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Sample records for plate effectiveness pleasure

  1. Pleasure and pain: the effect of (almost) having an orgasm on genital and nongenital sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Laurel Q P; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sexual arousal and orgasm on genital sensitivity has received little research attention, and no study has assessed sensation pleasurableness as well as painfulness. To clarify the relationship between sexual arousal, orgasm, and sensitivity in a healthy female sample. Twenty-six women privately masturbated to orgasm and almost to orgasm at two separate sessions, during which standardized pressure stimulation was applied to the glans clitoris, vulvar vestibule, and volar forearm at three testing times: (i) baseline; (ii) immediately following masturbation; and (iii) following a subsequent 15-minute rest period. Touch thresholds (tactile detection sensitivity), sensation pleasurableness ratings (pleasurable sensitivity), and pain thresholds (pain sensitivity). Pleasurableness ratings were higher on the glans clitoris than the vulvar vestibule, and at most testing times on the vulvar vestibule than the volar forearm; and at baseline and immediately after masturbation than 15 minutes later, mainly on the genital locations only. Pain thresholds were lower on the genital locations than the volar forearm, and immediately and 15 minutes after masturbation than at baseline. After orgasm, genital pleasurableness ratings and vulvar vestibular pain thresholds were lower than after masturbation almost to orgasm. Post-masturbation pleasurableness ratings were positively correlated with pain thresholds but only on the glans clitoris. Hormonal contraception users had lower pleasurableness ratings and pain thresholds on all locations than nonusers. There were no significant effects for touch thresholds. Masturbation appears to maintain pleasurable genital sensitivity but increase pain sensitivity, with lower genital pleasurable sensitivity and higher vulvar vestibular pain sensitivity when orgasm occurs. Findings suggest that enhancing stimulation pleasurableness, psychological sexual arousal and lubrication mitigate normative increases in pain sensitivity during

  2. Pleasure and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Marie Kennett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010 have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  3. Mozart effect, cognitive dissonance, and the pleasure of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid; Cabanac, Arnaud; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel

    2013-05-01

    We explore a possibility that the 'Mozart effect' points to a fundamental cognitive function of music. Would such an effect of music be due to the hedonicity, a fundamental dimension of mental experience? The present paper explores a recent hypothesis that music helps to tolerate cognitive dissonances and thus enabled accumulation of knowledge and human cultural evolution. We studied whether the influence of music is related to its hedonicity and whether pleasant or unpleasant music would influence scholarly test performance and cognitive dissonance. Specific hypotheses evaluated in this study are that during a test students experience contradictory cognitions that cause cognitive dissonances. If some music helps to tolerate cognitive dissonances, then first, this music should increase the duration during which participants can tolerate stressful conditions while evaluating test choices. Second, this should result in improved performance. These hypotheses are tentatively confirmed in the reported experiments as the agreeable music was correlated with longer duration of tests under stressful conditions and better performance above that under indifferent or unpleasant music. It follows that music likely performs a fundamental cognitive function explaining the origin and evolution of musical ability that have been considered a mystery. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Botany on a plate. Pleasure and the power of pictures in promoting early nineteenth-century scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secord, Anne

    2002-03-01

    In early nineteenth-century Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-century preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.

  5. Psychedelic Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhling, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    to explore the pleasures of tripping. Results: The analyses map out how drugs such as LSD and mushrooms – in combination with contextual factors such as other people, music and nature – give rise to a set of affective modifications of the drug user’s capacities to feel, sense and act. Conclusion...

  6. The Pleasure of Fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen

    I plan to take departure in the Freudian concept of the uncanny and unfold how this also plays on aesthetics of pleasure. The way we cope with fear is often related to pleasure, for example how children often laugh when frightened. This will lead me to a discussion of how fear and pleasure...

  7. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  8. The Power in Pleasure: Practical Implementation of Pleasure in Sex Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsel, Erica R.

    2016-01-01

    Pleasure is an important aspect of healthy sexual development. Moreover, public health researchers and feminist scholars suggest that pleasure-inclusive sex education is effective for reducing pregnancy and rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and may create a more inclusive classroom environment for underserved individuals.…

  9. Dangers and Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha Maria; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    to ‘hard’ illegal drugs; and, finally, the pro-drug position, characteristic of drug users with low risk perceptions and high pleasure-orientation. We use the focus group interviews to demonstrate how youths occupying these differing positions argue for and against drugs and which risks and pleasures......This is a study of young people’s conceptions of illegal drug use as dangerous and/or pleasurable and an analysis of the relationship between attitudes to drugs, drinking, friends’ reported drug use and own experience with drug use and drinking. The article applies a mixed methods approach using...... both survey data and focus group interviews. The main statistical method is Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), which constructs a social space of young people’s attitudes to drugs and drug experiences relationally. We identify four interrelated positions on illegal drug use among 17 to 19-year...

  10. Mixing pleasures: review of the effects of drugs on sex behavior in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Pitchers, Kyle K; Balfour, Margaret E; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-06-01

    Drugs of abuse act on the brain circuits mediating motivation and reward associated with natural behaviors. There is ample evidence that drugs of abuse impact male and female sexual behavior. First, the current review discusses the effect of drugs of abuse on sexual motivation and performance in male and female humans. In particular, we discuss the effects of commonly abused drugs including psychostimulants, opiates, marijuana/THC, and alcohol. In general, drug use affects sexual motivation, arousal, and performance and is commonly associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Second, studies on effects of systemic administration of drugs of abuse on sexual behavior in animals are reviewed. These studies analyze the effects on sexual performance and motivation but do not investigate the effects of drugs on risk-taking behavior, creating a disconnect between human and animal studies. For this reason, we discuss two studies that focus on the effects of alcohol and methamphetamine on inhibition of maladaptive sex-seeking behaviors in rodents. Third, this review discusses potential brain areas where drugs of abuse may be exerting their effect on sexual behavior with a focus on the mesolimbic system as the site of action. Finally, we discuss recent studies that have brought to light that sexual experience in turn can affect drug responsiveness, including a sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in female and male rodents as well as enhanced drug reward in male rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Casimir Effect Upon A Single Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Hoodbhoy, Pervez

    2004-01-01

    In the presence of an external field, the imposition of specific boundary conditions can lead to interesting new manifestations of the Casimir effect. In particular, it is shown here that even a single conducting plate may experience a non-zero force due to vacuum fluctuations. The origins of this force lie in the change induced by the external potential in the density of available quantum states.

  12. Rate effects in resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, C.; Riegler, W.; Kalweit, A.

    2006-01-01

    The resistive plates in RPCs cause a drop of the electric field in the gas gap at high particle rates or large gas gain, which affects efficiency and time resolution. This effect is typically estimated by assuming the particle flux to be a DC current that causes a voltage drop when it passes through the resistive plate. In an improved model by Abbrescia (Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 533 (2004) 7), the fluctuation of the field in the gas gap is modelled by assuming that the avalanche partially discharges a small capacitor which gets recharged with a time constant characteristic for the given RPC. In our approach, the effect is calculated by using the exact analytic solution for the time dependent electric field of a point charge sitting on the surface of a resistive plate in an RPC. This is, by definition, the best possible approximation to reality. The solution is obtained using the quasi-static approximation of Maxwell's equations. The formulas are presented as integral representations with 'cured' integrands, which allow easy numerical evaluation for Monte Carlo simulations. The solutions show that the charges in RPCs are 'destroyed' with a continuous distribution of time constants which are related in a very intuitive way to some limiting cases. Using these formulas we present a Monte Carlo simulation of rate effects, proving the applicability of this approach. Finally, we compare the Monte Carlo results to analytical calculations, similar to the ones proposed by Gonzalez-Diaz et al. (see proceedings of this conference)

  13. Guilty pleasures: The effect of perceived overeating on food addiction attributions and snack choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Helen K; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2018-02-01

    Despite being widely debated throughout the scientific community, the concept of food addiction remains a popular explanation for overeating and obesity amongst the lay public. Overeating is often accompanied by feelings of guilt and dietary concern, and this may lead people to attribute their eating to an addiction in order to minimise personal responsibility. Research also indicates that food addiction attributions and dietary concern may lead people to limit their exposure to tempting foods. To test these ideas, we examined the effect of perceived overeating on food addiction attributions and snack choice. Subjective ratings of guilt and dietary concern were indirectly manipulated by leading female participants (N=90) to believe they had eaten more than (overeating condition), less than (undereating condition), or roughly the same (control condition) amount of palatable foods in relation to their own estimated consumption and to previous participants. Participants then rated the relative importance of a list of explanations for their eating (including "the foods were really addictive") and selected a snack to take home with them. Ratings of guilt and dietary concern were highest in the overeating condition, and lowest in the undereating condition, indicating that the manipulation had been successful. However, findings revealed no effect of condition on food addiction attributions. As predicted, participants in the overeating condition selected less tempting snacks than in the undereating condition. However, this effect was not mediated by guilt/dietary concern. There was also no association between food-addiction attributions and snack choice. These findings suggest that perceived overeating affects snack choice but not food addiction attributions. Future research should investigate whether food addiction attributions may be driven by feelings of guilt and dietary concern following longer-term disinhibited eating patterns. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  14. Pleasure to play, arousal to stay: the effect of player emotions on digital game preferences and playing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poels, Karolien; van den Hoogen, Wouter; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand; de Kort, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how player emotions during game-play, measured through self-report and physiological recordings, predict playing time and game preferences. We distinguished between short-term (immediately after game-play) and long-term (after 3 weeks) playing time and game preferences. While pleasure was most predictive for short-term playing time and game preferences, arousal, particularly for game preferences, was most predictive on the longer term. This result was found through both self-report and physiological emotion measures. This study initiates theorizing about digital gaming as a hedonic consumer product and sketches future research endeavors of this topic.

  15. Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.

  16. Paradox and pleasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Sara Mosberg

    2014-01-01

    is analysed on the basis of 13 online or email qualitative interviews. The analysis employs the concepts of realism and fantasy which have been used to understand media pleasures as concerned both with the familiar and the utopic. While realism in some form or other appears important to most of the informants......, the point of recognition is not the portrayal of daily routines but rather relationships and places. These “realistic” elements form a bridge to utopic engagements, most strikingly an oscillation between being in and letting go of control....

  17. I Will Do It If I Enjoy It! The Moderating Effect of Seeking Sensory Pleasure When Exposed to Participatory CSR Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Maya, Salvador; Lardín-Zambudio, Rafaela; López-López, Inés

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to gain differentiation, companies are allocating resources to corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. At the same time, they are giving consumers a more active role in the process of creating value. In this sense, consumer participation represents a new approach to gain competitive advantage. However, the effectiveness of consumer participation in CSR campaigns still remains unknown. With the purpose of shedding light on this issue, this paper shows that participatory CSR campaigns lead to greater consumer perceptions of CSR, which in turn results in more favorable attitudes toward the company. Furthermore, the effect is stronger for sensory pleasure seekers, whose involvement with the experience is greater. The findings contribute to the CSR literature and reveal important implications for marketers.

  18. I Will Do It If I Enjoy It! The Moderating Effect of Seeking Sensory Pleasure When Exposed to Participatory CSR Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Maya, Salvador; Lardín-Zambudio, Rafaela; López-López, Inés

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to gain differentiation, companies are allocating resources to corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. At the same time, they are giving consumers a more active role in the process of creating value. In this sense, consumer participation represents a new approach to gain competitive advantage. However, the effectiveness of consumer participation in CSR campaigns still remains unknown. With the purpose of shedding light on this issue, this paper shows that participatory CSR campaigns lead to greater consumer perceptions of CSR, which in turn results in more favorable attitudes toward the company. Furthermore, the effect is stronger for sensory pleasure seekers, whose involvement with the experience is greater. The findings contribute to the CSR literature and reveal important implications for marketers. PMID:26779070

  19. Pleasure seeking and birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V

    2011-10-01

    Songbirds sing at high rates within multiple contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to communicate and that the act of singing itself may be rewarding. Little is known about the neural regulation of the motivation to communicate. Dopamine and opioid neuropeptides play a primary role in reward seeking and sensory pleasure. In songbirds, these neurochemicals are found within brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several lines of research indicate that dopamine and opioids in these regions play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is used to attract females (female-directed song) or is not directed towards other individuals (undirected song). Evidence is reviewed supporting the hypotheses: (1) that distinct patterns of dopamine activity influence the motivation to produce undirected and female-directed song, (2) that undirected communication is intrinsically reinforced by immediate release of opioids induced by the act of singing, and (3) that directed communication is socially reinforced by opioids released as part of social interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE EFFECT OF SUPPORT PLATE ON DRILLING-INDUCED DELAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Zarif Karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delamination is considered as a major problem in drilling of composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. The thrust force exerted by the drill is considered as the major cause of delamination; and one practical approach to reduce delamination is to use a back-up plate under the specimen. In this paper, the effect of exit support plate on delamination in twist drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites is studied. Firstly, two analytical models based on linear fracture mechanics and elastic bending theory of plates are described to find critical thrust forces at the beginning of crack growth for drilling with and without back-up plate. Secondly, two series of experiments are carried out on glass fiber reinforced composites to determine quantitatively the effect of drilling parameters on the amount of delamination. Experimental findings verify a large reduction in the amount of delaminated area when a back-up plate is placed under the specimen.

  1. Effectiveness of plate augmentation for femoral shaft nonunion after nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jung Lin

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Plate augmentation with retention of the nail with autologous bone grafting may be an effective and reliable alternative in treating nonunion of the femoral shaft fracture after open reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nail.

  2. Effect of isolator plates on telecom shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, M. Mebrouk; Dokkar, Boubekeur; Dokkar, Abdelghani; Settou, Noureddine; Chennouf, Nasreddine

    2018-05-01

    Passive ventilation systems are being increasingly proposed as an alternate to mechanical ventilation systems. This tendency is due to their potential benefits in terms of operational cost, energy requirement and carbon dioxide emission. In the present work, fresh flow is introduced under external isolator plates in order to reduce indoor temperature of telecom shelter located at neighboring of Ouargla city (south of Algeria). The metallic plates play two roles; the first one is to protect shelter from sun rays and the second is to operate as solar chimney. This chimney creates upward airflow which operates as passive cooling for the microwave relay. During the whole year, Shelter audit energy has been examined using Trnsys 16 software. Then, CFD code (Fluent 6.3) is used to predict thermal performance and fluid flow in two-dimensional computational domain for solar chimneys. The obtained results show that flow increase at shelter inlet causes a marked improvement in shelter cooling. This improvement indicates that shelter can be designed with small conventional air conditioning which leads to significant energy consumption fall. Indeed, with this technique, indoor temperature reduction can reach about 30°K without any electrical energy dispenses.

  3. Effects of Volar Tilt, Wrist Extension, and Plate Position on Contact Between Flexor Pollicis Longus Tendon and Volar Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Caroline N Wolfe; Burns, Geoffrey T; Zhu, Andy F; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-12-01

    Volar plates positioned at, or distal to, the watershed line have been shown to have a higher incidence of attritional rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of wrist extension and volar tilt on the contact between the plate and the FPL tendon in a cadaver model. We hypothesized that, following volar plate application, loss of native volar tilt increases the contact between the FPL and the plate at lower degrees of wrist extension. A volar locking plate was applied on 6 fresh-frozen cadavers. To determine the contact between the plate and the FPL tendon, both structures were wrapped with copper wire and circuit conductivity was monitored throughout wrist motion. A lateral wrist radiograph was obtained at each circuit closure, indicating tendon-plate contact. Baseline measurements were obtained with plate positioned at Soong grades 0, 1, and 2. An extra-articular osteotomy was made and contact was recorded at various volar tilt angles (+5°, 0°, -5°, -10°, -15°, and -20°) in 3 different plate positions. A blinded observer measured the degree of wrist extension on all lateral radiographs. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression model. Plates placed distal to the watershed line had the most contact throughout wrist range of motion. Significantly, less wrist extension was required for contact in wrists with neutral or dorsal tilt and in distally placed volar plates. Volar tilt, wrist extension, and plate position were 3 independent risk factors determining contact between plate and tendon. Loss of volar tilt, increased wrist extension, and higher Soong grade plate position result in greater contact between wire-wrapped FPL tendon and plate. The FPL/plate contact chart generated in this study may be used to assess the risk of rupture in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of matrix cracking and material uncertainty on composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, P.; Umesh, K.; Ganguli, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laminated composite plate model based on first order shear deformation theory is implemented using the finite element method. Matrix cracks are introduced into the finite element model by considering changes in the A, B and D matrices of composites. The effects of different boundary conditions, laminate types and ply angles on the behavior of composite plates with matrix cracks are studied. Finally, the effect of material property uncertainty, which is important for composite material on the composite plate, is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Probabilistic estimates of damage detection reliability in composite plates are made for static and dynamic measurements. It is found that the effect of uncertainty must be considered for accurate damage detection in composite structures. The estimates of variance obtained for observable system properties due to uncertainty can be used for developing more robust damage detection algorithms.

  5. Visual illusions and plate design: the effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; van den Bos, W; Matheson, D; Desai, M; McClure, S M; Robinson, T N

    2014-05-01

    The Delboeuf Illusion affects perceptions of the relative sizes of concentric shapes. This study was designed to extend research on the application of the Delboeuf illusion to food on a plate by testing whether a plate's rim width and coloring influence perceptual bias to affect perceived food portion size. Within-subjects experimental design. Experiment 1 tested the effect of rim width on perceived food portion size. Experiment 2 tested the effect of rim coloring on perceived food portion size. In both experiments, participants observed a series of photographic images of paired, side-by-side plates varying in designs and amounts of food. From each pair, participants were asked to select the plate that contained more food. Multilevel logistic regression examined the effects of rim width and coloring on perceived food portion size. Experiment 1: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 5% and the visual area of food portions by 10% on plates with wider rims compared with plates with very thin rims (Pfood portion sizes. Experiment 2: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 1.5% and the visual area of food portions by 3% on plates with rim coloring compared with plates with no coloring (P=0.01). The effect of rim coloring was greater with smaller food portion sizes. The Delboeuf illusion applies to food on a plate. Participants overestimated food portion size on plates with wider and colored rims. These findings may help design plates to influence perceptions of food portion sizes.

  6. Estimation of effective elastic constants for grid plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    1980-07-01

    This article contains a method of estimation for the effective elastic constants of a grid plate, which is a flat perforated plate with pipes for cooling. The elastic constants of the grid plate are formulated for two symmetric axes. In the case of using OFCu(E 0 = 12500 kg/mm 2 , ν 0 = 0.34) as the material of the grid, the results are given as follows. E sub(L) = 3180 kg/mm 2 , E sub(T) = 3860 kg/mm 2 upsilon sub(LT) = 0.12, upsilon sub(TL) = 0.15 (author)

  7. Base-plate effects on pipe-support stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, B.V.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Present nuclear power plant design methods require that pipe support spring rates be considered in the seismic design of piping systems. Base plate flexibility can have a significant effect on the spring rates of these support structures. This paper describes the field inspection, test, and analytical techniques used to identify and correct excessively flexible base plates on the Fast Flux Test Facility pipe support structures

  8. Hall effects on MHD flow past an accelerated plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous effects of rotation and Hall current on the hydromagnetic flow past an accelerated horizontal plate relative to a rotating fluid is presented. It is found that for given values of m (Hall parameter, M (Hartmann number and an imposed rotation parameter Ω satisfying Ω = M 2m/(1 + m2, the transverse motion (transverse to the main flow disappears and the fluid moves in the direction of the plate only. The effects of the parameters m, M and Ω on the axial and transverse velocity profiles are shown graphically, whereas the effects of the parameters on the skin-friction components are shown by tabular values.

  9. On indoor radon contamination monitoring with SSNTDs: Experimental results concerning plate-out and self-plate-out effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigazzi, G.; Hadler, J.C.; Paulo, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the alpha activities of 222 Rn and its daughters were performed, both inside a glass recipient and in closed rooms, employing SSNTDs (CR-39 and nuclear emulsion). The experimental results presented here show that plate-out and self-plate-out effects should be taken into account when SSNTDs are employed in indoor radon contamination monitoring. (orig.)

  10. Mass transfer effects on vertical oscillating plate with heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical solution of unsteady viscous incompressible flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with uniform heat flux and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. The temperature from the plate to the fluid at an uniform rate and the mass is diffused uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number Schmidt number and time are studied. The so­lutions are valid only for small values of time t. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt or chemical reaction parameter.

  11. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  12. With or without you: Interactive effects of retail density and need for affiliation on shopping pleasure and spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Krooshoop, J.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2012-01-01

    A shopping trip is a not only a goal-directed activity for acquiring a desired product but also a social experience involving fellow shoppers. Crowding research generally considers retail density a negative influence and ignores any positive effects of the presence of others. Considering that

  13. With or without you: interactive effects of retail density and need for affiliation on shopping pleasure and spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, T.J.L.; Krooshoop, J.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Pruyn, A.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    A shopping trip is a not only a goal-directed activity for acquiring a desired product but also a social experience involving fellow shoppers. Crowding research generally considers retail density a negative influence and ignores any positive effects of the presence of others. Considering that

  14. The neurobiology of pleasure, reward processes, addiction and their health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2004-08-01

    Modern science begins to understand pleasure as a potential component of salutogenesis. Thereby, pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. Further, health implications related to pleasurable activities are analyzed. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors, i.e., motivational toxicity. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, endorphin and endogenous morphinergic mechanisms may play a role. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways. Thus, the concrete outcome of pleasant experiences may be a question of dose. Moderate pleasurable experiences are able to enhance biological flexibility and health. Hence, pleasure can be a resistance resource or may serve salutogenesis. Natural rewards are mediated by sensory organ stimulation, thereby exhibiting a potential association with complementary medical approaches. Trust and belief can be part of a self-healing potential connected with rewarding stimuli. Further, the placebo response physiologically resembles pleasure phenomena, since both involve brain's reward circuitry stimulation and subjective feelings of well-being. Pleasurable activities can stimulate

  15. Transitional behaviour of thickness effects in shipbuilding materials (MS plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, S. M. Ikhtiar; Razib, Amirul Hasan; Rahman, Md. Rabab Raiyatur

    2017-12-01

    Majority of the crack propagation in ships and offshore structures are caused due to fatigue. Previously, it was known that fatigue strength of notched specimen is dependent on size, but recently it came to light that fatigue strength of some welded joints depends on the thickness. Much investigation is done on the fatigue growth of welded joints. Fatigue often results in fracture accidents, which starts from the sites of structural discontinuities because of the reason that they may induce local stress concentrations. Structural discontinuities include notches, holes, sharp corners, and weld defects. Weld defects include undercut, porosity, lack of fusion, slag inclusion, incomplete weld root penetration, and misalignments. In order to investigate the effects of plate thickness on fatigue strength, semi-elliptical side notches (U and V shaped) in plates are studied in the present research. First consider a simple problem of crack emanating from notches in plates where the solution of stress intensity factor is given by an empirical formula so that the thickness effect on fatigue strength can easily be investigated for a variety of geometrical parameters. The present study aims to investigate the transitional behaviour of thickness effect in plates on fatigue strength. In order to calculate the stress, finite element analysis is carried by using ANSYS.

  16. The Impact of Reading for Pleasure on Georgian University EFL Students' Reading Comprehension (IBSU Case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goctu, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Reading is one of the most significant skills, particularly for EFL students. Many students today do not have the reading skills needed to do effective work in their courses. This paper explores reading for pleasure, its importance and impact on reading comprehension. Pleasure reading helps students to communicate, listen and, most importantly, to…

  17. Dark chocolate: consumption for pleasure or therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Targher, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Traditional chocolate is derived from the cocoa bean, which is one of the most concentrated sources of flavanols, a subgroup of the natural antioxidant plant compounds called flavonoids. Accumulating evidence from the past 10 years demonstrates that moderate consumption of chocolate, especially dark chocolate, may exert protective effects against the development of cardiovascular disease. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this positive influence, including metabolic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects, as well as effects on insulin sensitivity and vascular endothelial function. Should these results be confirmed in randomised, controlled, cross-over, multi-dose trials, then the pleasure associated with chocolate consumption might also be justified from health and psychological perspectives. However, since dark chocolate has substantially higher levels of flavonoids than milk chocolate, and milk proteins may inhibit absorption of flavonoids, it might be preferable to consume dark chocolate than the white (milk) variety.

  18. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  19. Parsing (malicious) pleasures : schadenfreude and gloating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    2015-01-01

    We offer the first empirical comparison of the pleasure in seeing (i.e., schadenfreude) and in causing (i.e., gloating) others' adversity. In Study 1, we asked participants to recall and report on an (individual or group) episode of pleasure that conformed to our formal definition of schadenfreude,

  20. Pedagogical Pleasures: Augustine in the Feminist Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinksi, Maggie A.

    2017-01-01

    Many feminist philosophers of education have argued that the teacher's pleasure plays an important role in the classroom. However, accessing such pleasure is often easier said than done. Given our current academic climate, how might teachers develop pedagogical practices that cultivate these delights? This article investigates the (rather…

  1. What is reality and what is pleasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Køppe, Simo

    2009-01-01

    The article comments on Zygmund Bauman's article: Freudian civilization revisited and is a discussion of the relation between the reality principle and the pleasure principle in Freud's psychoanalytical theory and of the reation between pleasure and reality in society as such....

  2. Soil plate bioassay: an effective method to determine ecotoxicological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R; Roca-Pérez, L; Marimón, L

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have become one of the most serious anthropogenic stressors for plants and other living organisms. Having efficient and feasible bioassays available to assess the ecotoxicological risks deriving from soil pollution is necessary. This work determines pollution by Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in two soils used for growing rice from the Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Spain). Both were submitted to a different degree of anthropic activity, and their ecotoxicological risk was assessed by four ecotoxicity tests to compare their effectiveness: Microtox test, Zucconi test, pot bioassay (PB) and soil plate bioassay (SPB). The sensitivity of three plant species (barley, cress and lettuce) was also assessed. The results reveal a different degree of effectiveness and level of inhibition in the target organisms' growth depending on the test applied, to such an extent that the one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences only for the plate bioassay results, with considerable inhibition of root and shoot elongation in seedlings. Of the three plant species selected, lettuce was the most sensitive species to toxic effects, followed by cress and barley. Finally, the results also indicate that the SPB is an efficient, simple and economic alternative to other ecotoxicological assays to assess toxicity risks deriving from soil pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew E; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated.

  4. The Pleasures of Sad Music: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eSachs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable (1 when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2 when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3 when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated.

  5. Wave propagation in embedded inhomogeneous nanoscale plates incorporating thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali

    2018-04-01

    In this article, an analytical approach is developed to study the effects of thermal loading on the wave propagation characteristics of an embedded functionally graded (FG) nanoplate based on refined four-variable plate theory. The heat conduction equation is solved to derive the nonlinear temperature distribution across the thickness. Temperature-dependent material properties of nanoplate are graded using Mori-Tanaka model. The nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is introduced to consider small-scale effects. The governing equations are derived by the means of Hamilton's principle. Obtained frequencies are validated with those of previously published works. Effects of different parameters such as temperature distribution, foundation parameters, nonlocal parameter, and gradient index on the wave propagation response of size-dependent FG nanoplates have been investigated.

  6. Reducing the Lift-Off Effect on Permeability Measurement for Magnetic Plates From Multifrequency Induction Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Mingyang; Zhu, Wenqian; Yin, Liyuan; Peyton, Anthony J.; Yin, Wuliang; Qu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Lift-off variation causes errors in eddy current measurement of nonmagnetic plates as well as magnetic plates. For nonmagnetic plates, previous work has been carried out to address the issue. In this paper, we follow a similar strategy, but try to reduce the lift-off effect on another index--zero-crossing frequency for magnetic plates. This modified index, termed as the compensated zero-crossing frequency, can be obtained from the measured multifrequency inductance spectral data using the alg...

  7. The effect of plate thickness, surface tension and fluid flow on detachment of drops from a plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Geld, C.W.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    The pinch-off of drops from the downstream end of plates is an important re-entrainment mechanism of condensate in compact condensers. The present experimental study complements a previous one [A.S. Lexmond, C.W.M. van der Geld, The effect of fluid flow on detachment of drops from the downstream end

  8. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.

  9. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun

    2013-01-01

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on

  10. Hedonic quality or reward? A study of basic pleasure in homeostasis and decision making of a motivated autonomous robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2016-10-01

    We present a robot architecture and experiments to investigate some of the roles that pleasure plays in the decision making (action selection) process of an autonomous robot that must survive in its environment. We have conducted three sets of experiments to assess the effect of different types of pleasure-related versus unrelated to the satisfaction of physiological needs-under different environmental circumstances. Our results indicate that pleasure, including pleasure unrelated to need satisfaction, has value for homeostatic management in terms of improved viability and increased flexibility in adaptive behavior.

  11. Recombination: An important effect in multigap resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroud, K.; Afarideh, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Rahighi, J.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have simulated the gas avalanche in a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The results were then compared with our data from the MRPC . Up to now, the total amount of charge produced in a gas gap is considered to be given by the total number of positive ions generated by the gas avalanches. However, the total charge generated by the simulation program is much too large and is in conflict with our data. Our data indicate that nearly 100% of the negative ions recombine with the positive ions. The recombination effect dramatically reduces the amount of charge in the gas gap: a very important feature for MRPC technology especially for the rate capability.

  12. Hall effects on MHD flow past an accelerated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundalgekar, V.M.; Ravi, S.; Hiremath, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    An exact solution of the MHD flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting, viscous fluid past a uniformly accelerated plate is presented. The velocity profiles are shown graphically and the numerical values of axial and transverse components of skin friction are tabulated. At high values of the Hall parameter, ωtau, the velocity is found to be oscillatory near the plate. (author)

  13. Effect of thiram on chicken growth plate cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiram is a general use dithiocarbamate pesticide. It causes tibial dyschondroplasia, a growth plate cartilage defect in poultry characterized by growth plate broadening due to the accumulation of nonviable chondrocytes which lead to lameness. Since proteins play significant roles in all aspects cel...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  15. The effect of papaine on the time course of the end-plate current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, M; Kordas, M; Melik, Z

    1980-07-01

    Papaine is known to detach cholinesterases from the synaptic cleft. It could be expected that this would result in an increase of the amplitude and half-time of the end-plate current. Thus, the effect of papaine on the end-plate current. Thus, the effect of papaine on the end-plate current should be similar to the effect of anticholinesterase methanesulfonylfluoride. The end-plate current was recorded in frog skeletal muscle at various levels of membrane potential, before and after papaine was added to the bath. The effect of papaine was an increase of the half-time of the end-plate current, similarly as after treatment of the muscle by methanesulfonylfluoride. It seems that both papaine and methanesulfonylfluoride have a similar mechanism of action. In either experimental condition hydrolysis of transmitter is decreased or abolished, which results in an increase of the half-time of the end-plate current.

  16. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Benjamin P.; Frank, Michael J.; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875

  17. Pleasure: An under-utilised 'P' in social marketing for healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone

    2016-09-01

    The escalating obesity crisis has resulted in a wide range of efforts to develop more effective prevention approaches. This review article explores the potential for the concept of food pleasure to take centre stage in social marketing programs that aim to encourage healthy eating. Literature relating to food motivations is reviewed and the various strategic phases involved in developing social marketing programs are outlined in the context of incorporating a food pleasure focus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, D.K.; Kant, Tarun; Srinivas, K.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature

  19. Finite thickness effect of a zone plate on focusing hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Chrzas, J.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Spatial resolution and focusing efficiency are two important properties of a zone plate in x-ray focusing applications. A general expression of the zone plate equation describing its zone registration is derived from the interference of spherical waves emited from two mutually coherent point sources. An analytical expression of the focusing efficiency in terms of the zone plate thickness and x-ray refractive indices of the zones is also derived. Validity condition for using this expression is considered. Thickness required for obtaining adequate focusing efficiency is calculated as a function of x-ray energy for several representative materials. The spatial resolution of a finite thickness zone plate is worse than that of an infinetly thin zone plate. which is approximately equal to the smallest zone width of the zone plate. The effect of the finite thickness on the spatial resolution is considered

  20. Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate under mechanical and electrical loads with the consideration of surface effects. Surface effects, including surface elasticity, residual surface stress and surface piezoelectricity, are incorporated into the conventional Kirchhoff plate theory for a piezoelectric plate via the surface piezoelectricity model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. Different from the results predicted by the conventional plate theory ignoring the surface effects, the proposed model predicts size-dependent behaviours of the piezoelectric thin plate with nanoscale thickness. It is found that surface effects have significant influence on the electroelastic responses of the piezoelectric nanoplate. This work is expected to provide more accurate predictions on characterizing nanofilm or nanoribbon based piezoelectric devices in nanoelectromechanical systems. (paper)

  1. Anticipatory pleasure and approach motivation in schizophrenia-like negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maike; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2013-12-15

    Previous research of negative symptoms in schizophrenia has emphasized an anticipatory pleasure deficit, yet the relationship of this deficit to patients' motivation in everyday life is poorly understood. This study tested the link between anticipatory pleasure and two broad motivational systems that are said to regulate the intensity of approach and avoidance behavior, the Behavioral Inhibition system (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS). It was hypothesized that high vulnerability for negative symptoms would be associated with low reward responsiveness and that this association will be mediated by the amount of anticipated pleasure. Students (n=171) with varying vulnerability for negative symptoms (assessed by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences) completed questionnaires regarding (a) anticipatory and consummatory pleasure, and (b) responsiveness to threat and reward. As hypothesized, anticipatory pleasure correlated significantly negatively with subclinical negative symptoms (r=-0.21) and significantly positively with BAS (r=0.55). Furthermore, evidence for a partial mediation effect was found. The findings support the notion of a close association between negative symptoms, the ability to anticipate pleasure and approach motivation that is evident even in healthy persons. It is suggested that the behavioral deficits immanent to negative symptoms reflect difficulties in the ability to translate emotions into motivation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; de Boon, J; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discursive review of the dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance that Mehrabian and Russell developed in 1974 to assess environmental perception, experience, and psychological responses. Since then numerous researchers applied these dimensions to assess the experience of the

  3. On the effect of damping on dispersion curves in plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manconia, Elisabetta; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study on quantitative prediction and understanding of time-harmonic wave characteristics in damped plates. Material dissipation is modelled by using complex-valued velocities of free dilatation and shear waves in an unbounded volume. As a numerical example, solution...

  4. Effect of mixed adhesive joints and tapered plate on stresses in retrofitted beams bonded with a fiber-reinforced polymer plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchikhi, A.S.; Megueni, A.; Gouasmi, S.; Boukoulda, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Interface stress distribution in beams reinforced composites jointed by homogeneous adhesive. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by using the tapered plate at edges. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by using the bi-adhesive. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by combining between the tapered plate and the bi-adhesive. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the reduction of interfacial stresses when using bonded laminates in strengthening existing structures. The presence of high interfacial stresses that develop near the end of composite known as edge effect may compromise the résistance to failure of strengthened structure. It is known that the decrease of plate thickness and fitness of adhesive (Young modulus) reduces the stress concentration at plate ends. Another way to tackle the problem is proper design of the plate end shape (tapered plate) and using mixed adhesive joints (MAJs) between the adherents. In this paper, a comprehensive finite element (FE) study has been conducted to investigate the effect of mixed adhesive joints (MAJs) and tapering plate on the interfacial stress distribution in the adhesive layer in retrofitted steel beam with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plate, This results indicate that using the correct combination of tapering plate at the end and mixed adhesive joints can reduce the magnitude of the interfacial stresses significantly

  5. Measuring the effect of demagnetization in stacks of gadolinium plates using the magnetocaloric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipso, K.W.; Nielsen, K.K.; Christensen, D.V.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Engelbrecht, K.; Theil Kuhn, L.; Smith, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization in a stack of gadolinium plates is determined experimentally by using spatially resolved measurements of the adiabatic temperature change due to the magnetocaloric effect. The number of plates in the stack, the spacing between them and the position of the plate on which the temperature is measured are varied. The orientation of the magnetic field is also varied. The measurements are compared to a magnetostatic model previously described. The results show that the magnetocaloric effect, due to the change in the internal field, is sensitive to the stack configuration and the orientation of the applied field. This may have significant implications for the construction of a magnetic cooling device. - Highlights: → The magnetocaloric effect is used as an indirect measure of the internal magnetic field. → To our knowledge nobody has published experimental determination of demagnetizing field in stack configurations of plates of magnetic material. → We present good agreement between the experimental results and an established numerical model. → This serves to show that the model may be used further to predict, e.g., optimal configurations.

  6. Reading for Pleasure and Creativity among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathryn E.; Kneipp, Lee B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between reading for pleasure and creativity. University students (N = 225) completed measures of reading for pleasure and creativity (SCAB). The results indicated that reading for pleasure was significantly, positively correlated to creativity. Implications for the classroom are explored, including possible…

  7. 33 CFR 401.58 - Pleasure craft scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pleasure craft scheduling. 401.58... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.58 Pleasure craft scheduling. (a) The transit of pleasure craft shall be scheduled by the traffic controller or the officer in...

  8. Contracts used for the charter or lease of pleasure vessels in pleasure navigation : an Italian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Orrù

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Navigation Code has transposed the practices developed at international level, in particular in international contracts for the ‘’locazione’’ and ‘’noleggio’’ of ships, distinguishing between the ship lease, from the one side, and the charter, from the other. The latter, in particular, consists of voyage charter and time charter. However, the Italian discipline differs in several respects from the contract types developed at international level. As for pleasure vessels, a specific regime lacked until the Law of 11 February 1971, No 50. The great development of this sector (which was previously considered limited to the use of pleasure vessels only for personal purposes, in particular of the entrepreneurial use of these vessels, furthered the draft and enactment, in 2005, of the Pleasure Navigation Code (Law of 18 July 2005, No 171, providing for a more comprehensive regime, however still not covering all the issues and aspects of pleasure navigation. The Code provides for a special regime of the contracts for the lease and charter of pleasure vessels: this article provides a review of the regime of these contracts provided by the Italian Pleasure Navigation Code, with regard also to its relationship with the Navigation Code and the Civil Code. The Code’s provisions are also examined with reference to standard contracts developed at the international level.

  9. A comparative study of the effects of cone-plate and parallel-plate geometries on rheological properties under oscillatory shear flow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yong Song, H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available -1 Korea-Australia Rheology Journal A comparative study of the effects of cone-plate and parallel- plate geometries on rheological properties under oscillatory shear flow Hyeong Yong Song1, Reza Salehiyan2, Xiaolei Li1, Seung Hak Lee1 and Kyu Hyun1...

  10. Distal radius plate of CFR-PEEK has minimal effect compared to titanium plates on bone parameters in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joost J A; Lataster, Arno; van Rietbergen, Bert; Arts, Jacobus J; Geusens, Piet P; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Willems, Paul C

    2017-02-27

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK) has superior radiolucency compared to other orthopedic implant materials, e.g. titanium or stainless steel, thus allowing metal-artifact-free postoperative monitoring by computed tomography (CT). Recently, high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT) proved to be a promising technique to monitor the recovery of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), micro-architecture and biomechanical parameters in stable conservatively treated distal radius fractures. When using HRpQCT to monitor unstable distal radius fractures that require volar distal radius plating for fixation, radiolucent CFR-PEEK plates may be a better alternative to currently used titanium plates to allow for reliable assessment. In this pilot study, we assessed the effect of a volar distal radius plate made from CFR-PEEK on bone parameters obtained from HRpQCT in comparison to two titanium plates. Plates were instrumented in separate cadaveric human fore-arms (n = 3). After instrumentation and after removal of the plates duplicate HRpQCT scans were made of the region covered by the plate. HRpQCT images were visually checked for artifacts. vBMD, micro-architectural and biomechanical parameters were calculated, and compared between the uninstrumented and instrumented radii. No visible image artifacts were observed in the CFR-PEEK plate instrumented radius, and errors in bone parameters ranged from -3.2 to 2.6%. In the radii instrumented with the titanium plates, severe image artifacts were observed and errors in bone parameters ranged between -30.2 and 67.0%. We recommend using CFR-PEEK plates in longitudinal in vivo studies that monitor the healing process of unstable distal radius fractures treated operatively by plating or bone graft ingrowth.

  11. Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y; Bowler, N; Bowler, J R; Huang, Y

    2009-01-01

    Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

  12. Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Bowler, N.; Bowler, J. R.; Huang, Y.

    2009-07-01

    Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

  13. Multidimensional Normalization to Minimize Plate Effects of Suspension Bead Array Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Gwan; Lee, Woojoo; Nilsson, Peter; Pawitan, Yudi; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-10-07

    Enhanced by the growing number of biobanks, biomarker studies can now be performed with reasonable statistical power by using large sets of samples. Antibody-based proteomics by means of suspension bead arrays offers one attractive approach to analyze serum, plasma, or CSF samples for such studies in microtiter plates. To expand measurements beyond single batches, with either 96 or 384 samples per plate, suitable normalization methods are required to minimize the variation between plates. Here we propose two normalization approaches utilizing MA coordinates. The multidimensional MA (multi-MA) and MA-loess both consider all samples of a microtiter plate per suspension bead array assay and thus do not require any external reference samples. We demonstrate the performance of the two MA normalization methods with data obtained from the analysis of 384 samples including both serum and plasma. Samples were randomized across 96-well sample plates, processed, and analyzed in assay plates, respectively. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we could show that plate-wise clusters found in the first two components were eliminated by multi-MA normalization as compared with other normalization methods. Furthermore, we studied the correlation profiles between random pairs of antibodies and found that both MA normalization methods substantially reduced the inflated correlation introduced by plate effects. Normalization approaches using multi-MA and MA-loess minimized batch effects arising from the analysis of several assay plates with antibody suspension bead arrays. In a simulated biomarker study, multi-MA restored associations lost due to plate effects. Our normalization approaches, which are available as R package MDimNormn, could also be useful in studies using other types of high-throughput assay data.

  14. EFFECTS OF GEOMETRIC RATIOS AND FIBRE ORIENTATION ON THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to examine the influence of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural frequencies of fibre-reinforced laminated composite plates using finite element method based on Yang’s theory and his collaborators. The transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects were taken into consideration in the developed Fortran computer program. It has been shown that the use of first-order displacement field provides the same accuracy as higher-order displacement field when the number of elements representing the plate structure is increased (refined mesh. However, poor precision may appear for plates with high thickness-to-side ratio h/a (thickness/side length. This discrepancy limits the application of the developed theory to thick plates (h/a<0.5. The various curves show the evolution of the dimensionless frequency (w* versus fibre orientation angle (q and illustrate the apparition of a “triple-point” phenomenon engendered by the increase of the plate aspect ratio a/b (length/width for a specific value of h/a. This point defines the maximum natural frequency and the associated fibre orientation. Also, results show that for high and/or low aspect ratios, the triple-point phenomenon does not occur. This latter is rapidly reached for thick plates than thin plates when the plate aspect ratio a/b is progressively increased.

  15. Pleasure Experience and Emotion Expression in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, Min-yi; LI, Xu; LV, Qin-yu; Yl, Zheng-hui; CHEUNG, Eric F. C.; CHAN, Raymond C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Impairments in emotional experience and expression have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have been limited to either emotional experience (especially anhedonia) or expression. Few studies have examined both the experience and expression of emotion in schizophrenia patients at the same time. Aims The present study aimed to examine pleasure experience and emotion expression in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, we specifically examined the relationship between emotion impairments (both pleasure experience and expression) and negative symptoms. Methods One hundred and fifty patients completed the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale and Emotional Expressivity Scale. Results Schizophrenia patients exhibited deficits in experiencing pleasure, but showed intact reported emotion expression. Patients with prominent negative symptoms showed reduced anticipatory pleasure, especially in abstract anticipatory pleasure. Conclusion The present findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in pleasure experience, while their abilities to express emotion appear intact. Such deficits are more severe in patients with prominent negative symptoms. PMID:29276350

  16. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; de Boon, J; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discursive review of the dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance that Mehrabian and Russell developed in 1974 to assess environmental perception, experience, and psychological responses. Since then numerous researchers applied these dimensions to assess the experience of the physical environment and its perceived qualities. Although the dimensions appeared to be useful, there is a long-lasting debate going on among environmental psychologists about the interpretation ...

