendra Kumar; Birendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Triceps rupture is the least common among all tendon injuries.The usual mechanism of injury is a fall on an outstretched hand,although direct contact injuries have also been reported to cause this injury.The diagnosis of acute triceps tendon rupture may be missed,which can result in prolonged disability and delayed operative management.We presented three cases of acute triceps tendon rupture each at different site showing the spectrum of injury to the muscle and mechanism of injury and management were also discussed.

  7. Endovascular Repair of a Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, Michael; Strickman, Neil E.; Ljubic, Branimir J.; Dougherty, Kathryn G.; Gregoric, Igor D.

    2006-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair has considerable potential advantages over the surgical approach as a treatment for thoracic aortic rupture, in part because open surgical repair of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. We describe the successful endovascular deployment of stent-grafts to repair a contained rupture of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an 86-year-old man whose comorbidities prohibited surgery. Two months after the procedure, magnetic resonance angiography showed a patent stent-graft, a patent left subclavian artery, and complete exclusion of the aneurysm. PMID:16878637

  8. Creep rupture behavior of welded Grade 91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Triratna [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Basirat, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Alsagabi, Sultan; Sittiho, Anumat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Charit, Indrajit, E-mail: icharit@uidaho.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Creep rupture behavior of fusion welded Grade 91 steel was studied in the temperature range of 600 – 700 °C and at stresses of 50–200 MPa. The creep data were analyzed in terms of the Monkman-Grant relation and Larson-Miller parameter. The creep damage tolerance factor was used to identify the origin of creep damage. The creep damage was identified as the void growth in combination with microstructural degradation. The fracture surface morphology of the ruptured specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy and deformed microstructure examined by transmission electron microscopy, to further elucidate the rupture mechanisms.

  9. Bilateral patellar tendon rupture associated with statin use

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is an uncommon clinical presentation, which generally affects the under 40s who are active in sport. Bilateral rupture of both tendons is much rarer. It occurs most frequently in patients with predisposing factors such as corticosteroid use or systemic diseases. The authors present the case of a 56-year-old male on long-term statin therapy who sustained this injury following a fall on ice. He had no known risk factors for tendon rupture. Surgical treatment involved ten...

  10. Adductor longus tendon rupture mistaken for incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Bas R J; Plaisier, Peter W; Jakma, Tijs S C

    2014-03-01

    An incarcerated inguinal hernia is a common diagnosis, since the risk of an inguinal hernia incarcerating or strangulating is around 0.3-3%. An acute rupture of the adductor longus tendon is rarely seen and mostly affects (semi-) professional sportsmen. We present a case of a patient with an assumed incarcerated inguinal hernia which turned out to be a proximal adductor longus tendon rupture. If patients without a history of inguinal hernia present themselves with acute groin pain after suddenly exorotating the upper leg, a rupture of the adductor longus tendon should be considered. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment can be performed.

  11. Distal rupture of the adductor longus in a skier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greditzer, Harry G; Nawabi, Danyal; Li, Angela Eh; Jawetz, Shari T

    Acute adductor longus ruptures occur infrequently and have been rarely described in the literature. Schlegel et al. reviewed a series of adductor longus tendon ruptures and found that all ruptured proximally. A 42-year-old man with right hip pain 3 weeks following a skiing injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a distal adductor longus avulsion. The diagnosis of acute adductor longus injury can be difficult on physical examination alone, but MRI can accurately depict the site of injury. Surgery may be indicated for a proximal avulsion, but a distal injury may heal with nonoperative treatment, as in our case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A ruptured large extraluminal ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor causing hemoperitoneum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoji Hirasaki; Kohei Fujita; Minoru Matsubara; Hiromitsu Kanzaki; Hiromichi Yamane; Masato Okuda; Seiyuu Suzuki; Atsuko Shirakawa; Hideyuki Saeki

    2008-01-01

    We describe an 87-year-old woman with a large ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) causing hernoperitoneum. A CT scan demonstrated a large heterogeneous mass measuring about 13 crn × 11 cmin the pelvis and hemoperitoneurn, with a non-uniform enhancement pattern. The mass was diagnosed as a GIST originating from the gastrointestinal tract. She underwent an urgent laparotomy and an ileal GIST with a rupture was found 130 cm from the anal to the Treitz's ligament. Hernoperitoneum caused by ileal GIST rupture is a rare condition. Bleeding in the large tumor leading to rupture of the capsule might cause hemoperitoneurn in the present case.

