Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder
高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之
1998-01-01
The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.
The maximum bending moment resistance of plate girders
Abspoel, R.
2014-01-01
In many steel structures like buildings, industrial halls and bridges, standard hot-rolled sections like IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, HED and UNP in Europe and similar profiles in other regions of the world are used. The range of hot-rolled sections is limited and therefore fabricated plate girders are used
The maximum bending moment resistance of plate girders
Abspoel, R.
2014-01-01
In many steel structures like buildings, industrial halls and bridges, standard hot-rolled sections like IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, HED and UNP in Europe and similar profiles in other regions of the world are used. The range of hot-rolled sections is limited and therefore fabricated plate girders are used
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S M Mosavi; A Sadeghi Nik
2015-02-01
Applying composites in order to strengthen and renew the infrastructures has globally been accepted. Traditional methods to strengthen the out-of-standard structures are costly, time consuming and requires a lot of labour. Today, new techniques are hired using light and strong substances which also resist against corrosion, known as Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) plates. Regarding the high tensile strength and proper module of elasticity, CFRP plates are considered as a suitable alternative to strengthen girders. The behaviour of steel–concrete composite girders being statically loaded and strengthened by CFRP plates in this study. The CFRP plates used in this study have been stuck, with epoxy adhesive, under the tensile sections of three steel girders. The results accompanied with analytical study of moment–curvature and numerical analysis done with ANSYS, show that CFRP plates with epoxy adhesive increases the ultimate loading capacity of steel–concrete composite girder. Plastic stiffness of the girders was also increased.
Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Multicell Reinforced Concrete Box Girders Subjected to Torsion
Marya Bagherifaez; Arash Behnia; Abeer Aqeel Majeed; Chai Hwa Kian
2014-01-01
Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative fo...
Fatigue crack detection in a plate girder using Lamb waves
Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Peng
2007-04-01
We report on the application of wafer-type PZT transducers to the detection of flaws in steel plate girders. In these experiments one transducer is used to emit a pulse and the second receives the pulse and reflections from nearby boundaries, flaws, or discontinuities (pitch-catch mode). In this application there will typically be numerous reflections observed in the undamaged structure. A major challenge is to recognize new reflections caused by fatigue cracks in the presence of these background reflections. A laboratory specimen plate girder was fabricated at approximately half scale, 910 mm deep with an h/t ratio of 280 for the web and a b/t ratio of 16 for the flanges, and with transverse stiffeners fabricated with a web gap at the tension flange. Two wafer-type transducers were mounted on the web approximately 175 mm from the crack location, one on each side of the stiffener. The transducers were operated in pitch-catch mode, excited by a windowed sinusoid to create a narrowband transient excitation. The transducer location relative to the crack corresponded to a total included angle of roughly 30 degrees in the path reflecting from the crack. Cyclic loading was applied to develop a distortion-induced fatigue crack in the web at the web gap location. After appearance of the crack, ultrasonic measurements were performed at a range of center frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the A1 Lamb wave mode. Subsequently the crack was extended mechanically to simulate crack growth under primary longitudinal (bending) stress and the measurements were repeated. Direct differencing of the signals showed arrivals at times corresponding to reflection from the crack location, growing in amplitude as the crack was lengthened mechanically. These results demonstrate the utility of Lamb waves for crack detection even in the presence of numerous background reflections.
Welding of girders to insert plates of composite steel-concrete structure of tower in Kuwait
A. Lisiecki; J. Szlek; A. Klimpel
2007-01-01
Purpose: A study of influence of preheating and MMA welding technique of tee-joints of plate girders to insert plates of a composite steel-concrete structure of the telecommunication tower, on the properties and quality of the concrete in the region of the insert plate has been carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Studies of thermo-mechanical phenomena during manual arc welding MMA of tee-joints between plate girders and insert plates were carried out to identify possible sources of the ...
Welding of girders to insert plates of composite steel-concrete structure
A. Klimpel; A. Lisiecki; J. Szlek
2007-01-01
Purpose: of this paper: A study of influence of preheating and MMA welding technique of tee-joints of plate girders to insert plates of a composite steel-concrete structure of the telecommunication tower, on the properties and quality of the concrete in the region of the insert plate has been carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Studies of thermo-mechanical phenomena during manual arc welding MMA of tee-joints between plate girders and insert plates were carried out to identify possible s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gi-Ha Eom
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A recent trend in bridge construction has been the optimization of the cost-to-performance ratio. The most effective way to optimize the cost-to-performance ratio is to maximize the efficiency of the superstructure. Currently, many bridge engineers and designers favor two- or three- girder plate superstructures, due to their cost advantages. However, research on the performance enhancements of the I-type girder in two- or three- girder plate bridges is lacking. One of the most important performance improvement technologies for the I-type girder is the “preflex” method. In the preflex method, the specimen is inverted during the construction process to apply prestressed cambering to the specimen by using self-weight. However, a problem with the preflex construction method is difficulty with inverting the girder/plate system during the concrete curing process. Therefore, a new inverting system called Turn-Over (TO wheel was proposed. Using TO wheels, wider variations to the I-type girder design can be achieved. Using this TO construction method, various cross sectional designs of girder plate systems can be considered due to its easiness in inverting the girder/plate system. In this study, the location of concrete confinement sections between the steel I-beams and concrete plates was varied in an I-girder cross-sectional design. Design parameters included effective height, flange thickness, flange width, confining concrete section width, etc. From this study, the optimum cross-sectional design of the I-girder/concrete plate system was achieved. Then, a single 20 m TO girder/plate system and two 20 m TO girder bridges were constructed and tested to evaluate their performance. From the test, failure behavior, load carrying capacity, crack pattern, etc., are obtained. The results are discussed in detail in this paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farzad Shahabian
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims to undertake a statistical study to evaluate the accuracy of nine models that have been previously proposed for estimating the ultimate resistance of plate girders subjected to patch loading. For each model, mean errors and standard errors, as well as the probability of underestimating or overestimating patch load resistance, are estimated and the resultant values are compared one to another. Prior to that, the models are initially calibrated in order to improve interaction formulae using an experimental data set collected from the literature. The models are then analyzed by computing design factors associated with a target risk level (probability of exceedance. These models are compared one to another considering uncertainties existed in material and geometrical properties. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate random variables. The statistical parameters of the calibrated models are calculated for various coefficients of variations regardless of their correlation with the random resistance variables. These probabilistic results are very useful for evaluating the stochastic sensitivity of the calibrated models.
Locally Corroded Stiffener Effect on Shear Buckling Behaviors of Web Panel in the Plate Girder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jungwon Huh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The shear buckling failure and strength of a web panel stiffened by stiffeners with corrosion damage were examined according to the degree of corrosion of the stiffeners, using the finite element analysis method. For this purpose, a plate girder with a four-panel web girder stiffened by vertical and longitudinal stiffeners was selected, and its deformable behaviors and the principal stress distribution of the web panel at the shear buckling strength of the web were compared after their post-shear buckling behaviors, as well as their out-of-plane displacement, to evaluate the effect of the stiffener in the web panel on the shear buckling failure. Their critical shear buckling load and shear buckling strength were also examined. The FE analyses showed that their typical shear buckling failures were affected by the structural relationship between the web panel and each stiffener in the plate girder, to resist shear buckling of the web panel. Their critical shear buckling loads decreased from 82% to 59%, and their shear buckling strength decreased from 88% to 76%, due to the effect of corrosion of the stiffeners on their shear buckling behavior. Thus, especially in cases with over 40% corrosion damage of the vertical stiffener, they can have lower shear buckling strength than their design level.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Zheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the impact interaction between the abutment and the girder subjected to nonuniform seismic excitation. An impact model based on tests is presented by taking material properties of the backfill of the abutment into consideration. The conditional simulation is performed to investigate the spatial variation of earthquake ground motions. A two-span continuous steel box girder bridge is taken as the example to analyze and assess the pounding interaction between the abutment and the girder. The detailed nonlinear finite element (FE model is established and the steel girder and the reinforced concrete piers are modeled by nonlinear fiber elements. The pounding element of the abutment is simulated by using a trilinear compression gap element. The elastic-perfectly plastic element is used to model the nonlinear rubber bearings. The comparisons of the pounding forces, the shear forces of the nonlinear bearings, the moments of reinforced concrete piers, and the axial pounding stresses of the steel girder are studied. The made observations indicate that the nonuniform excitation for multisupport bridge is imperative in the analysis and evaluation of the pounding effects of the bridges.
Acoustic emission monitoring of multicell reinforced concrete box girders subjected to torsion.
Bagherifaez, Marya; Behnia, Arash; Majeed, Abeer Aqeel; Hwa Kian, Chai
2014-01-01
Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis.
Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Multicell Reinforced Concrete Box Girders Subjected to Torsion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marya Bagherifaez
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis.
Numerical Simulation for Progressive Collapse of Continuous Girder Bridge Subjected to Ship Impact
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田力; 黄飞
2014-01-01
The three-stage simulation method based on LS-DYNA was introduced in this study to simulate the pro-gressive collapse of a continuous girder bridge after a ship-bridge collision. The pile-soil dynamic interaction and the initial stress and deformation of the whole bridge before the collision were considered. By analyzing the damage, de-formation, stress distribution and collapse process of the whole bridge, the results show that the displacement response of the cap beam lags behind the pile cap. The response order of the whole bridge’s components depends on their dis-tances from the collision region. The plastic deformation of soil around piles has a positive effect on delaying the fur-ther increase in the displacement of piles. The impacted pier’s losing stability and its superstructure’s excessive defor-mation are the main reasons leading to the progressive collapse of the continuous girder bridge.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶华文; T. Ummenhofer; 强士中
2009-01-01
Bonding Prestressed carbon fiber reinforcement polyester (CFRP) plate is a promising technique to strengthen steel member damaged by fatigue. First, a modification of Paris' equation was used to analyze the crack propagation of the steel member strengthened by CFRP plate. Four-point bending fatigue test of pre-cracked steel girder strengthened with prestressed CFRP plates was also conducted to investigate the flexural fatigue performance of reinforced steel girder. In the end a simplified calculation and design method was also presented to estimate the re-quired prestress preliminary to stop the propagation of fatigue cracks. The result shows that (1) this technique pro-duces a significant increment of fatigue life of steel girder which is more than 10 times compared with that of pre-crack stage; (2) the fatigue lives, which extended from the reinforcement with different pre-crack sizes, differ up to 10 times. The post-tensioning method was applied to prestress the CFRP of steel girder plate successfully and an-chorage system can real-time control the prestress in CFRP plates and the prestress loss is slight.%首先,采用修正的Pairs公式分析粘贴预应力CFRP板加固的钢构件的疲劳裂纹扩展行为.然后通过粘贴CFRP板的预制裂纹钢梁4点弯曲进行疲劳试验研究,最后基于阻止裂纹扩展的角度提出一种初步估计加固所需预应力大小的简化计算和设计方法.结果表明,粘贴预应力CFRP板对钢梁疲劳寿命的影响很大,与预制裂纹阶段比寿命提高最高可达10倍以上.不同的预制裂纹,同样的加固措施效果差别可达10倍.采用后张法施加预应力效果很好,锚固装置可以实时控制有效预应力,且预应力损失很小.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, K.; Hishiki, Y.; Furuichi, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1999-09-30
A hybrid or mixed structure (composite structures) are a matter of increasing concern which takes in each advantage of steel and concrete. A field of bridges is no exception, with the plan and construction carried out for the new type of composite bridge, such as a composite cable-stayed bridge and a composite extra dose bridge as a long span bridge, and a composite truss bridge and a corrugated steel plate web bridge as a medium-span bridge, with technological development becoming active in this field. In such a technological trend, a hybrid two-girder structure was devised, a structure consisting of a concrete filled steel pipe for a girder and a precast (PC) floor plate for a floor board, as the girder structure of a long-span cable-stayed bridge in the subject research; also, applicability was examined using, as an example, the composite cable-stayed bridge with hybrid girders employed for the span. This paper reports the result of the analysis of the entire system, the analysis made for the purpose of examining the characteristic and the feasibility of this hybrid girder. The analysis revealed the structural feasibility of the long-span composite cable-stayed bridge using two hybrid girders of concrete-filled steel pipes thus devised. (NEDO)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨勇; 周现伟; 薛建阳; 霍旭东
2012-01-01
In order to study the fatigue behaviour of the steel plate-concrete composite-deck composite girders under the fatigue load, constant-amplitude fatigue tests of six specimens of the steel plate-concrete composite-deck composite beam were carried out and static loading experiments of two specimens were conducted. The influence of the main factors including the upper and lower limits of fatigue load and the stress amplitude on the failure modes and the fatigue damage extent of composite girders under fatigue load were focused on. The dynamic deflection, strains of concrete and steel plates, strains of steel beam, residual deflection and residual bearing capacity were measured and analyzed. From the tests results, the fatigue life-spans of the composite girders specimens were directly related with their stress amplitudes, but the upper and lower limits of fatigue load had little effect. With regard to the fatigue failure modes of the composite girders specimens, positive moment composite girders were all failed due to collapse of the steel beam and crush of concrete of compressive zone, but not to the negative moment of composite girders, as a result of steel-beam buckling under static tests after fatigue tests. This paper were very helpful for this type of compsite girders design.%为研究带钢板-混凝土组合桥面板的组合梁在疲劳荷载下的受力性能，对2个试件进行静力试验研究，并对6个试件进行等幅疲劳试验研究。疲劳试验试件按承受正弯矩和承受负弯矩两组类型试件分别考虑，在各组试件中均主要考察疲劳荷载上、下限值及疲劳荷载幅值等因素对带钢板-混凝土组合桥面板组合梁的疲劳破坏模式及疲劳累积损伤的影响。疲劳试验过程中对组合梁试件在各主要循环加载次数下的动挠度、残余挠度、混凝土应变、底部钢板应变、试件钢梁应变及试件受弯刚度进行试验测量和分析。疲劳试验结果表明：正
Dynamic buckling of stiffened plates subjected to explosion impact loads
Wang, J.; Guo, J.; Yao, X. L.; Zhang, A. M.
2017-01-01
The dynamic buckling characteristics and criteria of a ship's structural stiffened plate subjected to underwater explosion impact loads are investigated in this study. Using the structural deformations observed in the experiments of underwater explosions against a plated grillage model, the mode shapes of the dynamic buckling were obtained. Through the construction of a computational model of stiffened plates subjected to an underwater explosion shock wave, the impact load was theoretically calculated and transformed into a rectangular pulse. According to the different response patterns of stiffened plates under different impact loads, a dynamic buckling criterion for the stiffened plates subjected to an explosion shock wave was proposed. Additionally, the static buckling phenomenon in the stiffened plates was analysed based on the minimum excess principle. In combination with the dynamic buckling criterion, the effects of various stiffening configurations on the dynamic and static buckling loads are discussed. The calculation results show that when the equivalent rectangular pulse is 2-3 times that of the static buckling load, the responses of the stiffened plates under the original shock load and the equivalent rectangular pulse are virtually identical. The impact load amplitude is the primary influencing factor in the dynamic buckling of stiffened plates subjected to underwater explosive impact loads. The stiffened plate aspect ratio has a substantial influence on the dynamic load factor. The analytical method and results are presented, which can be used to design stiffened optimum hull structures to enhance the dynamic load carrying capacity to withstand underwater shock damage.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石雪飞; 周军勇; 胡可; 阮欣
2016-01-01
为研究索力作用下锚拉板式混凝土索梁锚固体系的受力性能，以五河淮河大桥为工程背景进行实桥试验和有限元分析。选取该桥0号节段混凝土锚拉板进行实桥试验，测试锚拉板在分级索力作用下的应力及变形，采用ANSYS软件建立有限元模型，计算2种连接方式下（考虑混凝土主梁与钢锚拉板的固结与滑移）的应力分布与锚拉板变形。结果表明，钢锚拉板与混凝土主梁在固结或滑移连接方式下，斜拉索锚固区域的应力分布基本相同，但连接区域的应力分布及锚拉板变位差别显著；测试的锚拉板应力和位移与荷载呈现良好线性相关性，最大测点应力296 M Pa ，结构仍处于弹性工作状态；锚拉板应力分布的实测值与有限元计算值吻合，板件应力扩散和传递效果良好；连接区域的实测应力和位移与滑移方式下的有限元分析较吻合，但摩擦系数不主导滑移结果。%To study the mechanical performance of the anchor tensile plate cable anchorage system in concrete girder under the action of the cable tension ,the test and finite element analysis of the steel anchor tensile plate stay cable anchorage system in the concrete main girder of the actu‐al bridge of Wuhe Huaihe River Bridge were carried out .The anchor tensile plate in the segment No .0 of the main girder of the bridge was selected and tested .The stress and displacement of the anchor tensile plate under the different levels of the stay cable tension were measured .The finite element model for the anchor tensile plate was set up ,using the software ANSYS and the stress distribution and the anchor tensile plate displacement under the 2 kinds of the connecting ways (the rigid fixity and sliding connecting of the anchor tensile plate with the concrete main girder ) were calculated .The results show that under the connecting ways of the rigid fixity or sliding connect‐ing of the anchor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈锐利; 颜智法; 唐茂林; 朱军颖
2015-01-01
T he simplified calculation method for the shear lag of floor system of the plate and truss composite stiffening girder of suspension bridge was researched in the light of the shear lag characteristics of such type of the structure because the work load of modeling for calculating the shear lag ,using the plate and shell finite element method was enormous and the working efficiency was low .In the simplified method ,the truss in the floor system was converted into a continuous thin‐wall girder by the equivalent beam method and the finite element model of the single main girder suspension bridge that could consider the shear deformation influences w as set up .Based on the variational calculus ,the loading influential intervals that considered the structural geometric nonlinearity influences were taken as the span length of an equivalent simply‐supported girder ,the live load ,suspender forces and bearing reaction forces acting on the intervals were taken as the loads and the shear lag under the action of the combination load was solved on the principle of su‐perposition .By way of example of a railway suspension bridge to be built ,the ANSYS was used to set up the plate and shell finite element model for the w hole bridge of the bridge and the calculation of the shear lag of the model w as analyzed and compared to that implemented by the simplified method .The results of the analysis and comparison proved that the simplified method has high cal‐culation accuracy .%针对采用板壳有限元方法计算悬索桥板桁结合型加劲梁桥面系剪力滞的建模工作量巨大、效率低下的情况，根据该类结构剪力滞的特性，研究其简化计算方法。该方法采用换算梁法将板桁结合桥面系桁梁换算为连续薄壁梁；建立能够考虑剪切变形影响的单主梁悬索桥有限元模型；以变分法为基础，将考虑了结构几何非线性影响的加载影响区间作为等效简支梁的跨
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙晓燕; 董伟伟; 王海龙; 何世钦
2013-01-01
为了研究侵蚀性环境下服役桥梁构件采用纤维材料加固后的长期性能,对11根具有初始锈蚀损伤的钢筋混凝土梁式构件采用碳纤维布(CFRP)和玄武岩纤维布(BFRP)加固后继续退化的承载力及服役性能进行试验.通过对加固后构件进行电化学加速锈蚀和盐液浸润干湿循环模拟不同程度的后续服役性能退化,研究侵蚀性环境对CFRP和BFRP加固构件在不同后续服役期的承载力、刚度等性能影响规律,同时对比了2种加固材料的耐久性能和成本效益.结果表明:侵蚀性环境下加固后的桥梁构件承载能力评估需综合考虑钢筋锈蚀引起的承载力降低和侵蚀性环境对纤维利用效率的降低；CFRP对刚度提高显著,而BFRP加固具有更好的延性；考虑加固后长期服役性能,CFRP加固后具有较好的耐久性,而BFRP具有较高的成本效益.%To investigate the long-term performance of existing bridge girders strengthened with fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) sheets and subjected to erosion environment, the bearing capacity and service performance experiments of 11 reinforced concrete (RC) girders, which were strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sheets after initial corrosion damage, were conducted. Different subsequent performance degradations for strengthened girders were simulated through electrochemical accelerated corrosion together with wet/dry cycles of salt solution. The effect of environmental erosion on capacity, stiffness and other parameters of CFRP/BFRP strengthened girders in different follow-up service time was tested. The durabilities and costs of the two strengthening materials were also investigated. The results show that the capacity evaluation of bridge girders strengthened with FRP sheets should consider the effect of rebar corrosion together with the environmental reduction of FRP strengthening; the CFRP strengthening improves
Behaviour of plated structures subjected to blast loading
Aune, Vegard; Børvik, Tore; Langseth, Magnus
2015-09-01
An experimental investigation using a new shock tube facility to study blast-load effects on thin aluminium plates is presented. The shock tube is designed to expose materials and structures to extreme loading conditions, such as accidental explosions or terrorist attacks. The intensity of the loading in the present study was determined by the initial conditions of the compressed gas, i.e. volume and pressure, and the resulting loading on the target plate was compared to experimental data from explosive detonations found in the literature. The square plates were manufactured from a low-strength aluminium alloy and had an exposed area of 0.3 × 0.3 m2. Piezoelectric pressure sensors were used for pressure recordings and synchronized with two high-speed cameras operating at a frame rate of 21,000 fps in a stereoscopic setup to capture the dynamic response using a three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) technique. The experiment showed that the shock tube is capable of recreating a loading similar to that of an unconfined far-field airblast, and worked as an easily controllable alternative to explosive detonations when studying the dynamic response of structures subjected to blast loading.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许传博; 胡利平
2012-01-01
This paper introduces the application of sandwich plate system SPS ） on strengthening of steel box girder bridge with load test being carried out to verify the effect of SPS, which can provide a reference for the similar engineering practice.%结合工程实例，介绍了夹芯钢板覆盖法（SPS）在钢箱梁桥维修加固中的应用，并通过荷载试验对其加固效果进行了检验，可为类似维修加固工程提供参考。
Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...
Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...
Chaos control for the plates subjected to subsonic flow
Norouzi, Hamed; Younesian, Davood
2016-07-01
The suppression of chaotic motion in viscoelastic plates driven by external subsonic air flow is studied. Nonlinear oscillation of the plate is modeled by the von-Kármán plate theory. The fluid-solid interaction is taken into account. Galerkin's approach is employed to transform the partial differential equations of the system into the time domain. The corresponding homoclinic orbits of the unperturbed Hamiltonian system are obtained. In order to study the chaotic behavior of the plate, Melnikov's integral is analytically applied and the threshold of the excitation amplitude and frequency for the occurrence of chaos is presented. It is found that adding a parametric perturbation to the system in terms of an excitation with the same frequency of the external force can lead to eliminate chaos. Variations of the Lyapunov exponent and bifurcation diagrams are provided to analyze the chaotic and periodic responses. Two perturbation-based control strategies are proposed. In the first scenario, the amplitude of control forces reads a constant value that should be precisely determined. In the second strategy, this amplitude can be proportional to the deflection of the plate. The performance of each controller is investigated and it is found that the second scenario would be more efficient.
Experimental Modal Analysis of a Flat Plate Subjected To Vibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Owunna Ikechukwu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Modal analysis is significant in evaluating the mode shapes generated by a component under vibrational excitation, as the mode shapes can be used to determine the displacement or response of the component under the influence vibration in real life application. Result obtained from the modal analysis will generate a number of resonances which the frequency and damping effect can be determined by measurement. However, determining the accuracy of modal analysis result is somewhat difficult as the experimental results and the results generated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA solvers can be affected by a number of factors pointed out in this paper. In this study, a flat plate was mounted on an electromagnetic shaker which enabled the excitation of the plate, while results of the response were measured using a transducer attached to the plate. The plate was also modelled using CATIA software and the files transferred to the different FEA solvers such as HYPERMESH, ANSYS 6 Degree of Freedom (DOF as well as ANSYS 5 degree of freedom, in which the same analysis was carried out to obtain a set of results other than the experimental results. Each FEA solver generated results that were in close proximity with the experimental results, particularly the results generated by ANSYS 5 Degree of freedom. Hence, to ascertain the accuracy of the results obtained from modal analysis experimental procedure, it is important to match up the results generated from different FEA solvers with the experimental results.
Numerical prediction of the bearing capacity of plate anchors subjected to combined loads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunhui ZHANG
2016-06-01
Full Text Available To predict the bearing capacity of plate anchors subjected to combined loads, based on the assumption that there is no separation between the plate and soil, the numerical model of the motion and transformation of the plate anchor subjected to combined loads including the normal force, tangential force and bending moment loads in ABAQUS software is set up. The numerical model is proved by comparing the calculated bearing capacity with that of analytical solution. The numerical model is used to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of the plate anchor subjected to the combined loads including the normal force, the tangential force and bending moment. The results show that murff model is used to preferably fit the ultimate bearing capacity envelope of plate anchors subjected to combined loads.
Behavior of horizontally curved steel tubular-flange bridge girders
Fan, Zhuo
A new type of curved steel bridge girder, called a curved tubular-flange girder, with rectangular tubes as flanges, is proposed and studied in this dissertation. A curved steel tubular-flange girder has much larger torsional stiffness than a curved I-girder and less potential for cross section distortion than a curved box-girder. Therefore, it has potential advantages compared to curved I-girders and box-girders. A theoretical analysis method for systems of curved tubular-flange girders braced by cross frames is presented. A stress analysis method for tubular-flange girders is also provided. The behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems is studied using the theoretical analysis method and compared to the behavior of the corresponding curved I-girder systems. A parametric study is performed using the theoretical analysis method to investigate the effects of geometric parameters on the behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems. The studied parameters include tubular-flange width, tubular-flange depth, cross section depth, girder curvature, and the number of cross frames. Finite element analyses are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis method, to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system under dead load, and to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system with a composite concrete deck under dead and live load. The study shows that a curved tubular-flange girder system develops much less warping normal stress and cross section rotation than a corresponding curved I-girder system. The difference is especially significant for a single curved girder under its own weight, suggesting that curved tubular-flange girders would be much easier to transport and erect than curved I-girders. As girder curvature increases, the rate of increase in the stresses and displacements for a single I-girder is much greater than for a single curved tubular-flange girder. Smaller cross frame forces develop in a tubular-flange girder
Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer
2012-01-01
The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...... presents a detailed investigation of the ultimate capacity of simply supported plates subjected to biaxial loads. The full interaction domain of combinations of compressive and tensile loads has been investigated including a large number of imperfections. It was found that non-standard imperfection modes...
Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup
2004-01-01
The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plate...
CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evren ÖZŞAHİN
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.
Possible Collapse Mode for Slender Reinforced Concrete Plates Subjected to Blast Load
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xin; DU Xiuli; CHEN Zhen; ZENG Fanna
2008-01-01
This paper discusses the collapse mode of thin reinforced concrete (RC) plates subjected to blast load.To extend the well known plastic-mode method to analyze,not only perfectplastic plates,but also RC plates,it is needed to investigate the effect of material cracking on the collapse mode because the plate might have been cracked on both upper and lower surface before the plastic-mode fully develops,creating an unexpected type of collapse mode shape.A new failure mode is proposed and verified by numerical analysis in this paper.The new mode is a result of the material cracking and has an un-negligible effect on the reaction mechanism of the RC plate to the blast load.
Limit State Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Plates subjected to in-plane forces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars
2000-01-01
A finite element formulation of rigid-plastic plates subjected to in-plane forces is developed using stress-based elements and linear programming. Three elements are established, namely a triangular plate element, a bar element and a beam element. The problem is formulated as a lower bound solution......, and the dual variables are interpreted as displacements. Both load and material optimization are formulated. The method is applied to concrete plate structures modelling both the distributed and the concentrated reinforcement. An efficient computational scheme is used, thereby reducing the size of the problem...
Thermal stresses and deformations in a plate subject to the action of concentrated energy flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudin, G.I.
1988-09-01
A two-dimensional problem concerned with the determination of thermal deformation and the temperature and stress fields in a plate subject to nonhomogeneous heating by a radiative flow of Gaussian type is solved. Cases in which one plate surface is either free or clamped onto a rigid base as well as cases in which the energy source is a laser beam are also considered. Factors such as the thermal diffusivity, specific heat, plate density, linear expansion, shear modulus, optical and energy absorption behavior, and refractivity are incorporated into the solution.
OGIYAMA, Yotaro; FUJIYAMA, Chikako; TAKASUKA, Takehiro
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to analyze the fatigue damage process of a plate girder bridgesupporting a steel-concrete composite slab, and to propose a method for maintenance of the composite slab.To analyze a full-scale bridge subjected to heavy traffic, three-dimensional non-linear FE analyses andloading rates based on an actual bridge are used.The full-scale bridge model is a 2-lane road bridge with 30 m span length and 10.55 m width, consistingof main girders with vertical stiffeners, cro...
Reliability Assessment for PSC Box-Girder Bridges Based on SHM Strain Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuang Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A reliability assessment method for prestressed concrete (PSC continuous box-girder bridges based on structural health monitoring (SHM strain measurements was proposed. First, due to the fact that measured strain was compositive and the variation periods of its components were different, a series of limit state equations under normal use limit state were given. Then, a linear fitting method was used to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the measured strain, which was aimed at extracting the vehicle load effect and the temperature load effect from the measured strain. Finally, according to the equivalent normalization method, the load effects unsatisfying the normal distribution by probability density function fitting were transformed, and the daily failure probabilities of monitored positions were calculated for evaluating the safety state of the girder. The results show that (1 the top plate of the box girder is more sensitive than the bottom plate to the high temperature, (2 the daily and seasonal strain variations induced by uniform temperature reveal an inconsistent tendency to the seasonal variation for mid-span cross sections, and (3 the generalized extreme value distribution is recommended for temperature gradient stress and vehicle induced stress fitting for box-girder bridges.
Dynamic response of clamped corrugated sandwich plates subjected to underwater impulsive loads
Huang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Nan; Li, Dacheng
2017-01-01
Corrugated sandwich plates are widely used in marine industry because such plates have high strength-to-weight ratios and blast resistance. The laboratory-scaled fluid-structure interaction experiments are performed to demonstrate the shock resistance of corrugated sandwich plates by quantifying the permanent transverse deflection at mid-span of the plates as a function of impulsive loadings per areal mass. Sandwich structures with 6mm-thick 3003 H18 aluminum corrugated core and 5A06 face sheets subjected to underwater impulsive loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The dynamic deformations of plates are captured with the the 3D digital imaging correlation method (DIC). The results affirm the peak deflection during the processes of dynamic deformation and the residual maximum deflection for post-mortem plates show a linear trend with the impulses per areal mass, and show sensitivity to the change of impulses. Inhomogeneous deformation for corrugated sandwich plates are show uneven rather than the perfect parabolic shapes reported in previous studies. With the increasing of intensities for impulsive loadings, the failure modes can be observed more complicated from the initial plastic deformation to debonding and crack. This paper provides valid data to quantify the peak deflection, residual deflection and failure modes as functions of impulses and geometric parameters in the future work.
Harmonic response of multilayered one-dimensional quasicrystal plates subjected to patch loading
Waksmanski, Natalie; Pan, Ernian; Yang, Lian-Zhi; Gao, Yang
2016-08-01
Dynamic analyses of a multilayered one-dimensional quasicrystal plate subjected to a patch harmonic loading with simply supported lateral boundary conditions are presented. The pseudo-Stroh formulation and propagator matrix method are used to obtain the exact three-dimensional response of the plate. In order to avoid resonance, the frequency of the patch loading is chosen away from the natural frequencies by introducing a small imaginary part. The patch loading is expressed in the form of a double Fourier series expansion. Comprehensive numerical results are shown for a sandwich plate with two different stacking sequences. The results reveal the influence of layering, loading area, phonon-phason coupling coefficient and input frequency. This work is the first step towards understanding quasicrystals under intricate loading conditions such as indentation and impact, and the exact closed-form solution can serve as a reference in convergence studies of other numerical methods and for verification of existing or future plate theories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Sandeep; Shukla, K. K. [Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Shingh, Jeeoot [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology Mesra, Ranchi (India)
2013-02-15
Meshless collocations utilizing Gaussian and Multi quadric radial basis functions for the stability analysis of orthotropic and cross ply laminated composite plates subjected to thermal and mechanical loading are presented. The governing differential equations of plate are based on higher order shear deformation theory considering two different transverse shear stress functions. The plate governing differential equations are discretized using radial basis functions to cast a set of simultaneous equations. The convergence of both radial basis functions is studied for different values of shape parameters. Several numerical examples are undertaken to demonstrate the accuracy of present method and the effects of orthotropy ratio of the material, span to thickness ratio of the plate, and fiber orientation on critical load/temperature are also presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁鑫; 张继文; 宋守坛
2012-01-01
In order to research the fatigue performance on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) reinforced box girder bridge top slab influence of high temperature during asphaltpavement construction, the armoured concrete girders with and without affixed CFRP were tested in the laboratory for fatigue simulation comparsison under high temperature condition. The strains of steel bar, concrete and CFRP were adopted as parameters to research the influence of high temperature on fatigue crack evolution, deflection increment rule and the CFRP adhesive normal stress. The results show that the armoured concrete girders with affixed CFRP fatigue performance subjected to high temperature has distinctness enhance contrast to that without affixed CFRP, such as the fatigue strength, the stiffness, the resist crack evolution and the limit flexural loading capacity. As example,The limit carrying capacity is increased by 24. 6% , the stiffness is increased by 23. 0% and the mean maximize crack is decreased by 15.2% .%为了研究沥青面层施工时的高温对公铁两用CFRP板加固的箱梁桥顶板疲劳性能的影响,在室内对粘贴CFRP板前后的钢筋混凝土梁进行了高温环境下的疲劳模拟对比试验.从钢筋、混凝土、CFRP应变的角度,开展了高温对粘贴CFRP板的钢筋混凝土试验梁疲劳裂缝发展、挠度增长规律、黏结胶层及界面应力影响的研究.结果表明:经过高温阶段后粘贴CFRP板的钢筋混凝土梁在疲劳强度、刚度、阻止裂缝发展、抗弯极限承载能力等方面都比未粘贴CFRP板前有所提高.极限承载能力提高了24.6％,刚度提高了23.0％,平均最大裂缝减小了15.2％.
Experiments with Externally Prestressed Continuous Composite Girders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Safan
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Steel-concrete composite girders have attractive potentials when applied in bridge construction. The serviceability performance of continuous composite girders is becoming more and more a deterministic parameter in the design of this type of structures. An effective method for improving this performance is to apply prestressing to control or completely eliminate concrete deck cracking caused by static and time dependent actions. Little literature has been found addressing the experimental analysis of continuous girders prestressed by means of external deviated tendons. The current research aims to investigate the behavior of a double-span steel composite beam externally prestressed by means of continuous tendons in terms of cracking characteristics, load deflection response, and load carrying capacity. The efficiency of prestressing is evaluated by comparing the results to those of a non-prestressed beam with similar cross sections and spans.
ANALYSIS OF SHAKEDOWN OF FG BREE PLATE SUBJECTED TO COUPLED THERMAL-MECHANICAL LOADINGS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xianghe Peng; Ning Hu; Hengwei Zheng; Cuirong Fang
2009-01-01
The static and kinematic shakedown of a functionally graded (FG) Bree plate is analyzed. The plate is subjected to coupled constant mechanical load and cyclically varying tem-perature. The material is assumed linearly elastic and nonlinear isotropic hardening with elastic modulus, yield strength and the thermal expansion coefficient varying exponentially through the thickness of the plate. The boundaries between the shakedown area and the areas of elasticity, incremental collapse and reversed plasticity are determined, respectively. The shakedown of the counterpart made of homogeneous material with average material properties is also analyzed. The comparison between the results obtained in the two cases exhibits distinct qualitative and quantitative difference, indicating the importance of shakedown analysis for FG structures. Since FG structures are usually used in the cases where severe coupled cyclic thermal and mechani-cal loadings are applied, the approach developed and the results obtained are significant for the analysis and design of such kind of structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ghorbanpour Arani
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.
Continuous rigid PC frame box girder cantilever pouring construction reasonable maintenance method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wulin
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years, prestressed concrete continuous rigid frame box girder plate and web plate produced a large number of non-structural cracks disease caused the attention of large bridge workers, to solve the problem of continuous rigid-frame structure of the cantilever of the disease, this article briefly introduced the cantilever construction method and the performance requirements of modern concrete, through to the modern concrete composition change and keeping in good health on the impact of environment on its early performance analysis summary, points out the present problems of box girder early curing, finally combining with the characteristics of modern concrete performance and the characteristics of the cantilever construction method, puts forward "model attach +manual+automatic water spray mist stick " composite curing method in order to reduce the structural cracks, provides a new train of thought.
Comparison of Temperature Loadings of Bridge Girders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Římal
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper compares the effect of temperature changes on the superstructure of bridges, above all the effect of non-uniform temperature. Loadings according to standards ESN 73 6203, ENV 1991-1-5 and DIN 1072 are compared here. The paper shows a short summary of temperature loading according to each standard and shows the comparison of bending moments arisen from these temperature loadings on superstructure made from continuous girder from a steel-concrete box girder with a composite concrete slab. With respect to a variety of design processes, the comparison is made without any coefficient of loading, combination or material.
Vibrations of a Mindlin plate subjected to a pair of inertial loads moving in opposite directions
Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Pisarski, Dominik; Bajer, Czesław I.
2017-01-01
A Mindlin plate subjected to a pair of inertial loads traveling at a constant high speed in opposite directions along arbitrary trajectory, straight or curved, is presented. The masses represent vehicles passing a bridge or track plates. A numerical solution is obtained using the space-time finite element method, since it allows a clear and simple derivation of the characteristic matrices of the time-stepping procedure. The transition from one spatial finite element to another must be energetically consistent. In the case of the moving inertial load the classical time-integration schemes are methodologically difficult, since we consider the Dirac delta term with a moving argument. The proposed numerical approach provides the correct definition of force equilibrium in the time interval. The given approach closes the problem of the numerical analysis of vibration of a structure subjected to inertial loads moving arbitrarily with acceleration. The results obtained for a massless and an inertial load traveling over a Mindlin plate at various speeds are compared with benchmark results obtained for a Kirchhoff plate. The pair of inertial forces traveling in opposite directions causes displacements and stresses more than twice as large as their corresponding quantities observed for the passage of a single mass.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜华; 王君杰; 贺拴海
2012-01-01
The material model and failure index of the element in numerical simulation of the collapse of reinforced concrete bridge under vessel collision were introduced, and then the delicate finite element models for bridge superstructure, substructure and support saddle were set up, where the elastoplastic damage cap model was used for concrete and the elastoplaslic kinematic hardening model was used for steel bar. The numerical simulation of the collapse process of bridge structure caused by vessel collision was carried out and the collapse mechanism of continuous girder bridge was revealed.%详细介绍了钢筋混凝土桥梁船撞倒塌模拟涉及的材料模型和单元失效指标等问题,建立某连续梁上部、下部结构、支座和船舶结构精细有限元模型,将弹塑性损伤帽盖模型用于混凝土,弹塑性随动强化模型用于钢筋,对船舶撞击钢筋混凝土连续梁引起的结构连续倒塌过程进行了数值模拟,揭示了连续梁桥结构的船撞倒塌机理.
Committee VI.1. Extreme Hull Girder Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2000-01-01
Committee Mandate. Evaluate and develop direct calculation procedures for extreme wawe loads on ship hull girders. Due consideration shall be given to stochastic and non-linear effects. The procedures shall be assessed by comparison with in-service experiences, model tests and more refined...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗媛; 颜东煌; 鲁乃唯; 汪勤用
2016-01-01
将具有确定性参数的典型疲劳车辆模型改进为随机疲劳车流模型,采用小样本车辆轴重与等效疲劳应力数据拟合响应面的方法解决了车流作用下桥梁有限元应力时程分析耗时过长的问题.提出钢箱梁顶板-U肋疲劳损伤概率建模方法,最后将疲劳损伤概率模型应用于可靠度评估领域,揭示了车流参数对结构疲劳可靠指标的影响规律.研究结果表明:行车道重载车辆的较高占有率是导致其顶板-U肋疲劳可靠指标远低于超车道的重要原因;车辆轴重的增长致使钢箱梁疲劳可靠指标迅速降低,车重年线性增长系数由0增长至1%时,行车道顶板-U肋处100 a的疲劳可靠指标由3.42下降至0.72.随机疲劳车流模型与疲劳损伤概率模型具有一定的应用前景.%The typical fatigue truck model with deterministic parameters is developed to be a stochastic vehicle flow model. The time-consuming problem of bridge finite element analysis under traffic flow loads is solved by using a response surface method to approximate the function between vehicle axle weight of a few training data and equivalent fatigue stresses. A probabilistic fatigue damage modeling method applies to rib-to-deck details of steel box-girder bridges is presented. Finally, the fatigue damage model is applied to the reliability assessment, and the influence of traffic flow parameters on structural fatigue reliability is revealed. The numerical result indicates that (1) the higher occupancy rate of heavy vehicle flow in the slow lane is the main reason for the decrease of the fatigue reliability of corresponding rib-to-deck details compared with the fast lane;(2) the increase of the vehicle axle weight causes a rapid decrease of the fatigue reliability index of the steel box girders, when the annual linear growth factor increases from 0 to 1%, the fatigue reliability index of rib-to-deck detail in the slow lane decreases from 3. 42 to 0. 72 . There is
DRIVING VEHICLES SUBJECT TO A CUSTOMS RESTRICTIONS AGREEMENT WITH ORDINARY SWISS NUMBER PLATES
Relations with the Host States Service
2001-01-01
The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations in Geneva has just confirmed to CERN that it is not necessary to hold a carte de légitimation or an attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs to drive a vehicle subject to a customs restrictions agreement (engagement douanier), i.e. purchased or imported free of tax and customs duty, provided that the vehicle concerned is registered on ordinary Swiss number plates and not on diplomatic plates. We should like to remind you that the documents published by the Relations with the Host States Service since 1996 can be consulted on the Service's Web pages (http://www.cern.ch/relations/), which are updated as soon as new information is received from the Authorities of the Host States.
Topology optimization for elastic base under rectangular plate subjected to moving load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jilavyan Samvel H.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Distribution optimization of elastic material under elastic isotropic rectangular thin plate subjected to concentrated moving load is investigated in the present paper. The aim of optimization is to damp its vibrations in finite (fixed time. Accepting Kirchhoff hypothesis with respect to the plate and Winkler hypothesis with respect to the base, the mathematical model of the problem is constructed as two-dimensional bilinear equation, i.e. linear in state and control function. The maximal quantity of the base material is taken as optimality criterion to be minimized. The Fourier distributional transform and the Bubnov-Galerkin procedures are used to reduce the problem to integral equality type constraints. The explicit solution in terms of two- dimensional Heaviside‘s function is obtained, describing piecewise-continuous distribution of the material. The determination of the switching points is reduced to a problem of nonlinear programming. Data from numerical analysis are presented.
