WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate evacuated tube

  1. Advanced evacuated tube collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, W. W.; Hull, J. R.; Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J.

    1985-04-01

    The essence of the design concept for these new collectors is the integration of moderate levels of nonimaging concentration inside the evacuated tube itself. This permanently protects the reflection surfaces and allows the use of highly reflecting front surface mirrors with reflectances greater than 95%. Previous fabrication and long term testing of a proof-of-concept prototype has established the technical success of the concept. Present work is directed toward the development of a manufacturable unit that will be suitable for the widest possible range of applications. Design alternatives include scaling up the original prototype's tube diameter from 5 cm to 10 cm, using an internal shaped metal concentrating reflector, using a variety of profile shapes to minimize so-called gap losses and accommodate both single ended and double-ended flow geometries, and allowing the use of heat pipes for the absorber tube.

  2. The sizes of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tube Collectors with Heat Pipe area as a function of the share of solar system in the heat demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olek Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of solar collectors in Poland is still increasing. The correct location of the collectors and a relatively high density of solar radiation allow delivering heat even in spite of relatively low ambient temperature. Moreover, solar systems used for heating domestic heat water (DHW in summer allow nearly complete elimination of conventional energy sources (e.g. gas, coal. That is why more and more house owners in Poland decide to install solar system installations. In Poland the most common types of solar collectors are flat plate collectors (FPC and evacuated tube collectors with heat pipe (ETCHP; both were selected for the analysis. The heat demand related to the preparation of hot water, connected with the size of solar collectors’ area, has been determined. The analysis includes FPC and ETCHP and heat demand of less than 10 000 kWh/year. Simulations were performed with the Matlab software and using data from a typical meteorological year (TMY. In addition, a 126–year period of measurements of insolation for Krakow has been taken into account. The HDKR model (Hay, Davis, Klucher, Reindl was used for the calculation of solar radiation on the absorber surface. The monthly medium temperature of the absorber depends on the amount of solar system heat and on the heat demand. All the previously mentioned data were used to determine solar efficiency. Due to the fact that solar efficiency and solar system heat are connected, the calculations were made with the use of an iterative method. Additionally, the upper limit for monthly useful solar system heat is resulted from the heat demand and thus the authors prepared a model of statistical solar system heat deviations based on the Monte Carlo method. It has been found that an increase in the useful solar system heat in reference to the heat demand is associated with more than proportional increase in the sizes of the analyzed surfaces of solar collector types.

  3. Experimental analysis of solar thermal integrated MD system for cogeneration of drinking water and hot water for single family villa in dubai using flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asim, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Leung, Michael K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental analysis performed on solar thermal integrated membrane distillation (MD) system using flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. The system will be utilized for cogeneration of drinking water and domestic hot water for single family in Dubai comprising of four...... to five members. Experiments have been performed in Ras Al Khaimah Research and Innovation Centre (RAKRIC) facility. The experimental setup has been installed to achieve the required production of 15–25 L/d of drinking water and 250 L/d of hot water for domestic purposes. Experiments have been performed...

  4. Performance analysis of double basin solar still with evacuated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitesh N Panchal; Shah, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Solar still is a very simple device, which is used for solar distillation process. In this research work, double basin solar still is made from locally available materials. Double basin solar still is made in such a way that, outer basin is exposed to sun and lower side of inner basin is directly connected with evacuated tubes to increase distillate output and reducing heat losses of a solar still. The overall size of the lower basin is about 1006 mm x 325 mm x 380 mm, the outer basin is about 1006 mm x 536 mm x 100 mm Black granite gravel is used to increase distillate output by reducing quantity of brackish or saline water in the both basins. Several experiments have conducted to determine the performance of a solar still in climate conditions of Mehsana (latitude of 23 degree 59' and longitude of 72 degree 38'), Gujarat, like a double basin solar still alone, double basin solar still with different size black granite gravel, double basin solar still with evacuated tubes and double basin solar still with evacuated tubes and different size black granite gravel. Experimental results show that, connecting evacuated tubes with the lower side of the inner basin increases daily distillate output of 56% and is increased by 60%, 63% and 67% with average 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm size black granite gravel. Economic analysis of present double basin solar still is 195 days. (authors)

  5. Nocturnal reverse flow in water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Runsheng; Yang, Yuqin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at night was studied. • Experimental measurements showed that reverse flow occurred in SWHs at night. • Reverse flow in SWHs was very high but the heat loss due to reverse flow was very low. • Reverse flow seemed not sensitive to atmospheric clearness but sensitive to collector tilt-angle. - Abstract: In this work, the thermal performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at nights was experimentally investigated. Measurements at nights showed that the water temperature in solar tubes was always lower than that in the water tank but higher than the ambient air temperature and T exp , the temperature of water inside tubes predicted in the case of the water in tubes being naturally cooled without reverse flow. This signified that the reverse flow in the system occurred at nights, making the water in solar tubes higher than T exp . It is found that the reverse flow rate in the SWH, estimated based on temperature measurements of water in solar tubes, seemed not sensitive to the atmospheric clearness but sensitive to the collector tilt-angle, the larger the tilt-angle of the collector, the higher the reverse flow rate. Experimental results also showed that, the reverse flow in the SWH was much higher as compared to that in a thermosyphonic domestic solar water heater with flat-plate collectors, but the heat loss from collectors to the air due to reverse flow in SWHs was very small and only took about 8–10% of total heat loss of systems

  6. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  7. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, D.W.; Peat, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  9. Simulation of Evacuated Tube Collector and Storage of Hybrid Air-conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ahmed Abdulhussain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The CFD transient simulation of superheating the refrigerant R410 through the heat exchange with the evacuated tube water heating system of the hybrid split air conditioner that is subjected to solar radiation of constant intensity with the contribution of fan accelerated air is performed by the ANSYS-CFX code. The comparison with experimental work showed a minimum percentage error 8% of the predicted refrigerant evaporative heat transfer with storage tank horizontal tubing. In addition, the results denoted high absorption rate for the evacuated tubes, reducing highly reversed heat transmission for the circulated water. 

  10. Vertical steam generator with slab-type tube-plate with even tube bundle washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, O.; Masek, V.; Motejl, V.; Quitta, R.

    1980-01-01

    A shielding plate supporting the tubes attached to the tube plate of a vertical steam generator is mounted above the tube plate. Tube sleeves are designed with a dimensional tolerance relative to the heat transfer tubes and the sleeve end and the tube plate end. A separate space is thus formed above the tube plate in which circulation or feed water is introduced to flow between the branch and the heat transfer tube. This provides intensive washing of heat transfer tubes at a critical point and prevents deposit formation, thus excluding heat transfer tube failures. (J.B.)

  11. A new desalination system using a combination of heat pipe, evacuated tube and parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari Mosleh, H.; Jahangiri Mamouri, S.; Shafii, M.B.; Hakim Sima, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new desalination uses a combination of heat pipe and parabolic trough collector. • A twin-glass evacuated tube is used to decrease the thermal losses from heat pipe. • Adding oil into the space between heat pipe and tube collector enhances the yield. • The yield and efficiency reach up to 0.933 kg/(m 2 h) and 65.2%, respectively. - Abstract: The solar collectors have been commonly used in desalination systems. Recent investigations show that the use of a linear parabolic trough collector in solar stills can improve the efficiency of a desalination system. In this work, a combination of a heat pipe and a twin-glass evacuated tube collector is utilized with a parabolic trough collector. Results show that the rate of production and efficiency can reach to 0.27 kg/(m 2 h) and 22.1% when aluminum conducting foils are used in the space between the heat pipe and the twin-glass evacuated tube collector to transfer heat from the tube collector to the heat pipe. When oil is used as a medium for the transfer of heat, filling the space between heat pipe and twin-glass evacuated tube collector, the production and efficiency can increase to 0.933 kg/(m 2 h) and 65.2%, respectively

  12. A simple method for preparing superconducting FeSe pellets without sealing in evacuated silica tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting tetragonal FeSe pellets were made by reacting mixtures of elemental Fe and Se powders in argon atmosphere without sealing in evacuated silica tubes. A simple tube furnace has been used. Although the tube's material consisted of quartz, an alumina tube could be used as well. X......-ray pure samples with onset of superconducting transition between 8.0K and 8.5K were obtained under specific heat treatment conditions. Residual, unreacted Fe particles could be virtually eliminated through prolonged annealing. A key factor for the synthesis of good samples consists in using processing...

  13. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus on the co...... for future system optimization....

  14. Performance optimization of evacuated tube collector for solar cooling of a house in hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Adel A.

    2018-02-01

    Evacuating the space connecting cover and absorber significantly improves evacuated tube collector (ETC) performance. So, ETCs are progressively utilised all over the world. The main goal of current study is to explore ETC thermal efficiency in hot and severe climate like Kuwait weather conditions. A collector test facility was installed to record ETC thermal performance for one-year period. An extensively developed model for ETCs is presented, employing complete optical and thermal assessment. This study analyses separately optics and heat transfer in the evacuated tubes, allowing the analysis to be extended to different configurations. The predictions obtained are in agreement with experimental. The optimum collector parameters (collector tube length and diameter, mass flow rate and collector tilt angle) are determined. The present results indicate that the optimum tube length is 1.5 m, as at this length a significant improvement is achieved in efficiency for different tube diameters studied. Finally, the heat generated from ETCs is used for solar cooling of a house. Results of the simulation of cooling system indicate that an ETC of area 54 m2, tilt angle of 25° and storage tank volume of 2.1 m3 provides 80% of air-conditioning demand in a house located in Kuwait.

  15. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  16. Direct solar steam generation inside evacuated tube absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Bataineh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct steam generation by solar radiation falling on absorber tube is studied in this paper. A system of single pipe covered by glass material in which the subcooled undergoes heating and evaporation process is analyzed. Mathematical equations are derived based on energy, momentum and mass balances for system components. A Matlab code is built to simulate the flow of water inside the absorber tube and determine properties of water along the pipe. Widely accepted empirical correlations and mathematical models of turbulent flow, pressure drop for single and multiphase flow, and heat transfer are used in the simulation. The influences of major parameters on the system performance are investigated. The pressure profiles obtained by present numerical solution for each operation condition (3 and 10 MPa matches very well experimental data from the DISS system of Plataforma Solar de Almería. Furthermore, results obtained by simulation model for pressure profiles are closer to the experimental data than those predicted by already existed other numerical model.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Evacuated Blood Collection Tubes as a Closed-Suction Surgical Drain Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Brian; Okrasinski, E B; Murray, Rebecca; McCord, Kelly

    The initial negative pressures of evacuated blood collection tubes (EBCT) and their in vitro performance as a rigid closed-suction surgical drain (CSSD) reservoir has not been evaluated in the scientific literature despite being described in both human and veterinary texts and journals. The initial negative pressures of EBCT sized 3, 6, 10, and 15 mL were measured and the stability of the system monitored. The pressure-to-volume curve as either air or water was added and maximal filling volumes were measured. Evacuated blood collection tubes beyond the manufacture's expiration date were evaluated for initial negative pressures and maximal filling volumes. Initial negative pressure ranged from -214 mm Hg to -528 mm Hg for EBCT within the manufacturer's expiration date. Different pressure-to-volume curves were found for air versus water. Optimal negative pressures of CSSD are debated in the literature. Drain purpose and type of exudates are factors that should be considered when deciding which EBCT size to implement. Evacuated blood collection tubes have a range of negative pressures and pressure-to-volume curves similar to previously evaluated CSSD rigid reservoirs. Proper drain management and using EBCT within labeled expiration date are important to ensure that expected negative pressures are generated.

  18. Collecting performance of an evacuated tubular solar high-temperature air heater with concentric tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ping-Yang; Li, Shuang-Fei; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel evacuated tube solar high temperature air heater is designed. • The solar air heater system consists of 30 linked collecting units. • Every unit consisted of a evacuated tube, a simplified CPC and concentric tube. • The flow air is heated over temperature of 200 °C. - Abstract: A set of evacuated tube solar high temperature air heaters with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and concentric tube heat exchanger is designed to provide flow air with a temperature of 150–230 °C for industrial production. The solar air heater system consists of 30 linked collecting units. Each unit includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube absorber with a concentric copper tube heat exchanger installed inside. A stainless steel mesh layer with high thermal conductivity is filled between the evacuated tube and the concentric copper tube. Air passes through each collecting unit, and its temperature increases progressively. An experimental investigation of the thermal performance of the air heater is performed, and the experimental results demonstrate the presented high-temperature solar air heater has excellent collecting performance and large output power, even in the winter. The measured thermal efficiency corresponding to the air temperature of 70 °C reaches 0.52. With the increase of air temperature, thermal efficiency reaches 0.35 at an air temperature of 150 °C, and 0.21 at an air temperature of 220 °C.

  19. A Study on Thermal Performance of a Novel All-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Collector Manifold Header with an Inserted Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-glass evacuated tube collector manifold header with an inserted tube is proposed in this paper which makes water in all-glass evacuated solar collector tube be forced circulated to improve the performance of solar collector. And a dynamic numerical model was presented for the novel all-glass evacuated tube collector manifold header water heater system. Also, a test rig was built for model validation and comparison with traditional all-glass evacuated tube collector. The experiment results show that the efficiency of solar water heater with a novel collector manifold header is higher than traditional all-glass evacuated tube collector by about 5% and the heat transfer model of water heater system is valid. Based on the model, the relationship between the average temperature of water tank and inserted tube diameter (water mass flow has been studied. The results show that the optimized diameter of inserted tube is 32 mm for the inner glass with the diameter of 47 mm and the water flow mass should be less than 1.6 Kg/s.

  20. Importance of crevices formed between tubes and tube plate for the operational behaviour of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, N.; Herbsleb, G.; Wieling, N.

    1986-01-01

    It must be guaranteed by construction and manufacture of heat exchangers that primary and secondary medium are completely separated from each other. When this requirement is fullfilled, the operational use of heat exchangers can be impaired by corrosion reactions within the crevice formed between tube and tube plate which may result in corrosion damage. The various techniques which are in use to connect tubes and tube plate and which are described in the present report, must be valued with respect to the tightness of the connection as well as to the formation of crevices between tubes and tube plate. Corrosion resistant copperbase alloys and stainless steels are the most important materials which are in use for the construction of heat exchangers. The mechanisms of crevice corrosion with unalloyed and low alloy carbon steels, stainless steels, and mixed connections between tube and tube plate with these materials are described in detail. Crevice corrosion may be caused also by the formation of galvanic cells between materials of differing electrochemical response. Furthermore, the concentration of aggressive media in crevices between tubes and tube plate can lead to corrosion damage of heat exchanger tubes. For the service operation of heat exchangers without any hazard of corrosion damage in crevices between tubes and tube plate, such crevices must be avoided by proper construction and manufacture. As a model for suitable measures to avoid crevices, the manufacture of steam generators for PWR's is described. (orig.) [de

  1. Theroretical modelling of the plate-tubes coupling in the hydroelasticity of the perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhupanov, V.A.; Manoach, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    In the previous investigations on the perforated plate hydroelasticity the problem of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction in the process of the general structural vibration is stated. But the interaction of the vibrating plates with the tubes, passing through them, is taken into account considering the tubes only as absolutely rigid supports. This is one of the possible technical realizations. In the present article the case when the tubes are taking part in the plate motion (vibration) is studied. Two circular perforated plates are supported by the absolutely rigid wall of the modelled roundcircular reactor barrel. The distance between the plates is given. They are connected by tubes, passing through, and clamped into the perforation holes. The plates and the tubes are made by any elastic HOOKIAN material. The volume between the two plates and outwardly to the tubes, but intrinsically of the barrel is filled by ideal, compressible and heavy liquid. Evidently the liquid volume is multiconnected one. The free vibration of the whole system is considered with the purposes: i) to give a theoretical model of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction including governing equations and boundary conditions; ii) to trace the solution of the eigen-value problem for the modelled structure; iii) to underline the engineering sides of the modelling process. (orig./GL)

  2. Performance of tubes-and plate fins heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosman, E.C.

    1979-11-01

    By means of a two-dimensional analysis performance, and using local heat transfer coefficients, the plate fin temperature distribution, the air bulk temperature along the stream path and the fin efficiency can be obtained, for several Reynolds numbers and fin materials. Herein are also presented the average heat transfer coefficients for isothermal plate fins, referring to heat exchangers with central-tube and rear-tube row and to two-row tubes heat exchangers configurations. It is possible to obtain the real tax or the real area of heat transfer, using the average hea transfer coefficients for isothermal plate fins and the fin efficiency. (Author) [pt

  3. Using Three-Dimensional Printing to Fabricate a Tubing Connector for Dilation and Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitely, Michael L; Paterson, Helen

    2016-02-01

    This is a proof-of-concept study to show that simple instrumentation problems encountered in surgery can be solved by fabricating devices using a three-dimensional printer. The device used in the study is a simple tubing connector fashioned to connect two segments of suction tubing used in a surgical procedure where no commercially available product for this use is available through our usual suppliers in New Zealand. A cylindrical tubing connector was designed using three-dimensional printing design software. The tubing connector was fabricated using the Makerbot Replicator 2X three-dimensional printer. The connector was used in 15 second-trimester dilation and evacuation procedures. Data forms were completed by the primary operating surgeon. Descriptive statistics were used with the expectation that the device would function as intended in all cases. The three-dimensional printed tubing connector functioned as intended in all 15 instances. Commercially available three-dimensional printing technology can be used to overcome simple instrumentation problems encountered during gynecologic surgical procedures.

  4. Estimation and optimization of thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Erkan; Ayaz, Mahir; Ezen, H. Hüseyin; Küçüksille, Ecir U.; Şahin, Arzu Şencan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) in order to predict the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collector system have been used. The experimental data for the training and testing of the networks were used. The results of ANN are compared with ANFIS in which the same data sets are used. The R2-value for the thermal performance values of collector is 0.811914 which can be considered as satisfactory. The results obtained when unknown data were presented to the networks are satisfactory and indicate that the proposed method can successfully be used for the prediction of the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collectors. In addition, new formulations obtained from ANN are presented for the calculation of the thermal performance. The advantages of this approaches compared to the conventional methods are speed, simplicity, and the capacity of the network to learn from examples. In addition, genetic algorithm (GA) was used to maximize the thermal performance of the system. The optimum working conditions of the system were determined by the GA.

  5. An investigation on SA 213-Tube to SA 387-Tube plate using friction welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. Pandia; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Jharkhand (India); Kumaran, S. Senthil [RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthukumaran, S. [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) is a relatively newer solid state welding process used for joining tube to tube plate of either similar or dissimilar materials with enhanced mechanical and metallurgical properties. In the present study, FWTPET has been used to weld SA 213 (Grade T12) tube with SA 387 (Grade 22) tube plate. The welded samples are found to have satisfactory joint strength and the Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that inter metallic compound is absent in the weld zone. The different weld joints have been identified and the phase composition is found using EDX and XRD. Microstructures have been analyzed using optical and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties such as hardness, compressive shear strength and peel test for different weld conditions are studied and the hardness survey revealed that there is increase in hardness at the weld interface due to grain refinement. The corrosion behavior for different weld conditions have been analyzed and the weld zone is found to have better corrosion resistance due to the influence of the grain refinement after FWTPET welding process. Hence, the present investigation is carried out to study the behavior of friction welded dissimilar joints of SA 213 tube and SA 387 tube plate joints and the results are presented. The present study confirms that a high quality tube to tube plate joint can be achieved using FWTPET process at 1120 rpm.

  6. SOLAR REFRIGERATING UNIT WITH AN ADSORPTION REACTOR AND EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Vieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the principles of operation of a solar refrigerator with the following basic components: a reactor, a set of evacuated tube solar collectors, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and an evaporator. During the heating phase, solar radiation is collected and transferred to the reactor for desorption by a vapor thermal siphon loop. During the cooling phase, heat from the reactor is released to the ambient by a second water vapor loop. Ambient data collected daily during a period of 18 years were divided into hourly values and used to simulate the temperatures of the reactor, which uses salt impregnated with graphite and ammonia, during the adsorption / desorption processes. The results show that the refrigerator operates well in Fortaleza and that better results are expected for the countryside of the state of Ceara. It is concluded that only a high efficiency collector set can be used in the system

  7. A multidimensonal Examination of Prefomences of the Future advanced Transport Systems: The ETT (Evacuated Tube Transport) TRM (Transrapid MAGLEV) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional examination of performances of the future advanced ETT Evacuated Tube Transport) system operated by TRM (TransRapidMaglev); assessment of the ETT TRM system contribution to sustainability of the future transport sector through its completion with APT (Air Passenger Transport) system

  8. Design and Optical Performance of Compound Parabolic Solar Concentrators with Evacuated Tube as Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, six symmetric compound parabolic solar concentrators (CPCs with all-glass evacuated solar tubes (EST as the receiver are designed, and a comparative study on their optical performance is performed based on theoretical analysis and ray-tracing simulations. In terms of optical loss through gaps of CPCs and optical efficiency averaged for radiation over the acceptance angle, CPC-6, designed based on a fictitious “hat”-shaped absorber with a “V” groove at the bottom, is the optimal design, and CPC-1, designed based on the cover tube, is the worst solution, whereas from the point of view of the annual collectible radiation on the EST, it is found that CPC-4, designed based on a fictitious “ice-cream” absorber, is the optimal design and CPC-1 is the worst solution. CPC-6, commonly regarded as the best design in the past, is not an optimal design in terms of annual collectible radiation after truncation. Results also indicate that, for high temperature applications, CPC-6 and CPC-4 are advisable due to the high solar flux on the EST resulting from the high optical efficiency for radiation within the acceptance angle.

  9. Plugging criteria for steam generator tubes with axial cracks near tube support plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking with intergranular attack occurs on the secondary side of steam generator (SG) tubes where impurities concentrate due to boiling under restricted flow conditions. In the most of cases, it can be called ODSCC (Outer Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking). The typical locations are areas near support plates, in sludge piles and at top of tubesheet crevices. Though it can also occur on free spans under the relatively thin deposits that build up on the tube surfaces. ODSCC near tube plate supports have been the cause of plugging of many tubes. Thus, studies on SG tubes plugging criteria related to this degradation mechanism are presented in this paper. Th purpose is to avoid unnecessary tube plugging from either safety or reliability standpoint. Based on these studies some conclusions on the plugging criteria and on the difficulties to apply them are addressed. (author)

  10. Procedure and device for extracting the end of a tube inserted into a hole in a tube plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    When constructing heat exchangers and steam generators, particularly in the construction of steam generators for nuclear power stations, many small diameter tubes have to be secured into a very thick tube plate for instance 600 mm thick. This crimping or expanding of the tube is generally performed by rolling the internal surface of the tube inside a hole drilled right through the tube plate and slightly greater in diameter than the external diameter of the tube before the tube is rolled. To check the tubes for defects, it is necessary to extract certain tubes from the tube plate in order to move the tube to a testing and inspection point and examine the part of it that was secured in the plate hole. The invention concerns the uncrimping of these tubes [fr

  11. Transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboya, S.M.; Saboya, F.E.M.

    1981-01-01

    In order to determine transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube exchangers, mass transfer experiments have been performed using the naphthalene sublimation technique. By means of the heat-mass transfer analogy, the results can be converted to heat transfer results. The transfer coefficients were compared with those for circular tube exchangers and the comparison revealed no major differences. This is a positive outcome, since the use of elliptical tubes may reduce substantially the pressure drop, without affecting the transfer characteristics.(Author) [pt

  12. Transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboya, S.M.

    1979-09-01

    Mean transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers were determined by application of heat and mass transfer analogy in conjunction with the naphthalene sublimation technique. The transfer coefficients are presented in a dimensionless form as functions of the Reynolds number. By using the least squares method analytical expressions for the transfer coefficients were determined with low scattering. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Theoretical model of an evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector integrated with phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghavi, M.S.; Ong, K.S.; Badruddin, I.A.; Mehrali, M.; Silakhori, M.; Metselaar, H.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model theoretically a solar hot water system consisting of an array of ETHPSC (evacuated tube heat pipe solar collectors) connected to a common manifold filled with phase change material and acting as a LHTES (latent heat thermal energy storage) tank. Solar energy incident on the ETHPSC is collected and stored in the LHTES tank. The stored heat is then transferred to the domestic hot water supply via a finned heat exchanger pipe placed inside the tank. A combination of mathematical algorithms is used to model a complete process of the heat absorption, storage and release modes of the proposed system. The results show that for a large range of flow rates, the thermal performance of the ETHPSC-LHTES system is higher than that of a similar system without latent heat storage. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the efficiency of the introduced system is less sensitive to the draw off water flowrate than a conventional system. Analysis indicates that this system could be applicable as a complementary part to conventional ETHPSC systems to be able to produce hot water at night time or at times with weak radiation. - Highlights: • The ETHPSC is integrated with PCM at manifold side for night hot water demands. • The thermal performance of the ETHPSC-PCM is often higher than the baseline model. • The efficiency of the proposed model is stable for different flow rates. • Using PCM as thermal storage increases reliability on the performance of the system.

  14. Viewing device of a steam generator tube-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Poirier, D.

    1984-01-01

    The invention proposes a device to observe the tubular plate of a steam generator including rows of parallel tubes situated in a shell provided with at least one entrance situated face to the interval between two adjacent rows. The device comprises a boom of which transversal dimension is less important than the interval; the boom can be inserted by the entrance; it contains a rigid endoscope terminated in an eyepiece and an optical fibre lighguide in the same vertical plane for illumination of the far end. The respective rotary angled mirrors are driven simultaneously by drums connected to a rack-and-pinion mechanism which is operated by a plunger held by a spring against a rocking lever driven by a motor and cam. As the mirrors rotate, the illuminated zone overlaps the field of view of the endoscope. The tube plate area in the shadow of the endoscope mirror (20) is illuminated separately by an ailiary fibre with a fixed terminal mirror. The invention enables the observation of the tube plate on both sides of the boom. It can be used in the case of the inspection of the steam generator of a pressurized water reactor [fr

  15. PERFORMANCE OF EVACUATED TUBE SOLAR COLLECTOR USING WATER-BASED TITANIUM OXIDE NANOFLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahendran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are undertaken to determine the efficiency of an evacuated tube solar collector using water-based Titanium Oxide (TiO2 nanofluid at the Pekan Campus (3˚32’ N, 103˚25’ E, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, for the conversion of solar thermal energy. Malaysia lies in the equatorial zone with an average daily solar insolation of more than 900 W/m², which can reach a maximum of 1200 W/m² for most of the year. Traditionally water is pumped through the collector at an optimum flow rate, for the extraction of solar thermal energy. If the outlet temperature of the water is high, further circulation of the water through the collector is useless. This is due to the low thermal conductivity of water of 0.6 W/m.K compared to metals which is many orders higher. Hence it is necessary to reduce the surface temperature either by pumping water at a higher flow rate or by enhancing the fluid’s properties by the dispersion of nanoparticles. Pumping water at higher flow rates is not advantageous as the overall efficiency of the system is lowered. Liquids in which nanosized particles of metal or their oxides are dispersed in a base liquid such as water are known as 'Nanofluids'. This results in higher values of thermal conductivity compared to the base liquid. The thermal conductivity increases with the concentration and temperature of the nanofluid. The increase in thermal conductivity with temperature is advantageous for application in collectors as the solar insolation varies throughout the day, with a minimum in the morning reaching a maximum at 2.00p.m and reducing thereafter. The efficiency of the collector estimated using a TiO2 nanofluid of 0.3% concentration is about 0.73, compared to water which is about 0.58. The efficiency is enhanced by 16.7% maximum with 30–50nm sized TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in the water, compared to the system working solely with water. The flow rate is fixed at 2.7 liters per

  16. Feasibility of active solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collector at different operational water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarrón, Fernando R.; Porras-Prieto, Carlos Javier; García, José Luis; Benavente, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the feasibility of an active solar water-heating system. • Profitability decreases as the required water temperature increases. • The number of collectors that maximizes profitability depends on the required temperature. • Investment in a properly sized system generates savings between 23% and 15%. • Fuel consumption can be reduced by 70%. - Abstract: With rapid advancements in society, higher water temperatures are needed in a number of applications. The demand for hot water presents a great variability with water required at different temperatures. In this study, the design, installation, and evaluation of a solar water heating system with evacuated tube collector and active circulation has been carried out. The main objective is to analyze how the required tank water temperature affects the useful energy that the system is capable of delivering, and consequently its profitability. The results show how the energy that is collected and delivered to the tank decreases with increasing the required temperature due to a lower performance of the collector and losses in the pipes. The annual system efficiency reaches average values of 66%, 64%, 61%, 56%, and 55% for required temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C. As a result, profitability decreases as temperature increases. The useful energy, and therefore the profitability, will decrease if the demand is not distributed throughout the day or focused on the end of the day. The system’s profitability was determined in two cases: considering maximum profitability of the system, assuming 100% utilization of useful energy (scenario 1); assuming a particular demand, considering that on many days all the useful energy the system can supply is not used (scenario 2). The analysis shows that through proper sizing of the system, optimizing the number of solar collectors, the investment in the solar system can be profitable with similar profitability values in the two

  17. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  18. Exergy Analyses of Fabricated Compound Parabolic Solar Collector with Evacuated Tubes at Different Operating Conditions: Indore (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geete, Ankur; Dubey, Akash; Sharma, Ankush; Dubey, Anshul

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, compound parabolic solar collector (CPC) with evacuated tubes is fabricated. Main benefit of CPC is that there is no requirement of solar tracking system. With fabricated CPC; outlet temperatures of flowing fluid, instantaneous efficiencies, useful heat gain rates and inlet exergies (with and without considering Sun's cone angle) are experimentally found. Observations are taken at different time intervals (1200, 1230, 1300, 1330 and 1400 h), mass flow rates (1.15, 0.78, 0.76, 0.86 and 0.89 g/s), ambient temperatures and with various dimensions of solar collector. This research work is concluded as; maximum instantaneous efficiency is 69.87% which was obtained with 0.76 g/s flow rate of water at 1300 h and 42°C is the maximum temperature difference which was also found at same time. Maximum inlet exergies are 139.733 and 139.532 kW with and without considering Sun's cone angle at 1300 h, respectively. Best thermal performance from the fabricated CPC with evacuated tubes is found at 1300 h. Maximum inlet exergy is 141.365 kW which was found at 1300 h with 0.31 m aperture width and 1.72 m absorber pipe length.

  19. Performance study on evacuated tube solar collector using therminol D-12 as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, P.; Somasundaram, P.; Thangavel, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Instant hot water at temperatures between 40 °C and 68 °C in the low solar radiation range of 240–540 W/m 2 . • Usage of therminol D-12 and parabolic trough in low temperature application. • Stability of thermal and flow properties of therminol D-12 are studied. - Abstract: Fossil fuels and electrical energy are widely used for instant hot water generation in rural and urban areas. Also, conventional solar water heaters do not support instant hot water generation because of various problems. A new system with evacuated tube collector using synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough is developed and studied experimentally for instant hot water generation in the presence of low solar irradiance. Among the different grades of therminol, therminol D-12 is chosen for the study because of its thermal stability. Parabolic trough is coupled to evacuated tube to enhance the flow as well as heating characteristics of therminol. Heating efficiency and temperature characteristics are determined for the newly developed system under low solar irradiance conditions. Instant hot water can be produced by the new system at a temperature of 60 °C in the presence of low solar radiation. This newly developed system has the ability to check the fossil fuel consumption and electrical energy consumption for instant hot water generation in household applications. The stability of the heat transfer fluid is also ensured by repeated experiments

  20. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  1. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  2. An investigation on mechanical property of commercial copper tube to aluminium 2025 tube plate by FWTPET process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, S., E-mail: kannan.dgl201127@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India); Senthil Kumaran, S., E-mail: sskumaran@ymail.com [Research and Development Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, RVS Educational Trust' s Group of Institutions, RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, Tamilnadu 624005 (India); Kumaraswamidhas, L.A., E-mail: lakdhas1978@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India)

    2016-07-05

    Frictional welding of tube to tube plate by external tool (FWTPET) posses wide spread industrial in mass production process for joint similar and dissimilar materials. Frictional welding process allows welding of some materials that are exceptionally hard to fusion weld. The good quality joint between the tube and tube plate is achieved by selecting the proper process parameter. In this present research, the frictional welding is done between the Aluminium 2025 tube plate and commercial copper tube possessing a clearance fit of 0.1 mm between tube and hole. In this study, two conditions were considered while handing out this experiment. The condiction1 is tube without holes [WOH] and condition 2 is tube with holes [WH] on the tube circumference. In total, twenty seven work pieces have been considered separately for both conditions and the mechanical property such as compression strength and hardness value has been measured for the both set of work piece in two conditions to analysis the joint strength of the welding process. Taguchi L{sub 27} orthogonal array has been used in this process to identify the process parameter which influences the joint strength of the welded samples. ANOVA method is used to calculate the percentage of contribution by each process parameter which influences the better joint strength. Genetic algorithm is used to authenticate the outcome obtained from the both experimental value and optimization value. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) has been performed to probe microstructures and chemical compositions for work piece without holes which has higher mechanical property. - Highlights: • FWTPET for dissimilar metals commercial copper tube and Al 2025 tube plate. • The hardness value for tube without holes are 180.988 Hv. • The compression strength for tube without holes are 376.05 MPa. • SEM confirm heat production is done to melt parent metal by diffusion process. • EDX prove no trace

  3. Design of Pumping Station for the Solar Evacuated Collector Tubes%太阳能真空集热管排气台的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任家生; 毛福明; 赵正中; 刘兆斌

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the design requirements and constructure speciality of pumping station for the solar evacuated collector tubes are reported.%本文介绍了太阳能真空集热管排气台的设计要求与结构特点.

  4. Radial holding device of the tube bundle casing and of the tube support plates by elastic stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comic, G.

    1995-01-01

    Each stop comprises a first piece fixed on the tube bundle casing and contacting the inner face of the pressure casing by the intermediary of screws. A second piece abutting the tube support plate and constraining it is housed to form a piston in a cavity of the first piece. 5 figs

  5. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  6. Experimental results of the consequences of sodium water reactions at the bottom tube plate region of straight tube steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruloff, G.

    1990-01-01

    Experience with sodium water reactions has shown, that the course of such a steam generator accident depends strongly on its place in the steam generator. For the EFR steam generators we have to differentiate between: weld region at the upper tube plate (gas space); bundle region; weld region at the bottom tube plate. This paper describes results of a running tests program simulating the bottom tube plate area. One main part of these tests is the investigation of the influence of wastage protection shrouds between the tubes in the weld region to avoid a fast leak propagation and to give time for leak detection and mastering of the accidents. (author). 10 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic performance analysis of a solar dryer using an evacuated-tube air collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamnatou, Chr.; Papanicolaou, E.; Belessiotis, V.; Kyriakis, N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate an evacuated-tube solar air collector and use it to develop a novel dryer. ► Apple, carrot and apricot thin-layer drying experiments are conducted. ► Best overall fitting among several available thin-layer drying models is pursued. ► Thermodynamic analysis yields optimal collector area, energy utilization/exergy loss. ► The proposed dryer has a capacity for drying larger quantities of products. -- Abstract: The present work presents a thermodynamic performance analysis of a solar dryer with an evacuated-tube collector. Drying experiments for apples, carrots and apricots were conducted, after a preliminary stage of the investigation which included measurements for the determination of the collector efficiency. These results showed that the warm outlet air of the collector attains temperature levels suitable for drying of agricultural products without the need of preheating. Thus, the present collector was used as the heat source for a drying chamber in the frame of the development of a novel, convective, indirect solar dryer; given the fact that in the literature there are only a few studies about this type of collectors in conjunction with solar drying applications. Thin-layer drying models were fitted to the experimental drying curves, including the recent model of Diamante et al. which showed good correlation coefficients for all the tested products. Drying parameters such as moisture ratio and drying rates were calculated. Furthermore, an energetic/exergetic analysis of the dryer was also conducted and performance coefficients such as pick-up and exergy efficiencies, energy utilization ratio, exergy losses were determined for several configurations such as single and double-trays and several drying air velocities. On the other hand, an optimal collector surface area study was conducted, based on laws for minimum entropy generation. Design parameters such as optimum collector area were determined based on the minimum entropy

  8. Process and device for removing sludge deposited on the tube plate of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charamathieu, A.; Dessales, J.; Lebouc, B.

    1983-01-01

    To remove the sludges on the tubular plate, one lance, at least, is moved radially from the center of the tubular plate between two rows of tubes, in a parallel direction to the tubular plate and near this one. Two high pressure jets are moved from the extremity of the lance and, in fixed and symmetrical directions about the direction of the rows. The two jets are interrupted when passing in front of the heat exchange tubes of the generator; the cleaning liquid is simultaneously carried off from the periphery of the group of tubes [fr

  9. Experimental investigation of the higher coefficient of thermal performance for water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; You, Shijun; Xu, Wei; Wang, Min; He, Tao; Zheng, Xuejing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy grades system for solar water heater (SWH) in China was introduced. • Heat loss and capacity of heat collection mainly affected SWH thermal performance. • Optimum ratio of tank volume to collector area for solar water heater is 57 to 72 L/m 2 . • The recommendation polyurethane insulation layer should be around 50 mm thick. • SWH with shorter tube has a better thermal performance. - Abstract: Solar water heaters (SWHs), now widely used in China, represent an environmentally friendly way to heat water. We tested the performance of more than 1000 water-in-glass evacuated tube SWHs according to Chinese standards and found that the heat loss from the storage tank and capacity of the solar collector affected their thermal performance. The optimum parameters to maximize the performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube SWHs included a ratio of tank volume to collector area of 57–72 L/m 2 , which should give a system efficiency of 0.49–0.57, meaning that the temperature of water in the tank will exceed 45 °C after one day of heat collection. In addition, the polyurethane insulation layer should be around 50 mm thick with a free foaming density of about 35 kg/m 3 , and the evacuated tube should be short. The tilt angle did not affect the performance of the SWHs. These results should aid in the design of highly efficient SWHs

  10. Preliminary studies of microchannel plate photomultiplier tube neutron detectors for flight test applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.

    1978-10-01

    Electrical, mechanical, thermal, and neutron response data indicate that microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are viable candidates as miniature, ruggedized neutron detectors for flight test applications in future weapon systems

  11. An investigation on thermal and friction effect produced by friction welding of SA 213 tube to SA 387 tube plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pandia Rajan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of thermal and friction produced in the tube to tube plate during the friction welding process by using a Tungsten carbide external tool. In this process, the fictional welding of SA 213 tube and SA 387 tube plate was done by using an external tool. Modeling of tool and wok piece is done by using Solid works and to study the thermal and frictional effect by using Ansys. In this research work, joining of SA 213 tube to SA 387 tube plate was done by using two different techniques such as with hole [WH] and without hole [WOH]. The stress value of with hole and without hole such as 18,782 MPa and 10,486 MPa respectively and the ultimate heat flux generated with hole and without hole such as 0.80475 W/mm2 and 1.1344 W/mm2 respectively were observed.

  12. An investigation on compression strength analysis of commercial aluminium tube to aluminium 2025 tube plate by using TIG welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, S., E-mail: kannan.dgl201127@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India, 826004 (India); Senthil Kumaran, S., E-mail: sskumaran@ymail.com [Research and Development Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, RVS Educational Trust' s Group of Institutions, RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India, 624005 (India); Kumaraswamidhas, L.A., E-mail: lakdhas1978@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India, 826004 (India)

    2016-05-05

    In this present study, Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding was applied to weld the dissimilar materials and authenticate the mechanical and metallurgical properties of tube to tube plate made up of commercial aluminium and Al 2025 respectively using an Zirconiated tungsten electrode along with filler material aluminium ER 2219. In total, twenty five pieces has been subjected to compression strength and hardness value to evaluate the optimal joint strength. The three optimization technique has been used in this experiment. Taguchi L{sub 25} orthogonal array is used to identify the most influencing process parameter which affects the joint strength. ANOVA method is measured for both compression strength and hardness to calculate the percentage of contribution for each process parameter. Genetic algorithm is used to validate the results obtained from the both experimental value and optimization value. The micro structural study is depicted the welding joints characterization in between tube to tube plate joints. The radiograph test is conducted to prove the welds are non-defective and no flaws are found during the welding process. The mechanical property of compression strength and hardness has been measured to obtain the optimal joint strength of the welded sample was about 174.846 MPa and 131.364 Hv respectively. - Highlights: • Commercial Al tube and Al 2025 tube plate successfully welded by TIG welding. • Compression strength and hardness value proves to obtain optimal joint strength. • The maximum compression and hardness was achieved in various input parameters.