  13. Design and Experimental Research on a New Pipe Rupture Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-liang; XU Bing; YANG Hua-yong; ZHANG Yi-ding

    2006-01-01

    A new pipe rupture valve for hydraulic elevator is designed.Mathematical models established for the hydraulic elevator system are used in numefical simulations on the Simulink environment of Matlab kits.The effects of different viscous damping diameters.inlet pressures of pipe rupture valve.and elevator loads on the hydraulic elevator system's dynamic performance are analyzed.Expefimenml research is also carried out using a hydraulic elevator experiment rig.The numerical simulations accord with experimental results in general.Dynamic performance indexes are assessed by the EN812 standard.The results show that the newly designed pipe rupture valve meets the designing requirement for hydraulic elevators.

  14. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Boulvain, Michel; Neilson, James P

    2013-12-02

    Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection. To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of administering antibiotics to women with PROM before 37 weeks, on maternal infectious morbidity, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer-term childhood development. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic administration with placebo that reported clinically relevant outcomes were included as were trials of different antibiotics. Trials in which no placebo was used were included for the outcome of perinatal death alone. We extracted data from each report without blinding of either the results or the treatments that women received. We sought unpublished data from a number of authors. We included 22 trials, involving 6872 women and babies.The use of antibiotics following PROM is associated with statistically significant reductions in chorioamnionitis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.96, and a reduction in the numbers of babies born within 48 hours (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87) and seven days of randomisation (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89). The following markers of neonatal morbidity were reduced: neonatal infection (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.85), use of surfactant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), oxygen therapy (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96), and abnormal cerebral ultrasound scan prior to discharge from hospital (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). Co-amoxiclav was associated with an increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (RR 4.72, 95% CI 1.57 to 14.23).One study evaluated the children's health at seven years of age (ORACLE Children Study) and found

  15. Earthquake Surface Rupture of the Salt Range Thrust at the Himalayan Thrust Front in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Madden, C.; Yeats, R.; Hussain, A.; Akhtar, S. S.; Latif, A.; Waliullah, A.; Ashraf, M.; Ramzan, S.; Dasti, N.

    2007-12-01

    Considerable evidence from Nepal and India now indicates that the basal detachment of the Himalaya produces great earthquakes that result in large coseismic displacements at the thrust front in India and Nepal (the Main Frontal thrust). In contrast, knowledge of the earthquake potential of the Salt Range thrust in Pakistan (SRT) is virtually absent. It has been clear since the publication of the Salt Range maps of Gee (1989) that the SRT deforms young surficial deposits and is an active fault. What remains uncertain is whether surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, with what frequency those events occur, and what is the size of the associated earthquakes. In a field reconnaissance of the SRT in Spring, 2007, we were able to confirm that this thrust is an active fault, and we discovered numerous localities where the fault nearly reaches the surface, cutting all but the youngest few meters of colluvial deposits. Whereas our observations suggest that surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, a number of characteristics of the Pakistani Himalaya suggests the earthquake behavior of the basal detachment and thrust front may be substantially different than it is in India and Nepal to the southeast. Key differences include an uncertain, but lower, convergence rate at the thrust front (5 to 13 mm/yr), a low tapered thrust wedge, and localization of the basal detachment in a weak evaporite unit. In this sense, the front of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in Iran may be a more appropriate analog for the thrust front in Pakistan than the Himalayan thrust front to the southeast. Future mapping of deformed geomorphic surfaces and paleoseismic trenching along the SRT will provide the first direct evidence of the earthquake potential and recurrence of plate- boundary earthquakes in Pakistan. This knowledge is critical for hazard assessment in north-central Pakistan where more than 7 million people are likely to be affected by a great earthquake on the plate boundary.

  16. Interfacial structure of steel-Al-28Pb bonding plate with semisolid rolling-casting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 杜云慧; 刘汉武; 曾大本; 崔建忠; 巴立民

    2004-01-01

    Fe-Al compound at the interface of steel-mushy Al-28Pb bonding plate was studied quantitatively. The relationship between ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and bonding parameters such as preheating temperature of steel plate, solid volume fraction of Al-28Pb slurry and rolling speed, was established by artificial neural networks perfectly. The results show that when the bonding parameters are 546 ℃ for preheating temperature of steel plate,43.5% for solid volume fraction of Al-28Pb slurry and 8.6 mm/s for rolling speed, the reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound corresponding to the largest interfacial shear strength of bonding plate is obtained as 71.5%. This reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound is a quantitative criterion of interfacial embrittlement, that is, when the ratio of FeAl compound at interface is larger than 71.5%, interfacial embrittlement will occur.

  17. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  18. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for ...