  18. Hormonal contraception and female pain, orgasm and sexual pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole K; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2014-02-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintentional, unplanned, or mistimed. Most unplanned pregnancies result from inconsistent, incorrect, or nonuse of a contraceptive method. Diminished sexual function and pleasure may be a barrier to using hormonal contraception. This study explores sexual function and behaviors of women in relation to the use of hormonal vs. nonhormonal methods of contraception. Data were collected as part of an online health and sexuality study of women. Main outcomes variables assess frequencies in two domains: (i) sexual function (proportion of sexual events with experiences of pain or discomfort, arousal, contentment and satisfaction, pleasure and enjoyment, lubrication difficulty, and orgasm) and (ii) sexual behavior (number of times engaged in sexual activity, proportion of sexual events initiated by the woman, and proportion of sexual events for which a lubricant was used). Sociodemographic variables and contraceptive use were used as sample descriptors and correlates. The recall period was the past 4 weeks. The sample included 1,101 women with approximately half (n = 535) using a hormonal contraceptive method exclusively or a combination of a hormonal and nonhormonal method, and about half (n = 566) using a nonhormonal method of contraception exclusively. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of hormonal contraceptive use to each of the dependent variables. Women using a hormonal contraceptive method experienced less frequent sexual activity, arousal, pleasure, and orgasm and more difficulty with lubrication even when controlling for sociodemographic variables. This study adds to the literature on the potential negative sexual side effects experienced by many women using hormonal contraception. Prospective research with diverse women is needed to enhance the understanding of potential negative sexual side effects of hormonal contraceptives, their prevalence, and possible mechanisms

  19. Effects of annealing and pulse plating on soft magnetic properties of electroplated Fe-Ni films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have already reported that Fe-Ni films prepared in citric-acid-based plating baths show good soft magnetic properties. In this paper, we investigated the effect of the grain size of the Fe-Ni crystalline phase in the films on magnetic properties, and employed an annealing and a pulse plating method in order to vary the grain size. The coercivity of the annealed Fe-Ni films at 600 °C shows large value, and good correlation between the grain growth and the coercivity was observed. The pulse plating enables us to reduce the grain size of the as-plated Fe-Ni films compared with the DC plating method, and we realized smooth surface and low coercivity of the Fe-Ni films using the pulse plating method. From these results, we confirmed the importance of the reduction in the grain size, and concluded that a pulse plating is an effective method to improve the good soft magnetic properties for our previously-reported Fe-Ni films.

  20. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  1. Ethics in Science: Pleasure and obligation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Thiago de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Readers: In this volume of Orbital - The Electronic Journal, we would like to promote a reflection about a highlighted theme in the scientific world - Ethics in Science. Over the last few decades we have verified a progressive increase in the flow of scientific production, reaching the mark of dozens of articles a day only in chemistry. Much of this increase in worldwide scientific production comes from the current technological landscape and sophisticated research instrumentation, which permit fast results with high impact. With an ever increasing flow of papers, we have established a dangerous level of requirements, an almost pathological necessity for good (or bad results, which in the opinion of many researchers have destroyed a basic principle of science, the pleasure to practice science. How much time should we invest in the production of a paper? Is there a defined time? Is this the correct way that we should do science, or are publications a natural consequence of matured results achieved with the pleasure of a great discovery/realization? There is also much concern about the formation of our future scientists. Are our research centers actually making students aware and able to realize new discoveries, or are just teaching them how to produce a paper? These are important considerations that we would like present in this editorial, because they are directly connected to one of the biggest crises experienced by the scientific world, the crisis of ethics in science. There is no doubt that the whole essence of science - the pleasure of a discovery or an achieved target - has been lost among the uncontrolled requirements to produce ever increasing numbers. Young and also more established scientists have introduced false results into the literature or have performed plagiarism, which has caused confusion throughout the community. The question is: What is the pleasure of telling the world that something has been done or discovered if it is

  2. Heat and mass transfer effects on moving vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal radiation effects on moving infinite vertical plate in the presence variable temperature and mass diffusion is considered. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace-transform technique. The velocity and skin-friction are studied for different parameters like thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, time and radiation parameter. It is observed that the velocity slightly decreases with increasing value of the radiation parameter.

  3. Effects of commercial cladding on the fracture behavior of pressure vessel steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Bolt, S.E.; Cook, K.V.; Corwin, W.R.; Oland, B.C.; Nanstad, R.K.; Robinson, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this program is to determine the effect, if any, of stainless steel cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states similar to those produced by thermal shock conditions. Preliminary results from testing at temperature 10 deg. C and 60 deg. C below NDT have shown that (1) a tough surface layer (cladding and/or HAZ) has arrested running flaws under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured, and (2) the residual load-bearing capacity of clad plates with large subclad flaws significantly exceeded that of an unclad plate. (author)

  4. Study of the effect of aggressive media on the long-term stability of reinforced plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelentsov, D.G.; Pochtman, Yu.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many important load-bearing structural elements that operate in agressive media are subjected to simultaneous mechanical and chemical attack. The current status of the problem of designing such members is adequately reflected. It follows from that only a few studies have been devoted to the long-term stability of reinforced plates in aggressive media, and most of them were based on structurally orthotropic theory. Such an approach makes it impossible to construct an adequate model of the deformation process. In particular, it precludes allowance for the effect of the discreteness of the reinforcement on plate stability and determination of changes in the character of deformation of the plate during service

  5. Investigation of effect of Ag(1), Cd(2) and Zn(2) on chemical nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunyatskas, A.M.; Tarozajte, R.K.; Gyanutene, I.K.; Lyaukonis, Yu.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated is the effect of Ag(1), Cd(2) and Zn(2) on chemical nickel plating using hypophosphite aimed to get corresponding alloys from alkali solutions. The H 2 formed volume and potential of coating have been measured while nickel plating. It is possible to have plating of Ni-P-Ag, Ni-P-Zn, Ni-P-Cd, Ni-P-Zn-Cd content coatings in alkali solutions using hypophosphite Ni-P-Zh and Ni-P-Zn-Cd coatings have corrosion resistance and unporousness. Cd and Zn inclusion in Ni-P coating is supposed to have both chemical and electrochemical origin

  6. Optical phase plates as a creative medium for special effects in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoulov, Vesselin I.; Meyer, Catherine; Argotti, Yann; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2001-12-01

    A new paradigm and methods for special effects in images were recently proposed by artist and movie producer Steven Hylen. Based on these methods, images resembling painting may be formed using optical phase plates. The role of the mathematical and optical properties of the phase plates is studied in the development of these new art forms. Results of custom software as well as ASAP simulations are presented.

  7. Radiation Effects on the Flow and Heat Transfer over a Moving Plate in a Parallel Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Anuar

    2009-01-01

    Effects of thermal radiation on the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a moving plate in a moving fluid is investigated. Under certain conditions, the present problem reduces to the classical Blasius and Sakiadis problems. It is found that dual solutions exist when the plate and the fluid move in the opposite directions. Moreover, the existence of thermal radiation is to reduce the heat transfer rate at the surface. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  8. Pleasure junkies all around! Why it matters and why 'the arts' might be the answer: a biopsychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F

    2017-05-17

    Today's society is pleasure seeking. We expect to obtain pleasurable experiences fast and easily. We are used to hyper-palatable foods and drinks, and we can get pornography, games and gadgets whenever we want them. with this type of pleasure-maximizing choice behaviour we may be turning ourselves into mindless pleasure junkies, handing over our free will for the next dopamine shoot. Pleasure-only activities are fun. In excess, however, such activities might have negative effects on our biopsychological health: they provoke a change in the neural mechanisms underlying choice behaviour. Choice behaviour becomes biased towards short-term pleasure-maximizing goals, just as in the addicted brain (modulated by the amygdala, posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex' (VMPFC), striatum, nucleus accumbens; 'A-system') and away from long-term prosperity and general well-being maximizing objectives (normally ensured by the insula, anterior VMPFC, hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); 'I-system'). This paper outlines, first, what 'pleasure' is and what 'pleasure-only' activities are (e.g. social media engagement, hyper-palatable eating). Second, an account is given of the type of action that might aid to maintain the neural systems underlying choice behaviour balanced. Finally, it is proposed that engagement with the arts might be an activity with the potential to foster healthy choice behaviour-and not be just for pleasure. The evidence in this rather new field of research is still piecemeal and inconclusive. This review aims to motivate targeted research in this domain. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Effects of hook plate on shoulder function after treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hong; Dong, Qi-Rong; Zhou, Rong-Kui; Zhen, Hua-Qing; Jiao, Ya-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate.

  10. Theoretical study of chemical reaction effects on vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution to the flow of a viscous incompressible unsteady flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. Both the plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with respect to time. The dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle, chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number and time are studied. The solutions are valid only for small values of time t. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt or chemical reaction parameter. .

  11. Evaluation of edge enhancement effect of phase contrast imaging using newly-developed photostimulable phosphor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the use of a newly developed columnar-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plate (CP1M200, referred to as system C) helps to provide improved edge-enhanced effect in phase contrast imaging. Physical characteristics of 2 conventional particulate-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plates (RP-5PM, referred to as system A and RP-6M, referred to as system B) and system C were measured. Then, an acrylic plate phantom and RMI152 phantom were imaged using 3 types of plates, and the edge-enhancement effects were evaluated based on the profile curve of the acrylic plate phantom. Visual evaluation of the RMI152 phantom images was conducted. The results showed that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of system C was superior to those of the other systems. The WS of system C was superior to those of the other systems in the low frequency band region, and inferior to those of the other systems in the high frequency band region. The presence of an edge-enhanced image was not detectable in the profile curve of the acrylic plate in system A, although that was shown in systems B and C due to their excellent sharpness. In the visual image evaluation of the RMI152 phantom, image quality of system C was superior to those of the other systems. Phase contrast imaging with a digital detector of a columnar-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plate is considered to provide improved edge-enhancement over that of conventional plates. (author)

  12. Effect of the plate surface characteristics and gap height on yield stresses of a magnetorheological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkkari, I; Syrjala, S; Kostamo, E; Kostamo, J; Pietola, M

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the plate material, surface roughness and measuring gap height on static and dynamic yield stresses of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid were investigated with a commercial plate–plate magnetorheometer. Magnetic and non-magnetic plates with smooth (Ra ∼ 0.3 μm) and rough (Ra ∼ 10 μm) surface finishes were used. It was shown by Hall probe measurements and finite element simulations that the use of magnetic plates or higher gap heights increases the level of magnetic flux density and changes the shape of the radial flux density profile. The yield stress increase caused by these factors was determined and subtracted from the measured values in order to examine only the effect of the wall characteristics or the gap height. Roughening of the surfaces offered a significant increase in the yield stresses for non-magnetic plates. With magnetic plates the yield stresses were higher to start with, but roughening did not increase them further. A significant part of the difference in measured stresses between rough non-magnetic and magnetic plates was caused by changes in magnetic flux density rather than by better contact of the particles to the plate surfaces. In a similar manner, an increase in gap height from 0.25 to 1.00 mm can lead to over 20% increase in measured stresses due to changes in the flux density profile. When these changes were compensated the dynamic yield stresses generally remained independent of the gap height, even in the cases where it was obvious that the wall slip was present. This suggests that with MR fluids the wall slip cannot be reliably detected by comparison of flow curves measured at different gap heights. (paper)

  13. Group Work: Pleasure or Pain? An Effective Guidance Activity or a Poor Substitute for One-to-One Interactions with Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of personal learning and development (PLD) group work as a guidance activity in both career counselling and youth support practice. It introduces the FAAST model-a framework for planning, preparing and delivering PLD group sessions (Westergaard in Effective group work with young people. Open University, Maidenhead,…

  14. Promoting health or promoting pleasure? A contingency approach to the effect of informational and emotional appeals on food liking and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, L; Cantin, I

    2000-12-01

    Here, we suggest that the relative effectiveness of informational and emotional appeals in persuasive communications may depend on the dominant basis of attitude towards the focal item (affective or cognitive), and on the precise response being targeted (i.e. influencing affect-based food liking or cognitive-based consumption). Ninety-five participants (milk drinking adults) participated in an experiment in which they were presented with a persuasive communication promoting milk consumption. A mixed design combined as between-participants factors attitude bases (two: affective/cognitive) and persuasive appeals (two: informational/emotional) with, as a within-participants measure, types of effect (two: liking and consumption change intent). We also measured immediate feelings and thoughts responses to the communication. As expected, cognition-based attitudes were not sensitive to a match between persuasive appeals and types of effect. For affect-based attitudes, results confirmed the predicted superiority of a match between the affective and cognitive bases of the targeted responses and that of the persuasive appeal. Food liking was particularly sensitive to an emotional appeal while an informational appeal tended to be more influential on food consumption. The underlying mechanism of these effects and their implication for the practice of health promotion and food marketing are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Pleasure of Food in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjældstad, Alexander; van Hartevelt, Tim Johannes; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2016-01-01

    The survival of individuals as well as species relies on a few fundamental necessities. In order to survive, we need food, procreation and social interactions. These are arguably also the most pleasurable activities and they all are known to stimulate an array of sensory systems. The multisensory....... These three stages can also be described as the wanting, liking and learning phases, though learning does occur throughout the entire eating process, it is strongest in the later satiation phase. The related hedonic processing takes place in the orbitofrontal cortex (a crucial area for smell) where other...

  16. Ever-changing Cycles of Musical Pleasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Line; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    of expectations (prediction errors) in response to “rewards” and “alert/incentive salience signals.” We argue that the human brain treats music as an alert/incentive salience signal, and suggest that the activity of dopamine neurons represents aspects of the phases of musical expectation and musical learning......, but not directly the phase of music liking. Finally, we propose a computational model for understanding musical anticipation and pleasure operationalized through the recent theory of predictive coding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)...

  17. Experimental and numerical simulation the effect of distribution plates in a mobile electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorpoor, A. R.; Sadeghi, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, behaviour of airflow inside an electrostatic precipitator with three different distribution plates has been considered by means of numerical and experimental methods and results have been compared together. This device has been designed and produced in this center for the first time in Iran, and its ability to absorb particles, haze and soot is good. But for increasing the efficiency there must be some changes to an miscellaneous sections. Therefore, here we consider the effect of distribution plates to increase performance, because when distribution flow at cross sections of precipitator is uniform, the efficiency will increase. To have a numerical simulation, fluent software version 5.3 was and for modeling turbulence the RNG k-Σ turbulent model applied. This program after discretization governing equations on a body fitted coordinate system, that is produced in preprocessor, integrates this equations on control volumes and determines the rate of quantities on control volume faces using order two (upwind)approximations. Finally by means of a pitot tube velocity magnitude of fluid in two sections of domain was measured and compared with numerical results which shows a good agreement. After simulation the three model, e.g. without distribution plate, with a distribution plate after inlet duct and with two distribution plates (one after inlet duct and before outlet duct), and taking some results and by comparing them, we conclude that use of combined distribution plate can give a good result

  18. The Effects of Electroless Nickel Plating Bath Conditions on Stability of Solution and Properties of Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jin; Lee, Jae Ho

    2000-01-01

    Electroless depositions of nickel were conducted in different bath conditions to find optimum conditions of electroless nickel plating at low operating temperature and pH. The effect of complexing reagent on stability of plating solution was investigated. Sodium citrate complexed plating solution is more stable than sodium pyrophosphate complexed solution. The effects of nickel salt concentration, reducing agent, complexing agent and inhibitor on deposition rate was investigated. The effects of pH on deposition rate and content of phosphorous in deposited nickel were also analyzed. Electroless deposited nickel become crystallized with increasing pH due to lower phosphorous content. In optimum operating bath condition, deposition rate was 7 μm/hr at 60 .deg. C and pH 10.0 without stabilizer. The rate was decreased with stabilizer concentration

  19. Effect of the substrate orientation on the formation of He-plates in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, M.; Barbot, J. F.; Declémy, A.; Beaufort, M. F.; Reboh, S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the crystalline orientation on the implantation-induced strain/stress and on the formation of He-plates was studied by combining high-resolution X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The highest strains are obtained in (001)-oriented implanted substrates regardless of the fluence and of the channeling effects. The anisotropic properties of the silicon that generate an anisotropic elastic response of the substrate were taken into account to explain these different values of strain. Upon specific thermal annealing, it is shown that the formation of He-plates occurs only in the (001) habit planes regardless of the orientation of the substrates, non-tilted and tilted (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-substrates. Moreover, the distribution of He-plates in the (001) variants was found to be strongly dependent on the angle of the habit plane with the surface and on the intensity of the implantation-induced strain/stress. The implantation-induced stress thus favors the formation of He-plates in specific planes (of low angle with the surface) forming different defect configurations. The nucleation and growth of He-plates are thus discussed with regard to the implantation-induced stress

  20. An analysis of hot plate initial temperature effect on rectangular narrow gap quenching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M-Hadi Kusuma; Mulya Juarsa; Anhar Riza Antariksawan; Nandy Putra

    2012-01-01

    The understanding about thermal management in the event of a severe accident such as the melting nuclear reactor fuel and reactor core, became a priority to maintain the integrity of reactor pressure vessel. Thus the debris will not out from the reactor pressure vessel and resulting impact of more substantial to the environment. One way to maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel was cooling of the excess heat generated due to the accident. To get understanding of this aspect, there search focused on the effect of the initial temperature of the hot plate in the rectangular narrow gap quenching process. The initial temperature effect on quenching process is related to cooling process (thermal management) when the occurrence of a nuclear accident due to loss of coolant accident or severe accident. In order to address the problem, it is crucial to conduct research to get a better understanding of thermal management regarding to nuclear cooling accident. The research focused on determining the rewetting temperature of hot plate cooling on 220°C, 400°C, and 600°C with 0.2 liters/sec cooling water flowrate. Experiments were carried out by injecting 85°C cooling water temperature into the narrow gap at flowrates of 0.2 liters/sec. Data of transient temperature measurements were recorded using a data acquisition system in order to know the rewetting temperature during the quenching process. This study aims to understand the effect of hot plate initial temperature on rewetting during rectangular narrow gap quenching process. The results obtained show that the rewetting point on cooling the hot plate 220°C, 400°C and 600°occurs at varying rewetting temperatures. At 220°C hot plate initial temperature, the rewetting temperature occurs on 220°C. At 400°C hot plate initial temperature, the rewetting temperature occurs on 379.51°C. At 600°C hot plate initial temperature, the rewetting temperature occurs on 426.63°C. Significant differences of hot plate

  1. The Use and Misuse of Pleasure in Sex Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Lustig, Kara; Graling, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Since Michelle Fine's writing on the missing discourse of desire in sex education, there has been considerable prompting among sexuality educators and feminist scholars to incorporate talk of pleasure into sex education curricula. While the calls for inclusion continue, few have actually examined the curricula for a pleasure discourse or…

  2. MOUNTAIN TOURISM-PLEASURE AND NECESSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina SLUSARIUC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has a more and more important role in the economic development of many countries. Mountain tourism is an anti-stress solutions and a type of disconnection from the citadel life style through replacing some activities of media consuming type, games and virtual socializing with therapy through movement, the physical activity being an essential dimension in assuring the high life quality. Mountaineering is searched for: practicing winter sports, its invigorating and comforting, relaxing role, medical spa treatments practicing hiking, alpinism. Mountain tourism generates increased economic benefits for the surrounding areas, improves the life quality of the local communities and can assure the prosperity of some disadvantaged areas, being able to be a remedy for unindustrialised regions. Mountain tourism contributes to the economic development of the region and also to satisfying spiritual and psychological needs of the people, representing a necessity for a touristic area and a pleasure for tourist consumers.

  3. The effect of plate thickness, surface tension and fluid flow on detachment of drops from a plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Geld, van der C.W.M.; Celata, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    The pinch-off of drops from the downstream end of plates is an important re-entrainment mechanism of condensate in compact condensers. The present experimental study complements a previous one [1], in which ethanol and water drops were created for various mass densities and gas velocities at the

  4. Pleasure Boatyard Soils are Often Highly Contaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta; Eklund, David

    2014-05-01

    The contamination in pleasure boatyards has been investigated. Measured concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, tributyltin (TBT), the 16 most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑16 PAHs), and the seven most common polychlorinated biphenyls (∑7 PCBs) from investigations at 34 boatyards along the Swedish coast have been compiled. The maximum concentrations were 7,700 for Cu, 10,200, for Zn, 40,100 for Pb, 188 for Hg, 18 for Cd, 107 for TBT, 630 for carcinogenic PAHs, 1,480 for ∑16 PAHs, and 3.8 mg/kg DW for ∑7 PCB; all 10-2,000 higher than the Swedish environmental qualitative guidelines. In addition, the mean of the median values found at the 34 places shows that the lower guidance value for sensitive use of land was exceeded for the ∑7 PCBs, carcinogenic PAHs, TBT, Pb, Hg, and Cu by a factor of 380, 6.8, 3.6, 2.9, 2.2 and 1.7, respectively. The even higher guideline value for industrial use was exceeded for the ∑7 PCBs and TBT by a factor of 15 and 1.8, respectively. TBT, PAHs, Pb, Cd, and Hg are prioritized substances in the European Water Framework Directive and should be phased out as quickly as possible. Because of the risk of leakage from boatyards, precautions should be taken. The high concentrations measured are considered to be dangerous for the environment and human health and highlight the urgent need for developing and enforcing pleasure boat maintenance guidelines to minimize further soil and nearby water contamination.

  5. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly

  6. MHD and radiation effects on moving isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the effects of thermal radiation on unsteady free convective flow over a moving vertical plate with mass transfer in the presence of magnetic field. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non- scattering medium. The plate temperature is raised to T 0 and the concentration level near the plate is also raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration are studied for different parameters like the magnetic field parameter, radiation parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time. It is observed that the velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field parameter or radiation parameter. .

  7. Investigating the effect of clamping force on the fatigue life of bolted plates using volumetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, F.; Chakherlou, T. N.; Zehsaz, M.; Hasanifard, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of bolt clamping force on the fatigue life for bolted plates made from Al7075-T6 have been studied on the values of notch strength reduction factor obtained by volumetric approach. To attain stress distribution around the notch (hole) which is required for volumetric approach, nonlinear finite element simulations were carried out. To estimate the fatigue life, the available smooth S-N curve of Al7075-T6 and the notch strength reduction factor obtained from volumetric method were used. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the available experimental test results. The investigation shows that there is a good agreement between the life predicted by the volumetric approach and the experimental results for various specimens with different amount of clamping forces. Volumetric approach and experimental results showed that the fatigue life of bolted plates improves because of the compressive stresses created around the plate hole due to clamping force.

  8. Measurement of fluid film thickness on the valve plate in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps (I): bearing pad effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Jung, Jae Youn

    2003-01-01

    The tribological mechanism between the valve plate and the cylinder block in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps plays an important role on high power density. In this study, the fluid film thickness between the valve plate and the cylinder block was measured with discharge pressure and rotational speed by use of a gap sensor, and a slip ring system in the operating period. To investigate the effect of the valve plate shapes, we designed two valve plates with different shapes: the first valve plate was without a bearing pad, while the second valve plate had a bearing pad. It was found that both valve plates behaved differently with respect to the fluid film thickness characteristics. The leakage flow rates and the shaft torque were also experimented in order to clarify the performance difference between the valve plate without a bearing pad and the valve plate with a bearing pad. From the results of this study, we found out that in the oil hydraulic axial piston pumps, the valve plate with a bearing pad showed better film thickness contours than the valve plate without a bearing pad

  9. Irradiation effects on weld heat-affected zone and plate materials (series 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; McCabe, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to examine the effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness (ductile and brittle) of the HAZ of welds and of A 302 grade B (A302B) plate materials typical of those used fabricating older RPVs. The initial plate material of emphasis will be A302B steel, not the A302B modified with nickel additions. This decision was made by the NRC following a survey of the materials of construction for RPBs in operating U.S. nuclear plants. Reference 1 was used for the preliminary survey, and the information from that report was revised by NRC staff based on information contained in the licensee responses to Generic Letter (GL) 92-01, open-quotes Reactor Vessel Structural Integrity, 10CFR50.54(f).close quotes The resulting survey showed a total of eight RPVs with A302B, ten with A302B (modified), and one with A302 grade A plate. Table 5.1 in the previous semiannual report provides a summary of that survey. For the HAZ portion of the program, the intent is to examine HAZ material in the A302B (i.e., with low nickel content) and in A302B (modified) or A533B-1 (i.e., with medium nickel content). During this reporting period, two specific plates were identified as being applicable to this task. One plate is A302B and the other is A302B (modified). The A302B plate (43 x 42 x 7 in.) will be prepared for welding, while the A302B (modified) plate already contains a commercially produced weld (heat 33A277, Linde 0091 flux). These plates were identified from a list of ten materials provided by Mr. E. Biemiller of Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC). The materials have been requested from YAEC for use in this irradiation task, and arrangements are being made with YAEC for procurement of the plates mentioned above

  10. Effects of Unsteady Flow Past An Infinite Vertical Plate With Variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of unsteady flow past an infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and constant mass flux are investigated. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain velocity and concentration fields. The computation of the results indicates that the velocity profiles increase with increase in Grashof numbers, mass ...

  11. Redeposition effects on the target plates of the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coad, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Complete tiles from the X-point target region of the JET tokamak can be analysed by ion beam techniques in a special chamber equipped to handle beryllium- and tritium-contaminated samples. From the amounts of deuterium co-deposited during plasma operations, and the pattern of beryllium deposits remaining from regular Be evaporation in the torus, erosion and redeposition effects at the target area can be determined. The largest amounts of net redeposition occur in the 'private zone' and near the inner separatrix. There appears to be a net transfer of material from the outer to the inner strike zone: the data are compared with models for divertor transport. (Author)

  12. Effects of the partially movable control fin with end plate of underwater vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Min Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater torpedo has control fin with very low aspect ratio due to launching from limited size of cylindrical torpedo tube. If the aspect ratio of control fin of underwater vehicle is very low three-dimensional flow around control fin largely reduces control forces. In this study, the end plate was applied to reduce the three-dimensional flow effects of partially movable control fin of underwater vehicle. Through numerical simulations the flow field around control fin was examined with and without end plate for different flap angles. The pressure, vorticity, lift and torque on the control fin were analyzed and compared to experiments. The comparison have shown a reasonable agreement between numerical and experimental results and the effect of end plate on a low aspect ratio control fin. When the end plate was attached to the movable control fin, the lift increased and the actuator shaft torque did not significantly change. As this means less consumption of the actuator shaft torque compared to the control fin that has the same control force, the inner actuator capacity can be reduced and energy consumption can be saved. Considering this, it is expected to be effectively applied to the control fin design of underwater vehicles such as torpedoes.

  13. A Simplified Model for the Effect of Weld-Induced Residual Stresses on the Axial Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai-Qiao; Guedes Soares, C.

    2018-03-01

    The present work investigates the compressive axial ultimate strength of fillet-welded steel-plated ship structures subjected to uniaxial compression, in which the residual stresses in the welded plates are calculated by a thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis that is used to fit an idealized model of residual stress distribution. The numerical results of ultimate strength based on the simplified model of residual stress show good agreement with those of various methods including the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Common Structural Rules (CSR), leading to the conclusion that the simplified model can be effectively used to represent the distribution of residual stresses in steel-plated structures in a wide range of engineering applications. It is concluded that the widths of the tension zones in the welded plates have a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the plate slenderness. The effect of residual stress on the axial strength of the stiffened plate is analyzed and discussed.

  14. Allocating effort and anticipating pleasure in schizophrenia: Relationship with real world functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serper, M; Payne, E; Dill, C; Portillo, C; Taliercio, J

    2017-10-01

    Poor motivation to engage in goal-oriented behavior has been recognized as a hallmark feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZ). Low drive in SZ may be related to anticipating rewards as well as to poor working memory. However, few studies to date have examined beliefs about self-efficacy and satisfaction for future rewards (anticipatory pleasure). Additionally, few studies to date have examined how these deficits may impact SZ patients' real world functioning. The present study examined SZ patients' (n=57) anticipatory pleasure, working memory, self-efficacy and real world functioning in relation to their negative symptom severity. Results revealed that SZ patients' negative symptom severity was related to decisions in effort allocation and reward probability, working memory deficits, self-efficacy and anticipatory pleasure for future reward. Effort allocation deficits also predicted patients' daily functioning skills. SZ patients with high levels of negative symptoms are not merely effort averse, but have more difficulty effectively allocating effort and anticipating pleasure engaging in effortful activities. It may be the case that continuously failing to achieve reinforcement from engagement and participation may lead SZ patients to form certain negative beliefs about their abilities which contributes to amotivation and cognitive deficits. Lastly, our findings provide further support for a link between SZ patients functional daily living skills their effort allocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Trait Anticipatory Pleasure Predicts Effort Expenditure for Reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim T Geaney

    Full Text Available Research in motivation and emotion has been increasingly influenced by the perspective that processes underpinning the motivated approach of rewarding goals are distinct from those underpinning enjoyment during reward consummation. This distinction recently inspired the construction of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS, a self-report measure that distinguishes trait anticipatory pleasure (pre-reward feelings of desire from consummatory pleasure (feelings of enjoyment and gratification upon reward attainment. In a university community sample (N = 97, we examined the TEPS subscales as predictors of (1 the willingness to expend effort for monetary rewards, and (2 affective responses to a pleasant mood induction procedure. Results showed that both anticipatory pleasure and a well-known trait measure of reward motivation predicted effort-expenditure for rewards when the probability of being rewarded was relatively low. Against expectations, consummatory pleasure was unrelated to induced pleasant affect. Taken together, our findings provide support for the validity of the TEPS anticipatory pleasure scale, but not the consummatory pleasure scale.

  16. Syncopation, body-movement and pleasure in groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Maria A G; Clarke, Eric F; Wallentin, Mikkel; Kringelbach, Morten L; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced. While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove.

  17. The heterosexual singles scene: putting danger into pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, R; Rosenthal, D; Moore, S

    1996-06-01

    The juxtaposition of pleasure and danger has engaged many feminist theorists and researchers in the field of sexuality. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the ambiguous and complex relationship between 'pleasure', 'danger' and contemporary feminist theory. In doing so, it offers an understanding of the ways in which the categories of pleasure and danger operate within the discourses of heterosexuality to construct perceptions of risk in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from a study of the sexual attitudes and practices of 112 sexually-active, single, heterosexual adults (58 men and 54 women), aged 20 to 40 years (mean = 27 years) who agreed to be interviewed when approached at night-clubs and public "singles' bars around Melbourne, Australia. The qualitative analysis presented here is consistent with a poststructuralist feminism. First, we discuss how sexuality cannot be cast solely as pleasurable or dangerous. Second, we demonstrate how heterosexualized notions of pleasure and danger operate to provide misperceptions of risk from HIV/AIDS transmission. Third, we identify the ways in which the logic of identity functions to obscure risk within the discourse of heterosexuality, and finally we attempt to forge new ways of practising pleasure which disrupt heterosexist discourses and allow for pleasures which incorporate danger.

  18. Syncopation, body-movement and pleasure in groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A G Witek

    Full Text Available Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced. While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove.

  19. Electroless plating of Cu-Ni-P alloy on PET fabrics and effect of plating parameters on the properties of conductive fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Xueping; Wu Yating; Liu Lei; Shen Bin; Hu Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    Electroless plating of Cu-Ni-P alloy on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics and effect of plating parameters on the properties of alloy-coated fabrics were investigated. The deposition rate increased with the increase of temperature, pH and nickel ion concentration. The addition of K 4 Fe(CN) 6 to the solution could reduce the deposition rate and make the deposits become more compact. The color of the deposits also had a corresponding improvement, changing from dark-brown to copper-bright with the addition of K 4 Fe(CN) 6 to the plating solution. The deposits have an intensified copper (1 1 1) plane orientation with the addition of K 4 Fe(CN) 6 to the plating bath. The surface electrical resistance of alloy-coated fabrics increased with increase of nickel ions concentration in the solution. The addition of K 4 Fe(CN) 6 to the solution reduced significantly the surface resistance of alloy-coated fabrics. The conductive fabrics with high shielding effectiveness could be prepared at the optimum condition with 0.0038 M nickel ions and 2 ppm K 4 Fe(CN) 6 . As the deposit weight on the fabric was 40 g/m 2 , the shielding effectiveness of alloy-coated fabrics was more than 85 dB at frequency ranging from 100 MHz to 20 GHz

  20. Thickness dependence of effective critical exponents in three-dimensional Ising plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.I.; Gonzalo, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in ising plates of equal area and different thickness have been studied by the Monte Carlo approach. The evolution of the critical temperature and of the effective critical exponents with the thickness of the lattice has been numerically determined. The thickness dependence of the maximum value of the effective critical exponents is well described by an exponential decay towards the respective three-dimensional value. (author)

  1. Experimental study of thermoacoustic effects on a single plate. Pt. 1. Temperature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Mech. Eng.

    2000-03-01

    The thermal interaction between a heated solid plate and the acoustically driven working fluid was investigated by visualizing and quantifying the temperature fields in the neighbourhood of the solid plate. A combination of holographic interferometry and high-speed cinematography was applied in the measurements. A better knowledge of these temperature fields is essential to develop systematic design methodologies for heat exchangers in oscillatory flows. The difference between heat transfer in oscillatory flows with zero mean velocity and steady-state flows is demonstrated in the paper. Instead of heat transfer from a heated solid surface to the colder bulk fluid, the visualized temperature fields indicated that heat was transferred from the working fluid into the stack plate at the edge of the plate. In the experiments, the thermoacoustic effect was visualized through the temperature measurements. A novel evaluation procedure that accounts for the influence of the acoustic pressure variations on the refractive index was applied to accurately reconstruct the high-speed, two-dimensional oscillating temperature distributions. (orig.)

  2. The effect of electrode vertex angle on automatic tungsten-inert-gas welds for stainless steel 304L plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarek, V.; Sharir, Y.; Stern, A.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of electrode vertex angle on penetration depth and weld bead width, in automatic tungsten-inert-gas (TIG) dcsp bead-on-plate welding with different currents, has been studied for stainless steel 304L plates 1.5 mm and 8 mm thick. It has been found that for thin plates, wider and deeper welds are obtained when using sharper electrodes while, for thick plates, narrower and deeper welds are produced when blunt electrodes (vertex angle 180 deg) are used. An explanation of the results, based on a literature survey, is included

  3. Enhancement of Pleasure during Spontaneous Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Bellemare-Pepin, Antoine; Peretz, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Dancing emphasizes the motor expression of emotional experiences. The bodily expression of emotions can modulate the subjective experience of emotions, as when adopting emotion-specific postures and faces. Thus, dancing potentially offers a ground for emotional coping through emotional enhancement and regulation. Here we investigated the emotional responses to music in individuals without any prior dance training while they either freely danced or refrained from movement. Participants were also tested while imitating their own dance movements but in the absence of music as a control condition. Emotional ratings and cardio-respiratory measures were collected following each condition. Dance movements were recorded using motion capture. We found that emotional valence was increased specifically during spontaneous dance of groovy excerpts, compared to both still listening and motor imitation. Furthermore, parasympathetic-related heart rate variability (HRV) increased during dance compared to motor imitation. Nevertheless, subjective and physiological arousal increased during movement production, regardless of whether participants were dancing or imitating. Significant correlations were found between inter-individual differences in the emotions experienced during dance and whole-body acceleration profiles. The combination of movement and music during dance results in a distinct state characterized by acutely heightened pleasure, which is of potential interest for the use of dance in therapeutic settings. PMID:29238298

  4. Chocolate--guilty pleasure or healthy supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Laura S; Hensen, Zeb K; Minor, Deborah S

    2014-02-01

    Dark chocolate and other cocoa products are popular in the population as a whole, but their overall health benefit remains controversial. Observations from the Kuna Indian population have shown an impressive cardiovascular health benefit from cocoa. For various reasons, this benefit has not been as robust as in other populations. Additionally, several mechanisms have been proposed that might confer cocoa's possible health benefit, but no consensus has been reached on cocoa's physiologic role in promoting cardiovascular health. Flavanols, as well as theobromine, may contribute to enhancements in endothelial function and subsequent improvements in various contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension, platelet aggregation and adhesion, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. While the benefits of cocoa may be altered at the various stages of growth, development, and production, it appears that for many people "healthy" dark chocolate may, indeed, provide a pleasurable role in CVD risk reduction. The objectives of this review are to discuss the associations of cocoa with decreased blood pressure and improved CVD risk, to describe the possible mechanisms for these potential benefits, and to highlight considerations for the use of cocoa as a dietary supplement.

  5. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauraine Carlier

    Full Text Available Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one's tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV, a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as "somewhat difficult" on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time.

  6. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Mauraine; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one's tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV), a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as "somewhat difficult" on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive) distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time.

  7. Effect of magnetic field on Blasius and Sakiadis flow of nanofluids past an inclined plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Anjali Devi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study on the effect of magnetic field on the classical Blasius and Sakiadis flow of nanofluids over an inclined plate is presented in this paper. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformations. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using MATLAB (bvp4c. Two types of nanoparticles are chosen namely copper and alumina in the base fluid of water with the Prandtl number (Pr = 6.2. The effects of the governing physical parameters over the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and reduced Nusselt number for both the Blasius and Sakiadis flows are displayed graphically. The characteristics of physical and engineering interest are discussed in detail. Keywords: Nanofluid, Blasius flow, Sakiadis flow, MHD, Inclined plate, Mixed convection

  8. Slip effects on MHD flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a moving flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Norshafira; Ahmad, Syakila; Pop, Ioan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the problem of MHD flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a moving flat plate with slip effect and uniform heat flux is considered. The governing ordinary differential equations are solved via shooting method. The effect of slip parameter on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt numbers are numerically studied for the three selected ferroparticles; magnetite (Fe3O4), cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and Mn-Zn ferrite (Mn-ZnFe2O4) with water-based fluid. The results indicate that dual solutions exist for a plate moving towards the origin. It is found that the slip process delays the boundary layer separation. Moreover, the velocity and thermal boundary-layer thicknesses decrease in the first solution while increase with the increase of the value of slip parameters in second solution.

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  11. Effect of an intraoral retrusion plate on maxillary arch dimensions in complete bilateral cleft lip and palate patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, B.C.; van Oort, R.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Stellingsma, K.; Bierman, M.W.; de Bont, L.G.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze maxillary arch dimensions in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate treated with an intraoral retrusion plate prior to lip closure. Patients: The effects of the intraoral retrusion plate were evaluated on serially obtained maxillary

  12. Syncopation, body-movement and pleasure in groove music.

    OpenAIRE

    Witek, MA; Clarke, EF; Wallentin, M; Kringelbach, ML; Vuust, P

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a ...

  13. Parallel double-plate capacitive proximity sensor modelling based on effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nan; Zhu, Haiye; Wang, Wenyu; Gong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A semi-analytical model for a double-plate capacitive proximity sensor is presented according to the effective theory. Three physical models are established to derive the final equation of the sensor. Measured data are used to determine the coefficients. The final equation is verified by using measured data. The average relative error of the calculated and the measured sensor capacitance is less than 7.5%. The equation can be used to provide guidance to engineering design of the proximity sensors

  14. Effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L R; Jin, C X; Yan, J; Han, S Z; He, X B; Yang, X F

    2015-03-31

    This study compared the efficacy between external fixator combined with palmar T-plate internal fixation and simple plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures. A total of 61 patients classified as type C according to the AO/ASIF classification underwent surgery for comminuted distal radius fractures. There were 54 and 7 cases of closed and open fractures, respectively. Moreover, 19 patients received an external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation, and 42 received simple plate internal fixation. All patients were treated successfully during 12-month postoperative follow-up. The follow-up results show that the palmar flexion and dorsiflexion of the wrist, radial height, and palmar angle were significantly better in those treated with the external fixator combined with T-plate compared to those treated with the simple plate only (P 0.05). Hence, the effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures was satisfactory. Patients sufficiently recovered wrist, forearm, and hand function. In conclusion, compared to the simple T-plate, the external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation can reduce the possibility of the postoperative re-shifting of broken bones and keep the distraction of fractures to maintain radial height and prevent radial shortening.

  15. Parsing (malicious pleasures: Schadenfreude and gloating at others’ adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Wayne Leach

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We offer the first empirical comparison of the pleasure in seeing (i.e., schadenfreude and in causing (i.e., gloating others’ adversity. In Study 1, we asked participants to recall and report on an (individual or group episode of pleasure that conformed to our formal definition of schadenfreude, gloating, pride, or joy, without reference to an emotion word. Schadenfreude and gloating were distinct in the situational features of the episode, participants’ appraisals of it, and their expressions of pleasure (e.g., smiling, boasting. In Study 2, we had participants imagine being in an (individual or group emotion episode designed to fit our conceptualization of schadenfreude or gloating. Individual and group versions of the emotions did not differ much in either study. However, the two pleasures differed greatly in their situational features, appraisals, experience, and expression. This parsing of the particular pleasures of schadenfreude and gloating brings nuance to the study of (malicious pleasure, which tends to be less finely conceptualized and examined than displeasure despite its importance to social relations.

  16. Effects of ethylene oxide sterilization on 82: 18 PLLA/PGA copolymer craniofacial fixation plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, William S

    2010-01-01

    Bioabsorbable devices are generally susceptible to some form of degradation or alteration of material properties in response to exposure to the terminal sterilization cycle. In addition to affecting the material strength, sterilization can also increase the rate of hydrolysis, both of which can impact clinical performance. The impact of sterilization on the material/device is unpredictable and must be empirically determined. This study examined the effects of ethylene oxide treatment on the material properties of LactoSorb 82:18 poly(L-lactic acid)-poly(glycolic acid) craniofacial plates. Compared with untreated control plates, there was no effect on the initial inherent viscosity (1.3 dL/g), the glass transition temperature (58 degrees C), or on the flexural mechanical properties. Furthermore, there was no effect on the in vitro rate of hydrolysis and mechanical strength loss profile. This provides evidence that the ethylene oxide sterilization cycle is compatible with these copolymer plates and that such treatment should not affect the clinical performance.

  17. Surface roughness effect on the metallic bipolar plates of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Various degrees of roughness are caused by the sandblasting method. ► An improper surface modification depletes the PEMFC performance severely. ► The AC impedance are used to assess the fuel gas transfer effect. ► The Warburg resistance form in the coarse flow channel surface. - Abstract: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is a promising candidate as energy systems. However, the stability and lifetime of cells are still important issues. The effect of surface roughness on metallic bipolar plate is discussed in this paper. Various roughness on the bulk surface are obtained by the sandblasting method. The grain sizes of sand are selected as 50, 100 and 200 μm. The Ac impedance experiment results show that the bipolar plate roughness and carbon paper porosity are well matched when the surface roughness is within 1–2 μm. Superior condition decreases the contact resistance loss in the fuel cell. The high frequency resistance of the coarse surface was larger than that of the substrate by around 5 mΩ. Furthermore, a new arc was formed at the low frequency region. Hence, the unmatch roughness condition of the bipolar plate significantly increases the contact resistance and mass transfer resistance. This paper develops a sequential approach to study an optimum surface roughness by combining the whole performance (I–V) curve and AC impedance result. It benefits us to quantify the contact and mass transfer resistance exists in the PEMFC. The proposed surface treatment improves the surface effect and promotes the implement of potential metallic bipolar plate in near future

  18. Cold pleasure. Why we like ice drinks, ice-lollies and ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R; Du-Plessis, L; Dommels, Y; Wilkinson, J E

    2013-12-01

    This review discusses how the ingestion of cold foods and drinks may be perceived as pleasant because of the effects of cooling of the mouth. The case is made that man has originated from a tropical environment and that cold stimuli applied to the external skin may initiate thermal discomfort and reflexes such as shivering and vasoconstriction that defend body temperature, whereas cold stimuli applied to the mouth are perceived as pleasant because of pleasure associated with satiation of thirst and a refreshing effect. Cold water is preferred to warm water as a thirst quencher and cold products such as ice cream may also be perceived as pleasant because oral cooling satiates thirst. The case is made that cold stimuli may be perceived differently in the skin and oral mucosa, leading to different effects on temperature regulation, and perception of pleasure or displeasure, depending on the body temperature and the temperature of the external environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Damping Plate and Taut Line System on Mooring Stability of Small Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy can be used for electricity supply to ocean data acquisition buoys. A heaving buoy wave energy converter is designed and the damping plate and taut line system are used to provide the mooring stability for better operating conditions. The potential flow assumption is employed for wave generation and fluid structure interactions, which are processed by the commercial software AQWA. Effects of damping plate diameter and taut line linking style with clump and seabed weights on reduction of displacements in 6 degrees of freedom are numerically studied under different operating wave conditions. Tensile forces on taut lines of optimized mooring system are tested to satisfy the national code for wire rope utilization.

  20. Effect of Liquid/Vapour Maldistribution on the Performance of Plate Heat Exchanger Evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Plate heat exchangers are often applied as evaporators in industrial refrigeration and heat pump systems. In the design and modelling of such heat exchangers the flow and liquid/vapour distribution is often assumed to be ideal. However, maldistribution may occur and will cause each channel...... to behave differently due to the variation of the mass flux and vapour quality. To evaluate the effect of maldistribution on the performance of plate heat exchangers, a numerical model is developed in which the mass, momentum and energy balances are applied individually to each channel, including suitable...... correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop. The flow distribution on both the refrigerant and secondary side is determined based on equal pressure drop while the liquid/vapour distribution is imposed to the model. Results show that maldistribution may cause up to a 25 % reduction of the overall heat...

  1. Radiation effects on flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with variable temperature and mass flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the thermal radiation effects on unsteady free convective flow over a moving vertical plate in the presence of variable temperature and uniform mass flux. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The temperature is raised linearly with time and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The velocity and skinfriction are studied for different parameters like the radiation parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing radiation parameter.