  13. An investigation on compression strength analysis of commercial aluminium tube to aluminium 2025 tube plate by using TIG welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Senthil Kumaran, S.; Kumaraswamidhas, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this present study, Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding was applied to weld the dissimilar materials and authenticate the mechanical and metallurgical properties of tube to tube plate made up of commercial aluminium and Al 2025 respectively using an Zirconiated tungsten electrode along with filler material aluminium ER 2219. In total, twenty five pieces has been subjected to compression strength and hardness value to evaluate the optimal joint strength. The three optimization technique has been used in this experiment. Taguchi L_2_5 orthogonal array is used to identify the most influencing process parameter which affects the joint strength. ANOVA method is measured for both compression strength and hardness to calculate the percentage of contribution for each process parameter. Genetic algorithm is used to validate the results obtained from the both experimental value and optimization value. The micro structural study is depicted the welding joints characterization in between tube to tube plate joints. The radiograph test is conducted to prove the welds are non-defective and no flaws are found during the welding process. The mechanical property of compression strength and hardness has been measured to obtain the optimal joint strength of the welded sample was about 174.846 MPa and 131.364 Hv respectively. - Highlights: • Commercial Al tube and Al 2025 tube plate successfully welded by TIG welding. • Compression strength and hardness value proves to obtain optimal joint strength. • The maximum compression and hardness was achieved in various input parameters.

  14. Device for the selective positioning of a component on a tube plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for the selective positioning of a component on a tube plate. It particularly applies to the positioning of a guide tube head successively opposite all the tubes of the tube bundle of a nuclear reactor steam generator. The large number of tubes in the tube bundle of the steam generator in a pressure water nuclear power station must be checked periodically for any likely corrosion. This check is effected with a Foucault current probe which is inserted in each tube in turn and is connected to a probe signal processing unit. The probe is placed in a flexible guide tube brought in turn in front of each tube of the bundle to be checked. The invention concerns a device to move the opening of a tube guide for a Foucault current detector over the entire surface of the tube plate, thereby providing access to all the tubes whilst limiting the interventions to a single positioning and a single withdrawal of the apparatus for testing all the bundle. Between the two interventions at the beginning and end of the operation, all displacements are remote controlled from outside the dangerous radioacive area [fr

  15. Techno-economıc Analysıs of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater usıng F-chart Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, H.; Rahim, N. A.; Saidur, R.; Hasanuzzaman, M.

    2018-05-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in recent decades. Solar water heating systems based on thermal collector alone or connected with photovoltaic called as photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) are practical applications to replace the use of electrical water heaters but weather dependent performance of these systems is not linear. Therefore on the basis of short term or average weather conditions, accurate analysis of performance is quite difficult. The objective of this paper is to show thermal and economic analysis of evacuated tube collector solar water heaters. Analysis done by F-Chart shows that evacuated tube solar water heater achieves fraction value of 1 to fulfil hot water demand of 150liters and above per day for a family without any auxiliary energy usage. Evacuated tube solar water heater show life cycle savings of RM 5200. At water set temperature of 100°C, RM 12000 is achieved and highest life cycle savings of RM 6100 at the environmental temperature of 18°C are achieved. Best thermal and economic performance is obtained which results in reduction of household greenhouse gas emissions, reduction of energy consumption and saves money on energy bills.

  16. High temperature collecting performance of a new all-glass evacuated tubular solar air heater with U-shaped tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pin-Yang; Guan, Hong-Yang; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Guo-San; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Hong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel solar air heater with simplified CPC and U-type heat exchanger is designed and tested. • The system is made up of 10 linked collecting panels. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • The air heater can propose the heated air exceeding 200 °C with great air flow rate. - Abstract: Experiment and simulation are conducted on a new-type all-glass evacuated tubular solar air heater with simplified compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The system is made up of 10 linked collecting panels and each panel includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube with a U-shaped copper tube heat exchanger installed inside. Air is gradually heated when passing through each U-shaped copper tube. The heat transfer model of the solar air heater is established and the outlet air temperature, the heat power and heat efficiency are calculated. Calculated and experimental results show that the present experimental system can provide the heated air exceeding 200 °C. The whole system has an outstanding high-temperature collecting performance and the present heat transfer model can meet the general requirements of engineering calculations

  17. Investigation of Heat Transfer to a Flat Plate in a Shock Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    2 Objectives and Scope . . . . . .. .. .. .... 5 11. Theory ............... ....... 7 Shock Tube Principles........... 7 Boundary Layer Theory ...in *excess of theory , but the rounded edge flat plate exhibited data which matched or was less than what theory predicted for each Mach number tested...normal shock advancing along an infinite flat plate. For x< Ugt there is a region of interaction between the downstream influence of the leading edge

  18. Measurement of leakage dose distribution from Crookes tube using imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Obara, Satoshi; Inoue, Hajime; Kato, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Hosoda, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Crookes tube is used on an educational site in the junior high school and the high school, etc. for the purpose to learn the character of cathode rays. When using the tube, X rays are generated, however, there is few example of confirming in which direction to scatter in detail. Understanding how the distribution of the leakage dose is important because of efficient exposure decrease. The distribution of X rays generated from Crookes tube was measured by arranging imaging plates in six surroundings to enclose Crookes tube. The electron collided with a metal target and X rays had extended backward. The dose was greatly different depending on the direction. When experimenting with Crookes tube, it is necessary to consider not only the dose but also distribution. (author)

  19. A theory for fluidelastic instability of tube-support-plate-inactive modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Chandra, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes, vibrating in a tube support plate (TSP)-inactive mode, is suspected to be one of the main causes of the tube failure in some operating steam generators and heat exchangers. This paper presents a mathematical model for fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes exposed to nonuniform crossflow. the model incorporates all motion-dependent fluid forces based on the unsteady-flow theory. In the unstable region associated with a TSP-inactive mode, tube motion can be described by two linear models: TSP-inactive mode when tubes do not strike the TSP, and TSP-active mode when tubes do strike the TSP. The bilinear model (consisting of these linear models) presented here simulates the characteristics of fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes in stable and unstable regions associated with TSP-inactive modes. Analytical results obtained with the model are compared with published experimental data; they agree reasonably well. The prediction procedure presented for the fluidelastic instability response of loosely supported tubes is applicable to the stable and unstable regions of the TSP-inactive mode

  20. Device for removing and recuperating sludge deposited on the tube plate of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bes, Louis.

    1982-01-01

    The cleaning device includes a descaling ramp with high pressure jets permanently fixed inside the steam generator, a system for driving the sludge formed towards the centre of the tube plate and a valve for removing the sludge giving into a hollow central column [fr

  1. Effect of Different Tube Potential Settings on Caries Detection using PSP Plate and Conventional Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Daniela Pita; Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; De Farias, Julyanna Filgueiras GonçAlves; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; De Almeida, Solange Maria

    2015-04-01

    To compare intraoral Phosphor Stimulable Plate digital system and intraoral film using different tube settings on incipient proximal caries detection. Five blocks, with five teeth each, were radiographically examined using phosphor plates and F-speed films. The images were acquired in 07 different tube potentials from 50-80 kV. The films were digitized. Three oral radiologists scored the images for the presence of caries using a 5-point rating scale. The areas under ROC curve were calculated. The influence of tube kilovoltage was verified by ANOVA and pair wise comparisons performed using Tukey test. Mean ROC curve areas varied from 0.446-0.628 for digital images and 0.494-0.559 for conventional images. The tube setting of 70 kV presented the best result both for digital and conventional images. Considering the image type separately, 70 kV scored highest followed by 75 and 65 kV for digital images (p=0.084). For conventional image modality, even though 70 kV presented the best result, it did not differ significantly from 80 kV, not differing from 60 and 55 kV, which did not differ from 75, 65 and 50 kV (p=0.53). Phosphor plate digital images seem to be more susceptible to tube setting potential variations then digitized film images.

  2. Effect of Different Tube Potential Settings on Caries Detection using PSP Plate and Conventional Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; De Farias, Julyanna Filgueiras GonçAlves; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; De Almeida, Solange Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare intraoral Phosphor Stimulable Plate digital system and intraoral film using different tube settings on incipient proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods Five blocks, with five teeth each, were radiographically examined using phosphor plates and F-speed films. The images were acquired in 07 different tube potentials from 50-80 kV. The films were digitized. Three oral radiologists scored the images for the presence of caries using a 5-point rating scale. The areas under ROC curve were calculated. The influence of tube kilovoltage was verified by ANOVA and pair wise comparisons performed using Tukey test. Results Mean ROC curve areas varied from 0.446-0.628 for digital images and 0.494–0.559 for conventional images. The tube setting of 70 kV presented the best result both for digital and conventional images. Considering the image type separately, 70 kV scored highest followed by 75 and 65 kV for digital images (p=0.084). For conventional image modality, even though 70 kV presented the best result, it did not differ significantly from 80 kV, not differing from 60 and 55 kV, which did not differ from 75, 65 and 50 kV (p=0.53). Conclusion Phosphor plate digital images seem to be more susceptible to tube setting potential variations then digitized film images. PMID:26023645

  3. Extreme learning machine: a new alternative for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Li, Hao; Tang, Xindong; Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Fan; Cheng, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    Heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial indicators for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, wasting too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we previously used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to develop precise knowledge-based models for predicting the heat collection rates and heat loss coefficients of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, setting the properties measured by "portable test instruments" as the independent variables. A robust software for determination was also developed. However, in previous results, the prediction accuracy of heat loss coefficients can still be improved compared to those of heat collection rates. Also, in practical applications, even a small reduction in root mean square errors (RMSEs) can sometimes significantly improve the evaluation and business processes. As a further study, in this short report, we show that using a novel and fast machine learning algorithm-extreme learning machine can generate better predicted results for heat loss coefficient, which reduces the average RMSEs to 0.67 in testing.

  4. Locking device of a guiding ring on a plate including an aperture; application to guide tube of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauquelin, C.; Poitrenaud, P.

    1987-01-01

    To make easy to take to pieces a guide tube, by a simple tool, this device includes a guide ring. This guide ring aligned with an aperture in a plate has a tubular support fixed to the plate and coaxial with the aperture and lock the guide tube by rotation [fr

  5. Assessment of Real Heat Transfer Coefficients through Shell and Tube and Plate Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CONSTANTINESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure used in the assessment of the real heat transfer characteristic of shell and tube and plate heat exchangers. The theoretical fundamentals of the procedure are introduced as well as the measured data collection and processing. The theoretical analysis is focused on the adoption of criterial equations which, subjected to certain verification criteria presented in the paper, provide the most credible value of the convection heat transfer coefficients inside the circular and flat tubes. In the end two case studies are presented, one concerning a shell and tube heat exchanger operational at INCERC Thermal Substation and the other concerning a plate heat exchanger tested on the Laboratory Stand of the Department of Building Services and Efficient Use of Energy in Buildings of INCERC Bucharest.

  6. Optimization of friction welding by taguchi and ANOVA method on commercial aluminium tube to Al 2025 tube plate with backing block using an external tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanna, S.; Kumaraswamidhs, L. A.; Kumaran, S. Senthil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to optimize the Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) with clearance fit of commercial aluminum tube to Al 2025 tube plate using an external tool. Conventional frictional welding is suitable to weld only symmetrical joints either tube to tube or rod to rod but in this research with the help of external tool, the welding has been done by unsymmetrical shape of tube to tube plate also. In this investigation, the various welding parameters such as tool rotating speed (rpm), projection of tube (mm) and depth of cut (mm) are determined according to the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The two conditions were considered in this process to examine this experiment; where condition 1 is flat plate with plain tube Without holes [WOH] on the circumference of the surface and condition 2 is flat plate with plane tube has holes on its circumference of the surface With holes [WH]. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was utilized to find the most significant control factors which will yield better joint strength. Besides, the most influential process parameter has been determined using statistical Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the comparison of each result has been done for conditions by means percentage of contribution and regression analysis. The general regression equation is formulated and better strength is obtained and it is validated by means of confirmation test. It was observed that value of optimal welded joint strength for both tube without holes and tube with holes are to be 319.485 MPa and 264.825 MPa, respectively.

  7. Optimization of friction welding by taguchi and ANOVA method on commercial aluminium tube to Al 2025 tube plate with backing block using an external tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanna, S.; Kumaraswamidhs, L. A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad (India); Kumaran, S. Senthil [RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul (India)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of the present work is to optimize the Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) with clearance fit of commercial aluminum tube to Al 2025 tube plate using an external tool. Conventional frictional welding is suitable to weld only symmetrical joints either tube to tube or rod to rod but in this research with the help of external tool, the welding has been done by unsymmetrical shape of tube to tube plate also. In this investigation, the various welding parameters such as tool rotating speed (rpm), projection of tube (mm) and depth of cut (mm) are determined according to the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The two conditions were considered in this process to examine this experiment; where condition 1 is flat plate with plain tube Without holes [WOH] on the circumference of the surface and condition 2 is flat plate with plane tube has holes on its circumference of the surface With holes [WH]. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was utilized to find the most significant control factors which will yield better joint strength. Besides, the most influential process parameter has been determined using statistical Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the comparison of each result has been done for conditions by means percentage of contribution and regression analysis. The general regression equation is formulated and better strength is obtained and it is validated by means of confirmation test. It was observed that value of optimal welded joint strength for both tube without holes and tube with holes are to be 319.485 MPa and 264.825 MPa, respectively.

  8. A vapor generator equipped with an advanced drain device for the secondary side of the tubes plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadon, C.

    1995-01-01

    A draining design is proposed for the tube plate secondary side in a PWR type reactor, that does not interfere with the water flush 'street' thus allowing for an easy inspection and maintenance in the lower part of the tube bundle. The draining system is composed of a main groove on the upper side of the tube plate, which is connected to draining means situated outside the vapor generator. 6 fig

  9. Preliminary Stress Analysis of an IHX Tube Support Plate in Prototype SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Koo, Gyeong Hoi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the structural integrity about the conceptual design of IHX tube support plate was reviewed and the design should be changed because of its high stress concentration at the outer rim area. For reducing its maximum stress, two alternatives were proposed and reviewed for the structural integrity point of view. In both proposing support designs, the maximum stress decreases up to the stress design limit. Tube support plates (TSPs) of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in Prototype GenIV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) act to horizontally support IHX tubes against hydraulic loadings and they have numerous flow holes where a primary sodium flows downward and secondary sodium flows upward. Due to its many penetrations, its geometric shape is quite complex and structurally its integrity is quite weaker than other parts. In this study, we investigated the structural integrity of the conceptually designed IHX tube support plate. In addition, TSP's supporting concepts were proposed to increase its structural integrity, and confirmed its integrity by using a finite element analysis

  10. Evacuation exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094367

    2017-01-01

    In the event of an emergency, it is important that staff and visitors are evacuated safely and efficiently. Hence CERN organises regularly emergency response and evacuation exercise (also known as an ‘evacuation drill’) in different buildings across the sites.

  11. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  12. Device to position selectively a tool carried by a vehicle moving on the perforated plate of a tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the invention is an examination device for a tube bundle of an apparatus such as, but not restrictively, a steam generator, situated in a dangerous zone, e.g. radioactive and designed to be introduced into the water box of the said and placed against the perforated plate of the tube bundle by an operator working outside of the said apparatus and able to operate whatever the vertical or horizontal position of the tube plate. The device has a selectively positionable tool - carrying vehicle comprising pistons positioning fingers extendable into the tubes and mounted on extendable supports perpendicular to the pistons and to each other, and an articulated telescopic arm fixed at one end to a rotary mounting on the vehicle and at the other end to an access opening in the vessel containing the tube plate, to hold the vehicle against the plate [fr

  13. Inverse heat transfer problem in digital temperature control in plate fin and tube heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Dawid; Sury, Adam

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper is a steady-state inverse heat transfer problem for plate-fin and tube heat exchangers. The objective of the process control is to adjust the number of fan revolutions per minute so that the water temperature at the heat exchanger outlet is equal to a preset value. Two control techniques were developed. The first is based on the presented mathematical model of the heat exchanger while the second is a digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. The first procedure is very stable. The digital PID controller becomes unstable if the water volumetric flow rate changes significantly. The developed techniques were implemented in digital control system of the water exit temperature in a plate fin and tube heat exchanger. The measured exit temperature of the water was very close to the set value of the temperature if the first method was used. The experiments showed that the PID controller works also well but becomes frequently unstable.

  14. Connection of leak detectors for duplex tube plates of modular steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovec, J.; Konarik, M.; Vytopil, O.

    1985-01-01

    The sensors are connected to common line and column conductors. This connection significantly reduces the number of evaluation points and thus also the required number of evaluation unit channels. The reliability of the instrument is increased by each sensor being connected to two separate group conductors. Even upon failure of one of the conductors, the group of tube plates can be identified where a leak occurred. (J.B.)

  15. Performance of Retrofitted Self-Compacting Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beams Using External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. M. AL-Shaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams, similar to other structural members, necessitate retrofitting for many causes. However, research on SCCFST beams externally retrofitted by bolted steel plates has seldom been explored in the literature. This paper aims at experimentally investigating the retrofitting performance of square self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams using bolted steel plates with three different retrofitting schemes including varied configurations and two different steel plate lengths under flexure. A total of 18 specimens which consist of 12 retrofitted SCCFST beams, three unretrofitted (control SCCFST beams, and three hollow steel tubes were used. The flexural behaviour of the retrofitted SCCFST beams was examined regarding flexural strength, failure modes, and moment versus deflection curves, energy absorption, and ductility. Experimental results revealed that the implemented retrofitting schemes efficiently improve the moment carrying capacity and stiffness of the retrofitted SCCFST beams compared to the control beams. The increment in flexural strength ranged from 1% to 46%. Furthermore, the adopted retrofitting schemes were able to restore the energy absorption and ductility of the damaged beams in the range of 35% to 75% of the original beam ductility. Furthermore, a theoretical model was suggested to predict the moment capacity of the retrofitted SCCFST beams. The theoretical model results were in good agreement with the test results.

  16. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators

  17. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  18. Outgassing rate of the copper-plated beam tube for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuh, H.C.; Gaudet, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrahigh vacuum system of the intersecting storage accelerator, ISABELLE, will consist of two interlaced rings of stainless steel beam tubes with a circumference 2-1/2 miles each. To obtain a good heat conduction during bakeout and to reduce the resistive wall instability during beam operation, a lmm thick copper coating will be electroplated to the outer surface of this 1.5 mm thick beam tube. To minimize the beam loss due to beam-gas collision, the pressure inside the beam tube is required to be 1 x 10 -11 Torr (N 2 equivalent) or less. To achieve this ultrahigh vacuum, the outgassing rate of the 304 LN stainless steel tubes has been reduced to approx. 1 x 10 -13 Torr. l/cm 2 . sec by vacuum firing at 950 0 C for one hour. However, during acid-bath electroplating of copper, significant amount of hydrogen will be reintroduced and trapped in stainless steel which will substantially increase the outgassing rate (to approx. 2 x 10 -12 Torr . l/cm 2 sec). The outgassing characteristics of these copper-plated beam tubes are studied and discussed within the scope of diffusion and energy of activation. Methods to reduce the outgassing rate to an acceptable level (approx. 1 x 10 -13 Torr . l/cm 2 . sec) are also given

  19. A new method for the evacuation of aqueous humor in uncontrolled glaucoma. The vitreo-tenonian tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, J; Larricart, P; Le Mer, Y; Abboud, E

    1987-02-01

    The vitreo-tenonian tube is a new procedure, used in uncontrolled glaucoma, for the drainage of aqueous humor. It presents three original characteristics: it is made of a stainless metal, it is implanted in the posterior segment after vitrectomy and it drains the aqueous humor in the subtenonian space. We will describe first the surgical technique for the implantation of the tube, and then we will present the results of the first eight cases treated by this method. The advantages and drawbacks of this type of drainage are discussed: they are compared with the other surgical techniques used in cases of glaucoma which is uncontrolled by the classical methods.

  20. Support and tool displacement device for the attachment of a tube bundle on a tubular plate of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisot, M.; Werle, R.; Michaud, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The steam generator is being assembled, disposed with its axis horizontal and its tubular plate vertical; the device described in this patent, allows to automatize the preparation stages of the tubular plate and the attachment of the bundle, to shorten the construction of the steam generator and to remove drudgeries done by hand on the tubular plate or the tubes of the bundle. The invention can be applied to the construction of PWR steam generators [fr

  1. Valuation of fissured steam generator tubes at the level of the roll transition area, repaired by nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laire, C.; Stubbe, J.; Slama, G.; Michaut, M.; Anxionnaz-Steltzlen, F.; Leblois

    1990-01-01

    At DOEL 2, SG-tubes cracked at the roll transition area were repaired by nickel plating in 1985 and in 1986 by Laborelec and Framatome using different process parameters. The characteristics of these different deposits and their service behaviour were investigated on tubes pulled out after 1 or 2 cycles. It is confirmed that this repair technique can be used for through wall cracked tubes, when: - the cracks are not too broad; - the deposit is of good quality, free of irregularities due to deposition. After this expertise the improvement of the plating procedure was focused on ductile nickel without initial deposit defects [fr

  2. Corrosion behavior of the tube - tubular plate joint zone in the presence of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucan, D.; Fulger, M.; Pirvan, I.; Cotolan, V.

    1997-01-01

    The corrosion is a very important problem which concerns the safe operation of steam generators. The predominant part of corrosion problems is related to the local concentration of aggressive species and/or to the impurities from the slow-flow regions, like those created by cracks in tube - tubular plate joint zones. The consequences of such local concentrations are very important and as such entail interest in the design and utilization of steam generators. This study presents the results of the corrosion tests performed under specific operation conditions of the secondary circuit in NPP (temperature, 260 o C; pressure, 5.1 MPa) on a crack simulating device made of carbon steel SA 508 cl.2 (forming the tubular plate) and Incoloy-800 (forming the tubes). The chemical medium of these tests was the following: solution of NaCl, 25g/l (pH=10.5); solution of NaCl, 50 g/l (pH=10.5); solution of NaCl, 75g/l (pH=10.5); solution of NaCl, 75g/l + solution of Na 2 SO 4 , 10 g/l (pH=10.5). The behavior of these two materials to corrosion was studied by metallographic investigations. The results are presented as microphotographs evidencing the occurrence of pitting corrosion first on material of the tubular plate, in the presence of medium particularly aggressive and on the material of the tubes. The aim of this study is to establish the corrosion mechanism as well as the formation of the oxide layer on the carbon steel in crack simulating devices. (authors)

  3. Effect of boric acid on intergranular corrosion in tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Campan, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Intergranular attack on steam generator tubing is one important phenomenon involved in availability of Pressurized Water Reactors. Boric acid appears to be a possible candidate for inhibiting the corrosion process. The program performed in Cadarache was supposed to give statistical informations on the boric acid effect. It was based on a large number of samples initially attacked during a program performed by BABCOCK ampersand WILCOX. These samples were sleeved onto Alloy 690 tubes, in order to prevent premature cracking. Unfortunately it was not possible to find chemical conditions able to produce significant additional corrosion; we postulated mainly due to a drastic reduction of the thermal flux resulting from the increase of the tube wall thickness under the tube support plates (TSP). The tests demonstrate that such sleeve could be a possible remedy of the corrosion when introduced under the TSP. The tests show indications of a possible beneficial effect of the boric acid, a large variability of the heats sensitivity to the IGA and a predominant effect of Na 2 CO 3 on IGA production

  4. Relationships between boiling regimes and chemical concentration processes in tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a test inter-relating crevice boiling regimes and chemical concentration in tube support plate crevices are presented. Testing of highly soluble, non-volatile autoclave chemistries produced characteristic crevice pH and impedance distributions during nucleate boiling, initiation of dryout, steady-state operation, and following shutdown. However, the patterns changed as a function of the solubility and volatility of the autoclave chemistry, the solute concentration, and the presence of residual solutes from previous testing. The changes were related to variations in the rates of concentrated solution formation, transport, volatilization, and precipitation. (authors)

  5. Mathematical modeling and control of plate fin and tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taler, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for numerical modeling of plate fin and tube heat exchangers was proposed. • A numerical model of an automobile radiator was developed. • Numerical models of the radiator were compared with an exact analytical model. • A model-based control system of water outlet temperature was built and tested. • A digital proportional–integral–derivative controller of heat exchanger was tested. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to develop a new method for numerical modeling of tubular cross-flow heat exchangers. Using the method proposed in the paper, a numerical model of a car radiator was developed and implemented in a digital control system of the radiator. To evaluate the accuracy of the numerical method proposed in the paper, the numerical model of the car radiator was compared with an analytic model. The proposed method based on a finite volume method and integral averaging of gas temperature across a tube row is appropriate for modeling of plate fin and tube heat exchangers, especially for exchangers in which substantial gas temperature differences in one tube row occur. The target of control is to regulate the number of fan revolutions per minute so that the water temperature at the heat exchanger outlet is equal to a set value. Two control techniques were developed. The first is based on the numerical model of the heat exchanger developed in the paper while the second is a digital proportional–integral–derivative control. The first control method is very stable. The digital proportional–integral–derivative controller becomes unstable when the water volume flow rate varies considerably. The developed techniques were implemented in digital control system of the water exit temperature in a plate fin and tube heat exchanger. The measured exit temperature of the water was very close to the set value of the temperature if the first method was used. The experiments show that the proportional–integral–derivative controller

  6. Investigation of Thermal Performance of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tubular Solar Collectors According to a New Dynamic Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    obtain fluid thermal capacitance in data processing. Then theoretical analysis and experimental verification are carried out to investigate influencing factors of obtaining accurate and stable second order term. A flat plate and ETC solar collector are compared using both the new dynamic method......A new dynamic test method is introduced. This so called improved transfer function method features on two new collector parameters. One is time term which can indicate solar collector's inner heat transfer ability and the other is a second order term of collector mean fluid temperature which can...... and a standard method. The results show that the improved function method can accurately and robustly estimate these two kinds of solar collectors....

  7. Design and simulation of a prototype of a small-scale solar CHP system based on evacuated flat-plate solar collectors and Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Vicidomini, Maria; Scarpellino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel small scale solar power plant was designed and simulated. • The system is based on evacuated solar thermal collectors and an ORC system. • An average electric efficiency of 10% was found for the ORC. • The efficiency of solar collectors was found to be high in summer (>50%). • Pay-back periods lower than 5 years were estimated, in case of public funding. - Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic simulation model of a novel prototype of a 6 kW e solar power plant. The system is based on the coupling of innovative solar thermal collectors with a small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), simultaneously producing electric energy and low temperature heat. The novelty of the proposed system lies in the solar collector field, which is based on stationary evacuated flat-plate solar thermal collectors capable to achieve the operating temperatures typical of the concentrating solar thermal collectors. The solar field consists of about 73.5 m 2 of flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, heating a diathermic oil up to a maximum temperature of 230 °C. A diathermic oil storage tank is employed in order to mitigate the fluctuations due to the variability of solar energy availability. The hot diathermic oil exiting from the tank passes through an auxiliary gas-fired burner which provides eventual additional thermal energy. The inlet temperature of the diathermic oil entering the ORC system varies as a function of the availability of solar energy, also determining an oscillating response of the ORC. The ORC was simulated in Engineering Equation Solver (EES), using zero-dimensional energy and mass balances. The ORC model was subsequently implemented in a more general TRNSYS model, including all the remaining components of the system. The model was used to evaluate the energy and economic performance of the solar CHP system under analysis, in different climatic conditions. The results show that the efficiency of the ORC does not significantly vary during the

  8. Influence of the receiver’s back surface radiative characteristics on the performance of a heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Hongfei; Xiong, Jianying; Su, Yuehong; Zhang, Haiyin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for describing the heat transfer characteristics of the ETSC is derived. • A method by performing roughness treatment is proposed to change the emissivity. • Increasing the receiver’s back surface emissivity can greatly affect the heat loss. • Real weather test verifies the proposed method in controlling overheat phenomenon. - Abstract: The receiver’s back surface radiative characteristics of a heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector (ETSC) may have a significant influence on its performance. This influence is generally related to the back surface emissivity and temperature; however it has been not studied previously. This paper firstly presents a heat transfer model for the ETSC, which is then derived to characterize the relationship between the heat loss and the back surface emissivity of the ETSC. A steady state experiment has been also performed to measure the heat loss of ETSC with different back surface emissivity values. The experimental results indicate that the heat loss of the ETSC increases with the increase of the back surface emissivity, but the rate of increase differs for different operation temperatures. When the back surface emissivity increases from 0.03 to 0.12, the heat loss of ETSC only increases by 31% when the operation temperature is below 100 °C, but the heat loss will increase to 96% when the operation temperature is over 200 °C. This means that the change of back surface emissivity can significantly affect the performance of the ETSC at higher temperature but affect little at lower temperature. Based on this, a novel method by performing roughness treatment on the receiver’s back surface is proposed to solve the overheating problem of ETSC in summer. Two solar water heaters including 6 ETSCs with standard and roughness-treated tubes were tested under real weather condition. Experiment reveals that when the water temperature in tank is below 60 °C, the two solar water heaters own similar temperature

  9. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  10. Steam generator tube support plate degradation in French plants: maintenance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchet, J.-P.; Gillet, N.; Stindel, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the degradations of Steam Generator (SG) Tube Support Plates (TSPs) observed in French plants and the maintenance strategy adopted to continue operating the plant without any decrease of the required safety level. Only drilled carbon steel TSPs of early SGs are affected. Except the particular damage of the TSP8 of FESSENHEIM 2 caused by chemical cleaning procedures implemented in 1992, two main problems were observed almost exclusively on the upper TSP: Ligaments ruptured near the aseismic block located at 215 degrees. This degradation is perfectly detectable by bobbin coil inspection. It occurs very early in the life of the SG as can be seen from the records of previous inspections and no evolution of the signals was observed. This damage can be detected for 51M model SGs on several sites; Wastage of the ligaments resulting in enlargement of flow holes with in some cases complete consumption of a ligament. This damage was only observed for SGs of at GRAVELINES. This damage evolved cycle after cycle. Detailed studies were performed to analyze tubing behavior when a tube is not supported by the upper TSP because of missing ligaments. These studies evaluated the risk of vibratory instability, the behavior of both the TSP and the tubing in case of a seismic event or a LOCA and finally the behavior of the TSP in case of a Steam Line Break. Concerning vibratory instability it was possible to define zones where stability could not be demonstrated. Dampine, cables and sentinel plugs were then used when necessary to eliminate the risk of Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR). For accidental conditions, it could be shown that no unacceptable damage occurs and that the core cooling function of the SG is always maintained if some tubes are plugged. From this analysis, It was possible to define the inspection programs for the different plants taking into account the specific situation of each plant regarding the damages detected. These programs include

  11. Control of biofouling on titanium condenser tubes with the use of electroless copper plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandkumar, B.; George, R.P.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Ramachandran, D.

    2015-01-01

    In sea water environments titanium condenser tubes face serious issues of biofouling and biomineralization. Electroless plating of nanocopper film is attempted inside the tubes for the control of biofilm formation. Using advanced techniques like AFM, SEM, and XPS, electroless copper plated flat Ti specimens were characterized. Examination of Cu coated Ti surfaces using AFM and SEM showed more reduction in the microroughness compared to anodized Ti surface. Cu 2p 3/2 peak in XPS spectral analysis showed the shift in binding energy inferring the reduction of the hydroxide to metallic copper. Tubular specimens were exposed to sea water up to three months and withdrawn at monthly intervals to evaluate antibacterial activity and long term stability of the coating. Total viable counts and epifluorescence microscopy analyses showed two orders decrease in bacterial counts on copper coated Ti specimens when compared to as polished control Ti specimens. Molecular biology techniques like DGGE and protein expression analysis system were done to get insight into the community diversity and copper tolerance of microorganisms. DGGE gel bands clearly showed the difference in the bacterial diversity inferring from the 16S rRNA gene fragments (V3 regions). Protein analysis showed distinct protein spots appearing in electroless copper coated Ti biofilm protein samples in addition to protein spots common to both the biofilms of Cu coated and as polished Ti. The results indicated copper accumulating proteins in copper resistant bacterial species of biofilm. Reduced microroughness of the surface and toxic copper ions resulted in good biofouling control even after three months exposure to sea water. (author)

  12. CFD evaluation on the thermohydraulic characteristics of tube support plates in steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Zhang, H.; Han, B.; Yang, B.W. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology; Mo, S.J.; Ren, H.B.; Qin, J.M.; Zuo, C.P. [China Nuclear Power Design Co. Ltd., ShenZhen (China)

    2016-07-15

    The integrity and thermal hydraulic characteristics of steam generator are of great concern in the nuclear industry. The tube support plates (TSP), one of the most important components of the steam generator, not only support the heat transfer tubes, but also affect the flow dynamic and thermal hydraulic characteristics of the secondary-side flow inside the steam generator. Different working conditions, ranging from single-phase adiabatic condition to two-phase high-void boiling condition, are simulated and analyzed. Calculated void fraction, under simple geometry, agrees well with the experiment data whilst the simulated heat transfer coefficient is tremendously close to the empirical correlation. Temperature, void fraction, and velocity distributions in different locations show reasonable distribution. The simulation results indicate that TSP can enhance the heat transfer in the secondary side of the steam generator. On the top of TSP, with the increase in cross-section flow area, the back-flow phenomenon occurs, which might lead to the contamination of precipitation.

  13. A novel ZVS high voltage power supply for micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Qin, Hong [School of Computer Science and Technology, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2017-04-11

    A novel resonant high voltage power supply (HVPS) with zero voltage switching (ZVS), to reduce the voltage stress on switching devices and improve conversion efficiency, is proposed. The proposed HVPS includes a drive circuit, a transformer, several voltage multiplying circuits, and a regulator circuit. The HVPS contains several secondary windings that can be precisely regulated. The proposed HVPS performed better than the traditional resistor voltage divider, which requires replacing matching resistors resulting in resistor dispersibility in the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). The equivalent circuit of the proposed HVPS was established and the operational principle analyzed. The entire switching element can achieve ZVS, which was validated by a simulation and experiments. The properties of this HVPS were tested including minimum power loss (240 mW), maximum power loss (1 W) and conversion efficiency (85%). The results of this research are that the proposed HVPS was suitable for driving the micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). It was therefore adopted to test the MCP-PMT, which will be used in Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment II in China.

  14. A novel ZVS high voltage power supply for micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Qin, Hong; Wu, Shengli

    2017-01-01

    A novel resonant high voltage power supply (HVPS) with zero voltage switching (ZVS), to reduce the voltage stress on switching devices and improve conversion efficiency, is proposed. The proposed HVPS includes a drive circuit, a transformer, several voltage multiplying circuits, and a regulator circuit. The HVPS contains several secondary windings that can be precisely regulated. The proposed HVPS performed better than the traditional resistor voltage divider, which requires replacing matching resistors resulting in resistor dispersibility in the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). The equivalent circuit of the proposed HVPS was established and the operational principle analyzed. The entire switching element can achieve ZVS, which was validated by a simulation and experiments. The properties of this HVPS were tested including minimum power loss (240 mW), maximum power loss (1 W) and conversion efficiency (85%). The results of this research are that the proposed HVPS was suitable for driving the micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). It was therefore adopted to test the MCP-PMT, which will be used in Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment II in China.

  15. Dissimilar metal study on C44300 tube to AA7075 -T651 tube plate with and without thread by FWTPET process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, E.; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A. [Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Jharkhand (India); Muruganandam, D. [Sri Sairam Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India); Kumaran, S. Senthil [RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Tamilnadu, (India)

    2017-05-15

    Friction welding has vital industrial role in fabricating automobiles, aerospace, ship building, heat exchangers using similar, dissimilar and bi-metal of ferrous and non-ferrous metals at mass production level. In this study, admiralty brass C44300 tube and aluminium alloy AA7075 -T651, 6 mm thick tube plate were identified as base metals. Different joint surface area profile of with and without thread of different pitch values was chosen to study the mechanical properties and micro structures of these two base metals. 0.1 mm clearance was maintained between the AA7075-T651 tube plate and C44300 tube outer diameter to make friction welding. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array techniques were adopted for identifying the most significant ranking process parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to analyze the input parameter contribution in terms of percentage. Genetic algorithm (GA) was used to access the suitable input parameter value to obtain effective joint strength in terms of hardness, compressive strength and microstructure formation in the interface of the joint. A Compression test (CT) was conducted to evaluate the level of compressive strength of the joint. Threaded profile pair with higher pitch value proved high compressive strength over unthreaded pair. Micro structure for base metal C44300 tube and AA7075-T651 tube plate, Heat affected zone (HAZ) and Weld zone (WZ) of the joint has been studied. Hardness of base metals, HAZ and WZ was measured by micro Vickers hardness tester and the observation shows that hardness at joint interface has been found to be higher in all pairs.

  16. Numerical investigation on a novel shell-and-tube heat exchanger with plate baffles and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel shell-and-tube heat exchanger with plate baffles is proposed. • Heat transfer and pressure drop of computational calculations are studied. • Experimental method is carried out to verify the modeling approach. • Path lines, temperature field and pressure field are analyzed. - Abstract: A novel shell-and-tube heat exchanger with new plate baffles is proposed. It is numerically investigated in comparison with a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with rod baffles. Commercial softwares FLUENT 6.3 and GAMBIT 2.3 are adopted for modeling and computational calculations. The modeling approach is verified with experimental approach. The shell-side results of heat transfer, flow performance, and comprehensive performance are analyzed. The Nusselt number for the plate baffles heat exchanger is around 128–139% of that for the rod baffles heat exchanger. The pressure drop for the novel one is about 139–147% of that for the rod baffles heat exchanger. Overall, the novel plate baffles heat exchanger illustrates evidently higher comprehensive performance (115–122%) than the rod baffles one. The temperature field, pressure field, and path lines are analyzed to demonstrate the advantage of the novel shell-and-tube heat exchanger

  17. Comparison of shell-and-tube with plate heat exchangers for the use in low-temperature organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walraven, Daniël; Laenen, Ben; D’haeseleer, William

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary cycles for low-temperature heat sources are investigated. • Shell-and-tube and plate heat exchangers are modeled. • System optimization of the cycle variables and heat exchanger geometry. • ORCs with plate heat exchangers obtain in most cases higher efficiencies. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) can be used for electricity production from low-temperature heat sources. These ORCs are often designed based on experience, but this experience will not always lead to the most optimal configuration. The ultimate goal is to design ORCs by performing a system optimization. In such an optimization, the configuration of the components and the cycle parameters (temperatures, pressures, mass flow rate) are optimized together to obtain the optimal configuration of power plant and components. In this paper, the configuration of plate heat exchangers or shell-and-tube heat exchangers is optimized together with the cycle configuration. In this way every heat exchanger has the optimum allocation of heat exchanger surface, pressure drop and pinch-point-temperature difference for the given boundary conditions. ORCs with plate heat exchangers perform mostly better than ORCs with shell-and-tube heat exchangers, but one disadvantage of plate heat exchangers is that the geometry of both sides is the same, which can result in an inefficient heat exchanger. It is also shown that especially the cooling-fluid inlet temperature and mass flow have a strong influence on the performance of the power plant

  18. Transduced for determining if steam generator tubes are locked in at support plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear steam generator is described which includes a vessel, means to introduce vaporizable fluid into the bottom portion of the vessel, an outlet near the top through which vapor is discharged, a horizontal tube sheet extending across the vessel, a plurality of U-shaped tubes, having each end secured to and extending through the tube sheet, means for introducing heating fluid to one end of each of the U-shaped tubes, means for removing heating fluid from the other end of each of the U-shaped tubes, tube support means positioned within the vessel for preventing tube vibration, the tube support means including horizontally positioned means closely surrounding, but slightly spaced from each tube, means through which access can be had to the vessel interior beneath the tube sheet when the steam generator is not in operation, and testing means for determining whether or not a tube is locked into a tube support means including a longitudinal member, with a first end located inside the tube to be tested, and a second end located outside of the tube, means for securing the first end of the member to the inside of the tube, means for heating a length of the longitudinal member, and an equal length of the tube, to an elevated temperature, and means for indicating movement of the second end of the longitudinal member away from the tube end, which would indicate that the tube is locked into the support means

  19. Calculation of relative tube/tube support plate displacements in steam generators under accident condition loads using non-linear dynamic analysis methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.; Waisman, R.; Hu, M.H.; Frick, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    A non-linear analysis has been performed to determine relative motions between tubes and tube support plates (TSP) during a steam line break (SLB) event for steam generators. The SLB event results in blowdown of steam and water out of the steam generator. The fluid blowdown generates pressure drops across the TSPS, resulting in out-of-plane motion. The SLB induced pressure loads are calculated with a computer program that uses a drift-flux modeling of the two-phase flow. In order to determine the relative tube/TSP motions, a nonlinear dynamic time-history analysis is performed using a structural model that considers all of the significant component members relative to the tube support system. The dynamic response of the structure to the pressure loads is calculated using a special purpose computer program. This program links the various substructures at common degrees of freedom into a combined mass and stiffness matrix. The program accounts for structural non-linearities, including potential tube and TSP interaction at any given tube position. The program also accounts for structural damping as part of the dynamic response. Incorporating all of the above effects, the equations of motion are solved to give TSP displacements at the reduced set of DOF. Using the displacement results from the dynamic analysis, plate stresses are then calculated using the detailed component models. Displacements form the dynamic analysis are imposed as boundary conditions at the DOF locations, and the finite element program then solves for the overall distorted geometry. Calculations are also performed to assure that assumptions regarding elastic response of the various structural members and support points are valid

  20. Effect of boric acid on intergranular corrosion and on hideout return efficiency of sodium in the tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, J.P.N.; Shoemaker, C.E.; Campan, J.L.; Brunet, J.P.; Schindler, P.; Stutzmann, A.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide is one of the main causes of intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) of alloy 600 steam generator (S.G.) tubes. Boric acid appears to be one of the possible remedies for intergranular corrosion process inhibition. In order to obtain data on boric acid injection efficiency, an experimental program was performed on previously corroded tubes. To prevent premature tube wall cracking, samples were sleeved on alloy 690 tubes. The objective of the tests was to evaluate, on a statistically valid number of samples, the effectiveness of boric acid and tube sleeving as possible remedies for IGA/SCC extension. Another independent experimental program was initiated to determine the hideout return efficiency in the tube support plate (TSP) and tubesheet (TS) crevices after a significant duration (≤ 180 hours) of sodium hideout. The main objective of the first tests being a statistical evaluation of the efficiency of boric acid treatment, was not achieved. The tests did demonstrate that sleeving effectively reduces IGA/SCC growth. In an additional program, cracks were obtained on highly susceptible tubes when specimens were not sleeved. The companion tests performed in the same conditions but with an addition of boric acid did not show any IGA or cracks. These results seem to demonstrate the possible effect of boric acid in preventing the corrosion process. Results of the second tests did not demonstrate any difference in the amount of sodium piled up in the crevices before and after boric acid injection. They however showed an increase of the hideout return efficiency at the tube support plate level from 78 % without boric acid to 95 % when boric acid is present in the feed water

  1. Relaxation of an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer on a semi-infinite flat plate after passage of a shock wave and a trailing driver gas-driven gas interface. The problem has special application to expansion-tube flows. The flow-governing equations have been transformed into the Crocco variables, and a time-similar solution is presented in terms of the dimensionless distance-time variable alpha and the dimensionless velocity variable beta. An eddy-viscosity model, similar to that of time-steady boundary layers, is applied to the inner and outer regions of the boundary layer. A turbulent Prandtl number equal to the molecular Prandtl number is used to relate the turbulent heat flux to the eddy viscosity. The numerical results, obtained by using the Gauss-Seidel line-relaxation method, indicate that a fully turbulent boundary layer relaxes faster to the final steady-state values of heat transfer and skin friction than a laminar boundary layer. The results also give a fairly good estimate of the local skin friction and heat transfer for near steady-flow conditions.