  19. Controlling Laminate Plate Elastic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mareš, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to express the relation of a measure of laminate plate stiffness with respect to the fiber orientation of its plies. The inverse of the scalar product of the lateral displacement of the central plane and lateral loading of the plate is the measure of laminate plate stiffness. In the case of a simply supported rectangular laminate plate this measure of stiffness is maximized, and the optimum orientation of its plies is searched.

  20. Microchannel plate streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  1. Spontaneous Ureteral Rupture Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pampana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the urinary collecting system associated with perinephric or retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition and it is commonly associated with renal obstructing disease. Perforation could occur at any level from the calix to the bladder but it is usually seen at the fornices and upper ureter. It may lead to several serious consequences including urinoma, abscess formation, urosepsis, infection, and subsequent irreversible renal impairment. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented at the emergency department of our institution with severe abdominal pain. Due to symptomatology worsening, complete laboratory evaluation was performed and the patient underwent abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT evaluation which showed contrast agent extravasation outside the excretory system without any evidence of renal calculi at basal acquisition. It was decided to perform a double-J stent placement which was followed by complete healing of the ureter and its removal was performed 8 weeks later. Diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  2. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  3. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  4. Coronary spasm, a pathogenic trigger of vulnerable plaque rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-xin; L(U) Shu-zheng; ZHANG Wei-jun; SONG Xian-tao; CHEN Hui; ZHANG Li-jie

    2011-01-01

    Objective This coronary artery spasm review aimed to explore the most possible pathogenic trigger mechanism of vulnerable plaque rupture.Data sources Data used in this coronary artery spasm review were mainly from Medline and Pubmed in English.Study selection These reports from major review on coronary artery spasm.and these research included coronary artery conception,pathogenesis of spasm,mechanisms of plaque rupture,epidemiological evidence,clinical manifestation and the relationship between coronary artery spasm and vulnerable plaque rupture.Results Coronary artery spasm is somehow related to the presence of atherosclerotic intima disease in the coronary artery.However,chronic low-grade inflammation causes coronary vessel smooth muscle cell hypersensitivity,which can directely cause coronary artery spasm.Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death may be initiated by a sudden intense localized contraction of coronary artery smooth muscle.Conclusion Coronary artery spasm may be one trigger that can initiate and exacerbate vulnerable plaque rupture.

  5. Uroperitoneum attributable to ruptured urachus in a yearling bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, G M; Zamos, D T; Mueller, P O

    1992-02-15

    Ruptured urachus was found to result in uroperitoneum in a yearling Beefmaster bull. The uroperitoneum was initially believed to be attributable to ruptured bladder secondary to urolithiasis; however, catheter decompression of the bladder through an ischiatic urethrotomy did not resolve the uroperitoneum. The persistent urachus was diagnosed and removed through caudal right flank laparotomy with the bull standing. The urachus was attached to the umbilicus, communicated with the lumen of the bladder, and had a mucosal lining. Ruptured urachus is an unusual cause of uroperitoneum, but can cause clinical signs identical to those of ruptured bladder. Persistent urachus is a congenital abnormality in many species, but may be hereditary in Beefmaster cattle. In addition, the bull in this report developed hyperkalemia, which is considered an unusual finding in cattle with uroperitoneum.

  6. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Cetinkaya

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy.

  7. A case report of left ventricular wall rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordovani H

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac rupture, particularly rupture of the left ventricular wall, has a very high mortality rate. In this occasion, even if injured patients being alive when carried to the hospital, many of them will die due to following possible reasons: severe bleeding, cardiac tamponade, wasting time for routine and usual diagnostic procedures or transferring the injured to other hospital equipped for cardiac surgery. The only way to avoid these dangerous hazards is prompt thoracotomy and repair of the wound, which must be done in any surgical ward available. We report a case of cardiact rupture due to penetrating injury caused by a slender sharp object, passing through the heart anteroposteriorly. The patient was successfully rescued. This report indicates that in hospital, where no facility for cardiac surgery is available, this kind of emergency surgery for cardiac rupture is very indicative and may save the life of injured patient.

  8. Functional rehabilitation of patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, Troels; Troelsen, Anders; Kallemose, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is continuously debated. Recent studies have proposed that the choice of either operative or non-operative treatment may not be as important as rehabilitation, suggesting that functional rehabilitation should be preferred over......, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PEDro using the search terms: "Achilles tendon," "rupture," "mobilization" and "immobilization". Seven RCTs involving 427 participants were eligible for inclusion, with a total of 211 participants treated with functional rehabilitation and 216 treated with immobilization....... CONCLUSION: Functional rehabilitation after acute Achilles tendon rupture does not increase the rate of re-rupture or other complications. A trend toward earlier return to work and sport, and increased patient satisfaction was found when functional rehabilitation was used. The present literature is of low...