  2. Effect of background radiation shielding on natural radioactivity distribution measurement with imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Suzuki, T.; Koido, S.; Uritani, A.; Miyahara, H.; Yanagida, K.; Miyahara, J.; Takahashi, K.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution images of natural radioactivity contained in various natural materials such as vegetable, animal meat and pottery work can be obtained with an imaging plate which has high sensitivity for nuclear radiations. For such very low levels of radioactivity, natural background radiations must be reduced using a shielding box. The lining, on the inside of the box, with low atomic number material such as acrylic resin is very effective in reducing electrons, β-rays and low energy X- and γ-rays emitted from the inner surface of the shielding material. Some images of natural radioactivity distribution were obtained and the radioactivity, mainly 40 K, contained in natural materials was measured by using an HPGe detector and also the imaging plate itself. (orig.)

  3. Effects of Processing Temperatures of Nickel Plating on Capacitance Density of Alumina Film Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myung-Sun; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Lee, Jeon-Kook

    2015-06-01

    We observed the effects of nickel plating temperatures for controlling the surface morphologies of the deposited nickel layers on the alumina nano-pores. The alumina nano-channels were filled with nickel at various processing temperatures of 60-90 degrees C. The electrical properties of the alumina film capacitors were changed with processing temperatures. The electroless nickel plating (ENP) at 60 degrees C improved the nickel penetration into the alumina nano-channels due to the reduced reaction rate. Nickel layers are uniformly formed on the high aspect ratio alumina pores. Due to the uniform nickel electrode, the capacitance density of the alumina film capacitors is improved by the low leakage current, dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance. Alumina film capacitors made by ENP at 60 degrees C had a high capacitance density of 160 nF/cm2.

  4. On the effect of thermomechanical processing on the mechanical properties of 2297 plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, E.; Garcia, O.; Dakessian, A.; Aung Ra, K.; Torroledo, J.; Tsang, A.; Foyos, J.; Ogren, J.; Es-Said, O.S. [Loyola Marymount Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). National Science Foundation, Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program; Hahn, M. [Northrop Grumman, Materials and Processes Technology Dept., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of compression prior to aging on the hardness values of the 2297-T87 plate stock. Blocks were solution treated at 521 C (970 F), water quenched and naturally aged for 24 hours. Samples were subsequently compressed between 2-15% nominal strain and artificially aged. One aging schedule included single isotherms: 160 C (320 F) and 177 C (350 F) for 24 and 36 hours. The second schedule included multistep aging: 121 C (250 F) for 18 hours or 24 hours followed by 177 C (350 F) for 24 hours. The hardness values obtained are compared to those of the as-received-T87 plate. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Surface Texturing Parameters on the Lubrication Characteristics of an Axial Piston Pump Valve Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqiang Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a geometrical model of different microtextures is established for an axial piston pump valve plate. A finite differential method was used to solve the Reynolds equation for the oil film thickness and pressure, which were simulated under different microtextures. The influence of microtexture shape and structure on performance was studied and optimal parameters sought. Different convergence gaps are formed by different microtexture radii, and they produce different hydrodynamic effects. The lubrication characteristics of the valve plate are better when a microtexture is used and are influenced by the type of microtexture. We reached the following conclusions: (1 The lubrication characteristics of the valve plate are influenced by different microtexture parameters and can be improved by optimizing the microtexture parameters; (2 There is an optimal parameter combination when adding microtexture with three shapes (spherical, cylindrical and square and the optimal dimensionless oil film pressure lubrication characteristics can be obtained; (3 The degree of improvement in the dimensionless oil film pressure lubrication characteristics was (listed from highest to lowest: micro-hemispherical texture > micro-cylindrical texture > micro-square texture.

  6. Circuits Regulating Pleasure and Happiness-Mechanisms of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonen, Anton J M; Ivanova, Svetlana A

    2016-01-01

    According to our model of the regulation of appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors, the motivation to display these essential conducts is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical, re-entry circuits, including the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side, to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, controls the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices. Hyperactive motivation to display behavior that potentially results in reward induces feelings of hankering (relief leads to pleasure). Hyperactive motivation to exhibit behavior related to avoidance of misery results in dysphoria (relief leads to happiness). These two systems collaborate in a reciprocal fashion. In clinical depression, a mismatch exists between the activities of these two circuits: the balance is shifted to the misery-avoiding side. Five theories have been developed to explain the mechanism of depressive mood disorders, including the monoamine, biorhythm, neuro-endocrine, neuro-immune, and kindling/neuroplasticity theories. This paper describes these theories in relationship to the model (described above) of the regulation of reward-seeking vs. misery-avoiding behaviors. Chronic stress that leads to structural changes may induce the mismatch between the two systems. This mismatch leads to lack of pleasure, low energy, and indecisiveness, on one hand, and dysphoria, continuous worrying, and negative expectations on the other hand. The neuroplastic effects of monoamines, cortisol, and cytokines may mediate the induction of these structural alterations. Long-term exposure to stressful situations (particularly experienced during childhood) may lead to increased susceptibility for developing this condition. This hypothesis opens up the possibility of treating depression with

  7. Circuits regulating pleasure and happiness – mechanisms of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton J.M. Loonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to our model of the regulation of appetitive-searching versus distress-avoiding behaviors, the motivation to display these essential conducts is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical, re-entry circuits, including the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side, to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, controls the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (prefrontal and limbic cortices. Hyperactive motivation to display behavior that potentially results in reward induces feelings of hankering (relief leads to pleasure. Hyperactive motivation to exhibit behavior related to avoidance of misery results in dysphoria (relief leads to happiness. These two systems collaborate in a reciprocal fashion. In clinical depression, a mismatch exists between the activities of these two circuits: the balance is shifted to the misery-avoiding side. Five theories have been developed to explain the mechanism of depressive mood disorders, including the monoamine, biorhythm, neuro-endocrine, neuro-immune, and kindling/neuroplasticity theories. This paper describes these theories in relationship to the model (described above of the regulation of reward-seeking versus misery-avoiding behaviors. Chronic stress that leads to structural changes may induce the mismatch between the two systems. This mismatch leads to lack of pleasure, low energy, and indecisiveness, on one hand, and dysphoria, continuous worrying, and negative expectations on the other hand. The neuroplastic effects of monoamines, cortisol, and cytokines may mediate the induction of these structural alterations. Long-term exposure to stressful situations (particularly experienced during childhood may lead to increased susceptibility for developing this condition. This hypothesis opens up the possibility of treating

  8. Effects of temperature and velocity of droplet ejection process of simulated nanojets onto a moving plate's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.-H.; Chang, W.-J.; Lin, S.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses molecular dynamics simulation based on the Lennard-Jones potential to study the effects that temperature and velocity have on, the nanojet droplet ejection process, when the droplet is ejected at an angle onto a moving plate's surface. According to the analysis, it was found that the width of the spreading droplet increased as the temperature and the time were increased. Also found was an energy wave phenomenon. The contact angle of the droplet deposited on the plate decreased as the temperature was increased. Furthermore, the layer phenomena became apparent when the atoms were deposited on a moving plate. Thinner film layers were obtained as the velocity of the moving plate was increased. The contact angle on the left side of the droplet was larger than that on the right side when the plate was moving from right to left

  9. [Effectiveness of mini locking plate combined with Kirschner wire in treatment of comminuted Jones fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongliang; Qu, Jiafu; Cao, Lihai; Liu, Hongda; Chen, Jianghua; Gao, Yan; Peng, Yi

    2018-05-01

    To summarize the effectiveness of mini locking plate combined with Kirschner wire in treatment of comminuted Jones fracture. Between January 2011 and October 2016, 25 cases with comminuted Jones fracture were treated with mini locking plate combined with Kirschner wire. There were 9 males and 16 females with an average age of 31.4 years (range, 16-66 years). The fractures located on the left side in 11 cases and on the right side in 14 cases. The causes of injury included spraining in 21 cases, falling down in 3 cases, and bruise in 1 case. The bone fragment of all cases was more than 3 pieces. The fracture line was mostly Y-shape or T-shape. Twelve of them were combined with other fractures. The time from injury to operation was 1-9 days (mean, 5 days). The mini locking plate and Kirschner wire were removed at 9-12 months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively, the pain was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and the function by the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. All incisions healed by first intention. All cases were followed up 12-36 months with an average of 21.7 months. Fracture union was observed in all patients without complications such as nonunion, delayed union, and malunion. The fracture union time was 8-12 weeks (mean, 9.4 weeks). At 12 months postoperatively, the VAS score was 1.15±0.87; the AOFAS score was 89.45±6.24, and the results were excellent in 14 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case, with an excellent and good rate of 92%. The procedure of mini locking plate combined with Kirschner wire for comminuted Jones fracture has such advantages as convenient operation, more rigid fixation, high rate of fracture healing, and good functional recovery in foot.

  10. Pleasure and pedagogy: the consumption of DVD add-ons among Irish teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Brereton, Pat; O'Connor, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of young people and media use in the digital age, more specifically the interconnection between new media pleasures and pedagogy as they relate to the consumption of DVD add-ons. Arguing against the view of new media as having predominantly detrimental effects on young people, the authors claim that new media can enable young people to develop media literacy skills and are of the view that media literacy strategies must be based on an understanding and legitim...

  11. Effects of the Strain Rate Sensitivity and Strain Hardening on the Saturated Impulse of Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies the stiffening effects of the material strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening on the saturated impulse of elastic, perfectly plastic plates. Finite element (FE code ABAQUS is employed to simulate the elastoplastic response of square plates under rectangular pressure pulse. Rigid-plastic analyses for saturated impulse, which consider strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening, are conducted. Satisfactory agreement between the finite element models (FEM and predictions of the rigid-plastic analysis is obtained, which verifies that the proposed rigid-plastic methods are effective to solve the problem including strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening. The quantitative results for the scale effect of the strain rate sensitivity are given. The results for the stiffening effects suggest that two general stiffening factors n 1 and n 2, which characterizes the strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening effect, respectively can be defined. The saturated displacement is inversely proportional to the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2 and saturated impulse is inversely proportional to the square roots of the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2. Formulae for displacement and saturated impulse are proposed based on the empirical analysis.

  12. Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Ritter, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of 'medicinal cannabis' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although 'medicinal cannabis' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called 'recreational cannabis') and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, 'medicinal cannabis' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of 'medicinal cannabis' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. 'Medicinal cannabis' appears to challenge the idea that the effects of 'medicine' cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of 'medicinal cannabis' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Effect of geometric and process variables on the performance of inclined plate settlers in treating aquacultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sudipto; Kamilya, Dibyendu; Mal, B C

    2007-03-01

    Inclined plate settlers are used in treating wastewater due to their low space requirement and high removal rates. The prediction of sedimentation efficiency of these settlers is essential for their performance evaluation. In the present study, the technique of dimensional analysis was applied to predict the sedimentation efficiency of these inclined plate settlers. The effect of various geometric parameters namely, distance between plates (w(p)), plate angle (alpha), length of plate (l(p)), plate roughness (epsilon(p)), number of plates (n(p)) and particle diameter (d(s)) on the dynamic conditions, influencing the sedimentation process was studied. From the study it was established that neither the Reynolds criterion nor the Froude criterion was singularly valid to simulate the sedimentation efficiency (E) for different values of w(p) and flow velocity (v(f)). Considering the prevalent scale effect, simulation equations were developed to predict E at different dynamic conditions. The optimum dynamic condition producing the maximum E is also discussed.

  14. Finite plate thickness effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Rinosh; Banerjee, Arindam

    2017-11-01

    The majority of theoretical studies have tackled the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) problem in solids using an infinitely thick plate. Recent theoretical studies by Piriz et al. (PRE 95, 053108, 2017) have explored finite thickness effects. We seek to validate this recent theoretical estimate experimentally using our rotating wheel RTI experiment in an accelerated elastic-plastic material. The test section consists of a container filled with air and mayonnaise (a non-Newtonian emulsion) with an initial perturbation between two materials. The plate thickness effects are studied by varying the depth of the soft-solid. A set of experiments is run by employing different initial conditions with different container dimensions. Additionally, the effect of acceleration rate (driving pressure rise time) on the instability threshold with reference to the finite thickness will also be inspected. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared to the analytical strength models related to finite thickness effects on RTI. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA Grant # DE-NA0003195 and LANL subcontract #370333.

  15. Biharmonic split ring resonator metamaterial: Artificially dispersive effective density in thin periodically perforated plates

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    We present in this paper a theoretical and numerical analysis of bending waves localized on the boundary of a platonic crystal whose building blocks are Split Ring Resonators (SRR). We first derive the homogenized parameters of the structured plate using a three-scale asymptotic expansion in the linearized biharmonic equation. In the limit when the wavelength of the bending wave is much larger than the typical heterogeneity size of the platonic crystal, we show that it behaves as an artificial plate with an anisotropic effective Young modulus and a dispersive effective mass density. We then analyze dispersion diagrams associated with bending waves propagating within an infinite array of SRR, for which eigen-solutions are sought in the form of Floquet-Bloch waves. We finally demonstrate that this structure displays the hallmarks of All-Angle Negative Refraction (AANR) and it leads to superlensing and ultrarefraction effects, interpreted thanks to our homogenization model as a consequence of negative and vanishing effective density, respectively. © EPLA, 2014.

  16. Biharmonic split ring resonator metamaterial: Artificially dispersive effective density in thin periodically perforated plates

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sé bastien

    2014-01-01

    We present in this paper a theoretical and numerical analysis of bending waves localized on the boundary of a platonic crystal whose building blocks are Split Ring Resonators (SRR). We first derive the homogenized parameters of the structured plate using a three-scale asymptotic expansion in the linearized biharmonic equation. In the limit when the wavelength of the bending wave is much larger than the typical heterogeneity size of the platonic crystal, we show that it behaves as an artificial plate with an anisotropic effective Young modulus and a dispersive effective mass density. We then analyze dispersion diagrams associated with bending waves propagating within an infinite array of SRR, for which eigen-solutions are sought in the form of Floquet-Bloch waves. We finally demonstrate that this structure displays the hallmarks of All-Angle Negative Refraction (AANR) and it leads to superlensing and ultrarefraction effects, interpreted thanks to our homogenization model as a consequence of negative and vanishing effective density, respectively. © EPLA, 2014.

  17. Effects of Velocity-Slip and Viscosity Variation in Squeeze Film Lubrication of Two Circular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Rao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A generalized form of Reynolds equation for two symmetrical surfaces is taken by considering velocity-slip at the bearing surfaces. This equation is applied to study the effects of velocity-slip and viscosity variation for the lubrication of squeeze films between two circular plates. Expressions for the load capacity and squeezing time obtained are also studied theoretically for various parameters. The load capacity and squeezing time decreases due to slip. They increase due to the presence of high viscous layer near the surface and decrease due to low viscous layer.

  18. Study of the effect of water vapor on a resistive plate chamber with glass electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, H H; Teramoto, Y; Nakano, E E; Takahashi, T T

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of water vapor on the efficiencies of resistive plate chambers with glass electrodes, operated in the streamer mode. With moisture in the chamber gas that has freon as a component (water vapor approx 1000 ppm), a decrease in the efficiency (approx 20%) has been observed after operating for a period of several weeks to a few months. From our study, the cause of the efficiency decrease was identified as a change on the cathode surface. In addition, a recovery method was found: flushing for 1 day with argon bubbled through water containing >=3% ammonia, followed by a few weeks of training with dry gas.

  19. Viscous and Joule heating effects on MHD free convection flow with variable plate temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    A steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical heated plate with variable temperature in the presence of a transverse uniform magnetic field has been investigated by bringing the effect of viscous and Joules heating. The non-dimensional boundary layer equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method along with Newton's approximation for small Prandtl number chosen as typical of coolant liquid metals at operating temperature. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Hall effects on unsteady MHD reactive flow of second grade fluid through porous medium in a rotating parallel plate channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M. Veera; Swarnalathamma, B. V.

    2017-07-01

    We considered the transient MHD flow of a reactive second grade fluid through porous medium between two infinitely long horizontal parallel plates when one of the plate is set into uniform accelerated motion in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field under Arrhenius reaction rate. The governing equations are solved by Laplace transform technique. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature are discussed in detail. The shear stress and Nusselt number at the plates are also obtained analytically and computationally discussed with reference to governing parameters.

  1. Towards a functional neuroanatomy of pleasure and happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringelbach, Morten L.; Berridge, Kent C.

    2009-01-01

    The pursuit of happiness is a preoccupation for many people. Yet only the pursuit can be promised, not happiness itself. Can science help? We focus on the most tractable ingredient, hedonia or positive affect. A step toward happiness might be gained by improving the pleasures and positive moods in daily life. The neuroscience of pleasure and reward provides relevant insights, and we discuss how specific hedonic mechanisms might relate to happiness or the lack thereof. Although the neuroscience of happiness is still in its infancy, further advances might be made through mapping overlap between brain networks of hedonic pleasure with others, such as the brain's default network, potentially involved in the other happiness ingredient, eudemonia or life meaning and engagement. PMID:19782634

  2. Effect of nanofluids on the performance of a miniature plate heat exchanger with modulated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzali, M.N.; Kanaris, A.G.; Antoniadis, K.D.; Mouza, A.A.; Paras, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of the use of a nanofluid in a miniature plate heat exchanger (PHE) with modulated surface has been studied both experimentally and numerically. First, the thermophysical properties (i.e., thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, density and surface tension) of a typical nanofluid (CuO in water, 4% v/v) were systematically measured. The effect of surface modulation on heat transfer augmentation and friction losses was then investigated by simulating the existing miniature PHE as well as a notional similar PHE with flat plate using a CFD code. Finally, the effect of the nanofluid on the PHE performance was studied and compared to that of a conventional cooling fluid (i.e., water). The results suggest that, for a given heat duty, the nanofluid volumetric flow rate required is lower than that of water causing lower pressure drop. As a result, smaller equipment and less pumping power are required. In conclusion, the use of the nanofluids seems to be a promising solution towards designing efficient heat exchanging systems, especially when the total volume of the equipment is the main issue. The only drawbacks so far are the high price and the possible instability of the nanoparticle suspensions.

  3. Thermal Effects on Vibration and Control of Piezocomposite Kirchhoff Plate Modeled by Finite Elements Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbi, M.; Saadani, R.; Sbai, K.; Rahmoune, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical results of the modeling of a smart plate are presented for optimal active vibration control. The smart plate consists of a rectangular aluminum piezocomposite plate modeled in cantilever configuration with surface bonded thermopiezoelectric patches. The patches are symmetrically bonded on top and bottom surfaces. A generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezocomposite plate is derived, using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Kirchhoff assumptions. Finite element eq...

  4. Effect of nickel plating upon tensile tests of uranium--0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1975-01-01

    Electrolytic-nickel-plated specimens of uranium-0.75 wt percent titanium alloy were tested in air at 20 and 100 percent relative humidities. Tensile-test ductility values were lowered by a high humidity and also by nickel plating alone. Baking the nickel-plated specimens did not eliminate the ductility degradation. Embrittlement because of nickel plating was also evident in tensile tests at -34 0 C. (U.S.)

  5. Analysis of single blow effectiveness in non-uniform parallel plate regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of plate spacings in parallel plate regenerators have been found to induce loss of performance. In this paper, it has been investigated how variations of three geometric parameters (the aspect ratio, the porosity, and the standard deviation of the plate spacing) affects...

  6. Bentham and Mill on the ‘quality’ of Pleasures

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham are often said to have held opposed views concerning the way “the value” of different pleasures should be estimated. Mill is accused of being an inconsistent utilitarian because he thought that, when comparing the value of two pleasures, we should not forget to take their “quality” into account. Bentham, on the other hand, is said to have believed that we should take “only quantity” into consideration. By verifying what they actually wrote, and reflecting o...

  7. From thermal boredom to thermal pleasure: a brief literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christhina Candido

    Full Text Available The most recent review of the ASHRAE Standard 55 (2010 incorporates the dialectic between static and adaptive approaches to thermal comfort by proposing different recommendations for airconditioned and naturally ventilated buildings. Particularly in naturally ventilated buildings, this standard aligns with three important topics in research field of thermal comfort during the last decades: (i air movement enhancement versus draft, (ii control availability and its impact on occupants' satisfaction, and (iii the search for thermal pleasure. This paper presents the rationale behind these three research topics and discusses its positive influence when moving from thermal comfort towards thermal pleasure.

  8. Modeling the effect of the inclination angle on natural convection from a flat plate: The case of a photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    Perović Bojan D.; Klimenta Jelena Lj.; Tasić Dragan S.; Peuteman Joan L.G.; Klimenta Dardan O.; Anđelković Ljiljana N.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show how the inclination angle affects natural convection from a flat-plate photovoltaic module which is mounted on the ground surface. In order to model this effect, novel correlations for natural convection from isothermal flat plates are developed by using the fundamental dimensionless number. On the basis of the available experimental and numerical results, it is shown that the natural convection correlations correspond well with the existing empirical...

  9. Effect of formation temperature on properties of graphite/stannum composite for bipolar plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selamat, Mohd Zulkefli; Yusuf, Muhammad Yusri Md; Wer, Tio Kok; Sahadan, Siti Norbaya; Malingam, Sivakumar Dhar; Mohamad, Noraiham

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar plates are key components in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. They carry current away from the cell and withstand the clamping force of the stack assembly. Therefore, PEM fuel cell bipolar plates must have high electrical conductivity and adequate mechanical strength, in addition to being light weight and low cost in terms of both applicable materials and production methods. In this research, the raw materials used to fabricate the high performance bipolar plate are Graphite (Gr), Stannum (Sn) and Polypropylene (PP). All materials used was in powder form and Gr and Sn act as fillers and the PP acts as binder. The ratio of fillers (Gr/Sn) and binder (PP) was fixed at 80:20. For the multi-conductive filler, small amount of Sn, which is 10 up to 20wt% (from the total weight of fillers 80%) have been added into Gr/Sn/PP composite. The fillers were mixed by using the ball mill machine. The second stage of mixing process between the mixer of fillers and binder is also carried out by using ball mill machine before the compaction process by the hot press machine. The effect of formation temperatures (160°C-170°C) on the properties of Gr/Sn/PP composite had been studied in detail, especially the electrical conductivity, bulk density, hardness and microstructure analysis of Gr/Sn/PP composite. The result shows that there are significant improvement in the electrical conductivity and bulk density, which are exceeding the US-DoE target with the maximum value of 265.35 S/cm and 1.682g/cm"3 respectively.

  10. Effect of formation temperature on properties of graphite/stannum composite for bipolar plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selamat, Mohd Zulkefli, E-mail: azulkeflis@utem.edu.my; Yusuf, Muhammad Yusri Md, E-mail: yusri.cheras@gmail.com; Wer, Tio Kok, E-mail: to91@hotmail.my; Sahadan, Siti Norbaya, E-mail: norbaya@utem.edu.my; Malingam, Sivakumar Dhar, E-mail: sivakumard@utem.edu.my; Mohamad, Noraiham, E-mail: noraiham@utem.edu.my [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy (CARe), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UniversitiTeknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2016-03-29

    Bipolar plates are key components in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. They carry current away from the cell and withstand the clamping force of the stack assembly. Therefore, PEM fuel cell bipolar plates must have high electrical conductivity and adequate mechanical strength, in addition to being light weight and low cost in terms of both applicable materials and production methods. In this research, the raw materials used to fabricate the high performance bipolar plate are Graphite (Gr), Stannum (Sn) and Polypropylene (PP). All materials used was in powder form and Gr and Sn act as fillers and the PP acts as binder. The ratio of fillers (Gr/Sn) and binder (PP) was fixed at 80:20. For the multi-conductive filler, small amount of Sn, which is 10 up to 20wt% (from the total weight of fillers 80%) have been added into Gr/Sn/PP composite. The fillers were mixed by using the ball mill machine. The second stage of mixing process between the mixer of fillers and binder is also carried out by using ball mill machine before the compaction process by the hot press machine. The effect of formation temperatures (160°C-170°C) on the properties of Gr/Sn/PP composite had been studied in detail, especially the electrical conductivity, bulk density, hardness and microstructure analysis of Gr/Sn/PP composite. The result shows that there are significant improvement in the electrical conductivity and bulk density, which are exceeding the US-DoE target with the maximum value of 265.35 S/cm and 1.682g/cm{sup 3} respectively.

  11. Elastocaloric effect of a Ni-Ti plate to be applied in a regenerator-based cooling device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tusek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Pryds, Nini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the elastocaloric effect of a commercial Ni-Ti plate for its application in a cooling device. In the first part, the article shows numerical results of the cooling characteristics of a regenerator-based elastocaloric cooling device with different thickness...... of the Ni-Ti plates based on a previously developed numerical model. It is shown that such a device (with a plate thickness of 0.1 mm) can produce a specific cooling power up to 7 kW/kg and coefficient of performance values up to 5 at the 30 K of the temperature span. In the second part of the article...... and the temperature irreversibilities during unloading are presented and discussed. It can be concluded that thin Ni-Ti plates with suitable austenitic finish temperature are good candidates to be applied in a proof-of-concept regenerator-based cooling device....

  12. Numerical study on the effects of absorptivity on performance of flat plate solar collector of a water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunan, D. R. S.; Sibagariang, Y. P.; Ambarita, H.; Napitupulu, F. H.; Kawai, H.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics of absorber plate of a flat plate solar collector play an important role in the improvement of the performance. In this work, a numerical analysis is carried out to explore the effect of absorptivity and emissivity of absorber plate to the performance of the solar collector of a solar water heater. For a results comparison, a simple a simple solar box cooker with absorber area of 0.835 m × 0.835 m is designed and fabricated. It is employed to heat water in a container by exposing to the solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia. The transient governing equations are developed. The governing equations are discretized and solved using the forward time step marching technique. The results reveal that the experimental and numerical results show good agreement. The absorptivity of the plate absorber and emissivity of the glass cover strongly affect the performance of the solar collector.

  13. Effect of Pin Geometry on the Mechanical Strength of Friction-Stir-Welded Polypropylene Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordestani, F.; Ashenai Ghasemi, F.; Arab, N. B. M.

    2017-09-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process, which has successfully been applied in aerospace and automotive industries for joining materials. The friction stir tool is the key element in the FSW process. In this study, the effect of four different tool pin geometries on the mechanical properties of two types of polypropylene composite plates, with 30% glass and carbon fiber, respectively, were investigated. For this purpose, four pins of different geometry, namely, a threaded-tapered pin, square pin, four-flute threaded pin, and threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer were made and used to carry out the butt welding of 5-mm-thick plates. The standard tensile and Izod impact tests were performed to evaluate the tensile strength and impact toughness of welded specimens. The results indicated that the threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer produced welds with a better surface appearance and higher tensile and impact strengths. The tests also showed that, with the threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer, the impact strength of the glass- and carbon-fiber composite welds were about 40 and 50%, respectively, of that of the base materials.

  14. Effect of manufacturing process sequence on the corrosion resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) with high corrosion and low contact resistance, durability, strength, low cost, volume, and weight requirements is one of the critical parts of the PEMFC. This study is dedicated to understand the effect of the process sequence (manufacturing then coating vs. coating then manufacturing) on the corrosion resistance of coated metallic bipolar plates. To this goal, three different PVD coatings (titanium nitride (TiN), chromium nitride (CrN), zirconium nitride (ZrN)), with three thicknesses, (0.1, 0.5, 1 μm) were applied on BPPs made of 316L stainless steel alloy before and after two types of manufacturing (i.e., stamping or hydroforming). Corrosion test results indicated that ZrN coating exhibited the best corrosion protection while the performance of TiN coating was the lowest among the tested coatings and thicknesses. For most of the cases tested, in which coating was applied before manufacturing, occurrence of corrosion was found to be more profound than the case where coating was applied after manufacturing. Increasing the coating thickness was found to improve the corrosion resistance. It was also revealed that hydroformed BPPs performed slightly better than stamped BPPs in terms of the corrosion behavior.

  15. Effect of Al and N on the toughness of heavy section steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikutake, Tetsuo; Tokunaga, Yoshikuni; Nakao, Hitoji; Ito, Kametaro; Takaishi, Shogo.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of Al and N on the notch toughness and tensile strength of heavy section pressure vessel steel plates is investigated. Notch toughness of steel A533B (Mn-Mo-Ni), which has mixed microstructure of ferrite and bainite, is drastically changed by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al. With metallurgical observations, it is revealed that AlN morphology is influenced by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al through the level of solute Al(C Al ). At the heat treatment of heavy section steel plate, AlN shows OSTWALD ripening and its speed depends upon C Al . When Al is added (Al ≥ 0.010%) in steel and sol.N/sol.Al ≤ 0.5, C Al remains low. This prevents AlN ripening, and brings fine austenite grain size and high toughness. On the other hand, when sol.N/sol.Al Al becomes high and this gives poor toughness through coarse AlN precipitates and coarse austenite grain. Therefore, controll of sol.N/sol.Al over 0.5 is favorable to keep high toughness in A533B steel. In steel A387-22 (Cr-Mo) which has full bainitic microstructure, too fine austenite grain brings about poor hardenability, and polygonal ferrite, which brings about both poor strength and tughness, appears in microstructure. Then sol.N/sol.Al < 0.5 is better to give high hardenability in steel A387-22. (author)

  16. Effect of evaporation section and condensation section length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangfeng; Chen Jinjian; Hu Yanxin; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Flat plate heat pipes (FPHPs) are one of the available technologies to deal with the high density electronic cooling problem due to their high thermal conductivity, reliability, and low weight penalty. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effect of evaporation and condensation length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipes. In the experiments, the FPHP had heat transfer length of 255 mm and width of 25 mm, and pure water was used as the working fluid. The results show that comparing to vapor chamber, the FPHP could realize long-distance heat transfer; comparing to the traditional heat pipe, the FPHP has large area contact with heat sources; the thermal resistance decreased and the heat transfer limit increased with the increase of evaporation section length; the FPHP would dry out at a lower heating power with the increase of condensation section length, which indicated that the heat transfer limit decreased, but the evaporator temperature also decreased; when the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP had a better thermal performance. - Highlights: → A strip sintered FPHP is proposed and tested. → The total heat transfer length reaches 255 mm → The efficiency of heat transport reaches 94.4%. → When the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP has better overall performance.

  17. Effects of multi-pass arc welding on mechanical properties of carbon steel C25 plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adedayo, S.M.; Babatunde, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of multi-pass welding on mechanical properties of C25 carbon steel plate were examined. Mild steel plate workpieces of 90 x 55 mm 2 area and 10 mm thickness with a 30 degrees vee weld-grooves were subjected to single and multi-pass welding. Toughness, hardness and tensile tests of single and multi-pass welds were conducted. Toughness values of the welds under double pass welds were higher than both single pass and unwelded alloy, at respective maximum values of 2464, 2342 and 2170 kN/m. Hardness values were reduced under double pass relative to single pass welding with both being lower than the value for unwelded alloy; the values were 40.5, 43.2 and 48.5 Rs respectively at 12 mm from the weld line. The tensile strength of 347 N/mm 2 under multi-pass weld was higher than single pass weld with value of 314 N/mm 2 . Therefore, the temperature distribution and apparent pre-heating during multi-pass welding increased the toughness and tensile strength of the weldments, but reduced the hardness. (au)

  18. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Hestehave; Munro, Gordon; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina

    2017-01-01

    the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (Peffects were not as marked......Researchers performing experiments on animals should always strive towards the refinement of experiments, minimization of stress and provision of better animal welfare. An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve post-operative recovery and welfare in laboratory rats and mice....... In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing...

  19. The magnetic vapour shield effect at divertor plates during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, G.; Goel, B.; Hoebel, W.; Wuerz, H.; Landman, I.

    1995-01-01

    Hard disruptions in a TOKAMAK cause a large thermal load on the divertor plates with an instantaneous ablation of a part of the heated material. The produced vapour cloud screens the plasma facing component from the direct interaction with the disrupting plasma (vapour shield effect). In order to quantify the damage to the divertor the magneto-hydrodynamic behaviour of the expanding vapour cloud has been investigated using an extended version of the 1-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code KATACO. Modelling of the magnetic field effects on the expanding plasma takes into account that the magnetic field is oblique to the divertor (1 1/2 dimensional model). The ''Radiation Heat Conduction Approximation'' has been used for describing the radiative energy transport. In this paper results are presented assuming graphite as divertor material, irradiated with a proton beam of an energy density of 12MJ/m 2 and a duration of 100μs. (orig.)

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Burnishing Force on Service Properties of AISI 1010 Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, F.; Sghaier, S.; Morel, F.; Benameur, T.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results obtained with a new ball burnishing tool developed for the mechanical treatment of large flat surfaces. Several parameters can affect the mechanical behavior and fatigue of workpiece. Our study focused on the effect of the burnishing force on the surface quality and on the service properties (mechanical behavior, fatigue) of AISI 1010 steel hot-rolled plates. Experimental results assert that burnishing force not exceeding 300 N causes an increase in the ductility. In addition, results indicated that the effect of the burnishing force on the residual surface stress was greater in the direction of advance than in the cross-feed direction. Furthermore, the flat burnishing surfaces did not improve the fatigue strength of AISI 1010 steel flat specimens.

  1. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  2. Pleasurable and Intersubjectively Embodied Experiences of Electronic Dance Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Torvanger Solberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available How do dancers engage with electronic dance music (EDM when dancing? This paper reports on an empirical study of dancers' pleasurable engagement with three structural properties of EDM: (1 breakdown, (2 build-up, and (3 drop. Sixteen participants danced to a DJ mix in a club-like environment, and the group’s bodily activity was recorded with an infrared, marker-based motion capture system. After they danced, the subjects filled out questionnaires about the pleasure they experienced and their relative desire to move while dancing. Subsequent analyses revealed associations between the group’s quantity of motion and self-reported experiences of pleasure. Associations were also found between certain sonic features and dynamic changes in the dancers' movements. Pronounced changes occurred in the group's quantity of motion during the breakdown, build-up, and drop sections, suggesting a high level of synchronization between the group and the structural properties of the music. The questionnaire confirmed this intersubjective agreement: participants perceived the musical passages consistently and marked the build-up and drop as particularly pleasurable and motivational in terms of dancing. Self-reports demonstrated that the presence and activity of other participants were also important in the shaping of one's own experience, thus supporting the idea of clubbing as an intersubjectively embodied experience.

  3. When Self-Pleasuring Becomes Self-Destruction: Autoerotic Asphyxiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This paper describes autoerotic asphyxia (AEA), using strangulation to enhance the pleasure of masturbation. AEA claims the lives of between 250-1,000 U.S. young men each year (though it is likely that it is underreported). Though AEA is found primarily among males, females participate, but in far smaller numbers. The most common motivation for…

  4. Disputing taste: food pleasure as an achievement in interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneijder, P.W.J.; Molder, te H.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    While identity has been a dominant topic in research on food choice, literature on identity in consumers' everyday life is scarce. In this article we draw on insights from discursive psychology to demonstrate how members of an online forum on food pleasure handle the hedonic appreciation of food in

  5. Disputing taste: foods pleasure as an achievement in interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneijder, P.W.J.; Molder, te H.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    While identity has been a dominant topic in research on food choice, literature on identity in consumers' everyday life is scarce. In this article we draw on insights from discursive psychology to demonstrate how members of an online forum on food pleasure handle the hedonic appreciation of food in

  6. Building a neuroscience of pleasure and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness or en...

  7. Philip Atsu Afeadie (2016). Workplace Anguish and Pleasure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philip Atsu Afeadie's book, Workplace Anguish and Pleasure in Northern Nigeria: Exactions of Colonial ... the author reveals in six chapters the oft-neglected issues involving the power of emotions and sentiments on ... In all, the author, considering the sources at his disposal, does creditably well by drawing attention to.

  8. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  9. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Independent Effects of Growth Hormone on Growth Plate Chondrogenesis and Longitudinal Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shufang; Yang, Wei; De Luca, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    GH stimulates growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate. However, it is not clear yet whether these effects are entirely mediated by the local expression and action of IGF-1 and IGF-2. To determine whether GH has any IGF-independent growth-promoting effects, we generated (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) mice. The systemic injection of tamoxifen in these mice postnatally resulted in the excision of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r) gene exclusively in the growth plate. (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) tamoxifen-treated mice [knockout (KO) mice] and their Igf1r(flox/flox) control littermates (C mice) were injected for 4 weeks with GH. At the end of the 4-week period, the tibial growth and growth plate height of GH-treated KO mice were greater than those of untreated C or untreated KO mice. The systemic injection of GH increased the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B in the tibial growth plate of the C and KO mice. In addition, GH increased the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and the mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in both C and KO mice. In cultured chondrocytes transfected with Igf1r small interfering RNA, the addition of GH in the culture medium significantly induced thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that GH can promote growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate, even when the local effects of IGF-1 and IGF-2 are prevented. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the intracellular molecular mechanisms mediating the IGF-independent, growth-promoting GH effects.

  10. Pleasure From Another's Pain: The Influence of a Target's Hedonic States on Attributions of Immorality and Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Goodman, Rebecca A

    2016-08-01

    Can people's feelings about harm (i.e., their hedonic reactions) lead them to be morally condemned, even if they do not cause the harm themselves? We show that individuals who experience pleasure at serious harm that has befallen another person are judged both immoral and evil. This effect occurs for harm-causing actors, and for observers who play no role in causing the harm; actors can also be judged as immoral and evil when they experience mere indifference (Study 1). Observers are more likely to be similarly judged when they experience direct rather than indirect pleasure from harm caused to another (Study 2). The effects of pleasure are dissociable from those of malevolent desires (Study 3). Targets' experience of pleasure at the harm caused to another person leads to the social exclusion of observers (Studies 1-3) and the harsh punishment of actors, including the death penalty (Studies 1, 4a, and 4b). © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Study Effect of Central Rectangular Perforation on the Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Inclined Heated Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhum Audaa Jehhef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anumerical solutions is presented to investigate the effect of inclination angle (θ , perforation ratio (m and wall temperature of the plate (Tw on the heat transfer in natural convection from isothermal square flat plate up surface heated (with and without concentrated hole. The flat plate with dimensions of (128 mm length × (64 mm width has been used five with square models of the flat plate that gave a rectangular perforation of (m=0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.25, 0.5. The values of angle of inclination were (0o, 15o 30o 45o 60o from horizontal position and the values of wall temperature (50oC, 60 oC, 70 oC, 90 oC, 100oC. To investigate the temperature, boundary layer thickness and heat flux distributions; the numerical computation is carried out using a very efficient integral method to solve the governing equation. The results show increase in the temperature gradient with increase in the angle of inclination and the high gradient and high heat transfer coefficients located in the external edges of the plate, for both cases: with and without holed plate. There are two separation regions of heat transfer in the external edge and the internal edges. The boundary layer thickness is small in the external edge and high in the center of the plate and it decreases as the inclination angle of plate increases. Theoretical results are compared with previous result and it is found that the Nusslet numbers in the present study are higher by (22 % than that in the previous studies. And the results show good agreement in range of Raleigh number from 105 to 106.

  12. The Effect of Material Property on the Critical Velocity of Randomly Excited Nonlinear Axially Travelling Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abedi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the critical axial speeds of three types of sigmoid, power law and exponential law functionally graded plates for both isotropic and orthotropic cases are obtained via a completely analytic method. The plates are subjected to lateral white noise excitation and show evidence of large deformations. Due to randomness, the conventional deterministic methods fail and a statistical approach must be selected. Here, the probability density function is evaluated analytically for prescribed plates and used to investigate the critical axial velocity of them. Specifically the effect of in-plane forces, mean value of lateral load and the material property on the critical axial speed are studied and discussed for both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates. Since the governing equation is transformed to a non dimensional format, the results can be used for a wide range of plate dimensions. It is shown that the material heterogeneity palys an essential and significant role in increasing or decreasing the critical speed of both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates.

  13. The effect on the multipolar electromagnet for the levitation of thin iron plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osabe, H [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, M [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Torii, S [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, D [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The thin iron plate is needed to be transported without the degradation of the quality of surface, and magnetic levitation technology is one of the solutions to satisfy these requirements. Magnetic saturation in the objective, however, is a severe problem for the levitation of the thin iron plate. Design and evaluation method of the electromagnet is studied to avoid the saturation. In this paper, the shape of the electromagnet is studied to obtain the maximum attractive force without the saturation in the thin iron plate. The magnetic saturation position is investigated first, and it is proved that the saturation occurs in the iron plate especially when it is very thin. Therefore, the preferable shape of electromagnet should be investigated to secure the large cross sectional area of flux path in the plate. The authors propose the Multipolar electromagnet to solve this problem. The relationship between the electromagnet shape and the cross sectional area of flux path in the plate is studied. (orig.)

  14. The effect of plate heat exchanger’s geometry on heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana GIURGIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presents further Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD numerical analysis for two models of plate heat exchangers. Comparatively was studied the influence of geometric characteristics of plates on the intensification process of heat exchange. For this purpose, it was examined the distribution of velocity and temperatures fields on active plate height. Heat transfer characteristics were analysed through the variation of mass flow on the primary heat agent.

  15. Chemical reaction effect on MHD free convective surface over a moving vertical plate through porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Tripathy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting viscous fluid subject to transverse magnetic field past over a moving vertical plate through porous medium in the presence of heat source and chemical reaction. The governing non-linear partial differential equations have been transformed into a two-point boundary value problem using similarity variables and then solved numerically by fourth order Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Graphical results are discussed for non-dimensional velocity, temperature and concentration profiles while numerical values of the skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form for various values of parameters controlling the flow system.

  16. The effective removal method of copper and cyanide in waste water of metal plating factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, Won Mok; Hong, Zong Doo; Kim, Myun Sup

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the effective removal method of cooper and cyanide compounds in metal plating waste water, removal ratio of cooper and cyanide compounds in solution are measured with varying pH, concentration and contact time. As results of the present experiment, cyanide compounds in the solution are removed to 0.03mg/l or less with 5% NaOCl solution. The present result is satisfied to environmental disposal standards. The removal ratio against pH values show 99% over pH8. As results of neutral precipitation method, copper including solution are removed to 99% at pH8 in short time. The removal ratios of cyanide mixed copper solution against pH values show high efficiency(over 95%) at pH8 and 11 and removal ratios are decreased at pH10.(Author)

  17. Effects of surface roughness, MHD and couple stress on squeeze film characteristics between curved circular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumagowda, B. N.; Salma, A.; Nagarajappa, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical discussion is carried out for understanding the combined study of MHD, rough surface and couple-stress in the presence of applied magnetic field between two curved circular plates is present analysis. Modified Reynolds Equations accounting for rough surface using stochastic model of Christensen are mathematically formulated. The close form derivations for pressure, load-supporting capacity and response-film time are obtained. Our results shows that, there is an significant increase (decrease) for pressure, load-supporting capacity and squeeze film time due to the effect of azimuthal (radial) roughness parameter when compared to the Hanumagowda.et.al [14] and numerical data of load supporting capacity and response time are given in Table for engineering applications.

  18. Guided ultrasonic waves for determining effective orthotropic material parameters of continuous-fiber reinforced thermoplastic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webersen, Manuel; Johannesmann, Sarah; Düchting, Julia; Claes, Leander; Henning, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic methods are widely established in the NDE/NDT community, where they are mostly used for the detection of flaws and structural damage in various components. A different goal, despite the similar technological approach, is non-destructive material characterization, i.e. the determination of parameters like Young's modulus. Only few works on this topic have considered materials with high damping and strong anisotropy, such as continuous-fiber reinforced plastics, but due to the increasing demand in the industry, appropriate methods are needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced ultrasonic Lamb waves for the characterization of fiber-reinforced plastic plates, providing effective parameters for a homogeneous, orthotropic material model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical Study of the Inertia Effect on Flow Distribution in Micro-gap Plate Heat Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Min; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Kong Hoon; Song Chan Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents numerical study on flow and heat transfer characteristics in micro-gap plate heat exchanger. In particular, we investigate the effect of flow inertia on the flow distribution from single main channel to multiple parallel micro-gaps. The flow regime of the main channel is varied from laminar regime (Reynolds number of 100) to turbulent regime (Reynolds number of 10000) by changing the flow rate, and non-uniformity of the flow distribution and temperature field is evaluated quantitatively based on the standard deviation. The flow distribution is found to be significantly affected by not only the header design but also the flow rate of the main channel. It is also observed that the non-uniformity of the temperature field has its maximum at the intermediate flow regime

  20. Effect of process control mode on weld quality of friction stir welded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Sorour, Sherif; Alian, Ahmed R. [Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Egypt, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process which requires no filler material where the heat input is generated by frictional energy between the tool and workpiece. The objective of the present work is to conduct a fully coupled thermomechanical finite element analysis based on Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation for both 'Force-Controlled' and 'Displacement-Controlled' FSW process to provide more detailed insight of their effect on the resulting joint quality. The developed finite element models use Johnson- Cook material model and temperature dependent physical properties for the welded plates. Efforts on proper modeling of the underlying process physics are done focusing on the heat generation of the tool/workpiece interface to overcome the shortcomings of previous investigations. Finite elements results show that 'Force-Controlled' FSW process provides better joint quality especially at higher traveling speed of the tool which comes to an agreement with published experimental results.