  2. Radiographic testing methods for welds of thin titanium plates and thin wall tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This standard stipulates the testing method by X-ray radiography for the welded parts of titanium plates and titanium tubes with thickness not exceeding 8 mm. The other items than those stipulated here shall be in accordance with JIS Z 3107-1973 ''Testing method by radiography for the welded part of titanium and method of grade classification of radiographs''. As the photographing method of radiographs, the performance of the equipment and materials for testing, the direction of X-ray irradiation, the thickness of parent materials and welds, the use of penetrameters, the arrangement for photographing, the requirement for radiographs and the observation of radiographs are specified. The X-ray apparatuses, photo-sensitive materials and the tools for photographing and observation must be such that the radiographs clearly showing the defects in the welds being tested can be taken or observed. The JIS Z 3107 is insufficient for the test of thin materials like titanium, therefore, this standard was set down. As the thickness of welds, the thickness of parent materials was taken. In this standard, the titanium penetrameters were adopted because they can be made and they conform to practical state. If magnified photographing is carried out with microfocus X-ray apparatuses, precise photographing can be made. (Kako, I.)

  3. Analogue saturation limit of single and double 10 mm microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, J. S., E-mail: james.milnes@photek.co.uk; Conneely, T. M. [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Road, St Leonards on Sea, East Sussex TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Horsfield, C. J. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Photek are a well-established supplier of microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to the inertial confinement fusion community. The analogue signals produced at the major inertial confinement fusion facilities cover many orders of magnitude, therefore understanding the upper saturation limit of MCP-PMTs to large low rate signals takes on a high importance. Here we present a study of a single and a double MCP-PMT with 10 mm diameter active area. The saturation was studied for a range of optical pulse widths from 4 ns to 100 ns and at a range of electron gain values: 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} for the single and 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} for the double. We have shown that the saturation level of ∼1.2 nC depends only on the integrated charge of the pulse and is independent of pulse width and gain over this range, but that the level of charge available in deep saturation is proportional to the operating gain.

  4. Proceedings of steam generator sludge deposition in recirculating and once through steam generator upper tube bundle and support plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.L.; Harvego, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    The development of remedial measures of shot peening have given nuclear utilities viable measures to address primary water stress corrosion cracking to extend steam generator life. The nuclear utility industry is now faced with potential replacement of steam generators in nuclear power plants due to stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attach in crevice locations on the secondary side of steam generators at tube support plates and at the crevice at the top of the tube sheet. Significant work has been done on developing and understanding of the effects of sludge buildup on the corrosion process at these locations. This session was envisioned to provide a forum for the development of an understanding of the mechanisms which control the transport and deposition of sludge on the secondary side of steam generators. It is hoped that this information will aid utilities in monitoring the progression of fouling of these crevices by further knowledge in where to look for the onset of support plate crevice fouling. An understanding of the progression of fouling from upper tube support plates to those lower in the steam generator where higher temperatures cause the corrosion process to initiate first can aid the nuclear utility industry in developing remedial measures for this condition and in providing a forewarning of when to apply such remedial measures

  5. Numerical analysis of concrete-filled tubes with stiffening plates under large deformation axial loading

    OpenAIRE

    Albareda Valls, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Concrete-filled tubes have been increasingly used these recent decades thanks to their improved structural behavior, especially under compression.Concrete filling in these sections improves ¡ts compressive strength thanks to lateral pressure coming from confinement effect provided by the steel tube. At elevated percentages of loading,concrete suffers an important volumetric expansion, which is clearly restricted by the tube. Therefore, the core is subjected to a severe lateral pressure tha...

  6. Chemical preventive remedies for steam generators fouling and tube support plate blockages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves Vieira, M.; Mayos, M.; Coquio, N.; Fourcroy, H.; Battesti, P.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, EDF identified on several PWR units broached hole blockage on the upper Steam Generator (SG) Tube Support Plates (TSP). TSP blockage often occurs in association with secondary fouling. The units with copper alloys materials are more affected due the applied low pH 25 o C (9.20) all volatile treatment (AVT). Carbon steels materials are less protected against flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) and therefore more corrosion products enter the SGs through the final feed water (FFW). In parallel of chemical cleanings to remove oxides deposits in SGs, EDF has defined a strategy to improve operating conditions. It mainly relies on the removal of copper alloys materials to implement a high pH AVT (9.60) as a preventive remedy. However for some plants, copper alloys removal is not straightforward due to environmental constraints. EDF must indeed manage the implementation of a biocide treatment needed in closed loop cooling systems (as copper has a bacteriostatic effect on micro-organisms) and more generally must comply with discharge authorisations for chemical conditioning reagents or biocide reagent. An alternative conditioning was tested on the Dampierre 4 unit in 2007/2008 during 6 months to assess if operating at 9.40 was acceptable regarding the impacts on copper alloys materials. The perspective would be to implement it in the units where no biocide treatment can be applied on a short term. In parallel, other chemical conditionings or additives will be implemented or tested. First of all, EDF will carry out a trial test with APA in order to assess its efficiency on the removal of oxides deposits through SG blowdown. On the other hand, AVT with high pH ethanolamine (ETA) will be implemented as an alternative of ammonia and morpholine conditioning on some chosen plants. Ethanolamine is selected as a way to mitigate FAC kinetics in two-phase flow areas (reheaters or moisture heater separator) or to limit liquid releases. This paper provides the lessons of the

  7. CarbonNanoTubes (CNT) in bipolar plates for PEM fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundler, M.; Derieth, T.; Beckhaus, P.; Heinzel, A. [centre for fuel cell technology ZBT GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Using standard mass production techniques for the fabrication of fuel cell components, such as bipolar plates, is a main issue for the commercialisation of PEM fuel cell systems. Bipolar plates contribute significantly to the cost structure of PEM stacks. In an upcoming fuel cell market a large number of bipolar plates with specific high-quality standards will be needed. At the Centre for Fuel Cell Technology (ZBT) together with the University of Duisburg-Essen fuel cell stacks based on injection moulded bipolar plates have been developed and demonstrated successfully [1]. This paper focuses on the interactions between carbon filling materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNT)) in compound based bipolar plates and especially the potential of CNTs, which were used in bipolar plates for the first time. The entire value added chain based on the feedstock, the compounding and injection moulding process, the component bipolar plate, up to the operation of a PEM single fuel cell stack with CNT-based bipolar plates is disclosed. (orig.)

  8. An eddy-viscosity treatment of the unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer on a semiinfinite flat plate after passage of a shock wave and a trailing driver gas-driven gas interface. The problem has special application to expansion tube flows. The flow-governing equations have been transformed into the Lamcrocco variables. The numerical results indicate that a fully turbulent boundary layer relaxes faster to the final steady-state values of heat transfer and skin-friction than a fully laminar boundary layer.

  9. Reconsideration of data and correlations for plate finned-tube heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otović, Milena; Mihailović, Miloš; Genić, Srbislav; Jaćimović, Branislav; Milovančević, Uroš; Marković, Saša

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with heat exchangers having plain finned tubes in staggered (triangular) pattern. The objective of this paper is to provide the heat transfer and friction factor correlation which can be used in engineering practice. For this purpose, the experimental data of several (most cited) authors who deal with this type of heat exchangers are used. The new correlations are established to predict the air-side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number and geometric variables of the heat exchanger - tube diameter, tube pitch, fin spacing, tube rows, etc. In those correlations the characteristic dimension in Reynolds number is calculated by using the new parameter - volumetric porosity. Also, there are given the errors of those correlations.

  10. Side-Pinch Effect of a Magnetically Driven Shock Tube with Parallel Plate Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Mondrup, K.

    1969-01-01

    To study the possible effect of the side pinch on the steady-state current and the steady-state shock speed of a magnetically driven shock tube, a semiempirical model is formulated. The time history of the current, the radial and the translational motion of the current-carrying region are expressed...... by three interacting nonlinear equations with five adjustable parameters describing the variation of the electric circuit elements, the geometry of the shock tube, and the initial running conditions. Within the range of practical interest for values of the parameters investigated, computational results...

  11. Radial support device for the bundle wrapper and the tube support plates of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comic, G.

    1995-01-01

    Each stop consists of a first piece in contact with the internal surface of the bundle wrapper, a second piece in contact with the plates and a third piece having two threaded sections in opposite ways and placed between the two other pieces. 6 figs

  12. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  13. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  14. Experimental study of single- and two-phase flow fields around PWR steam generator tube support plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.M.; Stewart, C.W.

    1979-08-01

    Laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) was used to measure local mean axial velocities and turbulence intnsities at selected locations within a study model dimensionally protypic of an existing PWR steam generator design. The model tube bundle with support plate was installed in a special flow housing that formed part of an isothermal recirculating water flow loop. Flow conditions for this experiment were intended to simulate only typical single-phase flow velocities and were not an attempt to completely model actual steam generator, boiling, two-phase flow conditions. The measurements were performed in water at approximately 85 0 F with test section average velocities of approximately 0.55 and 1.1 fps. These conditions corresponded to Reynolds numbers of approximately 7,000 and approximately 14,000, respectively. Normalized velocity and turbulence intensity ratios are graphically reported. Additional qualitative, photographic investigations of air-water two-phase flows in a PWR steam generator study model were also performed

  15. A Comparison of the Thermodynamic Efficiency of Vacuum Tube and Flat Plate Solar Collector Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Bielskus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents simulation based exergy analysis used for comparing solar thermal systems applied for preparing domestic hot water. The simulation of flat and vacuum tube solar collector systems was performed in TRNSYS simulation environment. A period of one year under Lithuanian climate conditions was chosen. Simulation was performed on 6 min time step resolution by calculating energy and exergy flows and creating balance calculation. Assessment results at system and element levels have been presented as monthly variation in efficiency. The conducted analysis has revealed that the systems designed to cover equal heat energy demand operates in different exergetic efficiencies.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space ......) combined with a solar energy transmittance above 0.75.......This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... between the glass panes is filled with monolithic silica aerogel evacuated to a rough vacuum of approximately 1-10 hPa. The aerogel glazing does not depend on use of low emissive coatings that have the drawback of absorbing a relatively large part of the solar radiation that otherwise could reduce...

  17. Evacuation of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run

    is to provide new data and information on children’s evacuation, which is a step towards including children in evacuation models and calculations. Little is known about children’s evacuation characteristics in fire compared to other parts of the population. In recent years there has been more focus on children’s...... evacuation which is reflected in a rising number of publications on the topic. This thesis comprises evacuation experiments in daycares for children 0-6 years old and elementary schools for children aged 6-15 years. Full scale evacuations were filmed allowing detailed data analysis. Findings and results...... to isolate single factors and findings. Although an engineering approach fits best to the measurable parameters, the other areas are at least equally important when investigating or predicting children’s evacuation. The key findings of the thesis are: Children are very dependent on adults for initiating...

  18. Side-by-side comparisons of evacuated compound parabolic concentrator and flat plate solar collector systems at temperatures of 90 to 100C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. W.; Schertz, W. W.; Wantroba, A. S.

    1987-03-01

    This collector system study is an extension of a previous system study in which Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) compared the performance of three solar energy systems operated side by side for over a year. In the present system study, four solar energy systems were operated side by side for part of a year. Two of the collector systems used commercially available compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) collectors, one used a commercially available flat plate collector, and one used an experimental CPC collector built by The University of Chicago. The collectors were mounted in fixed positions; they did not track the Sun, and their tilt angles were not seasonally adjusted. All of the collector arrays faced south and were tilted at 42 deg with respect to the horizon (to match the 42 deg N latitude at ANL). All four collector systems started each day with their storage temperatures at 90 C. During the day, each system was operated by its own solar controller. At the end of the day, the tanks were mixed and the temperature changes in the tanks were measured. The change in storage energy was calculated from the temperature change, the heat capacity of the storage system, and the pump energy.

  19. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II; Desgaste placas tubos guia barras de control interno superior vasija del reactor C.N. Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  20. A Study on the Development of Nonglass Solar Vacuum Tube Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Jin

    2008-02-01

    Nature has been providing us energy from the beginning of the world. However human has hardly used it wisely. Solar energy is a kind of renewable energy from the nature. This study has been carried out to study the use of solar energy as it is harnessed in the form of thermal energy. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources such as hydrogen, biomass, wind and geothermal energy, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Space heating in buildings can be provided from solar energy by systems that are similar in many respects to water heater systems. By tapping into solar energy, we can not only solve the problem of energy shortage, but also can protect the environment and benefit the human beings. There are currently two types of evacuated tube; a single glass tube and a double glass tube. The former consists of a single glass tube which contains a flat or curved aluminium plate attached to a copper heat pipe or water flow pipe. The latter consists of rows of parallel transparent glass tubes, each of which contains an absorber tube. Evacuated tube collectors introduced above, however, pose some problems as they break rather easily under mechanical stresses. This paper introduces some preliminary results in design and fabrication of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector in which the thermosyphon(heat pipe)made of copper is used as a heat transfer device. A series of tests have been performed to assess the ability of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector. The series of experiments are as follows: 1)Vacuum level inside a vacuum tube. 2)Effects of the air remaining inside a vacuum tube on the temperature on the absorber plate. 3)Comparison of a non-glass vacuum solar collector with a single glass evacuated tube(SEIDO 5). Different vacuum levels inside non-glass vacuum tubes were applied to check any leakage or unexpected physical or chemical developments with time. The vacuum level changed from 10 -2 torr to 5torr in 5 days due to air infiltration from

  1. Performance analysis of a solar still coupled with evacuated heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, B. V. N.; Prudhvi Raj, J.; Krishnan, S. S. Hari; Kotebavi, Vinod

    2018-02-01

    In developing countries the need for better quality drinking water is increasing steadily. We can overcome this need by using solar energy for desalination purpose. This process includes fabrication and analysis of a pyramid type solar still coupled with evacuated heat pipes. This experiment using evacuated heat pipes are carried in mainly three modes namely 1) Still alone 2) Using heat pipe with evacuated tubes 3)Using evacuated heat pipe. For this work single basin pyramid type solar still with 1m2 basin area is fabricated. Black stones and Black paint are utilised in solar still to increase evaporation rate of water in basin. The heat pipe’s evaporator section is placed inside evacuated tube and the heat pipe’s condenser section is connected directly to the pyramid type solar still’s lower portion. The output of distillate water from still with evacuated heat pipe is found to be 40% more than the still using only evacuated tubes.

  2. Auditory evacuation beacons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Boer, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Auditory evacuation beacons can be used to guide people to safe exits, even when vision is totally obscured by smoke. Conventional beacons make use of modulated noise signals. Controlled evacuation experiments show that such signals require explicit instructions and are often misunderstood. A new

  3. Optimal crowd evacuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.; Duives, D.C.; Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal allocation of routes, destination, and departure times to members of a crowd, for instance in case of an evacuation or another hazardous situation in which the people need to leave the area as quickly as possible. The generic approach minimizes the evacuation times,

  4. Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer characteristics of plain plate fin-and-tube heat exchangers from view point of field synergy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.L.; Tao, W.Q.; Song, F.Q.; Zhang, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 3-D numerical simulations were performed for laminar heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of plate fin-and-tube heat exchanger. The effects of five factors were examined: Re number, fin pitch, tube row number, spanwise and longitudinal tube pitch. The Reynolds number based on the tube diameter varied from 288 to 5000, the non-dimensional fin pitch based on the tube diameter varied from 0.04 to 0.5, the tube row number from 1 to 4, the spanwise tube pitch S 1 /d varies from 1.2 to 3, and the longitudinal tube pitch S 2 /d from 1.0 to 2.4. The numerical results were analyzed from the view point of field synergy principle, which says that the reduction of the intersection angle between velocity and fluid temperature gradient is the basic mechanism to enhance convective heat transfer. It is found that the effects of the five parameters on the heat transfer performance of the finned tube banks can be well described by the field synergy principle, i.e., the enhancement or deterioration of the convective heat transfer across the finned tube banks is inherently related to the variation of the intersection angle between the velocity and the fluid temperature gradient. It is also recommended that to further enhance the convective heat transfer, the enhancement techniques, such as slotting the fin, should be adopted mainly in the rear part of the fin where the synergy between local velocity and temperature gradient become worse

  5. A method of multi-crack shape identification from eddy current testing signals of steam generator tubes including support plates as noise sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Endo, Hisashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with identifying multiple cracks from eddy current testing (ECT) signals obtained in a steam generator tube with a support plate and deposits. Assume two-dimensionally scanned ECT signals to be a picture image, then the signal processing by a multi-frequency technique eliminates noise caused by the support plate and deposits. A template matching with help of genetic algorithms detects number and positions of cracks from the image after the signal processing. Inverse analysis estimates the crack profile based on the predicted position of cracks. The number and positions of the cracks are sufficiently well predicted. Crack shape reconstructions are achieved with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. (author)

  6. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2010-01-01

    higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children....... The children walk slower in horizontal plan than adults, however they are keen to run during evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increases and exceeds the adults’. Since the evacuation characte-ristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...

  7. Simulated Evacuations Into Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLean, Garnet

    2004-01-01

    .... Actual emergency data to support ditching certification are not available; there have been questions as to whether evacuation flow rates onto land are appropriate for use in ditching-related flotation time computations...

  8. Feasibility of evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The main question is whether evacuation of people is feasible in case of accidents with a nuclear power plant. The limiting conditions of this question are extracted from other studies. This study is therefore focused on a postulated accident in a newly built nuclear power plant with an electric capacity of 1000 Megawatt and a source term of one percent. In this particular case an evacuation should take place within the period between the accident and the emission of nuclear materials. Initial focus is on the administrative-organizational aspects of evacuation. Then bottlenecks in the technical implementation of evacuation are determined. An analysis is made for each potential Dutch location (Borssele, Eemshaven, Maasvlakte, Moerdijk and Westelijke Noordoostpolderdijk) of a nuclear power plant. By means of a model the following question is examined: can the population leave the danger area or be evacuated on time, under certain circumstances. It is concluded that preventive evacuation of the population from the planned locations is feasible, but at Moerdijk complications may occur because of the presence of some homes for the elderly and a nursing home. 18 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Mechanical strength evaluation of the glass base material in the JRR-3 neutron guide tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    The lifetime of the thermal neutron guide tube installed JRR-3 was investigated after 6 years from their first installation. And it was confirmed that a crack had been piercing into the glass base material of the side plate of the neutron guide tube. The cause of the crack was estimated as a static fatigue of the guide tube where an inside of the tube had been evacuated and stressed as well as an embrittlement of the glass base material by gamma ray irradiation. In this report, we evaluate the mechanical strength of the glass base material and estimate the time when the base material gets fatigue fracture. Furthermore, we evaluate a lifetime of the neutron guide tube and confirm the validity of update timing in 2000 and 2001 when the thermal neutron guide tubes T1 and T2 were exchanged into those using the super mirror. (author)

  10. Experimental investigation of forced-convection in a finned rhombic tube of the flat-plate solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherian, Hessam; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh

    2006-01-01

    Due to scarcity of literature on forced-convection heat transfer in a solar collector with rhombic cross-section absorbing tubes, a series of experiments was arranged and conducted to determine heat transfer coefficient. In this study, a typical rhombic cross-section finned tube of flat...

  11. Experimental determination of new statistical correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient by convection for flat plates, cylinders and tube banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Fernando Meza Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This project carried out an experimental research with the design, assembly, and commissioning of a convection heat transfer test bench. Objective: To determine new statistical correlations that allow knowing the heat transfer coefficients by air convection with greater accuracy in applications with different heating geometry configurations. Methodology: Three geometric configurations, such as flat plate, cylinders and tube banks were studied according to their physical properties through Reynolds and Prandtl numbers, using a data transmission interface using Arduino® controllers Measured the air temperature through the duct to obtain real-time data and to relate the heat transferred from the heating element to the fluid and to perform mathematical modeling in specialized statistical software. The study was made for the three geometries mentioned, one power per heating element and two air velocities with 10 repetitions. Results: Three mathematical correlations were obtained with regression coefficients greater than 0.972, one for each heating element, obtaining prediction errors in the heat transfer convective coefficients of 7.50% for the flat plate, 2.85% for the plate Cylindrical and 1.57% for the tube bank. Conclusions: It was observed that in geometries constituted by several individual elements, a much more accurate statistical adjustment was obtained to predict the behavior of the convection heat coefficients, since each unit reaches a stability in the surface temperature profile with Greater speed, giving the geometry in general, a more precise measurement of the parameters that govern the transfer of heat, as it is in the case of the geometry of the tube bank.

  12. Evacuating populations with special needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Evacuation operations are conducted under the authority of, and based on decisions by, local and state authorities. The purpose of this primer, Evacuating Populations with Special Needs, is to provide local and state emergency managers, government of...

  13. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  14. Radial support device for the bundle wrapper and the tube support plates of a steam generator by eccentric stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comic, G.

    1995-01-01

    Each stop consists of a first piece fixed to the bundle wrapper and in contact to the interior wall of the casing and able to slide with respect to it. A second piece is supported rigidly on the plates and is movably supported on the first piece, movement being possible radially between a first position and a second position corresponding to contact with the plate. A third piece equipped with a cam moves the second piece between its two positions. 5 figs

  15. Behavior-based evacuation planning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we present a formulation of an evacuation planning problem that is inspired by motion planning and describe an integrated behavioral agent-based and roadmap-based motion planning approach to solve it. Our formulation allows users to test the effect on evacuation of a number of different environmental factors. One of our main focuses is to provide a mechanism to investigate how the interaction between agents influences the resulting evacuation plans. Specifically, we explore how various types of control provided by a set of directing agents effects the overall evacuation planning strategies of the evacuating agents. ©2010 IEEE.

  16. Behavior-based evacuation planning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a formulation of an evacuation planning problem that is inspired by motion planning and describe an integrated behavioral agent-based and roadmap-based motion planning approach to solve it. Our formulation allows users to test the effect on evacuation of a number of different environmental factors. One of our main focuses is to provide a mechanism to investigate how the interaction between agents influences the resulting evacuation plans. Specifically, we explore how various types of control provided by a set of directing agents effects the overall evacuation planning strategies of the evacuating agents. ©2010 IEEE.

  17. Fluid Line Evacuation and Freezing Experiments for Digital Radiator Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Sunada, Eric T.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Stephan, Ryan; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The digital radiator technology is one of three variable heat rejection technologies being investigated for future human-rated NASA missions. The digital radiator concept is based on a mechanically pumped fluid loop with parallel tubes carrying coolant to reject heat from the radiator surface. A series of valves actuate to start and stop fluid flow to di erent combinations of tubes, in order to vary the heat rejection capability of the radiator by a factor of 10 or more. When the flow in a particular leg is stopped, the fluid temperature drops and the fluid can freeze, causing damage or preventing flow from restarting. For this reason, the liquid in a stopped leg must be partially or fully evacuated upon shutdown. One of the challenges facing fluid evacuation from closed tubes arises from the vapor generated during pumping to low pressure, which can cause pump cavitation and incomplete evacuation. Here we present a series of laboratory experiments demonstrating fluid evacuation techniques to overcome these challenges by applying heat and pumping to partial vacuum. Also presented are results from qualitative testing of the freezing characteristics of several different candidate fluids, which demonstrate significant di erences in freezing properties, and give insight to the evacuation process.

  18. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  19. An analysis of the relaxation of laminar boundary layer on a flat plate after passage of an interface with application to expansion-tube flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    The relaxation of the accelerating-gas boundary layer to the test-gas boundary layer over a flat plate in an expansion tube is analyzed. Several combinations of test gas and acceleration gas are considered. The problem is treated in two conically similar limits: (1) when the time lag between the arrival of the shock and the interface at the leading edge of the plate is very large, and (2) when this lag is negligible. The time-dependent laminar-boundary-layer equations of a binary mixture of perfect gases are taken as the flow-governing equations. This coupled set of differential equations, written in terms of the Lam-Crocco variables, has been solved by a line-relaxation finite-difference techniques. The results presented include the Stanton number and the local skin-friction coefficient as functions of shock Mach number and the nondimensional distance-time variable. The results indicate that more than 95 percent of the test-gas boundary layer exists over a length, measured from the leading edge of the plate, equal to about three-tenths of the distance traversed by the interface in the free stream.

  20. The influence of production routes on the metal dusting behavior of UNS N06025 plate, strip and tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattendorf, H.; Hermse, C.G.M.; Hannig, W.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally known that the production route influences the sensitivity of a material to metal dusting. In this study the different production states of UNS N06025 are compared as there are: plate deeply ground and 600 grit laboratory ground, strip as-delivered and 600 grit laboratory ground, and

  1. Nuclear criticality evacuation with telemonitoring and microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.; Moe, H.J. Sr.

    1979-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, criticality alarms are required at widely separated locations to evacuate personnel in case of accident while emergency teams or maintenance personnel respond from a central location. The system functions have been divided in a similar manner. The alarm site hardware can independently detect a criticality and sound the evacuation signal while general monitoring and routine tests are handled by a communication link to a central monitoring station. The radiation detectors and evacuation sounders at each site are interconnected by a common two conductor cable in a unique telemonitoring format. This format allows both control and data information to be received or transmitted at any point on the cable which can be up to 3000 meters total length. The site microprocessor maintains a current data table, detects several faults, drives a printer, and communicates with the central telemonitoring station. The radiation detectors are made with plastic scintillators and photomultiplier tubes operated in a constant current mode with a 4 decade measurement range. The detectors also respond within microseconds to the criticality radiation burst. These characteristics can be tested with an internal light emitting diode either completely with a manual procedure or routinely with a system test initiated by the central monitoring station. Although the system was developed for a criticality alarm which requires reliable and redundant features, the basic techniques are useable for other monitoring and instrumentation applications

  2. Indoor guided evacuation: TIN for graph generation and crowd evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchao Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two complementary methods: an approach to compute a network data-set for indoor space of a building by using its two-dimensional (2D floor plans and limited semantic information, combined with an optimal crowd evacuation method. The approach includes three steps: (1 generate critical points in the space, (2 connect neighbour points to build up the network, and then (3 run the optimal algorithm for optimal crowd evacuation from a room to the exit gates of the building. Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN is used in the first two steps. The optimal evacuation crowd is not based on the nearest evacuation gate for a person but relies on optimal sorting of the waiting lists at each gate of the room to be evacuated. As an example case, a rectangular room with 52 persons with two gates is evacuated in 102 elementary interval times (one interval corresponds to the time for one step for normal velocity walking, whereas it would have been evacuated in not less than 167 elementary steps. The procedure for generating the customized network involves the use of 2D floor plans of a building and some common Geographic Information System (GIS functions. This method combined with the optimal sorting lists will be helpful for guiding crowd evacuation during any emergency.

  3. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original

  4. Evacuation modeling trends

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Orlando; Alvear, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of modeling definitions and concepts, theory on human behavior and human performance data, available tools and simulation approaches, model development, and application and validation methods. It considers the data and research efforts needed to develop and incorporate functions for the different parameters into comprehensive escape and evacuation simulations, with a number of examples illustrating different aspects and approaches. After an overview of basic modeling approaches, the book discusses benefits and challenges of current techniques. The representation of evacuees is a central issue, including human behavior and the proper implementation of representational tools. Key topics include the nature and importance of the different parameters involved in ASET and RSET and the interactions between them. A review of the current literature on verification and validation methods is provided, with a set of recommended verification tests and examples of validation tests. The book c...

  5. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  6. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select One PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  7. Building Evacuation with Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and increasingly dense settlements demand ever-larger and more complex buildings from today's engineers. In comparison to this technological progress, a building's equipment for emergency evacuation has been hardly developed further. This work presents a concept for a building evacuation system based on mobile devices. Furthermore, various algorithms for route planning with mobile devices and for indoor localization of mobile devices are addressed.

  8. Optimal nonimaging integrated evacuated solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, John D.; Duff, W. S.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland

    1993-11-01

    A non imaging integrated evacuated solar collector for solar thermal energy collection is discussed which has the lower portion of the tubular glass vacuum enveloped shaped and inside surface mirrored to optimally concentrate sunlight onto an absorber tube in the vacuum. This design uses vacuum to eliminate heat loss from the absorber surface by conduction and convection of air, soda lime glass for the vacuum envelope material to lower cost, optimal non imaging concentration integrated with the glass vacuum envelope to lower cost and improve solar energy collection, and a selective absorber for the absorbing surface which has high absorptance and low emittance to lower heat loss by radiation and improve energy collection efficiency. This leads to a very low heat loss collector with high optical collection efficiency, which can operate at temperatures up to the order of 250 degree(s)C with good efficiency while being lower in cost than current evacuated solar collectors. Cost estimates are presented which indicate a cost for this solar collector system which can be competitive with the cost of fossil fuel heat energy sources when the collector system is produced in sufficient volume. Non imaging concentration, which reduces cost while improving performance, and which allows efficient solar energy collection without tracking the sun, is a key element in this solar collector design.

  9. Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass evacuated tubular collectors for different operating conditions are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are based on a collector design with horizontal tubes connected to a vertical 14 manifold channel. Three...... the highest efficiency, the optimal inlet flow rate was around 0.4-1 kg/min, the flow structures in the glass tubes were relatively uninfluenced by the inlet flow rate, Generally, the results showed only small variations in the efficiencies. This indicates that the collector design is well working for most...

  10. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  11. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  12. Dose reduction in evacuation proctography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, C.; Halligan, S.; Bartram, C.I.; Gupta, R.; Walker, A.E.; Renfrew, I.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to reduce the patient radiation dose from evacuation proctography. Ninety-eight consecutive adult patients referred for proctography to investigate difficult rectal evacuation were studied using a digital imaging system with either a standard digital program for barium examinations, a reduced dose digital program (both with and without additional copper filtration), or Video fluoroscopy. Dose-area products were recorded for each examination and the groups were compared. All four protocols produced technically acceptable examinations. The low-dose program with copper filtration (median dose 382 cGy cm 2 ) and Video fluoroscopy (median dose 705 cGy cm 2 ) were associated with significantly less dose than other groups (p < 0.0001). Patient dose during evacuation proctography can be reduced significantly without compromising the diagnostic quality of the examination. A digital program with added copper filtration conveyed the lowest dose. (orig.)

  13. An Integrated Approach to Modeling Evacuation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    A spate of recent hurricanes and other natural disasters have drawn a lot of attention to the evacuation decision of individuals. Here we focus on evacuation models that incorporate two economic phenomena that seem to be increasingly important in exp...

  14. Evacuation transportation management : task five : operational concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-26

    Much of what is known about evacuations is based on preparations for incidents, such as hurricanes, for which there is advance warning. With advance warning, evacuations can be planned and managed using procedures and systems that have been developed...

  15. Evacuation transportation management. Task five, Operational concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Much of what is known about evacuations is based on preparations for incidents, such as hurricanes, for which there is advance warning. With advance warning, evacuations can be planned and managed using procedures and systems that have been developed...

  16. Evacuation Shelters - MDC_HurricaneShelter

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label feature class of Miami-Dade County Hurricane Evacuation Shelters (HEC) including Special Need Evacuation Centers (SNEC) and Medical Management Facilities...

  17. Evacuation of bedridden occupants: experimental research outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Strating, N.; van Herpen, R.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Bedridden building occupants in hospitals and nursing homes who are not able to rescue themselves in case of a fire emergency require assistance during an evacuation. A building emergency team usually fulfils this function and will have to remove the occupants from the room. The speed at which such an evacuation is conducted however is unknown. Experiments in practice were conducted in hospitals to obtain insight in the evacuation speed and absolute evacuation times required. Furthermore, a s...

  18. Hospital evacuation; planning, assessment, performance and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Nero C Wabo; P Örtenwall; A Khorram-Manesh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Malfunction in hospitals' complex internal systems, or extern threats, may result in a hospital evacuation. Factors contributing to such evacuation must be identified, analyzed and action plans should be prepared. Our aims in this study were 1) to evaluate the use of risk and vulnerability analysis as a basis for hospital evacuation plan, 2) to identify risks/hazards triggering an evacuation and evaluate the respond needed and 3) to propose a template with main key points for plann...

  19. Tube for irradiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehrich, K.; Vogt, H.

    1979-01-01

    This patent describes a tube for irradiation equipment for limiting an emergent beam, with a baseplate, possessing a central aperture, intended for attaching to the equipment, as well as four carrier plates, each of which possesses a limiting edge and a sliding edge located at right angles thereto. The carrier plates are located parallel to the baseplate, the limiting edge of each carrier plate resting against the sliding edge of the adjacent carrier plate and each of the two mutually opposite pairs of carrier plates being displaceable, parallel to the direction of its sliding edges and symmetrically to the center of the transmission aperture, for the purpose of continuously varying the transmission aperture defined by the limiting edges, during which displacement each of the displaced carrier plates carries with it the carrier plate, resting against the limiting edge of the former plate, parallel to the direction of the limiting edge of the latter plate. 8 claims

  20. A stationary evacuated collector with integrated concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snail, K.A.; O' Gallagher, J.J.; Winston, R.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental tests and detailed optical and thermal models are presented for a newly developed solar thermal collector. The new collector has an optical efficiency of 65 per cent and achieves thermal efficiencies of better than 50 per cent at fluid temperatures of 200/sup 0/C without tracking the sun. The simultaneous features of high temperature operation and a fully stationary mount are made possible by combining vacuum insulation, spectrally selective coatings, and nonimaging concentration in a novel way. These 3 design elements are ''integrated'' together in a self containe unit by shaping the outer glass envelope of a conventional evacuated tube into the profile of a nonimaging CPC-type concentrator. This permits the use of a first surface mirror and eliminates the need for second cover glazing. The new collector has been given the name ''Integrated Stationary Evacuated Concentrator'', or ISEC collector. Not only is the peak thermal efficiency of the ISEC comparable to that of commercial tracking parabolic troughs, but projections of the average yearly energy delivery also show competitive performance with a net gain for temperatures below 200/sup 0/C. In addition, the ISEC is less subject to exposure induced degradation and could be mass produced with assembly methods similar to those used with fluorescent lamps. Since no tracking or tilt adjustments are ever required and because its sensitive optical surfaces are protected from the environment, the ISEC collector provides a simple, easily maintained solar thermal collector for the range 100-300/sup 0/C which is suitable for most climates and atmospheric conditions. Potential applications include space heating, air conditioning, and industrial process heat.

  1. Thermal-hydraulic tests of steam-generator tube-support-plate crevices. Volume 2. Appendixes I through S. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassell, D.S.; Vroom, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A test program was conducted to determine for selected steam generator tube supports the thermal/hydraulic conditions at the inception of dryout as indicated by a tube wall temperature excursion, to determine the pressure drop across the supports, and to obtain photographic documentation of the flow upstream and downstream of the supports. A multi-tube steam generator model was used and testing performed over the range of typcal PWR steam generator operating conditions. These appendices contain information on instrumentation calibration, test model and loop calibration, error analysis, test model thermal-hydraulic analyses, index of lab materials and log sheets, index of two-phase flow still photographs, index of high speed movies and video, test data printouts, test model and loop fabrication drawings, procedure for silver brazing tubewall thermocouples, and procedure for esablishing tube-tube support line contact

  2. Engineering development studies for integrated evacuated CPC arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.

    1982-04-01

    An evacuated tube concentrator which achieves respectable high temperature performance (100 C to 300 C) was developed. The design concept utilizes nonimaging CPC type concentration integrated into each tube by shaping the outer glass vacuum envelope. The detailed design, prototype fabrication and preliminary test measurements are reviewed. In addition the results of this first study specifically devoted to engineering development questions related to practical applications of this collector concept are summarized. Questions having to do with the deployment of medium to large area arrays, optimizations of the manifolding of individual tube panels, selected near term applications (with an emphasis on residential cooling based on Rankine driven chillers) and long term performance projections are addressed.

  3. Tsunami evacuation buildings and evacuation planning in Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzal, Hendri; Kim, Karl; Pant, Pradip; Yamashita, Eric

    Indonesia, a country of more than 17,000 islands, is exposed to many hazards. A magnitude 9.1 earthquake struck off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 26, 2004. It triggered a series of tsunami waves that spread across the Indian Ocean causing damage in 11 countries. Banda Aceh, the capital city of Aceh Province, was among the most damaged. More than 31,000 people were killed. At the time, there were no early warning systems nor evacuation buildings that could provide safe refuge for residents. Since then, four tsunami evacuation buildings (TEBs) have been constructed in the Meuraxa subdistrict of Banda Aceh. Based on analysis of evacuation routes and travel times, the capacity of existing TEBs is examined. Existing TEBs would not be able to shelter all of the at-risk population. In this study, additional buildings and locations for TEBs are proposed and residents are assigned to the closest TEBs. While TEBs may be part of a larger system of tsunami mitigation efforts, other strategies and approaches need to be considered. In addition to TEBs, robust detection, warning and alert systems, land use planning, training, exercises, and other preparedness strategies are essential to tsunami risk reduction.

  4. Conceptual study on the containment design aiming at 'no evacuation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Kouji; Takii, Taichi; Kikuyama, Tomohiko; Taminami, Tatsuya

    2003-01-01

    The next generation reactors represented in ABWR-II should enhance not only economics but also safety. Especially, the ideal target of 'No Evacuation', that is, no FP (Fission Product) release in severe accidents should be required. This paper provides the conceptual design achieving 'No Evacuation' by using only the passive systems, that are, the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the large amount of water inside containment, outside pool by utilizing gap between containment and surrounding building, and the natural heat removal from the containment surface to atmosphere. Furthermore, it is also easy to adopt the countermeasure for airplane crash by using a dome shelter and the dispersed layout as an option. At the same time, the amount of the construction material of this concept is competitive comparing with that of the conventional BWR because it is easy to use the steel structure or the steel plate reinforced concrete structure over a wide area. (author)

  5. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  6. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...