  9. Automatic rupture of unused intraport catheter. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Paris; Dalianis, Nikolaos; Filippou, Dimitrios K; Condiis, Nicolas; Rizos, Spiros; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    Totally Implantable Central Venous Access Devices (Intraports) are commonly used in cancer patients to administer chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition. These devices are placed by Seldinger technique. We report an unusual case of intraport catheter rupture before the use of the device. The ruptured part of the catheter migrated into the left pulmonary vein via right ventricle. The ruptured part was removed by means of interventional radiology before causing any problems to the patient. All the reported ruptures of port catheters refer to port devices that had been used to administer chemotherapy, fluids, or parenteral nutrition. The unique feature of this case is that the catheter had not been used at all. It is of great interest also the removal of the broken part from the pulmonary vein.

  10. Plantar fascia rupture in a professional soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Kato, Kenji; Takao, Shoichiro; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with symptoms of plantar fasciitis. His symptoms occurred with no remarkable triggers and gradually worsened despite conservative treatments including taping, use of insoles, and physical therapy. Local corticosteroid injection was given twice as a further intervention, but his plantar fascia partially ruptured 49 days after the second injection. He was treated conservatively with platelet-rich plasma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed regenerative change of the ruptured fascia. Five months after the rupture, he returned to his original level of training. If professional athletes find it difficult to refrain from athletic activity, as in the present case, the risk of rupture due to corticosteroid injection should not be overlooked.

  11. Endobronchial Cartilage Rupture: A Rare Cause of Lobar Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nauman; Javaid, Toseef

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare clinical condition, which can present in patients with severe emphysema with sudden onset shortness of breath. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with sudden onset shortness of breath. Chest X-ray showed lung hyperinflation and a right lung field vague small density. Chest Computed Tomography confirmed the presence of right middle lobe collapse. Bronchoscopy revealed partial right middle lobe atelectasis and an endobronchial cartilage rupture. Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare condition that can present as sudden onset shortness of breath due to lobar collapse in patients with emphysema and can be triggered by cough. Bronchoscopic findings include finding a collapsed lung lobe and a visible ruptured endobronchial cartilage. A high index of suspicion, chest imaging, and early bronchoscopy can aid in the diagnosis and help prevent complications. PMID:27525149

  12. Ruptured chordae tendineae in acromegaly. An autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, T; Nakashima, Y; Ichiyasu, H; Soejima, M; Baba, K; Kuroiwa, A

    1991-07-01

    A 57-year-old woman with acromegaly associated with mitral chordal rupture is reported. She was noted to have abnormal development in the size of her hands and feet in childhood. She occasionally suffered from shortness of breath on exertion and nocturnal dyspnea for several years, and was diagnosed and treated as having congestive heart failure due to valvular heart disease. On admission to our hospital, chordal rupture was suspected on the basis of M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography. Seven years after discharge, she died of congestive heart failure. On autopsy, the heart weight and ventricular wall thickness were increased. Rupture of the posterior chordae was confirmed, but evidence of an old myocardial infarction was not found. There was severe interstitial fibrosis in the left ventricular wall. A possible etiology of the chordal rupture in this case was thought to be the excessive stretching caused by the disproportional visceromegaly of the heart.

  13. Uterine rupture an obstetrics catastrophy; incidence, risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uterine rupture an obstetrics catastrophy; incidence, risk factors, management ... at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital Bauchi Nigeria. ... is 0.35% and the common risk factors include high parity, exposure to oxytocin in ...

  14. An unusual case of cardiac tamponade: ruptured subaortic diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Arash; Lee, Ben; Ivascu, Natalia; Webber, Geoffrey; Paul, Subroto

    2010-05-01

    Cardiac diverticula are rare congenital anomalies found as outpouchings from various chambers of the heart. We present a case of a diverticulum arising from the membranous septum with free rupture into the pericardial space and tamponade.

  15. Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of labor versus expectant ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Methods: One hundred and fifty two women with PROM at term were ...

  16. Asymptomatic spontaneous rupture of suprasellar dermoid cyst : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh S

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Suprasellar dermoid cysts are uncommon intracranial lesions. CT and MRI findings in a rare case of asymptomatic rupture of suprasellar dermoid cyst with subarachnoid dissemination is described.