  1. Investigation into the Effects of the Variable Displacement Mechanism on Swash Plate Oscillation in High-Speed Piston Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High-speed, pressure-compensated variable displacement piston pumps are widely used in aircraft hydraulic systems for their high power density. The swash plate is controlled by the pressure-compensated valve, which uses pressure feedback so that the instantaneous output flow of the pump is exactly enough to maintain a presetting pressure. The oscillation of the swash plate is one of the major excitation sources in the high-speed piston pump, which may cause lower efficiency, shorter service life, and even serious damage. This paper presents an improved model to investigate the influence of the variable displacement mechanism on the swash plate oscillation and introduces some feasible ways to reduce oscillation of the swash plate. Most of the variable structural parameters of the variable displacement mechanism are taken into consideration, and their influences on swash plate oscillation are discussed in detail. The influence of the load pipe on the oscillation of the swash plate is considered in the improved model. A test rig is built and similarities between the experiments and simulated results prove that the simulation model can effectively predict the variable displacement mechanism state. The simulation results show that increasing the volume of the outlet chamber, the spring stiffness of the control valve, the action area of the actuator piston, and offset distance of the actuator piston can significantly reduce the oscillation amplitude of the swash plate. Furthermore, reducing the diameter of the control valve spool and the dead volume of the actuator piston chamber can also have a positive effect on oscillation amplitude reduction.

  2. Synthesis of Plate-Like Nanoalumina and Its Effect on Gas Permeability of Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadamali Karimi Khozani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable efforts have been made to develop gas impermeable polymer systems. Compared with metal system counterparts they have advantages such as low density and production costs. The most important challenge in development of impermeable polymer systems is to reduce their gas permeability by proper selection of system composition and process conditions. In this work, nanoparticles were initially synthesized using Al (NO33•9H2O and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a structure-directing agent via hydrothermal method and a plate-like structure was characterized by FESEM and EDAX analyses. In the second step, epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites and epoxy-carbon fiber composites containing 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% nanoalumina were prepared. The effect of nanoparticle loading level on permeability of nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide in epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites was investigated. It was observed that the permeability of epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites toward nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide gases reduced 83%, 74%, and 50%, respectively. It was deduced that the permeability reduction was clearly associated with the diameter of gas molecules. Generally speaking, the results showed that the incorporation of plate-like nanoalumina particles significantly reduced the gas permeability. Also, carbon dioxide gas permeability of carbon fiber epoxy composites containing plate-like nanoalumina was investigated to show the effect of ingredients on the gas permeability of the system. The results indicated that carbon dioxide gas permeability of epoxy carbon fiber composite containing 5 wt% of plate-like nanoalumina was totally reduced 84%.

  3. Drift wave turbulence studies on closed and open flux surfaces: effect limiter/divertor plates location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, T.; Scott, B.

    2007-01-01

    The field line connection of a tokamak sheared magnetic field has an important impact on turbulence, by ensuring a finite parallel dynamical response for every degree of freedom available in the system. This constitutes the main property which distinguishes closed from open flux surfaces in such a device. In the latter case, the poloidal periodicity of the magnetic field is replaced by a Debye sheath arising where the field lines strike the limiter/divertor plates. This is enough to break the field line connection constraint and allow the existence of convective cell modes, leading to a change in the character of the turbulence from drift wave- (closed flux surfaces) to interchange-type (open flux surfaces), and hence increasing the turbulent transport observed. Here we study the effect of changing the poloidal position of the limiter/divertor plates, using the three-dimensional electromagnetic gyrofluid turbulence code GEM, which has time dependently self consistent field aligned flux tube coordinates. For the closed flux surfaces, the globally consistent periodic boundary conditions are invoked, and for open flux surfaces a standard Debye sheath is used at the striking points. In particular, the use of two limiter positions simultaneously, top and bottom, is in order, such to allow a separation between the inboard and outboard sides of the tokamak. This highlights the differences between those two regions of the tokamak, where the curvature is either favourable (former) or unfavourable (latter), and further makes room for future experimental qualitative comparisons, for instance, on double null configurations of the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. (author)

  4. Heat transfer effects on a viscous dissipative fluid flow past a vertical plate in the presence of induced magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Raju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis is performed to study induced magnetic field effects on free convection flow past a vertical plate. The x¯-axis is taken vertically upwards along the plate, y¯-axis normal to the plate into the fluid region. It is assumed that the plate is electrically non-conducting and the applied magnetic field is of uniform strength (H0 and perpendicular to the plate. The magnetic Reynolds number of the flow is not taken to be small enough so that the induced magnetic field is taken into account. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are solved by Perturbation technique and the effects of various physical parameters on velocity, temperature, and induced magnetic fields are studied through graphs and tables. Variations in Skin friction and rate of heat transfer are also studied. It is observed that an increase in magnetic parameter decreases the velocity for both water and air. It is also seen that there is a fall in induced magnetic field as magnetic Prandtl number, and magnetic field parameter increase.

  5. Effect of plasma actuator and splitter plate on drag coefficient of a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbıyık, Hürrem; Erkan Akansu, Yahya; Yavuz, Hakan; Ertuğrul Bay, Ahmet

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on flow control around a circular cylinder with splitter plate and plasma actuator is investigated. The study is performed in wind tunnel for Reynolds numbers at 4000 and 8000. The wake region of circular cylinder with a splitter plate is analyzed at different angles between 0 and 180 degrees. In this the study, not only plasma actuators are activated but also splitter plate is placed behind the cylinder. A couple electrodes are mounted on circular cylinder at ±90 degrees. Also, flow visualization is achieved by using smoke wire method. Drag coefficient of the circular cylinder with splitter plate and the plasma actuator are obtained for different angles and compared with the plain circular cylinder. While attack angle is 0 degree, drag coefficient is decreased about 20% by using the splitter plate behind the circular cylinder. However, when the plasma actuators are activated, the improvement of the drag reduction is measured to be 50%.

  6. Effect of boric acid on intergranular corrosion in tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Campan, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Intergranular attack on steam generator tubing is one important phenomenon involved in availability of Pressurized Water Reactors. Boric acid appears to be a possible candidate for inhibiting the corrosion process. The program performed in Cadarache was supposed to give statistical informations on the boric acid effect. It was based on a large number of samples initially attacked during a program performed by BABCOCK ampersand WILCOX. These samples were sleeved onto Alloy 690 tubes, in order to prevent premature cracking. Unfortunately it was not possible to find chemical conditions able to produce significant additional corrosion; we postulated mainly due to a drastic reduction of the thermal flux resulting from the increase of the tube wall thickness under the tube support plates (TSP). The tests demonstrate that such sleeve could be a possible remedy of the corrosion when introduced under the TSP. The tests show indications of a possible beneficial effect of the boric acid, a large variability of the heats sensitivity to the IGA and a predominant effect of Na 2 CO 3 on IGA production

  7. Investigating the effect of non-similar fins in thermoeconomic optimization of plate fin heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajabdollahi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Thermoeconomic optimization of plate fin heat exchanger with similar (SF) and different (DF) or non-similar fin in each side is presented in this work. For this purpose, both heat exchanger effectiveness and total annual cost (TAC) are optimized simultaneously using multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm. The above procedure is performed for various mass flow rates in each side. The optimum results reveal that no thermoeconomic improvement is observed in the case of same mass flow rate in each side while both effectiveness and TAC are improved in the case of different mass flow rate. For example, effectiveness and TAC are improved 0.95% and 10.17% respectively, for the DF compared with SF. In fact, the fin configuration should be selected more compact in a side with lower mass flow rate compared with the other side in the thermoeconomic viewpoint. Furthermore, for the thermodynamic optimization viewpoint both SF and DF have the same optimum result while for the economic (or thermoeconomic) optimization viewpoint, the significant decrease in TAC is accessible in the case of DF compared with SF. - Highlights: • Thermoeconomic modeling of compact heat exchanger. • Selection of fin and heat exchanger geometries as nine decision variables. • Applying MOPSO algorithm for multi objective optimization. • Considering the similar and different fin specification in each side. • Investigation of optimum design parameters for various mass flow rates

  8. A new science of happiness: the paradox of pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Azzarelli, Kim K; McMahon, Darrin M; Schwartz, Barry

    2016-11-01

    The pursuit of happiness is enshrined in the founding document of our nation as a fundamental and inalienable right. Yet nowhere is the method of this pursuit clearly defined. What, exactly, does it mean to be happy, and how can such happiness be sustained over the long term? Can happiness be accurately gauged or measured? How does the paradoxical relationship between happiness and pleasure shape our quest to lead the good life? And what does modern science have to tell us about this universal yet elusive pursuit? Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion that included attorney and author Kim Azzarelli, historian Darrin McMahon, and social psychologist Barry Schwartz, who joined forces to share their research and insight on happiness, pleasure, and the coveted good life. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Effectiveness of sonography assisted minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) compare with fluoroscope assisted in femoral shaft fracture: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsin, Jirawat; Vaseenon, Tanawat; Pattamapaspong, Nuttaya; Kritsaneephaiboon, Apipop

    2017-08-01

    A minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has an advantage of biological soft tissue preservation that consists of preserving bony blood supply, fracture hematoma and less soft tissue damage which leads to decreasing of infection rate and rapid bone healing. However, the radiation exposure is still a disadvantage of this technique. A sonography that provides dynamic real time imaging may be used as an alternative technique for assisting MIPO. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of MIPO in femoral shaft fracture between the sonography assisted and the fluoroscopy assisted. Twenty-eight cadaveric limbs were subjected to create femoral shaft fracture. Then, sonography assisted reduction with temporary external fixation and MIPO were performed. Images of the sonography and the fluoroscopy were recorded including before reduction, after reduction and after MIPO in order to identify fracture displacements in anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Moreover, the anterior and posterior distances from edge of the bone to the plate were measured to confirm plate position. The effectiveness of this technique was defined as the proper plate position and acceptable alignment after fixation. All distances from the sonography and the fluoroscopy were also analyzed and compared using Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman method to assess the agreements between two tests. All of the subjects were met the criteria for acceptable alignment. We found only three femoral shaft fracture (11%) operated with MIPO by sonography assisted that showed slipped plate off femoral bones. According to Pearson correlation, there were good to excellent agreements in term of measuring fracture displacement before (Pearson Correlation >0.7) and after reduction (Pearson Correlation >0.7) between these two tests. There was moderate agreement regarding to evaluation of plate position (Pearson Correlation 03.-0.7). When we compared two methods of measurement using Bland

  10. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, N. F. I.; Hasran, U. A.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell.

  11. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, N F I; Hasran, U A; Kamarudin, S K

    2015-01-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell. (paper)

  12. An experimental observation of the effect of flow direction for evaporation heat transfer in plate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yueh-Hung; Li, Guang-Cheng; Yang, Chien-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an Infrared Thermal Image observation on the evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant R-410A in plate heat exchanger with various flow arrangement and exit superheat conditions. An experimental method was derived for estimating the superheat region area of two-phase refrigerant evaporation in plate heat exchanger. The experimental results show that the superheat region area for parallel flow is much larger than that for counter flow as that estimated by Yang et al. [9]. There is an early superheated region at the central part of the plate heat exchanger for parallel flow arrangement. This effect is not significant for counter flow arrangement. The Yang et al. [9] method under estimated the superheat area approximately 40%–53% at various flow rates and degree of exit superheat. Even though the flow inside a plate heat exchanger is extremely turbulent because of the chevron flow passages, the assumption of uniform temperature distribution in the cross section normal to the bulk flow direction will cause significant uncertainties for estimating the superheat area for refrigerant evaporating in a plate heat exchanger

  13. Aesthetic Pleasure: a somaesthetic laboratory in a dance classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Medeiros Ribeiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This text presents a reflection on the possibility of incorporating devices potentially able to evoke sensory experiences in dance education. Based on ethnoscenological studies, on literature review and on a careful observation of Thembi Rosa’s work, Verdades Inventadas, one could regard somaesthetics and affective proprioception as important notions to think about dance. Somaesthetics seem to promote the construction of identity in dance, due to its ability to evoke pleasure in movement, connecting the individual with action.

  14. What Joy from Misery: the Pleasures of Horror

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the allure of narrative genres, such as horror, that have historically been viewed as philosophically (and often morally) problematic owing to their negative content and the painful emotional responses they elicit. It departs from the majority of classical and contemporary solutions to the alleged paradox posed by such genres, in that it does not attempt to render their pleasures explicable by appealing to their fictive status, thematic or ideological meanings or the ...

  15. The accomplishment of happiness : feminism, pleasure, heterosexuality and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores some of the available sociological orientations towards happiness, linking these with feminist debates about pleasure, heterosexuality, agency and consumption, as well as utilizing my own autobiographical narrative from working with other feminists over the years in academia. Its central premise is that feminist debates and concerns can take forward sociological debates on happiness in new directions and in more nuanced ways. Conversely, current sociological theorizing o...

  16. Experiential Marketing A Designer of Pleasurable and Memorable Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Muthiah, Dr. Krishnaveni; Suja, S

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of globalisation, economic crisis and the change in the lifestyle of consumers poses a challenge for the marketers in the present era. Todays consumers have an insight beyond satisfying their needs and wants. Business firms today need to create long lasting impressions on their clients which are converted into memorable experiences as a result of the pleasures derived. An experience occurs when consumers become involved to such an extent that a lasting impression is made on t...

  17. Annealing effects in plated-wire memory elements. I - Interdiffusion of copper and Permalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, C. I.; Kench, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Results of investigations using X-ray diffraction and electron-beam microprobe techniques have shown that copper and Permalloy platings interdiffuse at low temperatures when plated-wire memory elements are annealed for times as short as 50 hr. Measurable interdiffusion between Permalloy platings and gold substrates does not occur in similar conditions. Both magnetic and compositional changes during aging are found to occur by a thermally activated process with activation energies around 38 kcal/mol. It is shown, however, that copper-diffusion and magnetic-dispersion changes during aging are merely concurrent processes, neither being the other's cause.

  18. Effects of rotation on MHD flow past an accelerated isothermal vertical plate with heat and mass diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact analysis of rotation effects on unsteady flow of an incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past a uniformly accelerated infinite isothermal vertical plate, under the action of transversely applied magnetic field has been presented. The plate temperature is raised to Tw and the concentration level near the plate is also raised to C′w . The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity profiles, temperature and concentration are studied for different physical parameters like thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, Prandtl number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. It is also observed that the velocity increases with decreasing magnetic field parameter.

  19. Effect of Chord Splice Joints on Force Distribution and Deformations in Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The span of roof trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates) makes it often necessary to use splice joints in the top and bottom chords. In the finite element models used for design of the trusses these splice joints are normally assumed to be either rotationally stiff or pinned....... Timber-to-timber contact and non-linear elastic behaviour are included in the model. Results from tests with joints under fourpoint bending are compared with predictions given by TrussLab, and a good agreement is found. Splice joints in trusses with nail plates may be assumed to be rotationally stiff...... if their deformation has no significant effect upon the distribution of member forces according to Eurocode 5. Two simple guidelines for the design and location of splice joints are given in Eurocode 5 for treating the splice joints as rotationally stiff. The reasonability of these guidelines and the influence...

  20. Recreational cannabis use: pleasures and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Joseph G

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis is widely used for a variety of reasons, and its changing legal status may foster more new users. Although the acute clinical effects of cannabis are generally benign, clinicians should be aware of health complications and testing limitations. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.

  1. Numerical Study on the Effect of Distribution Plates in the Manifolds on the Flow Distribution and Thermal Performance of a Flat Plate Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel García-Guendulain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow maldistribution represents a problem of particular interest in the engineering field for several thermal systems. In flat plate solar collectors, the thermal efficiency strongly depends on the flow distribution through the riser tubes, where a uniform distribution causes a uniform temperature distribution and therefore a higher efficiency. In this work, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD numerical analysis has been carried out using the commercial software FLUENT®, in order to determine the flow distribution, pressure drop and hence the thermal efficiency of a solar collector with distribution flow plates inside the manifolds. The obtained numerical solution for this type of thermal systems has been validated with experimental results available in literature for laminar and turbulent flow. Four distribution plate configurations were analyzed. Results show that using two distribution plates in each of both manifolds improves the flow uniformity up to 40% under the same operating conditions when distribution plates are not used. Besides, it is shown that there exists an increase in the overall pressure drop which is practically negligible for the tilt angles commonly employed in the installation of flat plate solar collectors in Mexico. The use of closed end distribution plates on the dividing and combining manifolds allows the thermal efficiency to become close to the ideal thermal efficiency which is obtained with a uniform flow distribution.

  2. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R.; Pease, R.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Kosier, S.L.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps

  3. Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer in flow past a continuous moving plate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.

    The study of thermal boundary layer on taking into account the viscous dissipative heat, on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate is presented here.Similarity solutions are derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...

  4. Transition radiation on semi-infinite plate and Smith-Purcell effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'ga, N F; Syshchenko, V V

    2010-01-01

    The Smith-Purcell radiation is usually measured when an electron passes over the grating of metallic stripes. However, for high frequencies (exceeding the plasma frequency of the grating material) none material could be treated as a conductor, but ought to be considered as a dielectric with plasma-like permittivity. So for describing Smith-Purcell radiation in the range of high frequencies new theoretical approaches are needed. In the present paper we apply the simple variant of eikonal approximation developed earlier to the case of radiation on the set of parallel semi-infinite dielectric plates. The formulae obtained describe the radiation generated by the particles both passing through the plates (traditionally referred as 'transition radiation') and moving in vacuum over the grating formed by the edges of the plates (traditionally referred as 'diffraction radiation', and, taking into account the periodicity of the plates arrangement, as Smith-Purcell radiation).

  5. Heat transfer effects on flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with variable temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution to the problem of flow past an exponentially accelerated infinite vertical plate with variable temperature is analyzed. The temperature of the plate is raised linearly with time t. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity and temperature profiles are studied for different physical parameters like thermal Grashof number Gr, time and an accelerating parameter a. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of a or Gr.

  6. Numerical Study of the Effect of Presence of Geometric Singularities on the Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechai, Abdelhak; Tati, Abdelouahab; Guettala, Abdelhamid

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an effort is made to understand the effects of geometric singularities on the load bearing capacity and stress distribution in thin laminated plates. Composite plates with variously shaped cutouts are frequently used in both modern and classical aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering structures. Finite element investigation is undertaken to show the effect of geometric singularities on stress distribution. In this study, the stress concentration factors (SCFs) in cross-and-angle-ply laminated as well as in isotropic plates subjected to uniaxial loading are studied using a quadrilateral finite element of four nodes with thirty-two degrees-of-freedom per element. The varying parameters such as the cutout shape and hole sizes (a/b) are considered. The numerical results obtained by the present element are compared favorably with those obtained using the finite element software Freefem++ and the analytic findings published in literature, which demonstrates the accuracy of the present element. Freefem++ is open source software based on the finite element method, which could be helpful to study and improving the analyses of the stress distribution in composite plates with cutouts. The Freefem++ and the quadrilateral finite element formulations will be given in the beginning of this paper. Finally, to show the effect of the fiber orientation angle and anisotropic modulus ratio on the (SCF), number of figures are given for various ratio (a/b).

  7. Effect of screw position on single cycle to failure in bending and torsion of a locking plate-rod construct in a synthetic feline femoral gap model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhäuser, Simone K; Tepic, Slobodan; Weber, Urs T

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of screw position on strength and stiffness of a combination locking plate-rod construct in a synthetic feline femoral gap model. 30 synthetic long-bone models derived from beechwood and balsa wood. 3 constructs (2 locking plate-rod constructs and 1 locking plate construct; 10 specimens/construct) were tested in a diaphyseal bridge plating configuration by use of 4-point bending and torsion. Variables included screw position (near the fracture gap and far from the fracture gap) and application of an intramedullary pin. Constructs were tested to failure in each loading mode to determine strength and stiffness. Failure was defined as plastic deformation of the plate or breakage of the bone model or plate. Strength, yield angle, and stiffness were compared by use of a Wilcoxon test. Placement of screws near the fracture gap did not increase bending or torsional stiffness in the locking plate-rod constructs, assuming the plate was placed on the tension side of the bone. Addition of an intramedullary pin resulted in a significant increase in bending strength of the construct. Screw positioning did not have a significant effect on any torsion variables. Results of this study suggested that, in the investigated plate-rod construct, screw insertion adjacent to the fracture lacked mechanical advantages over screw insertion at the plate ends. For surgeons attempting to minimize soft tissue dissection, the decision to make additional incisions for screw placement should be considered with even more caution.

  8. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  9. Rotating ferro-nanofluid over stretching plate under the effect of hall current and joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahed, Mohamed S., E-mail: eng_moh_sayed@live.com

    2017-05-01

    The behavior of boundary layer over a stretching plate filled with ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and subjected to magnetic field with hall current, joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation has been investigated. The modeling based on nonlinear partial differential equations due to continuity, momentum and heat equations, these equations transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation technique then solved numerically. The effect of hall current, joule heating and thermal radiation on the physical quantities such as surface shear stress and heat flux have been investigated and discussed. Moreover, the velocities and temperature profiles of the boundary layer under the influence of the presented external forces plotted and discussed. - Highlights: • The existence of the hall current increases the transverse velocity, as well as has a limited impact on the longitudinal velocity. • Boundary layer temperature exposed to nonlinear thermal radiation is higher than that exposed to linear thermal radiation. • Joule heating increases the boundary layer temperature near the surface especially in the linear model of thermal radiation. • Magnetic field with hall current increases the x-direction skin friction and reduces it in the y-direction.

  10. Effect of Glass Thickness on Performance of Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Fruits Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Bakari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of thickness of glazing material on the performance of flat plate solar collectors. Performance of solar collector is affected by glaze transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance which results into major heat losses in the system. Four solar collector models with different glass thicknesses were designed, constructed, and experimentally tested for their performances. Collectors were both oriented to northsouth direction and tilted to an angle of 10° with the ground toward north direction. The area of each collector model was 0.72 m2 with a depth of 0.15 m. Low iron (extra clear glass of thicknesses 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm was used as glazing materials. As a control, all collector performances were analysed and compared using a glass of 5 mm thickness and then with glass of different thickness. The results showed that change in glass thickness results into variation in collector efficiency. Collector with 4 mm glass thick gave the best efficiency of 35.4% compared to 27.8% for 6 mm glass thick. However, the use of glass of 4 mm thick needs precautions in handling and during placement to the collector to avoid extra costs due to breakage.

  11. Investigating physical field effects on the size-dependent dynamic behavior of inhomogeneous nanoscale plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the thermo-mechanical vibration frequencies of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates in the framework of refined four-unknown shear deformation plate theory. The present nanoplate is subjected to various kinds of thermal loads with uniform, linear and nonlinear distributions. The nonlinear distribution is considered as heat conduction and sinusoidal temperature rise. The present refined theory captures the influences of shear deformations without the need for shear correction factors. Thermo-magneto-electro-elastic coefficients of the FG nanoplate vary gradually along the thickness according to the power-law form. The scale coefficient is taken into consideration implementing the nonlocal elasticity of Eringen. The governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle and are solved analytically. The frequency response is compared with those of previously published data. The obtained results are presented for the thermo-mechanical vibrations of the FG nanobeams to investigate the effects of material graduation, nonlocal parameter, mode number, slenderness ratio and thermal loading in detail. The present study is associated to aerospace, mechanical and nuclear engineering structures which are under thermal loads.

  12. Interference fit effect on holed single plates loaded with tension-tension stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Croccolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of interference fit coupling on the fatigue strength of holed plates. The effect was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Axial fatigue tests have been carried out on holed specimens made of high performance steel (1075MPa of Ultimate strength and 990MPa of Yield strength with or without a pin, made of the same material, press fitted into their central hole. Three different conditions have been investigated: free hole specimens, specimens with 0.6% of nominal specific interference and specimens with 2% of nominal specific interference. The experimental stress-life (S–N curves pointed out an increased fatigue life of the interference fit specimens compared with the free hole ones. The numerical investigation was performed in order to analyse the stress fields by applying an elastic plastic 2D simulation with a commercial Finite Element software. The stress history and distribution along the contact interference of the fitted samples indicates a significant reduction of the local stress range due to the externally applied loading (remote stress since a residual and compressive stress field is generated by the pin insertion.

  13. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different composite nanolubricant concentrations on Aluminium 2024 plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, N. N. M.; Azmi, W. H.; Redhwan, A. A. M.; Sharif, M. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Wear of sliding parts and operational machine consistency enhancement can be avoided with good lubrication. Lubrication reduce wear between two contacting and sliding surfaces and decrease the frictional power losses in compressor. The coefficient of friction and wear rate effects study were carried out to measure the friction and anti-wear abilities of Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants a new type of compressor lubricant to enhanced the compressor performances. The tribology test rig employing reciprocating test conditions to replicate a piston ring contact in the compressor was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different Al2O3-SiO2/PAG composite nanolubricants of Aluminium 2024 plate for 10-kg load at different speed were investigated. Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in the Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG 46) lubricant using two-steps method of preparation. The result shows that the coefficient friction and wear rate of composite nanolubricants decreased compared to pure lubricant. The maximum reduction achievement for friction of coefficient and wear rate by Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants by 4.78% and 12.96% with 0.06% volume concentration. Therefore, 0.06% volume concentration is selected as the most enhanced composite nanolubricants with effective coefficient of friction and wear rate reduction compared to other volume concentrations. Thus, it is recommended to be used as the compressor lubrication to enhanced compressor performances.

  14. Effect of current imbalance on stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor consisting of chrome-plated strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nishi, Masataka; Isono, Takaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ono, Michitaka; Hamajima, Takataro; Fujioka, Tsutomu.

    1997-02-01

    The effect of an unbalanced current distribution in a conductor consisting of chrome plated strands on stability was investigated using a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) consisting of 27 NbTi chrome-plated strands. In addition, the quench behavior when a non-uniform current distribution was produced in the conductor was studied from the experimental results. Moreover, impedance of the chrome-plated strands was measured using the sample conductor. The results show that the stability is determined by the largest strand current when it is sufficiently large otherwise by the transport current when it is not high enough. It was found that it took a long time to make the conductor quench from the onset of the normal transition of the strand carrying the large current. This is explained by the good diffusivity of the coolant temperature in the conductor's cross section. Since the ramp-rate limitation cannot probably take place if the coolant temperature is diffused well in the conductor's cross section, it is expected the ramp-rate limitation can be prevented using this effect. It is also shown that the chrome-plated strands come into contact with one another with uniform transverse conductance on the order of 10 3 S/m. (author)

  15. The combined effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow maldistribution in crossflow plate-fin heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganayakulu, C. [Aeronautical Development Agency, Bangalore (India); Seetharamu, K.N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Southern Malaysia (KCP), Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2000-05-01

    An analysis of a crossflow plate-fin compact heat exchanger, accounting for the combined effect of two-dimensional longitudinal heat conduction through the exchanger wall and nonuniform inlet fluid flow distribution on both hot and cold fluid sides is carried out using a finite element method. Using the fluid flow maldistribution models, the exchanger effectiveness and its deterioration due to the combined effects of longitudinal heat conduction and flow nonuniformity are calculated for various design and operating conditions of the exchanger. It was found that the performance deteriorations are quite significant in some typical applications due to the combined effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow nonuniformity on crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger. (orig.)

  16. Rotation and Radiation Effects on MHD Flow through Porous Medium Past a Vertical Plate with Heat and Mass Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Singh Rajput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of rotation and radiation on unsteady MHD flow past a vertical plate with variable wall temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current is studied here. Earlier we studied chemical reaction effect on unsteady MHD flow past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current. We had obtained the results which were in agreement with the desired flow phenomenon. To study further, we are changing the model by considering radiation effect on fluid, and changing the geometry of the model. Here in this paper we are taking the plate positioned vertically upward and rotating with velocity Ω . Further, medium of the flow is taken as porous. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate increase linearly with time. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations under consideration have been solved by Laplace transform technique. The model contains equations of motion, diffusion equation and equation of energy. To analyze the solution of the model, desirable sets of the values of the parameters have been considered. The governing equations involved in the flow model are solved by the Laplace-transform technique. The results obtained have been analyzed with the help of graphs drawn for different parameters. The numerical values obtained for the drag at boundary and Nusselt number have been tabulated. We found that the values obtained for velocity, concentration and temperature are in concurrence with the actual flow of the fluid

  17. Thermal Response of Cooled Silicon Nitride Plate Due to Thermal Conductivity Effects Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2003-01-01

    Lightweight, strong, tough high-temperature materials are required to complement efficiency improvements for next-generation gas turbine engines that can operate with minimum cooling. Because of their low density, high-temperature strength, and high thermal conductivity, ceramics are being investigated as materials to replace the nickelbase superalloys that are currently used for engine hot-section components. Ceramic structures can withstand higher operating temperatures and a harsh combustion environment. In addition, their low densities relative to metals help reduce component mass (ref. 1). To complement the effectiveness of the ceramics and their applicability for turbine engine applications, a parametric study using the finite element method is being carried out. The NASA Glenn Research Center remains very active in conducting and supporting a variety of research activities related to ceramic matrix composites through both experimental and analytical efforts (ref. 1). The objectives of this work are to develop manufacturing technology, develop a thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC/EBC), develop an analytical modeling capability to predict thermomechanical stresses, and perform a minimal burner rig test on silicon nitride (Si3N4) and SiC/SiC turbine nozzle vanes under simulated engine conditions. Moreover, we intend to generate a detailed database of the material s property characteristics and their effects on structural response. We expect to offer a wide range of data since the modeling will account for other variables, such as cooling channel geometry and spacing. Comprehensive analyses have begun on a plate specimen with Si3N4 cooling holes.

  18. Initial Unsteady Free Convective Flow Past an Infinite Vertical Plate with Radiation and Mass Transfer Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution and analysis of an initial unsteady two dimensional free convection flow, heat and mass transfer in the presence of thermal radiation along an infinite fixed vertical plate when the plate temperature is instantaneously raised, is presented. The fluid considered is a gray, absorbing emitting radiation but a nonscattering medium. Three cases have been discussed, in particular, namely, (i when, the plate temperature is instantaneously raised to a higher constant value, (ii when, the plate temperature varies linearly with time and (iii when, the plate temperature varies non-linearly with time. A close form general solution for all the cases has been obtained in terms of repeated integrals of error functions. In two particular cases, the solutions in terms of the repeated integrals of error functions have been further simplified to forms containing only error functions. It is observed that for an increase in the radiation parameter N or a decrease in the Grashof number Gr or Gm, there is a fall in the velocity or temperature, but compared to the no radiation case or no diffusing species, there is a rise in the velocity and temperature of the fluid.

  19. Interaction between two subducting plates under Tokyo and its possible effects on seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Francis; Okaya, David; Sato, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2007-09-01

    Underneath metropolitan Tokyo the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts to the north on top of the westward subducting Pacific plate (PAC). New, relatively high-resolution tomography images the PHS as a well-defined subduction zone under western Kanto Plain. As PAC shoals under eastern Kanto, the PHS lithosphere is being thrusted into an increasingly tighter space of the PAC-Eurasian mantle wedge. As a result, zones of enhanced seismicity appear under eastern Kanto at the top of PHS, internal to PHS and also at its contact with PAC. These zones are located at depths greater than the causative fault of the disastrous 1923 Great Tokyo ``megathrust'' earthquake, in the vicinity of several well-located historical, damaging (M6 and M7) earthquakes. Thus a rather unique interaction between subducting plates under Tokyo may account for additional seismic hazards in metropolitan Tokyo.

  20. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties during In Vitro Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Pimenta de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures.

  1. The effect of orifice plate insertion on low NOx radial swirl burner performances (simulated variable area burner)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar

    2000-01-01

    The effect of inserting an outlet orifice plate of different sizes at the exit plane of the swirler outlet were studied for small radial swirler with fixed curves vanes. Tests were carried out using two different sizes flame tubes of 76 mm and 140 mm inside diameter, respectively and 330 mm in length. The system was fuelled via eight vane passage fuel nozzles of 3.5 mm diameter hole. This type of fuel injection helps in mixing the fuel and air better prior to ignition. Tests were carried out at 20 mm W.G. pressure loss which is representative of gas burners for domestic central heating system operating conditions. Tests were also carried out at 400 K preheated inlet air temperature and using only natural gas as fuel. The aim of the insertion of orifice plate was to create the swirler pressure loss at the swirler outlet phase so that the swirler outlet shear layer turbulence was maximize to assist with fuel/air mixing. For the present work, the smallest orifice plate exhibited a very low NO x emissions even at 0.7 equivalence ratio were NO x is well below 10 ppm corrected at 0% oxygen at dry basis. Other emissions such as carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon were below 10 ppm and 100 ppm, respectively, over a wide range of operating equivalence ratios. The implies that good combustion was achieved using the smallest orifice plate. (Author)

  2. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  3. MINIMAL INVASIVE PLATE OSTEOSYNTHESIS- AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT METHOD FOR DISTAL TIBIA INTRAARTICULAR (PILON FRACTURES- AN 18 MONTHS FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Jati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tibial pilon fracture though requires operative treatment is difficult to manage. Conventional osteosynthesis is not suitable, because distal tibia is subcutaneous bone with poor vascularity. Closed reduction and Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO for distal tibia has emerged as an alternative treatment option because it respects fracture biology and haematoma and also provides biomechanically stable construct. The aim of the study is to evaluate the results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis using locking plates in treating tibial pilon fractures in terms of fracture union, restoration of ankle function and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with closed tibial pilon fractures (Ruedi and Allgower type I (14, type II (13, type III (3 treated with MIPO with Locking Compression Plates (LCP were prospectively followed for average duration of 18 months. RESULTS Average duration of injury-hospital and injury-surgery interval was as 12.05 hrs. and 3.50 days, respectively. All fractures got united with an average duration of 20.8 weeks (range 14-28 weeks. Olerud and Molander score was used for evaluation at 3 months, 6 months and 18 months. One patient had union with valgus angulation of 15 degrees, but no nonunion was found. CONCLUSION The present study shows that MIPO with LCP is an effective treatment method in terms of union time and complications rate for tibial pilon fracture promoting early union and early weight bearing.

  4. Effects of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin on alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix calcification in rabbit growth-plate chondrocyte cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Y.; Shimazu, A.; Nakashima, K.; Suzuki, F.; Jikko, A.; Iwamoto, M. (Osaka Univ. (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    The effects of PTH and calcitonin (CT) on the expression of mineralization-related phenotypes by chondrocytes were examined. In cultures of pelleted growth-plate chondrocytes. PTH caused 60-90% decreases in alkaline phosphatase activity, the incorporation of {sup 45}Ca into insoluble material, and the calcium content during the post-mitotic stage. These effects of PTH were dose-dependent and reversible. In contrast, CT increased alkaline phosphatase activity, {sup 45}Ca incorporation into insoluble material, and the calcium content by 1.4- to 1.8-fold. These observations suggest that PTH directly inhibits the expression of the mineralization-related phenotypes by growth-plate chondrocytes, and that CT has the opposite effects.

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  6. Effectiveness of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO on Comminuted Tibial or Femoral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Andalib

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comminuted fractures happen frequently due to traumas. Fixation without opening the fracture site,known as minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO, has recently become prevalent. This study has beendesigned to assess the outcomes of this treatment for tibial and femoral comminuted fractures.Methods: A total of 60 patients with comminuted femoral or tibial fractures were operated with MIPO method in thiscross-sectional study at Alzahra university hospital in 2015. Eleven patients were excluded due to lack of adequatefollow-ups. Patients’data including union time; infection in the fractured site; hip and knee range of motion; and anymalunion or deformities like limb length discrepancy were collected after the surgery in every session.Results: Among 32 femoral and 17 tibial fractures, union was completed in48 patients, while only one patient withfemoral fracture had nonunion. The mean union time was 18.57±2.42 weeks. Femur fractures healed faster than tibia(17.76±2.36 compared to 19±2.37 weeks, respectively, P=0.09. None of the patients suffered from infections or fistula.The range of motion in hip and knee remained intact in approximately all patients. Malunion happened in 3 patients; 100internal rotation in 1 patient; and 1cm limb shortening in 2 patients.Conclusion: According to the result of this study, MIPO is a simple and effective method of fixation with a high rateof union as well as minimal complications for comminuted fractures of long bones. Infection is rare, and malunion orany deformity is infrequent. MIPO appears to be a promising and safe treatment alternative for comminuted fractures.

  7. Fun and software exploring pleasure, paradox and pain in computing

    CERN Document Server

    Goriunova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Fun and Software offers the untold story of fun as constitutive of the culture and aesthetics of computing. Fun in computing is a mode of thinking, making and experiencing. It invokes and convolutes the question of rationalism and logical reason, addresses the sensibilities and experience of computation and attests to its creative drives. By exploring topics as diverse as the pleasure and pain of the programmer, geek wit, affects of play and coding as a bodily pursuit of the unique in recursive structures, Fun and Software helps construct a different point of entry to the understanding of soft

  8. Strength and Deformation Rate of Plate Boundaries: The Rheological Effects of Grain Size Reduction, Structure, and Serpentinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, L.; Gueydan, F.

    2016-12-01

    Global strain rate maps reveal 1000-fold contrasts between plate interiors, oceanic or continental diffuse plate boundaries and narrow plate boundaries. Here, we show that rheological models based on the concepts of shear zone localization and the evolution of rock structure upon strain can explain these strain rate contrasts. Ductile shear zones constitute a mechanical paradox in the lithosphere. As every plastic deformation mechanism is strain-rate-hardening, ductile rocks are expected to deform at low strain rate and low stress (broad zone of deformation). Localized ductile shear zones require either a localized forcing (locally high stress) or a thermal or structural anomaly in the shear zone; either can be inherited or develop progressively as rocks deform. We previously identified the most effective process at each depth level of the lithosphere. In the upper crust and middle crust, rocks fabric controls localization. Grain size reduction is the most efficient mechanism in the uppermost mantle. This analysis can be generalized to consider a complete lithospheric section. We assume strain rate does not vary with depth and that the depth-integrated strength of the lithospheric does not change over time, as the total force is controlled by external process such as mantle convection and plate and slab buoyancy. Reducing grain size from a coarse value typical of undeformed peridotite to a value in agreement with the stress level (piezometer) while letting that stress vary from depth to depth (the integrated stress remains the same) increases the lithospheric strain rate by about a factor of 1000. This can explain the development of diffuse plate boundaries. The slightly higher strain rate of continental plate boundary may reflect development of a layered rock fabric in the middle crust. Narrow plate boundaries require additional weakening process. The high heat flux near mid-ocean ridge implies a thin lithosphere, which enhances stress (for constant integrated

  9. The Effect of a Condylar Repositioning Plate on Condylar Position and Relapse in Two-Jaw Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu Sik Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous condylar repositioning methods have been reported. However, most of them are 2-dimensional or are complex procedures that require a longer operation time and a highly trained surgeon. This study aims to introduce a new technique using a condylar repositioning plate and a centric relation splint to achieve a centric relationship.MethodsWe evaluated 387 patients who had undergone surgery for skeletal jaw deformities. During the operation, a centric relation splint, intermediate splint, final centric occlusion splint, and condylar repositioning plate along with an L-type mini-plate for LeFort I osteotomy or a bicortical screw for bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were utilized for rigid fixation. The evaluation included: a physical examination to detect preoperative and postoperative temporomandibular joint dysfunction, 3-dimensional computed tomography and oblique transcranial temporomandibular joint radiography to measure 3-dimensional condylar head movement, and posteroanterior and lateral cephalometric radiography to measure the preoperative and postoperative movement of the bony segment and relapse rate.ResultsA 0.3% relapse rate was observed in the coronal plane, and a 2.8% relapse rate in the sagittal plane, which is indistinguishable from the dental relapse rate in orthodontic treatment. The condylar repositioning plate could not fully prevent movement of the condylar head, but the relapse rate was minimal, implying that the movement of the condylar head was within tolerable limits.ConclusionsOur condylar repositioning method using a centric relation splint and mini-plate in orthognathic surgery was found to be simple and effective for patients suffering from skeletal jaw deformities.

  10. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hong-Xing [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: LYDbeijing@163.com [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Xiong, Tao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Guan, Yong [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2016-09-07

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  11. Intramedullary nailing for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft non-unions after plating failure: effectiveness and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Syggelos, Spyros A; Kontakis, Georgios; Giannakopoulos, Andreas; Skouteris, Georgios; Lambiris, Elias; Panagiotopoulos, Elias

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective, multicentre study aimed to evaluate reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) for the treatment of 30 cases of aseptic femoral shaft non-union after plating failure. Following nailing, 29 non-unions had healed by a mean 7.93 months. In one case a hypertrophic non-union required renailing after 8 months, using a nail of greater diameter, and united within five further months. Healing times were not related to whether the fracture was open or closed, the type non-union or the type of fracture. The delay from the initial plating to intramedullary nailing had a statistically significant effect on healing time and final outcome. This treatment is cost effective and should be implemented as soon as the non-union is diagnosed.

  12. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hong-Xing; Li, Yong-Dong; Xiong, Tao; Guan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  13. Effect of temperature on the multi-gap resistive plate chamber operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.E.; Wang, X.L.; Liu, H.D.; Chen, H.F.; Li, C.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z.Z.; Shao, M.; Zeng, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain a quantitative understanding of the influence of temperature on the multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) operation, we tested the performance of a 6-gap, 6.1x20 cm 2 active area MRPC with cosmic rays at different temperatures. Results of measurements of noise rate, dark current and detection efficiency are presented

  14. Fermionic Casimir effect for parallel plates in the presence of compact dimensions with applications to nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Saharian, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the Casimir energy and force for a massive fermionic field in the geometry of two parallel plates on background of Minkowski spacetime with an arbitrary number of toroidally compactified spatial dimensions. The bag boundary conditions are imposed on the plates and periodicity conditions with arbitrary phases are considered along the compact dimensions. The Casimir energy is decomposed into purely topological, single plate and interaction parts. With independence of the lengths of the compact dimensions and the phases in the periodicity conditions, the interaction part of the Casimir energy is always negative. In order to obtain the resulting force, the contributions from both sides of the plates must be taken into account. Then, the forces coming from the topological parts of the vacuum energy cancel out and only the interaction term contributes to the Casimir force. Applications of the general formulae to Kaluza-Klein-type models and carbon nanotubes are given. In particular, we show that for finite-length metallic nanotubes, the Casimir forces acting on the tube edges are always attractive, whereas for semiconducting-type ones, they are attractive for small lengths of the nanotube and repulsive for large lengths.

  15. Effects of finite element formulation on optimal plate and shell structural topologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available , and the other is a 4-node element accounting for in-plane (drilling) rotations. Plate elements selected for evaluation include the discrete Kirchhoff quadrilateral (DKQ) element and two Mindlin–Reissner-based elements, one employing selective reduced integration...

  16. Effects of implant material and plate design on tendon function and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark S; Turner, Thomas M; Urban, Robert M

    2006-04-01

    Titanium implants are an alternative to stainless steel implants for internal fixation after fracture. The advantages of titanium include decreased implant stiffness, increased bio-compatibility, and diminished stress shielding. However, titanium has been implicated in tendon irritation and adhesions when used in the hand and wrist. We evaluated the relationship between extensor tendon morphology and dorsal plating of the distal radius in a canine model using distal radius pi plates made of stainless steel, titanium, and titanium alloy with a modified ramped edge design. We found marked histologic changes in the tendons and surrounding soft tissues including tendon deformation and degeneration (fibrillation, cartilage metaplasia, hypocellularity and hyalinization of blood vessels), peritendonous adhesions and neovascularity in the parenchyma. Only a minimal inflammatory cell infiltrate was identified and was limited to the tenosynovium and/or paratenon. No differences were identified between titanium and stainless steel implants and those with a ramped design. Although all animals lost wrist motion with time, no differences were observed between groups. Our results suggest that pi plate placement on the dorsal surface of the distal radius may lead to extensor tendon irritation and dysfunction. There is no evidence to suggest that this is specifically related to titanium or plate edge design.

  17. Effects of equal channel angular extrusion on microstructure, strength and ballistic performance of AA5754 plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Hong, Chuanshi; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness, tensile properties and ballistic performance have been investigated in thick plates of the AA5754 alloy both in a coarse-grained as-received condition and after 4 passes of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) conducted at elevated temperatures. It is found that ECAE...

  18. Effect of heat treatment on wear resistance of a grinding plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the specimens were quenched in water and palm oil, while some of the quenched specimens were tempered at 200°C. The results obtained were corroborated with the microstructure of the specimens examined under an optical microscope. The hardness values of the grinding plate specimens quenched in ...

  19. Effects of Preweaning Polysensorial Enrichment upon Development of the Parietal Cortical Plate of Undernourished Rats: A Stereological Study

    OpenAIRE

    González, Héctor; Adaro, Luis; Hernández, Alejandro; Fernández, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken in order to quantify the effects of early polysensorial enrichment on the development of cortical pyramids, located in the parietal cortex of rats simultaneously submitted to protein-energy undernutrition. A short period of stimulation during suckling significantly decreases the cellular density in the cortical plate (phylogenetic-ontogenetic evolutionary index). Results suggest that the cerebral cortex develops according to a sophisticated neuronal network, ...