  7. Tube-in-shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tube-in-shell heat exchangers normally comprise a bundle of parallel tubes within a shell container, with a fluid arranged to flow through the tubes in heat exchange with a second fluid flowing through the shell. The tubes are usually end supported by the tube plates that separate the two fluids, and in use the tube attachments to the tube plates and the tube plates can be subject to severe stress by thermal shock and frequent inspection and servicing are required. Where the heat exchangers are immersed in a coolant such as liquid Na such inspection is difficult. In the arrangement described a longitudinally extending central tube is provided incorporating axially spaced cylindrical tube plates to which the opposite ends of the tubes are attached. Within this tube there is a tubular baffle that slidably seals against the wall of the tube between the cylindrical tube plates to define two co-axial flow ducts. These ducts are interconnected at the closed end of the tube by the heat exchange tubes and the baffle comprises inner and outer spaced walls with the interspace containing Ar. The baffle is easily removable and can be withdrawn to enable insertion of equipment for inspecting the wall of the tube and tube attachments and to facilitate plugging of defective tubes. Cylindrical tube plates are believed to be superior for carrying pressure loads and resisting the effects of thermal shock. Some protection against thermal shock can be effected by arranging that the secondary heat exchange fluid is on the tube side, and by providing a thermal baffle to prevent direct impingement of hot primary fluid on to the cylindrical tube plates. The inner wall of the tubular baffle may have flexible expansible region. Some nuclear reactor constructions incorporating such an arrangement are described, including liquid metal reactors. (U.K.)

  8. Evacuation exercise at the Kindergarten

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector.  The fire brigade checked t...

  9. CT-guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondo, Hideki

    1983-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is now effective not only for definite diagnosis and location of intracerebral hematomas but also for coordination of the center of a hematoma. CT-guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma was performed in 51 cases: 34 of basal ganglionic hematoma with or without ventricular perforation, 11 of subcortical hematoma, 3 of thalamic hematoma and 3 of cerebellar hematoma. Three dimensional CT images or biplane CT images were taken to determine the coordinates of the target point, which was the center of the hematoma. Then, a silicon tube (O.D. 3.5 phi, I.D. 2.1 phi) was inserted into the center of the hematoma through a burr-hole under local anesthesia, and the liquid or solid hematoma was aspirated as completely as possible with a syringe. Urokinase (6,000 I.U./5 ml saline) was administered through this silicon tube every 6 or 12 hours for several days until the hematoma had drained out competely. The silicon tube was taken out when repeated CT scanning revealed no hematoma. The results of clinical follow-ups indicated that this procedure is as good as, or rather better than conventional microsurgery with evacuation of hematoma under direct vision. Moreover this CT-guided stereotactic approach for evacuation of the hematoma has the following advantages: 1) the procedure is simple and safe, 2) operation can be performed under local anesthesia, and 3) the hematoma is drained out completely with the aid of urokinase. This surgery seems indicated as an emergency treatment for high-age or high risk patients and also as a routine surgery for intracerebral hematomas in patients showing no herination signs. (author)

  10. Managing a chest tube and drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Rajaraman; Hoque, Happy; Davies, Tony W

    2010-02-01

    Intercostal drainage tubes (ie, chest tubes) are inserted to drain the pleural cavity of air, blood, pus, or lymph. The water-seal container connected to the chest tube allows one-way movement of air and liquid from the pleural cavity. The container should not be changed unless it is full, and the chest tube should not be clamped unnecessarily. After a chest tube is inserted, a nurse trained in chest-tube management is responsible for managing the chest tube and drainage system. This entails monitoring the chest-tube position, controlling fluid evacuation, identifying when to change or empty the containers, and caring for the tube and drainage system during patient transport. This article provides an overview of indications, insertion techniques, and management of chest tubes. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Heat exchanger with layers of helical tubes provided with improved tube supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnoy, M.; Mathieu, B.; Renaux, C.

    1986-01-01

    The present heat exchanger comprises coaxial layers of helically wound tubes; these tubes are supported by support plates, each comprising a row of perforations through which the tubes of a same layer pass. Truncated sleeves are in compression around the tubes within the perforations and mounted on the support plates. Pins fix the plates of different layers together against transverse movement but allowing radial movement. The present invention finds an application with nuclear reactor steam generators [fr

  13. An evaluation of sharp safety blood evacuation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joanna; Phillips, Peter

    This article describes an evaluation of three sharp safety blood evacuation devices in seven Welsh NHS boards and the Welsh Blood Service. Products consisted of two phlebotomy needles possessing safety shields and one phlebotomy device with wings, tubing and a retractable needle. The device companies provided the devices and appropriate training. Participating healthcare workers used the safety device instead of the conventional device to sample blood during the evaluation period and each type of device was evaluated in random order. Participants filled in a questionnaire for each type of device and then a further questionnaire comparing the two shielded evacuation needles with each other Results showed that responses to all three products were fairly positive, although each device was not liked by everyone who used it. When the two shielded evacuation devices were compared with each other, most users preferred the device with the shield positioned directly above the needle to the device with the shield at the side. However, in laboratory tests, the preferred device produced more fluid splatter than the other shielded device on activation.

  14. Routes to effective evacuation planning primer series : evacuating populations with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Evacuation operations are conducted under the authority of, and based on decisions by, local and state authorities. The purpose of this primer, Evacuating Populations with Special Needs, is to provide local and state emergency managers, government of...

  15. Alternative evacuation strategies for nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Gregory D.; Bier, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., current protective-action strategies to safeguard the public following a nuclear power accident have remained largely unchanged since their implementation in the early 1980s. In the past thirty years, new technologies have been introduced, allowing faster computations, better modeling of predicted radiological consequences, and improved accident mapping using geographic information systems (GIS). Utilizing these new technologies, we evaluate the efficacy of alternative strategies, called adaptive protective action zones (APAZs), that use site-specific and event-specific data to dynamically determine evacuation boundaries with simple heuristics in order to better inform protective action decisions (rather than relying on pre-event regulatory bright lines). Several candidate APAZs were developed and then compared to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s keyhole evacuation strategy (and full evacuation of the emergency planning zone). Two of the APAZs were better on average than existing NRC strategies at reducing either the radiological exposure, the population evacuated, or both. These APAZs are especially effective for larger radioactive plumes and at high population sites; one of them is better at reducing radiation exposure, while the other is better at reducing the size of the population evacuated. - Highlights: • Developed framework to compare nuclear power accident evacuation strategies. • Evacuation strategies were compared on basis of radiological and evacuation risk. • Current strategies are adequate for smaller scale nuclear power accidents. • New strategies reduced radiation exposure and evacuation size for larger accidents

  16. Injuries in air transport emergency evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Twelve air transport evacuations are reviewed. Injuries are discussed with emphasis on configurational and procedural contributing factors. Recommendations and information about possible methods of reducing injuries are provided.

  17. Routine ultrasound guided evacuation of first trimester missed abortion versus blind evacuation

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Abdulla Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    Background: The clinical management of miscarriage has changed little over the years and many women undergo surgical uterine evacuation. Surgical evacuation of the uterine contents in missed abortion is a challenge to the obstetrician as it is done blindly. The current study recommends the use of ultrasound guided surgical evacuation. It serves two important advantages; the first is to complete evacuation without the need of additional step. The second is to protect against uterine perforatio...

  18. Micro manometer and pitot tube for measuring the velocity distribution in a natural convection water stream between two vertical parallel plates (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santon, L.; Vernier, Ph.

    1961-01-01

    For heat transfer studies in certain cases of cooling in swimming-pool type nuclear reactors, a knowledge of the distribution of the velocities between two heating elements is of prime importance. A Pitot tube and a micro-manometer have been developed for making these measurements on an experimental model. (authors) [fr

  19. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  20. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  1. Technique employed to seal a tube leaking in a heat exchanger of the tube type by explosives with supporting means for the adjacent tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    This invention concerns the technique employed to seal a tube leaking in a heat exchanger of the tube and tube plate type by detonating metal plugs activated by an explosive and inserted in both ends of the tube. It refers in particular to an apparatus and process in which the deformation or distortion of the adjacent tubes and tube plate ties under the effect of the explosive forces is significantly reduced [fr

  2. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  3. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  4. Tsunami Evacuation Exercises: the Case of Heraklion, Crete Isl., Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, I.; Charalampakis, M.; Bocchini, G. M.; Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective tsunami evacuation requires appropriate awareness as regards good shelters selection. Field exercises may improve public awareness. A field exercise was organized in Heraklion, Crete Isl., in 2016. The area is part of the Hellenic Arc which is the most active structure in the Mediterranean. Large earthquakes triggered tsunamis that hit Heraklion in the past, such in AD 1303. After selecting various fault models, simulation of the 1303 tsunami showed important inundation zone in Heraklion. For the exercise needs a team of 30 volunteers was divided in 3 groups of 10 people each. Everyone was equipped with a mobile phone and a GPS device. The 3 groups were gathered in 3 coastal spots Heraklion situated 400 m apart each other. The scenario was that immediately after receiving in their mobile a tsunami warning message they will set on their personal GPS device and start evacuating inland on the best way they believed to do so. In each group, only 5 out of 10 volunteers were notified beforehand that the Eleftherias Square, located inland at distance satisfying evacuation needs in case of repeat of the 1303 tsunami, would be a good shelter to go. Using the Road Graph Plugin of QGIS, we calculated the shortest path distances which found equal to 800, 700 and 680 m. Adopting average velocity of 3 km/h we found that these distances can be covered within 18, 16 and 15 min, respectively. The routes towards the settlement spots as well as the times needed to arrive there by each one of the 30 volunteers were recorded by their personal GPS devices. The processing of the GPS tracks and their comparison with the theoretical routes and times showed good evacuation performance which is encouraging for the next phases of the Heraklion tsunami hazard mitigation program. This is contribution to the EU-FP7 projects ZIP (Zooming In between Plates, grant no: 604713, 2013) and ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant no: 603839, 2013.

  5. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  6. Evacuation a serious game for preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, B.; Thonus, B.; van Zuilekom, Kasper M.; de Romph, E.

    2011-01-01

    Mass evacuation is a measure to reduce possible loss of life in the case of potential disasters. Planning for mass evacuation is only useful if these plans are tested and evaluated by government and the public in reality or in simulated events. As a result, any prior experience is likely to be

  7. The effects of design and operating factors on the frost growth and thermal performance of a flat plate fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Woo Seung

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of various factors(fin pitch, fin arrangement, air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity) on the frost growth and thermal performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger has been conducted under the frosting condition. It is found that the thermal performance of a heat exchanger is closely related to the blockage ratio of the air flow passages due to the frost growth. The maximum allowable blockage ratio is used to determine the criteria for the optimal operating conditions of a fin-tube heat exchanger. It is also shown that heat transfer rate of heat exchanger with staggered fin arrangement increases about 17% and the time required for heat transfer rate to reach a maximum value becomes longer, compared with those of an inline fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition. The energy transfer resistance between the air and coolant decreases with the increase of inlet air temperature and velocity and with decreasing inlet air humidity

  8. Heat transfer in smooth tubes, between parallel plates, along a semi-infinite plate, in annular spaces and along tube bundles for exponential distribution of the heat flux in forced, laminar or turbulent flow; Transfert de chaleur dans des tubes lisses, entre des plaques planes paralleles, le long d'une plaque plane, dans des espaces annulaires et le long de faisceaux tubulaires pour une repartition exponentielle du flux de chaleur en ecoulement force, laminaire ou turbulent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    By introducing an additional parameter F{sub 0}, the processes known hitherto for calculating heat transfer are extended to the heat flux distributions following an exponential law q{sub w} = exp(mx) which give a heat transfer coefficient, independent of position for laminar and turbulent flow with a linear pressure drop. For laminar flow along a semi-infinite plate, the heat flux distribution in accordance with the law qw = x{sup m} leads to the Nusselt number, regardless of the position. Nu is then determined by the thickness of the thermal boundary layer. For the annular space, the equations for explicit calculation of the temperature field will be given, as well as the Nusselt number in laminar flow and constant heat flux. In turbulent flow, the laws of distribution of eddy diffusivity for momentum in a tube, established by H. Reichardt, adapted for the annular space and the tube bundle, give the velocity field and the coefficient of friction and thus permit solution of the heat transfer equations. The results of the numerical calculation are given in the tables and diagrams for an extended range of the various parameters and compared with the experimental results. A simple process to determine the lower limit of the thermal entry length will be described. (author) [French] Par l'introduction d'un parametre supplementaire F{sub 0}, les procedes connus jusqu'a present pour le calcul du transfert de chaleur sont etendus aux repartitions exponentielles q{sub w} = exp(mx) du flux de chaleur qui indiquent un coefficient de transfert de chaleur independant de l'endroit pour l'ecoulement laminaire ou turbulent avec chute de pression lineaire. Pour l'ecoulement laminaire le long d'une plaque plane, la repartition du flux de chaleur selon la loi q{sub w} = x{sup m} conduit au nombre de Nusselt independant de l'endroit. Nu est alors determine par l'epaisseur de la couche limite thermique. Pour l'espace annulaire, seront indiquees les equations pour le calcul explicite du

  9. Heat transfer in smooth tubes, between parallel plates, along a semi-infinite plate, in annular spaces and along tube bundles for exponential distribution of the heat flux in forced, laminar or turbulent flow; Transfert de chaleur dans des tubes lisses, entre des plaques planes paralleles, le long d'une plaque plane, dans des espaces annulaires et le long de faisceaux tubulaires pour une repartition exponentielle du flux de chaleur en ecoulement force, laminaire ou turbulent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    By introducing an additional parameter F{sub 0}, the processes known hitherto for calculating heat transfer are extended to the heat flux distributions following an exponential law q{sub w} = exp(mx) which give a heat transfer coefficient, independent of position for laminar and turbulent flow with a linear pressure drop. For laminar flow along a semi-infinite plate, the heat flux distribution in accordance with the law qw = x{sup m} leads to the Nusselt number, regardless of the position. Nu is then determined by the thickness of the thermal boundary layer. For the annular space, the equations for explicit calculation of the temperature field will be given, as well as the Nusselt number in laminar flow and constant heat flux. In turbulent flow, the laws of distribution of eddy diffusivity for momentum in a tube, established by H. Reichardt, adapted for the annular space and the tube bundle, give the velocity field and the coefficient of friction and thus permit solution of the heat transfer equations. The results of the numerical calculation are given in the tables and diagrams for an extended range of the various parameters and compared with the experimental results. A simple process to determine the lower limit of the thermal entry length will be described. (author) [French] Par l'introduction d'un parametre supplementaire F{sub 0}, les procedes connus jusqu'a present pour le calcul du transfert de chaleur sont etendus aux repartitions exponentielles q{sub w} = exp(mx) du flux de chaleur qui indiquent un coefficient de transfert de chaleur independant de l'endroit pour l'ecoulement laminaire ou turbulent avec chute de pression lineaire. Pour l'ecoulement laminaire le long d'une plaque plane, la repartition du flux de chaleur selon la loi q{sub w} = x{sup m} conduit au nombre de Nusselt independant de l'endroit. Nu est alors determine par l'epaisseur de la couche limite thermique. Pour l'espace annulaire, seront

  10. Square through tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Junji; Honma, Toei.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a square through tube involving thermal movement in pipelines such as water supply pump driving turbine exhaust pipe (square-shaped), which is wide in freedom with respect to shape and dimension thereof for efficient installation at site. Structure: In a through tube to be airtightly retained for purpose of decontamination in an atomic power plant, comprising a seal rubber plate, a band and a bolt and a nut for securing said plate, the seal rubber plate being worked into the desired shape so that it may be placed in intimate contact with the concrete floor surface by utilization of elasticity of rubber, thereby providing airtightness at a corner portion of the square tube. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

  12. Disc-Donut-Tube wear test report, Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowal, K.; Knaus, S.E.

    1976-06-01

    The report describes a test program which simulated the wear-inducing conditions in the AI Prototype CRBR Steam Generator. This was accomplished by simulating the wear inducing loading and motion of a steam tube against ''disc-donut'' tube spacer plates. It was found that 2- 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo tubes, wearing against 2- 1 / 4 Cr-l Mo tube spacer plates, seized and galled as deep as .017 inches. Inconel 718 tube spacer plates uniformly wore the tubes as deep as .012 in. Aluminum bronze inserts wore as deep as .003 inches into the tube

  13. Factors associated with high-rise evacuation: qualitative results from the World Trade Center Evacuation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Qureshi, Kristine A; Rubin, Marcie S; Raveis, Victoria H

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fact that most high-rise structures (i.e., >75 feet high, or eight to ten stories) are constructed with extensive and redundant fire safety features, current fire safety procedures typically only involve limited evacuation during minor to moderate fire emergencies. Therefore, full-scale evacuation of high-rise buildings is highly unusual and consequently, little is known about how readily and rapidly high-rise structures can be evacuated fully. Factors that either facilitate or inhibit the evacuation process remain under-studied. This paper presents results from the qualitative phase of the World Trade Center Evacuation Study, a three-year, five-phase study designed to improve our understanding of the individual, organizational, and environmental factors that helped or hindered evacuation from the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers 1 and 2, on 11 September 2001. Qualitative data from semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus groups involving WTC evacuees were collected and analyzed. On the individual level, factors that affected evacuation included perception of risk (formed largely by sensory cues), preparedness training, degree of familiarity with the building, physical condition, health status, and footwear. Individual behavior also was affected by group behavior and leadership. At the organizational level, evacuation was affected by worksite preparedness planning, including the training and education of building occupants, and risk communication. The environmental conditions affecting evacuation included smoke, flames, debris, general condition and degree of crowdedness on staircases, and communication infrastructure systems (e.g., public address, landline, cellular and fire warden's telephones). Various factors at the individual, organizational, and environmental levels were identified that affected evacuation. Interventions that address the barriers to evacuation may improve the full-scale evacuation of other high-rise buildings under extreme

  14. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. ARKTOS full-scale evacuation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, B.; Hatfield, P. [ARKTOS Developments Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Bercha, F. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    The ARKTOS amphibious vehicle can be used for evacuation operations in both open water and ice conditions. It is approved as an evacuation system by various regulators, such as the United States Coast Guard, and is operational in several marine cold regions as an escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) system. An EER research project was performed in 2006 that provided a general reliability evaluation of the ARKTOS system. However, the project did not have the benefit of detailed full-scale tests in order to validate the associated computer model in drill or non-life threatening evacuation conditions. This paper described a follow-up set of full-scale evacuation tests designed to provide more detailed information and validation data for the reliability that the computer model described in the 2006 research project. A description and photographic illustrations of the ARKTOS system were presented. The tests and subsequent analyses were described. Specifically, the paper described the observations, and presented the statistical results from the data collected, and compared observed results with predicted results of a probabilistic EER simulation computer model. Conclusions and recommendations for reliability improvements were also provided. It was concluded that under the benign conditions, the drill performance was satisfactory in all aspects, both in the evacuation activities and the rescue or de-boarding activities. 3 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  16. Study of the components of evacuation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Smith, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The magnitudes of accident dose risks calculated by the RADTRAN code depend directly on the time span between an accidental release and evacuation of the affected area surrounding potential radionuclide releases. In a previous study of truck and rail transportation accidents, and other incidents requiring evacuations, a lognormal distribution of evacuation times (time span from decision to evacuate until complete) was developed, which provided a better model for this parameter than the practice of using a highly conservative value of 24 hours. However, the distribution did not account for time required for responders to arrive on the scene, to evaluate the hazards to surrounding population and to initiate an evacuation. Data from US Department of Transportation (DOT) accident statistics have been collected and their distribution functions determined. The separate distribution functions were combined into a single, comprehensive distribution which may be sampled to supply values of the RADTRAN input parameter, EVACUATION. A sample RADTRAN calculation illustrating the effect on risks of using the distribution versus the original (24 hour), conservative point-estimate are also presented

  17. Study of the components of evacuation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Smith, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The magnitudes of accident dose-risks calculated by the RADTRAN code depend directly on the time span between an accidental release and evacuation of the affected area surrounding potential radionuclide releases. In a previous study of truck and rail transportation accidents, and other incidents requiring evacuations (Mills et al., 1995) a lognormal distribution of evacuation times (time span from decision to evacuate until complete) was developed, which provided a better model for this parameter than the practice of using a highly conservative value of 24 hours. However, the distribution did not account for time required for responders to arrive on the scene, to evaluate the hazards to surrounding population and to initiate an evacuation. Data from U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) accident statistics have been collected and their distribution functions determined. The separate distribution functions were combined into a single, comprehensive distribution which may be sampled to supply values of the RADTRAN input parameter, EVACUATION. A sample RADTRAN calculation illustrating the effect on risks of using the distribution versus the original (24 hours), conservative point-estimate are also presented. (authors)

  18. A Case of Re-Expansion Pulmonary Edema after Rapid Pleural Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Shahbazi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pulmonary edema after chest tube insertion is a rare complication and is associated with high mortality. The cause of this phenomenon is not clear, although causes such as decrease in surfactant and inflammatory process have been defined. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the mortality. This study introduces a case of re-expansion pulmonary edema after rapid pleural evacuation. Case: The case is a 4.5 y/o boy, a case of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed respiratory distress after surgery (Total Correction in ICU of Namazi Hospital in 1385. Chest X ray showed pneumothorax of left lung. For the patient, chest tube was inserted and the symptoms improved. After few hours the patient developed tachypnea, tachycardia, and CXR showed pulmonary edema of left lung. Appropriate treatment was done for the patient and his condition improved. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema after sudden evacuation of pleura is a rare phenomenon and early diagnosis decreases the mortality.

  19. Evacuation apparatus with cryogenic pump and trap assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahl, G.

    1980-01-01

    An evacuation apparatus comprising a vessel defining a vacuum chamber therein, vacuumizing means communicating with an opening to said vacuum chamber for selectively drawing a vacuum therein comprising cryogenic pump means disposed closely adjacent to said opening and defined by substantial cryogenically cooled trap surfaces for freezing-out water vapor from air evacuated from said vacuum chamber, said opening being common to said vacuum chamber and to said cryogenic pump means, valve means for selectively opening or closing the opening to said vacuum chamber and movable from a first position within said cryogenic pump means closing said opening to a second position within said cryogenic pump means directly exposing said vacuum chamber to said cryogenic pump means, through said opening, baffle means disposed closely adjacent to the opening to said vacuum chamber for providing substantial open communication to said vacuum chamber and for substantially preventing ingress of contaminants into said vacuum chamber, said baffle means being positioned to provide an optically dense view of said opening when viewed from a downstream side of said baffle means, and a plurality of longitudinally spaced and cryogenically cooled fins mounted in nested relationship within said baffle means and disposed in out-of-contact relationship therewith, said fins being positioned to provide an optically dense view of the downstream side of said baffle means when viewed from said openings. The cryogenic pump is adapted for use in an evacuation apparatus comprising a housing defining an opening to a vacuum chamber, a plurality of metallic plates defining a first chamber therein communicating with said vacuum chamber through said opening and further defining a second chamber at least partially surrounding said first chamber and adapted to be at least partially filled with a cryogenic liqui.d

  20. The Influence of the Heat-Affected Zone Mechanical Properties on the Behaviour of the Welding in Transverse Plate-to-Tube Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Miguel; Serrano, Miguel A; López-Colina, Carlos; Gayarre, Fernando L; Suárez, Jesús

    2018-02-09

    Eurocode 3 establishes the component method to analytically characterize the structural joints between beam and columns. When one of the members involved in the joint is a hollow section (i.e., a tube) there is a lack of information for the specific components present in the joint. There are two different ways to bridge the gap: experimental testing on the actual beam column joints involving tubular sections; or numerical modelization, typically by means of finite element analysis. For this second option, it is necessary to know the actual mechanical properties of the material. As long as the joint implies a welding process, there is a concern related to how the mechanical properties in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) influence the behavior of the joint. In this work, some coupons were extracted from the HAZ of the beam-column joint. The coupons were tested and the results were implemented in the numerical model of the joint, in an attempt to bring it closer to the experimental results of the tested joints.

  1. Are the dynamics of gastric evacuation of natural prey in a piscivorous flatfish different from what is going on in a gadoid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, C.; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that the stomach of turbot Psetta maxima is a curved tube that forms a half circle, it was demonstrated that gastric evacuation in this predatory flatfish fed natural prey closely followed the surface-dependent cylinder model developed from studies on gadoids with a straight...... stomach. Evacuation experiments were performed on two size groups of P. maxima fed sandeel Ammodytes tobianus as well as on P. maxima fed brown shrimp Crangon crangon at three different temperatures. This enabled the provision of a gastric evacuation model for studies on P. maxima, which takes...... with the conclusion of a previous study on P. maxima that evacuation of A. tobianus is essentially linear with time. Use of the cylinder model to the values of the explanatory variables presented in the latter study, however, gave accurate predictions of the actually acquired evacuation data, which points...

  2. Process of corrosion protection for a steam generator tube and device to apply it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagola, P.; Vassal, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The steam generator tube is fixed by crimping in a tube plate; a metallic layer compatible with the tube material is electrodeposited on the inner side of the tube after its mounting in the tube plate, on both side of the plate face in contact with the water to be steamed, along a length approximately longer than the transition zone between the crimped part of the tube and the part which is not crimped. The external side of the tube can be also covered by a metallic layer before its mounting through the tube plate. The metallic layer can be nickel. The invention applies, more particularly, to PWR steam generators [fr

  3. Pedestrian evacuation modeling to reduce vehicle use for distant tsunami evacuations in Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jamie; Peters, Jeff; Richards, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Tsunami waves that arrive hours after generation elsewhere pose logistical challenges to emergency managers due to the perceived abundance of time and inclination of evacuees to use vehicles. We use coastal communities on the island of Oʻahu (Hawaiʻi, USA) to demonstrate regional evacuation modeling that can identify where successful pedestrian-based evacuations are plausible and where vehicle use could be discouraged. The island of Oʻahu has two tsunami-evacuation zones (standard and extreme), which provides the opportunity to examine if recommended travel modes vary based on zone. Geospatial path distance models are applied to estimate population exposure as a function of pedestrian travel time and speed out of evacuation zones. The use of the extreme zone triples the number of residents, employees, and facilities serving at-risk populations that would be encouraged to evacuate and slightly reduces the percentage of residents (98–76%) that could evacuate in less than 15 min at a plausible speed (with similar percentages for employees). Areas with lengthy evacuations are concentrated in the North Shore region for the standard zone but found all around the Oʻahu coastline for the extreme zone. The use of the extreme zone results in a 26% increase in the number of hotel visitors that would be encouraged to evacuate, and a 76% increase in the number of them that may require more than 15 min. Modeling can identify where pedestrian evacuations are plausible; however, there are logistical and behavioral issues that warrant attention before localized evacuation procedures may be realistic.

  4. A method of emotion contagion for crowd evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengxiao; Zhang, Guijuan; Wang, Mengsi; Lu, Dianjie; Liu, Hong

    2017-10-01

    The current evacuation model does not consider the impact of emotion and personality on crowd evacuation. Thus, there is large difference between evacuation results and the real-life behavior of the crowd. In order to generate more realistic crowd evacuation results, we present a method of emotion contagion for crowd evacuation. First, we combine OCEAN (Openness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness) model and SIS (Susceptible Infected Susceptible) model to construct the P-SIS (Personalized SIS) emotional contagion model. The P-SIS model shows the diversity of individuals in crowd effectively. Second, we couple the P-SIS model with the social force model to simulate emotional contagion on crowd evacuation. Finally, the photo-realistic rendering method is employed to obtain the animation of crowd evacuation. Experimental results show that our method can simulate crowd evacuation realistically and has guiding significance for crowd evacuation in the emergency circumstances.

  5. Comparison of calculation and simulation of evacuation in real buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szénay, Martin; Lopušniak, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Each building must meet requirements for safe evacuation in order to prevent casualties. Therefore methods for evaluation of evacuation are used when designing buildings. In the paper, calculation methods were tested on three real buildings. The testing used methods of evacuation time calculation pursuant to Slovak standards and evacuation time calculation using the buildingExodus simulation software. If calculation methods have been suitably selected taking into account the nature of evacuation and at the same time if correct values of parameters were entered, we will be able to obtain almost identical times of evacuation in comparison with real results obtained from simulation. The difference can range from 1% to 27%.

  6. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Michihira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To equalize heavy water flow distribution by providing a nozzle for externally injecting heavy water from a vibration preventive plate to the upper portion to feed the heavy water in a pressure tube reactor and swallowing up heavy water in a calandria tank to supply the heavy water to the reactor core above the vibration preventive plate. Constitution: A moderator injection nozzle is mounted on the inner wall of a calandria tank. Heavy water is externally injected above the vibration preventive plate, and heavy water in the calandria tank is swallowed up to supply the heavy water to the core reactor above the vibration preventive plate. Therefore, the heavy water flow distribution can be equalized over the entire reactor core, and the distribution of neutron absorber dissolved in the heavy water is equalized. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports

  8. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports. (author)

  9. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  10. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  11. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these problems: a dislodged tube a blocked or clogged tube any signs of infection (including redness, swelling, or warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain lasting ...

  12. Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchirka, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination procedures are discussed. This plant continues to use phosphate water chemistry (sodium/phosphate ratio = 2.1). Three hot leg tube segments were pulled from the Jose Cabera (Zorita) plant in 1985. One tube had a field EC indication on the OD at the first tube support plate and the other two had field EC indications on their ID about 3 inches above the bottom of the tube sheet. All three tubes were initially sent to Battelle for preliminary NDE and decontamination. Segments of two tubes were sent to Westinghouse for destructive examination. The results of the laboratory eddy current and radiographic examinations are given. The results of the visual examinations are also given. The tube with OD indications was destructively examined and shallow intergranular pitting and intergranular attack, up to 2 mils deep, were found on the OD in the tube sheet region. Local areas of IGA, up to 5 mils deep, were found on the OD within the tube support plate region. A summary of this information together with supporting micrographs is given. It was hypothesized that a caustic crevice environment was the cause of this mild degradation. Shallow areas of thinning or wastage, up to 3 mils, were found just above the top of the tube sheet in the sludge pile region. Even more shallow wastage was found at the edges of support plate locations. This wastage is believed to be the remnant of early plant chemistry when a higher sodium/phosphate ratio and higher phosphate concentration were allowed

  13. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  14. Pedestrian collective motion in competitive room evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcimartín, A; Pastor, J M; Martín-Gómez, C; Parisi, D; Zuriguel, I

    2017-09-07

    When a sizable number of people evacuate a room, if the door is not large enough, an accumulation of pedestrians in front of the exit may take place. This is the cause of emerging collective phenomena where the density is believed to be the key variable determining the pedestrian dynamics. Here, we show that when sustained contact among the individuals exists, density is not enough to describe the evacuation, and propose that at least another variable -such as the kinetic stress- is required. We recorded evacuation drills with different degrees of competitiveness where the individuals are allowed to moderately push each other in their way out. We obtain the density, velocity and kinetic stress fields over time, showing that competitiveness strongly affects them and evidencing patterns which have been never observed in previous (low pressure) evacuation experiments. For the highest competitiveness scenario, we detect the development of sudden collective motions. These movements are related to a notable increase of the kinetic stress and a reduction of the velocity towards the door, but do not depend on the density.

  15. Uncertainty in a spatial evacuation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ibrahim, Azhar; Venkat, Ibrahim; Wilde, Philippe De

    2017-08-01

    Pedestrian movements in crowd motion can be perceived in terms of agents who basically exhibit patient or impatient behavior. We model crowd motion subject to exit congestion under uncertainty conditions in a continuous space and compare the proposed model via simulations with the classical social force model. During a typical emergency evacuation scenario, agents might not be able to perceive with certainty the strategies of opponents (other agents) owing to the dynamic changes entailed by the neighborhood of opponents. In such uncertain scenarios, agents will try to update their strategy based on their own rules or their intrinsic behavior. We study risk seeking, risk averse and risk neutral behaviors of such agents via certain game theory notions. We found that risk averse agents tend to achieve faster evacuation time whenever the time delay in conflicts appears to be longer. The results of our simulations also comply with previous work and conform to the fact that evacuation time of agents becomes shorter once mutual cooperation among agents is achieved. Although the impatient strategy appears to be the rational strategy that might lead to faster evacuation times, our study scientifically shows that the more the agents are impatient, the slower is the egress time.

  16. Evacuation of bedridden occupants : experimental research outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, N.; van Herpen, R.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Bedridden building occupants in hospitals and nursing homes who are not able to rescue themselves in case of a fire emergency require assistance during an evacuation. A building emergency team usually fulfils this function and will have to remove the occupants from the room. The speed at which such

  17. Evacuation Risks: a tentative approach for quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, M.C.; Dumas, M.; Laporte, J; Parmentier, N.

    1985-01-01

    This study tries to assess the risk of deaths and injuries from motor vehicle accidents associated with an evacuation of population groups in case of nuclear plant accidents. The risk per person-km is evaluated using: (a) data from previous evacuation: information from Soufriere evacuation (Guadeloupe Island 1976) and Mississauga (1979), added to Hans and Sell's data: no road accident occurred for a sample of 1,500,000 persons; (b) national recording system for motor vehicle accident: the rates of 2.2 10 -8 deaths per person-km and 32 10 -8 injuries per person-km is calculated as an average. These last rates in France overestimate the number of casualties. A reasonable hypothesis is to assume that the probability of road accident occurrence follows a Poisson distribution, as these events are independent and unfrequent, as no accident was observed in a sample of 1,500,000 persons the probability is between 0 and an upper value of 0.24 10 -8 deaths per person-km and 3.29 10 -8 injuries per person-km. The average and maximum population involved within different radii around French and U.S. Nuclear power sites are taken as a sample size in order to study the total risk of deaths and injuries in the hypothesis of an evacuation being necessary to protect the populations

  18. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    flight nurses and three medical technicians) is added for AE missions. The aeromedical evacuation crew (AEC) may be pared and tailored as required in... Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice and Science, Volume 5, Number 4, 2007: 319-325. 34 IAT.R 0554 General Accounting Office

  19. An adaptive simulation tool for evacuation scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formolo, Daniel; van der Wal, C. Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Building useful and efficient models and tools for a varied audience, such as evacuation simulators for scientists, engineers and crisis managers, can be tricky. Even good models can fail in providing information when the user’s tools for the model are scarce of resources. The aim of this work is to

  20. Evacuating the Area of a Hurricane

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If a hurricane warning is issued for your area, or authorities tell you to evacuate, take only essential items. If you have time, turn off gas, electricity, and water and disconnect appliances.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 10/10/2007.

  1. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  2. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  3. Information of the Home Office for the planning of evacuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This information contains the legal basis, scope and jurisdiction for evacuations in cases of accident. The general evacuation plan must schedule the following: private and public transport, information equipment, supply and care services, evacuation routes and traffic control checkpoints, etc. Particular evacuation plans must be established e.g. for nuclear plants and barrages. The planning is based on a survey of measures represented by a flowchart or a checklist. (HSCH) [de

  4. Aircraft industry workers in evacuation: conditions of life of evacuated plants' workers in 1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Юрьевич Мухин

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the work of the factories in 1941-1945 in the evacuation. The author analyzes the living conditions of workers in evacuated aviation plants, their daily life, maintenance, etc. The author concludes that in the early years of the War the conditions of life of the aviation industry's workers were very difficult, and the welfare and financial situation improved in 1944, the sure sign of fracture in the Second world war.

  5. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  6. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to remove...

  7. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  8. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1992-05-01

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985-1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This 'multilateral' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125 mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125 mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250 C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government, and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  9. CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of cerebellar hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizuma, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ohyama, Hideki; Suzuki, Jiro

    1985-01-01

    Stereotaxic lateral approach for cerebellar hematoma is presented using Leksell's CT-stereotaxic system. All of the procedures are performed in the CT room. Patient's head is turned to contralateral side of the hematoma 30 to 40 0 with slight flexion of the neck. Stereotaxic apparatus is secured to the head under local anesthesia. Hematoma is confirmed by computerized tomograms. Three dimensional coordinates of the target point (center of the hematoma) are measured from the vertical and diagonal rods of Leksell's system. Linear skin incision 4 cm in length is made on retromastoid area. Burr-hole is put on just lateral position of the target point, usually 5 to 6 cm posterior and 1 cm above from the external auditory meatus. Transverse or sigmoid sinus does not appeared through the burr-hole by this approach. Specially made Dandy's cannula (3.0 mm in diameter, 220 mm in length) is inserted into the target point, and manual evacuation of the hematoma is performed carefully using a syringe. Then Dandy's cannula is replaced by silastic drainage tube (3.5 mm in diameter), and 6,000 Units of Urokinase solved in 2 ml of saline is administered to the hematoma cavity. Dissolved hematoma is aspirated every 24 hours until the most of the hematoma is evacuated. We operated three cases of cerebellar hematoma by this method with favorable results. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can cbeck the residual hematoma and position of the tip of cannula even at operation, if necessary. (author)

  10. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  11. Evacuation of Bed-bound Patients-STEPS Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne; Dederichs, Anne Simone

    2016-01-01

    Fires in hospitals occur, and evacuation of bed-bound patients might be necessary in case of emergency. The current study concerns the evacuation of bed-bound patients from a fire section in a hospital using hospital porters. The simulations are performed using the STEPS program. The aim...... of the study is to investigate the evacuation time of bed-bound hospital patients using different walking speeds from the literature, and the influence of the number of hospital porters on the total evacuation times of bed-bound patients. Different scenarios were carried out with varying staff......-to-patient ratios that simulate the horizontal evacuation of 40 bed-bound patients into a different fire section. It was found that the staff-to-patient-ratio affects the total evacuation times. However, the total evacuation times do not decrease linearly and a saturation effect is seen at a staff-to-patient ratio...

  12. Streak tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of a high-speed, high-resolution streak image tube is described. This is one task in the development of a streak camera system with digital electronic readout, whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. This program is concerned with the development of a high-resolution streak image tube compatible with x-ray input and electronic digital output. The tube must be capable of time resolution down to 100 psec and spatial resolution to provide greater than 1000 resolution elements across the cathode (much greater than presently available). Another objective is to develop the capability to make design changes in tube configurations to meet different experimental requirements. A demountable prototype streak tube was constructed, mounted on an optical bench, and placed in a vacuum system. Initial measurements of the tube resolution with an undeflected image show a resolution of 32 line pairs per millimeter over a cathode diameter of one inch, which is consistent with the predictions of the computer simulations. With the initial set of unoptmized deflection plates, the resolution pattern appeared to remain unchanged for static deflections of +- 1/2-inch, a total streak length of one inch, also consistent with the computer simulations. A passively mode-locked frequency-doubled dye laser is being developed as an ultraviolet pulsed light source to measure dynamic tube resolution during streaking. A sweep circuit to provide the deflection voltage in the prototype tube has been designed and constructed and provides a relatively linear ramp voltage with ramp durations adjustable between 10 and 1000 nsec

  13. Evacuation behavior and Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, S; Barnes, K

    1982-06-01

    The responses of the residents to the nuclear power plant arcident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania illustrate the factors influencing pre-impact coping responses of populations exposed to technological hazards. Confusion itnd ambiguous information influenced both the decision to evaluate and to remain in place. Proximity to the facility, stage in life cycle and the actions of friends and neighbors influenced the decision to evacuate.

  14. Evacuation exercise at the CERN Kindergarten

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector. The fire brigade checked that the buil...