Shock Analysis of Water Backed Perforated Plate Subjected to Underwater Explosion
Nandagopan, Obla Ramanandam; Ranjithkumar, Santharam; Nandakumar, Chirayil Gopalakrishnannair
2016-07-01
Perforated plates are essential structural components of sonar acoustic domes of the submarines and underwater platforms. The sonar acoustic domes are considered as `water backed condition' for structural analysis. It is of utmost importance to study the structural response of sonar acoustic domes subjected to noncontact underwater explosion since it has wide scope in defence application. It is intended to investigate the free field pressure due to the underwater explosion and structural response of perforated plate using ANSYS LS-DYNA software for plastic explosive kirkee (PEK), Tri Nitro Toluene (TNT) and Composition 4 explosives. The free field pressure from TNT explosion is validated with the Cole's expression available for this explosive. The time history plots for free field pressure, displacement and principal stress are plotted for all the three explosives. The free field pressure is validated with Cole's formula and found 18 % variation for TNT and 14 % for PEK explosive.
Effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suchart Limkatanyu
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge subjected to a moving load, in this case a rapid passing trains. Literatures concerned with the design of segmental box girder bridge, the application of finite element analysis to model the segmental box girder bridge, and the minimum requirement for structural conditions of the bridge were described and discussed in detail. A series of finite element analysis was carried out using SAP2000 Nonlinear software. The effect was investigated by varying the Modulus of Elasticity by 5%, 10% and 15%. The results were then compared with the case of assumed uniform property which had already been checked for model accuracy using the Standard prEN 1991-2. The results showed that, for the uniform case, the dynamic responses of the bridge gave the highest response at the resonance speed. When considering the non-uniform material properties (non-uniform case, the effect of material uncertainties appeared to have an effect on both displacement and acceleration responses. Nonetheless, the dynamic factor provided in the design code was sufficient for designing the segmental box girder bridge with either uniform or non-uniform material properties for the train speeds considered in this study.
Experimental Evaluation of the Post-ultimate Strength Behavior of a Ship's Hull Girder in Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weijun Xu; Kazuhiro Iijima; Ryota Wada; Masahiko Fujikubo
2012-01-01
Experimental investigations into the collapse behavior of a box-shape hull girder subjected to extreme wave-induced loads are presented.The experiment was performed using a scaled model in a tank.In the middle of the scaled model,sacrificial specimens with circular pillar and trough shapes which respectively show different bending moment-displacement characteristics were mounted to compare the dynamic collapse characteristics of the hull girder in waves.The specimens were designed by using finite element (FE)-analysis.Prior to the tank tests,static four-point-bending tests were conducted to detect the load-carrying capacity of the hull girder.It was shown that the load-carrying capacity of a ship including reduction of the capacity after theultimate strength can be reproduced experimentally by employing the trough type specimens.Tank tests using these specimens were performed under a focused wave in which the hull girder collapses under once and repetitive focused waves.It was shown from the multiple collapse tests that the increase rate of collapse becomes higher once the load-carrying capacity enters the reduction path while the increase rate is lower before reaching the ultimate strength.
Real-time simulation of thermal stresses and creep in plates subjected to transient heat input
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper Henri; Jacobsen, Torben Krogsdal; Hansen, P.N.
1997-01-01
This paper presents a novel numerical technique for solving the temperature and stress fields in a plate subjected to arbitrarily varying transient boundary conditions (transient temperature and heat-flux variations) on a surface. The numerical method is based on the control-volume finite......-difference approach. It applies a general formulation which takes into account nonconstant material properties (e.g. temperature, material, or time dependency), heat-transfer coefficients, and creep. The temperature calculation applies a one-dimensional numerical model, whereas the stress analysis is semi...
Buckling And Postbuckling Of An Imperfect Plate Subjected To The Shear Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Psotný Martin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The stability analysis of an imperfect plate subjected to the shear load is presented. To solve this problem, a specialized computer program based on FEM has been created. The nonlinear finite element method equations are derived from the variational principle of minimum of total potential energy. To obtain the nonlinear equilibrium paths, the Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is used. Corresponding levels of the total potential energy are defined. Special attention is paid to the influence of imperfections on the post-critical buckling mode. Obtained results are compared with those gained using ANSYS system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
左智
2014-01-01
Along with the improvement of the life quality of people, people require more for the convenience of traffic tra-vel. In this paper, under the uninterrupted traffic situations, the author discussed the construction technology of repairing the hinge joint of hol ow plate of bridge.%随着全民生活品质的提高，人们对于出行交通的便捷要求更高了。本文对在不中断交通的情况下，如何进行桥梁空心板铰缝修复的施工工艺做了重点阐述。
Nemeth, Michael P.
2004-01-01
An approach for synthesizing buckling results for thin balanced and unbalanced symmetric laminates that are subjected to uniform heating or cooling and elastically restrained against thermal expansion or contraction is presented. This approach uses a nondimensional analysis for infinitely long, flexural anisotropic plates that are subjected to combined mechanical loads. In addition, stiffness-weighted laminate thermal-expansion parameters and compliance coefficients are derived that are used to determine critical temperatures in terms of physically intuitive mechanical-buckling coefficients. Many results are presented for some common laminates that are intended to facilitate a structural designer s transition to the use of the generic buckling design curves. Several curves that illustrate the fundamental parameters used in the analysis are presented, for nine contemporary material systems, that provide physical insight into the buckling response in addition to providing useful design data. Examples are presented that demonstrate the use of the generic design curves.
Estimating Design Resistance of Wrought Balcony Girders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung Karel
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The contribution is focused on reliability of balcony girders of a Czech national heritage monument. As preliminary reliability assessment suggests insufficient resistance, a series of nondestructive tests supplemented by a single tensile test are performed and evaluated by the statistical methods. Values of material properties, recommended in standards for historic materials, seem to be overly conservative and it is advised to specify properties of historic metallic materials by tests.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhongmin; GAO Jingbo; LI Huixia; LIU Hongzhao
2008-01-01
The non-linear dynamic behaviors of thermoelastic circular plate with varying thickness subjected to radially uniformly distributed follower forces are considered. Two coupled non-linear differential equations of motion for this problem are derived in terms of the transverse deflection and radial displacement component of the mid-plane of the plate. Using the Kantorovich averaging method, the differential equation of mode shape of the plate is derived, and the eigenvalue problem is solved by using shooting method. The eigencurves for frequencies and critical loads of the circular plate with unmovable simply supported edge and clamped edge are obtained. The effects of the variation of thickness and temperature on the frequencies and critical loads of the thermoelastic circular plate subjected to radially uniformly distributed follower forces are then discussed.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Lakshmi Narayana; Krishnamohana Rao; R Vijaya Kumar
2014-06-01
A numerical study is carried out using finite element method, to examine the effects of square and rectangular cutout on the buckling behavior of a sixteen ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plate $[0^\\circ /+45^\\circ /-45^\\circ /90^\\circ ]_{2s}$, subjected to various linearly varying in-plane compressive loads. Further, this paper addresses the effects of size of square/rectangular cutout, orientation of square/rectangular cutout, plate aspect ratio(a/b), plate length/thickness ratio(a/t), boundary conditions on the buckling bahaviour of symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plates subjected to various linearly varying in-plane compressive loading. It is observed that the various linearly varying in-plane loads and boundary conditions have a substantial influence on buckling strength of rectangular composite plate with square/rectangular cutout.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhihe Jin
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This work investigates transient heat conduction in a functionally graded plate (FGM plate subjected to gradual cooling/heating at its boundaries. The thermal properties of the FGM are assumed to be continuous and piecewise differentiable functions of the coordinate in the plate thickness direction. A linear ramp function describes the cooling/heating rates at the plate boundaries. A multi-layered material model and Laplace transform are employed to obtain the transformed temperatures at the interfaces between the layers. An asymptotic analysis and an integration technique are then used to obtain a closed form asymptotic solution of the temperature field in the FGM plate for short times. The thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF for an edge crack in the FGM plate calculated based on the asymptotic temperature solution shows that the asymptotic solution can capture the peak TSIFs under the finite cooling rate conditions.
Stiffness Analysis of Nail-Plate Joints Subjected to Short-Term Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jacob
with beams connected in joints with glue or a mechanical fastener. The types of mechanical fasteners are: nails, staples, bolts, dowels, screws and nail-plates. Bolts and dowels are generally applied to joints in solid structures, and the other fasteners are used in all kinds of light structures. Especially...... types of plates. There are two main types of nail-plates: steel plates perforated with holes in which separate nails are used and steel plates perforated by a stamping machine, so the nails are made from the plate, see figur 1.2 on page 7. This type is sometimes called "punching metal plate...
Real-time simulation of thermal stresses and creep in plates subjected to transient heat input
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper Henri; Jacobsen, Torben Krogsdal; Hansen, P.N.
1997-01-01
This paper presents a novel numerical technique for solving the temperature and stress fields in a plate subjected to arbitrarily varying transient boundary conditions (transient temperature and heat-flux variations) on a surface. The numerical method is based on the control-volume finite......-difference approach. It applies a general formulation which takes into account nonconstant material properties (e.g. temperature, material, or time dependency), heat-transfer coefficients, and creep. The temperature calculation applies a one-dimensional numerical model, whereas the stress analysis is semi......-two-dimensional. Both plane stress and plane strain conditions are considered as extreme cases. It is shown that, by using the developed numerical technique, very fast real-time simulations can be performed. The method has proved its applicability in e.g. high-pressure die-casting, and applications to this industrial...
Stress and noises of steel box girders in Sutong Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xue Tao; Chen Zhijian; Dong Xuewu
2008-01-01
Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 088 m.370 high-precision stress monitoring measured data show that in the process of hoisting the steel box girders,the stress of the main girders is in the fluctuant and complex state and many meteorological factors,such as sunshine radiation,temperature and wind,have important influence on the change of stress of the steel box girders.According to the real-time weather data,the stress data after the process of wavelet denoising from representative measuring points in different weather conditions is picked to estab-lish the stress response brought by meteorological factors with Layered Separation method,thereby basically eliminating the influence of meteorological factors on the stress of main girders,so that accurate and reliable stress data can be got for steel box girders adjustment and cable-tensioned construction control.
Buckling Behavior of Long Anisotropic Plates Subjected to Fully Restrained Thermal Expansion
Nemeth, Michael P.
2003-01-01
An approach for synthesizing buckling results and behavior for thin, balanced and unbalanced symmetric laminates that are subjected to uniform heating or cooling and which are fully-restrained against thermal expansion or contraction is presented. This approach uses a nondimensional analysis for infinitely long, flexurally anisotropic plates that are subjected to combined mechanical loads and is based on useful nondimensional parameters. In addition, stiffness-weighted laminate thermal-expansion parameters are derived and used to determine critical temperature changes in terms of physically intuitive mechanical buckling coefficients. The effects of membrane orthotropy and anisotropy are included. Many results are presented for some common laminates that are intended to facilitate a structural designer's transition to the use of the generic buckling design curves that are presented in the paper. Several generic buckling design curves are presented that provide physical insight into buckling response and provide useful design data. Examples are presented that demonstrate the use of generic design curves. The analysis approach and generic results indicate the effects and characteristics of laminate thermal expansion, membrane orthotropy and anisotropy, and flexural orthotropy and anisotropy in a very general, unifying manner.
Buckling Behavior of Long Anisotropic Plates Subjected to Elastically Restrained Thermal Expansion
Nemeth, Michael P.
2002-01-01
An approach for synthesizing buckling results for, and behavior of, thin balanced and unbalanced symmetric laminates that are subjected to uniform heating or cooling and elastically restrained against thermal expansion or contraction is presented. This approach uses a nondimensional analysis for infinitely long, flexurally anisotropic plates that are subjected to combined mechanical loads and is based on useful nondimensional parameters. In addition, stiffness-weighted laminate thermal-expansion parameters and compliance coefficients are derived that are used to determine critical temperatures in terms of physically intuitive mechanical-buckling coefficients. The effects of membrane orthotropy and membrane anisotropy are included in the general formulation. Many results are presented for some common laminates that are intended to facilitate a structural designer's transition to the use of generic buckling design curves. Several curves that illustrate the fundamental parameters used in the analysis are presented, for nine contemporary material systems, that provide physical insight into the buckling response in addition to providing useful design data. Examples are presented that demonstrate the use of generic design curves. The analysis approach and generic results indicate the effects and characteristics of elastically restrained laminate thermal expansion or contraction, membrane orthotropy and anisotropy, and flexural orthotropy and anisotropy in a very general and unifying manner.
Stress analysis of box girders with corrugate steel webs under distorsion%波形钢腹板箱梁畸变应力分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨丙文; 黎雅乐; 万水; 张建东
2011-01-01
According to mechanical characteristics of box girders with corrugated steel webs and theory of box girders, the warping normal stress of box girders with corrugated steel webs caused by distortion is studied. Considering that corrugated webs have fold effects, the corrugated webs are regarded as an orthotropic plate. Distortion governing differential equations of box girders with corrugated steel webs are derived under the equilibrium relation of plane force system within them. Their distortion angle and distortion bimoment are obtained using the beam elastic foundation (BEF) method , and then the longitudinal distortion stress is obtained. An analytical example is given to compare two types of box girders, concrete box girders and box girders with corrugated steel webs. The results of the example demonstrate that the box girders with corrugated steel webs have less lateral frame stiffness than concrete ones; thus, the distortional warping normal stress of box girders with corrugated steel webs is larger than that of concrete box girders.%在箱梁理论的基础上,根据波形钢腹板箱梁的力学特性,对波形钢腹板箱梁由畸变引起的翘曲正应力进行了研究.考虑到波形钢腹板具有褶皱效应,把波形钢腹板看作正交异性板,利用波形钢腹板箱梁中各板元平面力系的平衡关系,推导出波形钢腹板箱梁的畸变控制微分方程.采用弹性地基梁法解出波形钢腹板箱梁的畸变角和畸变双力矩,最终得到纵向畸变正应力.通过算例对比分析相同截面的波形钢腹板箱梁和混凝土箱梁的畸变翘曲正应力,计算结果表明,波形钢腹板箱梁相对普通混凝土箱梁的横向框架刚度较小,因此由畸变产生的翘曲正应力大于混凝土箱梁的畸变翘曲正应力.
Dynamic Response of Stiffened Plates with Holes Subjected to Shock Waves and Fragments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘彦; 张庆明; 黄风雷
2004-01-01
The power field of shock waves and fragments is analyzed and set up, and the damage modes of stiffened plates are put forward. According to the structural characters of the stiffened plates investigated and the properties of the shock waves and fragments, the experiments on the shock waves acting on the stiffened plates (penetrated and non-penetrated by fragments) are mainly conducted. The dynamic response rules of stiffened plates with holes under shock waves and fragments loading are obtained. The results show that the penetration of fragments into stiffened plates hardly affects their deformation produced by shock waves.
Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovan Tepic
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.
INVESTIGATION OF GLASS PLATE FAILURE MECHANISM SUBJECTED TO COPPER AND STEEL PROJECTILE IMPACTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qasim H. Shah
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE ABSTRACT: A glass plate was subjected to impact by spherical copper and steel projectiles at low velocities. The glass failure features consisted of a central Hertzian cone made up of comminuted glass and a spider web like cracking pattern around the cone with circumferential and radial cracks. The objective of the investigation was to determine if the damage caused by copper projectile impact compared to steel projectile impact was higher for the same kinetic energy (K.E. projectiles and the reason for this phenomenon. For the constant K.E. impact, copper projectile apparently caused higher damage in glass plate. Higher damage was attributed to projectile contact duration and the contact area between the projectile and the glass plate. Finite element analysis using LS-DYNA based upon maximum principal strain failure criterion for laminated glass model was able to predict the failed material under the impact location and the cracking pattern in the glass plate for a biased meshing scheme. Radial cracks in glass target were reported to be 15% higher for copper projectile impact than the steel projectile impact. ABSTRAK: Kepingan kaca dikenakan impak oleh projektil kuprum dan keluli berbentuk sfera pada halaju rendah. Ciri-ciri kegagalan kaca terdiri daripada kon berpusat Hertzian yang melibatkan kaca yang hancur dan corak pecahan berbentuk sesawang lelabah pada keliling kon dengan retakan lilitan dan jejarian. Tujuan penyelidikan adalah untuk menentukan sebab bagaimana dengan projektil tenaga kinetik yang sama, kerosakan yang diakibatkan oleh impak projektil kuprum berbanding dengan impak projektil keluli adalah lebih tinggi. Untuk impak tenaga kinetik yang malar, projektil kuprum didapati menyebabkan kerosakan yang lebih ke atas kepingan kaca. Kerosakan lebih disebabkan oleh tempoh sentuhan projektil dan kawasan sentuhan di antara projektil dan kepingan kaca. Analisis unsur terhingga menggunakan LS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arun Kumar Gupta
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the free transverse vibration of orthotropic thin trapezoidal plate of parabolically varying thickness in x-direction subjected to linear temperature distribution in x-direction through a numerical method. The deflection function is defined by the product of the equations of the prescribed continuous piecewise boundary shape. Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to evaluate the fundamental frequencies. The equations of motion, governing the free transverse vibrations of orthotropic thin trapezoidal plates, are derived with boundary condition CSCS. Frequency corresponding to the first two modes of vibration is calculated for the orthotropic thin trapezoidal plate having CSCS edges for different values of thermal gradient, taper constant, and aspect ratio. The proposed method is applied to solve orthotropic thin trapezoidal plate of variable thickness with C-S-C-S boundary conditions. Results are shown by figures for different values of thermal gradient, taper constant, and aspect ratio for the first two modes of vibrations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Todd O [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.
Behaviour of parallel girders stabilised with U-frames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Virdi, Kuldeep; Azzi, Walid
2010-01-01
Lateral torsional buckling is a key factor in the design of steel girders. Stability can be enhanced by cross-bracing, reducing the effective length and thus increasing the ultimate capacity. U-frames are an option often used to brace the girders when designing through type of bridges and where...... overhead bracing is not practical. This paper investigates the effect of the U-frame spacing on the stability of the parallel girders. Eigenvalue buckling analysis was undertaken with four different spacings of the U-frames. Results were extracted from finite element analysis, interpreted and conclusions...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte
2008-01-01
’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte
2008-01-01
Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Pengwan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.
Girder Support Scheme for the LCLS Undulator System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welch, J.
2005-01-31
Differential settlement of the foundation of the LCLS Undulator Hall will cause quadrupoles to move and the electron beam trajectory to distort. The resulting phase errors will decrease the FEL power and require time consuming beam-based alignment sessions to correct. By supporting quadrupoles on girders, with three quadrupoles to a girder, the foundation motion induced phase error between the beam and the X Ray radiation can be reduced by a factor of 5 compared with supporting each quadrupole with a separate column. This comes about because the motions of three quadrupoles on a girder are linearly correlated so their effect on the beam is largely canceled out. Thus a girder support scheme can significantly help to extend the time between required beam based alignments and contribute to a more stable operation of the LCLS FEL beam.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piteau, Ph. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, DYN, CEA, Lab Etud Dynam, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Antunes, J. [ITN, ADL, P-2686 Sacavem Codex (Portugal)
2010-07-01
In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the nonlinear fluid-structure interaction forces and the dynamics of parallel vibrating plates subjected to an axial gap flow. The gap is assumed small, when compared to the plate dimensions, the plate width being much larger than the length, so that the simplifying assumptions of 1D bulk-flow models are adequate. We thus develop a simplified theoretical squeeze-film formulation, which includes both the distributed and singular dissipative flow terms. This model is suitable for performing effective time-domain numerical simulations of vibrating systems which are coupled by the nonlinear unsteady flow forces, for instance the vibro-impact dynamics of plates with fluid gap interfaces. A linearized version of the flow model is also presented and discussed, which is appropriate for studying the complex modes and linear stability of flow/structure coupled systems as a function of the average axial gap velocity. Two applications of our formulation are presented: (1) first we study how an axial flow modifies the rigid-body motion of immersed plates falling under gravity; (2) then we compute the dynamical behavior of an immersed oscillating plate as a function of the axial gap flow velocity. Linear stability plots of oscillating plates are shown, as a function of the average fluid gap and of the axial flow velocity, for various scenarios of the loss terms. These results highlight the conditions leading to either the divergence or flutter instabilities. Numerical simulations of the nonlinear flow/structure dynamical responses are also presented, for both stable and unstable regimes. This work is of interest to a large body of real-life problems, for instance the dynamics of nuclear spent fuel racks immersed in a pool when subjected to seismic excitations, or the self-excited vibro-impact motions of valve-like components under axial flows. (authors)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L. B. Chen; F. Xi; J. L. Yang
2007-01-01
A new elastic-plastic impact-contact model is proposed in this paper. By adopting the principle of minimum acceleration for elastic-plastic continue at finite deformation,and with the aid of finite difference method, the proposed model is applied in the problem of dynamic response of a clamped thin circular plate subjected to a projectile impact centrally. The impact force history and response characte-ristics of the target plate is studied in detail. The theoreti-cal predictions of the impact force and plate deflection are in good agreements with those of LDA experimental data.Linear expressions of the maximum impact force/transverse deflection versus impact velocity are given on the basis of the theoretical results.
Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc
2017-01-01
Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roshan Lal
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present work analyses the buckling and vibration behaviour of non-homogeneous rectangular plates of uniform thickness on the basis of classical plate theory when the two opposite edges are simply supported and are subjected to linearly varying in-plane force. For non-homogeneity of the plate material it is assumed that young's modulus and density of the plate material vary exponentially along axial direction. The governing partial differential equation of motion of such plates has been reduced to an ordinary differential equation using the sine function for mode shapes between the simply supported edges. This resulting equation has been solved numerically employing differential quadrature method for three different combinations of clamped, simply supported and free boundary conditions at the other two edges. The effect of various parameters has been studied on the natural frequencies for the first three modes of vibration. Critical buckling loads have been computed. Three dimensional mode shapes have been presented. Comparison has been made with the known results.
Ernsting, Robert A.
Non destructive measurement technologies such ultrasonic pulse echo are typically employed to measure remaining shell plating thickness for determining remaining life on marine structures. However, the technology provides total material loss across the shell plate and cannot distinguish how much material loss occurs on each plate side. By understanding material loss contribution on each plate side, engineers and maintenance personnel can have a better understanding of the environments influencing material loss, optimally plan, and schedule maintenance activities. This need is evermore important today as the U.S. proceeds to address its aging infrastructure problems. This research defines and tests a new maintenance inspection methodology called relative material loss (RML) used for distinguishing the material loss contribution on each shell plate side separating dissimilar marine environments. The RML methodology leverages actual "at sea" environmental and operational conditions and the relationships between to solve for material loss contribution. In much the same fashion as a structural engineer isolate joints on a truss and solve free body diagram equations to determine member forces, relative loss equations are defined across various environmental boundaries (such as shell plating) and solved simultaneously to suggest solutions. To demonstrate and test the RML theory, a case study is presented using a sixty five year old "at-sea" structure; a dry dock caisson gate. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are used to valid the model. Shell plate material loss contribution profiles are defined using statistical and regression techniques and correlated to profiles of environmental factors known to influence marine corrosion. Spin off discoveries and recommendations for future research are included.
Free and forced vibration control of piezoelectric FGM plate subjected to electro-mechanical loading
Jadhav, Priyanka A.; Bajoria, Kamal M.
2013-06-01
This paper investigates the free and forced vibration analysis of a newly introduced metal based functionally graded (FG) plate integrated with a piezoelectric actuator and sensor at the top and bottom faces respectively. The material properties of the FG plate are assumed to be graded along the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of the constituents, while the Poisson ratio is assumed to be constant. The plate is simply supported at all edges. The finite element model is based on higher order shear deformation theory (HOST), the von Karman hypothesis and degenerated shell elements. The displacement component of the present model is expanded in Taylor’s series in terms of the thickness co-ordinate. The Hamilton principle is used to derive the equation of motion for the piezoelectric functionally graded material (FGM) plate. The free and forced vibration analysis of the simply supported piezoelectric FG plate is carried out to present the effect of the power law index and the piezoelectric layer. The present analysis is carried out on a newly introduced FGM, which is a mixture of aluminum and stainless steel. Stainless steel is a high strength material but it can rust in extreme cases, and aluminum does not rust but it is a low strength material. The FGM exhibits corrosion resistance as well as the high strength property in a single material. This new FGM will definitely help in the construction as well as the metal industry.
Response of a circular steel plate with different weld geometries subject to impact loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meyer L.W.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The dynamic response of clamped circular steel plates was experimentally investigated under impact loading. The experiments were performed using a high energy drop weight machine with a 5 ton drop weight, which falls from a height of 0.8 m and results in a total impact energy of 40 kJ. Target plates of 10 mm thickness and 580 mm diameter were welded in three different geometrical configurations of weld elements on the lower side. The impact process was carried out using a hemispherical punch. The force was registered by strain gages on the punch. A full dynamic strain field measurement was applied on the tension side using two high speed cameras. The evaluation of the strain field was carried out with the speckle photography technique. The effect of cracks and welding on the deformation and failure behavior was studied using pre-cracked disks and plates with welded webs, welded circular discs and also with a weld seam only. The failure of the plates was registered using the high speed cameras and from the force signal. The results are analyzed and discussed regarding the behavior of the material and component under high rate loading.
Thermal Stresses in an Anisotropic Thin Plate Subjected to Moving Plane Heat Sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malak Naji
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the plane moving heat source through anisotropic mild steal thin plate. Heat conduction problems in anisotropic material, where the thermal conductivity varies with direction and involving a moving heat source have several industrial applications, such like metal cutting, flame or laser hardening of metals, welding and others. The parabolic heat conduction model is used for the prediction of the temperature history. The temperature distribution inside the plate is determined from the solution of heat equation. Thus, the heat equation is solved numerically using finite deference method and the temperature distributions are determined. The thermal stresses in this case are, also, investigated and computed numerically. It is found that the thermal conductivity ratio affect in both temperature and thermal stresses distributions, in additional to the speed and heat source intensity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Rolled homogeneous armor (RHA plate subjected to blast loading is a complex problem involving the nonlinear fluid-structure interaction. The numerical techniques using the spatial discretization scheme that has been provided as a solver in the AUTODYN computer code will be used in this study in order to predict the RHA response subjected to explosive (TNT blast loading. The final deflection will be used as a reference in order to identify the suitable solver for both materials RHA and TNT; then the plastic deformation will be chosen in the simulation process. Instead of using the same solver for RHA and TNT domains, the optimization of solver can be achieved if it is only used in an appropriate domain, or in other words, a different domain will be using different solver. The solvers, which were available in AUTODYN, were used in the analysis of impact and explosion or fluid-structure interaction. Therefore, in this paper, we will determine the suitable solver for both materials (TNT and RHA plate, and the appropriate interaction coupling solver will be obtained. Defining TNT and RHA plates using the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian solver has found the best coupling solver for this case study when compared with existing experimental data. This coupling solver will be used for future analysis in simulating blast-loading phenomena.
Thermal Stresses in an Anisotropic Thin Plate Subjected to Moving Line Heat Sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malak Naji
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this present study is to investigate thermal stresses inside a thin anisotropic mild steal plate during moving line heat source. The parabolic heat conduction model is used for the prediction of the temperature history. The temperature distributions are determined numerically using finite difference method. Thermal stresses are computed numerically. It is found that the thermal conductivity ratio affect in both temperature and thermal stresses distributions, in additional to the speed and heat source intensity.
Wave induced extreme hull girder loads on containerships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Shi, Bill;
2009-01-01
, forward speed and hull flexibility. The vertical hull girder loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Firstly a quadratic strip theory is presented which can give separate predictions for the hogging and sagging bending moments and shear forces and for hull girder loads. Then this procedure...... is used as a base to derive semi-analytical formulas such that approximate wave load calculations can be performed by a simple spreadsheet program. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase. Since the procedure...
Metallographic characterisation of Al6061-T6 aluminium plates subjected to ballistic impact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manes, A., E-mail: andrea.manes@polimi.it; Pagani, M.; Saponara, M.; Mombelli, D.; Mapelli, C.; Giglio, M.
2014-07-01
Al6061-T6 aluminium single layer plates, of different thickness, impacted by two different 7.62 mm Armour Piercing projectiles are studied from a metallographic point of view. The material behaviour after ballistic impact is investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy as well as by micro-hardness tests. The study allows one to highlight the physical phenomena that happen during the impact: the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASB), the evolution of softening and hardening phenomena, the creation of petalling, plugging and the formation of a melted film between the target and the penetrator as well as the localised failure mechanism. The thermo-mechanical effects on the target and the penetrator material have been examined in order to investigate in the physical phenomena ruling the ballistic damage; the differences between the two types of impactors are also highlighted. Among interesting findings, it has been noticed that a complete penetration is less detrimental and tungsten core projectile seems more damaging for the structural integrity of Al6061-T6 plates. A complete penetration allows the material to better dissipate the plastic deformation energy induced by bullet whereas the arrest increases localised material softening effect resulting in the formation of ASB. Although the creation of numerical models is not the aim of the present paper, the findings could be useful for the building of a modelling approach capable of replicating all the involved phenomena in details.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong-Ling Ye; Wei-Wei Wang; Ning Chen; Yun-Kang Sui
2016-01-01
In this paper, a model of topology optimization with linear buckling constraints is established based on an independent and continuous mapping method to minimize the plate/shell structure weight. A composite exponential function (CEF) is selected as filtering functions for element weight, the element stiffness matrix and the element geomet-ric stiffness matrix, which recognize the design variables, and to implement the changing process of design variables from“discrete”to“continuous”and back to“discrete”. The buck-ling constraints are approximated as explicit formulations based on the Taylor expansion and the filtering function. The optimization model is transformed to dual programming and solved by the dual sequence quadratic programming algo-rithm. Finally, three numerical examples with power function and CEF as filter function are analyzed and discussed to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
Mureşan, Ioana Cristina; Bâlc, Roxana
2017-07-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation of a statically monotonic loaded extended end-plate connection, with preloaded high strength bolts, that was carried out at Laboratory of Faculty of Civil Engineering from Cluj-Napoca. A finite element model using the software package Abaqus [1] was developed in parallel. In order to calibrate the numerical model, the results were analyzed on the basis of moment-rotation curves, stress distribution state and the failure mode of connection. Then, a study was conducted on the numerical model by using a high strength steel (HSS) and changing the stiffness and strength characteristics of some elements. Validation of the numerical modeling was performed against the experimental results and it can be seen that good agreements exist in general.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Wei; DENG Yun-fei; CAO Zong-sheng
2012-01-01
The ballistic performance of monolithic and multi-layered steel plates impacted by ogival-nosed projectiles was investigated by using a gas gun experimentally.The total thickness of in-contact multi-layered target was equally to that of monolithic target.The results show that,for the high strength targets,the monolithic targets have greater ballistic limit velocities than multi-layered targets,and also the ballistic limit velocities of targets decrease with the increase of the number of layers.However,for the low strength targets,the monolithic targets have lower ballistic limit velocities than multi-layered targets.The differences in target capacity between various impact conditions can be related to the transitions of perforation mechanisms and failure models.
Optimization Method for Girder of Wind Turbine Blade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuqiao Zheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a recently developed numerical multidisciplinary optimization method for design of wind turbine blade. The objective was the highest possible blade weight under specified atmospheric conditions, determined by the design giving girder layer and location parameter. Wind turbine blade on box-section beams girder is calculated by ply thickness, main girder and trailing edge. In this study, a realistic 30 m blade from a 1.2 MW wind turbine model of blade girder parameters is established. The optimization evolves a structure which transforms along the length of the blade, changing from a design with spar caps at the maximum thickness and a trailing edge mass to a design with spar caps toward the tip. In addition, the cross-section structural properties and the modal characteristics of a 62 m rotor blade were predicted by the developed beam finite element. In summary, these findings indicate that the conventional structural layout of a wind turbine blade is suboptimal under the static load conditions, suggesting an opportunity to reduce blade weight and cost.
Suspension Bridge Flutter for Girder with Separate Control Flaps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huynh, T.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
Active vibration control of long span suspension bridge flutter using separated control flaps (SFSC) has shown to increase effectively the critical wind speed of bridges. In this paper, an SFSC calculation based on modal equations of the vertical and torsional motions of the bridge girder including...
Preliminary study to facilitate smart structure systems in bridge girders
Kirkpatrick, Thomas C.; Peterson, Danford O.; Rossi, Peter J.; Ray, Laura R.; Livingston, Richard A.
1999-05-01
Sensors are currently available and used to monitor structural performance and loads incurred by bridges already in service. However, there has been limited research concerning the stresses that steel bridge girders endure during transport from the manufacturer to the job site and during the installation process. This paper reports the measured stresses on steel bridge girders during transportation from Lancaster, PA to Hanover, NH and during construction of the Ledyard Bridge on the New Hampshire - Vermont border. Two different monitoring system were developed for this data acquisition in a mobile environment. The first, a fiber optic strain monitoring system, utilizing Bragg grating technology. The second utilized an electrical- resistive foil strain gage network, in conjunction with wireless telemetry equipment. Together, these two systems formed a smart structure system for monitoring bridge girders while confirming the accuracy of data gathered through redundancy. Result conclusively demonstrated for the first time, that stresses in beams during transportation are significant and approach the factor of safety margin in girder design.
Laser irradiation effects on thin aluminum plates subjected to surface flow
Jiang, Houman; Zhao, Guomin; Chen, Minsun; Peng, Xin
2016-10-01
The irradiation effects of LD laser on thin aluminum alloy plates are studied in experiments characterized by relatively large laser spot and the presence of 0.3Ma surface airflow. A high speed profilometer is used to record the profile change along a vertical line in the rear surface of the target, and the history of the displacement along the direction of thickness of the central point at the rear surface is obtained. The results are compared with those without airflow and those by C. D. Boley. We think that it is the temperature rise difference along the direction of thickness instead of the pressure difference caused by the airflow that makes the thin target bulge into the incoming beam, no matter whether the airflow is blown or not, and that only when the thin aluminum target is heated thus softened enough by the laser irradiation, can the aerodynamic force by the surface airflow cause non-ignorable localized plastic deformation and result a burn-through without melting in the target. However, though the target isn't softened enough in terms of the pressure difference, it might have experienced notable deformation as it is heated from room temperature to several hundred degree centigrade.
Damage Simulation in Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Plates Subjected to Impact Loads
Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid
2014-01-01
Progressive failure analysis (PFA) of non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact loads was performed using the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage model implemented through VUMAT and UMAT41 user subroutines in the frame works of the commercial finite element programs ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA, respectively. To validate the model, low velocity experiments were conducted and detailed correlations between the predictions and measurements for both intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures were made. The developed material and damage model predicts the peak impact load and duration very close with the experimental results. Also, the simulation results of delamination damage between the ply interfaces, in-plane matrix damages and fiber damages were all in good agreement with the measurements from the non-destructive evaluation data.
Zhu, Chen-Xi; Wang, Chi-Chuan
2017-07-01
This study proposes a numerical model for plate heat exchanger that is capable of handling supercritical CO2 fluid. The plate heat exchangers under investigation include Z-type (1-pass), U-type (1-pass), and 1-2 pass configurations. The plate spacing is 2.9 mm with a plate thickness of 0.8 mm, and the size of the plate is 600 mm wide and 218 mm in height with 60 degrees chevron angle. The proposed model takes into account the influence of gigantic change of CO2 properties. The simulation is first compared with some existing data for water-to-water plate heat exchangers with good agreements. The flow distribution, pressure drop, and heat transfer performance subject to the supercritical CO2 in plate heat exchangers are then investigated. It is found that the flow velocity increases consecutively from the entrance plate toward the last plate for the Z-type arrangement, and this is applicable for either water side or CO2 side. However, the flow distribution of the U-type arrangement in the water side shows opposite trend. Conversely, the flow distribution for U-type arrangement of CO2 depends on the specific flow ratio (C*). A lower C* like 0.1 may reverse the distribution, i.e. the flow velocity increases moderately alongside the plate channel like Z-type while a large C* of 1 would resemble the typical distribution in water channel. The flow distribution of CO2 side at the first and last plate shows a pronounced drop/surge phenomenon while the channels in water side does not reveal this kind of behavior. The performance of 2-pass plate heat exchanger, in terms of heat transfer rate, is better than that of 1-pass design only when C* is comparatively small (C* < 0.5). Multi-pass design is more effective when the dominant thermal resistance falls in the CO2 side.
Design and test of box girder for a large wind turbine blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Tesauro, Angelo; Bitsche, Robert
This report is covering the structural design and full scale test of a box girder as a part of the project “Demonstration of new blade design using manufacturing process simulations” supported by the EUDP program. A box girder with a predetermined outer geometry was designed using new inventions......, which create an inner structure in the box girder. With a combination of advanced FEM analysis and the inventions it was possible to reduce the material thickness of the cap by up to 40%. The new design of the box girder was manufactured at SSP Technology A/S, where it was demonstrated...... that the manufacturing process could include the new inventions. Subsequently the box girder was transported to the blade test facility at DTU Wind Energy. A series of test was performed with the blade to investigate the behaviour during loading, and finally the girder was loaded to ultimate failure. The report includes...
Spatial Finite Element Analysis for Dynamic Response of Curved Thin-Walled Box Girder Bridges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yinhui Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available According to the flexural and torsional characteristics of curved thin-walled box girder with the effect of initial curvature, 7 basic displacements of curved box girder are determined. And then the strain-displacement calculation correlations were established. Under the curvilinear coordinate system, a three-noded curved girder finite element which has 7 degrees of freedom per node for the vibration characteristic and dynamic response analysis of curved box girder is constructed. The shape functions are used as the interpolation functions of variable curvature and variable height to accommodate to the variation of curvature and section height. A MATLAB numerical analysis program has been implemented.
Precast Prestressed Concrete Truss-Girder for Roof Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Samir
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Steel trusses are the most popular system for supporting long-span roofs in commercial buildings, such as warehouses and aircraft hangars. There are several advantages of steel trusses, such as lightweight, ease of handling and erection, and geometric flexibility. However, they have some drawbacks, such as high material and maintenance cost, and low fire resistance. In this paper, a precast concrete truss is proposed as an alternative to steel trusses for spans up to 48 m (160 ft without intermediate supports. The proposed design is easy to produce and has lower construction and maintenance costs than steel trusses. The truss consists of two segments that are formed using standard bridge girder forms with block-outs in the web which result in having diagonals and vertical members and reduces girder weight. The two segments are then connected using a wet joint and post-tensioned longitudinally to form a crowned truss. The proposed design optimizes the truss-girder member locations, cross-sections, and material use. A 9 m (30 ft long truss specimen is constructed using self-consolidated concrete to investigate the constructability and structural capacity of the proposed design. A finite element analysis of the specimen is conducted to investigate stresses at truss diagonals, verticals, and connections. Testing results indicate the production and structural efficiency of the developed system.
Life-Cycle Management Strategy on Steel Girders in Bridges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin K. L. So
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The major problems affecting the service life of bridges are related to various factors such as fatigue-sensitive details, increased service loads, corrosion deterioration, and the lack of proper maintenance. Among them, corrosion deterioration and fatigue damages of structures particularly to steel girder bridges are the most common ones. Bridges of different structural forms, at different locations or under different climates, may suffer from various degrees of deterioration. Steel girders at different positions of a bridge may also suffer from different degrees of damage. How to effectively maintain the bridge asset at a minimal cost and how to predict the time for future works are crucial, particularly when government funding sources become stretched. A comprehensive bridge management framework assisting stakeholders to appropriately and reasonably prioritize their future maintenance-related works in their bridge stocks, such that stakeholders can better allocate the limited resources, is utmost concerned. This paper proposes an integrated life-cycle management (LCM strategy on steel girders in bridges in which corrosion deterioration and fatigue damage prediction models are mapped with girders’ performance conditions. A practical example to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed LCM strategy is also illustrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palaniappan Chandramohan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the variation in temperature, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of a hot plate subjected to multi-jet air impingement cooling to use the multi-objective optimization technique to arrive at optimum conditions. A flat plate of 15 cm x 10 cm is heated through a heating foil with a constant heat flux of 7667 W/m2. Air jets with and without swirling action are considered, fixing the distance of target surface from nozzle exit at 2D, 4D and 6D. Reynolds numbers 18000, 20000and 22000 and pipe diameters 8mm, 10mm and 12 mm have been considered for investigation. Experiments are designed and analyzed using Taguchi’s technique, coupled with principal component analysis for multi-variate optimization by calculating multi-response performance index (MRPI. Based on the observations made, it is concluded that lower H/D ratio and higher Reynolds number result in higher heat transfer coefficient, in accordance with the first principles. Heat transfer coefficient obtained for jets with swirl is compared with that of jet without swirling for the same Reynolds number and H/D ratio. Furthermore, it is concluded that introducing swirl results in increase of heat transfer coefficients for all the test conditions for 10mm and 12mm diameter jets. However for 8mm jet, introduction of swirl reduced the heat transfer rate for all the test conditions. From Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, it is found that significant contributions on outputs are due to the effect of H/D ratio and Reynolds number. Confirmation experiments with optimum condition result in improved heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number. Numerical simulation has also been performed with the optimum condition. It is observed that the simulation results are in consistence with the experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ong, M M; Anderson, R A
2000-06-01
The interior voltage of a large metal can with thick walls struck directly by lightning was estimated using diffusion theory, aperture slot voltage theory, and experimental data. The hollow cylinder is closed at both ends. One end has a cap that is welded to the cylinder wall making a continuous electrical interface. The other end consists of a circular plate that is pressed into the cylinder wall and held under pressure with a threaded ring. From our experience with coupling measurements, this joint will be a weak link. It will allow more current to leak into the interior than from diffusion through the walls. Because the joint was designed for mechanical purposes, the electrical properties, such as continuity around the circumference, are not well controlled. Therefore, it is difficult to determine a single voltage attributed to this joint design with varying electrical characteristics. Instead, we will make a best effort of bounding the problem using both analytical calculations and data from tests of similar structures. The calculated internal cylinder voltage subjected to an extreme lightning strike from current diffusing through the wall is 19 volts. We estimate that the press-fit end plate will increase this voltage by a factor of about two to ten. The internal voltage is expected to be between 40 and 200 volts. This uncertainty can be reduced by making coupling and high-current measurements on a number of cans or by redesigning the cap to include electrical contacts. However, given that the critical components inside the cylinder are insulated to at least 3.5 kV, improving the joint design is unnecessary. The safety factor using the worst-case maximum interior voltage is 18 and is sufficient. A higher safety margin can be achieved by keeping the joint clean and under pressure.