  20. Thin-plate Spline Analysis of the Effects of Face Mask Treatment in Children with Maxillary Retrognathism

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang; Yi-Jane Chen; Jane Chung-Chen Yao; Frank Hsin-Fu Chang

    2006-01-01

    Face mask therapy is indicated for growing patients who suffer from maxillary retrognathia. Most previous studies used conventional cephalometric analysis to evaluate the effects of face mask treatment. Cephalometric analysis has been shown to be insufficient for complex craniofacial configurations. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the craniofacial structure of children with maxillary retrognathism following face mask treatment by means of thin-plate spline analysis. ...

  1. Enjoy your food: on losing weight and taking pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Else; Mol, Annemarie

    2014-02-01

    Does healthy eating require people to control themselves and abstain from pleasure? This idea is dominant, but in our studies of dieting in The Netherlands we encountered professionals who work in other ways. They encourage their clients to enjoy their food, as only such joy provides satisfaction and the sense that one has eaten enough. Enjoying one's food is not easy. It depends on being sensitive. This does not come naturally but needs training. And while one kind of hunger may be difficult to distinguish from another, feeling pleasure may open the doors to feeling pain. What is more, sensitivity is not enough: enjoying one's food also depends on the food being enjoyable. A lot of care is required for that. But while engaging in such care is hard work, along the way clients are encouraged to no longer ask 'Am I being good?' but to wonder instead 'Is this good for me?' Both these questions are normative and focus on the person rather than on her socio-material context. However, in the situations related here the difference is worth making. For it entails a shift from externally controlling your behaviour to self-caringly enjoying your food. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of Chloride on Tensile and Bending Capacities of Basalt FRP Mesh Reinforced Cementitious Thin Plates under Indoor and Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a durability experimental study for thin basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP mesh reinforced cementitious plates under indoor and marine environment. The marine environment was simulated by wetting/drying cycles (wetting in salt water and drying in hot air. After 12 months of exposure, the effects of the chloride on the tensile and bending behaviors of the thin plate were investigated. In addition to the penetration of salt water, the chloride in the thin plate could be also from the sea sand since it is a component of the plate. Experimental results showed that the effect of the indoor exposure on the tensile capacity of the plate is not pronounced, while the marine exposure reduced the tensile capacity significantly. The bending capacity of the thin plates was remarkably reduced by both indoor and marine environmental exposure, in which the effect of the marine environment is more severe. The tensile capacity of the meshes extracted from the thin plates was tested, as well as the meshes immersed in salt solution for 30, 60, and 90 days. The test results confirmed that the chloride is the reason of the BFRP mesh deterioration. Moreover, as a comparison, the steel mesh reinforced thin plate was also tested and it has a similar durability performance.

  3. Effect of cavity inclination on a temperature and concentration controlled double diffusive convection at ice plate melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, M.; Ishikura, T. [Akita University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Akita (Japan); Beer, H. [Technische Unversitat Darmstadt, Institut fur Technische Thermodynamik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the double diffusive convection due to the melting of an ice plate into a calcium chloride aqueous solution inside a rectangular cavity. It is mainly considered the effect of the cavity inclination {theta} on the melting rate and the mean melting Nusselt- and Sherwood-numbers, experimentally as well as numerically. The ice plate melts spontaneously with decreasing temperature at the melting front even if initially there does not exist a temperature difference between the ice and the liquid. The concentration- and temperature-gradients near the melting front induce double diffusive convection in the liquid, which will affect the melting rate. Experiments reveal that the mean melting mass increases monotonically with increasing cavity inclination. The numerical analysis based on the laminar assumption predicts well the melting mass in the range of {theta}=0-90 , however, under-predicts the melting mass in the range of {theta}=90-180 as compared with the experimental results. (orig.)

  4. A study on the effect of flat plate friction resistance on speed performance prediction of full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate friction lines hare been used in the process to estimate speed performance of full-scale ships in model tests. The results of the previous studies showed considerable differences in determining form factors depending on changes in plate friction lines and Reynolds numbers. These differences had a great influence on estimation of speed performance of full-scale ships. This study- was conducted in two parts. In the first part, the scale effect of the form factor depending on change in the Reynolds number was studied based on CFD, in connection with three kinds of friction resistance curves: the ITTC-1957, the curve proposed by Grigson (1993; 1996, and the curve developed by Katsui et al (2005. In the second part, change in the form factor by three kinds of

  5. Effects of the Particle Size and the Solvent in Printing Inks on the Capacitance of Printed Parallel-Plate Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungsik Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Parallel-plate capacitors were fabricated using a printed multi-layer structure in order to determine the effects of particle size and solvent on the capacitance. The conductive-dielectric-conductive layers were sequentially spun using commercial inks and by intermediate drying with the aid of a masking polymeric layer. Both optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the printed layers. The measured capacitance was larger than the theoretically calculated value when ink with small-sized particles was used as the top plate. Furthermore, the use of a solvent whose polarity was similar to that of the underlying dielectric layer enhanced the penetration and resulted in an increase in capacitance. The functional resistance-capacitance low-pass filter was implemented using printed resistors and capacitors, a process that may be scalable in the future.

  6. Analysis of the effect of transverse power distribution in an involute fuel plate with and without oxide film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Existing thermal hydraulics computer codes can account for variations in power and temperature in the axial and thickness directions but variations across the width of the plate cannot be accounted for. In the case of fuel plates in an annular core this can lead to significant errors which are accentuated by the presence of an oxide layer that builds up on the aluminum cladding with burnup. This paper uses a three dimensional SINDA model to account for the transverse variations in power. The effect of oxide thickness on these differences is studied in detail. Power distribution and fuel conductivity are also considered. The lower temperatures predicted with the SINDA model result in a greater margin to clad and fuel damage

  7. Effect of Rotation Rate on Microstructure and Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Al/Cu Clad Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAO Ke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Al/Cu clad plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW, and the effect of rotation rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of joints was investigated. The results show that the laminar structure of aluminum and copper is generated in the weld. With increase the of rotation rate, the grain sizes of aluminum and copper are increased respectively. The average microhardness of the Al/Cu plates exceeds that of the as-received metal of 33.0 HV, and ultimate tensile strength is 127.21 MPa in the nugget zone when rotation rate is 1180 r/min. The microhardness of copper in the nugget zone is 99.7 HV, reached 82.05% of the microhardness of received metal, and void defect is main reason responsible for the decrease of mechanical properties of joints.

  8. An investigation on thermal and friction effect produced by friction welding of SA 213 tube to SA 387 tube plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pandia Rajan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of thermal and friction produced in the tube to tube plate during the friction welding process by using a Tungsten carbide external tool. In this process, the fictional welding of SA 213 tube and SA 387 tube plate was done by using an external tool. Modeling of tool and wok piece is done by using Solid works and to study the thermal and frictional effect by using Ansys. In this research work, joining of SA 213 tube to SA 387 tube plate was done by using two different techniques such as with hole [WH] and without hole [WOH]. The stress value of with hole and without hole such as 18,782 MPa and 10,486 MPa respectively and the ultimate heat flux generated with hole and without hole such as 0.80475 W/mm2 and 1.1344 W/mm2 respectively were observed.

  9. Dissociating the role of endocannabinoids in the pleasurable and motivational properties of social play behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-08-01

    Social play behaviour is a vigorous form of social interaction, abundant during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life in many mammalian species, including humans. Social play is highly rewarding and it is important for social and cognitive development. Being a rewarding activity, social play can be dissociated in its pleasurable and motivational components. We have previously shown that endocannabinoids modulate the expression of social play behaviour in rats. In the present study, we investigated whether endocannabinoids modulate the motivational and pleasurable properties of social play behaviour, using operant and place conditioning paradigms, respectively. Treatment with the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 did not affect operant responding or social play-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) when administered at a dose (0.1mg/kg) known to increase the expression of social play behaviour, while it modestly reduced operant responding at a higher dose (0.2mg/kg). The cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant reduced operant responding when administered at a dose (1mg/kg) known to decrease the expression of social play behaviour, although this effect may be secondary to concurrent drug-induced stereotypic behaviours (i.e., grooming and scratching). These data demonstrate that enhancing endocannabinoid levels does not differentially affect the motivational and pleasurable aspects of social play behaviour, whereas CB1 receptor blockade reduces the motivational aspects of social play behaviour, possibly due to response competition. Thus, endocannabinoids likely drive the expression of social play behaviour as a whole, without differentially affecting its motivational or pleasurable properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergetic effect of copper-plating wastewater as a catalyst for the destruction of acrylonitrile wastewater in supercritical water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Hong-shik; Lee, Young-Ho [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Energy and Environment Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youn-Woo, E-mail: ywlee@snu.ac.kr [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    A new supercritical water oxidation process for the simultaneous treatment of mixed wastewater containing wastewater from acrylonitrile manufacturing processes and copper-plating processes was investigated using a continuous tubular reactor system. Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 deg. C and a pressure of 25 MPa. The residence time was fixed at 2 s by changing the flow rates of feeds, depending on reaction temperature. The initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the wastewaters and the O{sub 2} concentration at the reactor inlet were kept constant at 0.49 and 0.74 mol/L. It was confirmed that the copper-plating wastewater accelerated the TOC conversion of acrylonitrile wastewater from 17.6% to 67.3% at a temperature of 450 deg. C. Moreover, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles were generated in the process of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of mixed wastewater. 99.8% of copper in mixed wastewater was recovered as solid copper and copper oxides at a temperature of 600 deg. C, with their average sizes ranging from 150 to 160 nm. Our study showed that SCWO provides a synergetic effect for simultaneous treatment of acrylonitrile and copper-plating wastewater. During the reaction, the oxidation rate of acrylonitrile wastewater was enhanced due to the in situ formation of nano-catalysts of copper and/or copper oxides, while the exothermic decomposition of acrylonitrile wastewater supplied enough heat for the recovery of solid copper and copper oxides from copper-plating wastewater. The synergetic effect of wastewater treatment by the newly proposed SCWO process leads to full TOC conversion, color removal, detoxification, and odor elimination, as well as full recovery of copper.

  11. The Effect of Strike Face Geometry on the Dynamic Delamination of Composite Back Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    behind the ceramic (Zuogang et al. 2010). In many cases, Kevlar , S-2 glass, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, or a similar high- performance...thin, translucent S-2 glass/SC-15 epoxy backing plate. A 0.30-cal. fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) was used to strike the front of the target... epoxy was chosen as the composite backing. Quasi-static material and high strain- rate properties for this composite are well characterized and have been

  12. Effective application of statistical process control (SPC) on the lengthwise tonsure rolled plates process

    OpenAIRE

    Noskievičová, Darja; Kucharczyk, Radim

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the eff ective application of SPC on the lengthwise tonsure rolled plates process on double side scissors. After explanation of the SPC fundamentals, goals and mistakes during the SPC implementation, the methodical framework for the eff ective SPC application is defi ned. In the next part of the paper the description of practical application of SPC and its analysis from the point of view of this framework is accomplished. Ovaj članak opisuje djelotvornu primj...

  13. Examples of the Re-number effect on the transitional flat plate boundary layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antoš, Pavel; Jonáš, Pavel; Procházka, Pavel P.; Uruba, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2014), s. 605-606 ISSN 1617-7061. [Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics /85./. Erlangen, 10.03.2014-14.03.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1271 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : transition * flat plate * boundary layer Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pamm.201410290

  14. Effect of Different Tube Potential Settings on Caries Detection using PSP Plate and Conventional Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Daniela Pita; Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; De Farias, Julyanna Filgueiras GonçAlves; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; De Almeida, Solange Maria

    2015-04-01

    To compare intraoral Phosphor Stimulable Plate digital system and intraoral film using different tube settings on incipient proximal caries detection. Five blocks, with five teeth each, were radiographically examined using phosphor plates and F-speed films. The images were acquired in 07 different tube potentials from 50-80 kV. The films were digitized. Three oral radiologists scored the images for the presence of caries using a 5-point rating scale. The areas under ROC curve were calculated. The influence of tube kilovoltage was verified by ANOVA and pair wise comparisons performed using Tukey test. Mean ROC curve areas varied from 0.446-0.628 for digital images and 0.494-0.559 for conventional images. The tube setting of 70 kV presented the best result both for digital and conventional images. Considering the image type separately, 70 kV scored highest followed by 75 and 65 kV for digital images (p=0.084). For conventional image modality, even though 70 kV presented the best result, it did not differ significantly from 80 kV, not differing from 60 and 55 kV, which did not differ from 75, 65 and 50 kV (p=0.53). Phosphor plate digital images seem to be more susceptible to tube setting potential variations then digitized film images.

  15. Minimally invasive locked plating of distal tibia fractures is safe and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronga, Mario; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-04-01

    Distal tibial fractures are difficult to manage. Limited soft tissue and poor vascularity impose limitations for traditional plating techniques that require large exposures. The nature of the limitations for traditional plating techniques is intrinsic to the large exposure required to approach distal tibia, a bone characterized by limited soft tissue coverage and poor vascularity. The locking plate (LP) is a new device for treatment of fractures. We assessed the bone union rate, deformity, leg-length discrepancy, ankle range of motion, return to preinjury activities, infection, and complication rate in 21 selected patients who underwent minimally invasive osteosynthesis of closed distal tibia fractures with an LP. According to the AO classification, there were 12 Type A, 5 Type B, and 4 Type C fractures. The minimum followup was 2 years (average, 2.8 years; range, 2-4 years). Two patients were lost to followup. Union was achieved in all but one patient by the 24th postoperative week. Four patients had angular deformity less than 7 degrees . No patient had a leg-length discrepancy more than 1.1 cm. Five patients had ankle range of motion less than 20 degrees compared with the contralateral side. Sixteen patients had not returned to their preinjury sporting or leisure activities. Three patients developed a delayed infection. We judge the LP a reasonable device for treating distal tibia fractures. The level of physical activities appears permanently reduced in most patients. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Effect of upflow velocity on the performance of an inclined plate membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanos, P M; Yamamoto, K; Nakajima, F

    2011-01-01

    An inclined plate membrane bioreactor (iPMBR) was introduced to meet the challenge of handling high mixed liquor suspended solids when operating at long sludge retention times. During the first 407 days of operation, the iPMBR was able to rezone more sludge (1.5-10.5 times greater) in its upstream, anoxic tank compared to its downstream, aerobic tank. This could extend membrane filtration by diverting most of the sludge from the aerobic zone. During this period, the upflow velocities through the inclined plates of the anoxic tank ranged from 2.3 x 10(-4) to 7.7 x 10(-4) m/s. After Day 407, the operating conditions were changed to determine whether the iPMBR would fail to create a sludge concentration difference between its two tanks. When the upflow velocity was increased to 1.8 x 10(-3) m/s, the sludge concentration difference between the two zones was removed. This indicated that the upflow velocity had increased sufficiently to overcome the settling velocities of most flocs, resulting in more solids being carried from the anoxic to the aerobic tank. For the configuration of this iPMBR, operating at flow rates where the upflow velocity through the inclined plates was less than 1.0 x 10(-3) m/s would be necessary to keep a significant sludge concentration difference between its two zones.

  17. Effect of Different Tube Potential Settings on Caries Detection using PSP Plate and Conventional Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; De Farias, Julyanna Filgueiras GonçAlves; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; De Almeida, Solange Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare intraoral Phosphor Stimulable Plate digital system and intraoral film using different tube settings on incipient proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods Five blocks, with five teeth each, were radiographically examined using phosphor plates and F-speed films. The images were acquired in 07 different tube potentials from 50-80 kV. The films were digitized. Three oral radiologists scored the images for the presence of caries using a 5-point rating scale. The areas under ROC curve were calculated. The influence of tube kilovoltage was verified by ANOVA and pair wise comparisons performed using Tukey test. Results Mean ROC curve areas varied from 0.446-0.628 for digital images and 0.494–0.559 for conventional images. The tube setting of 70 kV presented the best result both for digital and conventional images. Considering the image type separately, 70 kV scored highest followed by 75 and 65 kV for digital images (p=0.084). For conventional image modality, even though 70 kV presented the best result, it did not differ significantly from 80 kV, not differing from 60 and 55 kV, which did not differ from 75, 65 and 50 kV (p=0.53). Conclusion Phosphor plate digital images seem to be more susceptible to tube setting potential variations then digitized film images. PMID:26023645

  18. Endoscopic findings of the stomach in pleasure horses in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the gastric squamous and glandular mucosa in Polish pleasure horses. Study design Medical records from gastroscopic examinations of 108 pleasure horses of different breeds were reviewed. The study population consisted of two groups; group I (n = 48) with horses that expressed mild clinical signs of gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) including poor appetite, slight weight loss or poor body condition, and group II (n = 60) with horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems. The age range was 4–10 years, including 5 males, 34 castrated males (geldings) and 69 mares. The prevalence, distribution and severity of gastric ulcers were recorded. Lesions involving the squamous mucosa and the glandular mucosa of the antrum and pylorus were graded and compared between groups. Results Significant difference was found in the presence and severity of gastric ulcers between the two groups of horses. The overall prevalence of gastric ulcers in the first group of horses (n = 48) was 59% while in the group of clinically healthy horses (n = 60) the prevalence of gastric lesion was 40% (P = 0.004). Almost 19% of horses from group I had between 6–10 lesions (EGUS score III) and nearly 19% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). The number of ulcerations in affected horses were significantly lower in group II compared to group I (P = 0.016) as 10% of horses had 6–10 lesions (EGUS number score III) and nearly 14% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). Gastroscopy revealed that nearly 32% of horses from the second group had an ulceration EGUS score ≥ II. Discussion and conclusions This study confirms that gastric ulcerations can be prevalent in apparently clinically normal pleasure horses and a complete gastroscopic examination including the examination of the pylorus is advisable

  19. Don't Forget the Good Stuff! Incorporating Positive Messages of Sexual Pleasure into Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    deFur, Kirsten M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexuality professionals have long called for the inclusion of sexual pleasure in sexuality education programs, however, facilitators are often ill-equipped to do so. This lesson plan will help educators conceptualize the topic of sexual pleasure in order to successfully integrate it into their lessons. This lesson also reviews challenges of…

  20. Reading for Pleasure in Paradise: Paired Reading in Antigua and Barbuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Molly J.; George, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Reading for pleasure is essential in the development of literacy. This paper reports on findings from a paired reading strategy introduced into primary schools in Antigua and Barbuda in order to foster children's pleasure in reading. This programme of cross-age peer tutoring intervention began with the training of teachers in a small group of…

  1. The effect of filler metal thickness on residual stress and creep for stainless-steel plate-fin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Wenchun [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail: jiangwenchun@126.com; Gong Jianming; Chen Hu; Tu, S.T. [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Stainless-steel plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) has been used as a high-temperature recuperator in microturbine for its excellent qualities in compact structure, high-temperature and pressure resistance. Plate-fin structure, as the core of PFHE, is fabricated by vacuum brazing. The main component fins and the parting sheets are joined by fusion of a brazing alloy cladded to the surface of parting sheets. Owing to the material mismatching between the filler metal and the base metal, residual stresses can arise and decrease the structure strength greatly. The recuperator serves at high temperature and the creep would happen. The thickness of the filler metal plays an important role in the joint strength. Hence this paper presented a finite element (FE) analysis of the brazed residual stresses and creep for a counterflow stainless-steel plate-fin structure. The effect of the filler metal thickness on residual stress and creep was investigated, which provides a reference for strength design.

  2. Effect of the fabrication process on fatigue performance of U3Si2 fuel plate with sandwich structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xishu; Li Shuangshou; Wang Qingyuan; Xu Yong

    2005-01-01

    U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel plate is one of the dispersion fuel structure materials recently developed and widely used in research reactors. The mechanical properties of this structural material, especially the fatigue performance, are strongly dependent on its fabrication process. To investigate the effects of these processing technologies, the fatigue tests for the different specimens were carried out. The S-N curves indicate that the fabrication processing technologies of U 3 Si 2 fuel plate, such as the addition of U 3 Si 2 particles into aluminum powder to form the fuel meat, holding and rolling the processes of meat and cladding of 6061-Al alloy, plays an important role in improving the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of this fuel plate. In addition, some factors that influence the crack initiation and propagation are summarized based on the fatigue images that are in situ observations with SEM. The critical criterion for fatigue damage is proposed based on the fatigue data of the structural material, which were obtained at the different conditions

  3. The effect of texture variation on delayed hydride cracking behavior of Zr-2.5%Nb plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kuk, I.-H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of texture variation on the delayed hydride cracking behavior in Zr-2.5%Nb plates, crack growth rate and K IH tests have been carried out at temperature ranges varying from 415 to 506 K after texture modification by rolling. The texture variation of plates was achieved by direct-rolling and cross-rolling. Texture was measured through the determination of inverse pole figures, from which the basal pole components were calculated. The results have shown that the texture of a plate in which the basal poles are concentrated in the transverse direction can be changed significantly by cross-rolling. The crack growth rate increases exponentially with the basal pole component in the direction normal to the cracking plane. The increase in stress relieving temperature on cold worked material reduces crack growth rate. K IH decreases linearly with the basal pole component, and a behavior of which could be explained by the uniformly dispersed aggregate composite theory. (orig.)

  4. Thin-plate spline analysis of the effects of face mask treatment in children with maxillary retrognathism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jane; Yao, Jane Chung-Chen; Chang, Hong-Po; Chang, Chih-Han; Chang, Frank Hsin-Fu

    2006-02-01

    Face mask therapy is indicated for growing patients who suffer from maxillary retrognathia. Most previous studies used conventional cephalometric analysis to evaluate the effects of face mask treatment. Cephalometric analysis has been shown to be insufficient for complex craniofacial configurations. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the craniofacial structure of children with maxillary retrognathism following face mask treatment by means of thin-plate spline analysis. Thirty children with skeletal Class III malocclusions who had been treated with face masks were compared with a group of 30 untreated gender-matched, age-matched, observation period-matched, and craniofacial configuration-matched subjects. Average geometries, scaled to an equivalent size, were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then performed for localization of the shape changes. Face mask treatment induced a forward displacement of the maxilla, a counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane, a horizontal compression of the anterior border of the symphysis and the condylar region, and a downward deformation of the menton. The cranial base exhibited a counterclockwise deformation as a whole. We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis is a valuable supplement to conventional cephalometric analysis.

  5. Magnetocaloric effect and corrosion resistance of La(Fe, Si)13 composite plates bonded by different fraction of phenolic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. S.; Xue, J. N.; Wang, Y. X.; Sun, H.; Long, Y.

    2018-04-01

    La(Fe, Si)13-based composite plates were successfully fabricated using different amount of phenolic resin. The introduction of phenolic resin as binder increased the corrosion resistance and maintained giant magnetocaloric effect for La(Fe, Si)13-based composite plates. It was found that corroded spots were firstly observed on the boundaries between resin and La(Fe, Si)13 particles, rather than in La(Fe, Si)13-based particles, after being immersed in static distilled water. The corrosion rate decreased significantly with the increase of resin content. And the increase of the content of phenolic resin leads to the reduction of corrosion current density. Meanwhile, the volumetric magnetic entropy change ΔSM decreases slightly as the content of phenolic resin increases. The ΔSM of the plates with 3 wt.%, 5 wt.% and 8 wt.% resin are 63.1, 61.2 and 59.8 mJ/cm3 K under a low magnetic field change of 1 T, respectively.

  6. Modeling the effect of the inclination angle on natural convection from a flat plate: The case of a photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Bojan D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show how the inclination angle affects natural convection from a flat-plate photovoltaic module which is mounted on the ground surface. In order to model this effect, novel correlations for natural convection from isothermal flat plates are developed by using the fundamental dimensionless number. On the basis of the available experimental and numerical results, it is shown that the natural convection correlations correspond well with the existing empirical correlations for vertical, inclined, and horizontal plates. Five additional correlations for the critical Grashof number are derived from the available data, three indicating the onset of transitional flow regime and two indicating the onset of flow separation. The proposed correlations cover the entire range of inclination angles and the entire range of Prandtl numbers. This paper also provides two worked examples, one for natural convection combined with radiation and one for natural convection combined with forced convection and radiation. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR33046

  7. Design and fabrication of a self-aligned parallel-plate-type silicon micromirror minimizing the effect of misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung-Wook; Jin, Joo-Young; Jang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a self-alignment method whereby a mirror actuation voltage, corresponding to a specific tilting angle, is unvarying in terms of misalignment during fabrication. A deep silicon etching process is proposed to penetrate the top silicon layer (the micromirror layer) and an amorphous silicon layer (the addressing electrode layer) together, through an aluminum mask pattern, in order to minimize the misalignment effect on the micromirror actuation. The size of a fabricated mirror plate is 250 × 250 × 4 µm 3 . A pair of amorphous silicon electrodes under the mirror plate is about half the size of the mirror plate individually. Numerical analysis associated with calculating the pull-in voltage and the bonding misalignment is performed to verify the self-alignment concepts focused upon in this paper. Curves of the applied voltage versus the tilt angle of the self-aligned micromirror are observed using a position sensing detector in order to compare the measurement results with MATLAB analysis of the expected static deflections. Although a 3.7 µm misalignment is found between the mirror plate and the electrodes, in the direction perpendicular to the shallow trench of the electrodes, before the self-alignment process, the measured pull-in voltage has been found to be 103.4 V on average; this differs from the pull-in voltage of a perfectly aligned micromirror by only 0.67%. Regardless of the unpredictable misalignments in repetitive photolithography and bonding, the tilting angles corresponding to the driving voltages are proved to be uniform along the single axis as well as conform to the results of analytical analysis

  8. Combined Effect of Piezoviscous Dependency and Non-Newtonian Couple Stress on Squeeze-Film Porous Annular Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanth, K. R.; Hanumagowda, B. N.; Santhosh Kumar, J.

    2018-04-01

    Squeeze film investigations focus upon film pressure, load bearing quantity and the minimum thickness of film. The combined effect of pressure viscous dependent and non- Newtonian couple stress in porous annular plate is studied. The modified equations of one dimensional pressure, load bearing quantity, non dimensional squeeze time are obtained. The conclusions obtained in the study are found to be in very good agreement compared to the previous results which are published. The load carrying capacity is increased due to the variation in the pressure dependent viscosity and also due to the couple stress effect. Finally this results in change in the squeeze film timings.

  9. Dramaturgies of the Gaga Bodies: Kinesthesia of Pleasure/Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliana Vassileva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaga is a movement language which Israelian choreographer Ohad Naharin developed since 1990s and which is applied in daily practice by the Batsheva Dance Company members. Gaga has two tracks: Gaga/dancers, which is the daily training of Batsheva Dance Company members, now taught also for other dancers in Israel and abroad, and Gaga/people, open to the public and available for anyone at any age. This study focuses on a multilayer analysis model of the dramaturgies of gaga bodies, both during gaga people (open classes and gaga dancers (intensive courses training and during the audience experience of assisting to the repertory work of the company. Its based on empirical experience of gaga language such as “practice as research” and reflexive embodiment. It discusses the notions of continuum and script, kinesthesia of pleasure and vitality, somatic modes of attention and cultural perception of dances gestures.

  10. Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Håkan; Cherubini, Stefania; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K̂ of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K̂=0). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Re(c)=54400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Re(g)=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985); J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Re(c)=796 and Re(g)=294. For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re(-ρ), where the value of ρ depends on the permeability coefficient K̂. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for

  11. Effects of chemical reaction on moving isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution to the problem of flow past an impulsively started infinite vertical isothermal plate with variable mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. The dimensionless governing equations are solved by using the Laplace - transform technique. The velocity and skin-friction are studied for different parameters like chemical reaction parameter, Schmidt number and buoyancy ratio parameter. It is observed that the veloc­ity increases with decreasing chemical reaction parameter and increases with increasing buoyancy ratio parameter.

  12. Effect of the linseed oil surface treatment on the performance of resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Braj, A.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1997-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of several bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) without the linseed oil treatment of the internal electrodes will be presented. Efficiency, collected charge and cluster size distributions will be compared to the ones of a standard oiled RPC. Currents and single rate are the quantities most affected by the surface treatment of the electrodes beyond the optical/mechanical properties. A factor 4 less in currents and at least a factor 10 less in single rate is achieved using standard oiled RPCs operated in streamer mode. (orig.)

  13. A magnetic levitation rotating plate model based on high-Tc superconducting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Jipeng; Sun, Ruixue; Qian, Nan; Deng, Zigang

    2017-09-01

    With the wide requirements of the training aids and display models of science, technology and even industrial products for the public like schools, museums and pleasure grounds, a simple-structure and long-term stable-levitation technology is needed for these exhibitions. Opportunely, high temperature superconducting (HTS) technology using bulk superconductors indeed has prominent advantages on magnetic levitation and suspension for its self-stable characteristic in an applied magnetic field without any external power or control. This paper explores the feasibility of designing a rotatable magnetic levitation (maglev) plate model with HTS bulks placed beneath a permanent magnet (PM) plate. The model is featured with HTS bulks together with their essential cryogenic equipment above and PMs below, therefore it eliminates the unclear visual effects by spray due to the low temperature coolant such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) and additional levitation weight of the cryogenic equipment. Besides that, a matched LN2 automation filling system is adopted to help achieving a long-term working state of the rotatable maglev plate. The key low-temperature working condition for HTS bulks is maintained by repeatedly opening a solenoid valve and automatically filling LN2 under the monitoring of a temperature sensor inside the cryostat. With the support of the cryogenic devices, the HTS maglev system can meet all requirements of the levitating display model for exhibitions, and may enlighten the research work on HTS maglev applications.

  14. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation on gain saturation effect of microchannel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Yuan, Zheng; Cao, Zhurong, E-mail: cao33jin@aliyun.com; Deng, Bo; Chen, Tao; Deng, Keli [Research Center of Laser Fusion, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We present here the results of the simulation work, using the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method, on the performance of the lead glass microchannel plate under saturated state. We calculated the electron cascade process with different DC bias voltages under both self-consistent condition and non-self-consistent condition. The comparative results have demonstrated that the strong self-consistent field can suppress the cascade process and make the microchannel plate saturated. The simulation results were also compared to the experimental data and good agreement was obtained. The simulation results also show that the electron multiplication process in the channel is accompanied by the buildup process of positive charges in the channel wall. Though the interactions among the secondary electron cloud in the channel, the positive charges in the channel wall, and the external acceleration field can make the electron-surface collision more frequent, the collision energy will be inevitably reduced, thus the electron gain will also be reduced.

  15. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  16. Neoclassical resonant-plateau transport calculation in an effectively axisymmetrized tandem mirror with finite end plate resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanuma, I.; Kiwamoto, Y.; Adachi, S.; Inutake, M.; Ishii, K.; Yatsu, K.; Sawada, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    1987-05-01

    Calculations are made for neoclassical resonant-plateau transports in the geometry of the effectively axisymmetrized tandem mirror GAMMA 10 magnetic field, which has minimum B inbord anchors inside the axisymmetric plug/barrier mirror cells. Azimuthal drifts at the local non-axisymmetric regions are included. The radial potential profile is determined by solving selfconsistently the charge neutrality equation. A finite resistance connecting end plate to machine ground provides appropriate boundary conditions on the radial electrostatic potential distribution so that it can be determined uniquely. The calculation is consistent with experimental results of GAMMA 10. (author)

  17. Coupled effects of director orientations and boundary conditions on light induced bending of monodomain nematic liquid crystalline polymer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yue; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Xu, Changwei

    2012-01-01

    A photo-chromic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) is a smart material for large light-activated variation or bending to transfer luminous energy into mechanical energy. We study the light induced behavior by modeling planar and homeotropic nematic network polymer plates. We effectively illustrate some reported experimental outcomes and theoretically predict some possible bending patterns. This paper constructs an understanding between the bending behaviors and interactions among the alignments, aspect ratios and boundary conditions, etc. Our work provides information on optimizing light induced bending in the process of micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) design. (paper)

  18. Effect of rotation on the formation of longitudinal vortices in mixed convection flow over a flat plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ming-Han [Ta-Hwa Institute of Technology, Department of Automation Engineering, Hsinchu (Taiwan); Chen, Chin-Tai [Ta-Hwa Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of rotation on the formation of longitudinal vortices in mixed convection flow over a flat plate. The criterion on the position of marking the onset of longitudinal vortices is defined in this paper. The onset position characterized by the Goertler number G{sub {delta}} depends on the Grashof number, the rotation number Ro, the Prandtl number Pr and the wave number. The results show that negative rotation stabilizes the boundary layer flow on the surface. On the contrary, positive rotation destabilizes the flow. The numerical data are compared with the experimental results. (orig.)

  19. Hydrogen effect on mechanical properties and flake formation in the 10KhSND steel rolled plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradova, R G; Zakharov, V A; Kuzin, A P; Gol' tsov, V A; Podgajskij, M S [Donetskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR); Donetskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii (Ukrainian SSR))

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of the 10KhSND steel rolled plates during natural aging is studied. Optimum period of metal acceptance tests, which are advisable to conduct after 5-7 day natural aging of finished products, are found out. The technique is worked out and a safe hydrogen content to prevent flake formation in the 10KhSND steel is determined. It is shown that a safe hydrogen content is dependent on the experiment conditions (sample dimensions, conditions of cooling, and prehistory).

  20. Hydrogen effect on mechanical properties and flake formation in the 10KhSND steel rolled plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muradova, R.G.; Zakharov, V.A.; Kuzin, A.P.; Gol'tsov, V.A.; Podgajskij, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of the 10KhSND steel rolled plates during natural aging is studied. Optimum period of metal acceptance tests, which are advisable to conduct after 5-7 day natural aging of finished products, are found out. The technique is worked out and a safe hydrogen content to prevent flake formation in the 10KhSND steel is determined. It is shown that a safe hydrogen content is dependent on the experiment conditions (sample dimensions, conditions of cooling, and prehistory)

  1. A "Culture of Everyone Doing It" and "Playing Games"--Discourses of Pleasure in Boys' Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Gard [(2008). "When a Boy's Gotta Dance: New Masculinities, Old Pleasures." "Sport, Education and Society," 13(2), 181-193], Booth [(2009). "Politics and Pleasure: The Philosophy of Physical Education Revisited." "Quest," 61(2), 133-153] and Pringle [(2010). "Finding Pleasure in Physical Education: A…

  2. 46 CFR 24.15-5 - Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable... SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents § 24.15-5 Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States. Uninspected Canadian pleasure craft (uninspected vessels...

  3. Magnetohydrodynamics effect on three-dimensional viscous incompressible flow between two horizontal parallel porous plates and heat transfer with periodic injection/suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Chaudhary

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the hydromagnetic effect on viscous incompressible flow between two horizontal parallel porous flat plates with transverse sinusoidal injection of the fluid at the stationary plate and its corresponding removal by periodic suction through the plate in uniform motion. The flow becomes three dimensional due to this injection/suction velocity. Approximate solutions are obtained for the flow field, the pressure, the skin-friction, the temperature field, and the rate of heat transfer. The dependence of solution on M (Hartmann number and λ (injection/suction is investigated by the graphs and tables.

  4. Aligned Magnetic Field, Radiation, and Rotation Effects on Unsteady Hydromagnetic Free Convection Flow Past an Impulsively Moving Vertical Plate in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Naramgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the effects of aligned magnetic field, radiation, and rotation on unsteady hydromagnetic free convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an impulsively moving vertical plate in a porous medium in presence of heat source. An exact solution of the governing equations in dimensionless form is obtained by Laplace transform technique in ramped temperature case. To compare the results obtained in this case with that of isothermal plate, the exact solution of the governing equations is also obtained for isothermal plate and results are discussed graphically in both ramped temperature and isothermal cases.

  5. Random phase plate hot spots and their effect on stimulated Brillouin backscatter and self-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Laser hot spots, as determined by Random Phase Plate (RPP) hot spots, control the critical value of the average intensity, I c , at which there is a rapid onset of stimulated scatter in the strongly damped convective regime of three wave parametric instabilities. For the case of stimulated Brillouin backscatter in a long scale length plasma, nascent hot spot ponderomotive self-focusing is shown to reduce the value of I c in the regime of very strongly damped acoustic waves. RPP hot spots have two, intrinsically nonlinear, thresholds for ponderomotive self-focusing. Large intensity amplifications occur in the hot spot neighborhood when the hot spot power exceeds a certain critical power, P c , which is independent of the optic's f number, F. When the second, F-dependent, hot spot power threshold is exceeded, a filament emerges from the far side of the hot spot, whose extent grows erratically in time

  6. Casimir effect of two conducting parallel plates in a general weak gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Borzoo [University of Tehran, Faculty of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We calculate the finite vacuum energy density of the scalar and electromagnetic fields inside a Casimir apparatus made up of two conducting parallel plates in a general weak gravitational field. The metric of the weak gravitational field has a small deviation from flat spacetime inside the apparatus, and we find it by expanding the metric in terms of small parameters of the weak background. We show that the metric found can be transformed via a gauge transformation to the Fermi metric. We solve the Klein-Gordon equation exactly and find mode frequencies in Fermi spacetime. Using the fact that the electromagnetic field can be represented by two scalar fields in the Fermi spacetime, we find general formulas for the energy density and mode frequencies of the electromagnetic field. Some well-known weak backgrounds are examined and consistency of the results with the literature is shown. (orig.)

  7. Skin Effect Simulation for Area 11 Dense Plasma Focus Hot Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, B. Timothy [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Two arc flashover events occurred at the DPF Area 11 facility. These flashover events happened in the same location on the bank current delivery plates. The damage from one of these events can be seen on the left-hand side of Figure 1. Since the flashovers occurred in the same area of the bank, and the reliability of the bank is important for future DPF experiments, a failure analysis effort was initiated. Part of this failure analysis effort was an effort to understand the physical reasons behind why the flashover happened, and why it happened in the same place twice. This paper summarizes an effort to simulate the current flow in the bank in order to understand the reasons for the flashover.

  8. Effects of parabolic motion on an isothermal vertical plate with constant mass flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthucumaraswamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical study of free convection flow near a parabolic started infinite vertical plate with isothermal in the presence of uniform mass flux was considered. The mathematical model is reduced to a system of linear partial differential equations for the velocity, the concentration and the temperature; the closed form exact solutions were obtained by the Laplace transform technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for the different parameters as thermal Grashof number Gr, mass Grashof number Gc, Prandtl number Pr, Schmidt number Sc and time t were graphed and the numerical values for the skin friction were as tabulated. It is observed that the velocity is enhanced as the time increased and the velocity is decreased as the Prandtl number increased.

  9. An efficient and cost-effective microchannel plate detector for slow neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, B. B.; Vadas, J.; Bancroft, D.; deSouza, Z. O.; Huston, J.; Hudan, S.; Baxter, D. V.; deSouza, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach for efficiently imaging objects with slow neutrons in two dimensions is realized. Neutron sensitivity is achieved by use of a boron doped microchannel plate (MCP). The resulting electron avalanche is further amplified with a Z-stack MCP before being sensed by two orthogonally oriented wire planes. Coupling of the wire planes to delay lines efficiently encodes the position information as a time difference. To determine the position resolution, slow neutrons were used to illuminate a Cd-mask placed directly in front of the detector. Peaks in the resulting spectrum exhibited an average peak width of 329 μm FWHM, corresponding to an average intrinsic resolution of 216 μm. The center region of the detector exhibits a significantly better spatial resolution with an intrinsic resolution of <100 μm observed.

  10. Effect of partial heating at mid of vertical plate adjacent to porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Mohammed Fahimuddin; Pallan, Khalid. M.; Al-Rashed, A. A. A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium due to heating of vertical plate at mid-section is analyzed for various physical parameters. The heat and mass transfer in porous medium is modeled with the help of momentum, energy and concentration equations in terms of non-dimensional partial differential equations. The partial differential equations are converted into simpler form of algebraic equations with the help of finite element method. A computer code is developed to assemble the matrix form of algebraic equations into global matrices and then to solve them in an iterative manner to obtain the temperature, concentration and streamline distribution inside the porous medium. It is found that the heat transfer behavior of porous medium heated at middle section is considerably different from other cases.

  11. Effect of Rake Angle During Machining of Micro Grooves on Electroless Nickel Plated Die Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaur Rahman, K.M.; Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the performance of two single crystal diamond tools with different rake angle (0 0 and -15 0 ) during micro grooving on electroless nickel plated die materials. It was found that the 0 0 rake diamond tool has superior performance compared to the -15 0 rake angle tool. The negative rake tool experienced very high thrust force, and severe chipping on the flank face was evident after a short cutting distance of 3.13 km. On the other hand, the 0 0 rake tool machined satisfactorily up to 50 km without any significant tool wear. While machining with the -15 0 rake tool, significant change in surface roughness with spindle speed was observed compared to the 0 0 rake tool. With increasing infeed rate variation in surface roughness was evident only with the -15 0 rake tool. Steep change in roughness with machining distance was also observed while machining with the negative rake tool. (authors)

  12. Preheat effect on titanium plate fabricated by sputter-free selective laser melting in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Shobu, Takahisa; Yamashita, Yorihiro; Yamagata, Shuto; Nishi, Takaya; Higashino, Ritsuko; Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Nakano, Hitoshi; Abe, Nobuyuki

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of titanium (Ti) melted by laser irradiation was investigated in a synchrotron radiation experiment. As an indicator of wettability, the contact angle between a selective laser melting (SLM) baseplate and the molten Ti was measured by synchrotron X-rays at 30 keV during laser irradiation. As the baseplate temperature increased, the contact angle decreased, down to 28° at a baseplate temperature of 500 °C. Based on this result, the influence of wettability of a Ti plate fabricated by SLM in a vacuum was investigated. It was revealed that the improvement of wettability by preheating suppressed sputtering generation, and a surface having a small surface roughness was fabricated by SLM in a vacuum.

  13. The motivation and pleasure dimension of negative symptoms: neural substrates and behavioral outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-05-01

    A range of emotional and motivation impairments have long been clinically documented in people with schizophrenia, and there has been a resurgence of interest in understanding the psychological and neural mechanisms of the so-called "negative symptoms" in schizophrenia, given their lack of treatment responsiveness and their role in constraining function and life satisfaction in this illness. Negative symptoms comprise two domains, with the first covering diminished motivation and pleasure across a range of life domains and the second covering diminished verbal and non-verbal expression and communicative output. In this review, we focus on four aspects of the motivation/pleasure domain, providing a brief review of the behavioral and neural underpinnings of this domain. First, we cover liking or in-the-moment pleasure: immediate responses to pleasurable stimuli. Second, we cover anticipatory pleasure or wanting, which involves prediction of a forthcoming enjoyable outcome (reward) and feeling pleasure in anticipation of that outcome. Third, we address motivation, which comprises effort computation, which involves figuring out how much effort is needed to achieve a desired outcome, planning, and behavioral response. Finally, we cover the maintenance emotional states and behavioral responses. Throughout, we consider the behavioral manifestations and brain representations of these four aspects of motivation/pleasure deficits in schizophrenia. We conclude with directions for future research as well as implications for treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. "My body breaks. I take solution." Inhalant use in Delhi as pleasure seeking at a cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigengack, Roy

    2014-07-01

    Inhalant use has existed in India since the 1970s and has increased significantly over the last decades, especially among street-oriented young people. The latter constitute a heterogeneous category: children from street families, children 'of' the street, rag pickers, and part-time street children. There are also inhalant-using schoolchildren and young people in slums. Fieldwork was conducted for 1 year. Team ethnography, multi-sited and comparative research, flexibility of methods and writing field notes were explicit parts of the research design. Most research was undertaken with six groups in four areas of Delhi, exemplifying six generic categories of inhalant-using street-oriented young people. Inhalants in India are branded: Eraz-Ex diluter and whitener, manufactured by Kores, are used throughout Delhi; Omni glue in one specific area. There is a general lack of awareness and societal indifference towards inhalant use, with the exception of the inhalant users themselves, who possess practical knowledge. They conceive of inhalants as nasha, encapsulating the materiality of the substances and the experiential aspects of intoxication and addiction. Fragments of group interviews narrate the sensory appeal of inhalants, and an ethnographic vignette the dynamics of a sniffing session. These inhalant-using street children seek intoxication in a pursuit of pleasure, despite the harm that befalls them as a result. Some find nasha beautiful, notwithstanding the stigmatization, violence and bodily deterioration; others experience it as an overpowering force. A source of attraction and pleasure, inhalants ravage street children's lives. In this mysterious space of lived experience, their self-organization evolves. Distinguishing between hedonic and side effects, addiction helps to understand inhalant use as at once neurobiological, cultural, and involving agency. The implications are that India needs to develop a policy of treatment and employment to deal with the

  15. Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are "good" or "bad" for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction on MHD Free Convection Flow past a Flat Plate with Heat Source and Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    OpenAIRE

    E.Hemalatha; N. Bhaskar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the radiation and chemical reaction effects on MHD steady two-dimensional laminar viscous incompressible radiating boundary layer flow over a flat plate in the presence of internal heat generation and convective boundary condition. It is assumed that lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the upper surface with a heat source that decays exponentially. The Rosseland approximation is used to desc...