  15. Thermal performance of an open thermosyphon using nanofluid for evacuated tubular high temperature air solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Ren-Lin; Lu, Lin; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Hong-shen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel solar air collector with simplified CPC and open thermosyphon is designed and tested. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • Nanofluid effectively improves thermal performance of the above solar air collector. • Solar air collector with open thermosyphon is better than that with concentric tube. - Abstract: A novel evacuated tubular solar air collector integrated with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and special open thermosyphon using water based CuO nanofluid as the working fluid is designed to provide air with high and moderate temperature. The experimental system has two linked panels and each panel includes an evacuated tube, a simplified CPC and an open thermosyphon. Outdoor experimental study has been carried out to investigate the actual solar collecting performance of the designed system. Experimental results show that air outlet temperature and system collecting efficiency of the solar air collector using nanofluid as the open thermosyphon’s working fluid are both higher than that using water. Its maximum air outlet temperature exceeds 170 °C at the air volume rate of 7.6 m 3 /h in winter, even though the experimental system consists of only two collecting panels. The solar collecting performance of the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon is also compared with that integrated with common concentric tube. Experimental results show that the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon has a much better collecting performance

  16. Tube collector with integrated tracking parabolic concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, C.; Benz, N.; Hacker, Z.; Timinger, A. [ZAE Bayern, Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Low concentrating CPC collectors usually do not track the sun and are mounted in east-west direction with a latitude dependent slope angle. They are most suitable for maximum working temperatures up to 200 250 deg. C. We present a novel evacuated tube-collector with a trough-like concentrating mirror. Single-axis tracking of the mirror is realized with a magnetic mechanism. The mirror is mounted inside the evacuated tube and hence protected from environmental influences. One axis tracking in combination with a small acceptance angle allows for higher concentration as compared to non-tracking concentrating collectors. Ray-tracing analysis shows a half acceptance angle of about 5 deg. at a geometrical concentration ratio of 3.2. The losses of evacuated tube collectors are dominated by the radiation losses of the absorber. Hence, reducing the absorber size can lead to higher efficiencies at high operating temperature levels. With the presented collector we aim for operating temperatures up to 400 deg. C. At temperatures of 300 deg. C we expect efficiencies of 65 %. This allows for application in industrial process heat generation, high efficient solar cooling and power generation. A first prototype was tested at the ZAE Bayern. The optical efficiency was measured to be 75 %. (au)

  17. Experimental study on occupant evacuation in narrow seat aisle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shenshi; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Li, Changhai; Guo, Yafei

    2018-07-01

    Narrow seat aisle is an important area in the train car interior due to the large passenger population, however evacuation therein has not gained enough concerns. In this experimental study, the occupant evacuation of the narrow seat aisle area is investigated, with the aisle width of 0.4-0.6 m and the evacuation direction of forward and backward. The evacuation behaviors are analyzed based on the video record, and the discussion is carried out in the aspect of evacuation time, crowdedness, evacuation order, and aisle conflicts. The result shows that with the increasing aisle width, total evacuation time and the average specific evacuation rate decrease. The aisle is crowded for some time, with a large linear occupant densities. The evacuation order of each occupant is mainly related to the seat position. Moreover, it is found that the aisle conflicts can be well described by Burstedde's model. This study gives a useful benchmark for evacuation simulation of narrow seat aisle, and provides reference to safety design of seat area in train cars.

  18. Dual effects of guide-based guidance on pedestrian evacuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yi, E-mail: yima23-c@my.cityu.edu.hk; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Shi, Meng

    2017-06-15

    This study investigates the effects of guide-based guidance on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility via the simulations based on an extended social force model. The results show that the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual, and related to the neighbor density within the visual field. On the one hand, in many cases, the effects of guides are positive, particularly when the neighbor density within the visual field is moderate; in this case, a few guides can already assist the evacuation effectively and efficiently. However, when the neighbor density within the visual field is particularly small or large, the effects of guides may be adverse and make the evacuation time longer. Our results not only provide a new insight into the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility, but also give some practical suggestions as to how to assign guides to assist the evacuation under different evacuation conditions. - Highlights: • Extended social force model is used to simulate guided pedestrian evacuation. • Effects of guides on pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual. • Effects of guides on pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are related to neighbor density within visual field.

  19. Predictive value of impaired evacuation at proctography in diagnosing anismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, S; Malouf, A; Bartram, C I; Marshall, M; Hollings, N; Kamm, M A

    2001-09-01

    We aimed to determine the positive predictive value of impaired evacuation during evacuation proctography for the subsequent diagnosis of anismus. Thirty-one adults with signs of impaired evacuation (defined as the inability to evacuate two thirds of a 120 mL contrast enema within 30 sec) during evacuation proctography underwent subsequent anorectal physiologic testing for anismus. A physiologic diagnosis of anismus was based on a typical clinical history of the condition combined with impaired rectal balloon expulsion or abnormal surface electromyogram. Twenty-eight (90%) of the 31 patients with impaired proctographic evacuation were found to have anismus at subsequent physiologic testing. Among the 28 were all 10 patients who evacuated no contrast medium and all 11 patients with inadequate pelvic floor descent, giving evacuation proctography a positive predictive value of 90% for the diagnosis of anismus. A prominent puborectal impression was seen in only three subjects during proctography, one of whom subsequently showed no physiologic sign of anismus. Impaired evacuation during evacuation proctography is highly predictive for diagnosis of anismus.

  20. Optimization of Evacuation Warnings Prior to a Hurricane Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that optimization of evacuation warnings by time period and impacted zone is crucial for efficient evacuation of an area impacted by a hurricane. We assume that people behave in a manner consistent with the warnings they receive. By optimizing the issuance of hurricane evacuation warnings, one can control the number of evacuees at different time intervals to avoid congestion in the process of evacuation. The warning optimization model is applied to a case study of Hurricane Sandy using the study region of Brooklyn. We first develop a model for shelter assignment and then use this outcome to model hurricane evacuation warning optimization, which prescribes an evacuation plan that maximizes the number of evacuees. A significant technical contribution is the development of an iterative greedy heuristic procedure for the nonlinear formulation, which is shown to be optimal for the case of a single evacuation zone with a single evacuee type case, while it does not guarantee optimality for multiple zones under unusual circumstances. A significant applied contribution is the demonstration of an interface of the evacuation warning method with a public transportation scheme to facilitate evacuation of a car-less population. This heuristic we employ can be readily adapted to the case where response rate is a function of evacuation number in prior periods and other variable factors. This element is also explored in the context of our experiment.

  1. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  2. CT guided stereotactic evacuation for hypertensive intracerebral hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hideo

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-one cases of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma were evacuated by CT guided stereotactic method. The operation was performed in the CT room under general anesthesia using the KOMAI-NAKAJIMA STEREOTACTIC DEVICE. This instrument has a micromanipulater that can be used for various kinds of stereotactic procedures. Three dimensional position of the target point (aspiration point of the hematoma) was determined on the film obtained from CT scanning of the patient in the stereotactic system. If the hematoma was small, the target point was enough to be one point at the center of the hematoma, but in case of the large hematoma, several target points were given according to the shape of hematoma. The probe, ordinarily a steel tube 4 mm in outer diameter, was inserted through brain to the target point and the hematoma was aspirated through a silicon tube connected to a vacuum system. Among 61 cases examined, 30 cases of thalamic hemorrhage were operated upon and 36 cases were not operated. They were classified according to the volume of hematoma into 3 groups as follows: A=less than 10 ml, B=11-25 ml, C=more than 25 ml. The operated cases were compared with the non operated cases on the improvement of consciousness in each group. In the A group, the operated patients in the level I recovered more slowly than the non operated patients, but in the level II patients, this was reversed. In the B group, the operated patients improved more quickly except the level I patients. In the C group, almost all of non operated patients died. Thus, this operation was very useful in improving consciousness of level II or III patients independent of hematoma volume. It accelerated the recovery of motor function in the level I. This non inversive technique is considered effective for the removal of deep intracerebral hematoma. (author)

  3. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Kaneto, Kunikazu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To attain uniform fluid poison distribution in a calandria tank by downwardly projecting, at an equal distance to the reactor core, a spacer wall from the periphery of an anti-vibration plate in the vicinity of a heavy water flow passage in the periphery of the anti-vibration plate, thereby decrease the amount of heavy water flowing into the heavy water flow passage. Constitution: A projecting wall concentrical with a calandria tank is suspended vertically from the boundary side at the peripheral portion of an anti-vibration plate to a water heavy flow passage in the periphery of the anti-vibration plate. The projecting wall has such a vertical length as about equal to the width of the heavy water flow passage, prevents heavy water flowing through apertures of a control rod guide tube from entering into the heavy water passage and increases the ratio of heavy water that flows through the heavy water flow passage in the anti-vibration plate. Consequently, if the liquid poison density in heavy water is varied, the ununiform poison density in the calandria tank can be prevented. (Seki, T.)

  4. Calandria cooling structure in pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyugaji, Takenori; Sasada, Yasuhiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To contrive the structure of a heavy water distributing device in a pressure tube reactor thereby to reduce the variation in the cooling function thereof due to the welding deformation and installation error. Constitution: A heating water distributing plate is provided at the lower part of the upper tubular plate of a calandria tank to form a heavy water distributing chamber between both plates and a plurality of calandria tubes. Heavy water which has flowed in the upper part of the heavy water distributing plate from the heavy water inlet nozzle flows down through gaps formed around the calandria tubes, whereby the cooling of the calandria tank and the calandria tubes is carried out. In the above described calandria cooling structure, a heavy water distributing plate support is provided to secure the heavy water distributing plate and torus-shaped heavy water distributing rings are fixed to holes formed in the heavy water distributing plate penetrating through the calandria tubes thereby to form torus-shaped heavy water outlet ports each having a space. (Seki, T.)

  5. Automated Diagnosis and Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Gabe V.

    2004-01-01

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is tube degradation. Tube defects are divided into seven categories, one of which is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). Defects of this type usually begin on the outer surface of the tubes and propagate both inward and laterally. In many cases these defects occur at or near the tube support plates. Several different methods exist for the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear steam generator tubes for defect characterization

  6. Assessment of total evacuation systems for tall buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a ...

  7. Disk generator with nearly shockless accelerated driver plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Marsh, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The disk generator, shown in this paper, was first conceived as a useful magnetic field source for a class of in situ plasma experiments. Initial current is supplied (from a capacitor bank) to the generator through radial coaxial cables. It enters the top plate, passes through the central post, and exists through the top of the outer cylindrical glide surface, which is insulated from the top plate. The explosive over the top plate is initiated simultaneously over its upper surface at such a time that the top plate starts its downward motion at about peak initial current. Several conditions were required for the experiments under consideration: the top or driver plate should contact the bottom plate nearly parallel to it; the generator interior should be evacuated; microjetting debris (fluff) arising from the driver plate should be held to a minimum; currents developed should be several tens of megamperes, with values of dI/dt exceeding 10 13 A/s

  8. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazings will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous...... process, it can be considered as semi-online, and especially the capital cost is significantly lower for this method in comparison with a true online process. So hereby, a major obstacle is overcome with respect to a first industrial production of aerogel glazings.The apparatus has been constructed...

  9. Bulkhead Door – Critical Evacuation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flizikowski Józef

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is a preliminary to a modification concept of the sliding watertight bulkhead door used on ships and vessels. Hydraulic or electro-hydraulic drives used to move these doors require complicated and extended pressure installations with large amounts of hydraulic fluid. Well-known operational drawbacks of these installations include high level of noise and possibility of various leaks in the hydraulic system. Being the first in a series, the present article describes and analyses critical states which can take place during evacuation of people through openings in the watertight bulkhead doors on seagoing ships and vessels.

  10. APPROXIMATION OF THE TIME TO INITIATE THE EVACUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří POKORNÝ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic prerequisites for securing the safety of people at large group events is to ensure their evacuation in case of emergencies. This article deals with the approximations of time to initiate the evacuation of persons in case of a fire at large group events organized in outdoor spaces. The solution is based on the principles of determining the period to initiate the evacuation of persons in terms of international ISO standards. Considering the specificities of the given outdoor space and possible related security measures, the article recommends the relevant sufficient amount of time to initiate an evacuation.

  11. Evacuation routes performances and fire safety of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings, public and business facilities with large number of occupants are particularly exposed to the risk of event with catastrophic consequences, especially in case of fire. Evacuation routes must be separated fire compartments with surfaces made of non-combustible materials. Safe evacuation of building occupants in case of fire is a crucial requirement for the preservation of human life in building. In our engineering practice, calculation model is usually applied in order to determine the time required for evacuation (SRPS TP 21. However, evacuation simulation models are more present in research papers, contributing to better assessment of flow of evacuation in the real time. These models could provide an efficient way of testing the safety of a building in the face of fire and indicate critical points at the evacuation paths. Computer models enable the development and analysis of multiple various scenarios during a fire event, contributing to defining the measures for improving the safety of the building in case of fire. This paper analyses the fulfilment of technical requirements for the safe evacuation and proposes improvement measures based on a comparative analysis of the time required for occupants' evacuation from the building (Department of Civil Engineering and Geodesy in Novi Sad, obtained by calculation model and by using evacuation simulation software.

  12. Study on rapid evacuation in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More and more high rising buildings emerged in modern cities, but emergency evacuation of tall buildings has been a worldwide difficult problem. In this paper, a new evacuation device for high rising buildings in fire accident was proposed and studied. This device mainly consisted of special spiral slideway and shunt valve. People in this device could fast slide down to the first floor under gravity without any electric power and physical strength, which is suitable for various emergency evacuation including mobility-impaired persons. The plane simulation test has shown that human being in alternative clockwise and counterclockwise movement will not become dizzy. The evacuated people should wear protection pad, which can prevent slider from being injured by surface friction with the slide, and eliminate the friction coefficient difference caused by different clothes and slide surface. The calculation results show that the evacuation speed of the new device is much faster than traditional staircases. Moreover, such new evacuation device can also be used as a means of vertical transportation in high-rise buildings partly. People can take it from any floor to ground floor directly, which not only save time for waiting for the lifts but also save the power. The new evacuation system is of simple structure, easy to use, and suitable for evacuation and partly used as vertical downwards traffic, which shows light on solving world-wide difficulties on fast evacuation in high-rise buildings.

  13. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a disastrous event such a hurricane. The constructed simulation platform consists of a primary and two secondary models. The primary model is based on the entry of vehicles from the 20 on-ramps to I-65. The two secondary models assist the primary model with related traffic events such as car breakdowns and accidents, traffic control measures, interarrival signaling, and unforeseen emergency incidents, among others. Statistical testing was performed on the data generated by the simulation model to indentify variation in relevant traffic variables affecting the timely flow of vehicles travelling north. The performed statistical analysis focused on the closing of alternative on-ramps throughout the Interstate.

  14. Pedestrian Dynamics Feedback Control of Crowd Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kachroo, Pushkin P.E; Al-nasur, Sadeq J; Shende, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    Effective evacuation of people from closed spaces is an extremely important topic, since it can save real lives in emergency situations that can be brought about by natural and human made disasters. Usually there are static maps posted at various places at buildings that illustrate routes that should be taken during emergencies. However, when disasters happen, some of these routes might not be valid because of structural problems due to the disaster itself and more importantly because of the distribution of congestion of people spread over the area. The average flow of traffic depends on the traffic density. Therefore, if all the people follow the same route, or follow a route without knowing the congestion situation, they can end up being part of the congestion which results in very low flow rate or worse a traffic jam. Hence it becomes extremely important to design evacuations that inform people how fast and in which direction to move based on real-time information obtained about the people distribution usi...

  15. Evacuate or Shelter-in-place? The Role of Corporate Memory and Political Environment in Hospital-evacuation Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Karen A; Griffin, Anne R; Heslin, Kevin C; Kranke, Derrick; Dobalian, Aram

    2015-06-01

    Hospital-evacuation decisions are rarely straightforward in protracted advance-warning events. Previous work provides little insight into the decision-making process around evacuation. This study was conducted to identify factors that most heavily influenced the decisions to evacuate the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) New York Harbor Healthcare System's (NYHHS; New York USA) Manhattan Campus before Hurricane Irene in 2011 and before Superstorm Sandy in 2012. Semi-structured interviews with 11 senior leaders were conducted on the processes and factors that influenced the evacuation decisions prior to each event. The most influential factor in the decision to evacuate the Manhattan Campus before Hurricane Irene was New York City's (NYC's) hospital-evacuation mandate. As a federal facility, the Manhattan VA medical center (VAMC) was exempt from the city's order, but decision makers felt compelled to comply. In the case of Superstorm Sandy, corporate memory of a similar 1992 storm that crippled the Manhattan facility drove the decision to evacuate before the storm hit. Results suggest that hospital-evacuation decisions are confounded by political considerations and are influenced by past disaster experience. Greater shared situational awareness among at-risk hospitals, along with a more coordinated approach to evacuation decision making, could reduce pressure on hospitals to make these high-stakes decisions. Systematic mechanisms for collecting, documenting, and sharing lessons learned from past disasters are sorely needed at the institutional, local, and national levels.

  16. Titanium condenser tubes--problems and their solutions for wider application to large surface condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S; Sugiyama, Y; Nagata, K; Namba, K; Shimono, M

    1978-01-01

    To meet the demand for high reliability condensers for thermal and nuclear power plants, especially for PWR plants, the condensers installed entirely with titanium tubes have been investigated and used. Some difficulties from conventional copper alloy tubes exist. Further investigations are necessary on three items: (1) tube vibration; (2) joining tubes to tube plate; (3) fouling (bio-fouling) control. Literature survey on the tube vibration suggests that the probability of tube vibration due to decreased stiffness of titanium tubes in comparison with conventional copper alloy tubes can be decreased by designing the proper span length between supports. Experiments on seal welding of tubes to a tube plate have successfully proved that pulsed TIG arc welding is applicable to get reliable and strong joints, even on site, by suitable countermeasures. Experiments on the fouling (bio-fouling) of titanium tubes in marine application reveal that the increased fouling of titanium tubes could be controlled by proper application of sponge ball cleaning.

  17. Intrarectal pressures and balloon expulsion related to evacuation proctography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, S; Thomas, J; Bartram, C

    1995-01-01

    Seventy four patients with constipation were examined by standard evacuation proctography and then attempted to expel a small, non-deformable rectal balloon, connected to a pressure transducer to measure intrarectal pressure. Simultaneous imaging related the intrarectal position of the balloon to rectal deformity. Inability to expel the balloon was associated proctographically with prolonged evacuation, incomplete evacuation, reduced anal canal diameter, and acute anorectal angulation during evacuation. The presence and size of rectocoele or intussusception was unrelated to voiding of paste or balloon. An independent linear combination of pelvic floor descent and evacuation time on proctography correctly predicted maximum intrarectal pressure in 74% of cases. No patient with both prolonged evacuation and reduced pelvic floor descent on proctography could void the balloon, as maximum intrarectal pressure was reduced in this group. A prolonged evacuation time on proctography, in combination with reduced pelvic floor descent, suggests defecatory disorder may be caused by inability to raise intrarectal pressure. A diagnosis of anismus should not be made on proctography solely on the basis of incomplete/prolonged evacuation, as this may simply reflect inadequate straining. PMID:7672656

  18. Clarifying evacuation options through fire behavior and traffic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol L. Rice; Ronny J. Coleman; Mike. Price

    2011-01-01

    Communities are becoming increasingly concerned with the variety of choices related to wildfire evacuation. We used ArcView with Network Analyst to evaluate the different options for evacuations during wildfire in a case study community. We tested overlaying fire growth patterns with the road network and population characteristics to determine recommendations for...

  19. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off, or...

  20. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  1. Computer simulation-based framework for transportation evacuation in major trip generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Since emergencies including both natural disasters and man-made incidents, are happening more and more : frequently, evacuation, especially transportation evacuation, is becoming a hot research focus in recent years. : Currently, transportation evacu...

  2. Titanium condenser tubes. Problems and their solution for wider application to large surface condensers. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S; Sugiyama, S; Nagata, K; Nanba, K; Shimono, M [Sumitomo Light Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    The corrosion resistance of titanium in sea water is extremely excellent, but titanium tubes are expensive, and the copper alloy tubes resistant in polluted sea water were developed, therefore they were not used practically. In 1970, ammonia attack was found on the copper alloy tubes in the air-cooled portion of condensers, and titanium tubes have been used as the countermeasure. As the result of the use, the galvanic attack on copper alloy tube plates with titanium tubes as cathode and the hydrogen absorption at titanium tube ends owing to excess electrolytic protection was observed, but the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes was perfect. These problems can be controlled by the application of proper electrolytic protection. The condensers with all titanium tubes adopted recently in USA are intended to realize perfectly no-leak condensers as the countermeasure to the corrosion in steam generators of PWR plants. Regarding large condensers of nowadays, three problems are pointed out, namely the vibration of condenser tubes, the method of joining tubes and tube plates, and the tubes of no coolant leak. These three problems in case of titanium tubes were studied, and the problem of the fouling of tubes was also examined. The intervals of supporting plates for titanium tubes should be narrowed. The joining of titanium tubes and titanium tube plates by welding is feasible and promising. The cleaning with sponge balls is effective to control fouling.

  3. Evacuation proctography - examination technique and method of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, R.; Schott, U.; Starlinger, M.

    1993-01-01

    Evacuation proctography is the most important imaging technique to supplement findings of physical examination, manometry, and endoscopy in patients presenting with pathologies in anorectal morphology and function. Indications for evacuation proctography include obstructed defecation or incomplete evacuation, imaging of ileal pouches following excision of the rectum, and suspected anorectal fistulae. Evacuation proctography with thick barium sulfate is performed under fluoroscopy. Documentation of the study can either be done by single-shot X-rays, video recording, or imaging with a 100-mm spot-film camera. Evacuation proctography shows morphologic changes such as spastic pelvic floor, rectocele, enterocele, intussusception and anal prolapse. Measurements can be performed to obtain the anorectal angle, location and mobility of the pelvic floor, and size as well as importance of a rectocele. Qualitative and quantitative data can only be interpreted along with clinical and manometric data. (orig.) [de

  4. Guide tube insert assembly for use in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an internals assembly for a nuclear reactor of the type including an upper support plate and an upper core plate, each having apertures for conducting control rod assemblies into an out of fuel assemblies with the apertures of the upper support plate being aligned with the apertures of the upper core plate, a guide tube insert assembly comprising: an elongated tubular body extending between at least one of the aligned apertures formed in the upper support plate and the upper core plate; guide plates within the elongated tubular body, each of the guide plates having a planar surface extending substantially perpendicular to an axial direction of the tubular body; at least one interconnecting means for interconnecting the guide plates into a guide tube insert assembly such that the guide plates are simultaneously mountable within and removable from the elongated body, and the periphery of each of the guide plates is spaced apart from the inner walls of the elongated tubular body at every point when the insert assembly is mounted within the tubular body, and a stabilizing means for securing the lowermost guide plate of the guide tube insert assembly within the elongated tubular body to prevent rotational and lateral movement between the guide tube insert assembly and the tubular body

  5. Research on evacuation planning as nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2007-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has introduced new concepts of precautionary action zone (PAZ) and urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) in 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' (GS-R-2 (2002)), in order to reduce substantially the risk of severe deterministic health effects. Open literature based research was made to reveal problems on evacuation planning and the preparedness for nuclear emergency arising from introduction of PAZ into Japan that has applied the emergency planning zone (EPZ) concept currently. In regard to application of PAZ, it should be noted that the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency are not only dimensional but also timely. The principal issue is implementation of evacuation of precautionary decided area within several hours. The logic of evacuation planning for a nuclear emergency and the methods of advance public education and information in the U.S. is effective for even prompt evacuation to the outside of the EPZ. As concerns evacuation planning for a nuclear emergency in Japan, several important issues to be considered were found, that is, selection of public reception centers which are outside area of the EPZ, an unique reception center assigned to each emergency response planning area, public education and information of practical details about the evacuation plan in advance, and necessity of the evacuation time estimates. To establish a practical evacuation planning guide for nuclear emergencies, further researches on application of traffic simulation technology to evacuation time estimates and on knowledge of actual evacuation experience in natural disasters and chemical plant accidents are required. (author)

  6. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  7. Research on Evacuation Based on Social Force Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Deng, Z.; Li, W.; Lin, J.

    2017-09-01

    Crowded centers always cause personnel casualties in evacuation operations. Stampede events often occur by hit, squeeze and crush due to panic. It is of vital important to alleviate such situation. With the deepening of personnel evacuation research, more and more researchers are committed to study individual behaviors and self-organization phenomenon in evacuation process. The study mainly includes: 1, enrich the social force model from different facets such as visual, psychological, external force to descript more realistic evacuation; 2, research on causes and effects of self - organization phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on disorder motion that occurs in the crowded indoor publics, especially the narrow channel and safety exits and other special arteries. We put forward the improved social force model to depict pedestrians' behaviors, an orderly speed-stratification evacuation method to solve disorder problem, and shape-changed export to alleviate congestion. The result of this work shows an improvement of evacuation efficiency by 19.5 %. Guiding pedestrians' direction to slow down the influence of social forces has a guidance function in improving the efficiency of indoor emergency evacuation.

  8. An analysis of evacuation options for nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J J; Strenge, D L; Schultz, R W

    1987-11-01

    The threat of release of a hazardous substance into the atmosphere will sometimes require that the population at risk be evacuated. If the substance is particularly hazardous or the release is exceptionally large, then an extensive area may have to be evacuated at substantial cost. In this report we consider the threat posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant. The report's objective is to establish relationships between radiation dose and the cost of evacuation under a wide variety of conditions. The dose can almost always be reduced by evacuating the population from a larger area. However, extending the evacuation zone outward will cause evacuation costs to increase. The purpose of this analysis was to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a data base for evaluating whether implementation costs and risks averted could be used to justify evacuation at lower doses than would be required based on acceptable risk of health effects alone. The procedures used and results of these analyses are being made available as background information for use by others. In this report we develop cost/dose relationships for 54 scenarios that are based upon the severity of the reactor accident, meteorological conditions during the release of radionuclides into the environment, and the angular width of the evacuation zone. The 54 scenarios are derived from combinations of three accident severity levels, six meteorological conditions and evacuation zone widths of 70 deg, 90 deg, and 180 deg. Appendix tables are provided to allow acceptable evaluation of the cost/dose relationships for a wide variety of scenarios. Guidance and examples are provided in the text to show how these tables can be used.

  9. Application of Catastrophe Risk Modelling to Evacuation Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, G.

    2009-04-01

    The decision by civic authorities to evacuate an area threatened by a natural hazard is especially fraught when the population in harm's way is extremely large, and where there is considerable uncertainty in the spatial footprint, scale, and strike time of a hazard event. Traditionally viewed as a hazard forecasting issue, civil authorities turn to scientists for advice on a potentially imminent dangerous event. However, the level of scientific confidence varies enormously from one peril and crisis situation to another. With superior observational data, meteorological and hydrological hazards are generally better forecast than geological hazards. But even with Atlantic hurricanes, the track and intensity of a hurricane can change significantly within a few hours. This complicated and delayed the decision to call an evacuation of New Orleans when threatened by Hurricane Katrina, and would present a severe dilemma if a major hurricane were appearing to head for New York. Evacuation needs to be perceived as a risk issue, requiring the expertise of catastrophe risk modellers as well as geoscientists. Faced with evidence of a great earthquake in the Indian Ocean in December 2004, seismologists were reluctant to give a tsunami warning without more direct sea observations. Yet, from a risk perspective, the risk to coastal populations would have warranted attempts at tsunami warning, even though there was significant uncertainty in the hazard forecast, and chance of a false alarm. A systematic coherent risk-based framework for evacuation decision-making exists, which weighs the advantages of an evacuation call against the disadvantages. Implicitly and qualitatively, such a cost-benefit analysis is undertaken by civic authorities whenever an evacuation is considered. With the progress in catastrophe risk modelling, such an analysis can be made explicit and quantitative, providing a transparent audit trail for the decision process. A stochastic event set, the core of a

  10. Endoscopic burr hole evacuation of an acute subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Patrick J; Venteicher, Andrew S; Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Kahle, Kristopher T; Jho, David H

    2013-12-01

    Acute subdural hematoma evacuations frequently necessitate large craniotomies with extended operative times and high relative blood loss, which can lead to additional morbidity for the patient. While endoscopic minimally invasive approaches to chronic subdural collections have been successfully demonstrated, this technique has not previously been applied to acute subdural hematomas. The authors report their experience with an 87-year-old patient presenting with a large acute right-sided subdural hematoma successfully evacuated via an endoscopic minimally invasive technique. The operative approach is outlined, and the literature on endoscopic subdural collection evacuation reviewed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evacuation of children - movement on stairs and on Horizontal Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2012-01-01

    in full scale evacuation experiments where two age groups 0-2 years and 3-6 years were analyzed separately. It was found that flow through doors, walking speeds and densities were age-dependent and differed strongly from the data in existing literature. The results showed higher walking speeds in spiral...... slower in horizontal plane than adults, however they were keen to run during the evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increased and exceeded the adults’. Since the evacuation characteristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...

  12. Effect of form of obstacle on speed of crowd evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the form of an obstacle on the time that a crowd takes to evacuate a room, using a toy model. Pedestrians are modeled as active soft matter moving toward a point with intended velocities. An obstacle is placed in front of the exit, and it has one of four shapes: a cylindrical column, a triangular prism, a quadratic prism, or a diamond prism. Numerical results indicate that the evacuation-completion time depends on the shape of the obstacle. Obstacles with a circular cylinder (C.C.) shape yield the shortest evacuation-completion time in the proposed model.

  13. The Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM: a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions are among the most awesome and powerful displays of nature's force, constituting a major natural hazard for society (a single eruption can claim thousands of lives in an instant. Consequently, assessment and management of volcanic risk have become critically important goals of modern volcanology. Over recent years, numerous tools have been developed to evaluate volcanic risk and support volcanic crisis management: probabilistic analysis of future eruptions, hazard and risk maps, event trees, etc. However, there has been little improvement in the tools that may help Civil Defense officials to prepare Emergency Plans. Here we present a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crisis: the Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM. The main objective of the VSEM software is to optimize the evacuation process of Emergency Plans during volcanic crisis. For this, the VSEM allows the simulation of an evacuation considering different strategies depending on diverse impact scenarios. VSEM is able to calculate the required time for the complete evacuation taking into account diverse evacuation scenarios (number and type of population, infrastructure, road network, etc. and to detect high-risk or "blackspots" of the road network. The program is versatile and can work at different scales, thus being capable of simulating the evacuation of small villages as well as huge cities.

  14. Method of and apparatus for use in joining tubular components and tube assemblies made thereby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    A method of joining difficult to weld materials involves the forming of a rolled joint. A particular application is the joining of zirconium alloy calandria tubes to stainless steel tube-plates in a SGHWR. (UK)

  15. Suction forces generated by passive bile bag drainage on a model of post-subdural hematoma evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenny, Steven O; Thorell, William E

    2018-05-05

    Passive drainage systems are commonly used after subdural hematoma evacuation but there is a dearth of published data regarding the suction forces created. We set out to quantify the suction forces generated by a passive drainage system. We created a model of passive drainage after subdural hematoma evacuation. We measured the maximum suction force generated with a bile bag drain for both empty drain tubing and fluid-filled drain tube causing a siphoning effect. We took measurements at varying heights of the bile bag to analyze if bile bag height changed suction forces generated. An empty bile bag with no fluid in the drainage tube connected to a rigid, fluid-filled model creates minimal suction force of 0.9 mmHg (95% CI 0.64-1.16 mmHg). When fluid fills the drain tubing, a siphoning effect is created and can generate suction forces ranging from 18.7 to 30.6 mmHg depending on the relative position of the bile bag and filled amount of the bile bag. The suction forces generated are statistically different if the bile bag is 50 cm below, level with or 50 cm above the experimental model. Passive bile bag drainage does not generate significant suction on a fluid-filled rigid model if the drain tubing is empty. If fluid fills the drain tubing then siphoning occurs and can increase the suction force of a passive bile bag drainage system to levels comparable to partially filled Jackson-Pratt bulb drainage.

  16. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  17. Vibration characteristics of tubes in a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis; Steininger, D.

    1985-01-01

    Circumferential tube cracking has occurred in the once-through steam generators used in nuclear power plants. Analyses of failed tubes indicate that a fatigue process induced by tube vibration could cause the leaks. To investigate the vibration amplitude of tube spans during reactor operation, twenty-three tube spans were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages at Three Mile Island Unit 2. To aid in the interpretation of the operational vibration measurements, tests were performed, in air, to determine the predominant resonant frequencies and mode shapes of selected tubes. By adapting modal analysis techniques, the two predominant response frequencies were determined for 100 randomly selected tube spans and the 23 instrumented tube spans; plus, the predominant mode shape was determined for five tube spans bounded by the tube sheet and the fifteenth support plate and one tube span bounded by the ninth and tenth support plate. The average value for the first and second predominant response frequency was 65 Hz and 170 Hz, respectively. The predominant frequencies for the individual tube spans are distributed randomly with no spatial orientation. The first predominant mode shape for the six tube spans tested corresponded to a classical beam with elastic supports. The equivalent stiffness of the elastic supports depend upon the tube span tested

  18. Finite element analysis of a solar collector plate using two plate geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Manuel Medina Carril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of an absorber plate in a solar collector is investigated using finite element analysis. The thermal behavior and efficiency of two absorber plate geometries are studied, using a typical solar collector with a rectangular profile as reference, and a proposed absorber plate with curved geometry. An analysis of the most important parameters involved in the design of the absorber plate was carried out, indicating that the curved geometry of the absorber plate yields an average efficiency ~25% higher than the conventional rectangular geometry. The results suggest that a curved profile made of materials such as aluminum with thermal conductivity higher than 200W/m°C, plate thickness of the order of 2-3mm and with a large density of tubes per unit area of the collector´s plate greatly benefits the thermal efficiency of the solar collector.

  19. Planning for spontaneous evacuation during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) radiological emergency preparedness program ignores the potential problem of spontaneous evacuation during a nuclear reactor accident. To show the importance of incorporating the emergency spatial behaviors of the population at risk in radiological emergency preparedness and response plans, this article presents empirical evidence that demonstrates the potential magnitude and geographic extent of spontaneous evacuation in the event of an accident at the Long Island Lighting Company's Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. The results indicate that, on the average, 39% of the population of Long Island is likely to evacuate spontaneously and thus to cast an evacuation shadow extending at least 25 miles beyond the plant. On the basis of these findings, necessary revisions to FEMA's radiological emergency preparedness program are outlined

  20. Teaching case studies on emergency evacuation : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Through the development of four Harvard Kennedy School case studies, this project explored the policy and institutional dimensions of emergency evacuation planning and implementation in two major metropolitan areas Houston and New Orleans. By pro...

  1. Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... evacuation decision-making. To accomplish this, the study provides information on the extent and severity of potential flooding from hurricanes, the associated vulnerable population, capacities of existing public shelters...

  2. Multi-hazard evacuation route and shelter planning for buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A bi-level, two-stage, binary stochastic program with equilibrium constraints, and three variants, are presented that : support the planning and design of shelters and exits, along with hallway fortification strategies and associated : evacuation pat...

  3. Coordination of IVI and transit signal priority on transit evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    During an emergency evacuation, execution time is always critical to the evacuees who are : transit dependent. Transit Signal Priority (TSP) can speed up the transit services by prioritizing : the approaching bus at a signalized intersection. With th...

  4. Evacuation decision-making at three mile island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, Donald. J.; Johnson, James. H.

    1987-01-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in 1979 provoked an unanticipated and unprecedented spontaneous evacuation of people living in the area. Following the accident, revised and upgraded emergency preparedness and response regulations were issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. (FEMA). This includes the assumption that public education and awareness will minimise the tendency of people to evacuate spontaneously from the vicinity of an accident. This assumption is challenged. Results of an empirical test of a casual model of emergency evacuation decision-making are given. This test was devised to aid understanding of the public behaviour at the time of the Three Mile Island incident. The emergency plans for the Sizewell-B reactor are subject to brief critical consideration. It is concluded that evacuation plans need to reflect people's natural inclinations to move away from a nuclear hazard. (UK)

  5. Vesicovaginal fistula complicating uterine evacuation: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesicovaginal fistula complicating uterine evacuation: a case report. MA Ijaiya, AP Aboyeji, GA Fawole, AAG Jimoh, OO Alabi, AO Olarinoye, OL Akintade, OK Ogah, DNC Nwachukwu, OA Alabi, SA Esuga, ZB Ijaiya ...

  6. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer...... parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod...... and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h...

  7. Evacuation emergency response model coupling atmospheric release advisory capability output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.C.; Lawver, B.S.; Buckley, D.W.; Finn, S.P.; Swenson, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) sponsored project to develop a coupled set of models between those of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system and candidate evacuation models is discussed herein. This report describes the ARAC system and discusses the rapid computer code developed and the coupling with ARAC output. The computer code is adapted to the use of color graphics as a means to display and convey the dynamics of an emergency evacuation. The model is applied to a specific case of an emergency evacuation of individuals surrounding the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant, located approximately 25 miles southeast of Sacramento, California. The graphics available to the model user for the Rancho Seco example are displayed and noted in detail. Suggestions for future, potential improvements to the emergency evacuation model are presented

  8. Study of evacuation times based on recent accident history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    A key parameter in the calculation of accident dose-risks by the RADTRAN 4 code is the time assigned for evacuation of the affected area surrounding the accident. Currently, in the interest of assured conservatism, this time is set at 24 hrs. Casual anecdotal evidence has indicated that this value is overly conservative and results in assignment of overly conservative estimates of accident dose-risk. Therefore, a survey of recent truck accidents involving various hazardous materials which required evacuation of surrounding populations reported in various news media was undertaken. Accounts of pertinent scenarios were gleaned from databases citing newspapers and other periodicals, and the local authorities involved in each were contacted to get details of the evacuation including time required. This paper presents the data obtained in the study and the resultant mean evacuation time plus limits and factors influencing specific results together with conclusions regarding the appropriate value to be used in the RADTRAN 4 code

  9. Analysis of community tsunami evacuation time: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunarto, Y.; Sari, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Tsunami in Indonesia is defined as local tsunami due to its occurrences which are within a distance of 200 km from the epicenter of the earthquake. A local tsunami can be caused by an earthquake, landslide, or volcanic eruption. Tsunami arrival time in Indonesia is generally between 10-60 minutes. As the estimated time of the tsunami waves to reach the coast is 30 minutes after the earthquake, the community should go to the vertical or horizontal evacuation in less than 30 minutes. In an evacuation, the city frequently does the evacuation after obtaining official directions from the authorities. Otherwise, they perform an independent evacuation without correct instructions from the authorities. Both of these ways have several strengths and limitations. This study analyzes these methods regarding time as well as the number of people expected to be saved.

  10. The effect of meal size on gastric evacuation in whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1998-01-01

    Gastric evacuation experiments were performed on whiting Merlangius merlangus fed discrete meals of different sizes. Herring Clupea harengus, sandeel Ammodytes tobianus, common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and brown shrimp Crangon crangon were tested as prey. A simple power model to describe...

  11. Empirical study on social groups in pedestrian evacuation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krüchten, Cornelia; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Pedestrian crowds often include social groups, i.e. pedestrians that walk together because of social relationships. They show characteristic configurations and influence the dynamics of the entire crowd. In order to investigate the impact of social groups on evacuations we performed an empirical study with pupils. Several evacuation runs with groups of different sizes and different interactions were performed. New group parameters are introduced which allow to describe the dynamics of the groups and the configuration of the group members quantitatively. The analysis shows a possible decrease of evacuation times for large groups due to self-ordering effects. Social groups can be approximated as ellipses that orientate along their direction of motion. Furthermore, explicitly cooperative behaviour among group members leads to a stronger aggregation of group members and an intermittent way of evacuation.

  12. Study of Evacuation Behavior of Coastal Gulf of Mexico Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Sanjoy; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the link between hurricane characteristics, demographics of the Coastal Gulf of Mexico residents, including their household location, and their respective evacuation behavior. Our study is significantly different from the previously made studies on hurricane evacuation behavior in two ways. At first, the research data is collected through recording responses to a series of hypothetical situations which are quite identical to the set of information that people are...

  13. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  14. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  15. Dual effects of pedestrian density on emergency evacuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yi, E-mail: yima23-c@my.cityu.edu.hk [School of Transportation and Logistics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-05

    This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic. - Highlights: • Pedestrian density inside buildings has dual effects on evacuation. • Increased pedestrian density has a negative effect in cases of increased visibility. • Increased pedestrian density has a positive effect in cases of decreased visibility.

  16. Evacuation decision-making at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, D.J.; Johnson, J.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    During the emergency at the Three Mile Island generating station in the United States, evacuation became a common adaptive response among the local population. The planning for nuclear emergencies in the US has proceeded as if there were no significant differences between nuclear and other types of disasters requiring evacuation. In the United Kingdom, emergency planning for a new generation of pressurized water reactors, about which there is legitimate safety concern, has been influenced not at all by the experience with the Three Mile Island PWR in 1979. The TMI accident has been the US's most serious experience with a nuclear plant accident and therefore is an appropriate analogy for predicting the evacuation response to future nuclear emergencies. In this light, the authors accept the need to develop models that will enable them to predict the magnitude of the evacuation shadow phenomenon around other nuclear power sites and estimate its impact on our plans to remove the threatened population from the hazard zone in the minimum amount of time. Rather than depend on education and information control to stifle evacuation response, the authors believe that evacuation plans need to build on people's natural behavioural inclinations to protect themselves in response to the nuclear hazard

  17. Tsunami evacuation mathematical model for the city of Padang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusdiantara, R.; Hadianti, R.; Badri Kusuma, M. S.; Soewono, E.