Research on the special lifting devices for steel box girders of Sutong Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Ming; Wu Qihe; Luo Chengbin; Zhou Hanfa
2009-01-01
Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a steel box girder and a main span of 1 088 m. The steel box girder of main span includes five portions: back span large unit, large block of pylon, standard girder, back span closure girder and middle span closure girder. Each back span large unit is fabricated by welding several deck segments together in factory, and is erected by floating crane. As navigational clearance of the main bridge is high, the traditional truss lifting device can' t satisfy the requirement of domestic lifting cranes for this kind of lifting height and weight. Hence, a kind of lighter lifting device for the erection of back span large units was accepted for this bridge. In this paper, the design and use of this lifting device is introduced.The upper structure used lifting gantry to install the standard girder segment by cantilever method. Because the bridge's navigation clearance is high, and the girder segment is wide and heavy, the meteorology and hydrology condition of the bridge district is abominable, and the requirements of long cable girder side pull-in, structure and performance propose high request to the lifting gantry. In this paper, the design and use key point of long cable pull-in angle adjustment device integrate into lifting gantry is introduced.
Design and test of box girder for a large wind turbine blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, Per H.; Tesauro, A.; Bitsche, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others
2012-09-15
This report is covering the structural design and full scale test of a box girder as a part of the project ''Demonstration of new blade design using manufacturing process simulations'' supported by the EUDP program. A box girder with a predetermined outer geometry was designed using new inventions, which create an inner structure in the box girder. With a combination of advanced FEM analysis and the inventions it was possible to reduce the material thickness of the cap by up to 40%. The new design of the box girder was manufactured at SSP Technology A/S, where it was demonstrated that the manufacturing process could include the new inventions. Subsequently the box girder was transported to the blade test facility at DTU Wind Energy. A series of test was performed with the blade to investigate the behaviour during loading, and finally the girder was loaded to ultimate failure. The report includes the description of the test setup, the test and an overview over the results from the test performed on the box girder. During the final test the box girder failed at 58 % of the expected ultimate load. Unfortunately, no definite conclusion could be made concerning the failure mechanism. (Author)
Effects of vertical girder realignment in the Argonne APS storage ring.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lessner, E.
1999-04-14
The effects of vertical girder misalignments on the vertical orbit of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are studied. Partial sector-realignment is prioritized in terms of the closed-orbit distortions due to misalignments of the corresponding girders in the sectors. A virtual girder-displacement (VGD) method is developed that allows the effects of a girder realignment to be tested prior to physically moving the girder. The method can also be used to anticipate the corrector strengths needed to restore the beam orbit after a realignment. Simulation results are compared to experimental results and found to reproduce the latter quite closely. Predicted corrector strengths are also found to be close to the actual local corrector strengths after a proof-of-principle two-sector realignment was performed.
Performance of streamlined bridge decks in relation to the aerodynamics of a flat plate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larose, Guy; Livesey, Flora M.
1997-01-01
The aerodynamics of three modern bridge decks are compared to the aerodynamics of a 16:1 flat plate. The comparisons are made on the basis of the analytical evaluation of the performance of each cross-section to the buffeting action of the wind. In general, the closed-box girders studied in this ...... in this paper showed buffeting responses similar to a flat plate with the exception of the multi-box girder which performed much better aerodynamically.......The aerodynamics of three modern bridge decks are compared to the aerodynamics of a 16:1 flat plate. The comparisons are made on the basis of the analytical evaluation of the performance of each cross-section to the buffeting action of the wind. In general, the closed-box girders studied...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡巍; 江湧; 陈波
2015-01-01
某桥主桥为主跨400 m的斜拉桥，1995年建成通车。在交通量激增、荷载超载、预应力损失等因素作用下，部分桥跨主梁呈现下挠加剧，主梁混凝土出现剥落、露筋及开裂等病害。为抑制主梁下挠不断发展的趋势，采用结构自重减载方式（将混凝土人行道板置换为轻型钢人行道板）来部分减缓主梁下挠，并对箱梁顶板底面粘贴碳纤维布进行加固。采用有限元软件建立主桥模型，计算结构自重减载及粘贴碳纤维布对改善主梁下挠的作用效应。结果表明，将混凝土人行道板置换成轻型钢人行道板后，主梁下挠程度相对减小；碳纤维布与主梁共同参与受力，在一定程度上抑制了混凝土病害进一步发展，也避免了因混凝土开裂而造成的主梁下挠，验证了该加固方案的可行性。%A Bridge was opened to traffic in 1995 .Its main bridge is a cable‐stayed bridge with a main span of 400 m .According to the inspection report ,the downwarping of main girder in some spans had been exarcebated ,the main girder concrete began to spalling ,deteriations including con‐crete spalling ,reinforcement exposure and concrete cracking were also found ,the causes of which can be attributed to the surge of traffic ,over load and prestress loss .To curb the exarcerbation of main girder downwarping ,the way of relieving the self weight of the structure was used to partial‐ly slow down the main girder downwarping ,specifically by replacing the concrete slabs in the side‐walks by the ligh weight steel plates ,and the main girder was strengthened by gluing carbon fiber sheet on the base of the top plate of the box girder .The finite element software was used to estab‐lish the model of the main bridge ,to calculate the effect of structural self weight reduction and car‐bon fiber sheets strengthening on the enhancement of main girder downwarping .The results of the calculation indicate
Buffeting Response of Suspension Bridge Girder with Separate Control Flaps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huynh, Truc; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
This paper presents the calculation of the root mean square (RMS) response of a suspension bridge using separate control flaps (SCF) in turbulence conditions. It is assumed that the mean wind velocity is not large enough to cause coupled vibrations and that single mode buffeting response...... is of interest. The RMS response is determined on the basis of the equation of motion, which is formulated stochastically according to the wind random turbulence components. It is further assumed that the sum of the motion-induced forces and the buffeting-induced forces from the girder and the flaps is computed...
On the Influence of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seng, Sopheak; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2012-01-01
Numerical predictions and model test results of the wave induced bending moments in a 9,400 TEU post-Panamax container vessel are presented for two regular wave scenarios. Different numerical procedures have been applied: a linear and non-linear time-domain strip theory and a direct calculation (...... (CFD) solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. In all procedures the flexibility of the hull girder is modelled as a non-uniform Timoshenko beam. It is observed that the non-linear models agree well with the model tests...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nami, Mohammad Rahim [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghorban, Maziar [Islamic Azad University, Marvdash (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-06-15
In this work, dynamic analysis of rectangular nanoplates subjected to moving load is presented. In order to derive the governing equations of motion, second order plate theory is used. To capture the small scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted. It is assumed that the nanoplate is subjected to a moving concentrated load with the constant velocity V in the x direction. To solve the governing equations, state-space method is used to find the deflections of rectangular nanoplate under moving load. The results obtained here reveal that the nonlocality has significant effect on the deflection of rectangular nanoplate subjected to moving load.
Design of bridge crane girder strain acquisition system based on virtual instrument
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenxue LIU
Full Text Available Girder is an important part of the bridge crane, which is also the main force element. In order to prevent accidents, it is necessary to collect the bridge crane girder stress data to analyse the fatigue life. This paper constructs a bridge crane girder strain acquisition system. The hardware system consists of sensors, connectors, data acquisition cards, wireless data transmission groups, POE power and host computer. The software system consists of NI MAX to interface with the computer's NI hardware and software resources,and LabVIEW programming to display and storage the girder strain data. Through this system, positions and working days strain data acquisition for the 50/10 t bridge crane girder gets the key positions strain data. The results show that the girder strain data acquisition system runs stably, channel signals of acquisition task transmit accurately, and the terminal data stores competely, meeting the detection requirements, which provides an important data support for the subsequent fatigue analysis and accurate remaining service life prediction of the crane girder.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, T.; Fujikubo, M.; Mizutani, K. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-04-10
Bottom plates of a hull are subjected to laterally distributing force due to in-plane compression force and water pressure in the ship`s length direction as a result of longitudinal bending in a hogging condition. Because buckling collapse of the hull bottom plates leads directly to longitudinal bending collapse of the hull bottom cross section, the hull bottom plates must have sufficient strength. The present study performs a static elastic large deflection analysis and an elasto-plastic large deflection analysis. It elucidates buckling collapse behavior of a square plate subjected to water pressure and in-plane compression load, and considers limits in application of conventional approximation analysis methods. In the case of a water pressure action, deflection components growing in excess of the buckling load do not necessarily correspond to buckling modes of the case where no water pressure is acting upon. Conventional approximation analysis methods may not be able often to pursue actual buckling phenomena. According the result of an analysis on hull bottom panels of an actual ship, the ultimate strength decreases when the water pressure is large. Compression force in the lateral direction as a result of water pressure acting on ship`s sides affected very little the ultimate strength. 3 refs., 7 figs.
Research on temperature field and temperature stress of prestressed concrete girders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Cheng
2011-02-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the establishment and simplification of the temperature field and the general calculation method of temperature stress of the prestressed concrete box girders. Three kinds of sunshine temperature gradient models were loaded to a real bridge respectively, and got stress and displacement curves. Research data of several prestressed concrete box girders were selected from different regions of China to compare the relative error of the calculated and measured value. We indicate that the study of temperature field and thermal stress of prestressed concrete box girders is necessary, and will help engineers to solve the problem in structure design.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张胜
2016-01-01
某预应力连续箱梁桥运营15年后，箱梁内外出现了较多的裂缝、钢筋锈蚀和台后填土沉降等病害，已影响桥梁结构的正常使用和安全。根据该桥的质量检测报告，提出了箱梁顶板采用增厚钢筋混凝土、箱室顶板内表面采用粘贴钢板和碳纤维相结合以及箱梁腹板粘贴钢板的加固方法。通过理论计算和荷载试验对加固后的桥梁承载力进行了验算和检测，结果表明，结构承载力和刚度都有明显地提高，能保证桥梁的正常使用。%A prestressed continuous box girder bridge appeared various diseases in fifteen years, for instance, cracks of the inside and outside surface of the box girder, steel corrosion and the obvious settlement of filling at back abutment. The disease has affected the normal use and safety of the bridge structure. Based on the testing reports of the bridge, a feasible strengthening method is put forward: The roof of box girder is strengthened by the thick reinforced concrete;The top plate of the box is strengthened by steel plate and carbon fiber, and box girder webs is strengthened by steel plate. The carrying capacity of the reinforced bridge is checked by the theoretical calculation and the load test. The results show that the bearing capacity and stiffness of the structure are obviously improved and can meet the requirements of normal use.
Research on the stiffening girder erection sequence of three-tower suspension bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Runqing; Luo Xiheng
2012-01-01
Compared to the conventional two-tower suspension bridge, the three-tower suspension bridge has obviously different characteristics in structural performance because of the extra middle tower and main span. The construction sequence for the stiffening girder is significantly different between the three-tower suspension bridge and the two-tower suspension bridge. The tangential angle of the main cable is one of the controlling factors of the stiffening girder erection stage for a suspension bridge. According to 5 feasible cases for the stiffening girder erection scheme in Taizhou Bridge, the research about the tangential angle in each case mentioned above was made, and some factors that should be taken into account for the erection scheme of stiffening girder were pointed out.
Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.
2016-11-01
Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.
Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.
2016-11-01
Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.
运架一体式架梁机隧道架梁技术%Tunnel Girder Skill of Transported Frame Integrated Girder Machine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
乐锋
2013-01-01
本文介绍了运架一体式架梁机的组成结构，施工前的各项准备工作。本文详细阐述了运架一体式架梁机进出隧道架设第一孔或最后一孔双线整孔预制箱梁的施工技术。%This article describes the structure composition of the transported frame integrated girder machine and the preparatory work before construction. This paper describes the double track prefabricated box girder construction technology of entering and going out the first or last hole of tunnel for the transported frame integrated girder machine.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M B ANOOP; K BALAJI RAO
2016-08-01
A methodology for performance evaluation of reinforced concrete bridge girders in corrosive environments is proposed. The methodology uses the concept of performability and considers both serviceability- and ultimate-limit states. The serviceability limit states are defined based on the degree of cracking (characterized by crack width) in the girder due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement, and the ultimate limit states are defined based on the flexural load carrying capacity of the girder (characterized in terms of rating factor using the load and resistance factor rating method). The condition of the bridge girder is specified by the assignment of a condition state from a set of predefined condition states. Generally, the classification of condition states is linguistic, while the condition states are considered to be mutually exclusive and collectivelyexhaustive. In the present study, the condition states of the bridge girder are also represented by fuzzy sets to consider the ambiguities arising due to the linguistic classification of condition states. A non-homogeneous Markov chain (MC) model is used for modeling the condition state evolution of the bridge girder with time. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated through a case study of a severely distressed beam of the Rocky Point Viaduct. The results obtained using the proposed approach are compared with those obtained using conventional MC model. It is noted that the use of MC with fuzzy states leads to conservative decision making for the problem considered in the case study.
Distortional Buckling Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders in Negative Moment Area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Wangbao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Distortional buckling is one of the most important buckling modes of the steel-concrete composite girder under negative moment. In this study, the equivalent lateral and torsional restraints of the bottom flange of a steel-concrete composite girder under negative moments due to variable axial forces are thoroughly investigated. The results show that there is a coupling effect between the applied forces and the lateral and torsional restraint of the bottom flange. Based on the calculation formula of lateral and torsional restraints, the critical buckling stress of I-steel-concrete composite girders and steel-concrete composite box girders under variable axial force is obtained. The critical bending moment of the steel-concrete composite girders can be further calculated. Compared to the traditional calculation methods of elastic foundation beam, the paper introduces an improved method, which considers coupling effect of the external loads and the foundation spring constraints of the bottom flange. Fifteen examples of the steel-concrete composite girders in different conditions are calculated. The calculation results show a good match between the hand calculation and the ANSYS finite element method, which validated that the analytic calculation method proposed in this paper is practical.
Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.
2017-07-01
Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
This paper studies the problem of a functionally graded piezoelectric circular plate subjected to a uniform electric potential difference between the upper and lower surfaces. By assuming the generalized displacements in appropriate forms,five differential equations governing the generalized displacement functions are derived from the equilibrium equations. These displacement functions are then obtained in an explicit form,which still involve four undetermined integral constants,through a step-by-step integration which properly incorporates the boundary conditions at the upper and lower surfaces. The boundary conditions at the cylindrical surface are then used to determine the integral constants. Hence,three-dimen sional analytical solutions for electrically loaded functionally graded piezoelectric circular plates with free or simply-supported edge are completely determined. These solutions can account for an arbitrary material variation along the thickness,and thus can be readily degenerated into those for a homogenous plate. A numerical example is finally given to show the validity of the analysis,and the effect of material inhomogeneity on the elastic and electric fields is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Zhiwen, E-mail: zhuzhiwentju@163.com [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Control, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Qingxin, E-mail: zqxfirst@163.com; Xu, Jia, E-mail: xujia-ld@163.com [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2014-05-07
Stochastic bifurcation and fractal and chaos control of a giant magnetostrictive film–shape memory alloy (GMF–SMA) composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation were studied. Van der Pol items were improved to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of both GMF and SMA, and the nonlinear dynamic model of a GMF–SMA composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation was developed. The probability density function of the dynamic response of the system was obtained, and the conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation were analyzed. The conditions of noise-induced chaotic response were obtained in the stochastic Melnikov integral method, and the fractal boundary of the safe basin of the system was provided. Finally, the chaos control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the parameter variation process. The boundary of the safe basin of the system has fractal characteristics, and its area decreases when the noise intensifies. The system reliability was improved through stochastic optimal control, and the safe basin area of the system increased.
Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Qingxin; Xu, Jia
2014-05-01
Stochastic bifurcation and fractal and chaos control of a giant magnetostrictive film-shape memory alloy (GMF-SMA) composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation were studied. Van der Pol items were improved to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of both GMF and SMA, and the nonlinear dynamic model of a GMF-SMA composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation was developed. The probability density function of the dynamic response of the system was obtained, and the conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation were analyzed. The conditions of noise-induced chaotic response were obtained in the stochastic Melnikov integral method, and the fractal boundary of the safe basin of the system was provided. Finally, the chaos control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the parameter variation process. The boundary of the safe basin of the system has fractal characteristics, and its area decreases when the noise intensifies. The system reliability was improved through stochastic optimal control, and the safe basin area of the system increased.
Seismic response of skewed RC box-girder bridges
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ahmed Abdel-Mohti; Gokhan Pekcan
2008-01-01
It is critical to ensure the functionality of highway bridges after earthquakes to provide access to important facilities.Since the 1971 San Fernando earthquake,there has been a better understanding of the seismic performance of bridges.Nonetheless,there are no detailed guidelines addressing the performance of skewed highway bridges.Several parameters affect the response of skewed highway bridges under both service and seismic loads which makes their behavior complex.Therefore,there is a need for more research to study the effect of skew angle and other related factors on the performance of highway bridges.This paper examines the seismic performance of a three-span continuous concrete box girder bridge with skew angles from 0 to 60 degrees,analytically.Finite element (FE) and simplified beam-stick (BS) models of the bridge were developed using SAP2000.Different types of analysis were considered on both models such as:nonlinear static pushover,and linear and nonlinear time history analyses.A comparison was conducted between FE and BS,different skew angles,abutment support conditions,and time history and pushover analysis.It is shown that the BS model has the capability to capture the coupling due to skew and the significant modes for moderate skew angles.Boundary conditions and pushover load profile are determined to have a major effect on pushover analysis.Pushover analysis may be used to predict the maximum deformation and hinge formation adequately.
Dynamic Analysis of Horizontally Curved Thin-Walled Box-Girder Bridge due to Moving Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nallasivam
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The impact on curved box-girder bridges due to vehicle moving across rough bridge deck have been analyzed using bridge-vehicle coupled dynamics. The bridge deck unevenness has been assumed to be a homogeneous random process in space specified by a PSD function. The analysis incorporates the effect of centrifugal forces due to vehicle moving on curved bridge. The curved box-girder bridge has been numerically modeled using computationally efficient thin-walled box-beam finite elements which take into account the torsional warping, distortion and distortional warping, that are important features of thin-walled box girders. Rigid vehicle with longitudinal and transverse input to the wheels giving rise to heave-pitch-roll degrees of freedom has been considered. The theoretical bridge model used in simulation study has been validated by a free vibration experiment using impact excitation. The impact factors for several response parameters such as bending moment, shear force, torsional moment, torsional bi-moment, distortional moment, distortional bi-moment and vertical deflections have been obtained for various bridge-vehicle parameters. Both constant velocity and forward acceleration of the vehicle have been considered to examine impact factor. The results highlighted that the impact factors of a curved box girder bridge corresponding to torsion, distortion and their corresponding bimoments have been observed to be generally very high, while those of the other responses are also relatively higher than that of corresponding straight box girder bridge.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang Jae-Yoon
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic flexural behaviour of the railway bridge is influenced by its torsional behaviour. Especially, in the case of girder railway bridges, the dynamic response tends to amplify when the natural frequency in flexure (1st vibration mode is close to that in torsion (2nd vibration mode. In order to prevent such situation, it is necessary to adopt a flexural-to-torsional natural frequency ratio larger than 120%. This study proposes a solution shifting the natural frequency in torsion to high frequency range and restraining torsion by installing concrete panels on the bottom flange of the girder so as to prevent the superposition of the responses in the girder bridge. The applicability of this solution is examined by finite element analysis of the shift of the torsional natural frequency and change in the dynamic response according to the installation of the concrete panels. The analytical results for a 30 m-span girder railway bridge indicate that installing the concrete panels increases the natural frequency in torsion by restraining the torsional behaviour and reduces also the overall dynamic response. It is seen that the installation of 100 mm-thick concrete panels along a section of 4 m at both extremities of the girder can reduce the dynamic response by more than 30%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The steel-concrete composite girder has been usually applied in the bridge and building structures, mostly consisting of concrete slab, steel girder, and shear connector. The current fatigue damage assessment for the composite girder is largely based on the strain values and concrete crack features, which is time consuming and not stable. Hence the vibration-based fatigue damage assessment has been considered in this study. In detail, a steel-steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC composite girder was tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete is usually considered for dealing with the concrete cracks in engineering practice. The composite girder was 3.3m long and 0.45m high. The fatigue load and impact excitation were applied on the specimen sequentially. According to the test results, the concrete crack development and global stiffness degradation during the fatigue test were relatively slow due to the favourable performance of SFRC in tension. But on the other hand, the vibration features varied significantly during the fatigue damage development. Generally, it confirmed the feasibility of executing fatigue damage assessment of composite bridge based on vibration method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方志; 刘明; 郑辉
2015-01-01
In order to study the mechanical behavior of prestressed reactive powder concrete (RPC) box girders ,the flexural behavior tests of two prestressed RPC box girders were carried out .T he force characteristic of RPC box girders and the influence of transverse prestressing force to its flexural performance were studied .The results show that the prestressed RPC box girders display a good deformation capacity ,with a maximal deflection of 1/50 of its span .The crack width and the short‐time stiffness of the RPC box girders can be calculated according to the formula in Technical Specif ication for Fiber Reinforced Concrete Structures (CECS 38 :2004) , with a coefficient of 0 .4 and 0 .2 considering influence from steel fiber , respectively . The transverse prestressing force in the top plate of RPC box girders has little influence on the flexural bearing capacity , but the force can make a more uniform strain distribution of the compressive concrete so as to reduce the shear‐lag effect and increase the ductility of the specimen .By applying a transverse prestressing force of 2 .95 M Pa (only 3 .1% of the RPC prism compressive strength of 94 MPa) at the top plate ,the effective distribution width of box girder increases by 10% ,and ductility index of specimen increases by 3% .The calculated formula to evaluate the cracking moment and the ultimate moment of a prestressed RPC box girders is proposed and verified by the experimental results .%为研究预应力活性粉末混凝土（RPC ）箱梁的正截面受力性能，进行了2片预应力RPC箱梁的抗弯性能试验，研究了RPC箱梁的受力变形特征以及顶板横向预应力对其抗弯性能的影响。结果表明：预应力RPC箱梁具有良好的变形能力，其极限变形可超过跨径的1／50；RPC箱梁正常使用阶段的裂缝宽度和短期刚度可参照《纤维混凝土结构技术规程》（CECS 38：2004）的相应公式计算，其中的钢纤维影响系数可分别取为0
Energy flow in plate assembles by hierarchical version of finite element method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wachulec, Marcin; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
method has been proposed. In this paper a modified hierarchical version of finite element method is used for modelling of energy flow in plate assembles. The formulation includes description of in-plane forces so that planes lying in different planes can be modelled. Two examples considered are: L......-corner of two rectangular plates an a I-shaped plate girder made of five plates. Energy distribution among plates due to harmonic load is studied and the comparison of performance between the hierarchical and standard finite element formulation is presented....
The Design and Construction of 160T Girder Station%160T提梁站设计与施工
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓洪钧
2012-01-01
Guangshen Coastal Expressway Shenzhen Girder Station uses the steel pipe piles combined with Bailey girders in the construction.The headroom of the girder stations and the cast-in-place box girder is 7m, and the span is 17.25m. This paper makes a brief description of the installation method of the girder station% 广深沿江高速深圳段提梁站施工采用钢管桩结合贝雷梁形式。提梁站与现浇箱梁净空高度7m，跨度为17.25m，文章就提梁站的安装方法作简要介绍。
Closure technique for the hybrid girder cable stayed bridge of Edong Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Minghu; Tan Hao; Xu GuoPing; Zhao Canhui
2012-01-01
Based on Edong Yangtze River Bridge, which is the second longest hybrid girder cable stayed bridge with 926 m long main span, the influencing factors and crucial techniques of the main span closure method for long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridge are studied. After theoretical analysis, numerical evaluation and practical test, the loading assistant closure method is employed in Edong Yangtze River Bridge. The loading assistant closure method, with better thermal adaptability and less influence on bridge line and the forced status, can meet the requirements of the unstressed state control method. Based on the mentioned advantages, the loading assistant closure method is applicable to long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridges. The conclusion can provide a reference for the further design of the similar brid~es.
A Simple Technique to Determine Interface Slip of Stud Connected SCC Girders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajasankar J.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A simple technique is proposed to compute interface slip of stud connected steel-concrete composite (SCC girders based on the results of a flexure test. The technique makes use of relative longitudinal displacement of the concrete slab and steel beam to calculate the interface slip. In the flexure test of a SCC girder, a cost-effective instrumentation arrangement consisting of mechanical dial gauges is used to measure the relative longitudinal displacement. Responses measured from experiments on SCC girders conducted by the authors are used for numerical implementation and validation of the technique. Alternatively, interface slip is also evaluated by applying an analytical model which is based on first principles of mechanics. The values of interface slip computed by using the proposed technique are found to have close correlation with those of the analytical model. The effect of edge restraint on slip due to friction between steel and concrete is also studied
Lateral static and dynamic characteristics of thin-walled box girder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAN Yan-an; ZHOU Guang-chun
2009-01-01
To analyze the static and dynamic behaviors of the thin-walled box girder in its lateral webs in consideration of shear lag effect and shear deformation, an approach based on the minimum potential principle is introduced in this paper. Both static and dynamic response equations as well as the corresponding natural boundary conditions of the box girder are deduced. Meanwhile, three generalized displacement functions:w(x), U(x) and 0(x) are employed and their differences in the calculus of variation are quantitatively investigated. The comparison of finite shell element results with analytical results of calculation examples validates the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Jiao, Pengcheng; Borchani, Wassim; Hasni, Hassene; Lajnef, Nizar
2017-08-01
This study develops a novel buckling-based mechanism to measure the thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders under continuous temperature changes for structural health monitoring. The measuring device consists of a bilaterally constrained beam and a piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride transducer that is attached to the beam. Under thermally induced displacement, the slender beam is buckled. The post-buckling events are deployed to convert the low-rate and low-frequency excitations into localized high-rate motions and, therefore, the attached piezoelectric transducer is triggered to generate electrical signals. Attaching the measuring device to concrete bridge girders, the electrical signals are used to detect the thermal response of concrete bridges. Finite element simulations are conducted to obtain the displacement of prestressed concrete girders under thermal loads. Using the thermal-induced displacement as input, experiments are carried out on a 3D printed measuring device to investigate the buckling response and corresponding electrical signals. A theoretical model is developed based on the nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and large deformation assumptions to predict the buckling mode transitions of the beam. Based on the presented theoretical model, the geometry properties of the measuring device can be designed such that its buckling response is effectively controlled. Consequently, the thermally induced displacement can be designed as limit states to detect excessive thermal loads on concrete bridge girders. The proposed solution sufficiently measures the thermal response of concrete bridges.
Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic Force of Streamlined Box Girder with Uniform Air Suction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tang Ke
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the flow around a streamlined box girder with uniform air suction has been investigated numerically. Two-dimensional incompressible unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS equations are solved in conjunction with the SST k −ω turbulence model in simulations. Taking the Great Belt Bridge girder as an example, cases of different suction positions on the girder section were discussed. The effect of the suction ratio and the angle of attack (AOA of wind also were investigated. The result showed that the aerodynamic drag force was influenced by the uniform suction through either upper surface or lower surface of the box girder. The larger the suction ratio was, the more the drag-reducing could be. The suction position and AOA had a comprehensive effect on the drag force. The vortex shedding frequency was also affected by air suction. For the aerodynamic lift force and moment, air suction showed no obvious influence. If necessary, using a combined suction scheme to reduce the aerodynamic drag force or to control the flow wake would be more efficient in engineering design.
Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method
Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo
2017-08-01
After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakai, F.; Yabe, J.; Ogaki, K.; Sakugawa, K.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, K.; Tomoda, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)
1996-01-20
Rationalization and labor-saving in the construction of bridges are the pending problems arising from the shortage of skilled construction workers, shortened time usable for construction, and demand for lower cost. Under the circumstances, experiment and study were conducted about the PC slab for two- or three-girder bridges. On the assumption of a PC slab located between two main girders, the interval 6 meters long, specimens near the real size were subjected to experiments. Springs were attached to the free sides so that load tests might be conducted under boundary conditions equivalent to those of a finite continuous slab along the direction of the bridge length as in case of a real bridge. It was found that a partial slab model of limited dimensions was usable when a long span slab experiment was necessary. A PC slab, unlike an RC slab, regained its elastic behavior when the load was removed even after the appearance of cracks. Crack producing loads fell within the range which could generally be estimated by calculation, and the PC slab was capable of restoring its original state upon unloading even after the production of cracks. The PC slab, as compared with the RC slab, demonstrated a greater ultimate strength, but the strength was not affected by the size of the prestress. In case of a PC slab on a long span, the bend fracture precedes and the ultimate strength is determined by the bend strength. 9 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oe, S. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-05-25
The Akashi straits bridge is the Kobe-Naruto route of the bridge connecting Honshu and Shikoku; the bridge links Kobe in Hyogo prefecture with Awaji Island and, when completed, it will be a 3-span 2-hinge suspension bridge with the longest center effective span in the world. This report centers on the outline of the construction of stiffening girders for the Akashi straits bridge and especially on the characteristics of the engineering method newly employed. As the method of installing the stiffening girders, an overhang installation of face bars was employed which was a time-tested method. As the installing direction of the side spans, it was decided to install them from the anchorage to the tower. At the beginning, six large block installations were performed. A special balance was developed for the installation of short hanger parts for the purpose of enhancing safety and reduction in the process. A rubber-tired transporting truck was adopted for transporting members of framework on the bridge. GPS survey was used as a method for surveying the configuration. The subject engineering method was based on the construction of suspension bridge stiffening trusses in the past Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridge and reinforced with the improvements as above. Since the bridge is in the middle of construction, a subsequent report will hopefully be made on the actual results of the installation and the spanning after the closure. 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Yamauchi, Keiko; Katayama, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sakane, Naoki
2014-11-24
The portion size of food is a determinant of energy intake, linking with obese traits. A healthy plate for portion control has recently been made in a Japanese style. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate on weight reduction in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects. We randomized overweight and obese diabetic subjects (n = 19, 10 women) into an intervention group including educational classes on lifestyle modification incorporating the healthy plate (n = 10) or a waiting-list control group (n = 9). The intervention period was three months, and the educational classes using the healthy plate were conducted monthly in a group session for the intervention group. The body weight, blood glycemic and metabolic measures, and psychosocial variables were measured at the baseline and after the 3-month intervention in both groups. The impression of the intervention was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There was one drop-out in the control group. No adverse events were reported in the groups. Subjects in the intervention group had a greater weight change from baseline to the end of the 3-month intervention period (-3.7 +/- 2.5 [SD] kg in the intervention group vs. -0.1 +/- 1.4 kg in the control group, P = 0.002). Most subjects recorded that the use of a healthy plate could be recommended to other people. The lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate, which was developed for portion control, may effectively reduce body weight in overweight and obese diabetic subjects in Japan. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of this methodology on weight management.
Strengthening and repair of steel-concrete composite girders using CFRP laminates
Tavakkolizadeh, Mohammadreza
The use of advanced composite materials for rehabilitation and repair of deteriorating infrastructure has been embraced worldwide. The conventional techniques for strengthening of substandard bridges are costly, time consuming and labor intensive. A total of 38 specimens made of steel and carbon fibers were prepared and tested to investigate the possibility of galvanic corrosion. Two simulated aggressive environments and three different amounts of epoxy coating were used. Potentiodynamic polarization and galvanic corrosion tests were conducted. The results of the experiments showed the existence of galvanic corrosion however the rate of such corrosion could be decreased significantly by epoxy coating. A total of 21 specimens made of S 5 x 10 A36 steel beams were prepared and tested to determine the effectiveness of CFRP patch on fatigue life of notched beam. The results showed that not only CFRP patch tends to extend the fatigue life of a detail more than three times, but also it decreases the crack growth rate significantly. To investigate the effectiveness of the epoxy bonded CFRP sheets in repair and retrofit of composite girders, a total of six large-scale steel-concrete composite girders made of W 14 x 30 A36 steel beam and 7.5 cm. thick by 91 cm wide concrete slab were prepared and tested. Three different numbers of CFRP layers and three different damage level in Range were considered. The retrofitting test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP Sheet increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of composite girders and the behavior can be conservatively predicted by traditional methods. The repair test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP sheet could restore the ultimate load carrying capacity and stiffness of damaged steel-concrete composite girders. The ultimate capacity of the repaired beam was predicted by traditional methods of analysis of steel-concrete composite beams, which was fairly conservative. Guidelines and procedures for design of Steel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Jianzhong; Peng Tianbo; Xu yan
2008-01-01
An investigation of girder bridges on National Highway 213 and the Doujiangyan-Wenchuan expressway after the Wenchuan earthquake showed that typical types of damage included:span collapses due to unseating at expansion joints;shear key failure;and damage of the expansion joint due to the slide-induced large relative displacement between the bottom of the girder and the top of the laminated-rubber bearing.This slide,however,can actually act as a form of isolation for the substructure,and as a result,the piers and foundation of most of the bridges on state route 213 suffered minor damage.The exception was the Baihua Bridge,which suffered severe damage.Corresponding seismic design recommendations are presented based on this investigation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanislav Kitarović
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the hull girder ultimate strength of a bulk carrier at its midship section, as determined by an incremental-iterative progressive collapse analysis method prescribed by the International Association of Classification Societies Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers. In addition to the originally prescribed load – end shortening curves, curves determined by the nonlinear finite element method analysis (considering the influence of the idealized initial geometrical imperfections are also considered. Results obtained by both sets of curves are compared and discussed on both local (structural components load – end shortening curve and global (hull girder ulti-mate bending capacity and collapse sequence level, for both sagging and hogging cases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, Khac Duy; Lee, So Young; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2011-12-15
Ensuring the designed prestress force is very important for the safety of prestressed concrete bridge. The loss of prestress force in tendon could significantly reduce load carrying capacity of the structure. In this study, an automated prestress-loss monitoring system for prestressed concrete girder using PZT-interface and wireless impedance sensor node is presented. The following approaches are carried out to achieve the objective. Firstly, wireless impedance sensor nodes are designed for automated impedance-based monitoring technique. The sensor node is mounted on the high-performance Imote2 sensor platform to fulfill high operating speed, low power requirement and large storage memory. Secondly, a smart PZT-interface designed for monitoring prestress force is described. A linear regression model is established to predict prestress-loss. Finally, a system of the PZT-interface interacted with the wireless sensor node is evaluated from a lab-scale tendon-anchorage connection of a prestressed concrete girder.
Structural Optimization of Steel Cantilever Used in Concrete Box Girder Bridge Widening
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The structural optimization method of steel cantilever used in concrete box girder bridge widening is illustrated in this paper. The structural optimization method of steel cantilever incorporates the conceptual layout design of steel cantilever beam based on the topological theory and the determination of the optimal location of the transverse external prestressed tendons which connect the steel cantilever and the box girder. The optimal design theory and the analysis process are illustrated. The mechanical model for the prestressed steel cantilever is built and the analytical expression of the optimal position of the transverse external tendon is deduced. At last the effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the design of steel cantilevers which are used to widen an existing bridge.
Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk;
This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between...... the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds...... of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方志; 伍琼芳; 曹国辉
2012-01-01
为使配筋混凝土箱梁长期受力性能的分析趋于简便,将线弹性匀质箱梁短期弯曲性能分析的比拟杆法推广应用于其长期受力性能的分析.引入按龄期调整的有效弹性模量来考虑箱梁混凝土徐变的影响,基于换算截面的原理来考虑箱梁配筋的影响,建立能综合考虑箱梁受力特征和配筋影响的混凝土箱梁长期受力性能分析的比拟杆法.对一根预应力混凝土模型箱梁进行长达l001d的徐变试验,并用其结果对所提方法的适用性进行验证.结果表明:混凝土箱梁长期受力性能的比拟杆法计算结果与试验结果之间吻合较好.与试验值相比,t0～1001d时段内箱梁顶板混凝土压应变的计算值相差7％～11％、跨中截面长期挠曲变形的计算结果相差9％～17％.随着持荷时间的增长,箱梁顶板的剪力滞系数逐渐减小,持荷1001d后剪力滞系数减小了7.1％.%In order to develop a simple method to determine the long-term behavior of the reinforced concrete box girder structure with the shear lag effect of box girder involved, a new bar simulation method was presented in which the Age-adjusted Effective Modulus was used to consider the effects of concrete creep and the principle of transformed section was used to consider the effects of reinforcement. The results of the method were testified by the long-term performance test of a prestressed concrete simply-supported box girder under sustained loading of 1001d. The results show as follows:The developed method can give a reasonable prediction to the creep reponse of the concrete box girder; compared with the measured values, the predicted compressive strain in the top plate and the long-term deflection at the mid-span of the tested box girder is of error range of (7~11)% and (9~17)% respectively;the shear lag coefficient of the top plate of the box girder reduces gradually in extension of the sustained loading period and till by 7. 1% after 1001d.
Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Crack Depth and Crack Opening On the Girder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Kamrul Hassan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In order to identify the effect of crack depth and opening on the girder, finite element method (FEM has been used in this paper. In FE analysis, six nodded two dimensional plane elements (PLANE-2 are considered. Each node has two degree of freedom such as UX and UY. For the plane elements, a plane stress width/thickness option is chosen. For analytical model of crack of the concrete bridge girder, crack opening was increased from 0.2 mm to 1mm at an interval 0.2 mm and crack depth also increased from 30 mm to 150 mm at an interval 30 mm. The models were discreatized by a triangular mesh and convergence test was executed to obtain satisfactory results from the Plane-2 element. From the numerical result, it is seen that the principal stress become a higher with increased the crack depth and also crack opening with respect to load increasing. But the crack depth at 90 mm and crack opening at 0.6 mm, it has more effect on the girder because the stress concentration is higher than other crack depth and opening.
The vibration research of the AC dipole-girder system for CSNS/RCS
Renhong, Liu; Huamin, Qu; Ling, Kang; Motuo, Wang; Guangyuan, Wang; Haijing, Wang
2013-01-01
China spallation neutron source(CSNS) is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron(RCS). The rcs accumulates the 80MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6GeV, with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The AC dipole of the RCS is operated at a 25Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibration. The vibration will influence the long-term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The dipole magnet of RCS is active vibration equipment which is different with ground vibration accelerator. It is very important to design and research the dynamic characteristic of the dipole-girder system. This paper takes the dipole and girder as a specific model system, a method for researching the dynamic characteristic of the system is put forward by combining theoretical calculation with experimental testing. The ansys simulation method plays a very important role in the girder structure design stage. With the m...
Study the vibration and dynamic response of the dipole girder system for CSNS/RCS
Renhong, Liu; JunSong, Zhang; GuangYuan, Wang
2015-01-01
China Spallation Neutron Source is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron. The RCS accumulates the 80MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6GeV, with a repetition rate of 25Hz. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is operated at a 25 Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibrate. The vibration will influence the long term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is an active vibration equipment which is different from the ground vibration accelerator. It is very important to design and study the dynamic characteristics of the dipole girder system. This paper takes the dipole and girder as a specific model system, a method for studying the dynamic characteristics of the system is put forward by combining theoretical calculation with experimental testing. The modal parameters with and without vibration isolator of the dipole girder system are obtain through ANSYS s...
Computer Simulation of Dynamic Interactions Between Vehicle and Long Span Box Girder Bridges
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Gong; Moe S.Cheung
2008-01-01
Moving vehicle loads,associated with roadway traffic can induce significant dynamic effects on the structural behaviours of bridges,especially for long-span bridges.The main objective of current research is to study traffic induced dynamic responses of long-span box-girder bridges.The finite element method has been employed in this study to obtain a three-dimensional mathematical model for the bridge system.For vehicle-bridge dynamic interaction analysis,the vehicle is modeled as a more realistic three-axle,six-wheel system,and the corresponding dynamic interaction equations have been derived.The bridge-vehicle inter- action is affected by many factors.The current study has been focused on such factors as:vehicle speed, vehicle damping ratio,multiple traffic lanes,mass ratio of vehicle and bridge,and dynamic characteristics of bridge.Case studies have been conducted to investigate these factors by using several box girder bridge examples including Confederation Bridge,the longest box girder bridge in the world.
Field test on temperature field and thermal stress for prestressed concrete box-girder bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Baoguo CHEN; Rui DING; Junjie ZHENG; Shibiao ZHANG
2009-01-01
A field test was conducted to investigate the distribution of temperature field and the variation of thermal stress for a prestressed concrete (PC) box-girder bridge. The change of hydration heat temperature consists of four periods: temperature rising period, constant temperature period, rapid temperature fall period and stow temperature fall period. The peak value of hydration heat temperature increases with the increasing casting temperature of concrete; the relation between them is approximately linear. According to field tests, the thermal stress incurred by hydration heat may induce temperature cracks on the PC box-girder. Furthermore, the nonlinear distribution of temperature gradient and the fluctuation of thermal stress induced by exposure to sunlight were also obtained based on continuous in-situ monitoring. Such results show that the prevailing Chinese Code (2004) is insufficient since it does not take into account the temperature gradient of the bottom slab. Finally, some preventive measures against temperature cracks were proposed based on related studies. The conclusions can provide valuable reference for the design and construction of PC box-girder bridges.
Shu, Jian-Jun
2015-01-01
The paper presents a theoretical study using the Karman-Pohlhausen method for describing the transient heat exchange between the boundary-layer free convection and a vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium. The unsteady behavior is developed after the generation of an impulsive heat flux step at the right-hand side of the plate. Two cases are considered according to whether the plate has a finite thickness or no thickness. The time and space evolution of the interface temperature is evidenced.