  17. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  18. An investigation on the effect of gusset plate connection rigidity on the seismic behavior of special concentrically braced frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Esnaashari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs are commonly used to resist lateral loads in buildings. The bracing system sustains large deformations due to inelastic behavior in bracing members (buckling and yielding in tension. Generally, in the conventional modeling strategy, the effect of gusset plates in providing beam-column connections rigidity and hence, improving the post-buckling performance of these frames is not taken into account. This paper deals with the effect of gusset plate rigidity on the seismic behavior of SCBFs using Roeder’s proposed model in the literature. In this paper, four 3, 6, 9 and 12-story SCBFs were designed and modeled using two distinct methods: conventional method with hinged connections and Roeder’s method with semi-rigid connections. Then, the models behavior was investigated with both pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analysis using OpenSees software. The results showed that lateral load capacity of the frames modeled with the Roeder’s proposed model are about 10% larger than the conventional method’s capacity. Also, it was found that the semi-rigid model leads to a less drift ratios and more overstrength factors.

  19. Study of a Mathematical Model of Biocide Effect on a Biofilm Isolated from a Cooling System Using the Microtiter Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Shakeri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial colonization on metal surfaces and their metabolic activities lead to biocorrosion. In fact, any agent removing the biofilm or decreasing its thickness is capable of preventing biocorrosion. Biocides make up one such agent. These agents can control bacterial biofilms, remove these structures, or kill cells within them. The object of this research is to study the thermodynamic model of biocide penetration into the biofilm using the microtiter plate test. First, the biofilm bacteria were isolated to form a mix- bacterial biofilm. The biocide effect on the mix-biofilm was then determined using the microtiter plate test. Results from this test were compared with those from a thermodynamic model and it was revealed that the effects of oxidizing biocides such as sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide are in good agreement with the results from the model. The results indicated that increased biocide concentration leads to the removal of the biofilm or to the kill-off of the cells within it. However, in the case of non-oxidizing biocides such as sulfathiazol, glutaraldehyde, and alkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, the efficiency results did not agree well with the results from the thermodynamic model such that increased biocide concentration did not remove the biofilm nor did it kill off the cells within it

  20. Effect of processing conditions on residual stress distributions by bead-on-plate welding after surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Residual stress is important factor for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that has been observed near the welded zone in nuclear power plants. Especially, surface residual stress is significant for SCC initiation. In the joining processes of pipes, butt welding is conducted after surface machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes, and residual stress distribution due to surface machining is varied by the subsequent butt welding. In previous paper, authors reported that residual stress distribution generated by bead on plate welding after surface machining has a local maximum residual stress near the weld metal. The local maximum residual stress shows approximately 900 MPa that exceeds the stress threshold for SCC initiation. Therefore, for the safety improvement of nuclear power plants, a study on the local maximum residual stress is important. In this study, the effect of surface machining and welding conditions on residual stress distribution generated by welding after surface machining was investigated. Surface machining using lathe machine and bead on plate welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc under various conditions were conducted for plate specimens made of SUS316L. Then, residual stress distributions were measured by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). As a result, residual stress distributions have the local maximum residual stress near the weld metal in all specimens. The values of the local maximum residual stresses are almost the same. The location of the local maximum residual stress is varied by welding condition. It could be consider that the local maximum residual stress is generated by same generation mechanism as welding residual stress in surface machined layer that has high yield stress. (author)

  1. Iron supplementation during pregnancy and its effects on epiphyseal growth plate of newborn rat: a histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbreen, F.; Qamar, K.; Rehman, S.

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on epiphyseal growth plate of Sprague dawley rat pups. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH) Islamabad, from Mar 2016 to Nov 2016. Material and Methods: Eight female and two male Sprague Dawley rats, 3-4 months old were selected and divided into two groups and kept for breeding. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups. Four pregnant rats in each group. Group A1was control group and group B1 was experimental group. Iron supplementation was given once daily throughout pregnancy till the time of delivery. Iron was given to the experimental group in syrup form (Sytron syrup containing iron as sodium feredetate). Each 5ml of sytron syrup contains 27.5mg of elemental iron content1. The dose was mixed in water given to the animal. Maternal body weight (wt.) was recorded at the start and the end of experiment. As the rat pups were born, they were weighed and euthanized. Right femur of each rat pup was removed for the epiphyseal plate analysis. It was processed, embedded and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Perl's stain for histological study. Hypertrophy and proliferative zone length were histologically and statistically analyzed. Results: Height of hypertrophy and proliferative zone was measured. Mean values of the heights of two zones were taken. Heights of hypertrophy and proliferative zones were considerably decreased in group B1 as compared to groups A1. Conclusion: Indiscriminate iron supplementation to the rats throughout pregnancy without checking serum iron levels can disturb the longitudinal growth of epiphyseal plate of femur. The height of the hypertrophy zone and proliferative zone was significantly reduced in iron supplementation group as compared to the control group. (author)

  2. Reading for pleasure and reading circles for adult emergent readers insights in adult learning

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Sam

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, the adult literacy provision has become more functional and more assessment driven over the last decade, largely due to funding requirements. However, one result of this is that the clear benefits of reading for pleasure in adult skills development have become less apparent. This book addresses the need to support teachers in the development of adults' skills through reading for pleasure, by incorporating the activity into the curriculum. It focuses on reading for pleasure for adult emergent readers - those who consider themselves non-readers, either because they feel they cannot or

  3. Effect of the Process Parameters on the Formability, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Thin Plates Fabricated by Rheology Forging Process with Electromagnetic Stirring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chul Kyu; Jang, Chang Hyun; Kang, Chung Gil

    2014-01-01

    A thin plate (150 × 150 × 1.2 mm) with embedded corrugation is fabricated using the rheoforming method. Semisolid slurry is created using the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) system, and the thin plate is made with the forging die at the 200-ton hydraulic press. The cross sections and microstructures of the slurry with and without stirring are examined. To investigate the effect of the process parameters on the formability, microstructure, and mechanical properties of thin plate the slurry is subjected to 16 types of condition for the forging experiment. The 16 types included the following conditions: Whether the EMS is applied or not, three fractions of the solid phase at 35, 45 and 55 pct; two compression velocities at 30 and 300 mm s-1; and four different compression pressures—100, 150, 200 and 250 MPa. The thin plate's formability is enhanced at higher punch velocity for compressing the slurry, and fine solid particles are uniformly distributed, which in turn, enhances the plate's mechanical properties. The pressure between 150 and 200 MPa is an appropriate condition to form thin plates. A thin plate without defects can be created when the slurry at 35 pct of the solid fraction (f s) was applied at the compression velocity of 300 mm s-1 and 150 MPa of pressure. The surface state of thin plate is excellent with 220 MPa of tensile strength and 13.5 pct of elongation. The primary particles are fine over the entire plate, and there are no liquid segregation-related defects.

  4. Two-dimensional linear elasticity theory of magneto-electro-elastic plates considering surface and nonlocal effects for nanoscale device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional linear elastic theory of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) plates, considering both surface and nonlocal effects, is established for the first time based on Hamilton’s principle and the Lee plate theory. The equations derived are more general, suitable for static and dynamic analyses, and can also be reduced to the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and elastic cases. As a specific application example, the influences of the surface and nonlocal effects, poling directions, piezoelectric phase materials, volume fraction, damping, and applied magnetic field (i.e., constant applied magnetic field and time-harmonic applied magnetic field) on the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effects are first investigated based on the established two-dimensional plate theory. The results show that the ME coupling coefficient has an obvious size-dependent characteristic owing to the surface effects, and the surface effects increase the ME coupling effects significantly when the plate thickness decreases to its critical thickness. Below this critical thickness, the size-dependent effect is obvious and must be considered. In addition, the output power density of a magnetic energy nanoharvester is also evaluated using the two-dimensional plate theory obtained, with the results showing that a relatively larger output power density can be achieved at the nanoscale. This study provides a mathematical tool which can be used to analyze the mechanical properties of nanostructures theoretically and numerically, as well as evaluating the size effect qualitatively and quantitatively.

  5. Paint your plate: effectiveness of a point-of-purchase display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; Malaviarachchi, Darshaka

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine consumer understanding and retention of nutrition information presented at grocery stores during the Paint Your Plate campaign via two approaches: interactive display events and brochure distribution. Data were collected at 17 grocery stores in northern Ontario. Eleven stores held interactive display events with public health staff, a display, resources, and food samples. Six stores only distributed brochures. A total of 688 participants completed a baseline questionnaire, and 432 consented to a three-month follow-up telephone call. Of these, 201 were randomly selected to participate. Participants at interactive display events were six times more likely than participants receiving brochures to identify a serving size of fruit and vegetables (odds ratio [OR]=5.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.05, 8.54) and 23 times more likely to identify the recommended number of servings of fruit and vegetables (OR=22.67; 95% CI: 14.29, 35.98). However, at follow-up, there was no significant difference between type of event and the ability to answer correctly. Interactive displays increased immediate knowledge but failed to increase retention, a finding that suggests consistent presence of the message is needed to reinforce initial understanding and retention. More emphasis should be placed on directing funding toward increasing the frequency and duration of promotional efforts.

  6. Effect of aspect ratio in free-swimming plunging flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Using three dimensional fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction simulations, we investigate the free swimming of plunging elastic rectangular plates with aspect ratios ranging from 0.5 to 5 in a viscous fluid with Reynolds number 250. We find that maximum velocity occurs near the first natural frequency regardless of aspect ratio, while the maximum swimming economy occurs away from the first natural frequency and corresponds to a specific swimmer bending pattern characterized by reduced displacement of the swimmer's center of mass. Furthermore, we find that swimmers with wider span are both faster and more economical than narrow swimmers. These faster speeds are due to decreased drag for low aspect ratio plunging swimmers, which is in agreement with a recently proposed vortex-induced drag model that suggests that the smaller relative size of side vortices in low aspect ratio swimmers creates less drag per unit width. Our results are useful for the design of small autonomous micro-swimming devices and also provide insights on the physics of aquatic locomotion using oscillating fins.

  7. Confirmation of the extraterrestrial forces decisive effect on earthquake triggering and lithospheric plates movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihansky, L.; Kalenda, P.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to unsuccessful searching for biweekly tides earthquakes triggering the Earth's rotation variations give the unambiguous answer that the extreme positions of the Earth's acceleration and deceleration trigger earthquakes. In addition to it, an important repetition of earthquakes with 19 years period of the Meton's cycle and nutation has been found. Further, it has been found that the continental heating by the Sun and formation of the thermoelastic wave is an important factor of affecting of the Earth's surface and the plate movement. For this the special static vertical pendulum serves with the optimum length of several tens of meters, which after its refinement will be an important instrument for confirmation of stated claims. This problem is so far important that the scientific community advocates an opinion that earthquakes are caused by fluently acting forces in the Earth's interior, i.e. by forces causing absolutely unpredictable disturbances of the Earth' crust. This work is in outstanding interest of the European Union because the volcanic eruptions in Iceland, till now unpredictable, disturb the air-traffic in Europe in spite that just earthquakes in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show unequivocal earthquake triggering in rhythm of the Earth's rotation variations.

  8. In-situ monitoring of curing and ageing effects in FRP plates using embedded FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Guijun; Wang, Chuan; Li, Hui

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been widely applied in civil engineering for retrofitting or renewal of existing structures. Since FRP composite may degrade when exposed to severe outdoor environments, a serious concern has been raised on its long term durability. In the present study, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were embedded in glass-, carbon- and basalt-fiber reinforced epoxy based FRP plates with wet lay-up technology, to in-situ monitor the stain changes in FRPs during the curing, and water immersion and freeze-thaw ageing processes. The study demonstrates that the curing of epoxy resin brings in a slight tension strain (e.g., 10 ~ 30 μɛ) along the fiber direction and a high contraction (e.g., ~ 1100μɛ) in the direction perpendicular to the fibers, mainly due to the resin shrinkage. The cured FRP strips were then subjected to distilled water immersion at 80oC and freeze-thaw cycles from -30°C to 30°C. Remarkable strain changes of FRPs due to the variation of the temperatures during freeze-thaw cycles indicate the potential property degradation from fatigue. The maximum strain change is dependent on the fiber types and directions to the fiber. Based on the monitored strain values with temperature change and water uptake content, CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) and CME (coefficient of moisture expansion) are exactly determined for the FRPs.

  9. Somatosensory pleasure circuit: from skin to brain and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Donna M; McGlone, Francis P; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2015-05-01

    The skin senses serve a discriminative function, allowing us to manipulate objects and detect touch and temperature, and an affective/emotional function, manifested as itch or pain when the skin is damaged. Two different classes of nerve fibre mediate these dissociable aspects of cutaneous somatosensation: (i) myelinated A-beta and A-delta afferents that provide rapid information about the location and physical characteristics of skin contact; and (ii) unmyelinated, slow-conducting C-fibre afferents that are typically associated with coding the emotional properties of pain and itch. However, recent research has identified a third class of C-fibre afferents that code for the pleasurable properties of touch - c-tactile afferents or CTs. Clinical application of treatments that target pleasant, CT-mediated touch (such as massage therapy) could, in the future, provide a complementary, non-pharmacological means of treating both the physical and psychological aspects of chronic skin conditions such as itch and eczema. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of resin content and preparing conditions on the properties of polyphenylene sulfide resin/graphite composite for bipolar plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Li-gang; Li, Ai-ju; Yin, Qiang [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Shandong Key Laboratory of Engineering Ceramics, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, Wei-qiang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Lin, Heng; Zhao, Yi-bo [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2008-03-15

    In the paper, a kind of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) resin/graphite (G) composite for bipolar plate was prepared by using the PPS resin as adhesive and simple hot pressing. The influences of the resin content, the molding temperature and holding time on the conductivity and the bending strength of the PPS/G composite bipolar plate were investigated firstly and then the optimum content and the preparing conditions of the composite were obtained. The experimental results show that the electrical conductivity decreases and the bending strength reveals a serrated variation with increase in PPS resin content; when the holding time is certain, the conductivity decreases and the bending strength increases with the molding temperature increasing. The experimental results further show that the effect of the holding time on the properties of the composite is different at different molding temperatures. The PPS/G composite with 20% PPS resin content has electrical conductivity of 118.9 S cm{sup -1} and bending strength of 52.4 MPa when it molded at 380 C for 30 min, and has electrical conductivity of 105 S cm{sup -1}, bending strength of 55.7 MPa when it molded at 390 C for 30 min. The properties of the composites can meet the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE). (author)

  11. Thermal radiation and mass transfer effects on unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical oscillating plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, B. M. Jewel; Ahmed, Rubel; Ahmmed, S. F.

    2017-06-01

    Unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in porous medium with radiation, diffusion thermo, thermal diffusion and heat source are analyzed. The governing non-linear, partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless by using non-dimensional quantities. Then the resultant dimensionless equations are solved numerically by applying an efficient, accurate and conditionally stable finite difference scheme of explicit type with the help of a computer programming language Compaq Visual Fortran. The stability and convergence analysis has been carried out to establish the effect of velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, stream lines and isotherms line. Finally, the effects of various parameters are presented graphically and discussed qualitatively.

  12. Heat and Mass Transfer on Squeezing Unsteady MHD Nano fluid Flow between Parallel Plates with Slip Velocity Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.; Rawat, S. K.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer behavior of unsteady flow of squeezing between two parallel plates in the sight of uniform magnetic field with slip velocity effect is investigated. The governing equations representing fluid flow have been transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The equations thus obtained have been solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique. Effects on the behavior of velocity, temperature, and concentration for various values of relevant parameters are illustrated graphically. The skin-friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rate are also tabulated for various governing parameters. The results indicate that, for nano fluid flow, the rates of heat and mass transfer are inversely proportional to nanoparticle volume fraction and magnetic parameter. The rate of mass transfer increases with increasing values of Schmidt number and squeeze number.

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  14. Indicators of pleasure/pain in hygiene and cleaning outsourced workers of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Bohrer Berni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to measure the indicators of pleasure and suffering of hygiene and cleaning outsourced workers of a university hospital. Methods: a quantitative study of 51 workers at a university hospital in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire with socio-occupational data and Pleasure Indicators Scale and Suffering at Work were used. There was descriptive and statistical analysis of the internal consistency of the factors using statistical program Predictive Analytics Software. Results: professional achievement and freedom of expression, were evaluated respectively as satisfactory and critical pleasure indicators. Suffering indicator Lack of recognition was considered bearable and professional exhaustion as critical. Conclusion: the work context researched requires interventions that minimize the suffering of experiences, promote pleasure in work and, consequently, the health of contract workers hygiene and cleanliness.

  15. Ignorabimuse "Hüpodermic Pleasure" singel. Jon Spencer Blues Explosion esineb Ruisrockil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    6. juulil Bremeni hoovis toimuvast Ignorabimose (+ Balzam, Catafalc, Symbolic State, Harald&Melotrap) kontserdist ning esimese singli "Hüpodermic Pleasure" esitlusest. 6. ja 7. juulil toimuvast rockifestivalist Soomes

  16. Indicators of pleasure/pain in hygiene and cleaning outsourced workers of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Bohrer Berni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to measure the indicators of pleasure and suffering of hygiene and cleaning outsourced workers of a university hospital. Methods: a quantitative study of 51 workers at a university hospital in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire with socio-occupational data and Pleasure Indicators Scale and Suffering at Work were used. There was descriptive and statistical analysis of the internal consistency of the factors using statistical program Predictive Analytics Software. Results: professional achievement and Freedom of expression, were evaluated respectively as satisfactory and critical pleasure indicators. Suffering indicator Lack of recognition was considered bearable and professional exhaustion as critical. Conclusion: the work context researched requires interventions that minimize the suffering of experiences, promote pleasure in work and, consequently, the health of contract workers hygiene and cleanliness.

  17. Three Functions of the School Newspaper: The Truth Shop, The Persuasion Podium, The Pleasure Dome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This Quill and Scroll Study, which is illustrated with numerous tables, concerns the following subjects: The School Newspaper as a Truth Shop; The School Newspaper as a Pleasure Dome; and The School Newspaper as a Persuasion Podium. (DB)

  18. Legal status of crew members on pleasure craft and vessels used in nautical tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Marchiafava

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining the issues related to the legal status of crew members of pleasure craft and vessels used in nautical tourism from an Italian perspective. Firstly, the definition of crew and its composition on pleasure craft and vessels is examined. Additionally, the legal regime of crew members together with the crew on-board documentation, is discussed. Furthermore, the main similarities and dissimilarities of the crew regime according to the type of pleasure craft and vessel and their use, as well as, the on-board services, is dealt with. Finally, the issue related to the legal classification of ‘’guests’’, undertaking complementary on-board services of pleasure craft and vessels is considered.

  19. Constituents of Music and Visual-Art Related Pleasure - A Critical Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen, Marianne; Brattico, Elvira; Maksimainen, Johanna; Wikgren, Jan; Saarikallio, Suvi

    2017-01-01

    The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic), twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1) What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2) Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver's internal or external attributes? (3) What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music research pleasure

  20. Constituents of Music and Visual-Art Related Pleasure – A Critical Integrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Tiihonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic, twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1 What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2 Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver’s internal or external attributes? (3 What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music

  1. Constituents of Music and Visual-Art Related Pleasure – A Critical Integrative Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen, Marianne; Brattico, Elvira; Maksimainen, Johanna; Wikgren, Jan; Saarikallio, Suvi

    2017-01-01

    The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic), twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1) What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2) Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver’s internal or external attributes? (3) What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music research pleasure

  2. Paradise, pleasure and desire: Edenic delight in some late-medieval dramatic fragments

    OpenAIRE

    James, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the biblical Paradise and its relationship with the concept of delight or pleasure. In the first section it discusses the changing descriptions and interpretations of Paradise, from the biblical text to later medieval works; it goes on to explore the Augustinian and Thomist philosophies of pleasure and delight. Finally it brings together three late-medieval dramatic texts, all of which share an interest in Paradise, and explores the ways in which these texts utilise the co...

  3. Turism and Psychology studies: genesis of pleasure in classical Freudian psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we intend to demonstrate the different treatments which the Psychology has made about the pleasure as well as the contributions or limitations that the psychoanalysis demonstrates in the matter. The pleasure is configured like a discharge generated by the encounter between the instincts of life (Eros and of death (Thanatos in conjunction with the exogenous excitement. In consequence, the principle of the transfer explains the displacement (tourist like a form of psychic balance.

  4. Health Promotion, Governmentality and the Challenges of Theorizing Pleasure and Desire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Mads Peter; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    to foster a ‘well-balanced subject’ straddling pleasure and asceticism. The article seeks to develop the Foucauldian analytical framework by foregrounding a strategy of subjectivation that integrates desire, pleasure and enjoyment into health promotion. The point of departure is the overwhelming emphasis......, in order to analyse the transformation of interpellation in recent health promotion, we must recognize the mechanism of self-distance or dis-identification as an integral part of the procedure of subjectification....

  5. Effect of boric acid on intergranular corrosion and on hideout return efficiency of sodium in the tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, J.P.N.; Shoemaker, C.E.; Campan, J.L.; Brunet, J.P.; Schindler, P.; Stutzmann, A.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide is one of the main causes of intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) of alloy 600 steam generator (S.G.) tubes. Boric acid appears to be one of the possible remedies for intergranular corrosion process inhibition. In order to obtain data on boric acid injection efficiency, an experimental program was performed on previously corroded tubes. To prevent premature tube wall cracking, samples were sleeved on alloy 690 tubes. The objective of the tests was to evaluate, on a statistically valid number of samples, the effectiveness of boric acid and tube sleeving as possible remedies for IGA/SCC extension. Another independent experimental program was initiated to determine the hideout return efficiency in the tube support plate (TSP) and tubesheet (TS) crevices after a significant duration (≤ 180 hours) of sodium hideout. The main objective of the first tests being a statistical evaluation of the efficiency of boric acid treatment, was not achieved. The tests did demonstrate that sleeving effectively reduces IGA/SCC growth. In an additional program, cracks were obtained on highly susceptible tubes when specimens were not sleeved. The companion tests performed in the same conditions but with an addition of boric acid did not show any IGA or cracks. These results seem to demonstrate the possible effect of boric acid in preventing the corrosion process. Results of the second tests did not demonstrate any difference in the amount of sodium piled up in the crevices before and after boric acid injection. They however showed an increase of the hideout return efficiency at the tube support plate level from 78 % without boric acid to 95 % when boric acid is present in the feed water

  6. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  7. Analysis of field-plate effects on buffer-related lag phenomena and current collapse in GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horio, Kazushige; Nakajima, Atsushi; Itagaki, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional transient analysis of field-plate GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is performed in which a deep donor and a deep acceptor are considered in a semi-insulating buffer layer, and quasi-pulsed current–voltage curves are derived from them. How the existence of a field plate affects buffer-related drain lag, gate lag and current collapse is studied. It is shown that in both MESFET and HEMT, the drain lag is reduced by introducing a field plate because electron injection into the buffer layer is weakened by it, and the buffer-trapping effects are reduced. It is also shown that the field plate could reduce buffer-related current collapse and gate lag in the FETs. The dependence of lag phenomena and current collapse on the field-plate length and on the SiN passivation layer thickness is also studied. The work suggests that in the field-plate structures, there is an optimum thickness of the SiN layer to minimize the buffer-related current collapse and drain lag in GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

  8. Investigating consummatory and anticipatory pleasure across motivation deficits in schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Susana; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Daskalakis, Z Jeff; Ravindran, Arun; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; Foussias, George

    2017-08-01

    Anhedonia has traditionally been considered a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, but the true nature of this deficit remains elusive. This study sought to investigate consummatory and anticipatory pleasure as it relates to motivation deficits. Eighty-four outpatients with schizophrenia and 81 healthy controls were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), as well as a battery of clinical and cognitive assessments. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine the experience of pleasure as a function of diagnosis, and across levels of motivation deficits (i.e. low vs. moderate. vs. high) in schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses were also conducted to evaluate the predictive value of amotivation in relation to the TEPS. There were no significant differences between schizophrenia and healthy control groups for either consummatory or anticipatory pleasure. Within the schizophrenia patients, only those with high levels of amotivation were significantly impaired in consummatory and anticipatory pleasure compared to low and moderate groups, and compared to healthy controls. Further, our results revealed that amotivation significantly predicts both consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, with no independent contribution of group. Utilizing study samples with a wide range of motivation deficits and incorporating objective paradigms may provide a more comprehensive understanding of hedonic deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Comparison of clinical effect on locking plate for proximal humeral fracture with or without application of inferomedial screws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiu-wu; Fan, Jian; Yuan, Feng

    2016-06-01

    To compare clinical outcomes of locking plate for proximal humeral fracture whether application of inferomedial screws. From January 2012 to July 2013, 46 patients with proximal humeral fracture underwent locking plates were retrospectively analyzed. There were 25 males and 21 females aged from 29 to 80 years old with an average of 55.1 years old. Among them, 25 patients were treated with inferomedial screws (support group), including 13 males and 12 females aged from 38 to 80 years old with an average of (55.8 ± 11.8) years old; 8 cases were part two fracture,10 cases were part three fracture and 7 cases were part four fracture according to Neer classification. Twenty-one patients were treated without inferomedial screws (non-support group), including 12 males and 9 females aged from 29 to 79 years old with an average of (54.2 ± 14.8)years old; 6 cases were part two fracture, 9 cases were part three fracture and 6 cases were part four fracture according to Neer classification. Operative time, fracture healing time and complications were observed and compared, Neer scoring of shoulder joint were used to evaluate clinical effect. All patients were followed up from 12 to 41 months with an average of 15.6 months. Operative time and fracture healing time in support group was (1.6 ± 0.4) h and (3.0 ± 0.6) months, and (1.5 ± 0.4) h and (3.1 ± 0.6) months in non-support group, while there was no statistical difference in operative time and fracture healing time between two groups. There was significant differences in Neer score between support group (89.7± 4.9) and non-support group (83.1 ± 7.1). No complication occurred in support group,while 4 cases occurred complications in non-support group. Locking plate with inferomedial screws for proximal humeral fracture has advantages of stable fixation, less complications, quick recovery of function and satisfied clinical effect.

  10. The clean trip - Evaluation of green fuels in pleasure boats; Rena Turen - Utvaerdering av miljoeanpassade braenslen i fritidsbaatar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerne, Olof; Strandberg, Johan; Fridell, Erik; Peterson, Kjell; Allard, Ann-Sofie; Rydberg, Tomas (Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Vaske, Belinda; Jaegersten, Carl (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Oestman, Ninnie (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)); Eklund, Britta (ITM, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    This work examines alternative fuels in pleasure boat engines, their effect on engine performance as well as chemical and ecotoxicological characterisation of exhaust emissions to water and air. Three marine diesel engines and one outboard two stroke petrol engine were tested with standard fuels and 'green' fuels, that is for the diesel engine s; GTL (synthetic diesel) and biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester, RME) and for the outboard engine; alkylate petrol and E85 (ethanol fuel). The outboard engine was converted for the ethanol fuel. GTL generated less particles, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides than standard diesel. RME generated far less particles and hydrocarbons but slightly more nitrogen oxides. Cooling water from diesel engine s was toxic to zebra fish and crustaeans. GTL and RME generated cooling water that was less toxic to zebra fish compared to standard diesel. One litre of diesel produced 10-20 mg PAH, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, to the cooling water. The traditional two stroke outboard engines are by far the dominating source of emissions from the pleasure crafts. Standard petrol generates high concentrations of harmful pollutants such as benzene, PAHs and formaldehyde. One litre of standard petrol produced 2.3 g PAH in this survey. Alkylate petrol and ethanol fuel, E85, generated far less emissions. The emissions of PAHs from the Swedish pleasure boats annually are 50 tons or more in our estimations. Exhaust from two stroke outboard engines mixed in water is toxic to bacteria, algae and crustaceans. Standard petrol generated the most water toxic to bacteria and crustaceans. Alkylate petrol generated less toxic water to bacteria and crustaceans. For algae there was little difference between the fuels. Despite the fact that most of the fuel in the pleasure crafts are used in open sea, the effects of the emissions can be bigger in lakes and rivers. Traditional two stroke engines are used in lakes that are used for producing

  11. Effect of an annealing on magnetic properties of Fe-Ni films electroplated in citric-acid-based plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Koda, K.; Eguchi, K.; Morimura, T.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-04-01

    We have already reported Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In the present study, we employed an annealing for further improvement in soft magnetic properties of the electroplated Fe-Ni films. The annealing reduces the coercivity of the films, and the reduction rate of the coercivity depended on the Cl- ion concentration in the bath. The Fe22Ni78 films prepared in the plating bath with high Cl- ion concentration showed large reduction rate of the coercivity, and we found that the annealing is more effective for high Cl- ion concentration bath since much lower coercivity value can be obtained compared with that for low Cl- ion concentration one.

  12. Effect of an annealing on magnetic properties of Fe-Ni films electroplated in citric-acid-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yanai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have already reported Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In the present study, we employed an annealing for further improvement in soft magnetic properties of the electroplated Fe-Ni films. The annealing reduces the coercivity of the films, and the reduction rate of the coercivity depended on the Cl- ion concentration in the bath. The Fe22Ni78 films prepared in the plating bath with high Cl- ion concentration showed large reduction rate of the coercivity, and we found that the annealing is more effective for high Cl- ion concentration bath since much lower coercivity value can be obtained compared with that for low Cl- ion concentration one.

  13. Effect of an intermediate tungsten layer on thermal properties of TiC coatings ion plated onto molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutomi, M.; Fujitsuka, M.; Shikama, T.; Okada, M.

    1985-01-01

    Among the various low-Z coating-substrate systems proposed for fusion reactor first-wall applications, molybdenum coated with titanium carbide is considered very promising since it has a good capability of receiving heat from the plasma. The thermal stabilities of TiC layers ion plated onto the molybdenum substrate are discussed with particular reference to the interfacial reaction between the TiC coating and molybdenum. The deposition of an intermediate tungsten layer was found to be very effective in suppressing the formation of reaction layers, resulting in a marked improvement in thermal stabilities of TiC--Mo systems. Thermal shock test using a pulsed electron beam showed that the TiC coatings remained adherent to the molybdenum substrates during energy depositions high enough to melt the substrates within the area of beam deposition. The melt area of the TiC coatings apparently decreased when a tungsten intermediate layer was applied

  14. Effect Of Low-Temperature Annealing On The Properties Of Ni-P Amorphous Alloys Deposited Via Electroless Plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guanlin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous Ni-P alloys were prepared via electroless plating and annealing at 200°C at different times to obtain different microstructures. The effects of low-temperature annealing on the properties of amorphous Ni-P alloys were studied. The local atomic structure of the annealed amorphous Ni-P alloys was analyzed by calculating the atomic pair distribution function from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The results indicate that the properties of the annealed amorphous Ni-P alloys are closely related to the order atomic cluster size. However, these annealed Ni-P alloys maintained their amorphous structure at different annealing times. The variation in microhardness is in agreement with the change in cluster size. By contrast, the corrosion resistance of the annealed alloys in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution increases with the decrease in order cluster size.

  15. Loading Mode and Environment Effects on Surface Profile Characteristics of Martensite Plates in Cu-Based SMAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suru, Marius-Gabriel; Paraschiv, Adrian-Liviu; Lohan, Nicoleta Monica; Pricop, Bogdan; Ozkal, Burak; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    The present work reports the influence of the loading mode provided during training under constant stress, in bending, applied to lamellar specimens of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys (SMAs). During training, the specimens were bent by a load fastened at their free end, while being martensitic at room temperature and they lifted the load by one-way effect (1WE), during heating up to austenitic field. On cooling to martensite field, the lower concave surface of bent specimens was compressed, and during heating it was elongated, being subjected to a series of tension-compression cycles, during heating-cooling, respectively. Conversely, the upper convex surface of bent specimens was elongated during cooling and compressed during heating, being subjected to compression-tension cycles. Furthermore, 2WE-trained actuators were tested by means of a hydraulic installation where, this time heating-cooling cycles were performed in oil conditions. Considering that the lower concave surface of the specimens was kept in compressed state, while the upper convex surface was kept in elongated state, the study reveals the influence of the two loading modes and environments on the width of martensite plates of the specimens trained under various numbers of cycles. In this purpose, Cu-Zn-Al specimens, trained under 100-300-500 cycles, were prepared and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy (OM and SEM, respectively). The analysis also included AFM micrographs corroborated with statistical evaluations in order to reveal the effects of loading mode (tension or compression) in different environmental conditions of the specimens, on the surface profile characteristics of martensite plates, revealed by electropolishing.

  16. Circuits Regulating Pleasure and Happiness in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton J. M. Loonen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, control the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (prefrontal and limbic cortices. Hyperactive motivation to display behavior that potentially results in reward induces feelings of hankering (relief leads to pleasure; while, hyperactive motivation to exhibit behavior related to avoidance of aversive states results in dysphoria (relief leads to happiness. These two systems collaborate in a reciprocal fashion. We hypothesized that the mechanism inducing the switch from bipolar depression to mania is the most essential characteristic of bipolar disorder. This switch is attributed to a dysfunction of the lateral habenula, which regulates the activity of midbrain centers, including the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA. From an evolutionary perspective, the activity of the lateral habenula should be regulated by the human homolog of the habenula-projecting globus pallidus, which in turn might be directed by the amygdaloid complex and the phylogenetically old part of the limbic cortex. In bipolar disorder, it is possible that the system regulating the activity of this reward-driven behavior is damaged or the interaction between the medial and lateral habenula may be dysfunctional. This may lead to an adverse coupling between the activities of the misery-fleeing and reward-seeking circuits, which results in independently varying activities.

  17. Popular Music in Jia Zhangke’s Unknown Pleasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With his documentary-style films reflecting upon China’s unprecedented transformation from a state-controlled to a market-driven economy, Jia Zhangke has risen from within the movement of independent Chinese cinema that began to flourish in the late 1990s to become one of the most recognized filmmakers of contemporary China. Born in 1970 and raised in the underdeveloped Shanxi Province, Jia studied film theory at Beijing Film Academy and was first noticed for his controversial “Hometown Trilogy”—'Pickpocket '('Xiao Wu', 1997, 'Platform '('Zhantai', 1999, and 'Unknown Pleasures '('Ren xiao yao', 2002. These three films, shot with handheld video camera on the streets of his hometown province, focus on the reckless changes that China’s aggressive economic growth and globalization have brought to socially marginalized groups. Like other independently made films—films that are produced with capital from outside the state-sponsored avenues and without the approval of film censorship, and that are not allowed to be shown in China’s public theaters—Jia’s first three films reach domestic audiences only through unofficial DVD copies and small-scaled screenings at universities, film bars, and art salons. His limited domestic influence sharply contrasts with the critical acclaim that he receives from international film festival audiences, who are searching for alternative film culture from China after the Fifth Generation directors. By the late 1990s, Jia had become a spokesperson for an ever-increasing group of aspiring Chinese independent filmmakers, particularly through writings and interviews that theorize independent Chinese cinema’s practice.

  18. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  19. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  20. Effect of elliptic or circular holes on the stress distribution in plates of wood or plywood considered as orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Smith

    1944-01-01

    This is a mathematical analysis of the stress distribution existing near a hole in a wood or plywood plate subjected to tension, as, for example, near holes in the tension flanges of wood box beams. It is assumed that the strains are small and remain within the proportional limit. In this analysis a large, rectangular, orthotropic plate with a small elliptic hole at...

  1. The effect of inclined vertical slats on natural convective heat transfer from an isothermal heated vertical plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.

    2002-01-01

    Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat adiabatic surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. The slats are pivoted about their center-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air, i.e. where air-conditioning is being used, being considered. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces, this being treated by means of the Biuniqueness type approximation. Although the flow is in general three-dimensional, the flow over each slat is assumed to be the same and attention can therefore be restricted to flow over a single slat by using repeating boundary conditions. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (4) the dimensionless slat size (5) the dimensionless slat spacing (6) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated surface has been examined. (author)

  2. The effect of heat generation in inclined slats on the natural convective heat transfer from an isothermal heated vertical plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.

    2003-01-01

    Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. There is, in general, a uniform heat generation in the slats. The slats are pivoted about their centre-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air being considered. The heat generation in the slats in this situation is the result of solar radiation passing through the window and falling on and being absorbed by the slats of the blind. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless heat generation rate in the slats per unit frontal area (4) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (5) the dimensionless slat size (6) the dimensionless slat spacing (7) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated vertical surface has been examined. (author)

  3. Effects of freestream on the characteristics of thermally-driven boundary layers along a heated vertical flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin, Mohammad Zoynal; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Lee, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A time-developing direct numerical simulations are done for water along a heated vertical plate. ► The objective is to see the effects of free streams on the combined-convection boundary layers. ► There are no reports for water with direct numerical simulation in this regards. ► An experiment is also conducted on the transitional and turbulent boundary layer in water. ► This is to collect informations on the integral thickness of the velocity boundary layer. - Abstract: Time-developing thermally-driven boundary layers created by imposing aiding and opposing freestreams on the natural-convection boundary layer in water along a heated vertical flat plate have been examined with a direct numerical simulation to clarify their transition and turbulence behaviors. The numerical results for aiding flow reveal that the transition begins at a thick laminar boundary layer due to the delay of the transition and large-scale vortexes centering on the spanwise direction are followed, while, for opposing flow, the transition begins at a thin laminar boundary layer due to the quickening of the transition and relatively small-scale vortexes are generated with the progress of transition. To improve the significance of the present numerical results, the association of turbulence statistics between time- and space-developing flows has been investigated. Consequently, the numerical results for time-developing flow are converted to those for space-developing flow through the integral thickness of the velocity boundary layer for pure natural convection, and thus the regimes of boundary layer flows can be quantitatively assessed. Moreover, the turbulence statistics and the flow structures in the thermally-driven boundary layers are also presented.

  4. Asymmetric free vibrations of laminated annular cross-ply circular plates including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Spline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, K.K.; Kim, Kyung Su; Lee, Jang Hyun [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Asymmetric free vibrations of annular cross-ply circular plates are studied using spline function approximation. The governing equations are formulated including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Assumptions are made to study the cross-ply layered plates. A system of coupled differential equations are obtained in terms of displacement functions and rotational functions. These functions are approximated using Bickley- type spline functions of suitable order. Then the system is converted into the eigenvalue problem by applying the point collocation technique and suitable boundary conditions. Parametric studies have been made to investigate the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia on frequency parameter with respect to the circumferential node number, radii ratio and thickness to radius ratio for both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply plates using various types of material properties. (orig.)

  5. Effects of SF$_{6}$ on the avalanche mode operation of a real-sized double-gap resistive plate chamber for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Ito, M; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S; Kang, T I

    2005-01-01

    We present the design and the test, results for a real-sized prototype resistive plate chamber by using cosmic-ray muons for the forward region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In particular, we investigate the effects of adding SF/sub 6/ to the gas mixture for the avalanche mode operation of a resistive plate chamber. A small fraction of SF/sub 6/ is very effective in suppressing streamer signals in a resistive plate chamber. The shapes of the muon detection efficiency and the muon cluster size remain similar, but are shifted to higher operating voltage by SF/sub 6/. The noise cluster rate and size are not influenced by SF/sub 6/.

  6. What is the Effect of 90-Degree Double-Plate Fixation with Grafting on Healing of Humeral Shaft Non-unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Çobanoğlu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to investigate the clinical and radiological outcomes of double-plate fixation with grafting in the treatment of non-union of humeral shaft fractures. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients operated between 2006 and 2012 due to humeral shaft non-union. Patients undergoing surgery with double-plate fixation were included and those treated with external fixator, single plate, intramedullary nails and patients with pathological fractures and infected non-unions were excluded. Surgical intervention via anterolateral or posterior approach included radial nerve identification, decortication and reestablishment of medullary canal followed by compression plating with double-plate fixation and frequent application of autogenous grafts or allografts. Main outcome measures were success rate of non-union repair, rate of re-intervention and complications, range of motion, assessment of pain Visual analogue scale (VAS and function Disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH and overall outcome Stewart-Hundley classification. Results: Ten patients were treated with double-plate fixation. The study group included six females and four males aged 36 to 70 years. Union was achieved within 4.5 and 8 months in all cases. The mean preoperative VAS score of 6.1 decreased to 2, postoperatively, with an associated decrease in the mean DASH score from 74.1 to 23.4. Excellent or good results were obtained in nine cases. There was no incidence of radial nerve palsy or infection. Conclusion: Our study provides level 4 evidence of the effectiveness of treating non-union fractures of the humeral shaft with double-plate fixation and grafting in providing good-to-excellent functional results and high union rate without any significant complication.

  7. alpha2-Adrenergic agonists antagonise the anxiolytic-like effect of antidepressants in the four-plate test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Fabienne; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2005-10-14

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) has been reported to be efficient in anxiety disorders. Some animal models have demonstrated an anxiolytic-like effect following acute administration, however, it is not yet known how noradrenergic receptors are implicated in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants (ADs) in anxiety. The effects of two alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (clonidine, guanabenz) on anxiolytic-like effect of two SSRIs (paroxetine and citalopram) and two SNRIs (venlafaxine and milnacipran) were evaluated in the four-plate test (FPT) in mice. Paroxetine (4 mg/kg), citalopram (8 mg/kg), venlafaxine (8 mg/kg), and milnacipran (8 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) increased the number of punishments accepted by mice in the FPT. Clonidine (0.0039-0.5 mg/kg) and guanabenz (0.03-0.5mg/kg) had no effect on the number of punishments accepted by mice. Clonidine (0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg) and guanabenz (0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg) (i.p. -45 min) reversed the anti-punishment effect of paroxetine, citalopram, venlafaxine and milnacipran (i.p. -30 min). But if the antidepressants are administered 45 min before the test and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists 30 min before the test, alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists failed to alter the anti-punishment effect of antidepressants. The results of this present study indicate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists antagonise the anxiolytic-like effect of antidepressants in mice when they are administered 15 min before the administration of antidepressant suggesting a close inter-regulation between noradrenergic and serotoninergic system in the mechanism of SSRIs and SNRIs in anxiety-like behaviour.

  8. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  9. Magnetic Fluid-Based Squeeze Film Behaviour in Curved Porous-Rotating Rough Annular Plates and Elastic Deformation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Shimpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been directed to study and analyze the squeeze film performance between rotating transversely rough curved porous annular plates in the presence of a magnetic fluid lubricant considering the effect of elastic deformation. A stochastic random variable with nonzero mean, variance, and skewness characterizes the random roughness of the bearing surfaces. With the aid of suitable boundary conditions, the associated stochastically averaged Reynolds' equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution in turn, which results in the calculation of the load-carrying capacity. The graphical representations establish that the transverse roughness, in general, adversely affects the performance characteristics. However, the magnetization registers a relatively improved performance. It is found that the deformation causes reduced load-carrying capacity which gets further decreased by the porosity. This investigation tends to indicate that the adverse effect of porosity, standard deviation and deformation can be compensated to certain extent by the positive effect of the magnetic fluid lubricant in the case of negatively skewed roughness by choosing the rotational inertia and the aspect ratio, especially for suitable ratio of curvature parameters.

  10. On the thermal analysis of a plate-fin heat sink considering the thermal-entry length effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Maher, Hisham; Hegazy, Adel A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dissipated convective heat strongly depends on convection coefficient. Two correlations were developed for so and validated. • A clear error in air temperature distribution along the heat sink was seen if coefficient were not properly selected. • The error decreases when thermal-entry length effect is considered, as for thermal flow through short conduits as Pr <1. - Abstract: Cooling electric and electronic components is very imperative to keep these components functioning properly. The heat sink is a device used to dissipate generated heat and accordingly cool these components. Airflow through heat sinks experiences velocity and thermal boundary layer variation that significantly affects the heat transfer process and heat sink performance as a result. The present study aims at developing an analytical model that compares the effect of adopting fully-developed or thermally-developing flow on convective heat transfer coefficient and accordingly longitudinal predicted air temperature distribution. Experiments on plate-fin heat sinks were carried out to validate the developed model. The results quantitatively showed a noticeable overprediction in the air temperature distribution when the heat transfer coefficient was estimated based on a fully-developed assumption. On the other hand, a close agreement between predicted and measured values was noticed when the thermal-entry length effect was considered.

  11. Familiarity and no Pleasure. The Uncanny as an Aesthetic Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Niklas Howe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: The article explores whether the feeling of the uncanny can be regarded as an aesthetic emotion. It is centred around a reading of Freud’s famous essay that is complemented by an exploration of Aristotle’s theory of repetition and current psychological attempts to define aesthetic pleasure by means of repetition, namely, the hypotheses of ‘mere exposure’, ‘prototypicality’, and ‘cognitive fluency’. The article demonstrates that the notion of the uncanny problematises the very concept of aesthetic emotions.

     

    Abstract (F: Cet article se demande si la sensation de l’inquiétante étrangeté peut être considérée comme une émotion esthétique. Il propose une nouvelle lecture du célèbre article de Freud, qu’il approfondit en faisant appel à la théorie aristotélicienne de la répétition ainsi qu’aux tentatives de la psychologie contemporaine de définir le plaisir esthétique en termes de répétition –hypothèses souvent rattachées aux concepts de « influence par contact », « prototypicalité » et « aisance cognitive ». L’article démontre que l’inquiétante étrangeté problématise la notion même d’émotion esthétique.