    2012-01-01

    Tsunami is a series of wave trains which travels with high speed on the sea surface. This traveling wave is caused by the displacement of a large volume of water after the occurrence of an underwater earthquake or volcano eruptions. The speed of tsunami decreases when it reaches the sea shore along with the increase of its amplitudes. Two large tsunamis had occurred in the last decades in Indonesia with huge casualties and large damages. Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System has been installed along the west coast of Sumatra. This early warning system will give about 10-15 minutes to evacuate people from high risk regions to the safe areas. Here in this paper, a mathematical model for Tsunami evacuation is presented with the city of Padang as a study case. In the model, the safe areas are chosen from the existing and selected high rise buildings, low risk region with relatively high altitude and (proposed to be built) a flyover ring road. Each gathering points are located in the radius of approximately 1 km from the ring road. The model is formulated as an optimization problem with the total normalized evacuation time as the objective function. The constraints consist of maximum allowable evacuation time in each route, maximum capacity of each safe area, and the number of people to be evacuated. The optimization problem is solved numerically using linear programming method with Matlab. Numerical results are shown for various evacuation scenarios for the city of Padang.

  18. Dual effects of pedestrian density on emergency evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic. - Highlights: • Pedestrian density inside buildings has dual effects on evacuation. • Increased pedestrian density has a negative effect in cases of increased visibility. • Increased pedestrian density has a positive effect in cases of decreased visibility.

  19. Multi-objective evacuation routing optimization for toxic cloud releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Wen-mei; Deng, Yun-feng; Jiang, Zhong-an; Li, Jing; Du, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a model for assessing the risks associated with the evacuation process in response to potential chemical accidents, based on which a multi-objective evacuation routing model for toxic cloud releases is proposed taking into account that the travel speed on each arc will be affected by disaster extension. The objectives of the evacuation routing model are to minimize travel time and individual evacuation risk along a path respectively. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the multi-objective evacuation routing model. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of the model and algorithms presented in this paper. And, the methodology with appropriate modification is suitable for supporting decisions in assessing emergency route selection in other cases (fires, nuclear accidents). - Highlights: • A model for assessing and visualizing the risks is developed. • A multi-objective evacuation routing model is proposed for toxic cloud releases. • A modified Dijkstra algorithm is designed to obtain an solution of the model. • Two heuristic algorithms have been developed as the optimization tool.

  20. Tsunami evacuation mathematical model for the city of Padang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusdiantara, R.; Hadianti, R.; Badri Kusuma, M. S.; Soewono, E. [Department of Mathematics Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Department of Civil Engineering Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Department of Mathematics Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-05-22

    Tsunami is a series of wave trains which travels with high speed on the sea surface. This traveling wave is caused by the displacement of a large volume of water after the occurrence of an underwater earthquake or volcano eruptions. The speed of tsunami decreases when it reaches the sea shore along with the increase of its amplitudes. Two large tsunamis had occurred in the last decades in Indonesia with huge casualties and large damages. Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System has been installed along the west coast of Sumatra. This early warning system will give about 10-15 minutes to evacuate people from high risk regions to the safe areas. Here in this paper, a mathematical model for Tsunami evacuation is presented with the city of Padang as a study case. In the model, the safe areas are chosen from the existing and selected high rise buildings, low risk region with relatively high altitude and (proposed to be built) a flyover ring road. Each gathering points are located in the radius of approximately 1 km from the ring road. The model is formulated as an optimization problem with the total normalized evacuation time as the objective function. The constraints consist of maximum allowable evacuation time in each route, maximum capacity of each safe area, and the number of people to be evacuated. The optimization problem is solved numerically using linear programming method with Matlab. Numerical results are shown for various evacuation scenarios for the city of Padang.

  1. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  3. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  4. Tube-support response to tube-denting evaluation. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.L.; Hall, J.F.; Shah, P.K.; Wills, R.L.

    1983-05-01

    The response of the tube supports is one of the important considerations of tube denting in a steam generator. Investigations have indicated that damaged tube supports have the potential to distort and damage tubes. This investigation considers the response to tube denting of the Combustion Engineering type tube supports. Drilled support plates and eggcrate tube supports are tested in a model steam generator in which tube denting is induced. The experimental data is used to verify and refine analytical predictor models developed using finite element techniques. It was found that analytical models underpredicted the deformations of the tube supports and appropriate modifications to enhance the predictive capability are identified. Non-destructive examination methods are evaluated for application to operating steam generators. It was found that the standard eddy current and profilometry techniques are acceptable methods for determining tube deformations, but these techniques are not adequate to assess tube support damage. Radiography is judged to be the best available means of determining the extent and progression of damage in tube supports

  5. Process and device for locating a defective tube, particularly in the tube bundle of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for locating a defective tube, particularly in the tube bundle of a steam generator of the reversed U tube kind with the ends connected to a tube plate, marking with the bottom of the generator casing a space separated into two adjacent collectors, respectively for the inlet and outlet of a primary fluid flowing inside the tubes of the bundle, these being externally washed by a secondary vaporizing fluid. In this process a television camera that can be inserted into the casing is used. This process consists in transmitting to a display system outside the generator an image of the tube plate in each collector by means of a directional television camera and then to place over this image a luminous marker to locate the end or the faulty tube [fr

  6. Micro manometer and pitot tube for measuring the velocity distribution in a natural convection water stream between two vertical parallel plates (1961); Micromano metre et tube de pitot destines a l'exploration du profil de vitesse dans un ecoulement d'eau de convection naturelle entre deux plaques verticales paralleles (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santon, L; Vernier, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    For heat transfer studies in certain cases of cooling in swimming-pool type nuclear reactors, a knowledge of the distribution of the velocities between two heating elements is of prime importance. A Pitot tube and a micro-manometer have been developed for making these measurements on an experimental model. (authors) [French] Pour l'etude du transfert de chaleur dans certains cas de refroidissement des reacteurs nucleaires du type piscine, la connaissance de la repartition des vitesses entre deux elements chauffants est primordiale. On a mis au point un tube de Pitot et un micromanometre pour effectuer ces mesures sur une maquette experimentale. (auteurs)

  7. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support.

  8. Comparing the mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin agar plating method with the three-tube most-probable-number method for enumeration of Bacillus cereus spores in raw and high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nigel M; Getty, Kelly J K; Schmidt, Karen A; Nutsch, Abbey L; Linton, Richard H

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual recommends two enumeration methods for Bacillus cereus: (i) standard plate count method with mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin (MYP) agar and (ii) a most-probable-number (MPN) method with tryptic soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 0.1% polymyxin sulfate. This study compared the effectiveness of MYP and MPN methods for detecting and enumerating B. cereus in raw and high-temperature, short-time pasteurized skim (0.5%), 2%, and whole (3.5%) bovine milk stored at 4°C for 96 h. Each milk sample was inoculated with B. cereus EZ-Spores and sampled at 0, 48, and 96 h after inoculation. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in B. cereus populations among sampling times for all milk types, so data were pooled to obtain overall mean values for each treatment. The overall B. cereus population mean of pooled sampling times for the MPN method (2.59 log CFU/ml) was greater (P milk samples ranged from 2.36 to 3.46 and 2.66 to 3.58 log CFU/ml for inoculated milk treatments for the MYP plate count and MPN methods, respectively, which is below the level necessary for toxin production. The MPN method recovered more B. cereus, which makes it useful for validation research. However, the MYP plate count method for enumeration of B. cereus also had advantages, including its ease of use and faster time to results (2 versus 5 days for MPN).

  9. Stress analysis of pressurized water reactor steam generator tube denting phenomena. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cipolla, R.C.; Ranjan, G.V.; Derbalian, G.

    1978-07-01

    In some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) steam generators, a corrosion product has formed on the carbon steel support plate in the crevice between the tube and support plate. The corrosion product occupies more volume than the original metal; the tube-to-support plate crevice volume is thus consumed with corrosion product, and further corrosive action results in a radially inward force on the tube and a radially outward force on the corroding support plate. This has resulted in indentation (''denting'') of the tube, accompanied by occasional cracking. Large in-plane deformation and cracking of support plates has also been observed in the most severely affected plants along with some serious side effects, such as deformation and cracking of inner row tube U-bends caused by support plate movement. Mechanical aspects of the tube denting phenomena have been studied using analytical models. The models used ranged from closed form analytical solutions to state-of-the-art numerical elastic-plastic computer program for moderate strains. It was found that tube dents, such as those observed in operating steam generators, are associated with yielding of both the tubes and support plates. Also studied were the stresses in tube U-bends caused by support plate flow slot deformation

  10. Social influence on evacuation behavior in real and virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kinateder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is a promising tool to study evacuation behavior as it allows experimentally controlled, safe simulation of otherwise dangerous situations. However, validation studies comparing evacuation behavior in real and virtual environments are still scarce. We compare the decision to evacuate in response to a fire alarm in matched physical and virtual environments. 150 participants were tested individually in a one-trial experiment in one of three conditions. In the Control condition, the fire alarm sounded while the participant performed a bogus perceptual matching task. In the Passive bystander condition, the participant performed the task together with a confederate who ignored the fire alarm. In the Active bystander condition, the confederate left the room when the fire alarm went off. Half of the participants in each condition experienced the scenario in the real laboratory, and the other half in a matched virtual environment with a virtual bystander, presented in a head-mounted display. The active bystander group was more likely to evacuate, and the passive bystander group less likely to evacuate, than the control group. This pattern of social influence was observed in both the real and virtual environments, although the overall response to the virtual alarm was reduced; positive influence was comparable, whereas negative influence was weaker in VR. We found no reliable gender effects for the participant or the bystander. These findings extend the bystander effect to the decision to evacuate, revealing a positive as well as the previous negative social influence. The results support the ecological validity of VR as a research tool to study evacuation behavior in emergency situations, with the caveat that effect sizes may be smaller in VR.

  11. Agent-based Modeling with MATSim for Hazards Evacuation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Henry, K.; Peters, J.; Wood, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard evacuation planning requires robust modeling tools and techniques, such as least cost distance or agent-based modeling, to gain an understanding of a community's potential to reach safety before event (e.g. tsunami) arrival. Least cost distance modeling provides a static view of the evacuation landscape with an estimate of travel times to safety from each location in the hazard space. With this information, practitioners can assess a community's overall ability for timely evacuation. More information may be needed if evacuee congestion creates bottlenecks in the flow patterns. Dynamic movement patterns are best explored with agent-based models that simulate movement of and interaction between individual agents as evacuees through the hazard space, reacting to potential congestion areas along the evacuation route. The multi-agent transport simulation model MATSim is an agent-based modeling framework that can be applied to hazard evacuation planning. Developed jointly by universities in Switzerland and Germany, MATSim is open-source software written in Java and freely available for modification or enhancement. We successfully used MATSim to illustrate tsunami evacuation challenges in two island communities in California, USA, that are impacted by limited escape routes. However, working with MATSim's data preparation, simulation, and visualization modules in an integrated development environment requires a significant investment of time to develop the software expertise to link the modules and run a simulation. To facilitate our evacuation research, we packaged the MATSim modules into a single application tailored to the needs of the hazards community. By exposing the modeling parameters of interest to researchers in an intuitive user interface and hiding the software complexities, we bring agent-based modeling closer to practitioners and provide access to the powerful visual and analytic information that this modeling can provide.

  12. Implementation Of Haversine Formula And Best First Search Method In Searching Of Tsunami Evacuation Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisya; Yoga Swara, Ganda

    2017-12-01

    Padang is one of the cities prone to earthquake disaster with tsunami due to its position at the meeting of two active plates, this is, a source of potentially powerful earthquake and tsunami. Central government and most offices are located in the red zone (vulnerable areas), it will also affect the evacuation of the population during the earthquake and tsunami disaster. In this study, researchers produced a system of search nearest shelter using best-first-search method. This method uses the heuristic function, the amount of cost taken and the estimated value or travel time, path length and population density. To calculate the length of the path, researchers used method of haversine formula. The value obtained from the calculation process is implemented on a web-based system. Some alternative paths and some of the closest shelters will be displayed in the system.

  13. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  14. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  15. Resident perception of volcanic hazards and evacuation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Bird

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Katla volcano, located beneath the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland, is capable of producing catastrophic jökulhlaup. The Icelandic Civil Protection (ICP, in conjunction with scientists, local police and emergency managers, developed mitigation strategies for possible jökulhlaup produced during future Katla eruptions. These strategies were tested during a full-scale evacuation exercise in March 2006. A positive public response during a volcanic crisis not only depends upon the public's knowledge of the evacuation plan but also their knowledge and perception of the possible hazards. To improve the effectiveness of residents' compliance with warning and evacuation messages it is important that emergency management officials understand how the public interpret their situation in relation to volcanic hazards and their potential response during a crisis and apply this information to the ongoing development of risk mitigation strategies. We adopted a mixed methods approach in order to gain a broad understanding of residents' knowledge and perception of the Katla volcano in general, jökulhlaup hazards specifically and the regional emergency evacuation plan. This entailed field observations during the major evacuation exercise, interviews with key emergency management officials and questionnaire survey interviews with local residents. Our survey shows that despite living within the hazard zone, many residents do not perceive that their homes could be affected by a jökulhlaup, and many participants who perceive that their homes are safe, stated that they would not evacuate if an evacuation warning was issued. Alarmingly, most participants did not receive an evacuation message during the exercise. However, the majority of participants who took part in the exercise were positive about its implementation. This assessment of resident knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards and the evacuation plan is the first of its kind in

  16. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  17. Dual effects of pedestrian density on emergency evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic.

  18. Pedestrian evacuation at the subway station under fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao; Xu-Bin, Sun

    2016-04-01

    With the development of urban rail transit, ensuring the safe evacuation of pedestrians at subway stations has become an important issue in the case of an emergency such as a fire. This paper chooses the platform of line 4 at the Beijing Xuanwumen subway station to study the emergency evacuation process under fire. Based on the established platform, effects of the fire dynamics, different initial pedestrian densities, and positions of fire on evacuation are investigated. According to simulation results, it is found that the fire increases the air temperature and the smoke density, and decreases pedestrians’ visibility and walking velocity. Also, there is a critical initial density at the platform if achieving a safe evacuation within the required 6 minutes. Furthermore, different positions of fire set in this paper have little difference on crowd evacuation if the fire is not large enough. The suggestions provided in this paper are helpful for the subway operators to prevent major casualties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322307 and 61233001).

  19. Evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, C.; Sørensen, J.G.; Dederichs, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of human evacuation dynamics and performance are important when designing complex buildings such as bridges and when applying performance-based codes in order to reduce the risk of exposing occupants to critical conditions in case of fire. The majority of previous studies deal....... The discussion of "equal access" is only followed slowly by the demand on "equal egress". However, the passengers on trains on bridges are rarely homogeneous mixture. At the same time equal egress is far from assured today. In this paper the evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges are considered....... The populations applied in the experiment are mixed according to a composition corresponding to the population of Denmark. The study has the following findings: the total evacuation times increase with a factor 1.5 when accounting for a mixed population comprehending a variety of age and impairments. The seating...

  20. Simulation of the shopping center 'Zona I' evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Radoje B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and the most complex tasks in human protection and human safety in objects is the projecting of the object evacuation. There are many factors that could effect on the opportune living of object such as object assignment, arrangement of rooms, arrangement of furniture, arrangement of exits, occupant speed and many other that human lives and material properties depend on. This is very important for objects with great number of humans, such as high residential objects, shopping centers, schools, hospitals etc. This paper has written to show the possible evacuation situations and calculate minimal time for evacuation in case of the shopping center 'Zona I' in Niš.

  1. Effectiveness and risks associated with sheltering and evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, A.; McKenna, T.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have assessed the risks and benefits associated with evacuation and sheltering following a severe reactor accident. In the case of a severe accident and the associated uncertainties with the source term and containment behaviour, these assessments suggest that prompt evacuation of areas close to the plant offers the highest protection of the public against acute doses. Sheltering may be used as an alternative in special circumstances where evacuation may not be feasible. The source term associated with reactor accidents and containment failure mechanism affect the effectiveness of different protective measures. A comparison of different protective measures is made and results discussed. (Author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A generic transportation network model for the calculation of evacuation time estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Desrosiers, A.E.; Urbanik, T. II

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuation times for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies. (author)

  3. Eddy current testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, P.

    1981-01-01

    A rotating probe is described for improving the inspection of tubes and end plate in steam generators. The method allows a representation of the whole defect, consequently the observer is able to determine directly the type of defect, signal processing in-line or off-line is possible [fr

  4. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban

  5. Rising hopes for vacuum tube collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolphin, D.

    1982-06-01

    The performance, feasibility and use of vacuum tube solar collectors for domestic hot water (DHW) systems are discussed. An introduction to the design of vacuum tube collectors is presented and comparisons are made with flat plate collectors in terms of effectiveness in DHW applications and cost. The use of vacuum tube collectors is well established for high temperature use such as process heat and absorption cooling applications; there is considerable debate concerning their use in DHW and these arguments are presented. It is pointed out that the accepted standardized comparison test (ASHRAE 93-77) is apparently biased towards the flat plate collectors in direct comparisons of collector efficiencies. Recent developments among manufacturers with regard to vacuum tube collectors and their thinking (pro and con) are discussed in some detail. Breakage and other problems are pointed out although advocates look ahead to lower costs, higher efficiencies, and broader markets (particularly in DHW). It is concluded by some that flat plate collector technology has reached its peak and that vacuum tube collectors will be very prominent in the future. (MJJ)

  6. Getting out of harm's way - evacuation from tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a new mapping tool, the Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst, for use by researchers and emergency managers to estimate how long it would take for someone to travel on foot out of a tsunami-hazard zone. The ArcGIS software extension, released in September 2014, allows the user to create maps showing travel times out of hazard zones and to determine the number of people that may or may not have enough time to evacuate. The maps take into account the elevation changes and the different types of land cover that a person would encounter along the way.

  7. Sieve tube geometry in relation to phloem flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullendore, D.L.; Windt, C.W.; As, van H.; Knoblauch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sieve elements are one of the least understood cell types in plants. Translocation velocities and volume flow to supply sinks with photoassimilates greatly depend on the geometry of the microfluidic sieve tube system and especially on the anatomy of sieve plates and sieve plate pores. Several models

  8. Concave microwell plate facilitates chondrogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji-Yun; Im, Gun-Il

    2016-11-01

    To compare in vitro chondrogenesis from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells using concave microwell plates with those obtained using culture tubes. Pellets cultured in concave microwell plates had a significantly higher level of GAG per DNA content and greater proteoglycan content than those cultured in tubes at day 7 and 14. Three chondrogenic markers, SOX-9, COL2A1 and aggrecan, showed significantly higher expression in pellets cultured in concave microwell plates than those cultured in tubes at day 7 and 14. At day 21, there was not a significant difference in the expression of these markers. COL10A1, the typical hypertrophy marker, was significantly lower in concave microwell plates during the whole culture period. Runx-2, a marker of hypertrophy and osteogenesis, was significantly lower at day 7 in pellets cultured in concave microwell plates than those cultured in tubes. Concave microwell plates provide a convenient and effective tool for the study of in vitro chondrogenesis and may replace the use of propylene culture tube.

  9. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  10. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  11. 76 FR 43265 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evacuation Movement and Behavior Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evacuation Movement and Behavior Questionnaire AGENCY: National Institute of... collecting data on evacuation behavior and movement of occupants from approximately 50 high-rise building...

  12. Development of a time-dependent hurricane evacuation model for the New Orleans area : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When hurricanes threaten coastal cities, the most eff ective strategy to mitigate mortality is to evacuate the population : at risk. However, public offi cials face several transportation challenges when managing evacuations from a large city : like ...

  13. Integrating supply and demand aspects of transportation for mass evacuation under disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    This study seeks to address real-time operational needs in the context of the evacuation response problem by providing a capability to dynamically route vehicles under evacuation, thereby being responsive to the actual conditions unfolding in real-ti...

  14. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  15. A novel grid-based mesoscopic model for evacuation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Ma, Yi

    2018-05-01

    This study presents a novel grid-based mesoscopic model for evacuation dynamics. In this model, the evacuation space is discretised into larger cells than those used in microscopic models. This approach directly computes the dynamic changes crowd densities in cells over the course of an evacuation. The density flow is driven by the density-speed correlation. The computation is faster than in traditional cellular automata evacuation models which determine density by computing the movements of each pedestrian. To demonstrate the feasibility of this model, we apply it to a series of practical scenarios and conduct a parameter sensitivity study of the effect of changes in time step δ. The simulation results show that within the valid range of δ, changing δ has only a minor impact on the simulation. The model also makes it possible to directly acquire key information such as bottleneck areas from a time-varied dynamic density map, even when a relatively large time step is adopted. We use the commercial software AnyLogic to evaluate the model. The result shows that the mesoscopic model is more efficient than the microscopic model and provides more in-situ details (e.g., pedestrian movement pattern) than the macroscopic models.

  16. Nonlinear Effects in Examples of Crowd Evacuation Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Berg Thomsen, Kristian; Sørensen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents with many fatalities have occurred when too many pedestrians had to maneuver in too tight surroundings, as during evacuations of mass events. This demonstrates the importance of a better general understanding of pedestrians and emergent complex behavior in crowds. To this end, we...

  17. Integrating Decentralized Indoor Evacuation with Information Depositories in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lonelier evacuees find themselves, the riskier become their wayfinding decisions. This research supports single evacuees in a dynamically changing environment with risk-aware guidance. It deploys the concept of decentralized evacuation, where evacuees are guided by smartphones acquiring environmental knowledge and risk information via exploration and knowledge sharing by peer-to-peer communication. Peer-to-peer communication, however, relies on the chance that people come into communication range with each other. This chance can be low. To bridge between people being not at the same time at the same places, this paper suggests information depositories at strategic locations to improve information sharing. Information depositories collect the knowledge acquired by the smartphones of evacuees passing by, maintain this information, and convey it to other passing-by evacuees. Multi-agent simulation implementing these depositories in an indoor environment shows that integrating depositories improves evacuation performance: It enhances the risk awareness and consequently increases the chance that people survive and reduces their evacuation time. For evacuating dynamic events, deploying depositories at staircases has been shown more effective than deploying them in corridors.

  18. Virtual environment simulation as a tool to support evacuation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio C.; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Jorge, Carlos A.F.; Sales, Douglas S.; Couto, Pedro M.; Botelho, Felipe M.; Bastos, Felipe R.

    2007-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of the use of a free game-engine as a tool to build and to navigate in virtual environments, with a good degree of realism, for virtual simulations of evacuation from building and risk zones. To achieve this goal, some adjustments in the game engine have been implemented. A real building with four floors, consisting of some rooms with furniture and people, has been virtually implemented. Simulations of simple different evacuation scenarios have been performed, measuring the total time spent in each case. The measured times have been compared with their corresponding real evacuation times, measured in the real building. The first results have demonstrated that the virtual environment building with the free game engine is capable to reproduce the real situation with a satisfactory level. However, it is important to emphasize that such virtual simulations serve only as an aid in the planning of real evacuation simulations, and as such must never substitute the later. (author)

  19. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The

  20. Pathways toward a low cost evacuated collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.; Ogallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    The goal of widespread use of solar thermal collectors will only be achieved when they are proven to be economically superior to competing energy sources. Evacuated tubular collectors appear to have the potential to achieve this goal. An advanced evacuated collector using nonimaging concentration under development at the University of Chicago and Argonne can achieve a 50% seasonal efficiency at heat delivery temperatures in excess of 170C. The same collector has an optical efficiency so that low temperature performance is also excellent. In this advanced collector design all of the critical components are enclosed in the vacuum, and the collector has an inherently long lifetime. The current cost of evacuated systems is too high, mainly because the volume of production has been too low to realize economies of mass production. It appears that certain design features of evacuated collectors can be changed (e.g., use of heat pipe absorbers) so as to introduce new system design and market strategy options that can reduce the balance of system cost.

  1. CT guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive and traumatic intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondo, Hideki; Matsumoto, Keizo

    1983-01-01

    Recent advancement of CT system provides not only definite diagnosis and location of intracerebral hematoma but also coordinates of the center of the hematoma. Trials of stereotactic evacuation of the hematoma have been reported by some authors in the cases of subacute or chronic stages of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. In this series, similar surgery has been performed in 33 cases of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma including 22 cases in acute stage, and 2 cases of traumatic hematoma. Clinical outcomes were investigated and the results were considered to be equivalent or rather better in the conventional microsurgery with evacuation of hematoma under direct vision. However, there still remained controversial problems in the cases of threatened herniation signs, because in these cases regular surgery with total evacuation of the hematoma at one time might have been preferable. The benefits of this CT guided stereotactic approach for the evacuation of the hematoma were thought to be as follow: 1) the procedure is simple and safe, 2) operation is readily performed under local anesthesia, and 3) the hematoma was drained out totally by means of urokinase activity. It is our impression that this surgery not only is indicated as emergency treatment for the patients of high-age or in high risk, but also can institute as a routine surgery for the intracerebral hematomas in patients showing no herniation sign. (J.P.N.)

  2. Quantitative Comparison Between Crowd Models for Evacuation Planning and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viswanathan, V.; Lee, C.E.; Lees, M.H.; Cheong, S.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Crowd simulation is rapidly becoming a standard tool for evacuation planning and evaluation. However, the many crowd models in the literature are structurally different, and few have been rigorously calibrated against real-world egress data, especially in emergency situations. In this paper we

  3. Conceptualizing intragroup and intergroup dynamics within a controlled crowd evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzie, Terra; Frydenlund, Erika; Collins, Andrew J; Robinson, R Michael

    2015-01-01

    Social dynamics play a critical role in successful pedestrian evacuations. Crowd modeling research has made progress in capturing the way individual and group dynamics affect evacuations; however, few studies have simultaneously examined how individuals and groups interact with one another during egress. To address this gap, the researchers present a conceptual agent-based model (ABM) designed to study the ways in which autonomous, heterogeneous, decision-making individuals negotiate intragroup and intergroup behavior while exiting a large venue. A key feature of this proposed model is the examination of the dynamics among and between various groupings, where heterogeneity at the individual level dynamically affects group behavior and subsequently group/group interactions. ABM provides a means of representing the important social factors that affect decision making among diverse social groups. Expanding on the 2013 work of Vizzari et al., the researchers focus specifically on social factors and decision making at the individual/group and group/group levels to more realistically portray dynamic crowd systems during a pedestrian evacuation. By developing a model with individual, intragroup, and intergroup interactions, the ABM provides a more representative approximation of real-world crowd egress. The simulation will enable more informed planning by disaster managers, emergency planners, and other decision makers. This pedestrian behavioral concept is one piece of a larger simulation model. Future research will build toward an integrated model capturing decision-making interactions between pedestrians and vehicles that affect evacuation outcomes.

  4. A heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiwei; Chen, Jianqiao; Zheng, Yaochen; Wei, Junhong

    2012-02-01

    Based on the cellular automata method (CA model) and the mobile lattice gas model (MLG model), we have developed a heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation processes in an emergency. A local population density concept is introduced first. The update rule in the new model depends on the local population density and the exit crowded degree factor. The drift D, which is one of the key parameters influencing the evacuation process, is allowed to change according to the local population density of the pedestrians. Interactions including attraction, repulsion, and friction between every two pedestrians and those between a pedestrian and the building wall are described by a nonlinear function of the corresponding distance, and the repulsion forces increase sharply as the distances get small. A critical force of injury is introduced into the model, and its effects on the evacuation process are investigated. The model proposed has heterogeneous features as compared to the MLG model or the basic CA model. Numerical examples show that the model proposed can capture the basic features of pedestrian evacuation, such as clogging and arching phenomena.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 25 - Emergency Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. J Appendix J to Part 25—Emergency Evacuation...-candles prior to the activation of the airplane emergency lighting system. The source(s) of the initial... airplane emergency lighting system. (b) The airplane must be in a normal attitude with landing gear...

  6. Nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes (kiss sleeving process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, B.

    1988-01-01

    This process, the nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes, has been jointly developed under a Belgatom (Laborelec) and Framatome agreement with shared experience gained by both companies, industrial applications being under the responsibility of Framatome. Application of the coating in zones where residual stresses or cracks are present prevents contact between the primary water and the tube, which stops the stress corrosion process. In the Doel 2 plant, 91 tubes have been plated since 1985, and different sets of parameters have been used for comparison purposes. Among these tubes, 9 have been preventively plugged because of defective plating, 9 have been pulled out for laboratory examinations, 2 just after plating and 7 after 1 or 2 yr of service. There are 73 plated tubes still in service. From the tests that were performed, it was possible to select an optimized set of parameters guaranteeing the following properties: bridging of existing cracks and good behavior of the coating in relevant zones, good adhesion to the Inconel tube, high ductility, low residual stresses, thermal shock resistance, corrosion resistance, erosion resistance, and low cobalt content. The licensability of this process is being completed. It is based first on the leak-before-break concept to determine the characteristics of the nickel plating, thickness in particular, and second on the inspectability of ultrasonic testing methods

  7. Evacuation and Sheltering of Hospitals in Emergencies: A Review of International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bagaria, Jayshree; Heggie, Caroline; Abrahams, Jonathan; Murray, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A scoping exercise to establish how common hospital evacuations are, identify hospital evacuation policies and review case studies to identify trig-gers, processes and challenges involved in the evacuation of hospitals globally. Design: A systematic search of PubMed and disaster agency online resources, search of grey literature and media reports. Results: This study showed that hospitals are vulnerable to both natural and man made disasters and that hospital evacuations d...

  8. Evacuation of Hospitals during Disaster, Establishment of a Field Hospital, and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Erdal; Bayramoglu, Atif; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Cakir, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    The buildings, working personnel, and patients and their relatives may directly or indirectly be affected by the disasters. Here we will discuss evacuation, establishing a field hospital, communication, the role of the media in disasters, and defending against sabotage. The affected individuals should be evacuated and transferred to secure zones safely and rapidly. How the decision for evacuation should be made and how the evacuation triage should be performed are important issues. Field hosp...

  9. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  10. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  11. Process to repair a steam generator tube by inserting a tubular sleeve and the associated sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The tubular sleeve is introduced in the tube and is mechanically expanded inside the tube plate, and is diametrally expanded at its upper part within the tube and outside the tube plate. Tightness is ensured by brazing the end part of the sleeve within the tube. The end part of the sleeve is brazed by melting of brazing metal previously applied to the outer surface of the sleeve of its end region. The invention applies more particularly to steam generators of pressurized water nuclear reactors [fr

  12. Natural convection heat transfer from a vertical circular tube sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharne, S.P.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine natural convection heat transfer coefficients (a) on a plain vertical circular plate, and (b) on a similar plate with a square array of non-conducting tubes fixed in it. The experiments were carried out using air as the heat transfer medium. The diameter of the brass plates used was 350 mm. The diameter of the bakelite tubes used was 19.2 mm. The range of Rayleigh numbers was from 1.06x10 8 to 1.66x10 8 . The results show that the heat transfer coefficients in case (a) are very close to those obtained using standard correlations for vertical flat plates, whereas for case (b) the heat transfer coefficients are at least 50 percent higher than those predicted by the Churchill-Chu correlation. It is hence concluded that the disturbance to boundary layer caused by the presence of tubes enhances the heat transfer coefficient significantly. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. Variable population exposure and distributed travel speeds in least-cost tsunami evacuation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart A.; Wood, Nathan J.; Johnston, David A.; Leonard, Graham S.; Greening, Paul D.; Rossetto, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Evacuation of the population from a tsunami hazard zone is vital to reduce life-loss due to inundation. Geospatial least-cost distance modelling provides one approach to assessing tsunami evacuation potential. Previous models have generally used two static exposure scenarios and fixed travel speeds to represent population movement. Some analyses have assumed immediate departure or a common evacuation departure time for all exposed population. Here, a method is proposed to incorporate time-variable exposure, distributed travel speeds, and uncertain evacuation departure time into an existing anisotropic least-cost path distance framework. The method is demonstrated for hypothetical local-source tsunami evacuation in Napier City, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. There is significant diurnal variation in pedestrian evacuation potential at the suburb level, although the total number of people unable to evacuate is stable across all scenarios. Whilst some fixed travel speeds approximate a distributed speed approach, others may overestimate evacuation potential. The impact of evacuation departure time is a significant contributor to total evacuation time. This method improves least-cost modelling of evacuation dynamics for evacuation planning, casualty modelling, and development of emergency response training scenarios. However, it requires detailed exposure data, which may preclude its use in many situations.

  14. The effects of meal size, body size and temperature on gastric evacuation in pikeperch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koed, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Prey size had no effect on the gastric evacuation rate of pikeperch Stizostedion lucioperca. The gastric evacuation was adequately described applying an exponent of 0.5 in the power model. Applying length instead of weight of pikeperch in the gastric evacuation model resulted in a change of estim...

  15. Modeling hurricane evacuation traffic : testing the gravity and intervening opportunity models as models of destination choice in hurricane evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The test was conducted by estimating the models on a portion of evacuation data from South Carolina following Hurricane Floyd, and then observing how well the models reproduced destination choice at the county level on the remaining data. The tests s...

  16. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A Generic Transportation Network Model for the Calculation of Evacuation Time Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Desrosiers, A. E.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuatlon tlmes for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies.

  17. Intermediate heat exchanger tube vibration induced by cross and parallel mixed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Koji

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of pool type LMFBR intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) tube vibrations induced by cross and parallel mixed flow were basically investigated. Secondary coolant in IHX tube bundle is mixed flow of parallel jit flow along the tube axis through flow holes in baffle plates and cross flow. By changing these two flow rate, flow distributions vary in the tube bundle. Mixed flow also induces vibrations which cause fretting wear and fatigue of tube. It is therefore very important to evaluate the tube vibration characteristics for estimating the tube integrity. The results show that the relationships between tube vibrations and flow distributions in the tube bundle were cleared, and mixed flow induced tube vibration could be evaluated on the base of the characteristics of both parallel and cross flow induced vibration. From these investigations it could be concluded that the characteristics of tube vibration for various flow distributions can be systematically evaluated. (author)

  18. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  19. Experiment and CFD simulation of exhaust tube in highvoltage circuit breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiangyang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In a high-voltage circuit breaker, the exhaust tube connects the arc zone with the exhaust volume. During the arc interruption process, the exhaust tube transports the hot gas from the arc interruption zone to the exhaust volume through its distributed holes. The design of a high performance exhaust tube in the circuit breaker development aims for well controlled hot gas evacuation mass flow and pressure waves. In this paper, the exhaust tube behaviour is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. To verify the CFD simulation, a basic experimental study with pressure measurements at different positions of the exhaust tube is performed. Further, the design parameters influencing the exhaust tube behaviour and circuit breaker performance are investigated and discussed.

  20. Feasibility Study on the Use of a Solar Thermoelectric Cogenerator Comprising a Thermoelectric Module and Evacuated Tubular Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L.; Zhang, M.; Tanemura, S.; Tanaka, T.; Kang, Y. P.; Xu, G.

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a new solar thermoelectric cogeneration system consisting of an evacuated tubular solar collector (ETSC) with a parabolic trough concentrator (PTC) and thermoelectric modules (TEMs) to supply both thermal energy and electricity. The main design concepts are (1) the hot side of the TEM is bonded to the solar selective absorber installed in an evacuated glass tube, (2) the cold side of the TEM is also bonded to the heat sink, and (3) the outer circulated water is heated by residual solar energy after TEM generation. We present an example solar thermal simulation based on energy balance and heat transfer as used in solar engineering to predict the electrical conversion efficiency and solar thermal conversion efficiency for different values of parameters such as the solar insolation, concentration ratio, and TEM ZT values.

  1. The role of repairing lung lacerations during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery evacuations for retained haemothorax caused by blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yi-Pin; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Soo, Kwan-Ming; Tarng, Yih-Wen; Chiang, Hsin-I; Huang, Fong-Dee; Lin, Hsing-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Retained haemothorax and pneumothorax are the most common complications after blunt chest traumas. Lung lacerations derived from fractures of the ribs are usually found in these patients. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is usually used as a routine procedure in the treatment of retained pleural collections. The objective of this study was to find out if there is any advantage in adding the procedure for repairing lacerated lungs during VATS. Patients who were brought to our hospital with blunt chest trauma were enrolled into this prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2011. All enrolled patients had rib fractures with type III lung lacerations diagnosed by CT scans. They sustained retained pleural collections and surgical drainage was indicated. On one group, only evacuation procedure by VATS was performed. On the other group, not only evacuations but also repair of lung injuries were performed. Patients with penetrating injury or blunt injury with massive bleeding, that required emergency thoracotomy, were excluded from the study, in addition to those with cardiovascular or oesophageal injuries. During the study period, 88 patients who underwent thoracoscopy were enrolled. Among them, 43 patients undergoing the simple thoracoscopic evacuation method were stratified into Group 1. The remaining 45 patients who underwent thoracoscopic evacuation combined with resection of lung lacerations were stratified into Group 2. The rates of post-traumatic infection were higher in Group 1. The durations of chest-tube drainage and ventilator usage were shorter in Group 2, as were the lengths of patient intensive care unit stay and hospital stay. When compared with simple thoracoscopic evacuation methods, repair and resection of the injured lungs combined may result in better clinical outcomes in patients who sustained blunt chest injuries. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  2. Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, C. S.; Andersen, N. G.; Audet, C.

    2013-01-01

    species, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus, and the crab Chionoecetes opilio, were evacuated from the stomach at different rates. The duration of all stages increased with increasing ash (and carbonate) content of the fresh prey. Thickness, chemical composition and morphology...... of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially...

  3. How safe is defect specific maintenance of steam generator tubes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorsek, T.; Cizelj, L.

    1995-01-01

    Outside diameter stress corrosion cracking at the tube to tube support plate intersections is assessed in the paper. The impact of defect specific maintenance on steam generator operation safety and reliability was investigated. This was performed by comparing efficiencies of defect specific and traditional maintenance strategy. The efficiency was studied through expected primary-to-secondary leak rate and tube rupture probability in a case of postulated accidental operating conditions, and number of tubes which shall be plugged using both maintenance strategies. In general, the efficiency of specific maintenance is function of particular steam generator and operating cycle. (author)

  4. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  5. A study on evacuation time from lecture halls in Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, W. N. A. W.; Tohir, M. Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    An evacuation situation in any building involves many risks. The geometry of building and high potential of occupant load may affect the efficiency of evacuation process. Although fire safety rules and regulations exist, they remain insufficient to guarantee the safety of all building occupants and do not prevent the dramatic events to be repeated. The main objective of this project is to investigate the relationship between the movement time, travel speed and occupant density during a series of evacuation drills specifically for lecture halls. Generally, this study emphasizes on the movement of crowd within a limited space and includes the aspects of human behaviour. A series of trial evacuations were conducted in selected lecture halls at Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the aim of collecting actual data for numerical analysis. The numerical data obtained during trial evacuations were used to determine the evacuation time, crowd movement and behaviour during evacuation process particularly for lecture halls. The evacuation time and number of occupants exiting from each exit were recorded. Video camera was used to record and observe the movement behaviour of occupants during evacuations. EvacuatioNZ was used to simulate the trials evacuations of DK 5 and the results predicted were compared with experimental data. EvacuatioNZ was also used to predict the evacuation time and the flow of occupants exiting from each door for DK 4 and DK 8.

  6. Optimization-based decision support to assist in logistics planning for hospital evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Roger; Bish, Douglas R; Agca, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The evacuation of the hospital is a very complex process and evacuation planning is an important part of a hospital's emergency management plan. There are numerous factors that affect the evacuation plan including the nature of threat, availability of resources and staff the characteristics of the evacuee population, and risk to patients and staff. The safety and health of patients is of fundamental importance, but safely moving patients to alternative care facilities while under threat is a very challenging task. This article describes the logistical issues and complexities involved in planning and execution of hospital evacuations. Furthermore, this article provides examples of how optimization-based decision support tools can help evacuation planners to better plan for complex evacuations by providing real-world solutions to various evacuation scenarios.

  7. Reflection on Lessons Learned: An Analysis of the Adverse Outcomes Observed During the Hurricane Rita Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karen

    2018-02-01

    In September 2005, nearly 3.7 million people evacuated the Texas coastline in advance of Hurricane Rita's landfall, making the event the largest emergency evacuation in US history. The Rita evacuation underscored the importance of planning for domestic mass-evacuation events, as the evacuation itself led to over 100 of the at least 119 deaths attributed to the storm. In the days preceding Rita's landfall, several cascading, interrelated circumstances precipitated such adverse outcomes. This article explores the series of events leading up to the evacuation's poor outcomes, the response following Rita to amend evacuation plans, and how Texas successfully implemented these changes during later storms to achieve better outcomes. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:115-120).