Shear and shear friction of ultra-high performance concrete bridge girders
Crane, Charles Kennan
Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a new class of concrete characterized by no coarse aggregate, steel fiber reinforcement, low w/c, low permeability, compressive strength exceeding 29,000 psi (200 MPa), tensile strength ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 psi (8 to 17 MPa), and very high toughness. These properties make prestressed precast UHPC bridge girders a very attractive replacement material for steel bridge girders, particularly when site demands require a comparable beam depth to steel and a 100+ year life span is desired. In order to efficiently utilize UHPC in bridge construction, it is necessary to create new design recommendations for its use. The interface between precast UHPC girder and cast-in-place concrete decks must be characterized in order to safely use composite design methods with this new material. Due to the lack of reinforcing bars, all shear forces in UHPC girders have to be carried by the concrete and steel fibers. Current U.S. codes do not consider fiber reinforcement in calculating shear capacity. Fiber contribution must be accurately accounted for in shear equations in order to use UHPC. Casting of UHPC may cause fibers to orient in the direction of casting. If fibers are preferentially oriented, physical properties of the concrete may also become anisotropic, which must be considered in design. The current research provides new understanding of shear and shear friction phenomena in UHPC including: (1) Current AASHTO codes provide a non-conservative estimate of interface shear performance of smooth UHPC interfaces with and without interface steel. (2) Fluted interfaces can be created by impressing formliners into the surface of plastic UHPC. AASHTO and ACI codes for roughened interfaces are conservative for design of fluted UHPC interfaces.(3) A new equation for the calculation of shear capacity of UHPC girders is presented which takes into account the contribution of steel fiber reinforcement. (4) Fibers are shown to preferentially
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Danfeng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem has been encountered in many maglev test or commercial lines, which significantly degrade the performance of the maglev train. In previous research on the principle of the coupled vibration problem, it has been discovered that the fundamental model of the maglev girder can be simplified as a series of mass-spring resonators of different but related resonance frequencies, and that the stability of the vehicle-girder coupled system can be investigated by separately examining the stability of each mass-spring resonator – electromagnet coupled system. Based on this conclusion, a maglev test platform, which includes a single electromagnetic suspension control system, is built for experimental study of the coupled vibration problem. The guideway of the test platform is supported by a number of springs so as to change its flexibility. The mass of the guideway can also be changed by adjusting extra weights attached to it. By changing the flexibility and mass of the guideway, the rules of the maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem are to be examined through experiments, and related theory on the vehicle-girder self-excited vibration proposed in previous research is also testified.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王龙奉; 吕彭民; 徐田
2015-01-01
The rules about the ultimate bearing capacity of the welded box girder in the current GB5001 7-2003 “Structural Design Specification”are faulty.The influences of the material non-linearity, geometrical non-linearity and the initial defect are considered in this paper.The arc length increment method obtained by revising Newton-Raphson formula is used to solve the ultimate bearing capacity of welded box girder under the action of the shear force,and the correctness of the calculation method is validated through the model tests.The formula used to calculate the stable ultimate bearing capacity under the action of the shear force of the box girder is summarized through large of simulation calculations.The method relates di-rectly the ultimate bearing capacity to the height to thickness ratio of the web and width to thickness ratio of the wing plate,which has the reference value to calculate and design the stable ultimate bearing capacity of the welded box girder.%现行 GB50017-2003《钢结构设计规范》对焊接箱形截面梁极限承载力规定还比较粗糙，本文考虑材料非线性、几何非线性和箱梁初始缺陷的影响，采用对 Nweton-Raphson 公式进行修正的弧长增量法求解剪力作用下焊接箱梁极限承载力，并通过模型试验，验证了计算方法的正确性。通过大量的数值模拟仿真计算，归纳总结出了箱形截面梁在剪力作用下稳定极限承载力计算公式。该公式把极限承载力与腹板高厚比、翼板宽厚比直接关联起来，对焊接箱形截面梁稳定极限承载力的计算及设计具有参考价值。
Hwu, Chyanbin
2010-01-01
As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan Shiguang; Li Hongtao; Wang Chao
2012-01-01
This article presents in detail the assembling and welding process technique of the steel box girder tuyere blocks of Taizhou Bridge. The application of this process technique effectively solves the problem of welding stress release in tuyere block assembling and welding without increasing the number of turns of the blocks and overhead welding, thus avoiding possible structural deformation due to excessive accumulation of internal welding stress, greatly reducing the repeated deformation and correction work during assembling and welding, and ensuring the weld seam quality and overall dimensions of tuvere blocks of Taizhou Bridze.
Methods for determination of ultimate load of eccentrically patch loaded steel I-girders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šćepanović, B.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Experimental tests show that most eccentrically patch loaded steel I-girders have a collapse mode quite different from that of centrically loaded girders. Concerning engineering practice, the most important difference between collapse modes is in ultimate load. The reduction in ultimate load with an increase in load eccentricity is obvious in some eccentrically loaded girders. Under certain circumstances, for a certain combination of influential parameters, eccentrically loaded girders behave as if loaded in the web plane, with no or no significant reduction in ultimate load due to load eccentricity. Dealing with such a big number of mutually dependant parameters that influence collapse mode and level of ultimate load reduction due to load eccentricity, still without theoretical formulation of collapse mechanism, two approaches for ultimate load determination are analysed: empirical mathematical expressions and artificial neural networks forecast models. Results of two procedures are compared. Recommendations for application in engineering practice are given.Las pruebas experimentales muestran que la mayoría de vigas en I de acero cargadas excéntricamente tienen un modo de colapso muy diferente del de las vigas cargadas centradas. En cuanto a la práctica de ingeniería, la diferencia más importante entre los modos de colapso es la carga final. La reducción de la carga última con un aumento de la excentricidad de carga es evidente en algunas vigas cargadas excéntricamente, mientras que bajo ciertas circunstancias, para una determinada combinación de parámetros influyentes, las vigas cargadas excéntricamente se comportan como si se carga en el plano del alma, con ninguna reducción significativa en la carga última debido a la carga excéntrica. Se analizan dos métodos para la determinación de la carga máxima: expresiones matemáticas empíricas y redes neuronales artificiales. Los resultados de ambos procedimientos se comparan. Se
Double Girder Bridge Crane with Double Cycling: Scheduling Strategy and Performance Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dandan Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel quay crane design, double girder bridge crane (DGBC. DGBC is capable of handling containers of two adjacent bays simultaneously, avoiding crane collisions, saving travelling and reposition cost, and eventually improving terminal efficiency. This problem is formulated as a resource-constrained project scheduling with objective to minimize the maximum completion time. A two-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed in which an operating sequences on each bay is obtained by double cycling, and the integrated timetable for both bays is constructed by solving resource conflicts using the proposed minimum cost strategy. We examine effectiveness and performance of applying DGBC with double cycling. A case study is presented to illustrate how DGBC works with the two-stage method. Three extreme cases with respective conflict types are investigated to develop the performance bounds of DGBC with double cycling. The results show that DGBC can significantly improve terminal productivity, and outperforms single girder crane in both makespan and the lift operation percentage. The highest DGBC efficiency does not require maximum double cycles in two bay schedules; rather the integrated timetable for two bays is the main contribution to the DGBC performance as it yields better cooperation between two spreaders and the driver.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoguang Deng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the nonlinear stability analysis method, the 3D nonlinear finite element model of a composite girder cable-stayed bridge with three pylons is established to research the effect of factors including geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, static wind load, and unbalanced construction load on the structural stability during construction. Besides, the structural nonlinear stability in different construction schemes and the determination of temporary pier position are also studied. The nonlinear stability safety factors are calculated to demonstrate the rationality and safety of construction schemes. The results show that the nonlinear stability safety factors of this bridge during construction meet the design requirement and the minimum value occurs in the maximum double cantilever stage. Besides, the nonlinear stability of the structure in the side of edge-pylon meets the design requirement in the two construction schemes. Furthermore, the temporary pier can improve the structure stability, effectively, and the actual position is reasonable. In addition, the local buckling of steel girder occurs earlier than overall instability under load in some cable tension stages. Finally, static wind load and the unbalanced construction load should be considered in the stability analysis for the adverse impact.
Fatigue stress monitoring and analyses for steel box girder of Runyang Suspension Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ying WANG; Zhaoxia LI; Baijian WU
2008-01-01
The monitoring of fatigue stress of steel bridge is a key issue of bridge health monitoring and safety assessment. This paper aims to find out the strain history features of the girder components of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RYSB) under vehicle and environmental loading during its first year of service based on the strain-history data recorded by structural health monitoring system installed in the bridge. The fatigue stress spectrums of steel box girders under normal traffic load, heavy trucks and typhoon loads were studied as well as the correlation between varying strain and temperature based on real-time monitoring of temperature histories. The results show that, monitoring on local strain in health monitoring systems of RYSB can effectively provide the information on fatigue stresses. The range of the equivalent fatigue stress on the monitoring location of the bridge is currently low, mainly due to varying traffic loading and temper-ature. There exists significant correlation between varying temperature and mean value of fatigue stress. Effect of the passing of heavy trucks on bridge fatigue is quite signifi-cant since the value of the cumulative fatigue damage generated by heavy trucks is 10 to 100 times larger than that by normal traffic. Therefore, the effect on fatigue cumulative damage due to heavy trucks or overloaded vehicles needs to be monitored and paid much attention to.
Free vibrations of multi-girder and multi-cell box bridges with transverse deformations effects
Hamed, E.; Frostig, Y.
2005-01-01
A general mathematical approach is developed for the free vibration behaviour analysis of multi-girder and multi-cell box bridges with a single or multi span, including the effects of the transverse deformations of the bridge cross-section. The governing equations of motion and the corresponding boundary and continuity conditions are derived via the variational principle of virtual work following Hamilton's principle. The model is general and valid for any boundary and continuity conditions, and is applicable for multi-girder bridges with longitudinal and cross beams and for multi-cell box bridges. The warping and the distortion of the bridge cross-section effects are included in the proposed model. Closed-form solutions of the governing equations are derived and the Newton-Raphson method is used to determine the eigenfrequencies. Numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed model, and are also used to examine the accuracy of other approximate models used in the analysis of bridges. The results of the proposed model are validated through comparison with three-dimensional finite element models. The results reveal that the transverse deformations decrease the magnitudes of the eigenfrequencies of the torsional mode shapes, as well as the high flexural modes.
Coupled Vibration of Long-Span Railway Curved Girder Bridges and Vehicles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shan Deshan; Li Qiao
2005-01-01
The structure of a long curved girder bridge is represented with a three-dimensional curved finite element model. Each 4-axle vehicle is modeled by a dynamic system of 35 degrees of freedom. The random irregularities of the track are generated from a power spectral density function under the given track condition. The dynamic interaction between the bridge and train is realized through the contact forces between the wheels and track. Then based on these models, the coupled equations of motion are solved by applying the time-integration and iteration techniques to the coupled system. The proposed formulation and the associated computer program are then applied to a real curved girder bridge. The dynamic responses of the bridge-vehicle system and the derailments and offload factors related to the riding and running safeties of vehicles are computed. The results show that the formulation presented in this paper can well predict dynamic behaviors of both bridge and train with reasonable computation efforts.
A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones
Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu
2016-01-01
Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators’ safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:27399710
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhengjie Zhou
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Precast, prestressed concrete box girders are commonly used as superstructure components for short and medium span bridges. Their configuration and typical side-by-side placement make large portions of these elements inaccessible for visual inspection or the application of nondestructive testing techniques. This paper demonstrates that vibration-based damage detection (VBDD is an effective alternative for monitoring their structural health. A box girder removed from a dismantled bridge was used to evaluate the ability of five different VBDD algorithms to detect and localize low levels of spalling damage, with a focus on using a small number of sensors and only the fundamental mode of vibration. All methods were capable of detecting and localizing damage to a region within approximately 1.6 times the longitudinal spacing between as few as six uniformly distributed accelerometers. Strain gauges configured to measure curvature were also effective, but tended to be susceptible to large errors in near support damage cases. Finite element analyses demonstrated that increasing the number of sensor locations leads to a proportional increase in localization accuracy, while the use of additional modes provides little advantage and can sometimes lead to a deterioration in the performance of the VBDD techniques.
A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones.
Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu
2016-07-07
Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators' safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Changfeng
2014-10-01
Full Text Available During an earthquake, the nonlinearity of the bridge structure mainly occurs at the supports, bridge piers and restrainers. When entering nonlinear stage, members of the bridge structure affect the elasto-plastic seismic response of the whole structure to a certain extent; for multi-span continuous bridges, longitudinal restrainers can be installed on the movable piers to optimise the distribution of seismic force and enable the movable piers to bear a certain amount of seismic effect. In order to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge, analytical models of continuous girder bridge structure considering the nonlinearity of movable supports, restrainers and bridge piers were built and the nonlinear time history analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restraining devices and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge. Relevant structural measures and recommendation were made to reduce the seismic response of the fixed piers of the continuous girder bridge.
Energy flow in plate assembles by hierarchical version of finite element method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wachulec, Marcin; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
method has been proposed. In this paper a modified hierarchical version of finite element method is used for modelling of energy flow in plate assembles. The formulation includes description of in-plane forces so that planes lying in different planes can be modelled. Two examples considered are: L......The dynamic analysis of structures in medium and high frequencies are usually focused on frequency and spatial averages of energy of components, and not the displacement/velocity fields. This is especially true for structure-borne noise modelling. For the analysis of complicated structures......-corner of two rectangular plates an a I-shaped plate girder made of five plates. Energy distribution among plates due to harmonic load is studied and the comparison of performance between the hierarchical and standard finite element formulation is presented....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘华; 高宗余; 刘其伟; 张军雷
2015-01-01
某大桥靠岛岸侧的5×35 m连续梁引桥于2012年某日凌晨3时左右遭受火灾。为恢复该桥的使用功能，针对火损后的桥跨进行现场检测，并结合火场温度和结构温度场的模拟分析，对结构的受损程度进行综合评定。结果表明箱梁表面有较大面积的混凝土崩落，且造成钢筋外露，受火灾影响最为严重的是内侧翼板处，因火损导致8根横向预应力钢绞线外露。在此基础上针对箱梁混凝土火损后剥落采取砂浆修补或灌注并结合粘贴锚固钢板的措施；针对翼板横向预应力火损采取增设钢结构隔板的措施；针对结构整体采用张拉粘贴预应力碳纤维板的措施进行维修加固。经试验评定，验证了加固方案实施后的桥梁承载能力得以恢复。%T he 5 × 35‐m span continuous girder approach bridge of a bridge on the island bank side caught fire at about 03 :00 in the early morning in a day in 2012 .To restore the operational function of the bridge ,the fire damaged spans of the bridge were inspected in the field ,the fire temperatures and temperature fields of the structure were simulated and analyzed and the damage degrees of the structure were comprehensively assessed .The results of the assessment show that rather great area of concrete spalling occurs on the surface of the box girder of the bridge and the concrete spalling causes the exposure of the reinforcement .The part of the box girder affected most severely by the fire damage is the inner side cantilever slab w here 8 transverse prestressing steel wire strands are exposed owing to the fire .According to the assessment ,the concrete spal‐ling of the box girder is repaired by the measure of plastering or grouting the cement mortar and binding the anchor steel plates .The damaged prestressing steel wire strands of the cantilever slab are repaired by the measure of adding the steel partition plates and the w hole structure is repaired and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吉伯海
2014-01-01
针对钢桥运营安全亟需关注的热点问题之一---缆索支承桥梁钢箱梁的安全性、耐久性，回顾我国钢箱梁疲劳损伤相关研究概况及主要成果，分析总结过去研究中存在的难点与热点问题，并对今后的发展方向提出了展望与建议。%The safety and durability of the steel box girder of cable-supported bridges has become a compelling subject in steel bridge safety operation. This paper provides a review on the research status and main results of fatigue damage in steel box girders in China, presents an analysis of the difficulties and pressing issues in previous research, and puts forward prospects and suggestions for the future development.
Numerical simulation for local failure of a steel box girder under blast loading%钢箱梁爆炸冲击局部破坏的数值模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋志刚; 朱新明; 严波; 姚术健
2013-01-01
The local failure of a steel box girder under blasting loads of vehicle bomb (TNT equivalent 100-500kg)was investigated with the nonlinear finite element software LS-DYNA and the fluid-solid coupling method ALE Multimaterial formulations.The results showed that there are two local failure modes of a steel box girder,one is that the deck and bottom plates rupture locally; the other is that the deck plate ruptures locally and the bottom plate does not rupture but has a local large plastic deformation; the main failure modes of diaphragms are large bending plastic deformation and rupture; the failure parameters increase nonlinearly with increase in explosive TNT equivalent; the impact effect of shock wave within the box on the bottom plate and diaphragms is less than the impact effect of the deck's fragments,the latter is the main cause of the local large plastic deformation and rupture of the bottom plate and diaphragms.%运用LS-DYNA非线性有限元软件,采用ALE多物质流-固耦合算法,研究了汽车炸弹(TNT当量100～500 kg)桥面爆炸冲击作用下钢箱梁的局部破坏.结果表明,钢箱梁局部破坏模式有两种:(1)桥面板和底板均破口；(2)桥面板破口,底板产生局部塑性大变形.隔板的主要破坏模式为弯曲塑性大变形和破口.破坏参数随炸药当量的增加呈非线性增加.箱体内冲击波对底板、隔板的冲击作用相对较小,顶板破片的冲击作用是底板和隔板产生局部塑性大变形和破口的主要原因.
Analysis of the hull girder vibration by dynamic stiffness matrix method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Ping; ZHAO De-you
2006-01-01
Dynamic stiffness matrix method is applied to compute vibration of hull girder in this paper.This method can not only simplify the computational model, but also get much higher frequencies and responses accurately. The analytical expressions of dynamic stiffness matrix of a Timoshenko beam for transverse vibration are presented in this paper. All effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformation are taken into account in the formulation. The resulting dynamic stiffness matrix combined with the Wittrick-Williams algorithm is used to compute natural frequencies and mode shapes of the 299,500 DWT VLCC, and then the vibrational responses are solved by the mode superposition method. The computational results are compared with those obtained from other approximate methods and experiment,and it indicates that the method is accurate and efficient.
Prediction of Fatigue Life of a Continuous Bridge Girder Based on Vehicle Induced Stress History
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.G. Rao
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The fatigue damage assessment of bridge components by conducting a full scale fatigue testing is often prohibitive. A need, therefore, exists to estimate the fatigue damage in bridge components by a simulation of bridge-vehicle interaction dynamics due to the action of the actual traffic. In the present paper, a systematic method has been outlined to find the fatigue damage in the continuous bridge girder based on stress range frequency histogram and fatigue strength parameters of the bridge materials. Vehicle induced time history of maximum flexural stresses has been obtained by Monte Carlo simulation process and utilized to develop the stress range frequency histogram taking into consideration of the annual traffic volume. The linear damage accumulation theory is then applied to calculate cumulative damage index and fatigue life of the bridge. Effect of the bridge span, pavement condition, increase of vehicle operating speed, weight and suspension characteristics on fatigue life of the bridge have been examined.
Dynamic finite element model updating of prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lin Xiankun; Zhang Lingmi; Guo Qintao; Zhang Yufeng
2009-01-01
The dynamic finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge, called the Tongyang Canal Bridge, is built and updated based on the results of ambient vibration testing (AVT) using a real-coded accelerating genetic algorithm (RAGA). The objective functions are defined based on natural frequency and modal assurance criterion (MAC) metrics to evaluate the updated FEM. Two objective functions are defined to fully account for the relative errors and standard deviations of the natural frequencies and MAC between the AVT results and the updated FEM predictions. The dynamically updated FEM of the bridge can better represent its structural dynamics and serve as a baseline in long-term health monitoring, condition assessment and damage identification over the service life of the bridge.
Time-Variant Reliability Analysis of FPSO Hull Girder Considering Corrosion Based on Statistics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Dao-kun; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun
2007-01-01
FPSO is a kind of important exploitation platform used in ocean oil and gas industry, which has the unique character of mooring at outsea for a long time. Since it can not be inspected and maintained thoroughly at dock like other kinds of ships, the reliability of FPSO hull girder during the whole service should be focused. Based on latest corrosion database and rational corrosion model, the ultimate strength of one FPSO is calculated under the conditions of slight, moderate and severe corrosion. The results not only provide the reliability under different corrosion conditions, but also do well for further inspection and maintenance research. The results provide necessary foundation for deciding inspection intervals and maintenance measures, which has practical sense to improve the general safety level of ocean engineering.
A compilation of research on self-consolidating concrete for prestressed bridge girders
Torres, Eduardo S.
This thesis is composed of three research papers, for each paper a separate chapter is used, which investigates various aspects for the production of SCC utilizing materials available in the state of Wisconsin. Chapter one provides a summary of the current state-of-the-art and practice of technical documentation and specifications related to material properties and test methods for prestressed SCC bridge girders. Chapter two provides an experimental program designed to investigate the effect of material constituents on performance of SCC mixtures. From this experimental program specific mixture parameters were recommended for the application of SCC in Wisconsin DOT projects. Finally, chapter three consisted in monitoring samples of five SCC mixtures batched at three different precast plants from Wisconsin. Creep and shrinkage readings were taken for a period of 112 days to investigate the effect of specific mixture parameters of selected mixtures with performance desired by the Wisconsin DOT and precast plants. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Load Test and Model Calibration of a Horizontally Curved Steel Box-Girder Bridge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Freydoon Rezaie
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, full scale load test of a horizontally curved steel box-girder bridge is carried out in order to detect structural defects, which reportedly result in unwanted vibrations in nearby buildings. The bridge is tested under the passage of six heavy vehicles at different speeds, so as to determine its static and dynamic responses. A total number of one hundred and two (102 sensors are used to measure the displacements, strains, and accelerations of different points of the bridge. It is observed that the bridge vibrates at a fundamental frequency of 2.6 Hz intensively and the first mode of vibration is torsional instead of flexural. The dominant frequency of vibration of the nearby buildings is computed to be approximately 2.5Hz using rational formulas. Thus, nearness of the fundamental frequency of the bridge to those of the adjacent buildings may be causing resonance phenomenon. However, in static load tests, low ranges of strain and displacement illustrated adequate structural capacity and appropriate safety under static loads. Numerical models are created using ANSYS and SAP2000 software products, so as to design the loading test and calibrate the finite element models. The connections of the transversal elements to the girders, transversal element spacing, and changes of the stiffness values of the slabs were found to be the most influential issues in the finite elements calibration process. Finally, considering the total damage of all members, the final health score of the bridge was evaluated as 89% indicating that the bridge is in a very good situation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯丛; 华旭刚; 胡腾飞; 陈强; 陈政清
2016-01-01
T he cable-stayed Dongting Lake railway bridge under construction was case-studied in this paper. A finite element modeling of the cable-stayed bridge with box-truss composite girder and its vortex-induced vibration were analyzed. T hree finite element schemes for modeling box-truss girder of the bridge,namely the spatial beam model ( SBM) ,spatial plate-beam model( SPBM ) and spatial shell model( SSM ) ,were compared in terms of modal frequency,equivalent mass and mass moment of inertia per unit length. It shows that the results from the SPBM and the SSM are basically the same,while the SBM can't accurately produce the equivalent mass unit length girder for some higher-order lateral modes. T he vortex-induce vibration of the box-truss composite girder was tested in wind tunnel by flexibly mounted rigid sectional model tests. T he results indicate that this cross-section type may experience large-amplitude vertical vortex-induced vibrations at wind attack angle of -3°,which is caused by the vortex shedding at the leading edge of the box-girder part of the cross-section. T he effects of aerodynamic appendix for suppression of vortex-induced vibrations w ere studied and it is found that tw o stabilizers beneath the open orthotropic deck dramatically reduce the vibration amplitude. T he vibration amplitude is within the limit given in design specification when the height of stabilizers is half of the box-girder height; and the vortex-induced vibrations completely diminish when the height of stabilizers is the same as the box-girder height.%以在建的洞庭湖铁路三塔斜拉桥为工程背景，分析了箱桁断面斜拉桥主梁的建模方法以及涡激共振性能。首先比较了主梁建模的空间杆系模型、梁壳组合模型以及三维壳体模型在模态频率、主梁单位长度等效质量和等效质量惯性矩的差异。结果表明，三种模型的模态分析结果基本相近，但空间杆系模型不能准确得到高阶侧弯模
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何庆华; 卫星
2013-01-01
曲线箱形梁兼具弯梁桥与箱形梁两者的特点,由于曲率的影响,竖向荷载作用下曲线箱梁弯矩与扭矩互相耦合同时存在.根据国内外既有研究成果,对曲线箱形梁空间受力特点及影响因素进行了总结.以60m单跨单箱形截面曲线混凝土简支梁为例,利用有限元软件TDV建立空间板单元模型,分析自重作用下,不同曲线半径下主梁截面正应力及剪应力分布,根据弯曲变形与应变的关系,比较曲线梁桥与直线梁桥正应力横向分布规律,提出用应力增大系数来表征曲线内外侧弧长不同引起的应力变化.研究结果表明,除了受剪力滞后效应影响,曲线箱梁桥截面正应力分布还与内外侧弧长不等引起的应力增大系数有关.%Curved box girder has both characters of curved girder and box girder, and the coupling effect between bending moment and torsion moment caused by the curvature under vertical load should be taken into account. Based on research results of curved girder at home and abroad, the spatial mechanical characters and influencing factors of curved box girder were summarized in this thesis. Choosing a 60m single-span curved PC simply supported girder with single cell boxed cross-section as the example, spatial plate element models were established by TDV finite element software. Then the distributions of normal stress and shear stress of cross-section of main girder with different curve radius under the action of dead load were analyzed. Afterwards, according to the relationship between bending deformation and strains, and by comparing the transverse distributions of normal stress of curved bridge with that of straight bridge, the thesis put forward a view point that the stress variation caused by the arc length difference between the internal arc and external arc of the curve can be expressed by a magnification coefficient. Analysis results show that, except the effect of shear lag, the distributions of
Performances of super-long span prestressed cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and RPC girder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Zhi; Fan Fenghong; Ren Liang
2013-01-01
To discuss the applicability of advanced composite carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and ultra-high performance concrete reactive powder concrete (RPC) in super-long span cable-stayed bridges , taking a 1 008 m cable-stayed bridge with steel girders and steel cables as an example,a new cable-stayed bridge in the same span with RPC girders and CFRP cables was designed,in which the cable’s cross section was determined by the principle of equivalent cable capacity and the girder’s cross section was determined in virtual of its stiffness, shear capacity and local stability. Based on the methods of finite element analysis,the comparative analysis of these two cable-stayed bridge schemes about static performances,dynamic performances,stability and wind resis-tance behavior were carried out. The results showed that it was feasible to form a highly efficient,durable concrete cable-stayed bridge with RPC girders and CFRP cables and made its applicable span range expand to 1 000 m long around.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王颖泽; 徐杰; 许冠杰; 白文斌
2016-01-01
基于热质理论，研究了平面薄板在温度突变加热边界条件下的温度响应。在假设温度只沿薄板厚度方向变化的情况下，根据牛顿力学分析方法建立了表征薄板热量传递过程的热传导方程，并联合能量守恒方程得到薄板的热传导偏微分控制方程。借助Laplace 正、逆变换技术，推导了薄板边界受均匀热冲击作用下温度响应的解析表达式。通过对温度场的解析求解，揭示了其内部热量的传播机制。结果表明：在热冲击作用下两边界产生的热扰动会激发2列热波以有限速度向薄板的中心传递，形成阶跃性的温度分布，且热波波速受特征时间和特征长度的影响呈动态分布；热波在传递过程中会发生反射、叠加等典型的波动特征，从而导致了板内部过热和过冷等非常规现象。%Based on thermomass theory,the temperature responses of a thin plate were investigated with the boundary subjected to sudden temperature rise.The heat conduction equation was established to describe the heat transfer along the thickness direction of thin plate by Newtonian mechanics.The temperature equation with differential form was obtained by combining with energy conservation equation. Laplace transform and inverse transform techniques were used to derive the analytical solutions of temperature distribution with the boundary subjected to uniform thermal shock.By the calculation of temperature field,the mechanism of heat transfer in thin plate was revealed.The results show that the thermal disturbance is generated in the boundaries of thin plate and deduces the propagation of two waves towards to the centre of thin plate with finite speed to form step temperature distribution.Affected by characteristic time and characteristic length,the speed of thermal wave shows dynamic distribution.The typical wavelike behavior of reflection and superposition is appeared to lead to the unnormal phenomena of
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈建兵; 陈荣; 李强
2014-01-01
空间圆管桁架混凝土组合结构是一种新型组合结构，为了解其受力特点、破坏机理、变形能力、管桁架杆件的内力分布规律及界面相对滑移等，设计制作了2根弦杆未填充混凝土的不同混凝土翼板厚度的空间圆管桁架混凝土组合梁模型试件，采用三分点对称加载，对其进行受力性能试验研究。研究表明，在对称荷载作用下，组合梁的破坏形式为弯曲破坏，同时伴随有受拉腹杆节点焊缝的强度破坏；空间圆管桁架组合梁具有良好的承载能力和变形能力，相同荷载下，混凝土板厚的组合梁的承载能力高于板薄的组合梁；组合梁破坏时，其跨中挠度约为跨径的1/200；不考虑界面相对滑移的情况下，截面应变满足平截面假定；加载前期，支点截面界面相对滑移量大于 L/8截面，而加载后期，L/8截面界面相对滑移量大于支点截面；腹杆为非轴心受拉或受压杆件，且跨中位置腹杆的轴力较小，梁端位置腹杆的轴力较大。%The spatial steel truss of circular steel tubes and concrete composite structure is a new type of composite structure .In order to examine its load bearing behavior ,failure mechanism , deformability ,internal force distribution law of tubular truss members and interface relative slip -page ,a spatial steel truss of circular tubes and concrete composite girder model was designed and fabricated .The model was characterized by its two chords that are not filled with concrete as well as the concrete flange plates with variable thickness .Loads were symmetrically applied at the 1/3 and 2/3 locations of the calculated span length of the girder proposed .The mechanical behavior of the model was experimentally studied .The results of the study indicate that under the action of symmetric loads ,the composite girder succumbs to bending failure ,concurrently with strength damage at the welding joints of the tensile web
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)
2008-03-15
This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe DTU, the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark -, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD study. This report contains the complete test data for the final test, in which the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured surface deformation. A prediction was made on the location of the failure of the girder. At this location the majority of the measuring equipment was concentrated. The prediction was proved to be correct and valuable information of the behaviour of the box girder prior to failure was obtained. The experimental investigation consisted of the following load configurations: -Flapwise bending -Torsion Ultrasonic scanning of the box girder was performed before, during and after the test the box girder. This was done to investigate whether the girder was damaged by the load or imperfection (productions defects) growth. (au)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏亚雄; 方志
2016-01-01
A new kind of ultra-high performance cement-based material,RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete),can significantly reduce the weight of structure and decrease the inertia load,when applying to build the prefabricated beam of bridge.It has lower shrinkage and high durability after hot water cu-ring.Base on a project of a 4 ×30 m prefabricated PC continuous box girder bridge,a prefabricated box girder bridge with the same span using RPC was designed.Its mechanical properties were studied and a comparative study of the economy of the PC and RPC bridges were carried out.The results showed that, both the overall and the local mechanical properties of the RPC bridge met the specification requirements, and its stress level or deformation during service even had more safety margin.The plate section of girder became thinner,and the consumption of concrete and prestressd tendons decreased by 25.4% and 27.5%.Therefore,the prefabricated RPC box girder bridge was proven to be a favorable plan and can be applied widely in the future.%超高性能活性粉末混凝土 RPC（Reactive Powder Concrete）应用于装配式梁桥中，不仅能有效减轻结构自重、增加结构抵抗使用荷载的有效性，还能充分发挥其在热养护条件下收缩徐变小且耐久性好的优点，是一种极具应用前景的新型水泥基材料。以一座4×30 m 的普通预应力混凝土装配式连续箱梁桥为背景，提出了同等跨径的 RPC 装配式箱梁桥方案，对其结构的受力性能进行了分析，并将二者的经济性能进行了比较。结果表明：提出的 RPC 箱梁桥整体和局部受力性能均满足现行规范要求，使用阶段应力以及变形尚有较大的安全储备；采用RPC 可令主梁板件厚度减小，使混凝土和预应力筋用量分别减少25．4％和27．5％。因此，预制装配式 RPC 箱梁桥作为一种可供选择的优选方案，具有良好的推广应用前景。
Effect of sensor placement on operational modal analysis of steel girder bridges
Whelan, Matthew J.; Gangone, Michael V.; Janoyan, Kerop D.
2011-04-01
With the advent and development of low-cost wireless structural health monitoring systems, the task of routinely assessing the in-service condition of highway bridges through distributed sensor-based measurements is an increasingly feasible component of bridge safety and management practice. Bridge monitoring encompasses placement of often a limited number of distributed sensors across a relatively large and complex structural system. Consequently, the selection of proper sensor locations is imperative to extraction of the most value from the recorded measurements. An experimental investigation is presented wherein sensor placement on the superstructure girders or primary beams is contrasted to the response measured on the surface of the bridge deck. The effect on the dataset richness, as evidenced by the modal content, is presented and conclusions regarding optimal placement for this structure type are presented. To affirm the plausibility of the observed responses and conclusions drawn, a finite element analysis is also performed on a model developed from the as-built drawings.
A Damage Prognosis Method of Girder Structures Based on Wavelet Neural Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rumian Zhong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the basic theory of wavelet neural networks and finite element model updating method, a basic framework of damage prognosis method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a damaged I-steel beam model testing is used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed damage prognosis method. The results show that the predicted results of the damage prognosis method and the measured results are very well consistent, and the maximum error is less than 5%. Furthermore, Xinyihe Bridge in the Beijing-Shanghai Highway is selected as the engineering background, and the damage prognosis is conducted based on the data from the structural health monitoring system. The results show that the traffic volume will increase and seasonal differences will decrease in the next year and a half. The displacement has a slight increase and seasonal characters in the critical section of mid span, but the strain will increase distinctly. The analysis results indicate that the proposed method can be applied to the damage prognosis of girder bridge structures and has the potential for the bridge health monitoring and safety prognosis.
Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges
Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan
2013-12-01
The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.
Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.
2016-04-01
This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张无畏; 胡腾飞; 陈长胜; 荣浩
2016-01-01
为实现箱桁组合梁铁路斜拉桥动力特性的精准模拟计算，对箱桁组合梁开口断面斜拉桥空间杆系模型、空间板梁组合模型和空间板壳模型3种有限元建模方法进行研究。以某跨径布置为（98＋140＋406＋406＋140＋98） m的三塔双主跨箱桁组合梁铁路斜拉桥为背景，采用子空间迭代方法对比分析了不同模型的模态特性，并在此基础上计算了不同模型主梁单位长度的等效质量及其惯性矩。研究结果表明：3种模型计算得到的模态分析结果基本吻合，空间板梁组合模型和空间板壳模型得到的频率及主梁等效质量基本相同，但空间杆系模型不能准确得到高阶侧弯模态的主梁等效均布质量。作为特例，进一步对无桁架钢箱梁开口断面斜拉桥的动力特性进行分析，结果表明：空间板梁组合模型和空间板壳模型吻合良好，但空间杆系模型得到的1阶扭转模态下的主梁等效均布质量惯性矩误差接近9％；桁架对主梁的侧弯基频影响较小，但能提高主梁的竖弯基频和扭转基频，有利于桥梁抗风。%To realize the accurate simulation calculation of the dynamic performance of box‐truss composite girder railway cable‐stayed bridge ,the three finite element modeling schemes of the box‐truss composite girder cable‐stayed bridge with open cross section are studied ,including the spatial bar element model ,combined space plate and beam element model and spatial shell ele‐ment model .A three‐pylon two main spans box‐truss composite girder railway cable‐stayed bridge with span arrangement of (98+140+406+406+140+98) m was taken as the study background . The sub‐spatial iterative method was used to comparatively analyze the modal characteristics of the different models ,and based on w hich the unit length equivalent mass and inertia moment of the different main girder models were calculated .The results of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirayama, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakao, T.; Koga, N. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-06-20
Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for a long span suspension bridge, which is to be constructed over the Kurushima Channel, an international route, has been investigated. For the construction of suspension bridge over channels, the overhang construction is generally employed. Bridge girder perpendicular construction, in which unit girder block is lifted from a carrier barge and directly constructed by means of lifting beams located at main cable, is a superb method in terms of cost, time, and safety. It is necessary to stay the carrier barge during the anchoring of girder block and lifting beams. Mooring of the carrier barge is required under a rapid stream, which results in the trouble of under way ships. A propulsion positioning system has been developed for the bridge girder carrier barge, by which the position/propulsion of four thrusters equipped at each corner of the barge can be automatically controlled. Thus, the perpendicular construction of bridge girder has been developed, in which mooring is not required even under the rapid stream. The position of barge can be maintained within a range of {plus_minus}2.5 m even under a rapid stream with a speed of 3 kn. The quick joint can be certainly connected for about one minute in the horizontal movement within {plus_minus}2.5 m and vertical movement within 0.5 m. For this perpendicular construction, the construction time can be shortened to around 16 to 17 minutes, which has been usually taken for three hours. 2 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.
Study on Fatigue Behavior of Anchorage of Cable and Girder of Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A full scale model test is done and a FEM model is established toinvestigate the fatigue behavior of the Nancha cable-stayed bridge of the Nanjing Second Yangtz River Bridge, a long span steel bridge with a main span of 628 m. The results of test and FEM are analyzed and compared. It is shown that they are in good agreement. It is verified that the fatigue characteristic of the anchorage structure of cable and girder of the bridge satisfies the requirements specified by Chinese, British and American codes.
Girder deformation related phase errors on the undulators for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuhui Li
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In long gap tunable undulators, strong magnetic forces always lead to some amount of gap-dependent girder deformation and resulting gap-dependent phase errors. For the undulators for the European XFEL, this problem has been investigated thoroughly and quantitatively. Using the different gap dependencies of suitable shims and pole height tuning, a method is presented which can be applied to reduce the overall gap dependence of the phase error if needed. It is exemplified by tuning one of the undulator segments for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser back to specs.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2001-01-01
Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load
船体梁刚度对波激振动影响的比较研究%Comparative study of the effect of hull-girder stiffness on springing behaviors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪雪良; 顾学康; 胡嘉骏
2016-01-01
With the large scale development trend, the lengths of ships are constantly increasing. As a re⁃sult, high strength steel is widely used due to the demand of lightweight design of ship structures. Hull gird⁃er of the ship, in particular, becomes much more flexible than those of small and medium-sized ships. This results in different characteristics of springing behaviors of ship structures when the ship travels on the sea. In this paper, a large engineering ship is taken as the research subject in order to study its low-and high-frequency wave induced load responses in waves. Two kinds of steel girders with different trans⁃verse-section moments of inertia are used to simulate original and changed stiffness in a segmented model. The 3D hydroelasticity theory is employed to predict responses of the ship in waves, and comparison analy⁃sis is also conducted between experimental and theoretical results. It is shown that springing behavior is prone to happen with low hull-girder stiffness, and continual springing behavior will result in serious fa⁃tigue damage to ship structures. The necessity of considering the hull-girder stiffness as an important pa⁃rameter in the structural optimization design of large ships is thus verified as the effect of hull-girder stiff⁃ness on springing behaviors cannot be neglected.%船舶大型化发展的趋势使得其尺度越来越大，而结构轻量化设计的需求则使高强度钢被大量应用于其结构设计之中，相对于传统的小尺度船舶，相对刚度的下降使得船体梁变得越来越“软”，这将导致大型船舶在波浪中航行时船体结构波激振动特性发生变化。采用模型试验和理论预报的方法，研究某大型工程船在不同船体梁刚度下的低频和高频垂向波浪载荷响应。分段试验模型采用2种横剖面惯性矩的钢质梁，用以分别模拟船舶横剖面原始的和变化后的刚度。采用三维水弹性理论对该船在波浪
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Iman MOHSENI; A.R.Khalim RASHID
2012-01-01
Concrete precast multicell box-girder (MCB) bridges combine aesthetics with torsional stiffness perfectly.Previous analytical studies indicate that currently available specifications are unable to consider the effect of the twisting moment (torsional moment) on bridge actions.In straight bridges the effect of torsion is negligible and the transverse reinforced design is governed by other requirements.However,in the case of skewed bridges the effect of the twisting moment should be considered.Therefore,an in-depth study was performed on 90 concrete MCB bridges with skew angles ranging from 0° to 60°.For each girder the bridge actions were determined under the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) live load conditions.The analytical results show that torsional stiffness and live load positions greatly affected the bridges' responses.In addition,based on a statistical analysis of the obtained results,several skew correction factors are proposed to improve the precision of the simplified Henry's method,which is widely used by bridge engineers to predict bridge actions.The relationship between the bending moment and secondary moments was also investigated and it was concluded that all secondary actions increase with an increase in skewness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lipeng An
2016-07-01
Full Text Available To systematically study the vehicle–bridge coupled dynamic response and its change rule with different parameters, a vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom was built and the total potential energy of vehicle space vibration system was deduced. Considering the stimulation of road roughness, the dynamic response equation of vehicle–bridge coupled system was established in accordance with the elastic system principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the “set-in-right-position” rule. On the basis of the self-compiled Fortran program and bridge engineering, the dynamic response of long-span continuous girder bridge under vehicle load was studied. This study also included the calculation of vehicle impact coefficient, evaluation of vibration comfort, and analysis of dynamic response parameters. Results show the impact coefficient changes with lane number and is larger than the value calculated by the “general code for design of highway bridges and culverts (China”. The Dieckmann index of bridge vibration is also related to lane number, and the vibration comfort evaluation is good in normal conditions. The relevant conclusions from parametric analyses have practical significance to dynamic design and daily operation of long-span continuous girder bridges in expressways. Safety and comfort are expected to improve significantly with further control of the vibration of vehicle–bridge system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheheng Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.
Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...
46 CFR 195.11-20 - Marking and label plate.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and label plate. 195.11-20 Section 195.11-20... plate. (a) All vans shall be provided with a label plate stating light weight, gross weight, and power requirements where applicable. (b) For vans subject to inspection label plates shall provide space for the date...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Longqi Zhang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The wind induced vibration is one of the key technical problems for long-span bridge design. Therefore, a study on the aerodynamic characteristics of a single-pylon cable-stayed bridge girder is carried out in this paper. The aerostatic coefficient of the bridge girder, including both construction state and service state, is investigated by wind tunnel test with varying wind attack angle. Then based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, the flow field around the bridge girder is visualized numerically. The risk of vortex-induced vibration (VIV is qualitatively evaluated by analyzing the flow features and by considering the Scruton number (Sc. Later a dynamic section model is tested in wind tunnel and the VIV phenomenon is observed subsequently. Results show that the aerodynamic stability is assured by the positive slope of the lift coefficient. The VIV response is influenced by the structural damping and the bridge accessory. The amplitude of VIV response can be lower by increasing the structural damping. The maintenance track rail of the bridge girder also does some good for suppressing the VIV as long as the track rail is located at the appropriate place.
桥式起重机轻量化主梁结构模型试验研究%Structural Model Test of Lightweight Girder of Bridge Crane
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
焦洪宇; 周奇才; 李英; 陈庆樟; 许广举
2015-01-01
针对桥式起重机主梁的轻量化设计方案对主梁强度、静态刚度的影响问题,基于相似理论和弹性静力学,采用方程分析法推导出原型主梁与相似主梁应力场相似的相似准则.依据主梁结构形式及受力特点,设计切实可行的主梁结构模型试验方案,开展轻量化主梁结构模型试验研究.结果表明,轻量化主梁在跨中截面腹板下半部分的弯曲正应力有一定程度的增加,腹板上半部分的弯曲正应力(绝对值)有小幅度下降;轻量化主梁在跨端截面的切应力增加幅度较大;轻量化主梁的最大挠度有所下降.依据《起重机设计规范》对轻量化主梁进行强度和静态刚度校核.在满足主梁强度、静态刚度要求的前提下,周期性去除腹板上的部分材料实现主梁轻量化设计具有一定的可行性.%In order to research the influence of girder's lightweight plan on strength and static rigidity, similarity criterions between prototype girder and similarity girder are derived from equational analysis based on similarity theory and elastostatics. The scheme of structural model test is designed reasonably and the study of structural model test is carried out. Results show that bending normal stress of upper half of web at midspan of lightweight girder increases to some extent and bending normal stress of bottom half of web decreases within a narrow range. Shear stress at the end-span declines by a great margin. The maximum deflection of lightweight girder comes down. The strength and static rigidity of lightweight girder are checked based on design rules for cranes. It is feasible to wipe off some material periodically in order to realize the lightweight design of girder on the premise of satisfying the strength and static rigidity.