  12. Prejudice and the Plate: Effects of Weight Bias in Nutrition Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P; Guillory, Jamie E; Gay, Geri K

    2016-01-01

    As millions of people turn to social media for health information, better understanding the factors that guide health-related judgments and perceptions in this context is imperative. We report on two Web experiments (n>400 total) examining the power of society's widespread weight bias and related stereotypes to influence nutrition judgments in social media spaces. In Experiment 1, meals were judged as lower in nutritional quality when the person who recommended them (the source) was depicted as obese rather than of normal weight, an effect mediated by stereotypic beliefs about the source as a generally unhealthy person. Experiment 2 replicated this effect, which--notably--remained significant when controlling for objective nutritional information (calories and fat content). Results highlight spillover effects of weight bias that extend beyond person perception to color impressions of objects (here, food) that are associated with stigmatized attributes. Implications for everyday nutrition judgments and public health are considered.

  13. “It feels so good it almost hurts”: Young adults’ experiences of orgasm and sexual pleasure

    OpenAIRE

    Opperman, E.; Braun, V.; Clarke, V.; Rogers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Orgasm is a ‘goal’ of much sexual activity, a source of potentially intense pleasure and fulfillment, yet can be fraught with difficulty or distress. Relatively little social science research has explored people’s experiences around, and their meanings related to, orgasm, and indeed other sexual pleasures, especially with young adults. This study aimed to provide a rich exploration of the meanings associated with orgasm and sexual pleasure during sex with a partner, to understand the social-p...

  14. Combined Effect of Surface Roughness and Wake Splitter Plate on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circular Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisanthosh, Iyer; Arunkumar, K.; Ajithkumar, R.; Srikrishnan, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focussed on numerical investigation of flow around a stationary circular cylinder (diameter, D) with selectively applied surface roughness (roughness strips with thickness ‘k’) in the presence of a wake splitter plate (length, L). The plate leading edge is at a distance of ‘G’ from the cylinder base. For this study, the commercial software ANSYS Fluent is used. Fluid considered is water. Study was conducted the following cases (a) plain cylinder (b) cylinder with surface roughness (without splitter plate) (c) Cylinder with splitter plate (without surface roughness) and (d) cylinder with both roughness and splitter plate employed. The study Reynolds number (based on D) is 17,000 and k/δ = 1.25 (in all cases). Results indicate that, for cylinder with splitter plate (no roughness), lift coefficient gradually drops till G/D=1.5 further to which it sharply increases. Whereas, drag coefficient and Strouhal number undergoes slight reduction till G/D=1.0 and thereafter, gradually increase. Circumferential location of strip (α) does not influence the aerodynamic parameters significantly. With roughness alone, drag is magnified by about 1.5 times and lift, by about 2.7 times that of the respective values of the smooth cylinder. With splitter plate, for roughness applied at all ‘α’ values, drag and lift undergoes substantial reduction with the lowest value attained at G/D=1.0.

  15. Effects of rest time after Li plating on safety behavior—ARC tests with commercial high-energy 18650 Li-ion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2017-01-01

    During charging at low temperatures, metallic Lithium can be deposited on the surface of graphite anodes of Li-ion cells. This Li plating does not only lead to fast capacity fade, it can also impair the safety behavior. The present study observes the effect of rest periods between Li plating and subsequent accelerated rate calorimetry (ARC) tests. As an example, commercial 3.25 Ah 18650-type cells with graphite anodes and NCA cathodes are cycled at 0 °C to provoke Li plating. It is found that the rest period at 25 °C between Li plating and the ARC tests has a significant influence on the onset temperature of exothermic reactions (T SH ), the onset temperature of thermal runaway (T TR ), the maximum temperature, the self-heating rate, and on damage patterns of 18650 cells. The results are discussed in terms of chemical intercalation of Li plating into adjacent graphite particles during the rest period. The exponential increase of capacity recovery and T SH as a function of time suggests a reaction of 1st order for the relaxation process.

  16. The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of "pleasurable sadness" remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment of sad music. In Experiment 1, 308 participants listened to five sad music excerpts and rated their liking and felt emotions. A multilevel mediation analysis revealed that the initial positive relationship between liking and felt sadness ( r = 0.22) was fully mediated by feelings of being moved. Experiment 2 explored the interconnections of perceived sadness, beauty, and movingness in 27 short music excerpts that represented independently varying levels of sadness and beauty. Two multilevel mediation analyses were carried out to test competing hypotheses: (A) that movingness mediates the effect of perceived sadness on liking, or (B) that perceived beauty mediates the effect of sadness on liking. Stronger support was obtained for Hypothesis A. Our findings suggest that - similarly to the enjoyment of sad films - the aesthetic appreciation of sad music is mediated by being moved. We argue that felt sadness may contribute to the enjoyment of sad music by intensifying feelings of being moved.

  17. The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of “pleasurable sadness” remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment of sad music. In Experiment 1, 308 participants listened to five sad music excerpts and rated their liking and felt emotions. A multilevel mediation analysis revealed that the initial positive relationship between liking and felt sadness (r = 0.22) was fully mediated by feelings of being moved. Experiment 2 explored the interconnections of perceived sadness, beauty, and movingness in 27 short music excerpts that represented independently varying levels of sadness and beauty. Two multilevel mediation analyses were carried out to test competing hypotheses: (A) that movingness mediates the effect of perceived sadness on liking, or (B) that perceived beauty mediates the effect of sadness on liking. Stronger support was obtained for Hypothesis A. Our findings suggest that – similarly to the enjoyment of sad films – the aesthetic appreciation of sad music is mediated by being moved. We argue that felt sadness may contribute to the enjoyment of sad music by intensifying feelings of being moved. PMID:28377740

  18. Glucocorticoid-induced effects on the growth plate and the IGF system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Jeske Johanna

    2003-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. The use of these potent drugs, however, often results in side-effects, such as growth retardation in children. For already many years, this GC-induced growth retardation is suggested to involve impaired action of

  19. Preparation of High-Density Uranium-Silicide U3Sl2-Uss: Effects of Preirradiation Heat Treatment on As-Cast Ingot Fuel Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A; Yuwono

    1998-01-01

    Heat treatment experiments upon U 3 Si 2 - U ss ingot have been cam e d out to obtain free uranium particle size improvement which is required to enhance the U-Al inter-diffusion reaction in the fuel plate meat. . Heat treatment experiments upon fuel plates containing dispersion of U 3 Si 2 - U ss in Al matrix have also been carried out to study the effect of temperature and treatment duration on the extent of inter-diffusion reaction between free uranium particle and aluminium matrix in the fuel plate meat. Both the experiments indicate that a drastic size improvement has occurred with the U 3 Si 2 as well as free uranium particles upon heat treatment at controlled temperature between the U 3 Si 2 peritectic and peritectoid temperatures and that the inter-diffusion reaction between free uranium and Al matrix occurs quite significantly at temperatures higher than that ordinarily used in the fabrication procedure

  20. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS ON FLOW PAST PARABOLIC STARTING MOTION OF ISOTHERMAL VERTICAL PLATE IN THE PRESENCE OF FIRST ORDER CHEMICAL REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthucumaraswamy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution of unsteady flow past a parabolic starting motion of the infinite isothermal vertical plate with uniform mass diffusion, in the presence of a homogeneous chemical reaction of the first order, has been studied. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The effect of velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters, such as chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, and time. It is observed that velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. The trend is reversed with respect to the chemical reaction parameter.

  1. Simulation of the effects of coated material SEY property on output electron energy distribution and gain of microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xingchao [North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) Co., Ltd., Nanjing 210110 (China); Tian, Jinshou, E-mail: tianjs@opt.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Liu, Chunliang [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Hulin [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Chen, Ping [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang [North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) Co., Ltd., Nanjing 210110 (China); Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); and others

    2016-12-21

    To obtain a high spatial resolution of a image intensifier based on microchannel plate (MCP), the long tail in the exit energy distribution of the output electrons (EDOE) is undesirable. The existing solution is increasing the penetration depth of the MCP output electrode, which will result in a serious gain reduction. Coating the MCP output electrode with efficient secondary electron yield (SEY) materials is supposed to be an effective approach to suppress the unfavorable tail component in the EDOE without negative effects on the gain. In our work, a three-dimensional MCP single channel model is developed in CST STUDIO SUITE to systematically investigate the dependences of the EDOE and the gain on the SEY property of the coated material, based on the Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method. The results show that besides the high SEY of the coated material, the low incident energy corresponding to the peak SEY is another essential element affecting the electron yield in the final stage of multiplication and suppressing the output energy spread.

  2. Effect of Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation Due to Laminar Forced Convection Past a Horizontal Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd A. Al-Nimr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field effect on local entropy generation due to steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection flow past a horizontal plate was numerically investigated. This study was focused on the entropy generation characteristics and its dependency on various dimensionless parameters. The effect of various dimensionless parameters, such as Hartmann number (Ha, Eckert number (Ec, Prandtl number (Pr, Joule heating parameter (R and the free stream temperature parameter (θ∞ on the entropy generation characteristics is analyzed. The dimensionless governing equations in Cartesian coordinate were solved by an implicit finite difference technique. The solutions were carried out for Ha2=0.5-3, Ec=0.01-0.05, Pr=1-5 and θ∞=1.1-2.5. It was found that, the entropy generation increased with increasing Ha, Ec and R. While, increasing the free stream temperature parameter, and Prandtl number tend to decrease the local entropy generation.

  3. Numerical Investigation of Wall Cooling and Suction Effects on Supersonic Flat-Plate Boundary Layer Transition Using Large Eddy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suozhu Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing friction resistance and aerodynamic heating has important engineering significance to improve the performances of super/hypersonic aircraft, so the purpose of transition control and turbulent drag reduction becomes one of the cutting edges in turbulence research. In order to investigate the influences of wall cooling and suction on the transition process and fully developed turbulence, the large eddy simulation of spatially evolving supersonic boundary layer transition over a flat-plate with freestream Mach number 4.5 at different wall temperature and suction intensity is performed in the present work. It is found that the wall cooling and suction are capable of changing the mean velocity profile within the boundary layer and improving the stability of the flow field, thus delaying the onset of the spatial transition process. The transition control will become more effective as the wall temperature decreases, while there is an optimal wall suction intensity under the given conditions. Moreover, the development of large-scale coherent structures can be suppressed effectively via wall cooling, but wall suction has no influence.

  4. The effect of using sun tracking systems on the voltage-current characteristics and power generation of flat plate photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Salah

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using different types of sun tracking systems on the voltage-current characteristics and electrical power generation at the output of flat plate photovoltaics (FPPV). Four electromechanical sun tracking systems, two axes, one axis vertical, one axis east-west and one axis north-south, were designed and constructed for the purpose of investigating the effect of tracking on the electrical values, current, voltage and power, according to the different loads (variable resistance). The above mentioned variables were measured at the output of the FPPV and compared with those on a fixed surface. The results indicated that the volt-ampere characteristics on the tracking surfaces were significantly greater than that on a fixed surface. There were increases of electrical power gain up to 43.87%, 37.53%, 34.43% and 15.69% for the two axes, east-west, vertical and north-south tracking, respectively, as compared with the fixed surface inclined 32 deg. to the south in Amman, Jordan

  5. Side-Pinch Effect of a Magnetically Driven Shock Tube with Parallel Plate Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Mondrup, K.

    1969-01-01

    To study the possible effect of the side pinch on the steady-state current and the steady-state shock speed of a magnetically driven shock tube, a semiempirical model is formulated. The time history of the current, the radial and the translational motion of the current-carrying region are expressed...... by three interacting nonlinear equations with five adjustable parameters describing the variation of the electric circuit elements, the geometry of the shock tube, and the initial running conditions. Within the range of practical interest for values of the parameters investigated, computational results...

  6. Silver halide sensitized gelatin process effects in holographic lenses recorded on Slavich PFG-01 plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collados, Maria Victoria; Arias, Isabel; García, Ana; Atencia, Jesús; Quintanilla, Manuel

    2003-02-01

    In this work we study the feasibility of using silver halide sensitized gelatin based on PFG-01 (Slavich) emulsions to construct uniaxial compound lenses. This processing is able to introduce variations in the thickness and refractive index of the emulsion. We prove that these changes are not sufficient to provide the observed variations in Bragg conditions in the reconstruction and that a shear-type effect must exist to explain the performance of processed emulsions. We study the characteristics of a compound lens, obtaining acceptable image quality, good resolution, and the typical field limitation of volume holographic elements.

  7. Thermal Exposure Effects on Properties of Al-Li Alloy Plate Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Douglas; Wagner, John; Babel, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph representation is to evaluate the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties of both production mature and developmental Al-Li alloys. The researchers find for these alloys, the data clearly shows that there is no deficit in mechanical properties at lower exposure temperatures in some cases, and a signficant deficit in mechanical properties at higher exposure temperatures in all cases. Topics considered include: Al-Li alloys composition, key characteristics of Al-Li alloys and thermal exposure matrix.

  8. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  9. On the effect of the fiber orientation on the flexural stiffness of injection molded short fiber reinforced polycarbonate plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, N.M.; Isdell, G.; Pouzada, A.S.; Powell, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The through-thickness fiber orientation distribution of injection molded polycarbonate plates was experimentally determined by light reflection microscopy and manual digitization of polished cross sections. Fiber length distribution was determined by pyrolysis tests followed by image analysis. A

  10. Buoyancy effects on thermal behavior of a flat-plate solar collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the flow and temperature distribution in a 12.53 m(2) solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of two vertical manifolds interconnected by 16 parallel horizontal fins have been carried out. The investigations are focused on overheating...... and the influence of the buoyancy effects are considered in the investigations. Further experimental investigations of the solar collector panel are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the back of the absorber tubes. The measured temperatures....... The CFD calculations elucidate the flow and temperature distribution in the collector panels of different designs. Based on the investigations, recommendations are given in order to avoid overheating or boiling problems in the solar collector panel....

  11. Effects of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on Salmonella and aerobic plate count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments were used to determine the effects of high-energy irradiation on the number of aerobic microorganisms and Salmonella on broiler breasts and thighs. Irradiation ranging from 100 to 700 kilorads (krads) was provided by a commercial-scale, electron-beam accelerator. Irradiation of broiler breast and thigh pieces with electron beams at levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 krads showed that levels as low as 100 krads would eliminate Salmonella. When 33 thighs were tested after irradiation at 200 krads, only one thigh tested presumptive positive. The total number of aerobic organisms was reduced by 2 to 3 log10 cycles at irradiation levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 krads. Increasing the dose above 100 krads gave little if any additional benefit

  12. A study on the effect of stainless steel plate position on neutron multiplication factor in spent fuel storage racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hee Dong

    2012-02-15

    In spent fuel storage racks, which are just composed of stainless steel plates without neutron absorbing materials, neutron multiplication factors are investigated as the variation of the water gap that exists between the fuel assembly and the stainless steel plates. The stainless steel plate has a low moderating power compared with water because it has a lower elastic scattering cross section, as well as far less change of lethargy in an elastic collision than water. Thus, if stainless steel plates are installed around the fuel assembly instead of water, it is hard for neutrons to be thermalized properly. Therefore, the neutron multiplication factor can be decreased because the thermal neutron fluence and the total neutron production rate in fuel rods are decreased. A stainless steel plate has also has a thermal neutron absorption cross section. Thus, it can absorb thermal neutrons around the fuel assembly. The dominant factor which can cause a decrease in the neutron multiplication factor is the interruption of neutron moderation by stainless steel plates. Therefore, the neutron multiplication factor should always be kept at its lowest point, if stainless steel plates are installed on the specific position where interruptions of the neutron moderation occur most often, allowing for thermal neutrons to be absorbed. The stainless steel plate position is 7 mm away from the outermost surface of the fuel assembly with a pitch of 280mm. The specific position appearing the lowest neutron multiplication factor as the pitch variation from 260mm to 290mm with 10mm interval is also investigated. The lowest neutron multiplication factor also occurs 7mm or 8mm away from the outermost surface of the fuel assembly

  13. A study on the effect of stainless steel plate position on neutron multiplication factor in spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hee Dong

    2012-02-01

    In spent fuel storage racks, which are just composed of stainless steel plates without neutron absorbing materials, neutron multiplication factors are investigated as the variation of the water gap that exists between the fuel assembly and the stainless steel plates. The stainless steel plate has a low moderating power compared with water because it has a lower elastic scattering cross section, as well as far less change of lethargy in an elastic collision than water. Thus, if stainless steel plates are installed around the fuel assembly instead of water, it is hard for neutrons to be thermalized properly. Therefore, the neutron multiplication factor can be decreased because the thermal neutron fluence and the total neutron production rate in fuel rods are decreased. A stainless steel plate has also has a thermal neutron absorption cross section. Thus, it can absorb thermal neutrons around the fuel assembly. The dominant factor which can cause a decrease in the neutron multiplication factor is the interruption of neutron moderation by stainless steel plates. Therefore, the neutron multiplication factor should always be kept at its lowest point, if stainless steel plates are installed on the specific position where interruptions of the neutron moderation occur most often, allowing for thermal neutrons to be absorbed. The stainless steel plate position is 7 mm away from the outermost surface of the fuel assembly with a pitch of 280mm. The specific position appearing the lowest neutron multiplication factor as the pitch variation from 260mm to 290mm with 10mm interval is also investigated. The lowest neutron multiplication factor also occurs 7mm or 8mm away from the outermost surface of the fuel assembly

  14. Effect of low velocity impact damage on the natural frequency of composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, E. Y. L.; Majid, D. L. A. A.; Harmin, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Biodegradable natural fibers have been suggested to replace the hazardous synthetic fibers in many aerospace applications. However, this notion has been limited due to their low mechanical properties, which leads to the idea of hybridizing the two materials. Many aircraft components such as radome, aft body and wing are highly susceptible to low velocity impact damage while in-service. The damages degrade the structural integrity of the components and change their dynamic characteristics. In worst case scenario, the changes can lead to resonance, which is an excessive vibration. This research is conducted to study the dynamic characteristic changes of low velocity impact damaged hybrid composites that is designed for aircraft radome applications. Three materials, which are glass fiber, kenaf fiber and kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites, have been impacted with 3J, 6J and 9J of energy. Cantilevered and also vertically clamped boundary conditions are used and the natural frequencies are extracted for each of the specimens. The obtained results show that natural frequency decreases with increasing impact level. Cantilevered condition is found to induce lower modes due to the gravitational pull. To eliminate mass and geometrical effects, normalized modes are computed. Among the three materials considered, glass fiber composites have displayed the highest normalized frequency that reflects on its higher stiffness compared to the other two materials. As the damage level is increased, glass fiber composites have shown the highest frequency reduction to a maximum of 35% while kenaf composites have the least frequency reduction in the range of 1 - 18%. Thus, kenaf fiber is taken to be helpful in stalling the damage progression and reducing the effect of damage. This has been proven when the percentage frequency decrement shown by kenaf/glass fiber composite lies between glass fiber and kenaf fiber composites.

  15. Circumplex Model of Affect: A Measure of Pleasure and Arousal During Virtual Reality Distraction Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharar, Sam R; Alamdari, Ava; Hoffer, Christine; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R

    2016-06-01

    Immersive virtual reality (VR) distraction provides clinically effective pain relief and increases subjective reports of "fun" in medical settings of procedural pain. The goal of this study was to better describe the variable of "fun" associated with VR distraction analgesia using the circumplex model (pleasure/arousal) of affect. Seventy-four healthy volunteers (mean age, 29 years; 37 females) received a standardized, 18-minute, multimodal pain sequence (alternating thermal heat and electrical stimulation to distal extremities) while receiving immersive, interactive VR distraction. Subjects rated both their subjective pain intensity and fun using 0-10 Graphic Rating Scales, as well as the pleasantness of their emotional valence and their state of arousal on 9-point scales. Compared with pain stimulation in the control (baseline, no VR) condition, immersive VR distraction significantly reduced subjective pain intensity (P anxiety, greater fun, greater presence in the VR environment, and positive emotional valence-were associated with subjective analgesia during VR distraction. Immersive VR distraction reduces subjective pain intensity induced by multimodal experimental nociception. Subjects who report less anxiety, more fun, more VR presence, and more positive emotional valence during VR distraction are more likely to report subjective pain reduction. These findings indicate VR distraction analgesia may be mediated through anxiolytic, attentional, and/or affective mechanisms.

  16. Effect of surface treatment on the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as a bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Meijun; Zhang, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    The bipolar plate is an important component of the PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) because it supplies the pathway of electron flow between each unit cell. Fe–Ni–Cr alloy is considered as a good candidate material for bipolar plate, but it is limited to use as a bipolar plate due to its high ICR (interfacial contact resistance) and corrosion problem. In order to explore a cost-effective method on surface modification, various chemical and electrochemical treatments are performed on Fe–Ni–Cr alloy to acquire the effect of the surface modification on the ICR and corrosion behavior. The ICR and corrosion resistance of Fe–Ni–Cr alloy can be effectively controlled by the chemical treatment of immersion in the mixed acid solution with 10 vol% HNO 3 , 2 vol% HCl and 1 vol% HF for 10 min at 65 °C and then was placed in 30 vol% HNO 3 solution for 5 min. The chemical treatment is more effective on reducing ICR and improving corrosion resistance than that of electrochemical methods (be carried out in the 2 mol/L H 2 SO 4 solution with the electrical potential from −0.4 V to 0.6 V) for Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as a bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. - Highlights: • The procedure of the surface treatments on Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as bipolar plate was described in detail. • Effects of various surface treatments on the interfacial contact resistivity and corrosion behavior were discussed. • The mechanism of the surface modification was particularly analyzed

  17. Rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation in upper mantle flow near plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Donna; Castelnau, Olivier; Dawson, Paul; Boyce, Donald

    2016-04-01

    Observations of anisotropy provide insight into upper mantle processes. Flow-induced mineral alignment provides a link between mantle deformation patterns and seismic anisotropy. Our study focuses on the rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation (CPO), which develops during mantle flow, in order to assess whether corresponding anisotropic viscosity could significantly impact the pattern of flow. We employ a coupled nonlinear numerical method to link CPO and the flow model via a local viscosity tensor field that quantifies the stress/strain-rate response of a textured mineral aggregate. For a given flow field, the CPO is computed along streamlines using a self-consistent texture model and is then used to update the viscosity tensor field. The new viscosity tensor field defines the local properties for the next flow computation. This iteration produces a coupled nonlinear model for which seismic signatures can be predicted. Results thus far confirm that CPO can impact flow pattern by altering rheology in directionally-dependent ways, particularly in regions of high flow gradient. Multiple iterations run for an initial, linear stress/strain-rate case (power law exponent n=1) converge to a flow field and CPO distribution that are modestly different from the reference, scalar viscosity case. Upwelling rates directly below the spreading axis are slightly reduced and flow is focused somewhat toward the axis. Predicted seismic anisotropy differences are modest. P-wave anisotropy is a few percent greater in the flow 'corner', near the spreading axis, below the lithosphere and extending 40-100 km off axis. Predicted S-wave splitting differences would be below seafloor measurement limits. Calculations with non-linear stress/strain-rate relation, which is more realistic for olivine, indicate that effects are stronger than for the linear case. For n=2-3, the distribution and strength of CPO for the first iteration are greater than for n=1, although the fast seismic

  18. [Pleasure in nursing technicians working at an emergency unit of a public university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alessandra Bassalobre; Dellaroza, Mara Solange Gomes; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Pachemshy, Luiza Rita

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to reveal the main aspects of the work process and feelings of pleasure experienced by nursing technicians who work at an emergency unit in Paraná, Brazil. The theoretical basis is the psychodynamics of work. This is a qualitative and descriptive study. Data were collected and analyzed using a semi-structured interview and the content analysis technique. Subjects were selected using a snowball sampling. Important aspects of the work process were revealed such as the unpredictability of working in an emergency unit, the impact of team work, and the comprehensive care model as a precursor to humanized care. Pleasure originates from the acknowledgement of their work either by the working subject him/herself by patients or society; and from the team work, realized by the cooperation among professionals. Feelings of pleasure are linked to the acknowledgment of their work, which should be valued since gratification contributes to the psychological health of workers.

  19. Women in nursing teams: organizational identification and experiences of pleasure and suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the degree of influence of the organizational identification on the experiences of pleasure and suffering of women who are members of the nursing staff of two general hospitals in Belo Horizonte. METHOD: a quantitative study was conducted with 97 nurses and 414 nursing technicians chosen by convenience in their workplaces. We used a self-administered questionnaire containing four Likert-type scales: self and hetero-perceptions; identification with the organization; and experiences of pleasure and pain at work. RESULTS: the structural relations explained a small percentage of the variability of organizational identification, showing that the self and hetero-perception are presented as relevant factors in professional identification with the organization. When considering how much the self and the hetero-perception and organizational identification all together impact in the experiences of pleasure and pain, a higher explanatory power is observed for: professional exhaustion, lack of recognition, freedom of expression and professional achievement.

  20. [Pleasure-suffering indicators of nursing work in a hemodialysis nursing service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Francine Cassol; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Silva, Rosângela Marion da

    2015-06-01

    To measure the pleasure and suffering indicators at work and relate them to the socio-demographic and employment characteristics of the nursing staff in a hemodialysis center in southern Brazil. Quantitative research, with 46 workers. We used a self-completed form with demographic and labor data and the Pleasure and Suffering Indicators at Work Scale (PSIWS). We conducted a bivariate and correlation descriptive analysis with significance levels of 5% using the Epi-Info® and PredictiveAnalytics Software programs. Freedom of Speech was considered critical; other factors were evaluated as satisfactory. The results revealed a possible association between sociodemographic characteristics and work, and pleasure and suffering indicators. There was a correlation between the factors evaluated. Despite the satisfactory evaluation, suffering is present in the studied context, expressed mainly by a lack of Freedom of Speech, with the need for interventions to prevent injury to the health of workers.

  1. Pleasure-suffering indicators of nursing work in a hemodialysis nursing service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Cassol Prestes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To measure the pleasure and suffering indicators at work and relate them to the socio-demographic and employment characteristics of the nursing staff in a hemodialysis center in southern Brazil. METHOD Quantitative research, with 46 workers. We used a self-completed form with demographic and labor data and the Pleasure and Suffering Indicators at Work Scale (PSIWS. We conducted a bivariate and correlation descriptive analysis with significance levels of 5% using the Epi-Info® and PredictiveAnalytics Software programs. RESULTS Freedom of Speech was considered critical; other factors were evaluated as satisfactory. The results revealed a possible association between sociodemographic characteristics and work, and pleasure and suffering indicators. There was a correlation between the factors evaluated. CONCLUSION Despite the satisfactory evaluation, suffering is present in the studied context, expressed mainly by a lack of Freedom of Speech, with the need for interventions to prevent injury to the health of workers.

  2. Effect of Thickness on Oxidation Behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 using Arc Ion Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Sun Jin [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Ever since the Fukushima accident, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) has been widely studied. To increase the life time and safety of nuclear claddings, there are increasing demands for protective coatings exhibiting excellent oxidation resistance. Many metal and oxide films are produced by using this method because of the high kinetic energy of the ions, ionization efficiency and deposition rate. Candidate materials for a protective layer have higher thermal neutron absorption cross sections than Zr. However, there is no systematic study of thickness effect on oxidation resistance of protective layer. In this study, Cr films with different thickness (from 1 μm to 50 μm) were deposited on the cladding surfaces by AIP. The high temperature oxidation resistance of Cr films with different thicknesses has been investigated. Uniform oxide layer with nanoporous structures have been fabricated on the surface of Zr-Nb-Sn alloy. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA).

  3. Effect of analysis parameters on non-linear implicit finite element analysis of marine corroded steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Rabiul; Sakib-Ul-Alam, Md.; Nazat, Kazi Kaarima; Hassan, M. Munir

    2017-12-01

    FEA results greatly depend on analysis parameters. MSC NASTRAN nonlinear implicit analysis code has been used in large deformation finite element analysis of pitted marine SM490A steel rectangular plate. The effect of two types actual pit shape on parameters of integrity of structure has been analyzed. For 3-D modeling, a proposed method for simulation of pitted surface by probabilistic corrosion model has been used. The result has been verified with the empirical formula proposed by finite element analysis of steel surface generated with different pitted data where analyses have been carried out by the code of LS-DYNA 971. In the both solver, an elasto-plastic material has been used where an arbitrary stress versus strain curve can be defined. In the later one, the material model is based on the J2 flow theory with isotropic hardening where a radial return algorithm is used. The comparison shows good agreement between the two results which ensures successful simulation with comparatively less energy and time.

  4. Effect of static mixer on the performance of compact plate heat exchanger with zwitterionic type of drag-reducing additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, C.; Wollerstrand, J.

    1997-06-01

    The main task of the project was to investigate the influence of drag-reducing additives (DRA) dissolved in circulating hot water on heat transfer in compact plate heat exchangers (PHE). Furthermore the result of flow disturbance (static mixing) immediately before the PHE on pressure drop and heat transfer was clarified. The project used a new type of DRA (surfactants of zwitterionic type) for two different temperature ranges. A dedicated test rig, `Ansgar`, was built for the purpose. Good thermal and mechanical stability also outside the operating range was observed except some sensitivity for water hardness at high temperatures for DRA2. Similarly to known investigations, the heat transfer coefficient was significantly reduced by DRA in heat exchangers. In PHE used however, the heat transfer reduction was considerably lower in the high flow region. A static mixer placed in front of the PHE was found to significantly improve heat transfer, especially at high flow rates. On the other hand, an additional pressure drop was introduced. Therefore the optimal choice of static mixer needs further investigation. Specially designed PHE combining mixing and heat transfer functions could be beneficial to reducing the effects of additives in thermal systems. The relaxation time (RT) of drag-reducing additives in water solutions flowing through test pipes with known geometries was estimated by monitoring specific pressure drop variation along the pipe. These preliminary experiments in respect to relaxation time showed that RT depends on the flow rate and on the temperature 12 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  5. Effects of graphene plates' adoption on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of calcium silicate coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youtao; Li, Hongqin; Ding, Chuanxian; Zheng, Xuebin; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate (CS) ceramic is a good coating candidate for biomedical implants to improve biocompatibility and accelerate early osseointegration. However, the poor fracture toughness and wear resistance of this ceramic material restricts the long-term performance of implants. In this study, graphene plates (GPs) were used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of CS coating. Composite coating containing 1.5 weight % GPs was prepared by vacuum plasma spraying technology. The good survival of the GPs in the composite coating was demonstrated by Raman analysis, although the defects of the GPs were increased after plasma spraying. Effects of the GPs' adoption on the microstructure of the coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the GPs were homogenously distributed in the CS grains interface or enwrapped on the particles, and exhibited good wetting behavior with the CS matrix. The wear properties of the composite coating were obviously enhanced by the reinforcement of GPs. The reinforcement mechanism was attributed to the enhanced micro-hardness and interfacial bonding of the particles in the coating. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the composite coating possessed similarly good biocompatibility compared to pure CS coating. The bone-implant contact ratio reached 84.3%±7.4% for GPs/CS coating and 79.6%±9.4% for CS coating after 3 months' implantation.

  6. Effect of dimensional error of metallic bipolar plate on the GDL pressure distribution in the PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong' an; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-01-15

    Recently, the metallic bipolar plate (BPP) has received considerable attention because of its advantageous electrical and mechanical properties. In this study, a methodology based on FEA model and Monte Carlo simulation is developed to investigate the effect of dimensional error of the metallic BPP on the pressure distribution of gas diffusion layer (GDL). At first, a parameterized FEA model of metallic BPP/GDL assembly is established, and heights of the channel and rib are considered to be randomly varying parameters of normal distribution due to the dimensional error. Then, GDL pressure distributions with different dimensional errors are obtained respectively based on the Monte Carlo simulation, and the desirability function method is employed to evaluate them. At last, a regression equation between the GDL pressure distribution and the dimensional error is modeled. With the regression equation, the allowed maximum dimensional error for the metallic BPP is calculated. The methodology in this study can be applied to guide the design and manufacturing of the metallic BPP. (author)

  7. Investigation on effect of laser shock processing on fatigue crack initiation and its growth in aluminum alloy plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Q.; Li, H.; Yu, X.L.; Zhou, Y.; Duan, S.W.; Li, S.Z.; Huang, Z.L.; Zuo, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LSP can greatly delay crack formation. • The micro-crack growing processes and its fracture are showed clearly. • Surface topographies and crack initiation locations are displayed. - Abstract: A series of contrasting experiments were carried out to examine the effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on fatigue properties of slot in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Both side surfaces of slot were subjected to LSP. The surface topographies were observed and the residual stresses were tested. The treated and the un-treated specimens were pulled by the fatigue cyclic loading respectively. The fatigue crack propagating processes were recorded, and the fatigue fracture microscopic morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experimental results and analyses show that LSP induces micro-dent on surface and squeezes the compressive residual stresses into surface layer of specimen. It can remarkably delay the micro-crack formation, and transfer the location of fatigue crack initiation from top surface to sub-surface. The spacing of fatigue striations on the treated specimen fatigue fracture obviously decreases. Therefore, the fatigue life of specimen after LSP treatment significantly increases

  8. Environmental dosimetry of radon-222 and daughters: measurement of absolute calibration factors of CR-39 considering the plate-out effects and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulo, S.R. de.

    1991-08-01

    The subject of this work concerns with the measurement of absolute calibration factors for the use of CR-39 as an absolute detector in indoor and daughters monitoring. Up to now the usefulness of calibration factors was restricted to environmental conditions equal (or very close) to those worthing during their determinations. This fact is consequence of the difficulties related to the understanding of the plate-out properties of radon daughters activity in the air. The plate-out effects on radon daughters monitoring performed by SSNTDs are studied. Our experimental results are in agreement with those of other authors about the great sensitivity of CR-39 to the plate-out effects, fact that recommended its use in this work. Being succeeded in the employment of CR-39 as an alpha-spectrometer we concluded that some important information (like the radon daughters deposition rates on the walls of an environment) can be achieved. The knowledge about the behavior of plate-out made possible the determination of the ranges in zenithal angle and energy where CR-39 can detect alpha-particles with efficiency of 100%, at our conditions of track observation. In this way, we obtained calibration factors for CR-39 that are weakly dependent on environmental conditions. We think that these results can contribute to the improvement of RD (Radiation Detector) detection techniques. (author). 159 refs, 106 figs, 05 tabs

  9. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  10. Things online social networking can take away: Reminders of social networking sites undermine the desirability of offline socializing and pleasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiang-Shiang; Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-04-01

    People are beginning to develop symbiotic relationships with social networking sites (SNSs), which provide users with abundant opportunities for social interaction. We contend that if people perceive SNSs as sources of social connection, the idea of SNSs may reduce the desire to pursue offline social activities and offline pleasures. Experiment 1 demonstrated that priming with SNSs was associated with a weakened desirability of offline social activities and an increased inclination to work alone. Felt relatedness mediated the link between SNS primes and reduced desire to engage in offline social activities. Experiment 2 showed that exposure to SNS primes reduced the desirability of offline socializing and lowered the desire for offline pleasurable experiences as well. Moreover, heavy users were more susceptible to this detrimental effect. We provide the first experimental evidence that the idea of online social networking may modulate users' engagement in offline social activities and offline pleasures. Hence, online social networking may satisfy the need for relatedness but undercut the likelihood of reaping enjoyment from offline social life. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Finite-span rotating flat-plate wings at low reynolds number and the effects of aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Zakery R.

    In the complex and dangerous environments of the modern warrior and emergency professional, the small size, maneuverability, and stealth of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs), scaled to the size of large insects or hummingbirds, has the potential to provide previously inaccessible levels of situational awareness, reconnaissance capability, and flexibility directly to the front lines. Although development of such an efficient, autonomous, and capable MAV is years away, there are immediate contributions that can be made to the fundamental science of the flapping-wing-type propulsion that makes MAVs so attractive. This investigation contributes to those fundamentals by considering the unsteady vortex dynamics problem of a rigid, rectangular flat plate at a fixed angle of attack rotating from rest---a simplified hovering half-stroke. Parameters are chosen to be biologically-relevant and relevant to MAVs operating at Reynolds numbers of O (103), and experiments are performed in a 50% by mass glycerin-water mixture. These experiments use novel application of methodologies verified by rigorous uncertainty analysis. The overall objective is to understand the vortex formation and forces as well as aspect ratio ( AR) effects. Of interest is the overall, time-varying, three-dimensional vortex structure obtained qualitatively from dye visualization and quantitatively from volumes reconstructed using planar stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (S-DPIV) measurements. The velocity information from S-DPIV also allows statements to be made on leading-edge vortex (LEV) stability, spanwise flow, LEV and tip-vortex (TV) circulation, and numerous circulation scalings. Force measurements are made and the lift coefficient is discussed in the context of the flow structure, the dimensional lift and the ability to relate velocity and force measurements going forward. AR effects is a topic of continued interest to those performing MAV-related research and also a primary

  12. Numerical investigation of the effects of compressibility on the flutter of a cantilevered plate in an inviscid, subsonic, open flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colera, Manuel; Pérez-Saborid, Miguel

    2018-06-01

    We have carried out a numerical study of the influence of the upstream Mach number on the flutter of a two-dimensional, cantilevered, flexible plate subject to a subsonic, inviscid, open flow. We have assumed a linear elastic model for the plate and that the fluid flow is governed by the linearized potential theory. The fluid equations are solved with a novel frequency-domain, finite differences method to obtain the generalized aerodynamic forces as a function of the plate displacements. Then, these generalized forces are coupled to the equation of motion of the plate and an eigenvalue analysis is performed to find the flutter point. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of related theoretical and experimental studies found in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, the analysis performed here is the first self-consistent, parametric study of the influence of the compressibility on the flutter point of a two-dimensional cantilevered plate in subsonic flow.

  13. 19 CFR 10.36a - Vehicles, pleasure boats and aircraft brought in for repair or alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aircraft brought in for repair or alteration. (a) A vehicle (such as an automobile, truck, bus, motorcycle... vehicle, pleasure boat, or aircraft for repair or alteration (as defined in §§ 10.8, 10.490, 10.570, and... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vehicles, pleasure boats and aircraft brought in...

  14. "I Felt Like I Was Watching Porn": The Reality of Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Teach about Sexual Pleasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollis, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, school-based sexuality education programmes focus on the prevention of infection, pregnancy and abuse, with little if any attention given to positive views of sexuality and rarely the inclusion of sex positive issues such as pleasure, intimacy and desire. This paper explores the experience of teaching about pleasure to pre-service…

  15. Getting a line on commercial advertising : a bio-informational approach to study pleasure and arousal reactions to ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, K.; Dewitte, S.

    2008-01-01

    The bio-informational theory of emotion contends that pleasure and arousal reactions are organized around two universal motivational systems: an appetitive and a defensive motivational system. This paper posits that the appetitive motivation, reflected by a tight linear relation between pleasure and

  16. Effects of the shape of the foil corners on the irradiation performance of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaltun, Hakan [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-06-01

    Monolithic plate-type fuel is a fuel form being developed for high performance research and test reactors to minimize the use of enriched material. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U-Mo alloy based fuel foil, sandwiched between Zirconium liners and encapsulated in Aluminum cladding. The use of a high density fuel in a foil form presents a number of fabrication and operational concerns, such as: foil centering, flatness of the foil, fuel thickness variation, geometrical tilting, foil corner shape etc. To benchmark this new design, effects of various geometrical and operational variables on irradiation performance have been evaluated. As a part of these series of sensitivity studies, the shape of the foil corners were studied. To understand the effects of the corner shapes of the foil on thermo-mechanical performance of the plates, a behavioral model was developed for a selected plate from RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P785). Both fabrication and irradiation processes were simulated. Once the thermo-mechanical behavior the plate is understood for the nominal case, the simulations were repeated for two additional corner shapes to observe the changes in temperature, displacement and stress-strain fields. The results from the fabrication simulations indicated that the foil corners do not alter the post-fabrication stress-strain magnitudes. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations revealed that post-fabrication stresses of the foil would be relieved very quickly in operation. While, foils with chamfered and filleted corners yielded stresses with comparable magnitudes, they are slightly lower in magnitudes, and provided a more favorable mechanical response compared with the foil with sharp corners.

  17. [EFFECTIVENESS COMPARISON OF CORACOCLAVICULAR LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION BETWEEN BY AUTOLOGOUS AND ALLOGENEIC TENDON GRAFTS COMBINED WITH HOOK PLATE FIXATION FOR TREATING ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT DISLOCATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Sun, Zhenzhong; Wei, Xuming; Liu, Xueguang; Zhou, Ming; Zhuang, Yin; Song, Sheng

    2016-05-08

    To compare the effectiveness of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction between by using autologous plantaris tendon graft combined with hook plate fixation and allogeneic tendon graft combined with hook plate fixation for treating acromiocavicular joint dislocation. Thirty-three patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation who accorded with the inclusion criteria between January 2013 and June 2014 were assigned into 2 groups. The patients were treated with autologous plantaris tendon graft combined with hook plate fixation in group A ( n =17), and with allogeneic tendon graft combined with hook plate fixation in group B ( n =16). Thirteen-one patients was followed up more than 12 months (15 in group A and 16 in group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, sides, time between injury and surgery, and type of dislocation ( P >0.05). The assessments included operation time, hospitalization time, hospitalization expenses, shoulder range of motion, gap of acromioclavicular, Constant-Murley scores, and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. The operation time of group A was significantly longer than that of group B, and the hospitalization expense was significantly lower than that of group B ( P 0.05). No redislocation of acromioclavicular joint and rejection reaction occurred during follow-up. At last follow-up, there was no significant difference in shoulder range of motion, Constant-Murley score, and VAS score between 2 groups ( P >0.05). Coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction by autologous plantaris tendon or allogeneic tendon graft combined with hook plate fixation for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation can achieve good effectiveness. The appropriate treatment should be chosen according to the patient's economic situation.

  18. A six-well plate method: less laborious and effective method for cultivation of obligate anaerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kohei; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kang, Myung Suk; Mochimaru, Hanako; Lee, Sung-Taik; Nakamura, Kazunori; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    We developed a simple, less laborious method to cultivate and isolate obligate anaerobic microorganisms using a six-well plate together with the AnaeroPack System, designated as the six-well plate method. The cultivation efficiency of this method, based on colony-forming units, colony formation time, and colony size, was evaluated with four authentic obligate anaerobes (two methanogenic archaea and two sulfate-reducing bacteria). The method was found to be comparable to or even better than the roll tube method, a technique that is commonly used at present for the cultivation of obligate anaerobes. Further experiments using 21 representative obligate anaerobes demonstrated that all examined anaerobes (11 methanogens, 5 sulfate- or thiosulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 syntrophs) could form visible colonies on the six-well plate and that these colonies could be successfully subcultured in fresh liquid media. Using this method, an unidentified sulfate-reducing bacterium was successfully isolated from an environmental sample.

  19. Analytical and numerical stability analysis of Soret-driven convection in a horizontal porous layer: the effect of conducting bounding plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B; Khouzam, A; Mojtabi, A [Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Charrier-Mojtabi, M C, E-mail: bouattar@imft.fr, E-mail: akhouzam@imft.fr, E-mail: mojtabi@imft.fr, E-mail: cmojtabi@cict.fr [PHASE, EA 810, UFR PCA, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France)

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conducting boundaries on the onset of convection in a binary fluid-saturated porous layer. The isotropic saturated porous layer is bounded by two impermeable but thermally conducting plates, subjected to a constant heat flux. These plates have identical conductivity. Moreover, the conductivity of the plates is generally different from the porous layer conductivity. The overall layer is of large extent in both horizontal directions. The problem is governed by seven dimensionless parameters, namely the normalized porosity of the medium {epsilon}, the ratio of plates over the porous layer thickness {delta} and their relative thermal conductivities ratio d, the separation ratio {delta}, the Lewis number Le and thermal Rayleigh number Ra. In this work, an analytical and numerical stability analysis is performed. The equilibrium solution is found to lose its stability via a stationary bifurcation or a Hopf bifurcation depending on the values of the dimensionless parameters. For the long-wavelength mode, the critical Rayleigh number is obtained as Ra{sub cs}=12(1+2d{delta} )/[1+{psi} (2d{delta}Le+Le+1)] and k{sub cs}=0 for {psi}> {psi} {sub uni}> 0. This work extends an earlier paper by Mojtabi and Rees (2011 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 54 293-301) who considered a configuration where the porous layer is saturated by a pure fluid.

  20. [Effectiveness comparison of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator and double plate internal fixation in treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Xu; Zhong, Zeli; Wu, Chao; Tan, Lun

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator with double plate internal fixation in the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures. Between January 2014 and April 2016, 30 patients with type C (Association for the Study of Internal Fixation, AO/ASIF) humeral intercondylar fractures were treated. Kirschner wire suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator was used in 14 cases (group A), and double plate internal fixation in 16 cases (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury cause, disease duration, injury side, and type of fracture between 2 groups ( P >0.05). There was no significant difference in operation time and hospitalization stay between 2 groups ( P >0.05). But the intraoperative blood loss in group A was significantly less than that in group B ( P internal fixation removal, the intraoperative blood loss, and VAS score at 1 day and 3 days after operation in group A were significant better than those in group B ( P external fixator and double plate internal fixation for the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures have ideal outcome in elbow function. But the suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator is better than double plate internal fixation in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative VAS score, and time of internal fixation removal.