  8. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  9. Should evacuation standards be reviewed after a nuclear accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-10-01

    The author comments the current practices of post-accident management of nuclear disasters. He outlines the peculiarities of nuclear evacuations with respect to other disasters. After referring to the use of life expectancy or of the reduction of life expectancy, for example for smokers, he suggests that irradiation could be expressed this way and then provide some intuitive information. He discusses the notion of linear no-threshold relationship which has been introduced by the ICRP after analysis of cancers noticed on survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He addresses the case of Fukushima, the issue of low doses applied to large populations. He discusses the limitations of the linear no-threshold relationship. He discusses possible improvements of evacuation procedures

  10. Theoretical predictions for glass flow into an evacuated canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routt, K.R.; Crow, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste currently stored at the Savannah River Plant in liquid form is to be immobilized by incorporating it into a borosilicate glass. The glass melter for this process will consist of a refractory lined, steel vessel operated at a glass temperature of 1150 0 C. At the end of a two-year projected melter lifetime, the glass inside the melter is to be drained prior to disposition of the melter vessel. One proposed technique for accomplishing this drainage is by sucking the glass into an evacuated canister. The theoretical bases for design of an evacuated canister for draining a glass melter have been developed and tested. The theoretical equations governing transient and steady-state flow were substantiated with both a silicone glass simulant and molten glass

  11. Community disruptions and business costs for distant tsunami evacuations using maximum versus scenario-based zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Wilson, Rick I.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Peters, Jeff; MacMullan, Ed; Krebs, Tessa; Shoaf, Kimberley; Miller, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Well-executed evacuations are key to minimizing loss of life from tsunamis, yet they also disrupt communities and business productivity in the process. Most coastal communities implement evacuations based on a previously delineated maximum-inundation zone that integrates zones from multiple tsunami sources. To support consistent evacuation planning that protects lives but attempts to minimize community disruptions, we explore the implications of scenario-based evacuation procedures and use the California (USA) coastline as our case study. We focus on the land in coastal communities that is in maximum-evacuation zones, but is not expected to be flooded by a tsunami generated by a Chilean earthquake scenario. Results suggest that a scenario-based evacuation could greatly reduce the number of residents and employees that would be advised to evacuate for 24–36 h (178,646 and 159,271 fewer individuals, respectively) and these reductions are concentrated primarily in three counties for this scenario. Private evacuation spending is estimated to be greater than public expenditures for operating shelters in the area of potential over-evacuations ($13 million compared to $1 million for a 1.5-day evacuation). Short-term disruption costs for businesses in the area of potential over-evacuation are approximately $122 million for a 1.5-day evacuation, with one-third of this cost associated with manufacturing, suggesting that some disruption costs may be recouped over time with increased short-term production. There are many businesses and organizations in this area that contain individuals with limited mobility or access and functional needs that may have substantial evacuation challenges. This study demonstrates and discusses the difficulties of tsunami-evacuation decision-making for relatively small to moderate events faced by emergency managers, not only in California but in coastal communities throughout the world.

  12. A spatiotemporal optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maizia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by floods, requires the development of effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to traffic network, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper: (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the developed evacuation model is applied are the Tours valley (Fr, 37), which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation), and the Gien valley (Fr, 45), which benefits from a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan, i.e., computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) according to a priority list established for this purpose. The evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a spatiotemporal optimization model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  13. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maïzia, M.; Néron, E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37) which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation) and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45) which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  14. Emergency Evacuation of Hazardous Chemical Accidents Based on Diffusion Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang-Hua Zhang; Hai-Yue Liu; Rui Zhu; Yang Liu

    2017-01-01

    The recent rapid development of information technology, such as sensing technology, communications technology, and database, allows us to use simulation experiments for analyzing serious accidents caused by hazardous chemicals. Due to the toxicity and diffusion of hazardous chemicals, these accidents often lead to not only severe consequences and economic losses, but also traffic jams at the same time. Emergency evacuation after hazardous chemical accidents is an effective means to reduce the...

  15. Assessment of Evacuation Protective Action Strategies For Emergency Preparedness Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joomyung; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwangil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This report which studies about evacuation formation suggests some considerable factors to reduce damage of radiological accidents. Additional details would be required to study in depth and more elements should be considered for updating emergency preparedness. However, this methodology with sensitivity analysis could adapt to specific plant which has total information such as geological data, weather data and population data. In this point of view the evacuation study could be contribute to set up emergency preparedness plan and propose the direction to enhance protective action strategies. In radiological emergency, residents nearby nuclear power plant should perform protective action that is suggested by emergency preparedness plan. The objective of emergency preparedness plan is that damages, such as casualties and environmental damages, due to radioactive accident should be minimized. The recent PAR study includes a number of subjects to improve the quality of protective action strategies. For enhancing protective action strategies, researches that evaluate many factors related with emergency response scenario are essential parts to update emergency preparedness plan. Evacuation is very important response action as protective action strategy.

  16. Assessment of Evacuation Protective Action Strategies For Emergency Preparedness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joomyung; Jae, Moosung; Ahn, Kwangil

    2013-01-01

    This report which studies about evacuation formation suggests some considerable factors to reduce damage of radiological accidents. Additional details would be required to study in depth and more elements should be considered for updating emergency preparedness. However, this methodology with sensitivity analysis could adapt to specific plant which has total information such as geological data, weather data and population data. In this point of view the evacuation study could be contribute to set up emergency preparedness plan and propose the direction to enhance protective action strategies. In radiological emergency, residents nearby nuclear power plant should perform protective action that is suggested by emergency preparedness plan. The objective of emergency preparedness plan is that damages, such as casualties and environmental damages, due to radioactive accident should be minimized. The recent PAR study includes a number of subjects to improve the quality of protective action strategies. For enhancing protective action strategies, researches that evaluate many factors related with emergency response scenario are essential parts to update emergency preparedness plan. Evacuation is very important response action as protective action strategy

  17. Case series: Bladder clot evacuation using a prostate morcellation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, Karen M; Navetta, Andrew F; Bird, Erin T; El Tayeb, Marawan M

    2017-07-01

    We sought to provide a technical update on the use of a prostate morcellator device (PMD) to manage organized blood clots of the bladder following laser prostatectomy. Herein, we describe our experience in using the Wolf Piranha morcellator in managing organized bladder blood clots supplemented with a retrospective chart review of the patients in whom this procedure was performed. Six patients, all male with a mean age of 75 ± 8.9 years, had organized bladder clots following either holmium laser enucleation or photoselective vaporization of the prostate managed with a PMD. Clots were recognized based on hematuria or urinary retention a median of 3.5 days following the aforementioned procedures. Initial management was attempted with more conservative measures, including a three-way Foley catheter, followed by cystoscopy with an Ellik evacuator, or a glass Tommey syringe. Morcellation times were a mean of 10.2 ± 6.15 minutes (range 2-18). This technique was able to manage clots that were an average of 173.3 ± 115.9 cc in size. The procedure was well-tolerated. No patients experienced intraoperative or morcellator-related complications. Benign prostatic hypertrophy frequently requires surgical endoscopic management and can be complicated by hematuria and bladder blood clot formation. When these clots become organized, this can lead to urinary retention and the required management, evacuation, may be difficult. The use of a Wolf Piranha PMD is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective in evacuating organized blood clots of the bladder.

  18. Pedestrians’ behavior in emergency evacuation: Modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Jie-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Jian-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Zhen; Zhang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    The social force model has been widely used to simulate pedestrian evacuation by analyzing attractive, repulsive, driving, and fluctuating forces among pedestrians. Many researchers have improved its limitations in simulating behaviors of large-scale population. This study modifies the well-accepted social force model by considering the impacts of interaction among companions and further develops a comprehensive model by combining that with a multi-exit utility function. Then numerical simulations of evacuations based on the comprehensive model are implemented in the waiting hall of the Wulin Square Subway Station in Hangzhou, China. The results provide safety thresholds of pedestrian density and panic levels in different operation situations. In spite of the operation situation and the panic level, a larger friend-group size results in lower evacuation efficiency. Our study makes important contributions to building a comprehensive multi-exit social force model and to applying it to actual scenarios, which produces data to facilitate decision making in contingency plans and emergency treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71471163).

  19. Short-time home coming project in evacuation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) forced neighboring residents to evacuate, and evacuation zone (20 km radius from NPPs) was defined as highly contaminated and designated as no-entry zones. Residents had been obliged to live a refugee life for a longer period than expected. Short-time home coming project was initiated according to their requests. They came to the meeting place called transfer place (20 - 30 km radius from NPPs), wore protective clothing and personal dosimeter with having drinking water and came home in evacuation zone with staffs by bus. Their healthcare management professionals were fully prepared for emergency. After collecting necessary articles at home within two hours, they returned to the meeting place by bus for screening and dressing, and went back to refuge house. If screening data were greater than 13 kcpm using GM counters, partial body decontamination had been conducted by wiping and if greater than 100 kcpm, whole body decontamination was requested but not conducted. Dose rate of residents and staffs was controlled less than 1 mSv, which was alarm level of personal dosimeter. Stable iodine was prepared but actually not used. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Flexible endoscope-assisted evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Májovský, Martin; Masopust, Václav; Netuka, David; Beneš, Vladimír

    2016-10-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition with an increasing incidence. Standard treatment of CSDHs is surgical evacuation. The objective of this study is to present a modification of standard burr-hole hematoma evacuation using a flexible endoscope and to assess the advantages and risks. Prospectively, 34 consecutive patients diagnosed with CSDH were included in the study. Epidemiological, clinical and radiographical data were collected and reviewed. All patients underwent a burr-hole evacuation of CSDH. A flexible endoscope was inserted and subdural space inspected during surgery. The surgeon was looking specifically for the presence of septations, draining catheter position and acute bleeding. Thirty-four patients underwent 37 endoscope-assisted surgeries. Presenting symptoms were hemiparesis (79%), decreased level of consciousness (18%), gait disturbances (15%), headache (12%), aphasia (6%), cognitive disturbances (6%) and epileptic seizure (3%). Average operative time was 43 min, and the average increase in operative time due to the use of the endoscope was 6 min. Recurrence rate was 8.8%, and clinical outcome was favorable (defined as mRS ≤ 2) in 97% of the cases. To our knowledge, the present cohort of 34 patients is the largest group of patients with CSDH treated using an endoscope. This technique allows decent visualization of the hematoma cavity while retaining the advantages of a minimally invasive approach under a local anesthesia. The main advantages are correct positioning of the catheter under visual control, identification of septations and early detection of cortex or vessel injury during surgery.

  1. Emergency Evacuation of Hazardous Chemical Accidents Based on Diffusion Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent rapid development of information technology, such as sensing technology, communications technology, and database, allows us to use simulation experiments for analyzing serious accidents caused by hazardous chemicals. Due to the toxicity and diffusion of hazardous chemicals, these accidents often lead to not only severe consequences and economic losses, but also traffic jams at the same time. Emergency evacuation after hazardous chemical accidents is an effective means to reduce the loss of life and property and to smoothly resume the transport network as soon as possible. This paper considers the dynamic changes of the hazardous chemicals’ concentration after their leakage and simulates the diffusion process. Based on the characteristics of emergency evacuation of hazardous chemical accidents, we build a mixed-integer programming model and design a heuristic algorithm using network optimization and diffusion simulation (hereafter NODS. We then verify the validity and feasibility of the algorithm using Jinan, China, as a computational example. In the end, we compare the results from different scenarios to explore the key factors affecting the effectiveness of the evacuation process.

  2. Medical Evacuation from Vietnam of an Elderly with Tuberculosis Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Shieh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth in economy in Vietnam, the infrastructure of dependable medical care is still lacking. Therefore, aeromedical evacuation of patients to other countries for further medical interventions has become an important medical service in the region. We report a case where an elderly man who was aeromedically evacuated from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam to Taipei Medical University–Municipal Wan Fang Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. The patient developed a sudden onset of quadriplegia because of an epidural abscess at the cervical spine C6–C7. Antituberculous medication was prescribed for suspected tuberculous spondylitis, because his cerebral spinal fluid showed elevated white blood cells with a predominance of lymphocytes, and mildly elevated total protein. However, whole body tumor scan (67Ga mCi and whole body bone scan (99mTc methylene diphosphonate, 25 mCi did not reveal any specific results. Surgical intervention was arranged because of cervical spine instability and the need for a diagnostic biopsy. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate was found incidentally and was treated with bilateral orchiectomy and radiation therapy. This was the first medical evacuation by the Family Medical Practice group in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam to Taiwan.

  3. Low-temperature operating regime of the tokamak evacuating limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar', M.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions for realizing the regime of strong recycling of a cold dense plasma of an evacuating limiter were determined based on a previously proposed model for describing the limiter layer of a tokamak. The scaling for the dependence of the gas pressure in the evacuation system on the average plasma density in the limiter layer was found, and agreed quantitatively with the results of measurements on the Alcator and ISX-B tokamaks. For the tokamak reactor of the INTOR scale the calculations show that the low-temperature operating regime of the evacuating limiter can be realized with a quite low pumping rate. It has the advantages of reduced erosion of the limiter and small fluxes of impurities into the working volume of the reactor. In addition, the relative concentration of the helium ash in the limiter layer does not exceed 2-3%, but the density of the main plasma is comparable to the proposed average density in the reactor. The concept of a stochastic limiter is of interest for lowering the plasma density in the limiter layer and lowering the thermal loads on the limiter

  4. Measuring and modeling behavioral decision dynamics in collective evacuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Carlson

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies.

  5. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  6. Emergency transfer tube closure and process for sealing transfer tube under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, R.T. Jr.; Marshall, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor well that includes a transfer tube projecting outwardly from wall thereof, the transfer tube is described having a first closure assembly. The transfer tube has a circumferential flange extending outwardly laterally therefrom, an emergency transfer tube closure therefor comprising; a pair of elongated, vertically-extending U-shaped guides, one U-shaped guide disposed laterally on each side of the transfer tube, each of the U-shaped guides comprising a base and laterally extending flanges thereon, the U-shaped guides having their open ends facing each other, a closure plate, having a surface facing the circumferential flange greater in area than the area circumscribed by the outer circumference of the circumferential flange, vertically disposed the U-shaped guides, the closure plate normally being disposed in a vertical plane just slightly in front of the vertical plane of the circumferential flange, two pairs of rollers, one pair of which is rotatably mounted on each side of the closure plate adjacent the U-shaped guides, riding on the inner portion of each of the flanges of each of the U-shaped guides. Each of the U-shaped guides is provided with a pair of spatially disposed openings on a flange thereof adjacent the wall of the nuclear fuel reactor well, each of the pairs of openings being disposed on each of the U-shaped guides a distance equal to the distance between the center lines of the corresponding pair of rollers riding within the U-shaped guides, each of the openings being sufficiently large to receive a corresponding roller of the pairs of rollers in the U-shaped guides. The openings is shaped on the flanges of the U-shaped guides so that when the pairs of rollers are disposed therein, the face of the closure plate will be in sealing engagement with the circumferential flange of the transfer tube

  7. Eddy Current Signature Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects Using A Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Gabe V.

    2005-01-01

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is degradation of their tubes. Although seven primary defect categories exist, one of the principal causes of tube failure is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). This type of defect usually begins on the secondary side surface of the tubes and propagates both inwards and laterally. In many cases this defect is found at or near the tube support plates

  8. In-service examination of IHX tubing with eddy current NDT equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    Single and multiple frequency eddy current (ET) nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and equipment were investigated for in-service inspection of sodium-contaminated intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) tubing. A four frequency technique, demonstrated in the laboratory, was relatively insensitive to signals caused by probe motion, tube support plates, and residual sodium on the outer surface of the tubes. No method was found to avoid the signals from residual sodium on the inside surfaces of the tube. (U.S.)

  9. Corrosion performance of tube support materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagola, P.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of denting in steam generators leads to change in the conception of the tube support plates. A new material is now used for this component, a 13% Cr steel, which composition has been adjusted for weldability and mechanical resistance criteria. The geometry of trefoil support plate (TSP) has also been improved, using a broached TSP (quadrifoiled holes) instead of a drilled TSP. Tests have been performed on 13% Cr and C-steel broached TSP, and drilled TSP, to confirm the better resistance to denting of this new configuration

  10. Vibro-impact responses of a tube with tube--baffle interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Sass, D.E.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The relatively small, inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the vibrational characteristics and the response of the tube. Numerical studies were made to predict the vibro-impact response of a tube with tube-baffle interaction. The finite element method has been employed with a non-linear elastic contact spring-dashpot to model the effect of the relative approach between the tube and the baffle plate. The coupled equations of motion are directly integrated with a proportional system damping represented by a linear combination of mass and stiffness. Lumped mass approach with explicit time integration scheme was found to be a suitable choice for tube-baffle impacting analysis. Fourier analyses indicate that the higher mode contributions to the tube response are significant for strong tube-baffle impacting. The contact damping forces are negligible compared with the contact spring forces. The numerical analysis results are in reasonably good agreement with those of the experiments

  11. Vibro-impact responses of a tube with tube--baffle interaction. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Y S; Sass, D E; Jendrzejczyk, J A

    1978-01-01

    The relatively small, inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the vibrational characteristics and the response of the tube. Numerical studies were made to predict the vibro-impact response of a tube with tube-baffle interaction. The finite element method has been employed with a non-linear elastic contact spring-dashpot to model the effect of the relative approach between the tube and the baffle plate. The coupled equations of motion are directly integrated with a proportional system damping represented by a linear combination of mass and stiffness. Lumped mass approach with explicit time integration scheme was found to be a suitable choice for tube-baffle impacting analysis. Fourier analyses indicate that the higher mode contributions to the tube response are significant for strong tube-baffle impacting. The contact damping forces are negligible compared with the contact spring forces. The numerical analysis results are in reasonably good agreement with those of the experiments.

  12. Why Don't People Evacuate When Nature Threatens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Broad, K.; Meyer, R.; Orlove, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    Why do so many Southern Californians fail to evacuate when warned that winter storms have critically raised the risk of a debris flow in their neighborhoods? Have they perhaps not seen or heeded news coverage of past debris flow events? Are they unaware that recent fires made the hillsides above them more prone to gravity-driven processes? Do they think they can wait to start their cars until they can actually see the flow coming? Or have they merely experienced too many "false alarms" in past years, and no longer put much stock in the judgment of public officials or the ability of scientists to judge debris flow risk? In preparation for a simulation study that will place decision makers in a virtual house in the California foothills during a winter storm event, we explore the reasons that people do and do not evacuate in the face of potential debris flows. Working in collaboration with the USGS Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project for Southern California, we are surveying hundreds of local residents, from debris-flow prone areas and from elsewhere in the state, to establish their baseline knowledge (and misconceptions) about, attitudes toward, information use regarding, and experience with debris flows. Initial interviews with residents of recently hit neighborhoods give qualitative data suggesting that false-alarm effects and underestimation of risk are driving factors; these surveys will provide quantitative evidence to extend those findings. We will discuss the results of this survey in the context of a comprehensive body of psychology research that seeks to explain why people frequently appear to ignore or discount hazard warnings: neglecting to insure their homes and crops (Kunreuther, 1984), failing to evacuate in the face of storms and fires (Baker, 1991; Packham, 1995), and (barring a recent, vivid event) showing little support for measures that would manage or mitigate future hazards (Kunreuther, 2006a, 2006b; Weber, 2006). We will also consider the

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  18. Fractured tracheostomy tube presenting as a foreign body in a paediatric patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suman Lata; Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Ramya, Ravivalar; Parida, Satyen

    2016-01-01

    Tracheostomy tube fracture and aspiration into the tracheobronchial tree leading to airway obstruction is a dangerous complication after tracheostomy. We report a case of a fractured tracheostomy tube in a 6-year-old child who had been maintained on a tracheostomy tube for the past 5 years. The tracheostomy tube got fractured at the junction of the tube and neck plate, and impacted in the trachea and right main bronchus. Rigid bronchoscopy performed through the tracheostomy stoma to retrieve the fractured tracheostomy tube and the anaesthetic management during the period are discussed. PMID:26957033

  19. Prototype Tsunami Evacuation Park in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Cedillos, V.; Deierlein, G.; Di Mauro, M.; Kornberg, K.

    2012-12-01

    Padang, Indonesia, a city of some 900,000 people, half of whom live close to the coast and within a five-meter elevation above sea level, has one of the highest tsunami risks in the world due to its close offshore thrust-fault seismic hazard, flat terrain and dense population. There is a high probability that a tsunami will strike the shores of Padang, flooding half of the area of the city, within the next 30 years. If that tsunami occurred today, it is estimated that several hundred thousand people would die, as they could not reach safe ground in the ~30 minute interval between the earthquake's occurrence and the tsunami's arrival. Padang's needs have been amply demonstrated: after earthquakes in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012, citizens, thinking that those earthquakes might cause a tsunami, tried to evacuate in cars and motorbikes, which created traffic jams, and most could not reach safe ground in 30 minutes. Since 2008, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Stanford University have studied a range of options for improving this situation, including ways to accelerate evacuation to high ground with pedestrian bridges and widened roads, and means of "vertical" evacuation in multi-story buildings, mosques, pedestrian overpasses, and Tsunami Evacuation Parks (TEPs), which are man-made hills with recreation facilities on top. TEPs proved most practical and cost-effective for Padang, given the available budget, technology and time. The Earth Observatory Singapore (EOS) developed an agent-based model that simulates pedestrian and vehicular evacuation to assess tsunami risk and risk reduction interventions in Southeast Asia. EOS applied this model to analyze the effectiveness in Padang of TEPs over other tsunami risk management approaches in terms of evacuation times and the number of people saved. The model shows that only ~24,000 people (20% of the total population) in the northern part of Padang can reach safe ground within 30 minutes, if people evacuate using cars and

  20. Who evacuates when hurricanes approach? The role of risk, information, and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Robert M; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Subramanian, Devika

    2010-01-01

    This article offers an expanded perspective on evacuation decision making during severe weather. In particular, this work focuses on uncovering determinants of individual evacuation decisions. We draw on a survey conducted in 2005 of residents in the eight-county Houston metropolitan area after Hurricane Rita made landfall on September 24, 2005. We find that evacuation decisions are influenced by a heterogeneous set of parameters, including perceived risk from wind, influence of media and neighbors, and awareness of evacuation zone, that are often at variance with one of the primary measures of risk used by public officials to order or recommend an evacuation (i.e., storm surge). We further find that perceived risk and its influence on evacuation behavior is a local phenomenon more readily communicated by and among individuals who share the same geography, as is the case with residents living inside and outside official risk areas. Who evacuates and why is partially dependent on where one lives because perceptions of risk are not uniformly shared across the area threatened by an approaching hurricane and the same sources and content of information do not have the same effect on evacuation behavior. Hence, efforts to persuade residential populations about risk and when, where, and how to evacuate or shelter in place should originate in the neighborhood rather than emanating from blanket statements from the media or public officials. Our findings also raise important policy questions (included in the discussion section) that require further study and consideration by those responsible with organizing and implementing evacuation plans.

  1. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  2. Transfer of hydrogen and helium through corrugated, flexible tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schippl, K.

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of liquid gas or cold gas through corrugated tubes is an alternative to rigid systems for the use in reactor technique. Advantages: flexibility for easy installation; these tubes together with their associated terminations and hardware are assembled, leak-tested and evacuated at the factory. This permits simple and cost saving installation on site. All tubes are helium leak-tested with a sensitivity of 10E -9 mbar 1/sec. Following the leak test, the vacuum space is pumped down to the operation vacuum level and properly sealed. The vacuum integrity is guaranteed as a result of the high degree of cleanliness observed during production and from the use of a specially selected better material inside the vacuum space. Disadvantage: pressure is limited to 20 bar. To fulfil all rules of the reactor safety, different tests have to be done. Because of the longitudinal weld of the corrugated tube, a bursting test of different sizes gives the best information of the liability of this kind of tube. It can be shown that the bursting pressure of such a tube is more than 5 times higher than the max. working pressure

  3. Cleaning IBL secondary sludge in the tubular plate steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro de Frutos, E.; Gonzalez Carballo, S.

    2012-01-01

    After cleanings Sludge Lancing using 250bar made from the center lane, identifies an area of solidified remaining sludge on the tube plate. Since late 2010, IBERDROLA-SAVAC has developed Inner System Bundle Lancing (IBL), which locally involves shooting a jet of water at high pressure 590bar directly impacting sludge areas within the tube bundle hard to detach and break into small pieces that can be extracted from GV through a closed circuit suction.

  4. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  5. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  7. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  8. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  9. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, Pdrain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289

  10. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at -20 cm H2O for 30 min. When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, Pdrain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications.

  11. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  12. Long term mental health outcomes of Finnish children evacuated to Swedish families during the second world war and their non-evacuated siblings: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Betancourt, Theresa S; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-01-05

    To compare the risks of admission to hospital for any type of psychiatric disorder and for four specific psychiatric disorders among adults who as children were evacuated to Swedish foster families during the second world war and their non-evacuated siblings, and to evaluate whether these risks differ between the sexes. Cohort study. National child evacuation scheme in Finland during the second world war. Children born in Finland between 1933 and 1944 who were later included in a 10% sample of the 1950 Finnish census ascertained in 1997 (n = 45,463; women: n = 22,021; men: n = 23,442). Evacuees in the sample were identified from war time government records. Adults admitted to hospital for psychiatric disorders recorded between 1971 and 2011 in the Finnish hospital discharge register. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between evacuation to temporary foster care in Sweden during the second world war and admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder between ages 38 and 78 years. Fixed effects methods were employed to control for all unobserved social and genetic characteristics shared among siblings. Among men and women combined, the risk of admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder did not differ between Finnish adults evacuated to Swedish foster families and their non-evacuated siblings (hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.26). Evidence suggested a lower risk of admission for any mental disorder (0.67, 0.44 to 1.03) among evacuated men, whereas for women there was no association between evacuation and the overall risk of admission for a psychiatric disorder (1.21, 0.80 to 1.83). When admissions for individual psychiatric disorders were analyzed, evacuated girls were significantly more likely than their non-evacuated sisters to be admitted to hospital for a mood disorder as an adult (2.19, 1.10 to 4.33). The Finnish evacuation policy was not associated with an increased overall risk of admission to hospital

  13. Nickel electroplating as a remedy to steam generator tubing PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, B.; Steltzlen, F.; Sala, B.; Laire, Ch.; Stubbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nickel plating appears to be a versatile process, as the application field, even if always used against PWSCC, is different from plant-to-plant. Its usage has been from a purely preventive action on tubes without defects, to a corrective action on through-wall cracked and leaking tubes. As a background for the large scale on-site operations of Doel 2 in 1990 (345 tubes) and Tihange 2 in 1992 (600 tubes), studies on four points are outlined, i.e. corrosion tests, stress measurements, sulfamate bath quality control, and in-service inspection. In conclusion, it appears that the nickel plating technique, following a case-by-case study, can often be a convenient remedy against Alloy 600 stress corrosion problems. New applications, in locations other than the steam generator field are under consideration

  14. The validation of evacuation simulation models through the analysis of behavioural uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Borri, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Both experimental and simulation data on fire evacuation are influenced by a component of uncertainty caused by the impact of the unexplained variance in human behaviour, namely behavioural uncertainty (BU). Evacuation model validation studies should include the study of this type of uncertainty during the comparison of experiments and simulation results. An evacuation model validation procedure is introduced in this paper to study the impact of BU. This methodology is presented through a case study for the comparison between repeated experimental data and simulation results produced by FDS+Evac, an evacuation model for the simulation of human behaviour in fire, which makes use of distribution laws. - Highlights: • Validation of evacuation models is investigated. • Quantitative evaluation of behavioural uncertainty is performed. • A validation procedure is presented through an evacuation case study

  15. Incorporating emergency evacuation planning, through human reliability analysis, in the risk management of industrial installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: luquetti@ien.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    An industrial installation presents many risks in the form of the process hazards, such as fire, explosion, gas and radiation release. In these situations, workers may need to evacuate from the work environment as soon as possible. In this case, the emergency evacuation planning is a key element that involves an iterative process to identify the best evacuation routes and to estimate the time required to evacuate the area at risk. The mean aspects for a successful emergency evacuation are influenced by the type of human error and the severity of the initiator event. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework for the identification of the performance shaping factors and prediction of human error probabilities of the responsible by the emergency evacuation of the workers in an industrial installation, providing a proactive approach for the allocation of the human factors in the risk assessment of the industrial installation. (author)

  16. The Group Evacuation Behavior Based on Fire Effect in the Complicated Three-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively depict the group evacuation behavior in the complicated three-dimensional space, a novel pedestrian flow model is proposed with three-dimensional cellular automata. In this model the calculation methods of floor field and fire gain are elaborated at first, and the transition gain of target position at the next moment is defined. Then, in consideration of pedestrian intimacy and velocity change, the group evacuation strategy and evolution rules are given. Finally, the experiments were conducted with the simulation platform to study the relationships of evacuation time, pedestrian density, average system velocity, and smoke spreading velocity. The results had shown that large-scale group evacuation should be avoided, and in case of large pedestrian density, the shortest route of evacuation strategy would extend system evacuation time.

  17. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  18. Survey on evacuation facilities in case of nuclear emergency in Shimane prefecture (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Shogo; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Oguri, Tomomi; Kimura, Masanori; Hirouchi, Jun; Munakata, Masahiro; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2017-02-01

    To contribute evaluations of dose reduction effect due to evacuation facilities in case of nuclear emergency, we surveyed on structural and material data on 22 facilities (290 rooms) which are listed in local disaster management plan in Matsue city. These facilities can be divided into three categories in terms of structure, scale and intended purpose of them: educational facilities (12 facilities, 235 rooms (include gymnastic hall)), communal facilities (7 facilities, 42 rooms) and gymnastic hall (3 facilities, 13 rooms). Height and floor-area of rooms, as well as window-area were collected as the structural data. We also collected information on constructional materials (i.e. roof, ceiling, inner wall, outer wall, window, floor), and density of those. In addition, mass-thicknesses of the constructional materials were evaluated based on our surveys, and compared to the previous studies which were made in Japan, U.S., and European countries. Consequently, it was found that there is no significant difference of mass-thickness of constructional materials between the results of our surveys and the previous studies. However, for gymnastic hall, since thin metal plates are used for roofs, we can point out that the mass-thickness of roofs are much lower than those for other concrete facilities and clay tile roofing wooden houses. (author)

  19. Evacuation of a mental health center during a forest fire in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Shakera, Tatiana; Sheinkman, Ayala; Levi, Tamar; Tal, Vered; Polakiewicz, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    Tirat Carmel Mental Health Center was successfully evacuated in December 2010 during a ravaging forest fire in the nearby Carmel Mountains. A total of 228 patients were successfully evacuated from the center within 45 minutes. No fatalities or injuries associated with the evacuation occurred. We believe that the efficient functioning of the administrative and medical staff provides a replicable model that can contribute to the level of awareness and readiness of hospital staff members for natural and manmade disasters.

  20. Mortality risk amongst nursing home residents evacuated after the Fukushima nuclear accident: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nomura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. METHODS: A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04-3.49. There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.76 to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74-4.76. No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07-3.49. CONCLUSION: High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.

  1. Eddy current detection of corrosion damage in heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, G.; Cecco, V.S.; Carter, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Eddy current is often the most effective nondestructive test method available for in-service inspection of small bore tubing in heat exchangers. The basic principles, advantages and shortcomings of the technique are outlined. Typical eddy current indications from corrosion-related defects such as stress corrosion cracks, pitting and tube denting under support plates are presented. Eddy current signals from features such as magnetite deposits and ferromagnetic inclusions which might be mistaken for defects are also discussed. (auth)

  2. Endoscopic hematoma evacuation in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Wang

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: With the introduction of the minimally invasive techniques and the evolution of the neuroendoscope and hemostatic agents, the median operative time and blood loss have been significantly decreased. Although the hematoma evacuation rates were similar between the endoscope (90% and craniotomy (85% groups, the median intensive care unit stay was decreased from 11 days to 6 days due to reduced surgical invasiveness. This represents an important advancement in treating spontaneous supratentorial ICH, and provides a measured preview of the promising results that can be expected in the future.

  3. Welfare and evacuation sub-plan: APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This Sub-plan has been prepared as a contingency plan to the APTCARE document - A plan to cope with an accident at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. It details procedures to be followed for the evacuation and welfare of citizens residing in areas outside the Commission's establishment in the event that their health or safety is threatened by reason of an accident at the nuclear reactor facility which could have off-site implications. Additionally, it lists roles and tasking assignments of various counter-disaster response and support agencies in such an occurrence

  4. Two Fixed, Evacuated, Glass, Solar Collectors Using Nonimaging Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, John D.; Winston, Roland; O'Gallagher, Joseph; Ford, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Two fixed, evacuated, glass solar thermal collectors have been designed. The incorporation of nonimaging concentration, selective absorption and vacuum insulation into their design is essential for obtaining high efficiency through low heat loss, while operating at high temperatures. Nonimaging, approximately ideal concentration with wide acceptance angle permits solar radiation collection without tracking the sun, and insures collection of much of the diffuse radiation. It also minimizes the area of the absorbing surface, thereby reducing the radiation heat loss. Functional integration, where different parts of these two collectors serve more than one function, is also important in achieving high efficiency, and it reduces cost.

  5. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a...

  6. Repair technique for steam generator tubes using electroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Seo, Moon Hong

    2001-07-01

    Pickering B CANDU Unit 5 had experienced leakage at sleeve/tube joint due to severe and local pitting in 1992{delta}1993. One year later, OHT developed electrosleeving techniques for steam generator tube repair which was applied at Pickering B CANDU Unit 5, Oconee Unit 1 and Callaway in 1994, 1995 and 1999 respectively. In the results of electrosleeved tube test, electrosleeve materials were stronger than mother tubes in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance under design criteria. Two analytical models were originally developed for estimating the failure temperature under severe accident transients. Electrosleeve, a structural layer of fine grained nickel is electroformed onto the strike by circulating an aqueous solution of Ni sulfate or sulfamate with NiCO3. The patents published by FTI said that the electrolyte for electroforming the structural layer contains a pinning agent to inhibit growth of metal grains in the electroformed layer. The pinning agent contains phosphoric, phosphorous acid, molybdenum. In localization of electrosleeving, there are some problems like as 1)low plating rate, 2)high residual stress, 3)alloy composition, 4)low material properties at high temperature. Ni-Fe plating exhibit anomalous codeposition; that is less noble metal, Fe, deposits preferentially to the more noble metal, Ni. Ductility decrease and residual stress increase with increase of Fe content in plate layer. Addition of particle size of 10{delta}400{mu}m makes residual stress compressive in plate layer. Composite plating show excellent high temperature properties.

  7. Repair technique for steam generator tubes using electroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Seo, Moon Hong

    2001-07-01

    Pickering B CANDU Unit 5 had experienced leakage at sleeve/tube joint due to severe and local pitting in 1992δ1993. One year later, OHT developed electrosleeving techniques for steam generator tube repair which was applied at Pickering B CANDU Unit 5, Oconee Unit 1 and Callaway in 1994, 1995 and 1999 respectively. In the results of electrosleeved tube test, electrosleeve materials were stronger than mother tubes in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance under design criteria. Two analytical models were originally developed for estimating the failure temperature under severe accident transients. Electrosleeve, a structural layer of fine grained nickel is electroformed onto the strike by circulating an aqueous solution of Ni sulfate or sulfamate with NiCO3. The patents published by FTI said that the electrolyte for electroforming the structural layer contains a pinning agent to inhibit growth of metal grains in the electroformed layer. The pinning agent contains phosphoric, phosphorous acid, molybdenum. In localization of electrosleeving, there are some problems like as 1)low plating rate, 2)high residual stress, 3)alloy composition, 4)low material properties at high temperature. Ni-Fe plating exhibit anomalous codeposition; that is less noble metal, Fe, deposits preferentially to the more noble metal, Ni. Ductility decrease and residual stress increase with increase of Fe content in plate layer. Addition of particle size of 10δ400μm makes residual stress compressive in plate layer. Composite plating show excellent high temperature properties

  8. Analysis of evacuation procedure after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, T.; Iizuka, F.; El-Asaad, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 struck the coast of Eastern Japan, evacuation procedures were undermined due to the unexpected magnitude and severity of the disaster. Also, communications between local and national government were weakened, leading to dismemberment between society and government. Consequently this left the affected people without sufficient information or updates regarding evacuation procedures. This paper will concentrate on evacuation procedures led by locating residents with the help of media outlets (local newspapers and news reports). Analyzing movements of evacuees will help improve the evacuation method both for local residents and government bodies. (author)

  9. Experiment and modeling of paired effect on evacuation from a three-dimensional space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Hu [MOE Key Laboratory for Urban Transportation Complex Systems Theory and Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Faculty of Computer Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Huijun, Sun, E-mail: hjsun1@bjtu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory for Urban Transportation Complex Systems Theory and Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Juan, Wei [Faculty of Computer Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Xiaodan, Chen [College of Information Science and Technology, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106 (China); Lei, You [Faculty of Computer Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China); College of Information Science and Technology, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106 (China); Musong, Gu [Faculty of Computer Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China)

    2014-10-24

    A novel three-dimensional cellular automata evacuation model was proposed based on stairs factor for paired effect and variety velocities in pedestrian evacuation. In the model pedestrians' moving probability of target position at the next moment was defined based on distance profit and repulsive force profit, and evacuation strategy was elaborated in detail through analyzing variety velocities and repulsive phenomenon in moving process. At last, experiments with the simulation platform were conducted to study the relationships of evacuation time, average velocity and pedestrian velocity. The results showed that when the ratio of single pedestrian was higher in the system, the shortest route strategy was good for improving evacuation efficiency; in turn, if ratio of paired pedestrians was higher, it is good for improving evacuation efficiency to adopt strategy that avoided conflicts, and priority should be given to scattered evacuation. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional evacuation model was presented with stair factor. • The paired effect and variety velocities were considered in evacuation model. • The cellular automata model is improved by repulsive force.

  10. Spatial memory enhances the evacuation efficiency of virtual pedestrians under poor visibility condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Shi, Meng; Kwok Kit Yuen, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Spatial memory is a critical navigation support tool for disoriented evacuees during evacuation under adverse environmental conditions such as dark or smoky conditions. Owing to the complexity of memory, it is challenging to understand the effect of spatial memory on pedestrian evacuation quantitatively. In this study, we propose a simple method to quantitatively represent the evacueeʼs spatial memory about the emergency exit, model the evacuation of pedestrians under the guidance of the spatial memory, and investigate the effect of the evacueeʼs spatial memory on the evacuation from theoretical and physical perspectives. The result shows that (i) a good memory can significantly assist the evacuation of pedestrians under poor visibility conditions, and the evacuation can always succeed when the degree of the memory exceeds a threshold (\\varphi > 0.5); (ii) the effect of memory is superior to that of “follow-the-crowd” under the same environmental conditions; (iii) in the case of multiple exits, the difference in the degree of the memory between evacuees has a significant effect (the greater the difference, the faster the evacuation) for the evacuation under poor visibility conditions. Our study provides a new quantitative insight into the effect of spatial memory on crowd evacuation under poor visibility conditions. Project supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Grant No. 11203615).

  11. Analysis of evacuation procedure after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, T.; Iizuka, F.; El-Asaad, H.