桥面铺装与小箱梁的共同作用试验%Experiment of Coaction of Bridge Deck Pavement and Small Box Girder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钱寅泉; 周正茂; 袁桂芳; 王素娟
2012-01-01
Load tests on a single small box girder and a bridge were carried out to evaluate the effects of deck pavement by comparing the deflections of the girders before and after the pavement surfaced. The comprehensive elastic modulus was obtained from the test before pavement surfaced, and the coaction degree of the bridge deck pavement and the girders was obtained by comparing the flexural inertia moment corresponding to the deflection in the test after pavement surfaced with the theoretical flexural inertia moment corresponding to the supposed thickness of the pavement in work. The results from these tests show that (1) the rough interface could greatly improve the coaction degree of bridge deck pavement with girders, which could reach 100% ; (2) in general cases, the extent of the coaction of bridge deck pavement with girders could reach 70% , and for a pavement with thickness of 8 cm, the thickness of the pavement in coaction could be taken as 60% or 3 cm in thickness could be substracted from the pavement in design; (3 ) the pavement could improve the uniformity of the transverse load distribution. Load tests on a single small box girder and a bridge were carried out to evaluate the effects of deck pavement by comparing the deflections of the girders before and after the pavement surfaced. The comprehensive elastic modulus was obtained from the test before pavement surfaced, and the coaction degree of the bridge deck pavement and the girders was obtained by comparing the flexural inertia moment corresponding to the deflection in the test after pavement surfaced with the theoretical flexural inertia moment corresponding to the supposed thickness of the pavement in work. The results from these tests show that (1) the rough interface could greatly improve the coaction degree of bridge deck pavement with girders, which could reach 100% ; (2) in general cases, the extent of the coaction of bridge deck pavement with girders could reach 70% , and for a pavement with
Application of Welding box girder flange by Using RAPID Welding Technology%RAPID焊接工艺技术在箱型梁翼缘板焊接的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程国志; 于连康
2016-01-01
RA PID焊接技术是目前比较先进的一项焊接工艺技术，它是利用数字控制的电弧曲线参数，进一步压缩电弧，使得电弧热量更集中、更具备熔透能力的一种高速焊接技术。由于其高速、高熔深的焊接工艺特性，被用于单面焊接双面成型的钢结构焊接上，可显著提高焊接生产效率。在铝电解多功能机组生产制造的专业厂，其天车主梁的焊接工艺技术一直是采取MAG焊接工艺技术，焊接质量及效率低。应用RAPID焊接工艺技术对箱型梁翼缘板焊接，与M AG焊接工艺技术在焊接质量、效率、经济性等方面进行对比、分析总结，可知，RAPID焊接工艺技术应用在天车主梁翼缘板的焊接中，综合经济效益较MAG焊接工艺有着显著的提高。%RAPID welding technology is an advanced high speed welding technology , the arc curve parame‐ters of w hich is controlled by digital technology , further compressed arc made the arc heat more concen‐trated , and had more penetration ability . Because of its welding technology properties of high speed and high penetration ,it is used for steel structure which is single -sided welding but double -sided molding , significantly improved the efficiency of welding production .In most aluminum electrolysis multifunctional unit manufacturing plants , the crane girder welding technology has been adopt MAG welding technology , welding quality and efficiency is low . After comparing , analyzing and summarizing the welding technology between RAPID and MAG about welding box beam wing flange , found that the RAPID welding technolo‐gy is better than MAG in welding quality , efficiency , economy and so on . RAPID welding technology used in crane girder flange plate welding , the comprehensive economic benefits is significantly improved than that of MAG welding technology .
Influence of location and parameters of stiffeners on the stability of a square plate under shear
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pritykin Aleksey Igorevich
Full Text Available Application of flexible-walled beams is rather effective because the reducing of wall thickness compared to ordinary welded beams leads to substantial reduction of metal expenditure for the walls and its more rational use. The operation experience of such beams shows that the loss of local stability of a wall takes place near bearing cross section with characteristic diagonal type of half waves, indicating, that the reason for the stability loss is in shear deformation. In plate girder with slender web big transverse forces appear, which leads to its buckling as a result of shear. One of the ways to increase stability of the parts of web near supports is to install stiffeners. In the given work the task of finding critical stresses of fixed square plate with installed inclined stiffener is considered. Investigations were performed with the help of finite element method and were experimentally checked. Recommendations were given on the choice of optimal size of the stiffener.
Strength of ship plates under combined loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup
2000-01-01
Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...
Hou, Tsung-Chin; Gao, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Sheng; Zhu, Guan-Rong; Su, Yu-Min
2017-04-01
The three-span steel-arch-steel-girder Jiaxian Bridge was newly constructed in 2010 to replace the former one that has been destroyed by Typhoon Sinlaku (2008, Taiwan). It was designed and built to continue the domestic service requirement, as well as to improve the tourism business of the Kaohsiung city government, Taiwan. This study aimed at establishing the baseline model of Jiaxian Bridge for hazardous scenario simulation such as typhoons, floods and earthquakes. Necessities of these precaution works were attributed to the inherent vulnerability of the sites: near fault and river cross. The uncalibrated baseline bridge model was built with structural finite element in accordance with the blueprints. Ambient vibration measurements were performed repeatedly to acquire the elastic dynamic characteristics of the bridge structure. Two frequency domain system identification algorithms were employed to extract the measured operational modal parameters. Modal shapes, frequencies, and modal assurance criteria (MAC) were configured as the fitting targets so as to calibrate/update the structural parameters of the baseline model. It has been recognized that different types of structural parameters contribute distinguishably to the fitting targets, as this study has similarly explored. For steel-arch-steel-girder bridges in particular this case, joint rigidity of the steel components was found to be dominant while material properties and section geometries relatively minor. The updated model was capable of providing more rational elastic responses of the bridge superstructure under normal service conditions as well as hazardous scenarios, and can be used for manage the health conditions of the bridge structure.
Ultimate Strength of a Ship’s Hull Girder in Plastic and Buckling Modes.
1980-06-01
drawn for deep - web -frame plate panels, of low slenderness ratio, simple supported and edges kept straight. It should be noted, however, that the range...H.-G., "Notes on the Buckling and Post-buckling Behaviour of Deep Web Frames," J. Marine Tech., July 1972. V. 62 [34] Timoshenko, S., "Stability of
Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herman Th. Verstappen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting
Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herman Th. Verstappen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting
Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-07-17
A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Fischer, Johannes
2014-01-01
A software prototype is developed for assessing and updating the reliability of single-cell prestressed concrete box girders subjected to chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. The underlying system model consists of two integrated sub-models: a condition model for predicting the deterioration...... through Bayesian updating on the basis of the DBN model. To demonstrate the effect of partial inspections, the software prototype is applied to a case study of a typical highway bridge with six spans. The case study illustrates that it is possible to infer the condition of uninspected parts...... state of the box girder and a structural model for evaluating the overall system reliability. The condition model is based on a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model which considers the spatial variation of the corrosion process. Inspection data are included in the calculation of the system reliability...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵天吉; 余本俊
2014-01-01
铜陵公铁两用长江大桥为五跨连续钢桁梁三索面斜拉桥，钢桁梁采用板桁结合形式，由3片主桁、上层正交异性公路板式桥面、下层正交异性铁路钢箱桥面及横联构成。钢桁梁采用整体焊接式桁片结构，每2个节间的主桁上、下弦杆，斜杆，竖杆通过整体节点焊接成桁片上桥安装。为验证制造工艺和精度并指导实桥施工，选取3．5个连续节间钢桁梁在工厂内一次完成立体试拼装。由于主桁桁片采用水平拼装制作工艺，采用800 t龙门吊机2×200 t吊钩提升加横移对桁片进行90°转体翻身后试拼装。试拼装过程中设置了抗推拉刚性斜撑增强桁片与铁路桥面的稳定性；在斜杆件加垫片，通过调整间隙控制桥梁预拱度。试拼装过程中设置了测量控制网，检测结果满足设计和验收标准，达到了立体试拼装目的。%The Tongling Changjiang River Rail‐cum‐Road Bridge is a five‐span continuous steel truss girder cable‐stayed bridge with three cable planes .The steel truss girder is the combined or‐thotropic steel plates and steel trusses structure ,containing three main trusses ,the upper ortho‐tropic steel plate deck for vehicles ,the lower orthotropic railway steel box deck and lateral brac‐ings .The steel truss girder is a integrally‐welded truss structure ,the upper and lower chords ,di‐agonal struts and vertical struts of the main trusses in every two blocks are welded by integral nodes to be truss block for assembling on the bridge .In order to verify the manufacturing tech‐nique and precision and to direct the construction of the real bridge ,the steel truss girder in 3 .5 continuous blocks were selected to conduct one‐time trial vertical assembly in the factory .The main truss blocks were fabricated by the horizontal assembling technique ,the 800 t overhead lift‐ing gantry with two lifting hooks of 200 t was adopted to lift and horizontally
轻型钢结构吊车梁优化设计%Optimization Design of Crane Girder in Portal Frame Buildings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石永久
2001-01-01
This paper investigates the design method of crane girders applied in portal frame buildings.An optimal design approach was proposed to reduce the grider weight and fabricate the crane girder economically.Finally some design examples were given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.%通过分析和研究单层门式刚架轻型钢结构厂房中的吊车梁设计，总结了轻型钢结构吊车梁的优化设计方法和节点连接构造，对合理设计吊车梁，降低用钢量提出了设计建议。
Matrix Analysis on Flexural Behavior of Thin-walled Box Girder%薄壁箱梁挠曲性能的矩阵分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张元海; 林丽霞; 李乔
2011-01-01
On the basis of the shape function matrix which is established through assuming the homogeneous solution to the governing differential equation for shear lag of the thin-walled box girder as the element displacement function, the formula of the equivalent nodal force of the element under vertical concentrated loads is derived by applying the principle of virtual work. The reasonable warping displacement function of shear lag is proposed for the box girder with the twin-cell cross-section. The plexiglass model of the cantilever box girder with variable cross-sections is calculated, thus validating the effectiveness of the finite segment element in analysis of the box girder with variable cross-sections. The flexural behavior of the prestressed concrete continuous box girder with variable cross-sections is analyzed through a practical example. The results show as follows:The finite segment element has high computing efficiency for the box girder with variable cross-sections; under the action of vertical concentrated loads, the shear lag moment diagram of the box girder is a smooth curve and the absolute value of the shear lag moment is not greater than that of the bending moment at any cross-sections; the shear lag effect increases the mid-span deflection of the continuous box girder significantly, which shall be treated seriously in engineering practice.%在选取薄壁箱梁剪力滞控制微分方程的齐次解作为单元位移函数建立形函数矩阵基础上,运用虚功原理推导竖向集中荷载作用下单元等效节点力公式,提出双室箱梁的合理剪滞翘曲位移函数.通过对变截面悬臂箱梁有机玻璃模型进行计算,验证提出的梁段单元对分析变截面箱梁的有效性.结合实际箱梁算例,分析预应力混凝土变截面连续箱梁的挠曲性能.研究结果表明:所提出的梁段单元用于变截面箱梁分析时,具有较高的计算精度;在竖向集中荷载作用下,箱梁剪滞力矩图是一条
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李慧萍
2011-01-01
Taking He-Yun highway box-girder fabrication project as the example,it summarizes the construction technology points for box-girder fabrication and installation engineering,respectively describes the fabrication plant layout,steel reinforcement preparation,pre-stressed tension,duct jacking and other critical construction procedures and attentions,which has provided certain guidance for future similar project.%以河运高速公路箱梁预制项目为例,针对箱梁预制及安装工程施工技术要点进行了总结,分别阐述了预制厂的布置,钢筋加工,预应力张拉,孔道压浆等关键工序施工步骤及注意事项,为今后同类项目提供了一定指导。
Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup
2002-01-01
Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...
Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong
2016-04-01
A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚术健; 蒋志刚; 卢芳云; 张舵; 赵楠
2015-01-01
采用ALE（Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian，ALE）多物质流固耦合算法，对汽车炸弹（TNT当量200 kg～1500 kg）在双层桥梁下层桥面典型位置爆炸的局部破坏效应进行了数值模拟，研究了内爆炸冲击作用下钢箱梁的响应过程、破坏模式、破坏参数及其主要影响因素。结果表明：破坏模式及破坏参数与爆炸位置和TNT当量密切相关，爆炸位置对桥梁主要受力体系的受损程度影响较为明显，加劲肋对其垂直方向的破口具有约束作用，箱体对冲击波的约束效应使破坏作用加剧。合理设置加劲肋、加强重要构件和设置防爆层等措施有利于提高桥梁结构抗爆能力。%The response process,failure modes and damage parameters of a double deck steel box girder subjected to internal blast loading of vehicle bombs (TNT equivalent 200kg&1500kg)were simulated by using the ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian)multi-material fluid-solid coupling arithmetic.In the simulation,three typical blast locations on the lower deck were considered.The results show that:the failure modes and damage parameters have a clear correlation with the TNT weight and blast location,and the explosion locations have strong effects on the damage degree of steel trusses. Stiffening ribs can restrict the crack in its vertical direction.The damage effects will be intensified by the restriction of the box-shaped girder.Some useful measurements were also proposed which can help engineers in bridge designing and protection consideration against possible explosion events.
Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza
2014-01-01
The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Byungik Chang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available With the Federal Highway Administration-mandated implementation of the LRFD specifications, many state departments of transportation (DOTs have already started implementing LRFD specifications as developed by the AASHTO. Many aspects of the LRFD specifications are being investigated by DOTs and researchers in order for seamless implementation for design and analysis purposes. This paper presents the investigation on several design aspects of post-tensioned box girder bridges designed by LRFD Specifications using conventional or High-Strength Concrete (HSC. A computer spreadsheet application was specifically developed for this investigation. It is capable of analysis, design, and cost evaluation of the superstructure for a cast-in-place post-tensioned box girder bridge. Optimal design of a post-tensioned box girder is achievable by correct selection of design variables. Cost evaluation of superstructures with different geometrical and material configurations has led to the development of optimum design charts for these types of superstructures. Variables used to develop these charts include, among others, span length, section depth, web spacing, tendon profile, and concrete strength. It was observed that HSC enables the achievement of significantly longer span lengths and/or longer web spacing that is not achievable when using normal strength concrete.
矿用汽车车架纵梁成形模开发研究%Mine Car Frame Girder Mold Development Research
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
向小汉
2013-01-01
To mine car frame girder for forming process analysis, with AutoForm software rebound calculation, the results of the analysis according to the rebound in ThinkDesign to girder local for the springback compensation, in the mold structure design also takes into account to springback control. Through the forming process of the optimization and reasonable die structure design, got to meet quality requirements of the girder products, and meet the needs of the mass production.%对矿用汽车车架纵梁进行成形工艺分析，用AutoForm软件进行回弹计算，根据回弹分析结果用ThinkDesign对纵梁局部进行回弹补偿，在模具结构设计中也考虑到对回弹的控制。通过成形工艺的优化和合理的模具结构设计，得到了满足质量要求的纵梁产品，并满足了批量生产的需要。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, T.; Fujikubo, M.; Yanagihara, D. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-04-10
A hull structure is constituted by thin panels, and reinforced longitudinally and laterally by stiffened members to increase the effectiveness of the structure. In order to attain findings on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of stiffened plates, this paper describes analysis of elasto-plastic large deflection by using the finite element method on thin stiffened plates having flat-bars and angle-bars. The analysis includes the case of an aspect ratio being 5.0 and the case to consider welding residual stress. Considerations were given on cross sectional shape, panel aspect ratio and effects of initial welding imperfections against the buckling and plastic collapse behavior of the stiffened plates. The angle-bars tend to cause secondary buckling more easily because it has greater bending and twisting rigidity, and stronger constraint against deflection than the flat-bars. When the aspect ratio is larger and the span is longer, the ultimate strength declines, and the withstand power after the ultimate strength decreases rapidly. Existence of the residual stress tends to make the secondary buckling occur more easily. The secondary buckling affects little the withstand power after the ultimate strength. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Processless offset printing plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanja Mahović Poljaček
2015-06-01
Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.
斜拉桥主梁大型 0 号块施工技术%Construction Techniques for Massive No .0 Main Girder Block of Cable-Stayed Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
付浩; 严杰; 尹振君; 潘立泉
2015-01-01
武汉西四环汉江特大桥主桥为(77+100+360+100+77 ) m预应力混凝土梁斜拉桥 ,主梁为π形结构 ,两边为单箱双室、中间为纵横梁加桥面板结构形式.主梁0号块宽44 m、长22 m ,采用钢管桩贝雷梁支架现浇施工.支架由底模系统、横梁(贝雷梁)、桩顶分配梁、砂筒、钢管支架组成 ,支架施工完后采用反力架预压钢管桩 ,边箱室顶板底模采用透水模板布施工.通过混凝土配合比优化 ,配制高耐久性、稳定性的C55高性能混凝土 ,并采用天泵和地泵从两个方向分层浇筑 ,桥面纵、横坡采用提浆整平机控制.在0号块混凝土强度成长期预张拉横向预应力 ,纵向预应力待1号和1′号块施工完采用连接器连接构成整束一次性张拉 ;预应力采用智能张拉系统张拉、智能压浆系统压浆.实践表明 ,该桥采用该施工技术成功克服了支架不均匀沉降 ,有效控制了裂纹的产生 ,保证了主梁0号块的施工质量与施工安全.%The main bridge of the Hanjiang River Bridge on the west Fourth Ring Road in Wu-han is a prestressed concrete girder cable-stayed bridge with span arrangement of (77+100+360+100+77) m.The two edge boxes (two-cell single box structure) together with the central lattice beam covered with deck slabs form theπ-shaped main girder.The No.0 block of the main girder , cast on scaffolds made up of steel pipe piles and bailey trusses ,is 44 m wide and 22 m long.The scaffolds are composed of the chassis ,floor beam (bailey truss) ,pile-top distributive beam ,sand bailer and steel pipe supports.After the completion of the construction of the scaffolds ,the steel pipe piles were pre-compressed using reaction frame ,and the chassis for the top plate of edge boxes are constructed by using permeable formwork cloth.During the concreting ,the concrete mixing proportion was optimized ,the C55 high-performance concrete with sound durability and stability was prepared ,and the layered
Non-linear analytical solutions for laterally loaded sandwich plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riber, Hans Jørgen
1997-01-01
This work focuses on the response of orthotropic sandwich composite plates with large deflections due to high lateral loads. The results have special application to the design of ship structures. A geometrical nonlinear theory is outlined, on the basis of the classical sandwich plate theory...... of sandwich plates subjected to high lateral loading. (C) 1997 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....
EFFECTIVE STIFFNESS METHOD FOR CALCULATING DEFLECTION OF CORRUGATED WEB GIRDER%波形钢腹板梁变形计算的有效刚度法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
聂建国; 李法雄; 樊健生
2012-01-01
By introducing a shear rotation function accounting for the shear deformation in the webs, the paper presents a beam theory model of corrugated web girder, where the flexural behavior of corrugated web girder is modeled as the combination of truss action and bending action between upper flange and lower flange. Then analytical solutions for simply supported corrugated steel web girders and cantilever corrugated steel web girders are derived under uniformly distributed load and concentrated load, and the analytical solutions are well verified through a comparison with FEM results. In order to determine the deformation of corrugated web girders for the purpose of practical design, a simplified design method to calculate the deflection of corrugated web girders considering web shear deformation is presented by introducing an importance parameter. The deflections calculated by this method agree well with those obtained from experiments. According to the comparison of calculated deflections among different design methods for corrugated web girders, the simplified method presented in this study has good accuracy and is convenient to use.%为研究波形钢腹板剪切变形对波形钢腹板梁受力行为的影响，引入腹板剪切变形转角函数，将波形钢腹板梁的弯曲行为分解为桁架作用和弯曲作用，建立一个能够考虑波形钢腹板剪切变形的波形钢腹板梁理论模型，推导了简支和悬臂波形钢腹板梁在不同类型荷载作用下的变形解析解，采用有限元方法验证了理论模型和解析解的正确性和适用性。根据变形等效原理，引入重要影响参数对波形钢腹板梁的变形解析解进行简化，提出了考虑腹板剪切行为的波形钢腹板梁变形简化计算方法——有效刚度法。用该文提出的有效刚度法计算波形钢腹板梁在正常使用极限状态下的变形值和试验结果吻合良好，为波形钢腹板梁在正常使用极限状态下的
The comparative study for the isotropic and orthotropic circular plates
Popa, C.; Tomescu, G.
2016-08-01
The aim of study is static bending analysis of an isotropic circular plate using analytical method i.e. Classical Plate Theory, Finite Element software ANSYS and experimental methods. The diameter of circular plate, material properties, like modulus of elasticity (E), poissons ratio (µ) and intensity of loading is assumed at the initial stage of research work. In comparison with this plane plate we analyze a plate of same dimensions and charge, but having ribs, to see the advantage of the rigidify. The two plates are fixed supported subjected to uniformly distributed load.
Seismic vulnerability analysis of regular continuous girder bridges%规则连续梁桥地震易损性研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张菊辉; 管仲国
2014-01-01
Structural performance indices for regular continuous girder bridges under different damage states were discussed based on the displacement ductility ratio.On the OpenSees platform,a structural dynamic analysis model was established by using nonlinear fiber beam elements.100 earthquake ground motion records were selected,and the nonlinear time-history analysis was performed,thus the fragility curves under different damage states were constructed. Through parametric analysis,the effects of pier height,bearing types and transverse reinforcement ratios on the fragility curves were studied.The results show that the development degree of ductility of the continuous bridge has a great effect on the structural seismic vulnerability.The fragility curves obtained under minor damage and moderate damage seem to be very close;while under extensive damage,the bridge shows a good performance against earthquake forces.With the increase of pier height,the lower level of damage probability of the structure is observed;meanwhile,the improvement in the fragility by using the plate rubber bearings is excellent for a short-pier bridge,but very limited for a high-pier one. The effect of increasing the transverse reinforcement ratio on fragility curves can be neglected for structural damage in early stage,but it can significantly increase the structural capacity from collapse.%基于位移延性比探讨规则连续梁桥在不同损伤状态下的结构性能控制指标；基于OpenSees平台采用纤维模型建立结构动力分析模型，选取100条强震记录通过非线性时程反应分析计算结构地震易损性曲线。研究不同墩高、支座形式及配箍率对结构地震易损性影响，结果表明，连续梁桥的地震易损性受延性发育程度影响较大，发生中等与轻微破坏概率较相近，对严重破坏有较好的耐损性；结构耐损性随墩高的增大而增加；采用板式橡胶支座可显著提高矮墩桥梁的耐损性，对
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗扣; 王东晖; 张强
2013-01-01
The main part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge is a part of the combined bridge and tunnel,of which the non-navigable span bridge in the shallow water area is the 85 m span continuous composite girder bridge that totally has 64 spans of the composite girders and is 5 440 m in length.The span arrangement of the bridge mainly includes two kinds of arrangement of 6)× 85 m and 5)× 85 m.The composite girders are the separated continuous single-cell singlebox girders with constant depth and specifically are composed of the open steel box girders and the concrete deck slabs that are connected each other via shear studs.A steel box girder is the inverted trapezoid structure,a concrete deck slab is the precast full slab in the transverse direction and the grooves are pre-reserved at the locations of the shear studs.To improve the transverse mechanical behavior of the deck slabs,the stringers are set in the sections of the composite girders and to keep the integrity of the slabs,the shear studs are arranged in a way of clustering.The composite girders are erected and installed in each full span by the large transportation and erection floating crane and the girders are closed span by span.%港珠澳大桥主体工程采用桥隧组合方案,其中浅水区非通航孔桥采用85 m连续组合梁桥形式,全长5 440m,共64孔,跨径布置主要采用6×85 m和5×85m2种形式.组合梁采用单箱单室分幅等高连续梁,由开口钢箱梁和混凝土桥面板通过剪力钉联结而成.钢箱梁为倒梯形结构;混凝土桥面板为横向整块预制,在剪力钉处设置预留槽.为改善混凝土桥面板的横向受力性能,该桥组合梁截面设置小纵梁;为保持桥面板的整体性,剪力钉采用集束式布置方式.组合梁采用大型运架一体浮吊整孔安装架设,逐孔合龙.
Cury, Alexandre; Cremona, Christian; Dumoulin, John
2012-11-01
For reliable performance of vibration-based damage detection algorithms, it is important to distinguish abnormal changes in modal parameters caused by structural damage from normal changes due to environmental fluctuations. This paper firstly addresses the modeling of temperature effects on modal frequencies of a PSC box girder bridge located on the A1 motorway in France. Based on a six-month monitoring experimental program, modal frequencies of the first seven mode shapes and temperatures have been measured at three hour intervals. Neural networks are then introduced to formulate regression models for quantifying the effect of temperature on modal parameters (frequencies and mode shapes). In 2009, this bridge underwent a strengthening procedure. In order to assess the effect of strengthening on the vibration characteristics of the bridge, modal properties had to be corrected from temperature influence. Thus, the first goal is to assess the changes on the vibration signature of this bridge induced by the strengthening. For this purpose, classical statistical analysis and clustering methods are applied to the data recorded over the period after strengthening. The second goal is to evaluate the influence of temperature effects on the clustering results. It comes that the temperature correction significantly improves the confidence in the novelty detection and in the strengthening efficiency.
Yang, Caiqian; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Yufeng
2008-06-01
The application of hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (HCFRP) sensors was addressed to monitor the structural health of an existing prestressed concrete (PC) box girder bridge in a destructive test. The novel HCFRP sensors were fabricated with three types of carbon tows in order to realize distributed and broad-based sensing, which is characterized by long-gauge length and low cost. The HCFRP sensors were bonded on the bottom and side surfaces of the existing bridge to monitor its structural health. The gauge lengths of the sensors bonded on the bottom and side surfaces were 1.5 m and 1.0 m, respectively. The HCFRP sensors were distributed on the bridge for two purposes. One was to detect damage and monitor the structural health of the bridge, such as the initiation and propagation of new cracks, strain distribution and yielding of steel reinforcements. The other purpose was to monitor the propagation of existing cracks. The good relationship between the change in electrical resistance and load indicates that the HCFRP sensors can provide actual infrastructures with a distributed damage detection and structural health monitoring system. Corrections were made to this article on 13 May 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.
Wu, Jie; Yan, Quan-sheng; Li, Jian; Hu, Min-yi
2016-04-01
In bridge construction, geometry control is critical to ensure that the final constructed bridge has the consistent shape as design. A common method is by predicting the deflections of the bridge during each construction phase through the associated finite element models. Therefore, the cambers of the bridge during different construction phases can be determined beforehand. These finite element models are mostly based on the design drawings and nominal material properties. However, the accuracy of these bridge models can be large due to significant uncertainties of the actual properties of the materials used in construction. Therefore, the predicted cambers may not be accurate to ensure agreement of bridge geometry with design, especially for long-span bridges. In this paper, an improved geometry control method is described, which incorporates finite element (FE) model updating during the construction process based on measured bridge deflections. A method based on the Kriging model and Latin hypercube sampling is proposed to perform the FE model updating due to its simplicity and efficiency. The proposed method has been applied to a long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during its construction. Results show that the method is effective in reducing construction error and ensuring the accuracy of the geometry of the final constructed bridge.
Stability of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Composite Facings
Pawlus, D.
2017-02-01
Paper presents the behaviour of three-layered annular plates subjected to loads acting in plate plane. Plates are composed of laminated fibre-reinforced composite facings and foam core. The static and dynamic parameters of plate critical state were evaluated. The sensitivity of composite structure of plate to the acting of quickly increasing in time loads is shown. The problem has been solved numerically using the finite element method. Results have been compared with ones obtained for plate models with isotropic layers. These plate models have also been calculated solving formulated task analytically and numerically by means of the finite difference method. Solutions to the problem concern the axisymmetrical and asymmetrical plate buckling modes. Numerous presented tables and figures create the image of the stability behaviour of examined composite plates.
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Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nomura, T. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1999-01-10
In recent years, the construction of long-span bridges is on the increase. Prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges are dynamically very efficient structures of relatively low cost that blend in well with the landscape. Maintenance is also easy. Consequently, the adoption of edge box girders for cable-stayed bridges is increasing worldwide, but problems related to the aerodynamic stability of the structure have emerged. The aerodynamic stability of edge box girders for a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge was investigated under uniform flow conditions by conducting several wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the section of the bridge deck was optimized to prevent torsional flutter within an angle of attack varying from -5 to +5 degrees. It is therefore possible to guarantee the aerodynamic stability of long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. (author)
Anderson, D L
1975-03-21
The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.
Plate shell structures - statics and stability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almegaard, Henrik
2008-01-01
This paper describes the basic structural system, statics and spatial stability of plate shells. The structural system can be considered as a single layer of planar elements, where each element only transfers in-plane (membrane) forces to its neighbouring elements. External out-of-plane loads...... are carried into the structure as in-plane forces by plate action in each element. These in-plane forces are then carried through the plate structure to the supports as in-plane forces by membrane action. The consequence is that the spatial stability of the structure can be simply analysed by considering...... the plate system as only subject to in-plane loads. The stability of such systems is based on the fact that each plane element is held fixed in space by three fixed support lines and that these support lines can be provided by three plane neighbour elements. This means that the spatial stability of a plate...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏巍
2011-01-01
Taking the erection of 700 t prestressed simply supported box girder along Wuhan-Huangshi special passenger line as the example, the paper sums up the erection equipment and structure characteristic of the box girder and its performance, and illustrates the construction craft of the erection for the box girder and the key points for bearing＇ s perfusion, so as to accumulate relative experience and direct the engineering prac- tice.%以武黄客运专线700t预制简支箱梁架设为例，对箱梁架设设备及其结构特点和性能作了归纳，重点对箱梁架设施工工艺及支座灌注要点进行了阐述，以积累相关施工经验，指导工程实践。
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Obliquity along plate boundaries
Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo
2016-12-01
Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王海源; 章龙; 张乐文; 张峰
2011-01-01
The features of uneven distribution temperature stress in recently poured concrete and the effective measures to prevent temperature cracks were studied. The 0# box girder in the Weihe Specially Long Bridge located in the highway from Xi' an to Tongchuan was taken as a research project, which was computed on MIDAS/FEA( multitier distributed applications services/finite element analysis) finite analysis element software. The temperature field of hydration heat of the concrete in the construction period was numerically calculated by the finite element method. The effects of three different mechanical control measures of crack control were analyzed. Combined with the results of temperature detection, the mechanical control measure was optimized. The results showed that the temperature inside the concrete rose to a peak about 52 hours after the concrete was poured, with or without cooling water pipes in the box temperature difference of the maximum temperature about 10℃. When the temperature difference between inside and outside of the concrete at 20℃ was a good time to remove the template. Temperature stress was concentrated in the junction web plate and diaphragm of the box girder, thus setting the cooling water pipes could improve the uneven distribution of temperature stress. Compared with other results, the whole process temperature monitoring and the finite element dynamic analysis by this method was better at optimizing the engineering measures of crack prevention.%研究混凝土浇筑初期内部温度应力不均匀分布特征和预防温度裂缝的有效措施,以西安至铜川高速公路渭河特大桥某0#箱梁为研究对象,以MIDAS/FEA(multitier distributed applications services/finite element analysis)有限元分析软件为计算平台,采用有限单元法对施工期混凝土水化热温度场进行了数值模拟计算,分析了3种不同防裂工程措施的理论效果,并结合温度监测进行了工程
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吉伯海; 叶枝; 傅中秋; 汪锋; 孙洪滨
2016-01-01
为准确评估钢桥结构的疲劳损伤状态和剩余疲劳寿命，以江阴长江大桥为背景，对该桥钢箱梁疲劳裂纹产生位置进行连续疲劳应变监测，获取应变时程数据，结合雨流计数法技术建立日疲劳应力谱；分析应力幅～循环次数分布规律；研究累积损伤度分布特征，建立损伤度分布模型，计算不同车道构造细节疲劳损伤度和剩余寿命。研究结果表明：钢箱梁顶板测点、U肋与横隔板焊接末端处、弧形缺口有效截面最小处均以压应力为主，U 肋以拉应力为主；应力幅累积循环次数分布服从Weibull函数分布；疲劳累积损伤度分布服从Boltzman函数分布，顶板与U肋连接处U肋腹板沿横桥向慢车道疲劳损伤较快车道损伤大，下游车道较上游车道损伤大，其中下游慢车道U肋腹板细节疲劳损伤最大。%To accurately evaluate the fatigue damaging condition and remaining fatigue life of steel bridge structure ,the Jiangyin Changjiang River Bridge was cited as an example .Continuous fatigue strain monitoring was conducted at the locations where fatigue cracks were found on the steel box girder to gain real‐time strain data .The monitoring data ,combined with the rain flow counting method ,were used to set up the daily fatigue stress spectrum to analyze the distribution law of S~ N curve .The distribution law of fatigue accumulating damage was studied .The model of damage distribution was set up ,to calculate the fatigue damages and remaining life of different structural details of the traffic lane .T he results of the study demonstrate that compressive stress was dominant at the testing locations in the steel box girder ,ends of U‐rib and diaphragm welds and least effective cross section of the arc notches ,whereas tensile stress was found primarily on U ribs .The distribution of the accumulated stress cycle follows the way of Weibull function distribu‐tion .The distribution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜竹生; 瞿涛; 吕磊; 吉伯海
2011-01-01
基于对我国钢箱梁桥的钢箱梁病害调查,总结出我国钢箱粱典型病害的类型,分析各种钢箱梁典型病害产生的机理及导致其破坏的原因,提出了钢箱梁病害的日常检测与维护技术.针对钢箱梁的涂装劣化、钢材腐蚀、结构性损伤等病害,给出了日常检测与维护的主要项目,介绍了人工目视检测、超声波检测、磁粉检测及涡流检测等主要的检测方法的工作原理、优缺点和适用范围.%Based on the survey of China steel box girder bridges' steel box girder defects, summing up the typical defects of China steel box girder, we analyse every typical defect production mechanism and the reasons of leading to destruction of steel box girder, and propose steel box girder defects' daily testing and maintenance technology. According to coating for the deterioration, steel corrosion, structural damage and other defects of steel box girder, we give the main items of the daily testing and maintenance technology and the main detection methods including manual visual inspection, ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing and eddy current testing. Studying the working principle of above testing methods, advantages and disadvantages, and scope of application, should be selected based on the actual requirements in the project.
Fatigue behaviour of welded joints assembled by longitudinal corrugated plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王志宇; 王清远; 刘永杰; 孙美
2015-01-01
Fatigue is usually the cause for the cracks identified at bridge elements in service. With an increase in the introduction of corrugated steel web girders in recent highway bridge construction, the understanding of the fatigue behaviour of welded details in such structures becomes an important issue for the design. The typical welded details were represented as welded joints assembled by longitudinal corrugated plates. All the experiments were performed under fatigue loading using a servo-control testing machine. The test results from the failure mode observation with the aid of infrared thermo-graph technology show that the failure manner of these welded joints is comparable to that of the corrugated steel web beams reported previously. It is indicated from the stiffness degradation analysis that the welded joints with larger corrugation angle have higher stiffness and greater stiffness degradation in the notable stiffness degradation range. It is shown from the testS−N relations based on the free regression and forced regression analyses that there is a good linear dependence between lg(N) and lg(ΔS). It is also demonstrated that the proposed fracture mechanics analytical model is able to give a prediction slightly lower but on the safe side for the mean stresses at 2 million cycles of the test welded joints.
Impact behaviour of stiffened steel plates
Sølvernes, Sindre Hellem
2015-01-01
The impact behavior of stiffened steel plates subjected to impact loading from concentrated loads was studied experimentally and numerically. Both dynamic and quasi-static tests of stiffened steel plates with geometry adopted from a typical external deck area on an offshore platform were conducted. The quasi-static tests were performed to study the relationship between dynamic impact behavior and the corresponding static ones. All tests were carried out in scale 1:4. To allow the executio...
Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ
2009-07-14
One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何广宝
2014-01-01
Because of many advantage, such as f being light, high strength and corrosion resistance,car-bon fiber reinforced polymer is widely used in old bridge reinforcement. However, the study on theoretical analysis and numerical simulation is relatively delayed due to its complex mechanical properties com-pared common reinforced concrete girders. The finite element software ANSYS is used to establish an nu-merical simulation model of RC T-sectional girders strengthened with CFRP sheets in the article. The problem of convergence of nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is solved in the numerical simulation analysis. The midspan deflection and maximum stress of T-sectional girder after reinforcement reduce by 11.6% and 20.7% respectively compared to initial girder, but the ultimate capacity increases by 52%, which demonstrates that CFRP sheets can improve the mechanical performance of RC beams.%碳纤维复合材料具有轻质、高强以及耐腐蚀等优点，在旧桥加固工程中得到广泛应用，但由于其力学性能和破坏模式比普通钢筋混凝土梁复杂，在理论和数值分析方面的研究相对滞后。依托某T型钢筋混凝土桥梁加固实例，运用ANSYS有限元软件建立模型进行分析，解决了CFRP布加固构件非线性数值求解难以收敛的问题。加固后T型梁的跨中挠度和最大应力相比于加固前分别下降了10.4%和17.1%了，然而极限承载力提升了52%，这表明CFRP布加固可以很好地改善钢筋混凝土梁的受力性能。
The delicate analysis of shear lag effect on trapezoidal box girders%梯形箱梁剪力滞后效应的精细化分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
甘亚南; 石飞停
2014-01-01
引入剪滞翘曲应力自平衡条件的影响，考虑了剪切变形和剪滞效应等因素，设置了三个不同的剪滞纵向位移差函数以准确反映梯形箱梁不同宽度翼板的剪滞变化幅度，提出了一种能对工程中常用箱梁静力学特性分析的精确解法。本文以能量变分原理为基础建立了薄壁箱梁的弹性控制微分方程和自然边界条件，获得了相应广义位移的闭合解。算例中，分析了不同荷载形式、跨宽比和悬臂板长度等因素对箱梁静力学特性的影响，结果显示出引入剪滞翘曲应力自平衡条件的必要性。%In consideration of self-equilibrium condition for shear lag warping stress ,shear deformation and shear lag effect ,three different longitudinal displacement difference functions are employed to accu-rately reflect the amplitude of change of shear lag in the trapezoidal box girders with various widths of wing slabs ,and a new warping displacement mode of trapezoidal thin-walled box girders is chosen to meet the axial self-equilibrium condition for corresponding stress ,a more accurate approach is proposed to analyze the mechanical characteristics of trapezoidal box girders generally used in engineering .Based on the minimum potential principle ,the governing differential equations and related natural boundary conditions are induced ,the closed-form solutions of generalized displacements are obtained .The varia-tions of stress of trapezoidal box girders ,caused by the change of factors such as self-equilibrium condi-tion ,type of loading and ratio of span and width are discussed ,the importance about the introduction of self-equilibrium condition is proved .
Spatial Effect on Railway Trough Girder with Reactive Powder Concrete%铁路活性粉末混凝土槽形梁的空间作用效应
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李志光; 余自若; 王月
2013-01-01
The authors carried out three-dimensional finite element analysis on a 32 m railway trough girder which was made of reactive powder concrete.After working out shear lag coefficients under different load conditions,the rule of shear lag was analyzed,and the results indicated that the shear lag effect in this reactive powder concrete trough girder was larger than that of common concrete girder.Further,the spatial effect on transversal and longitudinal bending moments was analyzed,and the study result on the influence lines of transversal bending moments indicated that,due to the spatial effect,any force on any point of the trough girder would cause transversal bending moment which should not be ignored.Finally,the study result on influence lines of longitudinal bending moments showed that,there was spatial effect on equivalent load in reactive powder concrete trough girder; the closer to the girder end the place was,the more obviously the effect became,which also should not be ignored.Therefore,in the design of this kind of railway girder,the spatial effect on the vicinity of girder end should be taken seriously.%对32 m铁路活性粉末混凝土槽形梁进行三维有限元分析,计算出不同工况下的剪力滞系数,并对剪力滞规律进行分析,研究表明该梁的剪力滞效应较普通混凝土梁更加明显;对其横向和纵向弯矩的空间效应进行分析,对横向弯矩影响线的研究表明,受空间作用的影响,梁上任意一点受力均会在某一截面产生不可忽略的横向弯矩;对纵向弯矩影响线的研究表明空间作用对活性粉末混凝土槽形梁换算荷载的影响在越靠近端部影响越明显,且该影响不可忽略,所以在设计该种梁时需要在靠近端部位置充分考虑空间作用的影响.