  17. EXPERIENCE ON SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF RUPTURE OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管珩; 郑月宏; 李拥军; 刘昌伟; 刘暴; 叶炜

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To describe our surgical experience on rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm .Methods. Two cases of ruptured aortic aneurysms with severe complication were analyzed. Aorta re-construction procedures were performed using bifurcated e-PTFE grafts during emergency operation. Diag-nosis, preoperative resuscitation, emergency surgical intervention, and postoperative complications of thesepatients were summarized and discussed.Results. Rupture of aortic aneurysm in both patients presented as a huge retroperitoneum haematomaby computed tomography scan. They were successfully saved by prompt body fluid compensation, emer-gency procedure, intraoperative resuscitation, and postoperative intensive care.Conclusions. Correct diagnosis, prompt surgical management, immediate intraoperative proximal aortaclamping during procedure, and effective management of postoperative complications were the key pointsto successful treatment of ruptured aortic aneurysm.

  18. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...

  19. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...

  20. Revealing the deep structure and rupture plane of the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake (Mw = 8.8) using wide angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Eduardo; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Flueh, Ernst R.; Dzierma, Yvonne; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thorwart, Martin

    2011-07-01

    The 27 February, 2010 Maule earthquake (Mw = 8.8) ruptured ~ 400 km of the Nazca-South America plate boundary and caused hundreds of fatalities and billions of dollars in material losses. Here we present constraints on the fore-arc structure and subduction zone of the rupture area derived from seismic refraction and wide-angle data. The results show a wedge shaped body ~ 40 km wide with typical sedimentary velocities interpreted as a frontal accretionary prism (FAP). Landward of the imaged FAP, the velocity model shows an abrupt velocity-contrast, suggesting a lithological change which is interpreted as the contact between the FAP and the paleo accretionary prism (backstop). The backstop location is coincident with the seaward limit of the aftershocks, defining the updip limit of the co-seismic rupture and seismogenic zone. Furthermore, the seaward limit of the aftershocks coincides with the location of the shelf break in the entire earthquake rupture area (33°S-38.5°S), which is interpreted as the location of the backstop along the margin. Published seismic profiles at the northern and southern limit of the rupture area also show the presence of a strong horizontal velocity gradient seismic backstop at a distance of ~ 30 km from the deformation front. The seismic wide-angle reflections from the top of the subducting oceanic crust constrain the location of the plate boundary offshore, dipping at ~ 10°. The projection of the epicenter of the Maule earthquake onto our derived interplate boundary yielded a hypocenter around 20 km depth, this implies that this earthquake nucleated somewhere in the middle of the seismogenic zone, neither at its updip nor at its downdip limit.

  1. A report of the Maquet procedure for the management of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Roberto Custódio Marques

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is the major cause of lameness and degenerative joint disease in the canine stifle. The cause of this disease is multifactorial, especially involving degenerative and inflammatory changes. Many techniques have been described for the management of this condition, and current recommendations include the use of corrective osteotomies, most recently using the Maquet (or modified Maquet procedure. This technique is fundamentally similar to the classical tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA, but without the use of the bone plate. The main advantages of using this technique are a shorter operative time and less use of implants. The main complication of this technique is an increased risk of tibial crest fracture. This report describes the Maquet technique for the treatment of a three-year-old male West White Terrier dog with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Cruciate ligament rupture was diagnosed by a positive cranial tibial drawer test. Mediolateral stifle radiography performed under anesthesia with the stifle in 135° of extension demonstrated a tibial plateau angle of 22°. A cage of six millimeters was necessary to allow advancement. The Maquet technique produced excellent post-operative results, including early weight-bearing and neutralization of the cranial tibial drawer. The consolidation time of the osteotomy was 63 days.

  2. Dynamic Rupture Model of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Megathrust Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes

    2017-04-01

    The M 9.1-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 caused violent shaking and generated a tsunami wave that was up to 50 m high along the northern coast of Sumatra. While various finite-source models have been proposed, here we present a physically realistic dynamic rupture model of the megathrust earthquake. To accomplish this, we use SeisSol, a highly parallelized software package that runs on modern supercomputers. Numerically, it follows an ADER-DG scheme to solve the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. SeisSol accommodates unstructured tetrahedral meshes that decrease computational expense by allowing for a high-resolution mesh where required, including along the non-planar subducting fault and to capture the bathymetry, as well as a lower resolution mesh in other regions. In the SeisSol model, the slip interface follows the geometry of Slab1.0 to the south and aftershock locations to the north. 4 km resolution bathymetry from GEBCO is incorporated at the ocean floor. Material properties are taken from Crust1.0 and are laterally homogeneous, but vertically varying. The model results are constrained by the overall characteristics of the rupture, including the magnitude, propagation speed, and extent along strike, as well as surface displacements recorded with GPS satellites. We aim to resolve the influence of source dynamics on ground displacement and the potential impacts on tsunami generation in the framework of the ASCETE project ("Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events", www.ascete.de).