    2014-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 struck the coast of Eastern Japan, evacuation procedures were undermined due to the unexpected magnitude and severity of the disaster. Also, communications between local and national government were weakened, leading to dismemberment between society and government. Consequently this left the affected people without sufficient information or updates regarding evacuation procedures. This paper will concentrate on evacuation procedures led by locating residents with the help of media outlets (local newspapers and news reports). Analyzing movements of evacuees will help improve the evacuation method both for local residents and government bodies. (author)

  12. Advanced evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic during an accident in LNG terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovicj, Goran; Petelin, Stojan [Faculty for Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Portorozh (Sierra Leone); others, and

    2014-07-01

    Evacuation of people located inside the enclosed area of an LNG terminal is a complex problem, especially considering that accidents involving LNG are potentially very hazardous. In order to create an evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic, extensive influence must be generated from safety analyses. A very important moment in the optimal functioning of an evacuation model is the creation of a database which incorporates all input indicators. The output result is the creation of a safety evacuation route which is active at the moment of the accident. (Author)

  13. Experiment and modeling of paired effect on evacuation from a three-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Hu; Huijun, Sun; Juan, Wei; Xiaodan, Chen; Lei, You; Musong, Gu

    2014-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional cellular automata evacuation model was proposed based on stairs factor for paired effect and variety velocities in pedestrian evacuation. In the model pedestrians' moving probability of target position at the next moment was defined based on distance profit and repulsive force profit, and evacuation strategy was elaborated in detail through analyzing variety velocities and repulsive phenomenon in moving process. At last, experiments with the simulation platform were conducted to study the relationships of evacuation time, average velocity and pedestrian velocity. The results showed that when the ratio of single pedestrian was higher in the system, the shortest route strategy was good for improving evacuation efficiency; in turn, if ratio of paired pedestrians was higher, it is good for improving evacuation efficiency to adopt strategy that avoided conflicts, and priority should be given to scattered evacuation. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional evacuation model was presented with stair factor. • The paired effect and variety velocities were considered in evacuation model. • The cellular automata model is improved by repulsive force

  14. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  15. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  16. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, N; Kamath, S Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  17. Evaluation of wall thinning of piping with reinforcing plates using ECT with controlled exciting field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Toshiaki; Xie, Shejuan; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    No effective inspection method exists at present for detection and evaluation of wall thinning under the reinforcing plates to T-tubes in nuclear power plants, and the establishment of the inspection method is highly required. In this study, eddy current testing (ECT) with controlled exciting field is applied to evaluation of wall thinning under the reinforcing plates of T-tubes, and their feasibility is discussed. In order to induce eddy current field in deep region of doubled plates, pulse excitation and probe structures are investigated. Through experiments using specimens simulating tubes with reinforcing plates, it is shown that pulsed ECT and conventional TR type eddy current probe with optimized configuration have a capability of detecting and sizing the wall thinning under reinforcing plates. (author)

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  19. In service inspection of steam generator tubes with a multifrequence eddy current apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, M.; Saglio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The described multifrequency device has been designed and developed for a complete testing of tubes. It is necessary to eliminate the signals given by plates, expanded parts, background noises and magnetic signals which can mask some possible defects [fr

  20. Evaluation of subdural space after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odake, Genya

    1988-09-01

    Subdural low density lesions of two cases were reexplored after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma and thickening of the outer membrane was found in both cases. 1st case was a 88 year-old male, who had shown at least 7 months history of chronic subdural fluid accumulation. Reexploration of residual subdural low density space on CT after 14 days following the evacuation disclosed thickening of the outer membrane and none of fluid. 2nd case was a 71 year-old male who had a history of head injury 2 months before. Reexploration of residual low density lesion 14 days later disclosed a similar thickening of the outer membrane without fluid accumulation. The postoperative low density area in both cases was suspected to be a residual hematoma before reexploratin, but only thickening of the outer membrane of the hematoma was found. The outer membrane of 2nd case was histologically composed of layers of matured granulation, contiguous to the dura and a layer of immature granulation with microhemorrhage, facing the cavity. Thickening of the outer membrane seems to play an important role not only to develope, but to resolve the chronic subdural hematoma. It is neccessary to evaluate other factors than low density space per se to eliminate a needless reexploration.

  1. Fire and evacuation drills make the CERN safety plans work

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Regular drills are a way of making sure that we are ready and able to react in the event of a fire or other adverse event. They are also a demanding test of all the technical and organisational measures in place to allow the quick and safe evacuation of buildings. Recently, large-scale drills took place in Building 40 and at Point 5 underground.   Group photo at Point 5, after the common evacuation drill. The ability to react to unexpected, adverse events relies in particular on training. This is why CERN’s safety teams organise regular drills. One of the most recent exercises took place on 26 March in Building 40. “Building 40 is a modern building fully equipped against fire, with two emergency exits in the central atrium. We also have 29 emergency guides distributed on each floor to guide people out of their offices,” says Kate Richardson, Territorial Safety Officer of the building. “The drills are very useful for testing the building's insta...

  2. Evaluation of subdural space after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odake, Genya

    1988-01-01

    Subdural low density lesions of two cases were reexplored after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma and thickening of the outer membrane was found in both cases. 1st case was a 88 year-old male, who had shown at least 7 months history of chronic subdural fluid accumulation. Reexploration of residual subdural low density space on CT after 14 days following the evacuation disclosed thickening of the outer membrane and none of fluid. 2nd case was a 71 year-old male who had a history of head injury 2 months before. Reexploration of residual low density lesion 14 days later disclosed a similar thickening of the outer membrane without fluid accumulation. The postoperative low density area in both cases was suspected to be a residual hematoma before reexploratin, but only thickening of the outer membrane of the hematoma was found. The outer membrane of 2nd case was histologically composed of layers of matured granulation, contiguous to the dura and a layer of immature granulation with microhemorrhage, facing the cavity. Thickening of the outer membrane seems to play an important role not only to develope, but to resolve the chronic subdural hematoma. It is neccessary to evaluate other factors than low density space per se to eliminate a needless reexploration. (author)

  3. Study on estimation of evacuation distances for nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Sohei; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2005-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) have conducted the analytical studies on the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the severe accidents, and the optimization of protective actions. Based on the results of these studies, JAERI are investigating the method for taking urgent protective actions more reasonably. If an accident occurs in a nuclear power plant (NPP), early protective actions are carried out. To implement these actions more effectively, emergency preparedness and emergency planning are important, and especially prompt evacuation is expected to reduce a large amount of radiation exposures. To examine the effect of early protective measures by using a PSA method, estimation of the parameter uncertainty related in the time for early protective actions is needed. For this purpose, we have developed an analytical method for urgent protective actions using geographic information, and estimated the movement distance based on gathering points arrangement an population distribution. For this analysis, we used the gathering point data shown on each regional plans for disaster prevention which will be used in actual emergency situation and targeted the population inside Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). By applying this method for the existing sixteen commercial NPP sites, we estimated the average value and distribution of the movement distance for each sites. This report provides a brief description of the method for estimating the movement distance, input data for this analysis, and the result. Moreover, the problem on the method of evacuation distance analysis and usefulness of this method for emergency planning were discussed. (author)

  4. Modeling emergency evacuation for major hazard industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiadou, Paraskevi S.; Papazoglou, Ioannis A.; Kiranoudis, Chris T.; Markatos, Nikolaos C.

    2007-01-01

    A model providing the temporal and spatial distribution of the population under evacuation around a major hazard facility is developed. A discrete state stochastic Markov process simulates the movement of the evacuees. The area around the hazardous facility is divided into nodes connected among themselves with links representing the road system of the area. Transition from node-to-node is simulated as a random process where the probability of transition depends on the dynamically changed states of the destination and origin nodes and on the link between them. Solution of the Markov process provides the expected distribution of the evacuees in the nodes of the area as a function of time. A Monte Carlo solution of the model provides in addition a sample of actual trajectories of the evacuees. This information coupled with an accident analysis which provides the spatial and temporal distribution of the extreme phenomenon following an accident, determines a sample of the actual doses received by the evacuees. Both the average dose and the actual distribution of doses are then used as measures in evaluating alternative emergency response strategies. It is shown that in some cases the estimation of the health consequences by the average dose might be either too conservative or too non-conservative relative to the one corresponding to the distribution of the received dose and hence not a suitable measure to evaluate alternative evacuation strategies

  5. Electrostatic double layers and a plasma evacuation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Carlqvist, P.

    1979-12-01

    An evacuation process due to the growth of current driven instabilities in a plasma is discussed. The process, which leads to localized extreme density reductions, is related to the formation of electrostatic double layers. The initial linear phase is treated using the superposition of unstable plasma waves. In the long wave length, non-dispersive limit a density dip, which is initially present as a small disturbance, grows rapidly and remains localized in the plasma. The process works for a variety of plasma conditions provided a certain current density is exceeded. For a particular choice of plasma parameters the non-linear development is followed, by solving the coupled Vlasov-Poisson equations by finite difference methods. The evacuation process is found to work even more effectively in the non-linear phase and leads to an extreme density reduction within the dip. It is suggested that the growth of such structures produces weak points within the plasma that can lead to the formation of double layers. (Auth.)

  6. Evacuation in emergencies: An annotated guide to research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to explore the relevant sources of knowledge regarding evacuation related issues among recent work published in the social sciences and emergency planning fields. In organizing the material, we looked primarily for articles that included either a theoretical or empirical basis for the findings. By empirical, we mean that the findings were based on data taken from actual research gained through surveys, questionnaires, interviews or a combination of these, and the use of secondary sources. The theoretical material consisted of work that built on past research or which explored the use of models. Some conceptual work, raising issues not covered by the general format, were included if they attempted to synthesize aspects of the literature now segmented or which asked additional questions about topics related to but not necessarily within the strict realm of research studies. The material was divided as to the emphasis placed on the individual or the organizational level of behavior. Empirically the individual, family or household response is easier to assess because of the bias that may intrude when individuals of organizations or agencies involved in the evacuation process are interviewed regarding their official status. The annotations of the literature as well as the specific key findings from each study, where appropriate, are organized by hazard type. An author index is provided.

  7. A pilot study of chest tube versus pigtail catheter drainage of acute hemothorax in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rachel M; Zakaluzny, Scott A; Neff, Lucas P; Grayson, J Kevin; Hight, Rachel A; Galante, Joseph M; Shatz, David V

    2015-12-01

    Evacuation of traumatic hemothorax (HTx) is typically accomplished with large-bore (28-40 Fr) chest tubes, often resulting in patient discomfort. Management of HTx with smaller (14 Fr) pigtail catheters has not been widely adopted because of concerns about tube occlusion and blood evacuation rates. We compared pigtail catheters with chest tubes for the drainage of acute HTx in a swine model. Six Yorkshire cross-bred swine (44-54 kg) were anesthetized, instrumented, and mechanically ventilated. A 32 Fr chest tube was placed in one randomly assigned hemithorax; a 14 Fr pigtail catheter was placed in the other. Each was connected to a chest drainage system at -20 cm H2O suction and clamped. Over 15 minutes, 1,500 mL of arterial blood was withdrawn via femoral artery catheters. Seven hundred fifty milliliters of the withdrawn blood was instilled into each pleural space, and fluid resuscitation with colloid was initiated. The chest drains were then unclamped. Output from each drain was measured every minute for 5 minutes and then every 5 minutes for 40 minutes. The swine were euthanized, and thoracotomies were performed to quantify the volume of blood remaining in each pleural space and to examine the position of each tube. Blood drainage was more rapid from the chest tube during the first 3 minutes compared with the pigtail catheter (348 ± 109 mL/min vs. 176 ± 53 mL/min), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.19). Thereafter, the rates of drainage between the two tubes were not substantially different. The chest tube drained a higher total percentage of the blood from the chest (87.3% vs. 70.3%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.21). We found no statistically significant difference in the volume of blood drained by a 14 Fr pigtail catheter compared with a 32 Fr chest tube.

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  10. Tsunami evacuation analysis, modelling and planning: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Aniel-Quiroga, Iñigo; Abad Herrero, Sheila; González Rodriguez, Mauricio; Larreynaga, Jeniffer; Gavidia, Francisco; Quetzalcoalt Gutiérrez, Omar; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose Antonio; Medina Santamaría, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. Conducting adequate tsunami risk assessments is essential, as the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment results allow the identification of adequate, site-specific and vulnerability-oriented risk management options, with the formulation of a tsunami evacuation plan being one of the main expected results. An evacuation plan requires the analysis of the territory and an evaluation of the relevant elements (hazard, population, evacuation routes, and shelters), the modelling of the evacuation, and the proposal of alternatives for those communities located in areas with limited opportunities for evacuation. Evacuation plans, which are developed by the responsible authorities and decision makers, would benefit from a clear and straightforward connection between the scientific and technical information from tsunami risk assessments and the subsequent risk reduction options. Scientifically-based evacuation plans would translate into benefits for the society in terms of mortality reduction. This work presents a comprehensive framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process, such as the potential location for vertical evacuation shelters and alternative routes. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge the gap between risk assessment and risk management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as

  11. An Evaluation of Infrastructure for Tsunami Evacuation in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillos, V.; Canney, N.; Deierlein, G.; Diposaptono, S.; Geist, E. L.; Henderson, S.; Ismail, F.; Jachowski, N.; McAdoo, B. G.; Muhari, A.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.; Toth, J.; Tucker, B. E.; Wood, K.

    2009-12-01

    Padang has one of the world’s highest tsunami risks due to its high hazard, vulnerable terrain and population density. The current strategy to prepare for tsunamis in Padang is focused on developing early warning systems, planning evacuation routes, conducting evacuation drills, and raising local awareness. Although these are all necessary, they are insufficient. Padang’s proximity to the Sunda Trench and flat terrain make reaching safe ground impossible for much of the population. The natural warning in Padang - a strong earthquake that lasts over a minute - will be the first indicator of a potential tsunami. People will have about 30 minutes after the earthquake to reach safe ground. It is estimated that roughly 50,000 people in Padang will be unable to evacuate in that time. Given these conditions, other means to prepare for the expected tsunami must be developed. With this motivation, GeoHazards International and Stanford University’s Chapter of Engineers for a Sustainable World partnered with Indonesian organizations - Andalas University and Tsunami Alert Community in Padang, Laboratory for Earth Hazards, and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries - in an effort to evaluate the need for and feasibility of tsunami evacuation infrastructure in Padang. Tsunami evacuation infrastructure can include earthquake-resistant bridges and evacuation structures that rise above the maximum tsunami water level, and can withstand the expected earthquake and tsunami forces. The choices for evacuation structures vary widely - new and existing buildings, evacuation towers, soil berms, elevated highways and pedestrian overpasses. This interdisciplinary project conducted a course at Stanford University, undertook several field investigations, and concluded that: (1) tsunami evacuation structures and bridges are essential to protect the people in Padang, (2) there is a need for a more thorough engineering-based evaluation than conducted to-date of the suitability of

  12. External factors impacting hospital evacuations caused by Hurricane Rita: the role of situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Erin L; Andress, Knox; Schultz, Carl H

    2013-06-01

    The 2005 Gulf Coast hurricane season was one of the most costly and deadly in US history. Hurricane Rita stressed hospitals and led to multiple, simultaneous evacuations. This study systematically identified community factors associated with patient movement out of seven hospitals evacuated during Hurricane Rita. This study represents the second of two systematic, observational, and retrospective investigations of seven acute care hospitals that reported off-site evacuations due to Hurricane Rita. Participants from each hospital included decision makers that comprised the Incident Management Team (IMT). Investigators applied a standardized interview process designed to assess evacuation factors related to external situational awareness of community activities during facility evacuation due to hurricanes. The measured outcomes were responses to 95 questions within six sections of the survey instrument. Investigators identified two factors that significantly impacted hospital IMT decision making: (1) incident characteristics affecting a facility's internal resources and challenges; and (2) incident characteristics affecting a facility's external evacuation activities. This article summarizes the latter and reports the following critical decision making points: (1) Emergency Operations Plans (EOP) were activated an average of 85 hours (3 days, 13 hours) prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall; (2) the decision to evacuate the hospital was made an average of 30 hours (1 day, 6 hours) from activation of the EOP; and (3) the implementation of the evacuation process took an average of 22 hours. Coordination of patient evacuations was most complicated by transportation deficits (the most significant of the 11 identified problem areas) and a lack of situational awareness of community response activities. All evacuation activities and subsequent evacuation times were negatively impacted by an overall lack of understanding on the part of hospital staff and the IMT regarding how to

  13. Plating end fittings to reduce hydrogen ingress at rolled joints in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.J.; Urbanic, V.F.; Bahurmuz, A.A.; Clendening, W.R.; Joynes, R.; McDougall, G.M.; Skinner, B.C.; Venkatapathi, S.

    1993-10-01

    Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors absorb hydrogen at a low rate from the primary heat transport water circulated through the tubes. Extra hydrogen is picked up at the rolled joints that connect the pressure tubes to out-of-core steel piping. This enhanced ingress may contribute to pressure-tube cracking at incorrectly assembled joints. The risk of pressure-tube failure has been decreased by ensuring correct joint assembly, and could be further decreased by reducing hydrogen ingress at rolled joints. This paper reviews progress toward using plated end fittings to reduce rolled-joint hydrogen ingress

  14. Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation in children is usually performed utilizing uncuffed endotracheal tubes for conduct of anesthesia as well as for prolonged ventilation in critical care units. However, uncuffed tubes may require multiple changes to avoid excessive air leak, with subsequent environmental pollution making the technique uneconomical. In addition, monitoring of ventilatory parameters, exhaled volumes, and end-expiratory gases may be unreliable. All these problems can be avoided by use of cuffed endotracheal tubes. Besides, cuffed endotracheal tubes may be of advantage in special situations like laparoscopic surgery and in surgical conditions at risk of aspiration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans in children have found the narrowest portion of larynx at rima glottides. Cuffed endotracheal tubes, therefore, will form a complete seal with low cuff pressure of <15 cm H 2 O without any increase in airway complications. Till recently, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes was limited by variations in the tube design marketed by different manufacturers. The introduction of a new cuffed endotracheal tube in the market with improved tracheal sealing characteristics may encourage increased safe use of these tubes in clinical practice. A literature search using search words "cuffed endotracheal tube" and "children" from 1980 to January 2012 in PUBMED was conducted. Based on the search, the advantages and potential benefits of cuffed ETT are reviewed in this article.

  15. Integrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1982-09-01

    A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 sq m panel (45 tubes) has been completed. Efficiencies above 50% relative to beam at 200 C have been repeatedly demonstrated. Both the instantaneous and long term average performance of this totally stationary solar collector are comparable to those for tracking line focus parabolic troughs. The yield, reliability and stability of performance achieved have been excellent. Subcomponent assemblies and fabrication procedures have been used which are expected to be compatible with high volume production. The collector has a wide variety of applications in the 100 to 300 C range including industrial progress heat, air conditioning and Rankine engine operation.

  16. NMDA Receptor Signaling Is Important for Neural Tube Formation and for Preventing Antiepileptic Drug-Induced Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequerra, Eduardo B; Goyal, Raman; Castro, Patricio A; Levin, Jacqueline B; Borodinsky, Laura N

    2018-05-16

    Failure of neural tube closure leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), which can have serious neurological consequences or be lethal. Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy increases the incidence of NTDs in offspring by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that during Xenopus laevis neural tube formation, neural plate cells exhibit spontaneous calcium dynamics that are partially mediated by glutamate signaling. We demonstrate that NMDA receptors are important for the formation of the neural tube and that the loss of their function induces an increase in neural plate cell proliferation and impairs neural cell migration, which result in NTDs. We present evidence that the AED valproic acid perturbs glutamate signaling, leading to NTDs that are rescued with varied efficacy by preventing DNA synthesis, activating NMDA receptors, or recruiting the NMDA receptor target ERK1/2. These findings may prompt mechanistic identification of AEDs that do not interfere with neural tube formation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural tube defects are one of the most common birth defects. Clinical investigations have determined that the use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy increases the incidence of these defects in the offspring by unknown mechanisms. This study discovers that glutamate signaling regulates neural plate cell proliferation and oriented migration and is necessary for neural tube formation. We demonstrate that the widely used antiepileptic drug valproic acid interferes with glutamate signaling and consequently induces neural tube defects, challenging the current hypotheses arguing that they are side effects of this antiepileptic drug that cause the increased incidence of these defects. Understanding the mechanisms of neurotransmitter signaling during neural tube formation may contribute to the identification and development of antiepileptic drugs that are safer during pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/384762-12$15.00/0.

  17. Irradiation of novel MTR fuel plates in BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboomen, B.; Aoust, Th.; Beeckmans De Westmeerbeeck, A.; De Raedt, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of 1999, novel MTR fuel plates with very high-density meat are being irradiated in BR2. The purpose of the irradiation is to investigate the behaviour of these fuel plates under very severe reactor operation conditions. The novel fuel plates are inserted in two standard six-tube BR2 fuel elements in the locations normally occupied by the standard outer fuel plates. The irradiation in BR2 was prepared by carrying out detailed neutron Monte Carlo calculations of the whole BR2 core containing the two experimental fuel elements for various positions in the reactor and for various azimuthal orientations of the fuel elements. Comparing the thus determined fission density levels and azimuthal profiles in the new MTR fuel plates irradiated in the various channels allowed the experimenters to choose the most appropriate BR2 channel and the most appropriate fuel element orientation. (author)

  18. French steam generator tubes: an overview of degradations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisine, D.; Bouvier, O. de; Rupa, N.; Thebault, Y.; Barbe, V.; Pitner, P.

    2011-01-01

    The various damages (corrosion, fatigue cracks, wear, ...) observed on steam generator (SG) tubes are presented here as well as the techniques used to characterize these damages. The SG are equipped with tubes of 3 materials: 600 MA, 600 TT and 690 TT. Concerning PWSCC of 600 MA and 600 TT tubes, beyond the damages usually observed (corrosion in expansion transition zone and in 600 MA tubes small radius U-bend zone), a new event is to be noted: the phenomenon of denting (presumably induced by the deposit of sludge on the tubesheet) has induced circumferential cracking of the tube expansion transition zone. Concerning ODSCC of 600 MA tubes, beyond the classically observed damages (IGA and IGSCC in expansion transition zone and in TSP crevice), a new event is to be noted: the occurrence of circumferential cracks in tube- TSP crevice. Concerning fatigue cracking, two events have to be noted at upper TSP level in Cruas 1 and Cruas 4 units and in Fessenheim 2 unit. The first (Cruas) was due to the blockage in the broached hole tube support plate which can create critical velocity ratios for some tubes and the second (Fessenheim) to high-cycle fatigue. Concerning wear damage, beyond what is usually observed in the U-bend zone facing the anti-vibration bars (AVB), a new event is to be noted: a wear at TSP level is observed on SG equipped with an economizer, the wear indications being located at TSP 7 and 8 level, on outer tubes close to the central lane. The number of tubes plugged for ODSCC has declined due to the progressive replacement of SG with Alloy 600 MA tubing. Starting in 2004, the increasing plugging of 690 tubing is mainly due to AVB wear. Since 2006, extensive preventive plugging campaigns for tubes at risk of high-cycle fatigue at the upper support plate are performed. Risk of high-cycle fatigue has consequently become the dominant mechanism inducing plugging. PWSCC is the second dominant mechanism which affects 600 MA and 600 TT tube bundles: extensive

  19. An advanced tube wear and fatigue workstation to predict flow induced vibrations of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, N.; Baratte, C.; Flesch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Flow induced tube vibration damage is a major concern for designers and operators of nuclear power plant steam generators (SG). The operating flow-induced vibrational behaviour has to be estimated accurately to allow a precise evaluation of the new safety margins in order to optimize the maintenance policy. For this purpose, an industrial 'Tube Wear and Fatigue Workstation', called 'GEVIBUS Workstation' and based on an advanced methodology for predictive analysis of flow-induced vibration of tube bundles subject to cross-flow has been developed at Electricite de France. The GEVIBUS Workstation is an interactive processor linking modules as: thermalhydraulic computation, parametric finite element builder, interface between finite element model, thermalhydraulic code and vibratory response computations, refining modelling of fluid-elastic and random forces, linear and non-linear dynamic response and the coupled fluid-structure system, evaluation of tube damage due to fatigue and wear, graphical outputs. Two practical applications are also presented in the paper; the first simulation refers to an experimental set-up consisting of a straight tube bundle subject to water cross-flow, while the second one deals with an industrial configuration which has been observed in some operating steam generators i.e., top tube support plate degradation. In the first case the GEVIBUS predictions in terms of tube displacement time histories and phase planes have been found in very good agreement with experiment. In the second application the GEVIBUS computation showed that a tube with localized degradation is much more stable than a tube located in an extended degradation zone. Important conclusions are also drawn concerning maintenance. (author)

  20. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  1. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube......’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  2. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  3. Biocompatibility of Tygon® tubing in microfluidic cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao; Jeffries, Rex E; Acosta, Miguel A; Tikunov, Andrey P; Macdonald, Jeffrey M; Walker, Glenn M; Gamcsik, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Growth of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in microfluidic channels was inhibited when culture media was delivered to the channels via microbore Tygon® tubing. Culture media incubated within this tubing also inhibited growth of these cells in conventional 96-well plates. These detrimental effects were not due to depletion of critical nutrients due to adsorption of media components onto the tubing surface. A pH change was also ruled out as a cause. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the cell growth media before and after incubation in the tubing confirmed no detectable loss of media components but did detect the presence of additional unidentified signals in the aliphatic region of the spectrum. These results indicate leaching of a chemical species from microbore Tygon® tubing that can affect cell growth in microfluidic devices.

  4. Rectangular drift tube characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode

  5. Decision support system emergency planning, creating evacuation strategies in the event of flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, C.J.; Klunder, G.A.; Sanders, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Decision Support System (DSS) Emergency Planning is designed for use in the event of sea or river flooding. It makes accessible all the information related to the decision whether to evacuate an area. An important factor in this decision is the time required for the evacuation. The model used by

  6. People's Risk Recognition Preceding Evacuation and Its Role in Demand Modeling and Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urata, Junji; Pel, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Evacuation planning and management involves estimating the travel demand in the event that such action is required. This is usually done as a function of people's decision to evacuate, which we show is strongly linked to their risk awareness. We use an empirical data set, which shows tsunami

  7. Application of fire and evacuation models in evaluation of fire safety in railway tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cábová, Kamila; Apeltauer, Tomáš; Okřinová, Petra; Wald, František

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes an application of numerical simulation of fire dynamics and evacuation of people in a tunnel. The software tool Fire Dynamics Simulator is used to simulate temperature resolution and development of smoke in a railway tunnel. Comparing to temperature curves which are usually used in the design stage results of the model show that the numerical model gives lower temperature of hot smoke layer. Outputs of the numerical simulation of fire also enable to improve models of evacuation of people during fires in tunnels. In the presented study the calculated high of smoke layer in the tunnel is in 10 min after the fire ignition lower than the level of 2.2 m which is considered as the maximal limit for safe evacuation. Simulation of the evacuation process in bigger scale together with fire dynamics can provide very valuable information about important security conditions like Available Safe Evacuation Time (ASET) vs Required Safe Evacuation Time (RSET). On given example in software EXODUS the paper summarizes selected results of evacuation model which should be in mind of a designer when preparing an evacuation plan.

  8. A new way to estimate the evacuation time for people involved in a building fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2004-01-01

    A survey about evacuation models is given. The current available evacuation models based on hand calculations are tested during the survey. The objectives have been to analyze the existing hand calculating methods and thereby validate or may be, disqualify a model. The survey is based on comparis...

  9. Way finding during fire evacuation; an analysis of unannounced fire drills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobes, M.; Helsloot, I.; Vries, de B.; Post, J.G.; Oberije, N.; Groenewegen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Findings in earlier studies on fire evacuation and way finding suggest that building features have influence on evacuation behaviour. For example, way finding is believed to be strongly dependent on the lay-out of the building and seems to be hardly dependent on (escape) route signs. Though some

  10. Game-Based Evacuation Drill Using Augmented Reality and Head-Mounted Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Junya; Mitsuhara, Hiroyuki; Shishibori, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evacuation drills should be more realistic and interactive. Focusing on situational and audio-visual realities and scenario-based interactivity, the authors have developed a game-based evacuation drill (GBED) system that presents augmented reality (AR) materials on tablet computers. The paper's current research purpose is to improve…

  11. A Dynamic Optimization Method of Indoor Fire Evacuation Route Based on Real-time Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to provide safe and effective evacuation routes is an important safeguard to correctly guide evacuation and reduce the casualties during the fire situation rapidly evolving in complex indoor environment. The traditional static path finding method is difficult to adjust the path adaptively according to the changing fire situation, which lead to the evacuation decision-making blindness and hysteresis. This paper proposes a dynamic method which can dynamically optimize the indoor evacuation routes based on the real-time situation awareness. According to the real-time perception of fire situation parameters and the changing indoor environment information, the evacuation route is optimized dynamically. The integrated representation of multisource indoor fire monitoring sensor observations oriented fire emergency evacuation is presented at first, real-time fire threat situation information inside building is then extracted from the observation data of multi-source sensors, which is used to constrain the dynamical optimization of the topology of the evacuation route. Finally, the simulation experiments prove that this method can improve the accuracy and efficiency of indoor evacuation routing.

  12. Bilevel Traffic Evacuation Model and Algorithm Design for Large-Scale Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danwen Bao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a bilevel planning model with one master and multiple slaves to solve traffic evacuation problems. The minimum evacuation network saturation and shortest evacuation time are used as the objective functions for the upper- and lower-level models, respectively. The optimizing conditions of this model are also analyzed. An improved particle swarm optimization (PSO method is proposed by introducing an electromagnetism-like mechanism to solve the bilevel model and enhance its convergence efficiency. A case study is carried out using the Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. The results indicate that, for large-scale activities, the average evacuation time of the classic model is shorter but the road saturation distribution is more uneven. Thus, the overall evacuation efficiency of the network is not high. For induced emergencies, the evacuation time of the bilevel planning model is shortened. When the audience arrival rate is increased from 50% to 100%, the evacuation time is shortened from 22% to 35%, indicating that the optimization effect of the bilevel planning model is more effective compared to the classic model. Therefore, the model and algorithm presented in this paper can provide a theoretical basis for the traffic-induced evacuation decision making of large-scale activities.

  13. ALFIL: A Crowd Simulation Serious Game for Massive Evacuation Training and Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, César; Fernández-Robles, José Luis; Larios-Rosillo, Victor; Luga, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the current development of a serious game for the simulation of massive evacuations. The purpose of this project is to promote self-protection through awareness of the procedures and different possible scenarios during the evacuation of a massive event. Sophisticated behaviors require massive computational power and it has…

  14. Evacuation Route: Restoring the Railway Transportation of People During the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potemkina Marina Nikolaevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the role of the railway transport in migration from the frontline to the Soviet rear during the Great Patriotic War. The research is based on the analysis of the published and archival documents, personal diaries, letters, memoirs, texts of interview with the people who lived through the evacuation. The methodological foundation of the research was based on the theoretical principles made by the Everyday History. Surge attack of the German troops and cruel occupational policy caused the necessity of evacuation of civilians to the Eastern regions of the country. The evacuation was both spontaneous and organized and helped to save millions of human lives. The lack of evacuation plans in case of a war, incompleteness of the railway transport renovation, transport routes destroyed by the enemy and the stream of refugees were among the main factors which complicated evacuation process. The conditions of transportation differed according to the time and the circumstances of the evacuation and a person’s position in social hierarchy. There were some problems during the evacuation, such as regulation of the rail service, sanitation of the carriages, nutrition system, psychological shock. People had to spend weeks in the carriages suffering from cold, hunger and diseases. During the evacuation a new alternative reality appeared with its rules and regulations which changed the concepts of tangible assets and moral values. The priority for any person was to survive, which meant to be independent and to do everything possible.

  15. The Impact of Transport Time on Outcomes Following Evacuation from Point of Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-16

    reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits and the importance of the knowledge that may reasonably be expected to result. The subject selection is...patients with traumatic injuries require urgent medical attention and expeditious evacuation to improve survival. Aeromedical evacuation platforms such as

  16. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evacuation payments during a pandemic... during a pandemic health crisis. (a) An agency may order one or more employees to evacuate from their... the employee) during a pandemic health crisis without regard to whether the agency and the employee...

  17. Simulating crowd evacuation with socio-cultural, cognitive, and emotional elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C. Natalie; Formolo, Daniel; Robinson, Mark A.; Minkov, Michael; Bosse, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the effects of culture, cognitions, and emotions on crisis management and prevention are analysed. An agent-based crowd evacuation simulation model was created, named IMPACT, to study the evacuation process from a transport hub. To extend previous research, various socio-cultural,

  18. A generic method to optimize instructions for the control of evacuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse, O.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    A method is described to develop a set of optimal instructions to evacuate by car the population of a region threatened by a hazard. By giving these instructions to the evacuees, traffic conditions and therefore the evacuation efficiency can be optimized. The instructions, containing a departure

  19. Simulating the effects of social networks on a population's hurricane evacuation participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Michael J.; Horner, Mark W.; Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-04-01

    Scientists have noted that recent shifts in the earth's climate have resulted in more extreme weather events, like stronger hurricanes. Such powerful storms disrupt societal function and result in a tremendous number of casualties, as demonstrated by recent hurricane experience in the US Planning for and facilitating evacuations of populations forecast to be impacted by hurricanes is perhaps the most effective strategy for reducing risk. A potentially important yet relatively unexplored facet of people's evacuation decision-making involves the interpersonal communication processes that affect whether at-risk residents decide to evacuate. While previous research has suggested that word-of-mouth effects are limited, data supporting these assertions were collected prior to the widespread adoption of digital social media technologies. This paper argues that the influence of social network effects on evacuation decisions should be revisited given the potential of new social media for impacting and augmenting information dispersion through real-time interpersonal communication. Using geographic data within an agent-based model of hurricane evacuation in Bay County, Florida, we examine how various types of social networks influence participation in evacuation. It is found that strategies for encouraging evacuation should consider the social networks influencing individuals during extreme events, as it can be used to increase the number of evacuating residents.

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  4. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  5. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuki, Akira; Murata, Shigeto; Minato, Akihiko.

    1993-01-01

    In a pressure tube reactor, a reactor core is constituted by arranging more than two units of a minimum unit combination of a moderator sealing pipe containing a calandria tube having moderators there between and a calandria tube and moderators. The upper header and a lower header of the calandria tank containing moderators are communicated by way of the moderator sealing tube. Further, a gravitationally dropping mechanism is disposed for injecting neutron absorbing liquid to a calandria gas injection portion. A ratio between a moderator volume and a fuel volume is defined as a function of the inner diameter of the moderator sealing tube, the outer diameter of the calandria tube and the diameter of fuel pellets, and has no influence to intervals of a pressure tube lattice. The interval of the pressure tube lattice is enlarged without increasing the size of the pressure tube, to improve production efficiency of the reactor and set a coolant void coefficient more negative, thereby enabling to improve self controllability and safety. Further, the reactor scram can be conducted by injecting neutron absorbing liquid. (N.H.)

  6. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  7. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  8. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Tapping, R.L.; Stipan, L.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  9. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  10. War casualties: recent trends in evacuation, triage and the golden hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt medical treatment and early evacuation is the goal of military medicine in the battlefield. 'Triage' is a process of sorting the casualties according to the severity of injury and the prioritization of treatment. In trauma management 'Golden Hour' is the first sixty minutes or so after injury; this emphasizes that the chances of the victim's survival are the greatest if definitive care is given as early as possible. Our evacuation protocols follow the triage but the time to treatment is beyond sixty minutes. Many Armies have developed evacuation systems which allow the casualty to be seen within this specified time. This has been achieved by streamlining the evacuation chain, extensive incorporation of air transport and training of paramedics in advanced life support measures. In line with the modern trends we need to modernize our own system of casualty evacuation and treatment. (author)

  11. Dynamics-Based Stranded-Crowd Model for Evacuation in Building Bottlenecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-density public buildings, it is difficult to evacuate. So in this paper, we propose a novel quantitative evacuation model to insure people’s safety and reduce the risk of crowding. We analyze the mechanism of arch-like clogging phenomena during evacuation and the influencing factors in emergency situations at bottleneck passages; then we design a model based on crowd dynamics and apply the model to a stadium example. The example is used to compare evacuation results of crowd density with different egress widths in stranded zones. The results show this model proposed can guide the safe and dangerous egress widths in performance design and can help evacuation routes to be selected and optimized.

  12. Household evacuation characteristics in American Samoa during the 2009 Samoa Islands tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apatu, Emma J. I.; Gregg, Chris E.; Wood, Nathan J.; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tsunamis represent significant threats to human life and development in coastal communities. This quantitative study examines the influence of household characteristics on evacuation actions taken by 211 respondents in American Samoa who were at their homes during the 29 September 2009 Mw 8.1 Samoa Islands earthquake and tsunami disaster. Multiple logistic regression analysis of survey data was used to examine the association between evacuation and various household factors. Findings show that increases in distance to shoreline were associated with a slightly decreased likelihood of evacuation, whereas households reporting higher income had an increased probability of evacuation. The response in American Samoa was an effective one, with only 34 fatalities in a tsunami that reached shore in as little as 15 minutes. Consequently, future research should implement more qualitative study designs to identify event and cultural specific determinants of household evacuation behaviour to local tsunamis.

  13. Elementary students' evacuation route choice in a classroom: A questionnaire-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Song, Ziqi

    2018-02-01

    Children evacuation is a critical but challenging issue. Unfortunately, existing researches fail to effectively describe children evacuation, which is likely due to the lack of experimental and empirical data. In this paper, a questionnaire-based experiment was conducted with children aged 8-12 years to study children route choice behavior during evacuation from in a classroom with two exits. 173 effective questionnaires were collected and the corresponding data were analyzed. From the statistical results, we obtained the following findings: (1) position, congestion, group behavior, and backtracking behavior have significant effects on children route choice during evacuation; (2) age only affects children backtracking behavior, and (3) no prominent effects based on gender and guidance were observed. The above findings may help engineers design some effective evacuation strategies for children.

  14. Emergency evacuation models in subway service systems: An application on Izmir (Turkey subway system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Baysal Türkölmez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population in crowded cities causes transportation problems. Public transportation is an effective solution for the crowded traffic. Subway is a fast and productive alternative for public transportation so it is a highly preferable choice in others. It is hard to evacuate people in subway station during a disaster in carriages, on subway line or in subway stations because subway systems are often located underground, a lot people use it at the same time and enter-exit gates are controlled by turnstiles. It is crucially important to know the evacuation time of people from subway. In this paper, Konak station, one of the most crowded stations of Izmir Subway System is analyzed by emergency evacuation models. The evacuation process is simulated by Simulex software. The emergency evacuation problem is modeled in three different scenarios. Solution offers are developed for them.

  15. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  16. The long-term impact of war experiences and evacuation on people who were children during World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Melinda J; Robbins, Ian; Davies, Stephen; Feigenbaum, Janet

    2007-03-01

    During World War Two 1.9 million people were evacuated from British cities where the risk of bombing was perceived to be highest. 1.5 million of these were children who, often unaccompanied, were sent to live with strangers. Two hundred and forty-five people who were evacuated as children were compared with 96 of similar age who did not experience evacuation. Within this self-selected sample, significant numbers of the evacuees were found to have experienced abuse and neglect. Pre-evacuation abuse made continued abuse likely during evacuation, while abuse during evacuation led to children being more likely to continue to be abused on their return home. Abuse during evacuation led to increased scores on the Impact of Event Scale and General Health Questionnaire, and to insecure attachment patterns. The role of evacuation and abuse in the maintenance of long-term psychological problems is discussed.

  17. Ultrasonic imaging of tube/support structure of power plant steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniie, J.; Nagle, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion and erosion of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants can present problems of both safety and economics. In steam generators, the inconel tubes are fit loosely through holes drilled in carbon steel support plates. Corrosion is of particular concern with such tube/support plate structures. Non-protective magnetite can build up on the inner surface of the support plate holes, and allowed to continue unchecked, will fill the gap, eventually denting and fracturing the tube walls. Therefore, periodic nondestructive inspection can be valuable in characterizing corrosion and can be used in evaluating the effectiveness of chemical treatments used to control or reduce corrosion. Presently, they are investigating the feasibility and practicality of using ultrasound in routing testing for gap measurement, for evaluating the corrosion and assessing the degree of denting. The tube/support structure can be modeled as a multilayer, reverberant target, which when tested with ultrasound results in two sets of reverberating echoes [1]. One set corresponds to the tube wall and the other to the support plate. These echoes must be decomposed and identified in order to evaluate the tube/support structure. This report presents experimental results along with a discussion of various measurements and processing techniques for decomposing and interpreting tube/support echoes at different stages of corrosion

  18. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  19. Evacuated, displacement compression mold. [of tubular bodies from thermosetting plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process of molding long thin-wall tubular bodies from thermosetting plastic molding compounds is described wherein the tubular body lengths may be several times the diameters. The process is accomplished by loading a predetermined quantity of molding compound into a female mold cavity closed at one end by a force mandrel. After closing the other end of the female mold with a balance mandrel, the loaded cavity is evacuated by applying a vacuum of from one-to-five mm pressure for a period of fifteen-to-thirty minutes. The mold temperature is raised to the minimum temperature at which the resin constituent of the compound will soften or plasticize and a pressure of 2500 psi is applied.

  20. Real-time micro-modelling of city evacuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhner, Rainald; Haug, Eberhard; Zinggerling, Claudio; Oñate, Eugenio

    2018-01-01

    A methodology to integrate geographical information system (GIS) data with large-scale pedestrian simulations has been developed. Advances in automatic data acquisition and archiving from GIS databases, automatic input for pedestrian simulations, as well as scalable pedestrian simulation tools have made it possible to simulate pedestrians at the individual level for complete cities in real time. An example that simulates the evacuation of the city of Barcelona demonstrates that this is now possible. This is the first step towards a fully integrated crowd prediction and management tool that takes into account not only data gathered in real time from cameras, cell phones or other sensors, but also merges these with advanced simulation tools to predict the future state of the crowd.