考虑腹板剪切行为的波形钢腹板梁理论模型%Theory Model of Corrugated Steel Web Girder Considering Web Shear Behavior
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
聂建国; 李法雄
2011-01-01
为研究波形钢腹板剪切变形对波形钢腹板梁受力行为的影响,引入腹板剪切变形转角函数,将波形钢腹板梁的弯曲行为分解为桁架作用和弯曲作用,建立一个能够考虑波形钢腹板剪切变形的波形钢腹板梁理论模型。推导了端部无约束条件下简支波形钢腹板梁在均布荷载和端部约束条件下简支波形钢腹板梁在跨中集中荷载作用下的解析解,采用有限元方法验证了理论模型和解析解的正确性和适用性。研究结果表明：端部约束条件对主梁变形影响很小;波形钢腹板的剪切变形对主梁变形影响显著,在常见波形钢腹板梁桥尺寸范围内,由腹板剪切变形引起的主梁挠度占总挠度的10%～30%。%In order to study the influence of shear deformation of forcing behavior for corrugated steel web,shear rotation function of calculating shear deformation in the web was introduced,a theory model of corrugated steel web girder was presented.In the model,bending behavior of corrugated steel web girder could be divided into truss action and bending action between upper-flange and sub-flange.Then,analytical solutions for the cases of simply-supported corrugated steel web girder without end restraint sustaining under uniform distribution load and simply-supported corrugated steel web girder with end restraint under sustaining mid-span concentrated load were derived,validity and usability of the analytical solution and the model were well proved by finite element method.Results show that the end constraint conditions have little effect on the deformation of the main girder.However,the shear deformation of corrugated steel web has great impact on the deformation of main girder.In the common size ranges of bridge with corrugated steel web girders,the proportion of main girder deflection caused by shear deformation in the web may reach 10% to 30% of total deflection.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓云飞; 张伟; 孟凡柱
2015-01-01
In order to investigate the influence of configuration of target on the ballistic performance, monolithic and three⁃layered targets were normally impacted by blunt⁃nosed projectiles in the velocity range of 190~450 m/s with the help of a gas gun, and also the photos of the impact process were obtained. Based on the tests, the residual velocity versus the initial velocity curves of the projectiles were constructed, and also ballistic limit velocities were obtained. The influence of combination configuration of target on the ballistic characteristic, including the ballistic resistance and failure models were investigated. Moreover, the penetration process of metal plates impacted by rod projectiles had been studied with numerical simulation code ABAQUS/EXPLICIT, and also the validation of models and parameters of materials had been proved by comparing the experiment results with numerical simulations. The results indicated that the ballistic limit velocity of multi⁃layered target was higher than that of monolithic target, and also there were differences between failure models of multi⁃layered targets and monolithic target. Moreover, the failure models of plates of multi⁃layered targets were in relation to their order.%为分析靶体结构对其抗侵彻特性的影响，利用轻气炮进行平头杆弹正撞击单层板和等厚接触式三层板的实验，获取相关的撞击过程图片．通过撞击实验，得到这两种结构靶体的初始－剩余速度曲线以及弹道极限，撞击速度为190～450 m／s．研究靶体结构对抗侵彻特性的影响，包括靶板的失效模式和抗侵彻性能．最后，采用ABAQUS／EXPLICIT软件对杆弹撞击金属板的过程进行数值模拟研究，通过对比数值模拟和实验结果，验证了数值模拟材料模型和参数的有效性．结果表明：多层板的弹道极限高于等厚单层板，并且多层板和单层板的主要失效模式之间存在差异．对于多层板
箱梁钢筋定位自动检测装置%The automatic detection device for box girder reinforced positioning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵云
2014-01-01
In order to reduce or eliminate the box girder quality oroblems caused by box girder reinforced orotection layer and ore-stressed oosi-tioning network reinforced deformation and installation not in olace,this oaoer researched the reinforced oositioning of reinforced orotective layer and ore-stressed oositioning network in oost tensioned ore-stressed box beam construction orocess,designed a set of automatic detection each ten-sioned oositioning detection ooint tensioned whether accuracy oositioning or not and disolayed the tensioned oositioning automatic detection de-vice,solved the oroblem of reinforced oositioning detection.%为了减少或消除因箱梁钢筋保护层及预应力定位网钢筋形变和安装不到位而引起箱梁质量问题，对后张法预应力箱梁施工工艺中的钢筋保护层及预应力定位网的钢筋定位进行了研究，设计了一套能自动检测各检测点钢筋是否定位准确并显示的钢筋定位自动检测装置，解决了钢筋定位检测的问题。
On construction technique of arc model at box girder web%箱梁外腹板圆弧模施工技术
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁见
2012-01-01
Combining with the arc model construction of the continuous box girder web at Yijiang Bridge at Wuhu, the paper undertakes the mould installation by adopting various method according to the parameters of the web arc and the field fact, and mainly introduces the technique, including the making and the consolidation of the box girder arc models with two different parameters, so as to have better reference and direction for the similar bridge construction.%结合芜湖弋江桥连续箱梁外腹板圆弧模施工技术，根据外腹板圆弧半径大小，结合现场实际情况，通过采取不同方法进行模板制安施工，详细介绍了两种不同圆弧半径的箱梁圆弧模板的制作、加固等技术，对同类型桥梁施工具有较强的借鉴和指导作用。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈耀海
2011-01-01
结合西部某新建火车站进站人行天桥工程实例，分析了设计和施工的多种控制条件，论证了主梁采用钢箱梁结构的合理性．通过有限元分析和动力特性计算可知，结构设计的控制因素为竖向自振频率，采用中墩与主梁固结的连接方式可以有效地调整结构竖向自振频率．%Based on the project case of one pedestrian bridge in one new constructed railway station at west China, many controlled conditions are analyzed about structural design and engineering construction, and the rationalitles of steel box girder bridge adopted in the design are also demonstrated. It is learned from finite - element analysis and dynamic characteristics calculation that the control factor of structural design is vertical vibration frequency, which can be improved effectively by means of fixed connection between central pier and steel box girder.
Generalized Fibonacci zone plates
Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang
2015-01-01
We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.
连续箱梁的日照温差应力计算研究%Study on Calculation of Sunshine Thermal Stress in Continuous Box-girders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈权; 王丽娟; 张元海; 诸昌钤
2009-01-01
According to the harmonious condition of deformation and the assumption of plane section, the general formula for calculating sunshine thermal stress of continuous box girders was derived. Then based on the existing experimental results and the modes of sunshine thermal gradients in the present code for design of railway and highway bridges, the practical calculating formula of thermal stress was presented. The method and formula for calculating secondary thermal bending moment were provided tnnzekew continuous box girders based on the three-moment equation of skew continuous beam. The corresponding programmaing was fulfilled. The thermal stresses in figh and skew continuous box girders were calculated through engineering practice and good agreement was achieved compared with those of ANSYS calculation. The longitudinal distribution pattern of the thermal stress in continuous box girder bridges was ascertained. It is put forward that (1) much attention should be paid to the checking calculation for nonnal stress and crack resistance at midspan cross-section of central span in the design of prestrssed concrete continuous box girder bridges; (2) the checking calculation for crack resistance of inclined cross -section near gravity axis in internal support area should also be treated seriously.%根据变形协调条件及平截面假定,首先推导了连续箱梁日照温差总应力的一般公式,并针对试验观测资料及我国铁路桥梁和公路桥梁设计规范中的不同日照温差梯度模式,给出了温度应力的实用计算公式.为了能够进一步应用于斜交连续箱梁,以斜交连续梁的三力矩方程为基础,给出了温度次弯矩的计算方法及公式.编制了相应温度应力分析程序,结合工程实例分别对正交和斜交连续箱梁的温度应力进行了计算分析,并与ANSYS有限元计算结果进行对比.通过分析连续箱梁日照温差应力沿梁跨方向的分布规律,提出在设计预应力混凝
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李粤东; 夏崇滔; 张翼; 巫正伟
2014-01-01
钢箱梁结构因其自身的特性在市政工程建设得到大量运用，钢箱梁吊装施工中空间就位及空形态的控制问题较为突出，其中带纵坡的弧形钢箱梁通过旋转结构找横坡就使得钢箱梁在施工过程中整体空间形态要有控制技术难度更高，极易造成钢箱梁支座托空。该文结合工程实例，就有纵坡且旋转结构找横坡弧形钢箱梁吊装后产生支座托空的处理措施进行论述。%Steel box girder structure is widely applied nowadays for its virtues, but the controlling problems in space location and spatial form in its con-struction are severe, and the finding of cross slope through rotating structure by arc steel box girder with longitudinal slope renders controlling technology of steel box girder over spatial form harder, easily causing empty bearing of steel box girder. The treatment measures for such problem are presented in de-tail.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
时瑾; 姚忠达; 王英杰
2012-01-01
This paper presents the investigation of dynamic response of a guideway subjected to a maglev train moving with very high speeds. By using modal synthesis technology to establish the guideway-pier model, the equations of motion for the maglev train/guideway coupling system are derived and the dynamic response of the train-guideway system are computed using iterative methods. From the numerical studies of a 24m elevated guideway girder under a high-speed maglev train model of TR08, the results indicate increasing moving speeds may result in an amplified response of the guideway, and the second sub-resonance of the first mode of the guideway would be excited as well once the moving speed reaches around 350km/h. Furthermore, when the moving speed of the malgev train is higher than 400kin/h, the response amplitudes of the guideway girder and moving vehicles are both amplified significantly. To avoid possible train-induced resonance of guideway vibration, the first natural frequency of the guideway should be designed to be higher than the characteristic frequency of the maglev vehicle/guideway system, which is equal to the ratio of the designed speed to the carriage length.%该文研究了高速磁浮列车运行引起的轨道梁动力响应问题。采用模态综合技术建立了梁墩体系模型，推导了高速磁浮列车轨道梁运动方程，运用迭代技术求解了列车轨道梁系统动力学方程，计算分析了高速磁浮列车通过24m简支轨道梁引起的动力响应，结果表明：随着运行速度提高，轨道梁动力响应相应提高，在350km／h左右存在一阶二次谐波共振；当列车运行速度超过400km／h时，轨道梁和列车动力响应将被显着放大，为避免轨道梁出现一阶一次共振现象，在设计上，应使轨道梁的一阶自振频率远高于磁浮列车与轨道梁的特征频率（即设计速度与车长比值）。
Fontes, Kris
2009-01-01
In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.
Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...
Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...
Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shivaji Mane
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘丽娜; 刘涛
2015-01-01
为研究钢箱梁电弧喷铝防腐涂层防腐机理，预测其防腐寿命，加工制作钢板试样，表面电弧喷铝涂层，进行室内加速腐蚀试验。通过平板扫描仪采集对象图像，观测腐蚀发展过程。采用基于二值化图像的图像处理技术提取腐蚀形貌图像特征参数，并结合规范评定涂层腐蚀损伤级别。研究结果表明：基于二值化图像的图像处理技术可以有效区分涂层腐蚀与未腐蚀区域，实现涂层腐蚀面积定量化分析，为防腐涂层腐蚀等级评定提供新的思路，并估算200μm喷铝涂层实际海洋大气环境下的寿命为63.6年。%To study the anticorrosion mechanism of arc-sprayed aluminum anticorrosive coating on steel box girder and to predict the anticorrosive life of the coating,steel plates were manufactured and painted with aluminum on the surfaces to carry out indoor accelerated corrosion test. Corrosion image of the organic protection coating was collected by a flat scanner to observe its corrosion process. The blistering area was extracted through image processing technology to evaluate the corrosion grade. The results demonstrate that the image processing technology based on binary image can distinguish the corrosion areas from the non-corrosion areas so as to realize quantitative analysis for coating corrosion area. With the help of this technology,a new way has been presented for assessing the corrosion grade of anticorrosive coatings and the service life of 200μm aluminum coating has been estimated to be 63.6 years in the actual marine atmospheric environment.
Measurements of the Rate Capability of Various Resistive Plate Chambers
Affatigato, M; Bilki, B; Corriveau, F; Freund, B; Johnson, N; Neubueser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Xia, L
2015-01-01
Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) exhibit a significant loss of efficiency for the detection of particles, when subjected to high particle fluxes. This rate limitation is related to the usually high resistivity of the resistive plates used in their construction. This paper reports on measurements of the performance of three different glass RPC designs featuring a different total resistance of the resistive plates. The measurements were performed with 120 GeV protons at varying beam intensities
Measurement of rectangular surface mobility of an infinite plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Jue
2001-01-01
A measuring method of surface mobility for an infinite plate subject to a uniform conphase velocity excitation is investigated. In the measurement, a finite plate is employed to simulate an infinite plate and a rigid cone is used to make a uniform conphase velocity excitation. A method to deduct the affect of additional mass is derived: The results of the measurement agree with that calculated theoretically.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen
2012-01-01
A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘军
2016-01-01
into four modulus ,each being individually bonded ,then as‐sembled to a whole ,afterwards ,the automatic retractable formwork is used to cast concrete .The crack control technique and corrosion protection measures are used .The prefabricated components of the monolithic pile cap and bottom pier lift are transported by the Crane Little Swan ,then hois‐ted and lowered into the interlocked suspension steel box cofferdam ,and precisely positioned and installed by the three‐directional adjusting devices on pier tops .T he steel structure of the compos‐ite girder was firstly fabricated to plate units in the workshop ,then floated to the prefabrication yard in Zhongshan to be assembled span by span .The concrete slabs are longitudinally divided into blocks and transversely prefabricated as a w hole ,w hen the steel structures and concrete slabs are combined to form a composite girder ,the Crane Tianyi ,a ship capable of lifting and erecting gird‐ers ,is used to lift the girders section by section .
Pixelated neutron image plates
Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.
2004-09-01
Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.
Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.
Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David
2015-11-01
The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.
sprotocols
2014-01-01
1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭晓明
2012-01-01
时速350公里客运专线单线后张法单箱单室预应力混凝土简支箱梁属首次应用。为验证其各项指标,进行了4孔箱梁的试验工作;通过对箱梁的各项工艺试验进行研究,充分验证箱梁的设计。%The post-tensioning method single-cell pre-stressed concrete simple box girder for 350 km/h dedicated passenger railway single-track line is used for the first time.To verify its performance indexes,four-truss box girder test is carried out,studies on box girder process tests fully verify the design of box girder.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张强; 王海舰; 胡南
2015-01-01
为研究起升载荷下门式起重机主梁的损伤和疲劳寿命，通过有限元软件ANSYS Workbench建立门式起重机主梁力学模型，采用 nsoft 疲劳分析软件对主梁的动静态力学特性和疲劳损伤进行了分析，采用 nCode GlypWorks中的Rainflow 模块对各载荷作用的应力时间历程进行雨流计数、载荷外推和叠加，采用 nCode GlypWorks中的Stress Life模块计算主梁的疲劳寿命以及敏感性分析，得到不同工况下门式起重机箱型主梁应力和应变云图以及叠加后雨流直方图、主梁损伤直方图、裂纹—寿命关系曲线。研究结果表明：主梁的最大等效应力位置在跨中或端部以及主梁与支腿连接部位，易产生疲劳损伤；40 t以上起重量是造成主梁损伤主要载荷；过载、残余应力和表面粗糙度均对主梁的使用寿命具有明显影响。冲击损伤仿真结果与计算结果较为接近，说明冲击损伤计算结果具有较高的可信度。%In order to study the damage and fatigue life of gantry crane's girder under rising load , the mechanical model of gantry crane's girder was established through the finite element software ANSYS Workbench ,the dynamic and static mechanical properties and fatigue damage of girder were analyzed by using fatigue analysis software nsoft ,the rain flow counting ,the extrapolation superstition of the stress time on load w ere carried out by using Rainflow module in nCode Glyp Works .The life stress module in nCode GlypWorks was used to calculate the fatigue life and ana‐lyze the sensitivity of girder ,through w hich the stress and strain image ,superimposed rain flow histogram ,girder damage histogram and crack‐life relationship curve of gantry crane chassis type girder were got .The results showed that ,the maximum equivalent stress positions appeared in the middle or end of the girder ,the joints of girder and legs where were easy to produce fatigue damage;the lifting
两跨连续斜交梁桥振动台试验研究%Shaking table tests for a two-span continuous skew girder bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许永吉; 卓卫东; 孙颖
2016-01-01
The dynamic characteristics and three-dimensional seismic response of a two-span continuous skew girder bridge were analyzed,using parameters,such as,skew angle,shear span ratio,reinforcement ratio and axial compression ratio and so on.Taking a skewed girder bridge of Fujian as an engineering example,a 1 ∶5 scale two-span continuous skewed girder bridge model was designed for shaking table tests.Adopting shaking table tests and FE numerical analysis, the seismic responses and damage characteristics of the skewed girder bridge were studied.Results of shaking table tests showed that the structure's acceleration response and displacement response are guite different under different types of ground motion and at the same site or different types of ground motion and at different sites;under the same skew angle. the smaller the axial compression ratio,the larger the acceleration and displacement responses;when the axial compression ratio is the same,the smaller the skew angle,the larger the acceleration and displacement responses;a reasonable choice of skew angle has a great influence on the dynamic performance of skew bridges in the design of skew bridges.%选取了斜交角、配箍率和轴压比等设计参数，对两跨连续斜交梁桥进行结构动力特性分析和单向地震动输入下结构的地震反应分析。以福建省高速公路某座斜交梁桥为工程背景，设计制作了一座1／5缩尺两跨连续混凝土斜交梁桥试验模型，结合振动台模型试验和数值模拟分析，研究斜交梁桥地震响应及震害特点。振动台模型试验结果表明：不同场地类别的地震动及同一场地类别但不同的地震动作用下，结构的加速度响应、位移响应差别较大；在相同斜交角时，轴压比越小，加速度和位移响应越大；当轴压比相同时，斜交角越小，加速度和位移响应越大。从试验可知，在斜交桥设计中，合理选择斜交角对桥梁动力性能有很大的影响。
Discuss the Full Framing Construction of Cast-in-place Box Girder%浅谈现浇箱粱满堂支架搭设施工
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄亮
2013-01-01
在进行桥梁上部结构的箱梁现浇施工时，满堂支架法的应用已经非常普遍。但是在进行满堂支架法施工时，其施工事故发生的频率也比较高。如何有效提高满堂支架法的施工安全，是值得去深入探究的问题。%During conduct the box girder cast-in-place const-ruction of upper structure in bridge, the application of ful fra-ming method has become so common. But when making ful framing construction method, its construction has a high acide-nt frequency. It is worth to delve into the problem of how to i-mprove the method of ful framing construction safety.
Design of Norway HAKRDANGER Steel Box Girder Bridge Coating Process%挪威HAKRDANGER大桥钢箱梁涂装工艺设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李连缀; 李敏风
2011-01-01
The anti-corrosion matching scheme and performance of the Norwegian HAKRDANGER bridge steel box girder inside and outside were introduced. The design of coating process including surface treatment, arc spraying zinc process, spray construction process equipment and related technical parameters requirements were introduced in detail.%介绍了挪威HAKRDANGER大桥钢箱梁内外侧防腐配套方案及性能。着重介绍了涂装工艺设计，包括表面处理、电弧喷锌工艺、喷漆施工等工艺设备及相关技术参数要求等。
Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...
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Landalf, Helen
1998-01-01
Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)
... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...
Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...
Designing Assemblies Of Plates
Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.
1992-01-01
VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.
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Landalf, Helen
1998-01-01
Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)
Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...
Origami - Folded Plate Structures
Buri, Hans Ulrich
2010-01-01
This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...
Fractal multifiber microchannel plates
Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.
1992-01-01
The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.
客货共线1-156m简支钢桁结构分析%Structural analysis of 156 m simply supported steel truss girder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郝云杉
2012-01-01
The simply supported steel truss girder is widely used in railway bridge, because of definite stress, lower structural height, light weight and short construction period. Huanglin Hancheng Houma railway 156 m simply supported steel truss girder is the most span length in China. The bridge uses the triangle web member system without vertical members, which main truss members are box sections, the web members are box sections and H-shape sections. In the plane of the upper chords, the crisscross top lateral bracings are arranged which use I-shape sections. MIDAS Civil 2010 is use to establish the three-dimensional finite element model, calculate internal forces of main truss elements, stress, fatigue stress range and natural vibration period.%简支钢桁梁桥因其受力明确、结构高度低、自重轻以及施工周期短等优点,在铁路桥梁中得到了越来越广泛的采用.黄韩侯铁路单线l-156m栓焊下承式简支钢桁梁是目前国内最大跨度的简支钢桁梁结构.该桥主桁采用无竖杆的三角形腹杆体系,主桁弦杆均采用箱形截面；腹杆采用箱形截面和H形截面；上、下均采用交叉式平纵联,采用工字型截面.采用MIDAS Civil 2010建立该桥三维有限元模型,计算其主桁杆件内力、应力、疲劳应力幅,及全桥自振周期.
Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sandeep Sharma; Abhijit Mukherjee
2014-10-01
This paper describes a non-contact and non-invasive health monitoring strategy for submerged plate structures using guided waves. The structure under consideration is immersed in water and subjected to longitudinal ultrasonic waves at specific angles of incidence using a cylindrical piezoelectric transducer using the surrounding water as coupling medium. Suitable ultrasonic guided wave modes with optimum scanning capabilities have been generated and identified in submerged plate system. Finally, the propagation of selected modes through submerged notched plates is investigated. Sensitivity of leaky waves to the notches has been studied. The methodology would help in identifying damages in the submerged plate structures.
The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.
Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin
2014-05-01
The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hatem M. Seliem
2015-04-01
The study shows that concrete box-girders designed according to ECP-201:2012 and ECP-201:2003 using the ultimate limit state method yield almost the same demand. Despite the increase in the VLL of ECP-201:2012, and consequently the live load forces, concrete I-shaped girder bridges will be subjected to less total factored internal forces in comparison to ECP-201:2003 This is attributed to the interaction between the live to dead loads ratio and the load combinations. Design of composite steel plate girder bridges according to ECP-201:2012 using the allowable stress design method yields over designed sections.
Fuzzy Vibration Control of a Smart Plate
Muradova, Aliki D.; Stavroulakis, Georgios E.
2013-04-01
Vibration suppression of a smart thin elastic rectangular plate is considered. The plate is subjected to external disturbances and generalized control forces, produced, for instance, by electromechanical feedback. A nonlinear controller is designed, based on fuzzy inference. The initial-boundary value problem is spatially discretized by means of the time spectral method. The implicit Newmark-beta method is employed for time integration. Two numerical algorithms are proposed. The techniques have been implemented within MATLAB with the use of the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Representative numerical results are given.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王艳峰; 潘军
2015-01-01
港珠澳大桥浅水区非通航孔桥上部结构采用钢-混组合连续梁。文中主要从桥面板预制、钢主梁整孔制造、钢主梁桥面板组合、组合梁整孔运架，以及组合梁体系转换技术方面阐述了组合梁整孔制造整孔架设技术，体现了大型构件海上施工的“大型化、标准化、工厂化、装配化”理念。%The non-navigable bridge in the shallow water area of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is made of steel-concrete composite structure in the form of continuous box girder structure.This arti-cle expounded the technology of integral fabrication and erection on box girder from fabrication of the precast concrete bridge deck,fabrication of integral span on box girder,combined with steel box gird-er and bridge deck,transport and erection on composite girder,stress system transformation on com-posite girder.It shows the advanced construction concept which is″large-scale,industrialized,stand-ardized and assembled″ in the marine construction.
Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)
2011-12-15
Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.
Bending and stretching of plates
Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S
1964-01-01
The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a
Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.
2012-01-01
Results from a detailed numerical investigation of the post-buckling behaviour of rectangular simply supported steel plates subjected to biaxial in-plane loading are presented. The Steel plates are loaded through forced edge displacements. The effects of initial imperfections, aspect ratio, plate...
A New Accurate Yet Simple Shear Flexible Triangular Plate Element With Linear Bending Strains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damkilde, Lars
2008-01-01
Plate bending elements have been and still are the subject of many papers. Zienkiewicz, given a very good overview of the historical development dating back to around 1965. In this paper focus will entirely be on plate elements taking the shear flexibility into account i.e. using Reissner- Mindlin...... plate theory...
覆膜竹胶模板在现浇箱梁施工中的应用%Application of Coated Bamboo Rubber Template in Situ Box Girder Construction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王培国
2012-01-01
The materials of coated bamboo rubber template is light, its processing and demolition is convenient, and it is easy to operate. So it is widely used in the external and internal model construction of situ box girder. This paper, combined with the actual situ box girder construction, discussed characteristics, scope, process, operation points of coated bamboo rubber template in more detail, for the reference in construction.%覆膜竹肢模板具有材质轻、加工及安拆方便、操作简便特点,广泛用于现浇箱梁外、内模施工,本文结合现浇箱粱施工实际,对覆膜竹胶模板的特点、适用范围、工艺流程、操作要点进行了较为详细的论述,以供施工参考.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨绿峰; 周月娥; 曾有凤
2013-01-01
当前箱型梁剪力滞效应分析的一维离散有限元法对剪力滞函数的处理存在局限性,而且剪力滞系数难以准确反映翼缘截面剪力滞效应及其变化规律.为此,利用箱梁附加挠度代替剪力滞函数建立箱梁翼缘的纵向位移函数,并根据能量变分原理建立控制微分方程并识别了其中的待定参数.以箱梁挠度、附加挠度及其一阶导数作为单元节点位移参数,提出了箱型梁剪力滞效应分析的一维离散有限元法,给出了箱梁的自然边界条件和强迫边界条件.基于箱梁挠度和附加挠度定义了新的剪力滞系数,分析了不同支撑条件对箱型梁剪力滞效应的影响.算例分析证明了该方法的有效性,且具有较高的计算精度；与传统的基于应力的剪力滞系数相比,基于挠度的剪力滞系数能够更加准确地反映箱型梁截面的剪力滞效应及其分布规律.%The shear-lag function in one-dimensional finite element method for box-girders has no definite physical interpretation, and moreover the shear-lag coefficient can not reflect correctly the shear-lag effect and its variation along the axis of box girder. In order to circumvent these problems, the additional deflection function instead of the shear-lag function is incorporated in the longitudinal displacement of the flange of the box girder. The variational principle is employed to identify the undetermined constants in the longitudinal displacement function. Furthermore, the deflection, additional deflection and their first derivatives are adopted as nodal displacement parameters in the discreted finite elements of box-girder, leading to one-dimensional finite element method for the shear-lag effect of box girders. A new shear-lag coefficient is defined in terms of the deflection of the box-girder, based on which the shear-lag effect on box girders is analysed with different boundary conditions considered. Examples show that the shear
大跨径梁桥长期挠度的控制技术研究%Control Technology of Long-term Deflection for Long-span Girder Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄新哲
2011-01-01
This paper analyzed the development of large-span girder bridge, based on the problems of long-term deflection in large-span girder bridge, put forward the causes of long-term deflection and control measures by an example of a bridge, to provide reference for the relevant project officers.%文章就大跨梁桥发展概况进行了剖析,针对大跨梁桥长期挠度的问题现象,以某大桥为例提出了长期挠度成因及控制措施新途径,以供相关工程人员参考.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙宗磊
2012-01-01
结合哈大客运专线沈大段桥梁非标准跨度的特点,从适用、景观、施工控制等方面介绍哈大客运专线变跨结合梁的设计过程,对结合梁外形选择、结构断面选择、施工方案以及计算方法进行了详细介绍.%In view of the characteristics of the bridge with non-standard span on Shenyang-Dalian section of Harbin-Dalian Passenger Dedicated Line, this paper introduces the design process of the composite girder with non-standard span on Harbin - Dalian Passenger Dedicated Line in terms of applicability,landscape and construction control, and explains in detail the selection of girder profile, structural cross-section, construction scheme and calculation method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gonugunta V
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.
License plate detection algorithm
Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds
2013-12-01
A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.
Recovery process for electroless plating baths
Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.
1992-01-01
A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.
Burkhart, Klaus Josef; Nowak, Tobias E; Kim, Yoon-Joo; Rommens, Pol M; Müller, Lars P
2011-04-01
Bulky implants may lead to symptomatic soft tissue irritation after open reduction and internal fixation of radial head and neck fractures. The purpose of our study was to compare the anatomic fit of precontoured radial head plates. We stripped 22 embalmed human cadaveric radiuses of soft tissues. We investigated 6 radial head plates: (1) the Medartis radial head buttress plate (MBP), (2) the Medartis radial head rim plate (MRP), (3) the Synthes radial neck plate (SNP), (4) the Synthes radial head plate (SHP), (5) the Acumed radial head plate (AHP), and (6) the Wright radial head plate (WHP). Each plate was applied to each radial head at the place of best fit within the safe zone. We tested 4 parameters of anatomic fit: (1) plate-to-bone distance, (2) plate contact judged by 3 different observers, (3) pin-subchondral zone distance, and (4) plate-to-bone contact after adjustment of the plates. The MBP and MRP showed the lowest profile by objective measurements, the SNP and AHP had a moderate profile, and the SHP and WHP demonstrated the bulkiest profile. The subjective assessments also demonstrated the best fit for the MBP, a good fit for the SNP, a moderate fit for the MRP and AHP, and a poor fit for the SHP and WHP. The MBP, MRP, and AHP could always provide pin-subchondral zone contact, unlike the SHP, SNP, and WHP. After bending, significant improvement of plate-to-bone distance could only be seen for the MBP, MRP, and WHP. The ranking among plates remained the same except for the WHP, which showed a significantly lower plate-to-bone distance than the SHP. Currently available radial head implants are heterogeneous. The MBP and MRP showed the lowest profile and best anatomic fit. Owing to the complex radial head anatomy, to date there is no one radial head plate that perfectly fits all radial heads. Conformance of existing plates to the radial head and neck is not perfect. Careful plate selection and modification, when necessary, may minimize interference of this
Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊
1999-01-01
The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α（-1）; conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵志强; 姚成
2012-01-01
According to the application of the combined support structure with the anti-sliding pile and lattice girder in the slope treatment, the paper points out the idea of considering the deformation coordination of the anchor cable, the anti-sliding pile and the lattice girder, adopts the finite element software., ABAQUS to undertake the simulation, and concludes the deformation coordination design methods with the anti-sliding pile, the lattice girder and the anchor cable can enhance the slope consolidation effect after the comparative analysis of the results.%针对边坡治理中应用的支护结构——抗滑桩与格构梁联合支护，在设计方法上提出了考虑锚索、抗滑桩、格构梁三者变形协调的思想；利用有限元软件ABAQUS模拟，通过计算结果对比分析，得到了考虑抗滑桩、格构梁以及桩上锚索三者变形协调的设计方法更有利于边坡加固效果的结论。
折线形腹板钢梁的局部承压性能有限元分析%The finite element analysis on folded web steel girder under patch loading
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庄晖; 黄炳生
2012-01-01
The steel beams with folded webs are produced by substituting the folded webs for flat webs, this is a kind of the steel girders with corrugation webs. And such products have superior load-carrying capacity and favorable economic advantages. At present,studies on the behavior of the steel girders under patch loading are scarce at home and abroad. So this paper presents the finite element analysis on folded wed steel girders under patch loading. Observe the failure of the models and the factors that influence the ultimate capacity. Prepare for the text success.%折线形腹板钢梁是将传统钢梁中的平腹板用折线形钢板来代替,是波纹腹板钢梁的一种.该钢梁具有较高的承载力及良好的经济优势.目前,在国内外仅对梯形腹板钢梁的局部承压性能有少量研究.本文作者采用有限元方法对折线形腹板钢梁局部承压性能进行研究,了解其在实际试验中可能发生的破坏模式和各因素对其局部承压力性能的影响,并为今后试验作准备.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
展之芳
2014-01-01
In steel structure project, fabrication process of steel box girder is complex, so it is difficult to control welding deformation. This paper introduced the fabrication process of steel box girder for RP gantry in nuclear power station from the material, assembly, welding and correction. The fabrication process ensures the overall geometry of box girder, and guarantees the effective control of welding deformation and welding quality, achieves a certain economic benefits.%钢结构工程中，箱形钢梁制作工艺复杂，焊接变形控制困难。通过从下料、组装、焊接、矫正等方面详细介绍了核电站RP龙门架箱形钢结构梁的制作工艺过程，该过程保证了箱形钢梁的整体几何尺寸，同时又保证了焊接质量并有效控制了焊接变形，取得了一定经济效益。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王志峰
2015-01-01
Combining with urban rail transit steel structure shelter with variable section box girder as an example,the paper studies construction quality control and limited hoisting construction of steel structure shelter with elevated platform arc variable-section box girder,and solves difficul-ties occurring in quality control and field limitation hoisting process of variable section box girder installation,which has accumulated experience for similar engineering.%结合某市城市轨道交通变截面箱梁钢结构雨篷施工实例，对高架站变截面箱梁钢结构雨篷制作质量控制及场地受限吊装施工展开了技术研究，解决了变截面箱形梁制作安装过程中质量控制及场地受限时吊装过程中的难题，为其他类似工程积累了经验。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨鹏健
2015-01-01
结合350km/h高速铁路常用跨度无砟轨道单线简支箱梁通用参考图设计，介绍该箱梁在梁高、桥面宽度、二期恒载、支座横向中心距、梁端构造等方面的受力分析以及从景观性、经济性方面阐述腹板斜率、外轮廓圆弧倒角等细部构造，并通过计算分析选定合理值。%Based on the General Reference Drawing for Simple Supported Box Girder with Common Span on Balastless Single Track for 350 km/h High Speed Railways, this paper focuses on the analysis of stresses with respect to girder height, bridge deck width, secondary dead load, transverse center distance of bearing, girder end structure, and web slope and arc chamfering of outer contour and other micro structures are illustrated in terms of outlook and economy. Furthermore, reasonable values for these parameters are determined through calculation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
申杨凡; 续琦峰; 杨斌; 王绍全; 郭凯强; 王艳琪; 贾艳敏
2015-01-01
为了分析并对比钢箱梁与钢桁架人行天桥的力学性能，建立了两者的ANSYS有限元计算模型，通过静力分析，得出钢桁架人行天桥的承载力更大，通过动力特性分析，钢桁架人行天桥较钢箱梁人行天桥更易产生扭转，且钢箱梁的自振频率较钢桁架的自振频率要大。%In order to analyze and contrast the steel box girder and steel truss pedestrian bridge mechanical properties,the ANSYS finite element calculation model is established,by static analysis,we can draw the steel truss of pedestrian bridge bearing capacity is larger,through the analy-sis of the dynamic characteristics of the pedestrian steel truss bridge with steel box girder footbridge reverse easier to be produced,and the natural frequency of vibration of the steel box girders for bigger than the natural frequency of vibration of steel truss.
Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R
2014-01-28
An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.
Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...
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Hein, Annamae J.
2011-01-01
The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…
Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...
Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...
Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...
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Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue
2010-02-01
This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.
Hein, Annamae J.
2011-01-01
The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…
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Research on High Speed Maglev Transrapid Girder-on-Bridge System%高速磁浮桥上梁轨道系统方案研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
成广伟
2012-01-01
针对高速磁浮交通新项目前期选线中主要采用的高架线路方案开展了相关工程化应用研究,并介绍了针对高速磁浮高架线路轨道系统方案的优化研究进展.研究立足于优化磁浮系统布置、提高安全疏散效率、节约用地、提高环境保护水平等原则,明确了桥上梁轨道系统方案及相关系统设备布置,提出了结合桥上梁形式的安全疏散逃生方案.通过动模型试验与有限元仿真分析方法,研究了磁浮列车通过桥上梁结构时的空气动力学性能,表明磁浮列车的高速通过空气动力学性能符合要求;结合上海磁浮示范线进行了桥上梁方案的在线模拟展示和降噪性能测试,结果表明,结合声屏障,可将磁浮列车高速气动噪声降低最高13 dB(A).研究结论在相关工程方案中得到了应用,可为类似高速交通系统工程提供参考.%The construction application study on the elevated structure proposed in the new high speed rnaglev transportation line and the advances on the high speed maglev transrapid girder-on-bridge system are introduced in this paper. New practical elevated guideway system is designed based on the principles of optimization of the maglev system arrangement, high escape efficiency, economic use of land and better environment protection, etc. One new guideway system type is provided together with the system arrangement, and one new escape system is provided which can be used in the girder on bridge maglev system. With model test and simulation analysis, the aerodynamic effect of this structure when maglev trains passing was examined, and the test results show that the aerodynamic effect when maglev vehicle passing by is acceptable. This girder on bridge system was presented on the Shanghai maglev demonstration line, and the noise reduction effect was tested. Test results show that noise can be reduced to 13 dB( A) with the barrier screen fixed. Conclusions introduced in this paper
Experimental Modal Anlysis of Pedestrian Steel Box Girder Bridge%人行钢箱梁桥模态试验研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
申杨凡; 杨斌; 何钰龙; 郭凯强; 续琦峰; 王艳琪; 贾艳敏
2016-01-01
为了了解人行钢桥的自振特性，运用东华测试系统对某人行钢箱梁桥进行模态测试，得到桥梁的动力特性参数，并将试验测得的固有频率、模态振型与 ANSYS 有限元模型中的模态数据进行对比分析。分析结果表明：该人行钢箱梁桥的基频的试验值与理论值的误差为3.8％，行人的附加模态质量是对试验产生误差的原因之一，但对结构基频的影响不大，这也就证明了采用峰值拾取法处理时域数据是合理的，同时结合模态判定准则所得模态数据也是可信的，通过该模态测试系统可有效地测得模态参数（固有频率、模态振型及阻尼比）。%In order to study the natural vibration characteristics of the pedestrian bridge steel,a pedestrian steel box girder bridge’s model experiment is carried out with Donghua Test System to get the dynamic characteristics of bridge,and comparing Natural frequency and mode shapes with modal data a-nalysis of ANSYS finite element model.The analysis results indicate that the error between the fundamen-tal frequency experiment value and the theoretical value of the pedestrian steel box girder bridge is 3.8%.And the additional modal mass of pedestrian is one of the reasons why the experiment have error,it’s in-fluence is little.What proved that using the Peak Picking Method to manipulation time domain data is rea-sonable.At the same time,the modal date that obtained by combining with the modal criterion is credi-ble.That modal parameters(natural frequency,modal vibration mode and damping ratio)can be measured effectively by the modal testing system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2012-01-01
正During my high school years,I found physics,chemistry and maths specially interesting.Actually,I was interested in many subjects,such as biology,history,geography and English.But somehow I simply couldn't remember the events of history or the facts about geography.I couldn't remember the some of the English idioms well either.On the other hand,physics,chemistry and maths were easy for me to learn.After considering carefully my interests and talents,I felt that science might be the best choice for me.So I was determined to study natural science at college.After graduating from college,I would like to return to school to teach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王元清; 刘莉媛; 丁大益; 石永久; 完海鹰
2012-01-01
In order to study the in-plane stability performance of the arc axis both ends hinged curved box-girders, numerical method theory was carried out using finite element software ABAQUS. Two-dimensional curved girder models were established to simulate the in-plane stability of curved box-girders. Influences of different central angles, different slenderness ratio, and different initial geometric imperfections on the in-plane stability performances of the curved box-girder were considered. The differences and laws of the numerical solution and classic theoretical solution of the elastic buckling factor were gained. Effects on the stability factor and regularization slenderness ratio of the initial geometric imperfections were given, and the form of axial load-moment curve was calculated as well. The design formulae for calculating the in-plane stability of arc axis curved box-girders can provide theoretical basis and suggestions for the future design.%为研究两端铰接圆弧轴线箱形截面曲梁的平面内整体稳定性能,采用数值方法对其进行了理论研究,采用ABAQUS有限元软件建立了二维的曲梁模型,模拟曲梁的平面内稳定问题.研究了不同圆心角、不同长细比,以及不同大小的初始几何缺陷对圆弧轴线箱形截面曲梁平面内稳定性能的影响,得到了弹性屈曲系数的数值解与经典理论解的差异和规律,给出了初始几何缺陷对稳定系数和正则化长细比关系曲线的影响,并且计算得到了该形式曲梁的轴力-弯矩关系曲线.提出的圆弧轴线箱形截面曲梁平面内稳定的设计公式可为今后的设计提供理论依据和建议.
Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-05-15
The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.
... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...
What Are Growth Plate Injuries?
... plate injuries are: Falling down Competitive sports (like football) Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are: Child abuse Injury from extreme cold (for ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李小珍; 张迅; 刘全民; 张志俊; 李亚东
2013-01-01
以32 m单线和双线单室混凝土简支箱梁为对象,通过噪声试验、结构有限元和声学有限元分析,研究箱梁结构噪声的声辐射特性、峰值频率产生的原因及评价方法.结果表明:列车通过桥梁时,离箱梁表面较远处的噪声级起伏不大,可采用稳态算法简化分析；混凝土箱梁的结构噪声主要分布在250 Hz以下,且随频率的增加而迅速衰减,因此理论预测时可将250 Hz作为截止频率；单线和双线箱梁的2个噪声峰值频率分别为63和160 Hz,以及50和315 Hz,二者均在第1个峰值频率处达到最大声压级,且此峰值频率处的噪声具有明显的有调性；不同箱室尺寸箱梁的结构噪声声辐射差异较大,车速并不是噪声的第一决定因素；混凝土箱梁结构噪声的峰值频率出现在声辐射效率和振动响应均较大处,因此应避免结构振动模态和空腔声学模态重合而导致空腔共鸣引起的噪声被放大；建议修订铁路噪声相关规范时,考虑混凝土箱梁低频结构噪声的危害.%Based on the study objects of single-and double-track simply-supported concrete box-girders with only one cell and a span of 32 m,this paper investigated the sound radiation characteristics of structure-borne noise,reasons leading to peak frequency and evaluation methods by field measurements,structural and acoustical finite element analysis.The results show that:during a train runs across bridge,the noise far away from the box-girder surface fluctuates slightly,which means that simplified steady-state acoustic analysis is feasible; structure-borne noise from concrete box-girder dominates in the frequency lower than 250 Hz and decreases rapidly with increasing frequency,accordingly,250 Hz can be regarded as the upper limiting frequency for theoretical prediction; the two frequencies of peak noise of single-and doubletrack box-girder are 63 and 160 Hz,as well as 50 and 315 Hz,respectively,and the noise reaches
Controlling Laminate Plate Elastic Behavior
Mareš, T.
2004-01-01
This paper aims to express the relation of a measure of laminate plate stiffness with respect to the fiber orientation of its plies. The inverse of the scalar product of the lateral displacement of the central plane and lateral loading of the plate is the measure of laminate plate stiffness. In the case of a simply supported rectangular laminate plate this measure of stiffness is maximized, and the optimum orientation of its plies is searched.
Microchannel plate streak camera
Wang, Ching L.
1989-01-01
An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.
Electronic Equipment Cold Plates
1976-04-01
equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer
Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.
1972-01-01
The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Bo Cerup
1997-01-01
The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Bo Cerup
1998-01-01
The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert W. Fausett
2014-01-01
Full Text Available As part of an investigation on the performance of integral abutment bridges, a single-span, integral abutment, prestressed concrete girder bridge near Perry, Utah was instrumented for live-load testing. The live-load test included driving trucks at 2.24 m/s (5 mph along predetermined load paths and measuring the corresponding strain and deflection. The measured data was used to validate a finite-element model (FEM of the bridge. The model showed that the integral abutments were behaving as 94% of a fixed-fixed support. Live-load distribution factors were obtained using this validated model and compared to those calculated in accordance to recommended procedures provided in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (2010. The results indicated that if the bridge was considered simply supported, the AASHTO LRFD Specification distribution factors were conservative (in comparison to the FEM results. These conservative distribution factors, along with the initial simply supported design assumption resulted in a very conservative bridge design. In addition, a parametric study was conducted by modifying various bridge properties of the validated bridge model, one at a time, in order to investigate the influence that individual changes in span length, deck thickness, edge distance, skew, and fixity had on live-load distribution. The results showed that the bridge properties with the largest influence on bridge live-load distribution were fixity, skew, and changes in edge distance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)
2008-05-15
This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test was part of a proof of concept investigation for a patent. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2007. The tests are an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe National Laboratory for sustainable energy--Technical university of Denmark, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD thesis. This report is the second data report containing the complete test data for the three full-scale tests. This report deals only with the test methods and the obtained results, no conclusions are drawn. These can be found in papers and patent referenced in the data report. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, force transducers, strain gauges and optical deformation measuring system (DIC). The experimental investigation consisted of the following tests: 1) Flapwise bending with no reinforcement 2) Flapwise bending with wire reinforcements 3) Flapwise bending with rib reinforcements. (au)
The Layout Optimization of Main and Secondary Girder Floor System%主次梁楼盖体系的布置优化
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
楼世雄; 朱杰江; 张磊
2016-01-01
In this paper, the layout of main and secondary girder roof system has been optimized by the composition of the floor optimization program.The structure model and internal force analysis are made by calling ETABS software, the optimization for the secondary beam number, the section size of main and secondary beam and the floor thickness is made by LINGO software, which are both under the Visual Basic (.NET 4.0) plat-form, and through this program, the optimal floor layout is achieved.%编制楼盖优化程序，对主次梁楼盖体系进行布置优化。在Visual Basic （．NET 4．0）平台下调用ETABS进行建模和内力分析，调用LINGO优化求解器对次梁数量、主次梁截面尺寸以及楼板厚度进行优化，得到楼盖最优布置。
Application of TMD in Large Span Steel Box Girder Footbridge%TMD在大跨径钢箱梁人行桥上的应用分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苑翔
2013-01-01
This paper introduces the Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) composition and operation principle of the structure, comparison of advantages and disadvantages of TMD and other control of steel box girder footbridge vibration methods, and combined with the Mianyang No.1 bridge footbridge of Sichuan Province as an example, through the use of text and graph-table combination method, describes vividly the practical application of TMD in large span footbridge.% 介绍了质量调谐阻尼器(TMD)的结构组成以及工作原理，比较了TMD与其它控制钢箱梁人行桥振动方法的优缺点，并结合四川省绵阳市一号桥人行桥为工程实例，通过采用文字与图、表相结合的方式，形象地阐述了TMD在大跨径人行桥中的实际应用。
斜拉桥主梁应变监测分析%Girder Strain Analysis of a Cable-stayed Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵平
2012-01-01
The health monitoring system of the bridge maintenance management is an important means to ensure the safety operation. To grasp the working condition, strain analysis is necessary. With practical engineering of a bridge in Xinmi, appling finite-element analysis software of MIDAS/Civil to establish the space model, we analysis the stress of the girder in the construction stage and compare the academic value and the practical value. The conclusion will provide a reference to the same bridges.%基于健康监测系统的桥梁养护管理是保证其安全运营的重要手段.而对监测数据进行分析以把握结构的工作状态是一个必须环节.结合新密某桥梁的工程实践,运用有限元软件建立主梁有限元空间模型,模拟分析施工阶段主梁应力,并对应力理论值和实测值进行对比与分析.结论将为同类桥梁应力监测提供参考.
Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bowin
2009-03-01
Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm^{2}s^{−1}. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive
Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.
RELATIVE MOTION AND DEFORMATION OF PACIFIC PLATE FROM SPACE GEODESY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JinShuanggen; ZhuWenyao
2003-01-01
The circum-Pacific tectonic system that contains of convergent, divergent and transform boundaries, is the most active region of volcanoes and earthquakes in the world, and involves many important theoretical questions in geosciences. The relative motion and deformation of Pacific plate is still an active subject of research. In this note, we analyze the deformation of Pacific plate and obtain reliable results of the relative motion rates at the circum-Pacific boundaries based on space geodetic data, which reveals the present-day motion characteristics of Pacific plate.
RAYLEIGH LAMB WAVES IN MICROPOLAR ISOTROPIC ELASTIC PLATE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rajneesh Kumar; Geeta Partap
2006-01-01
The propagation of waves in a homogeneous isotropic micropolar elastic cylindrical plate subjected to stress free conditions is investigated. The secular equations for symmetric and skew symmetric wave mode propagation are derived. At short wave limit,the secular equations for symmetric and skew symmetric waves in a stress free circular plate reduces to Rayleigh surface wave frequency equation. Thin plate results are also obtained. The amplitudes of displacements and microrotation components are obtained and depicted graphically. Some special cases are also deduced from the present investigations. The secular equations for symmetric and skew symmetric modes are also presented graphically.
Thermally Induced Principal Parametric Resonance in Circular Plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali H. Nayfeh
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of large-amplitude vibrations of a simply supported circular flat plate subjected to harmonically varying temperature fields arising from an external heat flux (aeroheating for example. The plate is modeled using the von Karman equations. We used the method of multiple scales to determine an approximate solution for the case in which the frequency of the thermal variations is approximately twice the fundamental natural frequency of the plate; that is, the case of principal parametric resonance. The results show that such thermal loads produce large-amplitude vibrations, with associated multi-valued responses and subcritical instabilities.
Sharp, David E; Sobal, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian
2014-12-01
Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods - such as meat versus vegetables - differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, which showed that the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are that plate size may influence portion size and change the proportions of foods served.
Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.
Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) oocytes' contact plate structure and development.
Adonin, Leonid S; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G; Podgornaya, Olga
2012-01-01
One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the "contact plate". Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high M(r) bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides M(r) corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' M(r) is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.
Real Plates and Dubious Microplates
Kogan, M. G.; Steblov, G. M.
2008-12-01
From the onset of plate tectonics, the existence of most of the plates was never put in doubt, although the boundaries of some plates, like Africa, were later revised. There are however, two microplates in northeast Asia, the Amurian and Okhotsk, whose existence and the sense of rotation was revised several times. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 0.5-0.9 mm/a for sets of stations representing the motion of the following plates: Antarctic, Australian, Eurasian, North American, Nubian, Pacific, and South American. This value can be regarded as an upper bound on deviation of real plates from infinite stiffness. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 1.2-1.8 mm/a for the Indian, Nazca, and Somalian plates. Higher rms values for India and Nazca are attributed to the noisier data. The higher rms value for Somalia appears to arise from the distributed deformation to the east of the East African Rift; whether this statement is true can only be decided from observations of denser network in the future. From the analysis of plate-residual GPS velocities, the Canadian Arctic and northeastern Siberia belong to the North American plate. The detailed GPS survey on Sakhalin Island shows that the Sea of Okhotsk region also belongs to the North American plate while the region to the west of it belongs to the Eurasian plate. These results provide a constraint on the geometry of the North American plate and put in doubt the existence of smaller plates in northeast Asia.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2008-08-04
The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods. Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 8/5/2008.
Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A
2014-01-01
We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.
2014-01-01
We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend ...
Zainab, Karam
2013-01-01
There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations : RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4 While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘朵; 张建东; 刘钊
2013-01-01
The steel truss-web and pre-stressed concrete composite girder bridge consists of two parts :steel truss-web and top-and-bottom concrete board .Because the distribution of shear deformation is non-uniform ,the composite box girder bridge has the obvious shear-lag effect under longitudinal bending .Taking a steel truss-web and pre-stressed concrete composite girder bridge for example ,the shear-lag effect and the distribution law of effective width are analyzed by the fi-nite element model of space ,and the effects of top-and-bottom thickness and steel pipe thickness on the shear-lag effect are studied here so as to provide references for the similar design in the future .%钢桁腹预应力混凝土组合梁桥在截面形式上采用桁式腹杆和混凝土顶底板，由于剪切变形的不均匀性，使得组合箱梁在纵向弯曲时产生较为明显的剪滞效应。以某钢桁腹混凝土组合梁桥为例，利用空间实体模型分析了剪滞效应和有效宽度分布规律，并研究了顶底板厚度及钢管壁厚对剪滞效应的影响，为今后同类桥型的设计提供参考。
Model Test of Continuous Composite Box Girder in Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge%港珠澳大桥组合连续箱梁模型试验研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘沐宇; 毛玉东; 邓晓光; 徐镜; 张强; 卢志芳
2014-01-01
A two-span composite continuous box girder (2 × 8.5 m) test model was designed based on the HZMB shallow water non-navigable bridge according to principle of similitude.Gradation loading test and finite element modeling were researched based on the actual construction process and operation load.The experimental results show that under 100％ and 150％ normal operation loads,the measured value of each key strain and deflection measure point in steel girder and concrete is linear,and the connection between the shear studs of cluster type and concrete slab is well.In addition,the unloading spring-back strain and deflection is small.In a word,for the high safety capacity and excellent structural overall performance,the continuous composite box girder bridge should be popularized and applied.%以港珠澳大桥组合连续箱梁为研究背景,基于相似原理设计制作了2×8.5m的钢-混组合连续箱梁试验模型.根据实桥施工过程和运营荷载,对试验模型开展分级加载试验和有限元模拟.结果表明:正常运营和150％运营荷载下,集束式剪力钉和混凝土板连接良好,钢箱梁、混凝土板应变和挠度呈线性增长,且卸载回弹良好,表明钢-混组合连续箱梁桥受力安全储备高,结构整体性能好,值得推广应用.
Localised Plate Motion on Venus
Ghail, R. C.
1996-03-01
The volcanic and tectonic features observed in Dali Vinculum, Parga Vinculum and Imdr Regio are concentrated at long, narrow, curvilinear zones, with relatively minor volcanism and tectonism between these zones. These zones, whilst more diffuse than terrestrial plate boundaries, nevertheless define the margins of tectonic plates. In contrast to Earth, however, it appears that venusian plates are neither created nor destroyed by lateral motion. Rather, plates are thinned and intruded at vincula plate boundaries, vertically accreted by small-scale intra-plate (planitia) volcanism and perhaps destroyed by delamination of thickened crust in tesserae and montane regions such as Thetis Regio and Ishtar Terra. The diversity in age both between and within these three areas together with the evidence for infrequent, small scale resurfacing in the planitiae are difficult to reconcile with a non-uniformitarian geological process.
Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.
1984-01-01
A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.
Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.
1984-01-01
A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.
Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating
2006-06-01
Dry fixture thoroughly with the air gun. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process...easily destroyed if blown with the air. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process and...especially careful to dry water out of crevices. 13. Carefully remove part from fixture. If residual plating solution is present at attachments points
Plate size does not affect perception of food portion size.
Penaforte, F R O; Japur, C C; Diez-Garcia, R W; Hernandez, J C; Palmma-Linares, I; Chiarello, P G
2014-04-01
Evidences have suggested that larger utensils may provoke 'size-contrast illusions', influencing the perceived volume and food consumption. To analyse the influence of plate size on the visual estimate of food portion size. Two 400 g portions of pasta with tomato sauce were presented on two plates of different diameters (24.0 and 9.0 cm). Each participant visually estimated on an individual basis the quantities of the pasta portions (g) present on each plate. In addition, each subject classified the size of the portions on each plate as 'small', 'medium' and 'large'. The mean estimates of the amount of pasta on each plate were compared by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney. The differences in the frequencies of portion classifications between plates were evaluated by the chi-squared test. Forty-eight students (average 25.8 ± 8.9 years) participated in the study. There was no difference in the median amount of pasta estimated for the large and small plates (150 g; range 50-500 and 115 g; range 40-500 g, respectively). The classification of the portion size as 'large' was reported by a significantly greater number of persons when they evaluated the amount of pasta arranged on the large plate compared to the small plate (47.9 versus 22.9%, respectively; P = 0.018). The size of the plate did not influence the estimate of food portions, even though it did influence the classification of portion size. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田仲初; 陈耀章; 赵利平; 程永舟
2012-01-01
In order to study local force characters of the large span continuous steel tank girder incremental launching, taking a 6× 90 m vertical curve of variable curvature continuous steel girder as the research object, the whole simulation model was set up by the software MIDAS 2006 with ＂beam remain still and only lower supports reverse move＂ method. Then based on the analysis re- suits of the whole girder, a ＂beam-shell-solid-contact＂ hybrid finite element model was set up with ANSYS APDL and by means of Excel and CAD assistance under the unfavorable condition. The theoretical and measured values show that the steel girder local force meets the requirements at the sliding part, but the angular displacement is too large. According to the actual engineering situation, two effective improvements are suggested to solve a series of problems which are caused by the exaggerated angular displacement, the one is that the steps nose beam is adopted in the first measure, the second measure adopt a combination of steps nose beam, weights and in- creasing the stiffness of part of the steel beam. 6 tabs, 9 figs, 13 refs.%为了研究大跨度连续钢梁顶推的局部受力特性,以6×90m变曲率竖曲线连续钢梁顶推为研究对象,根据梁不动、下部支撑移动的＂倒退＂方法,采用商用程序MIDAS 2006建立顶推整体有限元模型,并对其进行仿真分析。在此基础上,根据顶推整体仿真计算结果,选取滑道处钢梁最不利工况,借助EXCEL和CAD等辅助工具,运用ANSYS的APDL语言快速建立＂梁-壳-实-接触＂混合有限元模型。理论和实测值均表明：最不利工况下滑道处钢梁局部受力满足要求,但转角位移过大。结合工程实际情况,提出了2种有效改善措施：第一种采用台阶导梁;第二种采用台阶导梁、压重和增大部分钢梁截面刚度的组合方式。
Local stress analysis of flat steel box girder with circular arc lower desk%圆弧形底面扁平钢箱梁局部应力分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
饶瑞; 黄小峰; 林桢楷
2011-01-01
A flat steel box girder with circular arc lower desk was analyzed by two steps with two models, a whole bridge model established by larger scale elements and a segment model established by little scale elements. The whole bridge model was analyzed firstly to determine the boundary condition for the segment mod el. Then the local stress distributions of the upper desk and the lower desk were studied based on the segment model with the obtained boundary condition under the dead load and the living load. It is found that shear lag effects are significant in the upper and the lower desk and that effects of the ribs on the mid - span section are larger then that on the section near the pier. Comparisons of the lower desk stress dlstributions between two kinds of the flat steel box girder show that stress distributions of the girder with fold line lower desk are uniform than that of the girder with circular arc lower desk.%采用从整体到局部、从粗放到精细的两阶段两尺度分析方法,对国内首个圆弧形底面扁平钢箱梁在运营状态下的局部应力进行分析.用大尺度单元建立全桥模型,用小尺度单元建立梁段模型.通过分析全桥模型获得梁段模型的边界约束力.在此基础上,利用梁段模型研究钢箱梁在恒载和活载作用下项、底板的应力响应.研究表明:圆弧形底面扁平钢箱梁顶、底板均存在剪力滞现象,U肋对跨中截面应力分布的影响大于墩顶附近截面.圆弧形底面钢箱梁的底板正应力不均匀程度略大于折线形底面钢箱梁.
叶梁缠绕机张力控制系统建模与设计%Modelling and Design of Tension Control System for Girder Winding Machine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈云军; 蒋秀明; 杨公源
2012-01-01
Periodic tension disturbances and large tension variations occur in a winding cycle due to the rectangle shape of the section of girder. The location of key parameters which affect tension control accuracy through the establishment of mathematical models for winding and unwinding, combined with application of the predictive control, the identification of system and an dynamic compensation method, plus the adoption of the master/slave control mode which is based on industrial control computer high performance programmable multi-axis controller (PMAC) and tension controller (TO, can effectively solve the problem. The ±4% dynamic tension accuracy of the tension control system has been proven. The work meets the demands of the enterprise, and has yielded obvious economic and social benefits.%缠绕构件叶梁的横截面为矩形,缠绕过程中存在张力波动和切换点处张力突变现象.通过建立缠绕和放卷两大部分的数学模型,找出影响张力变化的几个关键因素,融合预测控制、系统辨识、动态补偿等控制算法,采用计算机+多轴运动控制器+张力控制器(IPC+PMAC+TC)的主从控制模式,有效避免了缠绕过程中切换点处的张力跳变问题.运行状况表明,该系统张力动态控制精度为±4％,满足企业的使用要求,取得了明显的经济效益和社会效益.
Graves, J. R.
1974-01-01
Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.
Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D
2008-01-04
Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.
2000-01-01
From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).
Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates
Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan
2008-01-01
The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time
Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates
Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan
The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time
Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.
Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick
2014-04-24
The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.
Elasticity solutions for functionally graded plates in cylindrical bending
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Bo; DING Hao-jiang; CHEN Wei-qiu
2008-01-01
The plate theory of functionally graded materials suggested by Mian and Spencer is extended to analyze the cylindrical bending problem of a functionally graded rectangular plate subject to uniform load. The expansion formula for displacements is adopted. While keeping the assumption that the material parameters can vary along the thickness direction in an arbitrary fashion, this paper considers orthotropic materials rather than isotropic materials. In addition, the traction-free condition on the top surface is replaced with the condition of uniform load applied on the top surface. The plate theory for the particular case of cylindrical bending is presented by considering an infinite extent in the y-direction. Effects of boundary conditions and material inhomogeneity on the static response of functionally graded plates are investigated through a numerical example.
Vibration analysis of composite laminate plate excited by piezoelectric actuators.
Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng
2013-01-01
Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control.
Flexural Vibration Characteristics of Initially Stressed Composite Plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rupesh Daripa
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The influence of localised in-plane load on the flexural vibration characteristics of isotropic and composite plates have been studied using a four-noded shear flexible high precision plate bending finite element. First, the critical buckling loads of such plates subjected to partial or concentrated compressive loads were calculated, then the linear and nonlinear flexural vibration frequencies were obtained. Limited parametric study was carried out to study the influences of location and distribution of tensile or compressive in-plane load on the vibration frequencies of such plates.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.106-111, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.117
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡志红; 王攀; 邹红丹
2015-01-01
The bridge cited as an example in this study is a combined prestressed concrete con-tinuous beam and rigid-frame composite box girder bridge with span arrangement of(80+2 × 150+80) m.The box girder adopts the two-cell single box cross section with straight diaphragms ,cas-ted in situ in cantilevers using form travelers.During the construction of the first 8 sections ,longi-tudinal cracks were found in the base slabs of the box girder.ANSYS was used to establish the fi-nite element models of the No.1 and No.2 box girder sections and calculate the stress distribution condition of the girder under 4 load cases.By analyzing the distributive law of the cracks in the base slabs of the girder ,the transverse stress and temperature during the curing of the box girder concrete were monitored.and the causes inducing longitudinal cracks in the base slabs of the box girder was analyzed.The results of the analysis indicate that the gradient thermal loading effect in-side the concrete takes the major responsibility for longitudinal cracks.T hen the measures for in-tensifying the transverse prestressing tendons in the base slabs of box girder were proposed.The curing of base slabs should also be given enough attention.By using the aforementioned measures , no marked longitudinal cracks were found in the base slabs of the box girder during the construc-tion monitoring of the girder sections.%某预应力混凝土连续梁-刚构组合箱梁桥跨径布置为(80+2 × 150+80 ) m ,箱梁为直腹板单箱双室截面 ,采用挂篮悬臂现浇施工 ,在前8个节段的施工过程中 ,箱梁底板出现了纵向裂缝.采用ANSYS建立1号、2号节段箱梁实体有限元模型 ,计算4种荷载工况下箱体的应力分布情况 ,并监测箱梁混凝土养护过程中的横向应力和温度 ,分析了箱梁底板纵向裂缝开裂原因.分析得出混凝土内部的梯度温度荷载效应是底板产生纵向裂缝的主要原因 ,提出加强箱梁底板的横向配筋及
A Study of the Efficiency of High-strength, Steel, Cellular-core Sandwich Plates in Compression
Johnson, Aldie E , Jr; Semonian, Joseph W
1956-01-01
Structural efficiency curves are presented for high-strength, stainless-steel, cellular-core sandwich plates of various proportions subjected to compressive end loads for temperatures of 80 F and 600 F. Optimum proportions of sandwich plates for any value of the compressive loading intensity can be determined from the curves. The efficiency of steel sandwich plates of optimum proportions is compared with the efficiency of solid plates of high-strength steel and aluminum and titanium alloys at the two temperatures.
Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.
Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.
2015-09-22
A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.
Gold plating on spectacle frames.
Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G
1997-05-01
An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李丽萍; 孔德仁; 王芳; 商飞; 贾云飞
2016-01-01
In order to eliminate the interference in traditional electric measurement of shock wave pressure,a method to evaluate the shock wave pressure based on reactant plate plastic deformation was proposed.Considering the complexity of the theoretical reactant plate model with multiple parameters,the dimensional analysis was introduced to simplify the model,by which the relations between the deformation of reactant plate and TNT equivalent,mounting height and explosion distance wave obtained.Then,a calculation model of reactant plate deformation under standard TNT explosive shock wave was established.Three groups of experiments were designed to measure the reactant plate deformation under explosion shock wave of three TNT equivalents of 100 kg,60 kg and 20 kg.A regression analysis method was applied to calculate the coefficients of the empirical models for vertical and horizontal reactant plates.Through comparison of the deformations by experiments empirical models,the errors of vertical reactant plate are less than 3.59%and 3.33% respectively.The analysis provides new ideas for shock wave damage effectiveness assessment and can greatly reduce the amount of explosive experiments.%针对传统的冲击波压力电测法易受爆炸场寄生效应干扰问题，提出基于效应靶塑性变形的爆炸冲击波压力评定方法。由于效应靶理论模型复杂、参数较多，利用量纲分析方法简化模型获得爆炸冲击波压力作用的效应靶最大挠度与炸药 TNT 当量、炸高及炸距之关系，并建立冲击波压力作用的效应靶最大挠度计算模型；设计100 kg、60 kg、20 kg三种标准 TNT 爆炸的立靶、平靶实验，用回归分析法获得二者经验模型系数。结果表明，立靶与平靶两种结构效应靶最大挠度实验结果与经验模型计算结果误差分别优于3．59％及3．33％。该研究可指导战斗部冲击波压力评估，进而减少爆炸实验量。
Plate shell structures of glass
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Anne
. This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...
The moving plate capacitor paradox
Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.
2000-03-01
For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.
SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration
Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael
2012-01-01
The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.
Thin plate neotectonic models of the Australian plate
Burbidge, D. R.
2004-10-01
Thin plate finite element models of the neotectonic deformation of the Australian plate have been calculated in order to estimate the stress and strain rate within the plate, specifically concentrating on the Australian continent. The model includes plate-bounding faults, an anelastic brittle-ductile layered rheology and the option of laterally varying elevation and heat flow. The results of the models are compared to (1) the velocity of geodetic benchmarks on the Australian plate, (2) the spreading rate of the mid-oceanic ridges along the Australian plate's margins, (3) the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress, (4) the stress regime within the plate, and (5) the crustal thickness estimated from the depth to the base of Mohorovicic discontinuity's transition zone. A variety of models are tested with a wide range of input parameters. The model with the smallest misfit with observations predicts that the strain rate for most of the Australian continent is approximately 10-17 s-1. This model has a slightly lower strain rate in the central Australia and is higher off the northern coast of Australia than for the rest of the continent. Strain rates of this magnitude would be difficult to observe from geodetic or geologic data for most parts of Australia but would be enough to generate much of the seismicity that has been observed over the last century.
Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration
Stelmashuk, Vitaliy
2016-09-01
Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.
Klyszewski, Andrzej; Zelechowski, Janusz; Opyrchal, Mieczyslaw; Nowak, Marek; Frontczak, Andrzej; Rutecki, Pawel
Thin 3003 alloy strips plated with 4343 alloy were subjected to microstructure examinations, X-ray phase analysis, corrosion testing, and measurement of basic mechanical properties. In a similar manner, the properties of heat exchangers made from the plated strip were characterised, watching the long-term consequences of their use in vehicles. The results of investigations were applied in the manufacturing technology of thin plated strips for heat exchangers used by the automotive industry.
Random vibrations of composite beams and plates
Abdelnaser, Ahmad Shehadeh
In this study, a generalized modal approach is presented to solve more general vibration problems of composite beams and plates. The coupled systems of partial differential equations, representing the equations of motion, are uncoupled into modal equations by utilizing the eigenfunctions of the system and its adjoint. A method is presented to obtain these eigenfunctions for beams with arbitrary boundary conditions and for plates with Levy-type boundary conditions. The forced vibration solutions obtained by this method are then used to calculate the random response characteristics of beams and plates subjected to spatially and temporally correlated random loads. In the analysis of beams, both symmetric cross-ply and angle-ply configurations have been considered. In the symmetric cross-ply configuration with no torsional loads, of course, the warping effects are absent. The angle-ply case, however, includes torsion-warping effects and coupled bending-torsion motions. A simple displacement field is introduced to reflect warping in the third-order shear deformation theory. In the analysis of plates two configurations of the laminates have also been considered: symmetric cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply. At this time, these are the only two configurations which can be solved by the closed-form modal analysis approach for the Levy-type boundary conditions. In both cases of the beams and plates, the numerical results with and without shear deformations are obtained and compared. The result for no shear deformation theory are obtained with the classical lamination theory. The results have also been obtained for the first-order shear deformation theory with a somewhat simpler displacement field which has been commonly used in the past. The numerical results are obtained for the global response quantities such as frequencies, displacements, and crossing rates as well as for the local response quantities such as normal and shear stresses across a cross section. The
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁亦竑
2011-01-01
介绍了国内首组城市轨道交通用三段定心式道岔在研制过程中的转辙分析过程.以三开道岔为例,通过自编程序对道岔转辙过程进行模拟,得到了转辙全过程中道岔各梁段的运动情况,找到了转辙过程中加速度变化的最大位置,为道岔转辙机构的具体设计提供了参考.%This article made a brief introduction to shunting process analysis in developing the 3-girder-switch with fixed rotating center of the Chinas first group for rail transit. Taking a 3 - way switch as an example, we simulated shunting process by the software which was developed by ourselves. We gained the kinematics conditions of all the girders during the shunting process of the switch, and finally found out the place where the maximum of the acceleration changing rate was located. The results can provide a reference for the specific design of the shunting device of the switch.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贺喜萍
2011-01-01
结合具体工程实例,针对曲线段预应力混凝土连续箱梁施工技术进行了探讨,分别阐述了桥孔平面线形处理,弦弧差调整,墩顶连续端的处理,基桩坐标的确定等内容,以期指导今后同类工程,保证曲线段预应力混凝土箱梁平面线形美观。%Combining with the factual project examples,the paper explores the construction technique of the prestressed concrete continuous box girder at curve section,illustrates the treatment of the plane alignment of bridge holes,the adjustment of chord and arc difference,and the treatment of the continuous ends of pier tops,and the identification of the coordinate of foundation piles,so as to direct the similar projects and ensure the beauty of the plane lines of the prestressed concrete continuous box girder at curve section.
The Compare Between Steel Box Girder And Steel Truss In City Overpass%钢箱梁及钢桁架城市人行天桥对比分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范旭辉
2012-01-01
Steel box girder bridges are widely used in our city pedestrian bridge and it has the characteristic such as linear appearance and easy factory prefabricated construction. However, due to the need to control the vertical nat- ural vibration frequency, the box girder general beam steel is too high. As a result the steel truss bridge in the city pedestrian bridge is also a widely the popularity of the bridge type. The particle compares among the same span of two bridge type comprehensive comparison of the amount of structural steel, vertical natural frequency, constructa- bility, stairways climbed higher.%钢箱梁桥在我国城市人行天桥中应用广泛,其优点是线型美观,工厂预制装配式施工方便等。然而由于需要控制竖向自振频率,钢箱梁一般梁高过高,造成压抑感强,两侧梯道过长等缺点也不容忽视,因此钢桁架桥在城市人行桥中也是一种可以广泛普及的桥型,本文对相同跨径的两种桥型就结构用钢量、竖向自振频率、施工性、梯道爬高等方面进行了综合对比。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
辛慧; 赵玲
2014-01-01
Taking prestressed concrete single box multi-cells continuous wide box Girder Bridge at Tongqi street Nantong city as the background, the paper establishes entity unit spa-tial finite element models. There is a comparison between calculated value which is got though increasing the coefficient of normal stress in each location point of box Girder min-span calculation section and the value calculated by common sim-plified method. The paper discusses the feasibility of the simp-lified calculation method and offers a reference for the similar engineering design.%以南通通启路高架工程的预应力混凝土单箱多室连续宽箱梁桥为背景，建立实体单元空间有限元模型，将箱梁跨中截面各位置点的正应力增大系数计算值与常用简化计算方法所得值进行对比，探讨简化计算方法的可行性，供同类工程设计参考。
Highly curved microchannel plates
Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.
1990-01-01
Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.
Laser Induced Selective Activation For Subsequent Autocatalytic Electroless Plating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Yang
The subject of this PhD thesis is “Laser induced selective activation for subsequent autocatalytic electroless plating.” The objective of the project is to investigate the process chains for micro structuring of polymer surfaces for selective micro metallization. Laser induced selective activation...
Ceramic hot plate and method for its manufacture
Noordhoek, M.J.; Van den Heuvel, R.C.; Kelder, E.M.; Schoonman, J.
2000-01-01
The subject is a hot plate comprising at least one cooking zone of ceramic material to be located above a heat source of a cooking range. The cooking zone consists of a ceramic material exhibiting a Mott transition. The material exhibiting a Mott transition may consist of a primary ceramic material,
The concept of locking plates.
Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R
2010-05-01
After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.
Analytical solutions of simply supported magnetoelectroelastic circular plate under uniform loads
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈江英; 丁皓江; 侯鹏飞
2003-01-01
In this paper, the axisymmetric general solutions of transversely isotropic magnetoelectroelastic media are expressed with four harmonic displacement functions at first. Then, based on the solutions, the analytical three-dimensional solutions are provided for a simply supported magnetoelectroelastic circular plate subjected to uniform loads. Finally, the example of circular plate is presented.
Bogner, R. S.; Farris, C. D. (Inventor)
1974-01-01
An improved silver-zinc battery particularly suited for use in an environment where battery operation is subjected to multiple charge/discharge cycling over extended periods is described. The battery seperator system, containing a highly absorbent material continguous with the surfaces of the plates and multiple semi-permeable membranes interposed between the plates, is also characterized.
Design of Prestressed Concrete Box Girder Based on Life Cycle%基于全寿命周期的预应力砼小箱梁设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余少华
2013-01-01
With the increasing age of bridge girders,performance degradation is an unavoidable phenomenon. In addition to the natural aging,the bridge performance degradation can be attributed to many factors,such as the bridge construction speed,short design cycle,the outdated design concepts,serious overload,lack of mainte-nance and so on. Therefore,it is significant to take into consideration the whole bridge life cycle in the scientific design of bridges. This study first collected the road area data of a newly built bridge,including environmental data,traffic data and other basic structure data,then divided the life cycle with reference to the bridge mainte-nance specification provisions of the management and maintenance unit,and finally analyzed the cycle cost. This preliminary study on the cycle life of commonly-used prestressed concrete box beam tries to provide some reference for the bridge design.%随着桥龄的增加，主梁性能老化是无法避免的现象。然而桥梁性能退化除了自然老化外，还与桥梁建设速度过快、设计周期短、理念陈旧、超载超限严重、疏于管养等因素有关。因此，科学的设计应把桥梁纳入全寿命周期考虑，本研究先搜集了新建桥梁公路干线所在地区的相关数据，如环境数据、交通量、基本及已建桥梁的结构数据，再结合管养单位执行的桥梁养护规范规定划分生命周期，进行周期成本分析，对常用的预应力砼小箱梁进行了全寿命周期设计的初步研究，以供同道参考。
PC连续箱梁合龙束横向效应%Transverse Effect of Bottom Continuity Tendons in Continuous PC Box Girder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
项贻强; 唐国斌; 朱汉华; 晁春峰
2011-01-01
Bottom continuity tendons induce transverse additive effect while providing longitudinal compression during the construction of PC box girder. Taking a cross-sea bridge for example, the mechanism of bottom continuity tendon is investigated. The transverse effect and parameters study are conducted through a refined model. It is illustrated that the state of bottom flange is in a dynamic changeable process during the tensioning of bottom continuity tendons, and the transverse effect caused by the tendons is much more than that by dead loading and other prestressing tendons. The transverse effect is more sensitive to alignment and thickness of the bottom flange, as well as concrete cover of the ducts. Finally, based on the simplified frame analysis, the design method is proposed by introducing prestressing effect simplified factor and duct modified factor.%PC连续箱梁合龙束张拉不仅使底板纵向受压,同时在横向产生附加效应;以某跨海大桥为例,对底板合龙束作用机理进行探讨,并通过精细有限元模型,对施工过程中合龙束的横向效应进行分析和参数研究;结果表明,合龙束张拉过程中底板横向应力处于动态变化过程,其横向效应远大于恒载和其它预应力作用结果,同时,合龙束的横向效应对底板的线形、厚度及孔道保护层较为敏感;最后,基于横向框架法,通过引入预应力效应简化系数和孔道修正系数,提出合龙束横向效应的简化计算方法.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡于进; 文定旭; 王学林
2012-01-01
以运架梁起重船为对象,对其作业过程中吊重的非线性动力学响应进行研究。基于吊摆系统的几何约束,构建了多点吊摆系统的双摆模型,运用带乘子的拉格朗日方程建立了吊摆系统的非线性动力学模型,对规则波条件下3000吨大型起重船吊重的动力学响应进行了仿真分析。比较了线性及非线性方程下吊重的运动规律以及船舶纵摇角对双摆系统摆角的影响,讨论了变绳长的方法对吊物系统的摆幅进行控制的理论模型。同时,对提出的理论模型仿真结果与Adams刚体动力学模型结果进行了比较分析。%The crane ship of transporting and lifting girders was focused. The nonlinear dynamic response of suspended load system during operation of the crane was analyzed. A double pendulum model for the multi-point suspended load system was constructed based on the geometric constraints. Nonlinear dynamic model of the suspended pendulum was established using the Lagrange multiplier equation. A simulation of dynamic response analysis was calculated based on 3000 tons crane under the condition of regular waves. In this work, trajectory of swing laws under linear and nonlinear equations, and the effect of the ship pitching angle to the swing angle of double-pendulum system were compared respectively. The swing controlling theoretical model was discussed using method of changing the rope length. At the same time, the simulation results of the mathematical theoretical model were compared with the Adams rigid body dynamics model.
2015-04-08
color filtering and spectral imaging ,” Nat. Comm. 1, 59 (2010). 3. H.-F. Shi and L. J. Guo, “Design of Plasmonic Near Field Plate at Opitical...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0085 OPTICAL NEAR-FILED PLATES Roberto Merlin UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 04/08/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...03-2015 Final 09/01/2009-12/31/2014 Optical Near-Field Plates FA9550-09-1-0636 erlin, Roberto, D. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Plate shell structures of glass
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Anne
to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....
Heel strike detection using split force-plate treadmill.
Rouhani, Hossein; Abe, Masaki O; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei
2015-03-01
A common source of error when detecting heel-strike moments utilizing split force-plate treadmills is unwillingly stepping on contra-lateral force-plate. In this study, we quantified this error when heel-strike was detected based on such erroneous data and compared three methods to investigate how well the heel-strikes and stride-intervals were detected with erroneous data. Eleven subjects walked on a split force-plate treadmill for more than 20min. We used 20N and 50% body-weight thresholds to detect the heel-strike moments (HS20N and HS50%, respectively). Besides, we used linear approximation to estimate the unaffected force profile from affected force-plate data, and subsequently to detect the heel-strike moments (HSest). We used heel-strike moments detected by a foot-switch as a reference to compare accuracy of HS20N, HS50% and HSest. HS20N and HSest detected heel-strike moments accurately for unaffected force-plate data (median(max) errors for all subjects: 9(23) and 9(37) ms) but HS50% showed significantly larger errors (52(74) ms). Unlike HS50% and HSest, HS20N was considerably affected by the affected force-plate data (23(68) ms). The error in stride-interval measurement was relatively small using any methods for unaffected force-plate data (3(7), 6(8), and 6(12) ms), while stride-interval errors were large for some subjects when using HS20N for affected data (6(175) ms). We concluded that unwillingly stepping on contra-lateral force-plate occurred a few percent and up to 37.7% of all strides (median: 12.9%). Our proposed method (HSest) robustly showed small errors for heel-strike detection and stride-interval calculation consistently among subjects, while HS50% and HS20N showed large errors depending on subjects.
Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates
2010-01-01
The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jayachandra Reddy
2015-02-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study has been carried out to compare the functional outcome of fracture fixation in diaphyseal forearm fractures by using Locking Compression Plate versus Limited contact dynamic compression Plate. To study the difference in the duration of union & complications with LCP & LC - DCP. METHODOLOGY: It is a prospective randomised comparative study which was carried out from December 2012 to December 2014 in our In stitution. In Group I, 20 patients were subjected to open reduction and internal fixation with 3.5 mm stainless steel LCP and locking head/nonlocking screws. In Group II, 20 patients were managed by 3.5mm LCDCP and non - locking screws. Clinical assessments regarding pain and function, radiological assessments were undertaken at the final follow - up. RESULTS - The time required for LCP fixation (mean 93.5 min, range 75 - 120 min was found to be more than that required for LC - DCP (mean 81.94 min, range 60 - 110 mi n. But this time difference was not significant (P=0.07, unpaired t test. The mean time of union for the forearm fixed with LCP was found to be 18 weeks (range 14 - 26 weeks in comparison to 16 weeks (range 10 - 22 weeks for the LC - DCP group. CONCLUSION - LC plating is an effective treatment option for fractures shaft of forearm. The present study could not prove the superiority of LCP over LC - DCP. It is the proper application of the principles of plating and not the type of plate which decides the outco me. Further long - term multicentric study is required to prove behaviors of the implant.
Near-Field Acoustic Holography of Chladni Plate
Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Yunbog; Jeon, Dongryul
2007-03-01
Characteristic modes of a Chladni plate can be visualized by sand gathering along the nodal lines. Although one can view two-dimensional vibration patterns, the sand pattern does not show a bending of antinode. We used near-field acoustic holography to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of circular and rectangular Chladni plates. The sound pressure was measured using four scanning microphones located 3 mm above a Chladni plate. A reference microphone was placed close to a speaker which drives the plate. A total of 60x60 data were collected from 30x30 cm^2 area and processed using MATLAB in accordance with the algorithm of near-field acoustic holography. The three-dimensional graphic image of the vibrating plate reconstructed this way not only matched the sand pattern but also visualized the bending of the plate. Propagation of the sound pressure could be also visualized three-dimensionally. The plot of sound pressure against the distance showed the 1/distance^2 dependence as expected. Sound is a difficult subject in physics class because it is invisible. Our results demonstrate that near-field acoustic holography combined with computer graphic is an effective tool to visualize the generation of a sound.
Marble tabula in Belgrade: Commemoration plates dedicated to perished ones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đapović Lasta
2009-01-01
Full Text Available There is an ancient Balkans tradition of building commemoration plates dedicated to perished ones. This actually represents twofold belief, one being that a deceased should rest on his/hers own soil and an attempt to mark a place of someone's death. All were performed with an aim to prolong memory and reminiscence of the deceased. In 19th century Serbia and especially so at the beginning of the 20th century it became popular to build such commemoration plates dedicated to soldiers who have died abroad. In the second half of the 20th century, there are sporadic commemoration plates near roads, not as a designation for an unknown grave but to mark down a place where someone has died, most often in a car accident. At the crossroads of the century, however, this custom was very frequent. Belgrade has also seen many of these commemoration plates. The studying of ways and shapes of this custom is the main subject of this paper. The author tries to follow all changes ranging from those induced by the state to those very rare private commemoration plates placed on certain buildings, including those left to decay, or those maintained regularly, on street lights, near cressets at grave yards, flowers, granite plates etc. The paper also discusses possible causes, frequencies and changes related to this custom.
The multigap resistive plate chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)
2015-02-03
The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.
An efficient rectangular plate element
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.
Tectonics: Changing of the plates
Brandon, Alan
2016-10-01
The composition of Earth's crust depends on the style of plate tectonics and of the melting regimes in the mantle. Analyses of the oldest identified rocks suggest that these styles and the resulting crust have changed over Earth's history.
Liao, Chan-Yi; Wu, Yi-Chuang; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Ma, Chien-Ching
2017-04-01
This study combined theoretical, experimental, and numerical analysis to investigate the vibration characteristics of a thin rectangular plate positioned horizontally at the bottom of a rectangular container filled with liquid. Flow field pressure was derived using an equation governing the behavior of incompressible fluids. Analytic solutions to vibrations in a thin plate in air served as the fundamental function of the thin plate coupled with liquid. We then used liquid pressure, and the out-of-plane deflection of the thin plate for the construction of frequency response functions for the analysis of vibration characteristics in the liquid-plate coupling system. Two experimental methods were employed to measure the vibration characteristics of the thin plate immersed in water. The first involved using sensors of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) to measure transient signals of fluid-plate system subjected an impact at the thin plate. These were then converted to the frequency domain in order to obtain the resonant frequencies of the fluid-plate coupling system. The second method was amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI), which was used to measure the dynamic characteristics of the thin plate in the flow field. This method was paired with the image processing techniques, temporal speckle pattern interferometry (TSPI) and temporal standard deviation (TSTD), to obtain clear mode shapes of the thin plate and resonant frequencies. Comparison of the results from theoretical analysis, finite element method, and experimental measurements confirmed the accuracy of our theoretical analysis, which was superior to the conventional approach based on beam mode shape functions. The experimental methods proposed in this study can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of underwater thin plates, and clear mode shapes can be obtained using AF-ESPI. Our results indicate that the resonant frequencies of thin plates underwater are lower than
Rhodium platings – experimental study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Rudolf
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.
Horizontal versus vertical plate motions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Cuffaro
2006-07-01
Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.
Horizontally oriented plates in clouds
Bréon, François-Marie
2011-01-01
Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...
LOW VELOCITY RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSITE PLATE WITH EMBEDDED SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WuYongdong; ZhongWeifang; LiangYide
2004-01-01
This paper analyzes the characteristics of utilizing shape memory effect (SME) of shape memory alloy (SMA) in improving the low velocity impact resistance performance of composite plate by using finite element method. The constitutive relation for SMA hybrid composite plates is presented. The analytic model of finite element for SMA composite plate subjected to low velocity impact is established. The modified Hertz's contact law is used to determine the impact contact force. The computing procedures for solving the finite element equation using Newmark direct integration method are given. The numerical modelling results show that the SMA can effectively improve the low velocity impact resistance performance of composite plate.
How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.
Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina
2002-10-04
The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.
Hollow plate girder bridge damaged hinge joints on the transverse distribution%空心板梁桥铰缝损坏对横向分布的影响
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张立东; 孙全胜
2015-01-01
Through the hollow beam superstructure disease research found that very serious damage to the hinge joints. Due to changes in the stiff-ness of the hinge joints caused a bridge overall force changes that may even force the board features. With the help of Midas civil finite element analysis software to establish the finite element model to analyze the impact of the bridge damaged hinge joints transverse distribution can provide a theoretical basis for the kind of bridge maintenance and reinforcement of hinge joints.%通过对空心板梁上部结构病害调查研究发现，铰缝破坏现象十分严重，由于铰缝刚度发生变化造成了桥梁整体受力变化，甚至可能出现单板受力特征，借助Midas civil有限元分析软件建立了有限元模型，分析了铰缝损坏对桥梁横向分布的影响，可为同类桥梁铰缝维修与加固提供理论依据。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘少印; 姚富忠; 胡雪翔
2001-01-01
@@ 现代化钢结构厂房的建设,存在着大量的柱、梁和吊车梁等工字形大板梁的制作和安装,按图样技术条件及规范要求,大板梁翼板和腹板采用角焊接的焊缝,有些是不要求焊透的,而对一些重要的受力件,其角焊缝要求焊透.对需要焊透的角焊缝,按技术条件及规范要求需要进行检测,较早的技术规范要求用精确法对大板梁的T型角焊缝进行检验,以确保角焊缝中不存在未焊透缺陷,新的钢结构验收标准GB 50205-1995《钢结构工程施工及验收规范》明确要求用超声波检测方法对角焊缝整个截面进行检测,执行国标GB 11345-1989《钢焊缝手工超声波探伤方法和探伤结果的分类》中B级检验等级并达到Ⅱ级评定等级要求.针对这些角焊缝的超声波检测,各种教材和标准叙述了不同的探伤方法,有的规定用直探头在翼板上进行探测,而有的则规定用斜探头在翼板的内外侧进行探测,或用斜探头在腹板上进行探测.笔者在角焊缝实际探伤过程中,对各种探伤方法进行了比较,总结出了较好的T型角焊缝探伤方法,供参考.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭辉
2015-01-01
该人行桥采用无节点板全焊接(H型钢)钢桁梁结构,通过静力、动力及稳定性计算,表明该桥结构受力合理、传力明确,是结合桥址处地理环境设计的一种新型桥梁结构,具有较好的稳定性和经济性.