  3. Basement and regional structure along strike of the Queen Charlotte Fault in the context of modern and historical earthquake ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Maureen A. L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Roland, Emily C.; Trehu, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    The Queen Charlotte fault (QCF) is a dextral transform system located offshore of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, accommodating ∼4.4  cm/yr of relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. Oblique convergence along the fault increases southward, and how this convergence is accommodated is still debated. Using seismic reflection data, we interpret offshore basement structure, faulting, and stratigraphy to provide a geological context for two recent earthquakes, an Mw 7.5 strike‐slip event near Craig, Alaska, and an Mw 7.8 thrust event near Haida Gwaii, Canada. We map downwarped Pacific oceanic crust near 54° N, between the two rupture zones. Observed downwarping decreases north and south of 54° N, parallel to the strike of the QCF. Bending of the Pacific plate here may have initiated with increased convergence rates due to a plate motion change at ∼6  Ma. Tectonic reconstruction implies convergence‐driven Pacific plate flexure, beginning at 6 Ma south of a 10° bend the QCF (which is currently at 53.2° N) and lasting until the plate translated past the bend by ∼2  Ma. Normal‐faulted approximately late Miocene sediment above the deep flexural depression at 54° N, topped by relatively undeformed Pleistocene and younger sediment, supports this model. Aftershocks of the Haida Gwaii event indicate a normal‐faulting stress regime, suggesting present‐day plate flexure and underthrusting, which is also consistent with reconstruction of past conditions. We thus favor a Pacific plate underthrusting model to initiate flexure and accommodation space for sediment loading. In addition, mapped structures indicate two possible fault segment boundaries along the QCF at 53.2° N and at 56° N.

  4. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesselroade, Ryan D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors.The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(4:306-309.

  5. Cohesive zone length of metagabbro at supershear rupture velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the shear strain field ahead of a supershear rupture. The strain array data along the sliding fault surfaces were obtained during the large-scale biaxial friction experiments at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience. These friction experiments were done using a pair of meter-scale metagabbro rock specimens whose simulated fault area was 1.5 m × 0.1 m. A 2.6-MPa normal stress was applied with loading velocity of 0.1 mm/s. Near-fault strain was measured by 32 two-component semiconductor strain gauges installed at an interval of 50 mm and 10 mm off the fault and recorded at an interval of 1 MHz. Many stick-slip events were observed in the experiments. We chose ten unilateral rupture events that propagated with supershear rupture velocity without preceding foreshocks. Focusing on the rupture front, stress concentration was observed and sharp stress drop occurred immediately inside the ruptured area. The temporal variation of strain array data is converted to the spatial variation of strain assuming a constant rupture velocity. We picked up the peak strain and zero-crossing strain locations to measure the cohesive zone length. By compiling the stick-slip event data, the cohesive zone length is about 50 mm although it scattered among the events. We could not see any systematic variation at the location but some dependence on the rupture velocity. The cohesive zone length decreases as the rupture velocity increases, especially larger than √{2} times the shear wave velocity. This feature is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  6. Isolated duodenal rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celik Atilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is rare and it usually seen with other abdominal organ injuries. It represents approximately 2% to 20% of patients with blunt abdominal injury and often occurs after blows to the upper abdomen, or abdominal compression from high-riding seat belts. Two cases of blunt duodenal rupture successfully treated surgically, are presented with their preoperative diagnosis and final out comes.

  7. Blunt cardiac rupture in patient with liver laceration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文林; 曾伟生; 蒋仁超

    2003-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cardiac rupture is one of the key factors for a successful outcome. However, the accurate diagnosis is often difficult in the early stage of injury, especially when some obvious severe wounds are found in other regions of the body,1,2 for they are easy to disguise the symptom of the heart. We report a case with cardiac rupture and liver trauma caused by traffic accident.

  8. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Radiology)

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  9. Complications of plantar fascia rupture associated with corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, J I; Beskin, J L

    1998-02-01

    From 1992 to 1995, 765 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were evaluated by one of the authors. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with plantar fascia rupture, and 44 of these ruptures were associated with corticosteroid injection. The authors injected 122 of the 765 patients, resulting in 12 of the 44 plantar fascia ruptures. Subjective and objective evaluations were conducted through chart and radiographic review. Thirty-nine of these patients were evaluated at an average 27-month follow-up. Thirty patients (68%) reported a sudden onset of tearing at the heel, and 14 (32%) had a gradual onset of symptoms. In most cases the original heel pain was relieved by rupture. However, these patients subsequently developed new problems including longitudinal arch strain, lateral and dorsal midfoot strain, lateral plantar nerve dysfunction, stress fracture, hammertoe deformity, swelling, and/or antalgia. All patients exhibited diminished tension of the plantar fascia upon examination by the stretch test. Comparison of calcaneal pitch angles in the affected and uninvolved foot showed a statistically significant difference of 3.7 degrees (P = 0.0001). Treatment included NSAIDs, rest or cross-training, stretching, orthotics, and boot-brace immobilization. At an average 27-month follow-up, 50% had good/excellent scores and 50% had fair/poor scores. Recovery time was varied. Ten feet were asymptomatic by 6 months post rupture, four feet by 12 months post rupture, and 26 feet remained symptomatic 1 year post rupture. Our findings demonstrate that plantar fascia rupture after corticosteroid injection may result in long-term sequelae that are difficult to resolve.

  10. Multiple barriers in forced rupture of protein complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Hyeon, Changbong

    2012-01-01

    Curvatures in the most probable rupture force ($f^*$) versus log-loading rate ($\\log{r_f}$) observed in dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) on biomolecular complexes are interpreted using a one-dimensional free energy profile with multiple barriers or a single barrier with force-dependent transition state. Here, we provide a criterion to select one scenario over another. If the rupture dynamics occurs by crossing a single barrier in a physical free energy profile describing unbinding, the exponent $\

  11. Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after radio-frequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Jung, S L; Baek, J H; Kim, J-H

    2011-12-01

    Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after RFA is very rare. We experienced 6 cases in 4 institutions. All patients presented with abrupt neck swelling and pain between 9 and 60 days after RFA. Imaging and clinical findings of the ruptured tumors were anterior subcapsular location, mixed composition, large size, and repeated ablations. Conservative treatment was sufficient in 3 cases, whereas surgical management was required in 3.

  12. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate de...

  13. Supraspinatus rupture at the musculotendinous junction in a young woman

    OpenAIRE

    Benazzo, Francesco; MARULLO, MATTEO; Pietrobono, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of rotator cuff tears occur within the tendon or as an avulsion from the greater tuberosity. Supraspinatus injury at the musculotendinous junction is a very uncommon event. We describe a case of supraspinatus rupture at the musculotendinous junction, with successful conservative treatment. It occurred in a 23-year-old woman, the youngest patient with this uncommon type of injury. To our knowledge, this is the first case of rupture of the supraspinatus muscle at the musculote...

  14. Emergency endovascular repair of ruptured visceral artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Tjun

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms although rare, have very high mortality if they rupture. Case presentation An interesting case of a bleeding inferior pancreaticduodenal artery aneurysm is reported in a young patient who presented with hypovolemic shock while being treated in the hospital after undergoing total knee replacement. Endovascular embolization was successfully employed to treat this patient, with early hospital discharge. Conclusion Prompt diagnosis and endovascular management of ruptured visceral aneuryms can decrease the associated mortality and morbidity.

  15. Spontaneous splenic rupture: A rare presentation of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainak Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the spleen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare, but serious manifestation of dengue fever (DF. We report a case of a young female who was presented with atraumatic abdominal pain, hypovolemic shock, anemia, ascites and hepatosplenomegaly with a recent history of a febrile illness. Subsequent investigations proved the presence of hemoperitoneum with spontaneous splenic rupture with seropositivity for DF. Early diagnosis and conservative management in this case resulted in a favorable outcome.

  16. Analysis of interlaminar stress and nonlinear dynamic response for composite laminated plates with interfacial damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, F. H.; Fu, Y. M.

    2008-12-01

    By considering the effect of interfacial damage and using the variation principle, three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic governing equations of the laminated plates with interfacial damage are derived based on the general six-degrees-of-freedom plate theory towards the accurate stress analysis. The solutions of interlaminar stress and nonlinear dynamic response for a simply supported laminated plate with interfacial damage are obtained by using the finite difference method, and the results are validated by comparison with the solution of nonlinear finite element method. In numerical calculations, the effects of interfacial damage on the stress in the interface and the nonlinear dynamic response of laminated plates are discussed.