Modal radiation patterns of baffled circular plates and membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Hansen, Ole; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
2014-01-01
The far field velocity potential and radiation pattern of baffled circular plates and membranes are found analytically using the full set of modal velocity profiles derived from the corresponding equation of motion. The derivation is valid for a plate or membrane subjected to an external excitation...... that of a monopole, while the non-axisymmetric modes exhibit multipole behavior. Numerical results are also given, demonstrating the implications of having non-axisymmetric excitation using both a point excitation with varying eccentricity and a homogeneous excitation acting on half of the circular radiator....
Sudden stretching of a four layered composite plate
Sih, G. C.; Chen, E. P.
1980-01-01
An approximate theory of laminated plates is developed by assuming that the extensioral and thickness mode of vibration are coupled. The mixed boundary value crack problem of a four layered composite plate is solved. Dynamic stress intensity factors for a crack subjected to suddenly applied stress are found to vary as a function of time and depend on the material properties of the laminate. Stress intensification in the region near the crack front can be reduced by having the shear modulus of the inner layers to be larger than that of the outer layers.
Geometry of the Cocos Plate Under North American Plate
Perez-Campos, X.
2015-12-01
The Cocos plate subducts under the North American plate with a complex geometry, and previous seismicity studies revealed some of this complexity. However, details of the geometry and the depth that the plate penetrates werelargely unknown. Since 2004, temporary experiments and the expansion of the permanent network of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) have improved resolution of the plate geometry and have helped to map its descent into the upper mantle. Going from northwest to southeast, the Cocos plate appears to be fragmenting into north and south segments. The north segment subducts with an angle of ~30º and the south with an angle of ~10-15º. The transition is smooth near the trench and progresses to a tear at depth; this coincides with the projection of the Orozco Fracture Zone to depth. Also, this transition marks the limit of the presence to the south of an ultra slow velocity layer (USL) on top of the slab.South of this transition, the Cocos plate subducts horizontally , underplating the North American plate for a distance of ~140 to ~300 km from the trench. Along this horizontal region, silent slow events (SSE) and tectonic tremor (TT) have been observed. At a distance of 300 km from the trench (beneath central Mexico), the plate dives into the mantle with an angle of 76º to a depth of 500 km. This geometry changes abruptly to the south, marking the eastern limit of the USL. This change seems to be also characterized by a tear on the slab. Finally to the south, the Cocos plate subducts with a constant angle of 26º. This presentation summarizes the work of many contributors including A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Brudzinski, E. Cabral-Cano, T. Chen, R. Clayton,F. Cordoba-Montiel,P. Davis,S. Dougherty,F. Green, M. Gurnis, D. V. Helmberger, A. Husker,A. Iglesias, Y. Kim, V. Manea, D. Melgar, M. Rodríguez-Domínguez,S. K. Singh, T.-R. A. Song, C. M. Valdés-González, D. Valencia-Cabrera
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方志; 任亮; 凡凤红
2012-01-01
To discuss the applicability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cables and reactive powder concrete ( RPC) in super-long span cable-stayed bridges, taking a 1 008 m cable-stayed bridge using steel girder and steel cables as example, a cable-stayed bridge with the same span using RPC (reactive powder concrete) as the girder and advanced composite material CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) as the cable was designed, in which the cable cross section was determined by the principles of equivalent cable strength and the beam cross section was determined considering the stiffness, shear capacity and local stability. Based on the method of finite element analysis, the comparative study of these two structures on their static properties, dynamic properties, stability and wind resistance were carried out. The results show that it is feasible for using RPC as the girder and CFRP as the cable so as to form a highly efficient, durable cable-stayed bridge of concrete structure and make its applicable span reach about 1 000 m long.%为了探讨碳纤维复合材料(carbon fiber reinforced polymer,CFRP)和超高性能活性粉末混凝土(reactive powder concrete,RPC)在超大跨度斜拉桥中应用的可行性,以主跨1008m的大跨度钢主梁斜拉桥设计方案为例,采用拉索的等强度原则将原桥钢索替换成CFRP索,考虑截面刚度、截面应力和局部稳定等要求,将原桥钢主梁替换成RPC主梁,拟订了一座等跨度的CFRP拉索、RPC主梁斜拉桥方案.采用有限元法分别对两种方案结构的静力特性、动力特性、稳定性能以及抗风性能等进行了分析与比较.结果表明:从结构受力性能角度而言,采用超高性能混凝土主梁和CFRP拉索构成千米级跨度混凝土斜拉桥的结构体系是可行的.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苏庆田; 李杰; 董冰
2012-01-01
钢-混凝土组合结构桥面系近几年开始在拱桥结构中使用,拱桥中组合桥面系受力复杂,其力学性能受钢与混凝土是否连接、是否张拉系杆以及混凝土的浇注顺序等影响.该文采用空间有限元模型,开展了钢主梁拱桥组合桥面系的力学性能研究.研究表明:在钢主梁拱桥结构中混凝土桥面板与钢主梁是否结合对桥面系的整体受力影响甚微,只对桥面系局部位置的混凝土桥面板应力分布有所影响；拱桥中是否安装系杆对桥面系的受力影响较大,而且桥面系的受力与系杆张拉力有密切关系；对于组合桥面系的拱桥采用一次浇筑混凝土桥面板施工方法的桥面系受力要明显优于采用分段浇筑混凝土桥面板的方法.%A steel-concrete composite deck has been used in acrh bridges recently. The mechanism of a composite deck is complex, and was affected by the factors of setting connections between concrete decks and steel girder or not, setting tied bars or not, different deck concrete casting sequences etc. In this paper, mechanical behaviors of a composite deck floor of an arch bridge with steel girders are analyzed by a spatial finite element model. The research results show that whether setting connections between concrete decks and a steel girder or not slightly affects the total mechanical behavior of a deck floor but influents the local stress of the deck; whether setting tied bar affects the deck floor mechanical property greatly and the deck floor stress depends on the tension force of tied bars heavily; as to arch bridge with a composite deck floor, the mechanical behavior of deck floors with casting deck concrete by one time is superior to that of deck floors with casting deck concrete by several times.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张云昭
2011-01-01
研究目的:浮托顶推法架设钢桁梁的施工设施主要由膺架、滑道、水上浮托支承、顶推纵移、方向及定位控制等五大系统组成.文章介绍了其工艺原理、工艺流程、操作步骤和主要安全质量措施,对修建同类桥梁具有重要的指导意义和借鉴意义.研究结论:浮托顶推法架设钢桁梁是在一般浮拖法架梁基础上的创新,它与一般浮拖法架梁的主要区别是钢梁纵移的动力不同,即采用钢桁梁后端的顶推装置代替前方的牵引设备,具有设备简单、操作方便、速度均匀、运行平稳、有利安全的特点.%Research purposes: Erecting the steel truss girder with the float tow and jack -in method needs five systems of the corbelling, slideway , bearing of uplift force, longitudinal movement by jack - in, and direction and position controller. This paper introduces the main technique principle, the technological process, operation steps and the measures of ensuring safety and quality of erecting the steel truss girder with the float toe and jack - in method for providing the reference to construction of similar bridge.Research conclusions:The float tow and jack -in method is the innovation based on the traditional float toe method. It is different from the traditional float toe method in the power to make the girder longitudinal moving. Namely, it uses the jack -in device at the rear end of steel truss to substitute the traction device in the front of the steel truss, with the features of using simply equipments, easy operation, even velocity, smooth running and ensuring the security.
BUCKLING ANALYSIS UNDER COMBINED LOADING OF THIN-WALLED PLATE ASSEMBLIES USING BUBBLE FUNCTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Xuanneng; Zou Yinsheng; Zhou Xuhong
2000-01-01
Bubble functions are finite element modes that are zero on the boundary of the element but nonzero at the other point. The present paper adds bubble functions to the ordinary Complex Finite Strip Method(CFSM) to calculate the elastic local buckling stress of plates and plate assemblies. The results indi cate that the use of bubble functions greatly improves the convergence of the Finite Strip Method(FSM) in terms of strip subdivision, and leads to much smaller storage required for the structure stiffness and stability matrices. Numerical examples are given, including plates and plate structures subjected to a combination of longitudinal and transverse compression, bending and shear. This study illustrates the power of bubble func tions in solving stability problems of plates and plate structures.
The ultimate strength of doubler plate reinforced Y-joints under compression loading
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENQ Qi; TAN Jia-hua
2005-01-01
It is common practice in the offshore industry to solve the punching shear problem due to compression by using doubler plate. The finite-element method is a useful tool for studying this problem. The aim of this paper is to study the static strength of doubler plate reinforced Y-joints subjected to compression loading. The finite-element method is adopted in numerical parametric studies. The individual influences of the geometric parameters βand τd (doubler plate to chord wall thickness ratio) and ld/d1(dubler plate length to brace diameter ratio) on the ultimate strength are made clear. The results show the size of plate may have important effects on the strength of reinforced joints. It is found that the ultimate strength of Y-joints reinforced with appropriately proportioned doubler plates can be greatly improved nearly up tothree times to un-reinforced Y-joints.
Active Vibration Control of the Smart Plate Using Artificial Neural Network Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohit
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The active vibration control (AVC of a rectangular plate with single input and single output approach is investigated using artificial neural network. The cantilever plate of finite length, breadth, and thickness having piezoelectric patches as sensors/actuators fixed at the upper and lower surface of the metal plate is considered for examination. The finite element model of the cantilever plate is utilized to formulate the whole strategy. The compact RIO and MATLAB simulation software are exercised to get the appropriate results. The cantilever plate is subjected to impulse input and uniform white noise disturbance. The neural network is trained offline and tuned with LQR controller. The various training algorithms to tune the neural network are exercised. The best efficient algorithm is finally considered to tune the neural network controller designed for active vibration control of the smart plate.
Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vuksanović Đorđe M.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.
Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.
McKenzie, D P
1970-04-18
The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.
30 CFR 18.13 - Certification plate.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification plate. 18.13 Section 18.13... Certification plate. Each certified component shall be identified by a certification plate attached to the... characteristics of the component. The plate shall be of serviceable material, acceptable, to MSHA, and shall...
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section 872.4760 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device... plate with screws to prevent movement of the segments. (b) Classification. Class II. ...
30 CFR 18.11 - Approval plate.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 18.11 Section 18.11 Mineral... plate. (a)(1) The notice of approval will be accompanied by a photograph of an approval plate, bearing... number shall be added to the original approval number on the approval plate. (Example: Original approval...
Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy
Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard
1988-01-01
The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.
Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.
1980-02-01
Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.
Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy
Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard
1988-01-01
The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.
Chladni's law for vibrating plates
Rossing, Thomas D.
1982-03-01
The normal vibrational modes of free circular plates can be classified according to the number of nodal diameters m and the number of nodal circles n. Chladni observed that the addition of one nodal circle raised the frequency f about the same amount as adding two nodal diameters, and Rayleigh pointed out that f is proportional to (m+2n)2 for large f. Waller, however, concluded that the number of nodal diameters necessary to raise the frequency as much as a nodal circle varies from two to five. We have examined data on the vibrations of flat and non-flat circular plates and fitted their vibration frequencies to the relationship f = c(m+bn)k. By proper choice of c it is possible to satisfy Chladni's law (b = 2, k = 2) over quite a wide range of frequency in flat plates. Non-flat plates such as cymbals and bells, require different choices of b and k. A brief history of Chladni patterns, and suggestions for observing and demonstrating the vibrational modes of plates are included (AIP).
Electrostatic and Small-Signal Analysis of CMUTs With Circular and Square Anisotropic Plates.
Funding la Cour, Mette; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
2015-08-01
Traditionally, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are modeled using the isotropic plate equation, and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and finite element modeling (FEM). In this paper, the deflection is calculated for both circular and square plates using the full anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic calculations match excellently with FEM, whereas an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection. For circular plates, an exact solution can be found. For square plates using the Galerkin method, and utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is white light interferometer. Fitting the plate parameter for the anisotropic calculated deflection to the measurement, a deviation of 0.07% is seen. Electrostatic and small-signal dynamic analysis are performed using energy considerations including anisotropy. The stable position, effective spring constant, pullin distance, and pull-in voltage are found for both circular and square anisotropic plates, and the pressure dependence is included by comparison with the corresponding analysis for a parallel plate. Measurements on fabricated devices with both circular and square plates subjected to increasing bias voltage are performed, and it is observed that the models including anisotropic effects are within the uncertainty interval of the measurements. Finally, a lumped element small-signal model for both circular and square anisotropic plates is derived to describe the dynamics of the CMUT.
Investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of a partially cracked plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Israr, A [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University - Dubai Campus, Block 2, Dubai International Academic City, P O Box 294345, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Atepor, L, E-mail: a.israr@hw.ac.u, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, James Watt South Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
In this paper the nonlinear vibration of an aircraft panel structure modelled as an isotropic cracked plate and subjected to transverse harmonic excitation is considered for studying the dynamic response, both analytically and experimentally. A crack is arbitrarily located at the centre of the plate, consisting of a continuous line. This mathematical model is in the form of Duffing equation with a cubic nonlinear term. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the algebraic equation, and then investigated with the results of the direct integration within Mathematica{sup TM} and finite element analysis in ABAQUS for the first mode only. In addition, experimental measurements are also carried out to verify the dependence of the cracked plate's fundamental mode shape and resonance frequency on the vibration displacement amplitude. An extermely close agreement between these results is observed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王忠欲; 程鹏; 罗德专
2013-01-01
为给我国桥梁抗震设计规范的修订提供参考资料,从抗震设计反应谱理论角度,通过改变地震动的输入方向,引入抗侧力桥墩的“相对墩底剪力比”参数来判别混凝土曲线梁桥的双向规则性,探讨了圆心角、曲线半径、跨径、跨宽比和跨高比等结构参数变化对混凝土曲线梁桥横桥向和纵桥向规则性地震行为的影响规律.研究表明:圆心角是影响混凝土曲线梁桥双向规则性的主要因素,而跨径、跨宽比和跨高比等参数的影响可以忽略,曲线半径不应作为定义规则曲线梁桥的参数;曲线梁桥当满足单跨圆心角φ小于35°,且多跨一联累计圆心角φ小于55°时具有双向规则性,规则曲线梁桥的地震力可比拟为等参的直线桥进行简化抗震计算,计算结果偏于保守.%Aimed at providing references for Chinese seismic design code revision, from seismic design response spectrum theory of view, by changing input direction of ground motion, "relative pier shear ratio" parameter of resist lateral force piers is introducied to judge concrete curve girder bridge's bidirectional directions regularity.This study conducts structure parameters change affecting the lateral and longitudinal regularity seismic behavior of concrete curve girger bridge, such as central angle, curve radius, span, the span-width ratio and span-height ratio parameter, etc.Research shows: Central angle parameter is the major factor affecting the bidirectional regularity of concrete curve girder bridge, while the influences by span, span-width ratio and span-height ratio parameters can be ignored ; Curve radius should not be used to define regular curve girder bridge as one parameter; As a curve girder bridge meets the central angle φ less than 35 degrees, meanwhile the accumulative total of central angle of multispans Ψ less than 55 degrees, It satisfies bidirectional regularity,so it can be analyzed by simplified antiseismic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张迅; 王党雄; 李小珍
2015-01-01
为探讨铁路混凝土箱梁箱内空腔共鸣噪声及其影响,以某客运专线32 m预应力混凝土简支箱梁为研究对象,开展实桥振动与噪声试验,分析箱梁振动与噪声的时域特性及频谱特性。采用有限元法建立三维空腔声模型,分析箱内空腔声模态与腔内噪声峰值的关联性。采用边界元法分别建立两端封闭与两端开口的箱梁声学模型,验证箱内空腔共鸣噪声的来源及其影响。结果表明：在特定行车速度下,箱内噪声出现“拍”现象,显著增大箱内噪声,瞬时最大声压可达40 Pa,峰值频率为75.0 Hz；箱内噪声的“拍”现象来源于顶板的振动噪声,顶板的振动峰值频率与箱内空腔垂向声模态频率吻合时,箱内噪声显著增大；由于梁缝的声泄漏特性,箱内空腔共鸣噪声在梁缝处衰减较大,但其对桥梁两侧总体噪声的影响不可忽略。%In order to study the cavity resonance noise of concrete box-girder and its influence,a field test con-cerning vibration and noise of a 32 m PC simply-supported box-girder was carried out,to investigate the time-domain characteristics and frequency spectrum characteristics of vibration and noise of the box-girder.A 3D cavity acoustical model was established based on FEM to analyze the correlation between cavity acoustic mode and cavity noise peak.Two acoustical models for box-girders with closed ends and open ends,were built based on BEM,respectively,to verify the source and influence of cavity resonance noise.Results showed that the“beat”wave phenomenon of cavity noise appeared under a specific train speed,significantly increasing the cavi-ty noise,with the transient maximum sound pressure of cavity noise reaching 40 Pa and the noise peak frequen-cy being 75.0 Hz;The “beat”wave phenomenon of cavity noise derived from the vibration of deck.When the peak vibration frequency of deck matched with the frequency of vertical acoustic modal of the cavity
An improved approach for analyzing shear lag effect of box girders%箱形梁剪力滞效应的改进分析方法研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张元海; 白昕; 林丽霞
2012-01-01
以薄壁箱梁的弯曲理论为基础，从分析翼缘板的面内剪切变形和弯曲剪力流的分布规律入手，从理论上证明二次抛物线是箱形梁剪力滞效应分析中的合理翘曲位移函数。选取剪力滞翘曲位移函数时，对悬臂板和底板引入修正系数，并考虑翘曲正应力的平衡条件。对箱形梁横截面上新出现的广义内力给出明确定义并称之为剪滞力矩，从分析正应力在翘曲虚位移上的虚功出发，揭示所定义的剪滞力矩即为相应于剪力滞广义位移的广义内力。对简支箱梁和连续箱梁模型的应力计算表明，计算值与实测值吻合良好，从而证实该文的分析方法和建立的公式是正确的。挠度计算表明：剪力滞效应使简支箱梁和连续箱梁算例的跨中挠度分别增大12％和19％，工程实践中必须认真对待。%Based on the flexural theory for thin-walled box girders, quadratic parabola is proved to be reasonable as the warping displacement function in shear lag effect analysis of a box girder through investigating the in-plane shear deformation and the shear flow in the flanges. Modified factors for the cantilever and bottom slabs are introduced in the warping displacement function for shear lag and the equilibrium condition for warping stresses is also considered. The new generalized internal force is defined explicitly and named as shear lag moment, which is proved to be the generalized moment corresponding to the generalized displacement for shear lag, through analyzing the virtual work done by the normal stress on the virtual warping displacement. Simply supported and continuous box girder models are analyzed and the calculated results are in good agreement with the test results, which validates the proposed method and formulas. For the simply supported and continuous box girder models, shear lag effect increases the mid-span deflections by 12% and 19%, respectively, which should be treated
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石广田; 杨新文; 张小安; 杨建近
2015-01-01
A high speed train-track coupling dynamics model was established using Simpack software, and the wheel/rail vertical contact force excited by track irregularity spectrum was calculated. The wheel/rail vertical force was taken as a boundary condition and applied to the finite element model (FEM) of an elevated box girder structure to calculate its surface vibration response. Then, the vibration response was taken as the acoustic boundary conditions and was applied to the bound-ary element model (BEM) of the elevated box-girder structure to analyze its sound radiation. The results show that, using the finite element method and the boundary element method, the vibration noise of the concrete simply-supported box-beam structure can be effectively calculated with shell elements. The vibration noise is mainly concentrated in the low frequency range of 0-200 Hz, and the peaks mainly appear at the central frequencies of 16 Hz, 25 Hz, 80 Hz-100 Hz. The sound pres-sure level decreases with the increase of the distance from the ground in the lateral sound field and this tendency is more ob-vious for lower frequency sound field. The sound pressure level generally increases with the increase of the distance from the ground in the vertical acoustic field, and the sound pressure level in far field area does not change obviously for the fre-quencies below 31.5 Hz. In the range of 80 Hz-100 Hz, the sound pressure levels of the field points near the girder, especial-ly above the girder, are higher than those in the other regions.%利用Simpack软件建立高速列车-轨道耦合动力学模型，计算在轨道不平顺谱激励下的轮轨垂向力，以此作为载荷边界条件施加到高架箱梁结构的有限元模型。计算了高架箱梁表面的振动响应，并利用箱梁结构振动响应作为声学边界条件。进而又采用间接边界元法对其进行声辐射分析。研究结果表明，利用板壳单元，采用有限元—边界元方法能够有效
Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S
2000-01-01
A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).
Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott
2000-01-01
A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).
Multiple-Dynode-Layer Microchannel Plate
Woodgate, Bruce E.
1990-01-01
Improved microchannel-plate electron image amplifier made of stack of discrete microchannel-plate layers. New plates easier to manufacture because no need to etch long, narrow holes, to draw and bundle thin glass tubes, or to shear plates to give microchannels curvatures necessary for reduction of undesired emission of ions. Discrete dynode layers stacked with slight offset from layer to layer to form microchannel plate with curved channels. Provides for relatively fast recharging of microchannel dynodes, with consequent enhancement of performance.
C6 plate puncture testing report.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vangoethem, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordova, Theresa Elena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2013-04-01
There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.
Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashmika Pandya
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other.
Ultimately Thin Metasurface Wave Plates
Keene, David; Durach, Maxim
2015-01-01
Optical properties of a metasurface which can be considered a monolayer of two classical uniaxial metamaterials, parallel-plate and nanorod arrays, are investigated. It is shown that such metasurface acts as an ultimately thin sub-50 nm wave plate. This is achieved via an interplay of epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole behavior along different axes in the plane of the metasurface allowing for extremely rapid phase difference accumulation in very thin metasurface layers. These effects are shown to not be disrupted by non-locality and can be applied to the design of ultrathin wave plates, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and plasmon-carrying optical torque wrench devices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
甘亚南; 周广春; 吴亚平
2011-01-01
以能量变分原理为基础,在曲线箱梁侧向综合考虑了剪力滞后和剪切变形效应的影响,建立了薄壁曲线箱梁的侧向弹性控制微分方程和自然边界条件,获得了相应广义位移的闭合解.论文提出了一种曲线箱梁侧向静力学特性分析的解析法,揭示了各参数之间的内在联系.算例中论文解析解与板壳有限元结果吻合较好,证明了本文方法的有效性,因而更具理论价值和工程实际意义.%Based on the energy variation principle, this paper proposes an approach of analyzing the effect of shear lag,shear deformation on the lateral static characteristic of curved thin-walled box girders generally applied in engineering. The minimum potential principle is applied to establish the lateral governing differential equations and the corresponding natural boundary conditions. The closed-form solutions of generalized displacements are obtained. The variations of shear lag effects of curved box girders,caused by the change of factors such as span-height ratio,types of loading and natural boundary conditions,are discussed. The results are compared with finite shell element solutions to verify the validity of the proposed approach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郝晋新
2012-01-01
Taking Shanxi Pingyang freeway LJ26 contract section of Taiyuan hub K119 + 555 overpass bridge project as an example, for problems in large span steel box girder across existing railway construction, by comparison of the schemes pro- posed, and finally the paper selects the integral installation construction method of large span steel box girder with new bridge machine across the existing double railway electrification, and accordingly independent design and manufacture of a kind of YQXZ240t-60A3 bridge erecting machine is made. The paper introduces the composition of bridge erecting machine, and summarizes the keg construction process of the bridging machine for large span steel box beam erection construction.%以山西省平阳高速公路LJ26合同段太原枢纽K119＋555跨线桥工程为例，针对大跨度钢箱梁跨既有铁路施工时遇到的难题，经方案比选，提出并最终采用新型架桥机进行上跨既有双线电气化铁路的大跨度钢箱梁的整体安装施工方法，并据此自主设计制造了一种YQXZ240t一60A3架桥机。介绍了架桥机的组成，总结了采用该架桥机进行大跨度钢箱梁架设施工的关键施工工艺。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张宏祥; 曹岩
2013-01-01
The single static load experiment is one of the important means to identify whether the bridges can be normal operationed or not during the normal operation period. We can detect whether single static structure performance meets the requirements of design documents and specifications and guarantee the safety of bridge after the completion of the bridge by the single static load experiment This paper unifies some prestressed reinforced concrete box example. It introduced the experiment examination content, the testing sequence, and the test result analysis of the prestressed reinforced concrete box girder simply supported - continuous static load testing. We can make a correct evaluation of prestressed reinforced concrete box girder, and provide the basis for future tests by summarizing the results of static loading test%单梁静载试验是检验桥梁在正常运营期间能否保证桥梁正常运营的一个重要手段,通过对单梁静载试验,检测单梁的结构性能是否达到设计文件和规范要求,保证成桥后桥梁的安全.结合某预应力混凝土斜箱梁实例,介绍预应力钢筋混凝土简直转连续单梁静载试验的检测内容、试验步骤和试验结果分析.总结单梁静载试验结果,对预应力钢筋混凝土简直转连续梁桥作出正确的质量评估,为以后的试验提供理论依据.
Orme, Charisse M; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Long, Wendy
2014-12-16
Osteoma cutis is the aberrant development of bone within the skin. The bone formation may be de novo (primary) or result from an injury to the skin (secondary). Here we present a healthy 53-year-old man with no known abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism with plate-like osteoma cutis of the scalp. Plate- or plaque-like osteoma cutis was initially described as a congenital condition but has now been reported several times in the literature as an idiopathic process that occurs in adults. Treatment options are limited and are only required if the lesion is bothersome to the patient.
Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.
2003-01-01
The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...... in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important...
Orifice plates and venturi tubes
Reader-Harris, Michael
2015-01-01
This book gives the background to differential-pressure flow measurement and goes through the requirements explaining the reason for them. For those who want to use an orifice plate or a Venturi tube the standard ISO 5167 and its associated Technical Reports give the instructions required. However, they rarely tell the users why they should follow certain instructions. This book helps users of the ISO standards for orifice plates and Venturi tubes to understand the reasons why the standards are as they are, to apply them effectively, and to understand the consequences of deviations from the standards.
Barama, Louisa
Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate drives frequent and sometimes large magnitude earthquakes. During the past 40 years, significant numbers of outer rise earthquakes have occurred in the offshore regions of Colombia and Chile. In this study, we investigate the distribution of stress due to lithospheric bending and the extent of faults within the subducting plate. To calculate more accurate epicenters and to constrain which earthquakes occurred within the outer rise, we use hypocentroidal decomposition to relocate earthquakes with Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions occurring after 1976 offshore Colombia and Chile. We determine centroid depths of outer rise earthquakes by inverting teleseismic P-, SH-, and SV- waveforms for earthquakes occurring from 1993 to 2014 with Mw ≥ 5.5. In order to further constrain the results of the waveform inversion, we estimate depths by comparing earthquake duration, amplitude, and arrival times for select stations with waveforms with good signal to noise ratios. Our results indicate that tensional earthquakes occur at depths down to 13 km and 24 km depth beneath the surface in the Colombia and Chile regions, respectively. Since faulting within the outer rise can make the plate susceptible to hydration and mantle serpentinization, we therefore infer the extent of possible hydration of the Nazca plate to extend no deeper than the extent of tensional outer rise earthquakes.
Variations of properties across plate thickness for Al alloy 7010
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. Salazar-Guapuriche; Y. Y. Zhao; A. Pitman; A. Greene
2005-01-01
The variations of electrical conductivity and hardness across the thickness of an Al alloy 7010 plate under the temper condition T7651 were investigated. The electrical conductivity and hardness respond in a reciprocal manner. Cross-sectional slices of the plate subjected to re-solutionising/natural ageing and re-solutionising/artificial ageing show the similar tendencies in property changes as in the as-收稿日期 raw material. This clearly suggests that the property inhomogeneity across the plate thickness is inherent of the manufacturing route. The differences in properties through the plate thickness are due to the changes in the concentrations of the strengthening alloying elements in the solid solution and the associated changes in microstructure;these are believed to be mainly due to the nature of plate solidification and prolonged high temperature during the rolling operation. The combination of electrical conductivity and hardness can be used as an integral quality property indicator for assessing inhomogeneity of thick products.
Metallurgical Investigation of HSLA Steel Subjected to Underwater Explosion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Bhujanga Rao
1994-01-01
Full Text Available The metallurgical behaviour of HSLA steel subjected to underwater explosion is of prime importance because of its structural applications in underwater vehicles. HSLA steel plates 300 × 250 × 4 mm were subjected to single and repetitive shock loadings and the point of rupture was identified. Test plates exhibited mode-I (large ductile deformation and mode-II (tensile tearing macroscopic failures. Electron micrographic and fractographic examination showed that the initiation of fracture was due to adiabatic shearing and the microscopic mode of failure was ductile. Plates subjected to single shock showed an increase in residual hardness and at the point of rupture it was approximately one-third higher than the initial residual hardness.
Underwater Shock Response of Circular HSLA Steel Plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Rajendran
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Studies on shock response of circular plates subjected to underwater explosion is of interest to ship designers. Non-contact underwater explosion experiments were carried out on air backed circular High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel plates of 4 mm thickness and 290 mm diameter. The experiments were carried out in two phases. In the first phase, strain gauges were fixed at intervals of 30 mm from the centre of the plate and strains were recorded for the shock intensity gradually increasing to yielding. Semi-analytical models were derived for the elastic strain prediction which showed good agreement with the experiments. Dynamic yield stress and the shock factor for yielding were established. In the second phase, individual plates were subjected to increasing shock severity until fracture and the apex bulge depth and the thickness strains were measured. Empirical models were derived to predict the plastic deformation which were validated through a fresh set of experiments. Analysis of the fractured surface by visual examination showed that there was slant fracture indicating ductile mode of failure and the same was corroborated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM examination.
Light splitting with imperfect wave plates.
Jackson, Jarom S; Archibald, James L; Durfee, Dallin S
2017-02-01
We discuss the use of wave plates with arbitrary retardances, in conjunction with a linear polarizer, to split linearly polarized light into two linearly polarized beams with an arbitrary splitting fraction. We show that for non-ideal wave plates, a much broader range of splitting ratios is typically possible when a pair of wave plates, rather than a single wave plate, is used. We discuss the maximum range of splitting fractions possible with one or two wave plates as a function of the wave plate retardances, and how to align the wave plates to achieve the maximum splitting range possible when simply rotating one of the wave plates while keeping the other one fixed. We also briefly discuss an alignment-free polarization rotator constructed from a pair of half-wave plates.
Effects of a sliding plate on morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur.
Lin, Da-sheng; Lian, Ke-jian; Hong, Jia-yuan; Ding, Zhen-qi; Zhai, Wen-liang
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a sliding plate on the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur. Eighteen premature female goats were divided randomly into sliding plate, regular plate and control groups. Radiographic analysis and histological staining were performed to evaluate the development of epiphyseal plate at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. In the sliding plate group, the plate extended accordingly as the epiphyseal plate grows, and the epiphyseal morphology was kept essential normal. However, the phenomenon of the epiphyseal growth retardation and premature closure were very common in the regular plate group. In addition, the sliding plate group exhibited more normal histologic features and Safranin O staining compared to the regular plate group. Our results suggest that the sliding plate can provide reliable internal fixation of epiphyseal fracture without inhibiting epiphyseal growth.
Effects of a Sliding Plate on Morphology of the Epiphyseal Plate in Goat Distal Femur
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Da-sheng LIN, Ke-jian LIAN, Jia-yuan HONG, Zhen-qi DING, Wen-liang ZHAI
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a sliding plate on the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur. Eighteen premature female goats were divided randomly into sliding plate, regular plate and control groups. Radiographic analysis and histological staining were performed to evaluate the development of epiphyseal plate at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. In the sliding plate group, the plate extended accordingly as the epiphyseal plate grows, and the epiphyseal morphology was kept essential normal. However, the phenomenon of the epiphyseal growth retardation and premature closure were very common in the regular plate group. In addition, the sliding plate group exhibited more normal histologic features and Safranin O staining compared to the regular plate group. Our results suggest that the sliding plate can provide reliable internal fixation of epiphyseal fracture without inhibiting epiphyseal growth.
Comment on "Intermittent plate tectonics?".
Korenaga, Jun
2008-06-06
Silver and Behn (Reports, 4 January 2008, p. 85) proposed that intermittent plate tectonics may resolve a long-standing paradox in Earth's thermal evolution. However, their analysis misses one important term, which subsequently brings their main conclusion into question. In addition, the Phanerozoic eustasy record indicates that the claimed effect of intermittency is probably weak.
License plate recognition using DTCNNs
ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V
1998-01-01
Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like fi
Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate
Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.
2007-05-01
A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.
The seismotectonics of plate boundaries
Berger, J.; Brune, J. N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D. C.; Beaumont, C.
1981-01-01
Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.
A Survey of Subject and Logical Subject
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈永亮
1999-01-01
@@ This paper discusses Subject and Logical Subject of the English language. The grammar rules complied by some grammarians will be focused on and induced in a fuller account of the survey, aiming simply at a common- sense justification of traditional sentence analysis. Subject, a familiar grammatical term, is one of the most basic to thetraditional of grammatical analysis. It reports the concept of the subject and its history conducted with learners of English who are involved in making further English programme in the education with deep grammar explorations. Both the teachers and the students face many problems in this area, which need to be made clear and definite. The non- finite verbs have their specific rules or objective laws stipulated or summed up by grammarians. These areas of intellectual inquiry ,like most other fields of language study, have represented profoundly intelligent and important investigation in to the English deep grammars.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周健; 樊泽民; 王骑; 孟令亮; 魏雪涛; 李元博
2014-01-01
为合理确定主跨680 m 的莫桑比克马普托大桥的主梁形式，利用节段模型风洞试验，分别研究了扁平钢箱梁、钢箱叠合梁和工字型叠合梁的气动性能。结果表明：扭转刚度较弱的工字型叠合梁颤振风速远低于检验风速，且涡激振动也不满足舒适性要求，在设计中不宜采用；钢箱叠合梁尽管颤振风速较高，但其在钢箱顶面凸起的混凝土桥面板会造成气流分离和漩涡脱落，可能存在较大涡激振动振幅的隐患，可在设计中选择性采用；扁平钢箱梁断面颤振临界风速高，且无明显涡激振动，为该大跨度悬索桥的优选主梁形式。试验结果还显示，若设置宽0．5 m 的风嘴导流板可进一步提高钢箱梁断面的颤振临界风速，但由于导流板直接影响造价并增加后期养护费用，而节段模型试验结果一般偏于保守，因此最后的取舍需要参考三维颤振计算或全桥气弹模型风洞试验结果。若在其斜腹板上外挂直径90 cm 的过桥水管，将显著弱化颤振性能和涡振性能，因此在设计中不宜采用。%To select a rational main girder type for the Maputo Bridge in Mozambique which is projected to have a main span of 680 m ,the aerodynamic behavior of three types of main girder ,in-cluding the flat steel box girder ,steel-concrete composite box girder and I-shaped composite girder were examined by the sectional model wind tunnel test .The results of the test indicate that the I-shaped composite girder with intrinsic low torsional stiffness is not a favorable solution in the de -sign ,for its flutter wind speed is much smaller than the testing wind speed and its vortex -induced vibration is not able to meet the requirements of physical and psychological comfort as well .The steel-concrete composite box girder can withstand higher flutter wind speed ,but the concrete deck slab humps on top of the steel box are prone to cause airflow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew Richardson
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical behavior of the spanning reconstruction plate compared to standard plating techniques for mandibular symphyseal fractures. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five human mandible replicas were used. Five unaltered synthetic mandibles were used as controls. Four experimental groups of different reconstruction techniques with five in each group were tested. Each synthetic mandible was subjected to a splaying force applied to the mandibular angle by a mechanical testing unit until the construct failed. Peak load and stiffness were recorded. The peak load and stiffness were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test at a confidence level of 95% (P<0.05. Results. The two parallel plates’ group showed statistically significant lower values for peak load and stiffness compared to all other groups. No statistically significant difference was found for peak load and stiffness between the control (C group, lag screw (LS group, and the spanning plate (SP1 group. Conclusions. The spanning reconstruction plate technique for fixation of mandibular symphyseal fractures showed similar mechanical behavior to the lag screw technique when subjected to splaying forces between the mandibular gonial angles and may be considered as an alternative technique when increased reconstructive strength is needed.
Static and dynamic buckling of thin-walled plate structures
Kubiak, Tomasz
2013-01-01
This monograph deals with buckling and postbuckling behavior of thin plates and thin-walled structures with flat wall subjected to static and dynamic load. The investigations are carried out in elastic range. The basic assumption here is the thin plate theory. This method is used to determination the buckling load and postbuckling analysis of thin-walled structures subjected to static and dynamic load. The book introduces two methods for static and dynamic buckling investigation which allow for a wider understanding of the phenomenon. Two different methods also can allow uncoupling of the phenomena occurring at the same time and attempt to estimate their impact on the final result. A general mathematical model, adopted in proposed analytical-numerical method, enables the consideration of all types of stability loss i.e.local, global and interactive forms of buckling. The applied numerical-numerical method includes adjacent of walls, shear-lag phenomenon and a deplanation of cross-sections.
Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars
2013-01-01
Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....
Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars
2013-01-01
Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....
Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention
Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim
2012-01-01
Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴臻旺; 郑凯锋; 税彦斌; 张昊
2011-01-01
某钢箱梁正交异性桥面板行车道范围内采用球扁钢纵肋,在横隔板对应部位设置空孔让纵肋连续通过,为研究横隔板的空孔圆弧、空孔与纵肋连接端部等两个细节部位的受力特性,以某立交桥F匝道为工程背景,建立全桥有限元模型,对称荷载作用,对比横隔板对称位置空孔应力分布,分析纵肋球头朝向和背对邻近腹板两种布置对空孔受力的影响.荷栽位于不同横向位置,分析横隔板空孔面内受力.荷载位于不同纵向位置,分析横隔板空孔面外受力.对横隔板空孔圆弧半径进行参数分析.研究表明,球扁钢纵肋球头背对邻近腹板和适当增大空孔圆弧半径等措施,可明显改善横隔板空孔圆弧部位受力,但对空孔与纵肋连接端部效果不够明显,需采取进一步措施以改善该细节部位的受力性能.%Bulb flat ribs were used in the range of driveways on the steel orthotropic deck of a box girder, and cutout was set on the diaphragm to let the longitudinal ribs to pass through continuously. In order to probe into the stress characteristics of two details of diaphragm cutout, such as arc of cutout and its joint to rib, finite element analysis was carried out based on the ramp F of an overpass. With the symmetrical vehicle load action, stress distributions of symmetrical cutouts were compared, and the influences of bulb towards and/or back against the adjacent web plate on the stress characteristics of the cutout were studied respectively. For different transverse positions of vehicle load, the in-plane stress characteristics of diaphragm cutout were studied. For different longitudinal positions of vehicle load, the out-of-plane stress characteristics of diaphragm cutout were studied. Then, the parameter optimization of arc radius of cutout was carried out. The results show that the stress along the arc of the diaphragm cutout will be more appropriate when the bulb of longitudinal ribs is back
EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasa Zata Dina
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.
Ambarita, Himsar; Kishinami, Koki; Daimaruya, Mashashi; Tokura, Ikuo; Kawai, Hideki; Suzuki, Jun; Kobiyama, Mashayosi; Ginting, Armansyah
The present paper is a study on the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate from a flat plate type heat exchanger. The heat exchanger consists of a number of parallel flat plates. The working fluids are flowed at the same operational conditions, either fixed pressure head or fixed fan power input. Parallel and counter flow directions of the working fluids were considered. While the volume of the heat exchanger is kept constant, plate number was varied. Hence, the spacing between plates as well as heat transfer rate will vary and there exists a maximum heat transfer rate. The objective of this paper is to seek the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate. In order to solve the problem, analytical and numerical solutions have been carried out. In the analytical solution, the correlations of the optimum plate to plate spacing as a function of the non-dimensional parameters were developed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the correlations. The results show that the optimum plate to plate spacing for a counter flow heat exchanger is smaller than parallel flow ones. On the other hand, the maximum heat transfer rate for a counter flow heat exchanger is bigger than parallel flow ones.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hunter, Allison; Kalathingal, Sajitha; Shrout, Michael; Plummer, Kevin; Looney, Stephen [Georgia Regents University, College of Dental Medicine, Augusta (United States)
2014-06-15
This study assessed the effectiveness of three antimicrobial mouthrinses in reducing microbial growth on photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates. Prior to performing a full-mouth radiographic survey (FMX), subjects were asked to rinse with one of the three test rinses (Listerine, Decapinol, or chlorhexidine oral rinse 0.12%) or to refrain from rinsing. Four PSP plates were sampled from each FMX through collection into sterile containers upon exiting the scanner. Flame-sterilized forceps were used to transfer the PSP plates onto blood agar plates (5% sheep blood agar). The blood agar plates were incubated at 37 degree C for up to 72 h. An environmental control blood agar plate was incubated with each batch. Additionally, for control, 25 gas-sterilized PSP plates were plated onto blood agar and analyzed. The mean number of bacterial colonies per plate was the lowest in the chlorhexidine group, followed by the Decapinol, Listerine, and the no rinse negative control groups. Only the chlorhexidine and Listerine groups were significantly different (p=0.005). No growth was observed for the 25 gas-sterilized control plates or the environmental control blood agar plates. The mean number of bacterial colonies was the lowest in the chlorhexidine group, followed by the Decapinol, Listerine, and the no rinse groups. Nonetheless, a statistically significant difference was found only in the case of Listerine. Additional research is needed to test whether a higher concentration (0.2%) or longer exposure period (two consecutive 30 s rinse periods) would be helpful in reducing PSP plate contamination further with chlorhexidine.
Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Erik
2003-01-01
Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines.......Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines....
Food Guide Pyramid Becomes a Plate
... agency in charge of nutrition, created the colorful plate to help people remember to: Eat a variety ... of some foods and more of others. The plate features four sections — vegetables, fruits, grains, and protein — ...
Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P
2008-08-22
Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.
Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P
2008-08-22
Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.
Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.
2012-01-01
The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....
Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions
Chiodo, R.
1982-01-01
Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.