  17. Sexual intercourse and cerebral aneurysmal rupture: potential mechanisms and precipitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Willie, Jon T; Zipfel, Gregory J; Dacey, Ralph G

    2011-04-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a significant cause of death in young and middle-aged individuals and causes tremendous morbidity in affected patients. Despite the identification of various risk factors, the series of events leading to the formation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms is poorly understood. Cerebral aneurysm rupture has been associated with sexual intercourse and other forms of physical exercise. In fact, multiple case series reported that coitus was the immediate preceding activity in 3.8-14.5% of patients suffering from aneurysmal SAH. This may be related to the large elevations in mean arterial blood pressure that occur in both males and females during sexual intercourse (130-175 and 125-160 mm Hg, respectively). While coitus and physical exercise share important physiological similarities, each may differentially affect the probability that a preformed aneurysm will rupture. In this literature review and synthesis, the authors analyze the physiological human response to sexual intercourse in an effort to delineate those factors that may precipitate aneurysmal rupture. The authors' analysis is based on the original data collected by Masters and Johnson. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review to address the link between sexual intercourse and intracranial aneurysmal rupture. While actual measurements of the physiological variables relevant to SAH were not performed in this article, the authors make reasonable assumptions based on the available data to help elucidate the mechanism of sexually induced aneurysmal rupture.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed radiography in Achilles tendon rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenaga, Tateo; Hachiya, Junichi; Miyasaka, Yasuo and others

    1988-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Radiography (CR) were performed in 15 patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture who were treated conservatively without surgery. MRI was obtained using Toshiba MRT 50 A superconductive machine, operaing at 0.5 Tesla. CR was performed by CR-101, Fuji Medical System. In fresh cases, ruptured tendons showed intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. Thickening of the tendon was observed in all cases except in very acute stage. Configuration of thickend tendons tends to be dumbbell shape in subacute stage and fusiform in chronic stage of more than six months after the initial trauma. In cases which showed high signal intensity at the ruptured area both on T1 and T2 weighted images, migration of fat into the sapces between the ruptured tendons was considered to be the major source of increased signal intensity. Computed radiography showed thickening of the tendon, blurring of anterior margin of the tendon, and decreased translucency of pre-Achilles fat pad. However, MRI better demonstrated the details of ruptured tendons when compared to CR, and thought to be an usefull way of following up the healing process of the ruptured tendon to facilitate more reasonable judgement of the time of removing plaster casts and stating exercise.

  19. Stochastic Earthquake Rupture Modeling Using Nonparametric Co-Regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungbook; Song, Seok Goo

    2016-10-01

    Accurate predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions are essential in simulation-based seismic hazard assessment. Advanced simulation-based ground motion prediction methods have been proposed to complement the empirical approach, which suffers from the lack of observed ground motion data, especially in the near-source region for large events. It is important to quantify the variability of the earthquake rupture process for future events and to produce a number of rupture scenario models to capture the variability in simulation-based ground motion predictions. In this study, we improved the previously developed stochastic earthquake rupture modeling method by applying the nonparametric co-regionalization, which was proposed in geostatistics, to the correlation models estimated from dynamically derived earthquake rupture models. The nonparametric approach adopted in this study is computationally efficient and, therefore, enables us to simulate numerous rupture scenarios, including large events (M > 7.0). It also gives us an opportunity to check the shape of true input correlation models in stochastic modeling after being deformed for permissibility. We expect that this type of modeling will improve our ability to simulate a wide range of rupture scenario models and thereby predict ground motions and perform seismic hazard assessment more accurately.

  20. Venous rupture during percutaneous treatment of hemodialysis fistulas and grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittl, John A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk and consequences of venous rupture during angioplasty of malfunctioning hemodialysis grafts and fistulas. Venous stenoses in the outflow limb of hemodialysis accesses often require ultra-high balloon pressure for optimal dilatation. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were analyzed for a consecutive series of patients treated between 1999 and 2008. Venous rupture or perforation occurred in 11 of 1242 (0.9%) procedures. No patient with a rupture or perforation died or required emergency or urgent surgical repair. Two of 11 patients (18.2%) required transfusions, 8 of 11 patients (72.7%) required stenting, and 6 of 8 (75.0%) who needed stenting received covered stents to achieve hemostasis. Rupture led to access thrombosis within 30 days in 9 of 11 cases (82%). Multivariable logistical regression analysis suggested that using a balloon catheter more than 2 mm larger than the diameter of the hemodialysis access or using peripheral cutting balloons increased the risk of rupture or perforation. Rupture or perforation is a rare complication of treatment of malfunctioning hemodialysis grafts and fistulas. The complication may be managed with nonsurgical methods and might be avoided by optimal balloon selection and sizing.