  1. Microstructure Evolution During Stainless Steel-Copper Vacuum Brazing with a Ag/Cu/Pd Filler Alloy: Effect of Nickel Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Laik, A.; Mishra, P.

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum brazing of stainless steel and copper plates was done using a silver-based filler alloy. In one set of experiments, around 30-µm-thick nickel coatings were electrochemically applied on stainless steel plates before carrying out the brazing runs and its effect in making changes in the braze-zone microstructure was studied. For brazing temperature of 830 °C, scanning electron microscopy examination of the braze-zone revealed that relatively sound joints were obtained when brazing was done with nickel-coated stainless steel than with uncoated one. However, when brazing of nickel-coated stainless steel and copper plates was done at 860 °C, a wide crack appeared in the braze-zone adjacent to copper side. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and electron microprobe analysis confirmed that at higher temperature, the diffusion of Cu atoms from copper plate towards the braze-zone was faster than that of Ni atoms from nickel coating. Helium leak rate of the order 10-11 Pa m3/s was obtained for the crack-free joint, whereas this value was higher than 10-4 Pa m3/s for the joint having crack. The shear strength of the joint was found to decrease considerably due to the presence of crack.

  2. Use of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for Studying Standing Static Balance Control: Technical Considerations, Force-Plate Congruency, and the Effect of Battery Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Tyler B; Ma, Christine; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-02-01

    The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has become popular as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates. The purposes of this study were to characterize a series of technical specifications for the WBB, to compare balance control metrics derived from time-varying center of pressure (COP) signals collected simultaneously from a WBB and a research-grade force plate, and to investigate the effects of battery life. Drift, linearity, hysteresis, mass accuracy, uniformity of response, and COP accuracy were assessed from a WBB. In addition, 6 participants completed an eyes-closed quiet standing task on the WBB (at 3 battery life levels) mounted on a force plate while sway was simultaneously measured by both systems. Characterization results were all associated with less than 1% error. R 2 values reflecting WBB sensor linearity were > .99. Known and measured COP differences were lowest at the center of the WBB and greatest at the corners. Between-device differences in quiet stance COP summary metrics were of limited clinical significance. Lastly, battery life did not affect WBB COP accuracy, but did influence 2 of 8 quiet stance WBB parameters. This study provides general support for the WBB as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates for quantifying COP movement during standing.

  3. Cranioplasty using presurgically fabricated presterilised polymethyl methacrylate plate by a simple, cost-effective technique on patients with and without original bone flap: study on 29 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharavanan, G M; Jayabalan, Suresh; Rajasukumaran, K; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Sathya, G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of presurgically fabricated pre-sterilized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate as a cranioplasty material. The study group consisted of 29 patients with skull defect following decompressive craniectomy. Some patients had their original bone flap preserved and some were without it. In either group pre-sterilized prefabricated PMMA plate was used. On each visit, patients were clinically assessed; CT scans were taken in immediate follow up period but if needed more films were taken in subsequent follow ups. Post-op complications that include infection, post-op hematoma, chronic pain, aesthetic, biocompatibility, post-op dimensional changes of prosthesis were evaluated. Mean follow up was 7 1/2 months. Five patients developed swelling and pain in the subsequent follow ups. One patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics. Tapping was performed in couple of patients. Surgical evacuation of hematoma was performed in one patient. Of the five infected plates, one demanded removal from the patient. One complained of chronic pain. Post-op follow up assessed clinically and by CT scan confirmed good aesthetic result, biocompatibility and dimensional stability of prosthesis. The result of this study support the view that the use of prefabricated pre-sterilized PMMA plate as cranioplasty material is a simple, reliable, convenient way that brings acceptable function and aesthetics to patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy, in an inexpensive way.

  4. Study on the Effect of the Impact Location and the Type of Hammer Tip on the Frequency Response Function (FRF) in Experimental Modal Analysis of Rectangular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, K. D.; Singru, P. M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work effect of the impact location and the type of hammer tip on the frequency response function (FRF) is studied. Experimental modal analysis of rectangular plates is carried out for this purpose by using impact hammer, accelerometer and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzer. It is observed that the impulse hammer hit location has, no effect on the eigenfrequency, yet a difference in amplitude of the eigenfrequencies is obtained. The effect of the hammer tip on the pulse and the force spectrum is studied for three types of tips metal, plastic and rubber. A solid rectangular plate was excited by using these tips one by one in three different tests. It is observed that for present experimental set up plastic tip excites the useful frequency range.

  5. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. Hard-magnetic surface layer effect on the erbium orthoferrite plate domain structure in the region of gradual spin reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, A.I.; Vojtsenya, S.V.; Yur'ev, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Rearrangement of domain structures in the erbium orthoferrite plates with hard-magnetic surface layer is investigated during gradual spin reorientation. This phenomenon is explained by means of the proposed physical models. It is shown that in these plates an approach to the temperature interval of spin reorientation causes a decrease in the density of energy of domain walls separating the internal and surface domains. This decrease results in transition to the domain structure which are close to equilibrium ones inside the crystal. 30 refs.; 4 figs

  7. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  8. Thin-plate spline analysis of the short- and long-term effects of rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Cameron, Christopher G; Kutcipal, Elizabeth A; McNamara, James A

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the shape of the maxillary and circummaxillary structures by means of thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. The sample consisted of 42 patients who were compared with a control sample of 20 subjects. The treated subjects underwent Haas-type RME, followed by fixed appliance therapy. Postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms were analysed for each treated subject at T1 (pre-treatment), T2 (immediate post-expansion), and T3 (long-term observation), and were available at T1 and T3 for the control group (CG). The mean age at T1 was 11 years and 10 months for both groups. The mean chronological ages at T3 were 20 years, 6 months for the treated group (TG) and 17 years, 8 months for the control group. The study focused on shape changes in the maxillary, nasal, zygomatic, and orbital regions. TPS analysis revealed significant shape changes in the TG. They consisted of an upward and lateral displacement of the two halves of the naso-maxillary complex as a result of active expansion in the short-term, and normalization of maxillary shape in the transverse dimension in the long-term (the initial transverse deficiency of the maxilla in the treated group was eliminated by RME therapy both in the short- and long-term). At the end of the observation period, the nasal cavities were larger when compared with both their pre-expansion configuration and the final configuration in the controls. RME with the Haas appliance appears to be an efficient therapeutic means to induce permanent favourable changes in the shape of the naso-maxillary complex.

  9. Clinical Effect of Acute Complete Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation Treated with Micro-Movable and Anatomical Acromioclavicular Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingjun; Miao, Jianyun; Lin, Bin; Guo, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the long-term clinical results of acute complete acromioclavicular dislocations treated with micro-movable and anatomical acromioclavicular plate. Methods: Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using the MAAP in 16 patients (10 males, 6 females; mean age 36 years; range16 to 63 years) with acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Radiographic evaluations were routinely conducted every 3 weeks until 3 months postoperatively. The MAAP were removed under local anesthesia after 3 months postoperatively. We evaluated the functional results by using the constant scoring system and radiological results in the last follow-up time. The mean follow up was 26 months (range 16 to 38 months). Results: The mean Constant score was 94 (range, 78 to 100). The results were excellent in 12 patients (75.0%), good in 3 patients (18.8%) and satisfactory in 1patient (6.2%). Three patients with scores of 80 to 90 had mild pain during activity, but have not affected the shoulder range of motion. One patient has both some pain and limited range of motion of shoulder joint. All patients but one have returned to their preoperative work without any limitations. Compared to the contralateral side, radiography showed anatomical reposition in the vertical plane in 14 cases, slight loss of reduction in 2 older patients. Conclusion: We recommend the MAAP fixation for surgical treatment of acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation as it could provide satisfactory shoulder functions and clinical results, with lower complication rate. However, it is necessary to continue to observe the clinical effects of this fixation technique. PMID:23091410

  10. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K. L.; Takahara, A. [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J., E-mail: hjsue@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Miyamoto, M. [Kaneka US Materials Research Center, Kaneka America Holdings, Inc., College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.

  11. "It feels so good it almost hurts": young adults' experiences of orgasm and sexual pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Emily; Braun, Virginia; Clarke, Victoria; Rogers, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    Orgasm is a "goal" of much sexual activity, and a source of potentially intense pleasure and fulfillment, yet can be fraught with difficulty or distress. Relatively little social science research has explored people's experiences around, and their meanings related to, orgasm, and indeed other sexual pleasures, especially with young adults. This study aimed to provide a rich exploration of the meanings associated with orgasm and sexual pleasure during sex with a partner, to understand the social patterning of orgasm experience. A qualitative survey was used to collect data from 119 sexually experienced British young adults (81% women, mean age 20, 92% heterosexual). A descriptive form of thematic analysis that prioritizes participants' meanings and experiences was used to identify and explore patterns in the data. Five main themes are reported here: (a) orgasm: the purpose and end of sex; (b) "it's more about my partner's orgasm"; (c) orgasm: the ultimate pleasure?; (d) orgasm is not a simple physiological response; and (e) faking orgasm is not uncommon. These (mostly not gendered) themes demonstrate the complex and contradictory meanings around orgasm, and reveal meaning to be dependent on situation and context. However, they do resonate strongly with widespread discourses of sexuality that prioritize heterosexual coitus, orgasm, and orgasm reciprocity.

  12. Why We Like to Watch Sad Films : The Pleasure of Being Moved in Aesthetic Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Wagner, Valentin; Shah, Mira; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    This article investigates an age-old, puzzling question: how can a negatively valenced emotion such as sadness go together with aesthetic liking and even pleasure? We propose that an answer to this question must take into account the feeling of being moved, a complex emotional state that plays a

  13. The Disciplinary and Pleasurable Spaces of Boys' PE--The Art of Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    In taking heed of the so-called "spatial turn" in social theory this paper explores how the spatial intersects with boys' performances of gender and (dis)pleasures in school physical education (PE). In particular, the paper aims to contribute to our understanding of how the organisation and implementation of physical and social spaces in…

  14. Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…

  15. [Work as a source of pleasure: evaluating a Psychosocial Care Center team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzner, Cecília Helena; Olschowsky, Agnes; Kantorski, Luciane Prado

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pleasure at work felt by the members of a Psychosocial Care Center team. This qualitative case study used Forth Generation Evaluation. This study was performed in Foz do Iguaçu, Parana, Brazil, in November and December 2006. Participants were 10 tem members. Data collection was performed through observation and individual interviews. The analysis was initiated at the same time as the data collection, and the final analysis was performed as per the following steps: data ordering, classification and final analysis. The following analysis themes were developed: work characteristics at the psychological care center, suffering and coping with suffering at work. During the evaluation, the participants showed pleasure and fulfillment with their work by expressing pride, fulfillment and appreciation of what they deliver. Pleasure occurs during the development of psychosocial care, because they always have the freedom to rearrange their manner of working, making possible to develop activities and attitudes capable of giving them pleasure.

  16. DESIRE AND PLEASURE IN THE BRANDED REALITY SHOW AS A DISCURSIVE PSYCHOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of branded reality show is still very limited, especially in the perspective of discursive psychoanalysis. In fact, the phenomenon of reality show is currently growing in the television industry, so brands are inspired to create similar programs. This paper aims to analyze the desire and pleasure of success are presented and disclosed by branded reality show ‘Diplomat Success Challenge’ on a national TV channel in Indonesia. Using discursive psychoanalysis method in the Lacanian perspective, author found that participants in the ‘Diplomat Success Challenge’ saw competitors (other participants as ‘other’ in imaginary phase which is the object of desire in having the pleasure of success, while the audience used the praticipants as reflection of their desire and pleasure of success. There are two tendencies of the spectatorship style in responding to the discourse. In one hand the audiences tend to be more emphatic and figural, while on the other hand they tend to be more logic and systematic. In addition, the desire and pleasure of success in the ‘Diplomat Success Challenge’ becomes a powerful discourse that alienated negative issues related to the Diplomat as a tobacco product brand. Thus, the politics of reality through a discourse of success in the branded reality show has successfully infiltrated into the subconscious and control the public consciousness.

  17. The Oblique Art of Shoes: Popular Culture, Aesthetic Pleasure, and the Humanities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, C.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses popular culture and the humanities. It uses shoes as an object of analysis to interrogate the place and function of aesthetic pleasure in critical thinking and cultural practice in the age of globalization and the neoliberal university. Tracking contemporary articulations of

  18. Getting to the Good Stuff: Adopting a Pleasure Framework for Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    deFur, Kirsten M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexuality professionals have consistently identified the need to incorporate the topics of pleasure and desire into sexuality education programs; however, that has yet to be realized in most settings. Sexuality education has traditionally been rooted in preventing disease and pregnancy rather than promoting healthy sexual development. There is a…

  19. Forbidden fruit and forbidden pleasures: Interpersonal and intergroup schadenfreude following the exclusion of bad apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Wilco W.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Pennekamp, S.F.; Spears, R.

    2005-01-01

    When other people are socially excluded or ostracized our reaction is often one of sympathy and compassion. However, we may also experience what Germans have termed Schadenfreude (i.e., pleasure in another’s misfortune). Which of these two emotional reactions will occur is arguably dependent on the

  20. The human sexual response cycle: brain imaging evidence linking sex to other pleasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, J R; Kringelbach, M L

    2012-07-01

    Sexual behavior is critical to species survival, yet comparatively little is known about the neural mechanisms in the human brain. Here we systematically review the existing human brain imaging literature on sexual behavior and show that the functional neuroanatomy of sexual behavior is comparable to that involved in processing other rewarding stimuli. Sexual behavior clearly follows the established principles and phases for wanting, liking and satiety involved in the pleasure cycle of other rewards. The studies have uncovered the brain networks involved in sexual wanting or motivation/anticipation, as well as sexual liking or arousal/consummation, while there is very little data on sexual satiety or post-orgasmic refractory period. Human sexual behavior also interacts with other pleasures, most notably social interaction and high arousal states. We discuss the changes in the underlying brain networks supporting sexual behavior in the context of the pleasure cycle, the changes to this cycle over the individual's life-time and the interactions between them. Overall, it is clear from the data that the functional neuroanatomy of sex is very similar to that of other pleasures and that it is unlikely that there is anything special about the brain mechanisms and networks underlying sex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Keep Calm and Contracept! Addressing Young Women's Pleasure in Sexual Health and Contraception Consultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, Ali; Eastham, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical sexual health consultations with young women often focus on avoiding "risks;" namely pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission. They also typically fail to explore how contraception use can impact on the capacity to enjoy sexual relationships. In contrast, this paper argues that sexual pleasure should be a…

  2. Cinematic Emotion in Horror Films and Thrillers. The Aesthetic Paradox of Pleasurable Fear (paperback edition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Why can fear be pleasurable? Why do we sometimes enjoy an emotion we otherwise desperately wish to avoid? And why are the movies the predominant place for this paradoxical experience? These are the central questions of Julian Hanich’s path-breaking book, in which he takes a detailed look at the

  3. Influence of social connectedness and autonomy on aesthetic pleasure for product designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    to feel connected to and autonomous from their ‘type of people’ and when product designs do they are aesthetically pleasing. From an evolutionary perspective, product designs provide aesthetic pleasure because they help direct beneficial behavior. We argue that people can fulfill their evolutionary

  4. Young Children's Reading for Pleasure with Digital Books: Six Key Facets of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Littleton, Karen; Cremin, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers a new characterisation of young children's (2-8 years) reading for pleasure (RfP) with digital books. This characterisation is rooted in a re-contextualisation of Anna Craft's conceptualisation of twenty-first century childhoods in "Creativity and education futures" (Stoke on Trent, Trentham, 2011) and a review of the…

  5. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora

    2017-06-01

    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  6. Effect of Hall current and chemical reaction on MHD flow along an exponentially accelerated porous flat plate with internal heat absorption/generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Pravat Kumar; Dash, G.C.; Patra, Ajit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Effect of Hall current on the unsteady free convection flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid past an exponentially accelerated vertical porous flat plate with internal heat absorption/generation in the presence of foreign gases (such as H 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, NH 3 ) and chemical reaction has been investigated. An uniform magnetic field transverse to the plate has been applied. The effects of the Hall current m, the hydromagnetic parameter Mt, the chemical reaction parameter K c the Grashof number for heat transfer G r , the Grashof number for mass transfer G c , the Schmidt number S c , the Prandtl number P r and the transpiration parameter α are discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Early biofilm formation and the effects of antimicrobial agents on orthodontic bonding materials in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Busscher, HJ; Evans, R; Noar, J; Pratten, J

    Decalcification is a commonly recognized complication of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A technology, based on a parallel plate flow chamber, was developed to investigate early biofilm formation of a strain of Streptococcus sanguis on the surface of four orthodontic bonding materials:

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Light and Scanning Time Delay on The Image Quality of Intra Oral Photostimulable Phosphor Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Yousefi, Arman; Soheili, Setareh; Ghazikhanloo, Karim; Amini, Payam; Mohammadpoor, Haniyeh

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, digital radiography is widely used in dental practice. One of the most common types is Photo Stimulated Phosphor Plate (PSP). The aims of this experimental study were to evaluate the impacts of different combinations of storage conditions and varying delays in reading of digital images captured using PSPs. Standardized images of a step wedges were obtained using PSPs from the Digora digital systems. Plates were exposed and immediately scanned to produce the baseline gold standard. The plates were re-exposed and stored in four different storage conditions: white light, yellow light, natural light environment and dark room, then scanned after 10 and 30 minutes and 4 and 8 hours. Objective analysis was conducted by density measurements and the data were analyzed statistically using GEE test. Subjective analysis was performed by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists and the results were analyzed using McNemar's test. The results from GEE analysis show that in the natural light environment, the densities in 10 minutes did not differ from the baseline. The mean densities decreased significantly during the time in all environments. The mean densities in step 2 for the dark room environment decreased with a slighter slope in comparison to yellow environment significantly. PSP images showed significant decrease in the density in plates scanned for 10 minutes or longer after exposure which may not be detected clinically. The yellow light environment had a different impact on the quality of PSP images. The spatial resolution did not change significantly with time.

  9. A simple agar plate preparation for effective transfer of Ureaplasma colonies onto nitrocellulose membranes for colony immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Stiedl, Thomas; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate

    2014-09-01

    A simple method for preparing agar plates is presented, which allows an efficient transfer of Ureaplasma colonies to nitrocellulose membranes for subsequent immunological detection. This simple and reproducible procedure was used to demonstrate antigenic variation in the phase-variable mba-locus of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of direct quenching on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the lean-chemistry HSLA-100 steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhua, S.K.; Sen, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Direct-quenched and tempered (DQT) steels gives better mechanical properties. → Fine Cu and Nb (C, N) precipitates enhance matrix strengthening and tempering resistance. → Boron promotes hardenability, but low temperature Charpy impact toughness gets affected. → Mechanical properties equivalent to HSLA-100 steel is achieved by directly quenched leaner chemistry alloys. - Abstract: The influence of direct quenching on structure-property behavior of lean chemistry HSLA-100 steels was studied. Two laboratory heats, one containing Cu and Nb (C:0.052, Mn:0.99, Cu:1.08, Nb:0.043, Cr:0.57, Ni:1.76, Mo:0.55 pct) and the other containing Cu, Nb and B (C:0.04, Mn:1.02, Cu:1.06, Nb:0.036, Cr:0.87, Ni:1.32, Mo:0.41, B:0.002 percent) were hot-rolled into 25 and 12.5 mm thick plates by varying finish-rolling temperatures. The plates were heat-treated by conventional reheat quenching and tempering (RQT), as well as by direct quenching and tempering (DQT) techniques. In general, direct-quench and tempered plates of Nb-Cu heat exhibited good strength (yield strength ∼ 900 MPa) and low-temperature impact toughness (average: 74 J at -85 deg. C); the Charpy V-notch impact energies were marginally lower than conventional HSLA-100 steel. In Nb-Cu-B heat, impact toughness at low-temperature was inferior owing to boron segregation at grain boundaries. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning auger microprobe (SAM) analysis confirmed existence of borocarbides at grain boundaries in this steel. In general, for both the steels, the mechanical properties of the direct-quench and tempered plates were found to be superior to reheat quench and tempered plates. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study revealed presence of fine Cu and Nb (C, N) precipitates in these steels. It was also observed that smaller martensite inter-lath spacing, finer grains and precipitates in direct-quench and tempered plates compared to the reheat quench and tempered plates

  11. [Hunger and satiety factors in the regulation of pleasure associated with feeding behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an instinctive behavior accompanied by rewarding feeling of pleasure during obtaining and ingesting food, corresponding to the preparatory and consummatory phases of motivated behavior, respectively. Perception of this emotional state together with alternating feelings of hunger and satiety drives the feeding behavior. Because alterations of feeding behavior including either overeating or anorexia may lead to obesity and cachexia, respectively, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms of regulation of feeding pleasure may help to develop new therapies of these diseases. The dopamine (DA) system of the mesolimbic projections plays a key role in behavioral reward in general and is also involved in regulating feeding-associated pleasure in the forebrain including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). It suggests that this DA system can be selectively activated by factors specific to different types of motivated behavior including hunger- and satiety- related hormones. Indeed, central administrations of either orexigenic ghrelin or anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increase DA release in the NAc. However, DA has also been shown to inhibit food intake when injected into the LHA, historically known as a « hunger center », indicating DA functional involvement in regulation of both appetite and feeding pleasure. Although both NAc and LHA contain neurons expressing melanocortin receptors, only the LHA receives the α-MSH containing nerve terminals from the α-MSH producing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, the main relay of the peripheral hunger and satiety signals to the brain. A recent study showed that α-MSH in the LHA enhances satiety and inhibits feeding pleasure while potently stimulating DA release in this area during both preparatory and consummatory phases of feeding. It suggests that altered signaling by α-MSH to the DA system in the LHA may be involved in the pathophysiology of

  12. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

  13. A study to evaluate the effect of manual therapy and exercise on the levator plate in women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Maeve

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms, severity and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength have been shown to improve significantly with pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). In this study, a new approach to conservative treatment of POP was investigated by the addition of manual physiotherapy to conventional PFMT. Aim & Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of internal manual therapy and PFMT on the levator plate angle (LPA) in women with stage I or I...

  14. Free Convection over a Permeable Horizontal Flat Plate Embedded in a Porous Medium with Radiation Effects and Mixed Thermal Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Najiyah S. Khasi'ie; Roziena Khairuddin; Najihah Mohamed; Mohd Zuki Salleh; Roslinda Nazar; Ioan Pop

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: In this study, the mathematical modeling of free convection boundary layer flow over a permeable horizontal flat plate embedded in a porous medium under mixed thermal boundary conditions and radiation effects is considered. Approach: The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. Results: Numerical solutions are obtained for the wall temperature, the heat transfer coefficient, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles. The ...

  15. Effects of variable-row-spacing harvesting picker platform scraping plates on cotton fiber quality and quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Michele de Campos Baraviera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing demands for high-quality cotton fibers that meet the textile industry quality standards. Concurrently, there have been efforts to reduce contaminants during harvesting to reduce harvesting costs. The goal of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the picker platform with Variable-Row-Spacing (VRS for harvesting cotton in narrow rows, over two harvest seasons in two regions within the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In this study, how the presence vs. absence of scraping plates and variations in travel speed was related to quantifiable levels of impurities the harvested fibers was examined. The research was divided into three experiments (Exp. I, II, and III, using cotton varieties FM 975 WS, IMA 5672 B2 RF, and IMA 5675 B2 RF, with row spacing of 0.45 m. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 ? 3 factorial design, using the presence/absence of the plate and three speeds (0.61, 1.0, and 1.42 m·s-¹, with seven repetitions, totaling 42 experimental plots. The plot size was 108 m² (3.6 ? 30 m. The data were analyzed using the F test in ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed that scraping plates increased the number of stems and cones, and reduced the harvest efficiency of cotton planted in narrow rows in the region of Sorriso-MT during the 2013/2014 harvest. For the 2014/2015 harvest, the highest speed and the presence of the scraping plates increased the number of cones in the cotton samples. In the experiment conducted in Serra da Petrovina, the removal of the scraping plates decreased the amount of cones in the harvested cotton.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  19. Societal costs in displaced transverse olecranon fractures: using decision analysis tools to find the most cost-effective strategy between tension band wiring and locked plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tittu; Washington, Travis; Srivastava, Karan; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C; Hakeos, William

    2017-11-01

    Tension band wiring (TBW) and locked plating are common treatment options for Mayo IIA olecranon fractures. Clinical trials have shown excellent functional outcomes with both techniques. Although TBW implants are significantly less expensive than a locked olecranon plate, TBW often requires an additional operation for implant removal. To choose the most cost-effective treatment strategy, surgeons must understand how implant costs and return to the operating room influence the most cost-effective strategy. This cost-effective analysis study explored the optimal treatment strategies by using decision analysis tools. An expected-value decision tree was constructed to estimate costs based on the 2 implant choices. Values for critical variables, such as implant removal rate, were obtained from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation consisting of 100,000 trials was used to incorporate variability in medical costs and implant removal rates. Sensitivity analysis and strategy tables were used to show how different variables influence the most cost-effective strategy. TBW was the most cost-effective strategy, with a cost savings of approximately $1300. TBW was also the dominant strategy by being the most cost-effective solution in 63% of the Monte Carlo trials. Sensitivity analysis identified implant costs for plate fixation and surgical costs for implant removal as the most sensitive parameters influencing the cost-effective strategy. Strategy tables showed the most cost-effective solution as 2 parameters vary simultaneously. TBW is the most cost-effective strategy in treating Mayo IIA olecranon fractures despite a higher rate of return to the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EL PLACER: ESCENARIO ESTÉTICO-VITALIZADOR DE LA EDUCACIÓN | PLEASURE: AESTHETIC VITALIZING-DESIGN OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Herrera Bastardo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to reveal the historicity of the category pleasure as the foundation of an aesthetic - vitalizing proposal of education. For this, genealogy is the alternative to build another rationality around pleasure. In that sense, the following themes were discussed: a pleasure, as a determinant factor in life. Woven ethical - aesthetic reconfigurator of education; b pleasure of divinity and of psychic life: aesthetic overlaps in pedagogy, c pleasure of modernity: scenario for the education of the future. With the theoretical contributions of Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, St. Augustine, Freud, Foucault, Onfray and Lipovestky, discursive paths were rewritten in relation to pleasure and were placed interweaved with the educational context to reveal lines of escape that in the aesthetic ground make education a space for creativity, inter-subjectivity and otherness. In conclusion, the vitalizing power of pleasure makes the social meaning of education to transform towards the formation of a new citizen more human in the understanding of aiming the common good.

  1. The radiation and variable viscosity effects on electrically conducting fluid over a vertically moving plate subjected to suction and heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghimi, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shaid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nickaeen, M. [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A new application of the differential quadrature method in thermo-fluid fields. {yields} Moving vertical plate with suction and heat flux is considered. {yields} Fluid with variable viscosity subjected to thermal radiation is studied. -- Abstract: In this paper, firstly, the applicability of the differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical method for solving the problem of variable viscosity and thermally radiative unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a moving vertical plate with suction and heat flux is investigated. The spatial as well as the temporal domains are discretized using the DQM. The fast rate of convergence of the method is demonstrated and for the cases that a solution is available, comparison is done. Then, effects of the temperature dependence of viscosity and different fluid parameters on the velocity and temperature of transient MHD flow subjected to the above mentioned boundary condition are studied.

  2. Free convective heat transfer with hall effects, heat absorption and chemical reaction over an accelerated moving plate in a rotating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S.M., E-mail: hussain.modassir@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, OP Jindal University, Raigarh 496109 (India); Jain, J., E-mail: jj.28481@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, OP Jindal University, Raigarh 496109 (India); Seth, G.S., E-mail: gsseth_ism@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Rashidi, M.M., E-mail: mm_rashidi@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management System, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2017-01-15

    The unsteady MHD free convective heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous and incompressible fluid over an accelerated moving vertical plate in the presence of heat absorption and chemical reaction with ramped temperature and ramped surface concentration through a porous medium in a rotating system is studied, taking Hall effects into account. The governing equations are solved analytically with the help of Laplace transform technique. The unified closed-form expressions are obtained for fluid velocity, fluid temperature, species concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers. The effects of various parameters on fluid velocity, fluid temperature and species concentration are discussed by graphs whereas numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented in tabular form for different values of pertinent flow parameters. The numerical results are also compared with free convective flow near ramped temperature plate with ramped surface concentration with the corresponding flow near isothermal plate with uniform surface concentration. - Highlights: • Magnetic field, Hall current, rotation and chemical reaction play vital role on flow field. • Hall current tends to accelerate secondary fluid velocity in the boundary layer region. • Rotation tends to retard primary fluid velocity throughout the boundary layer region. • Rotation and chemical reaction tend to enhance primary skin friction. • Solutal buoyancy force and permeability of medium reduce primary skin friction.

  3. Discussion about effecting of stiffener in four bolts in a row end plate connection for long span and heavy load steel structures in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Khang T.; Nguyen, Cung H.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, steel structure industry in Vietnam is in strong development. The construction of steel structure becomes larger span and heavier load. The issue spawned a number of issues arise from optimizing connections. Typical of steel connections in prefabricated steel structure that is an end plate (face plate) bolted connection. When the connection carried a heavy load, then the number of bolts is required much more. Increasing the number of rows bolts will less effective because can still not enough strength requirements, the bolts in row near rotational center will level arm reduction, then it cannot carry heavy loads. The current solution is doing multiple bolts in a row. Current standards such as EN [1], AISC [2] are no specific guidelines for calculating the connection four bolts in a row that primarily assumes the way works like a T-stub of the two bolts a row. Some articles studied T-stub four bolts in a row [3], [4], [5], [6] by component method but it has some components which weren’t considered. In this paper, in order to provide a contribution to improve the T-stub four bolts in a row, the stiffener component in T-stub will be added and compared with T-stub without stiffener by the finite element model to demonstrate effectiveness in reducing stress and displacement of T-stub. It gives ideas for the economic design of four bolts in a row end plate connection in Vietnam for future.

  4. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K; Maloiy, Geoffrey M; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in antinociception by investigating the involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot-plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs. The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects of cholinergic agonists, it is suggested that the cholinergic antinociception acts via a gateway facilitated by opioid receptor blockage; however, the precise interaction between these receptor systems needs further investigation.

  5. Homogeneous and Stratified Liquid-Liquid Flow Effect of a Viscosity Reducer: I. Comparison in parallel plates for heavy crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Suarez-Dominguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of heavy crude oil in Mexico, and worldwide, is increasing which has led to the application of different methods to reduce viscosity or to enhance transport through stratified flow to continue using the existing infrastructures. In this context, injecting a viscosity improver that does not mix completely with the crude, establishes a liquid-liquid stratified flow. On the basis of a parallel plates model, comparing the increase of flow that occurs in the one-phase case which assumes a complete mixture between the crude and the viscosity improver against another stratified liquid-liquid (no mixing between the oil and compared improver; it was found that in both cases there is a flow increase for the same pressure drop with a maximum for the case in which the flow improver is between the plates and the crude.

  6. Shape effects of nanoparticles on the squeezed flow between two Riga plates in the presence of thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Adnan; Khan, Umar; Tauseef Mohyud-Din, Syed; Waheed, Asif

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to explore the flow of water saturated with copper nanoparticles of different shapes between parallel Riga plates. The plates are placed horizontally in the coordinate axis. Influence of the linear thermal radiation is also taken into account. The equations governing the flow have been transformed into a nondimensional form by employing a set of similarity transformations. The obtained system is solved analytically (variation-of-parameters method) and numerically (Runge-Kutta scheme). Under certain conditions, a special case of the model is also explored. Furthermore, influences of the physical quantities on velocity and thermal fields are discussed with the graphical aid over the domain of interest. The quantities of engineering and practical interest (skin friction coefficient and local rate of heat transfer) are also explored graphically.

  7. Predictions of the effect of stratification on superimposed forced and free convection between vertical parallel plates for various boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, G.H.; Irvine, T.J. Jr.; Quarini, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity and temperature equations for laminar buoyancy and forced convection flows between vertical flat parallel plates are presented. The thermal boundary conditions on the plate define the buoyancy driven field, while the channel Reynolds number defines the forced flow field. Specific examples relating to tall narrow channels with laminar convention and to closed high ratio cavities (as may be found in the proposed active and passive insulation systems for sodium cooled fast reactors) are presented. The analysis is limited to the laminar flow regimes, whilst some reactor situations are likely to be turbulent, hence a proposal for a simple extension of this analysis to the turbulent regime is made. It is shown how the analysis can be made to apply to fluids of various Prandtl numbers. (author)

  8. The effect of different rutile electrodes on mechanical properties of underwater wet welded AH-36 steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Purnama, Dewin; Churniawan, Iwan

    2018-04-01

    Underwater welding is an important role in the rescue of ships and underwater structures, in case of emergency. In this study, the marine steel plates used are AH-36 steel as parent material. This type of steel is included in the High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA). Electrodes used for welding AH-36 steel plates are commonly the E6013 and E 7024 which are the type of based rutile electrodes. Those electrodes are widely available on the market and they would be compared with the original electrode for underwater which is the type of E7014 with the trade name of Broco UW-CS-1. Welding method used is Shielding Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) with the variation of 5 m and 10 m underwater depth and also varied with the electric current of 120A, 140A and 250A. It was found that hardness value of increased in the area of weld metal and HAZ. HAZ also tends to have the highest hardness compared to both of weld metal and base metal. Non destructive test by radiographed test (RT) on welds showed that there are found welding defects in the form of incomplete penetration on all variations of welding parameters, but there is no porosity defect detected. The results of the hardness tests of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the hardness value of both rutile electrodes (E6013 and E 7024) is apparently similar hardness value compared with the existing commercial electrode (E7014 of Broco UW-CS- 1). The tensile test results of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the use of rutile electrode of E6013 gives a better tensile properties than other rutile electrodes.

  9. Effect of KOH concentration and anions on the performance of Ni-H2 battery positive plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, H.; Robbins, Kathleen; Gopalakrishna, Rao M.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity and voltage behavior of electrochemically impregnated sintered nickel positive plates was examined by galavanostatic charging; and discharging in a flooded electrolyte cell. Three different concentrations of KOH (40 percent, 31 percent, and 26 percent) and 31 percent KOH containing dissolved nitrate, sulfate or silicate were investigated. The end of charge voltage at C/10 charge and at 10 C showed the following order: 40 percent KOH is greater than 31 percent KOH alone and in the presence of the anions greater than 26 percent KOE. The middischarge voltage at C/2 discharge was higher in 26 percent KOH, almost the same for 31 percent KOH with and without the added contaminants and much lower for 40 percent KOH. The plate capacity was marginally affected by cycling in all cases except for 40 percent KOH where the capacity declined after 1000 cycles at 80 percent DOD. At the end of cycling the plate tested in the presence of sulfate and silicate experienced measurable weight loss as a result of active material extrusion. Cyclic voltammetry of miniature electrodes in 31 percent KOH showed that the second oxidation peak that corresponds to the formation of a different phase of oxidized Ni has a lower peak current at -5 C compared to 25 C and oxygen evolution occurs a higher potential at -5 C. The reduction peak (discharge reaction) is more polarized at 25 C compared to -5 C. The presence of silicate alters the potentials only marginally. The implications of these results in plate treatment and low temperature operation are discussed.

  10. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C V ) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288 degree C (550 degree F) irradiated (I), 288 degree C (550 degree F) irradiated + 454 degree C (850 degree F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288 degree C (550 degree F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 x 10 19 n/cm 2 and 4.18 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C V upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C V 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C V transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared

  11. Effects of early activator treatment in patients with class II malocclusion evaluated by thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, C J; Rübel, J; Starke, J; Conradt, C; Stellzig, P A; Komposch, P G

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal cephalometric study was to evaluate the dentofacial shape changes induced by activator treatment between 9.5 and 11.5 years in male Class II patients. For a rigorous morphometric analysis, a thin-plate spline analysis was performed to assess and visualize dental and skeletal craniofacial changes. Twenty male patients with a skeletal Class II malrelationship and increased overjet who had been treated at the University of Heidelberg with a modified Andresen-Häupl-type activator were compared with a control group of 15 untreated male subjects of the Belfast Growth Study. The shape changes for each group were visualized on thin-plate splines with one spline comprising all 13 landmarks to show all the craniofacial shape changes, including skeletal and dento-alveolar reactions, and a second spline based on 7 landmarks to visualize only the skeletal changes. In the activator group, the grid deformation of the total spline pointed to a strong activator-induced reduction of the overjet that was caused both by a tipping of the incisors and by a moderation of sagittal discrepancies, particularly a slight advancement of the mandible. In contrast with this, in the control group, only slight localized shape changes could be detected. Both in the 7- and 13-landmark configurations, the shape changes between the groups differed significantly at P thin-plate spline analysis turned out to be a useful morphometric supplement to conventional cephalometrics because the complex patterns of shape change could be suggestively visualized.

  12. Effect of KOH Concentration and Anions on the Performance of a Ni-H2 Battery Positive Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Robbins, Kathleen; Gopalakrishna, M. Rao

    1996-01-01

    The capacity and voltage behavior of electrochemically impregnated sintered nickel positive plates was examined by galvanostatic charging and discharging in a flooded electrolyte cell. Three different concentrations of potassium hydroxide (KOH) (40, 31, and 26 percent) and 31 percent KOH containing dissolved nitrate, sulfate, or silicate were investigated. The end-of-charge voltage at C/10 charge and at 10 degrees C showed the following order: 40 percent KOH greater than 31 percent KOH alone and in the presence of the anions greater than 26 percent KOH. The mid discharge voltage at C/2 discharge was higher in 26 percent KOH, almost the same for 31 percent KOH with and without added contaminants, and much lower for 40 percent KOH. The plate capacity was marginally affected by cycling in all cases except for 40 percent KOH, where the capacity declined after 1,000 cycles at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD). At the end of cycling, all the plates tested experienced a weight loss, except in the case of 31 percent KOH, as a result of active material extrusion. Cyclic voltammetry of miniature electrodes in 31 percent KOH showed that the cathodic peak potentials are less polarized in the presence and absence of silicate at -5 degrees C compared to 25 degrees C indicating a slightly higher voltage during discharge in a Ni-H2 battery. Futhermore, the features of the current-potential profile were practically unchanged in the presence of silicate.

  13. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  14. Mechanical behaviors of the dispersion nuclear fuel plates induced by fuel particle swelling and thermal effect II: Effects of variations of the fuel particle diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shurong; Wang Qiming; Huo Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    In order to predict the irradiation mechanical behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the total burnup is divided into two stages: the initial stage and the increasing stage. At the initial stage, the thermal effects induced by the high temperature differences between the operation temperatures and the room temperature are mainly considered; and at the increasing stage, the intense mechanical interactions between the fuel particles and the matrix due to the irradiation swelling of fuel particles are focused on. The large-deformation thermo-elasto-plasticity finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the effects of particle diameters on the in-pile mechanical behaviors of fuel elements. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the fuel particle diameters; the effects of particle diameters on the maximum first principal stresses vary with burnup, and the considered case with the largest particle diameter holds the maximum values all along; (2) at the cladding near the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding, the Mises stresses and the first principal stresses undergo major changes with increasing burnup, and different variations exist for different particle diameter cases; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles rise with the particle diameters.

  15. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  16. Phase formation kinetics, hardness and magnetocaloric effect of sub-rapidly solidified LaFe11.6Si1.4 plates during isothermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yuting; Xu, Zhishuai; Luo, Zhiping; Han, Ke; Zhai, Qijie; Zheng, Hongxing

    2018-05-01

    High-temperature phase transition behavior and intrinsic brittleness of NaZn13-type τ1 phase in La-Fe-Si magnetocaloric materials are two key problems from the viewpoint of materials production and practical applications. In the present work, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation was introduced to quantitatively characterize the formation kinetics of τ1 phase in sub-rapidly solidified LaFe11.6Si1.4 plates during the isothermal annealing process. Avrami index was estimated to be 0.43 (∼0.5), which suggests that the formation of τ1 phase is in a diffusion-controlled one-dimensional growth mode. Meanwhile, it is found that the Vickers hardness as a function of annealing time for sub-rapidly solidified plates also agrees well with the JMAK equation. The Vickers hardness of τ1 phase was estimated to be about 754. Under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe, the maximum magnetic entropy change was about 22.31 J/(kg·K) for plates annealed at 1323 K for 48 h, and the effective magnetic refrigeration capacity reached 191 J/kg.

  17. The effect of using nano-silver dispersed water based nanofluid as a passive method for energy efficiency enhancement in a plate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrangzade, Ali; Heyhat, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of using nano-silver on a commercial plate heat exchanger was studied. • An experimental rig was designed to investigate the thermo-hydrodynamic features of nanofluid. • The overall heat transfer coefficient becomes larger 16.79% for 100 ppm nanofluid. • No significant growth in pressure drop values was observed. • The process temperatures have important role in nanofluid influence. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to verify the potential using of nano-silver dispersed water based nanofluid on efficiency improvement of a commercial corrugated plate heat exchanger. In this regards, an experimental rig was provided to recognize the heat transfer rate and pressure drop of Ag–water nanofluid as the working fluid. The two most key thermo-physical properties, i.e. dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids were experimentally gauged. The findings, which were achieved, displayed that the overall heat transfer coefficient becomes larger, from 6.18% to 16.79%, for 100 ppm silver nanofluid. While using nanofluid, no significant growth in pressure drop values was observed. Moreover, the process temperatures and flow rates have significant impacts on the helpfulness of applying nanofluid in a plate heat exchanger.

  18. A Study of Chemically Reactive Species and Thermal Radiation Effects on an Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow Through a Porous Medium Past a Flat Plate with Ramped Wall Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the effects of a chemical reaction and thermal radiation on unsteady MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid past a vertical infinite flat plate embedded in a porous medium is carried out. The flow is induced by a general time-dependent movement of the vertical plate, and the cases of ramped temperature and isothermal plates are studied. An exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by the Laplace Transform technique. Some applications of practical interest for different types of plate motions are discussed. The numerical values of fluid velocity, temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas the numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in a tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates.

  19. A Study of Chemically Reactive Species and Thermal Radiation Effects on an Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow Through a Porous Medium Past a Flat Plate with Ramped Wall Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, K. K.; Sarma, D.; Singh, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    An investigation of the effects of a chemical reaction and thermal radiation on unsteady MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid past a vertical infinite flat plate embedded in a porous medium is carried out. The flow is induced by a general time-dependent movement of the vertical plate, and the cases of ramped temperature and isothermal plates are studied. An exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by the Laplace Transform technique. Some applications of practical interest for different types of plate motions are discussed. The numerical values of fluid velocity, temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas the numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in a tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates.

  20. A Note on Variable Viscosity and Chemical Reaction Effects on Mixed Convection Heat and Mass Transfer Along a Semi-Infinite Vertical Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. A. Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an analysis is carried out to study the variable viscosity and chemical reaction effects on the flow, heat, and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity transformations. The transformed coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the shooting method. The effects of different parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are shown graphically. In addition, tabulated results for the local skin-friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are presented and discussed.

  1. Chemical reaction effect on an unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in the presence of suction or injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaiah S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of chemical reaction on unsteady magneto hydrodynamic free convective fluid flow past a vertical porous plate in the presence of suction or injection. The governing equations of the flow field are solved numerically by a finite element method. The effects of the various parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically and values of skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number for various values of physical parameters are presented through tables.

  2. Voltage-current characteristics of a pin-plate system with different plate configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhuangbo; Long, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of a pin-plate system with four types of collection plate configurations are studied experimentally. The collection plates consider a single metal plate, a metal plate with a fly ash cake layer, a metal plate with a clean filter media and a metal plate with a dirty filter media. The results show that the clean filter media has no obvious effect on the V-I characteristics. But the dirty filter media reduces the current density because of its high resistance. The thick fly ash cake layer increase current density because of the anti-corona effect but the increment is not very obvious.

  3. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  4. Pleasurable emotional response to music: a case of neurodegenerative generalized auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R; Chang, Chiung-Chih; De May, Mary; Engstrom, John; Miller, Bruce L

    2009-06-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies implicate the network of mesolimbic structures known to be active in reward processing as the neural substrate of pleasure associated with listening to music. Psychoacoustic and lesion studies suggest that there is a widely distributed cortical network involved in processing discreet musical variables. Here we present the case of a young man with auditory agnosia as the consequence of cortical neurodegeneration who continues to experience pleasure when exposed to music. In a series of musical tasks, the subject was unable to accurately identify any of the perceptual components of music beyond simple pitch discrimination, including musical variables known to impact the perception of affect. The subject subsequently misidentified the musical character of personally familiar tunes presented experimentally, but continued to report that the activity of 'listening' to specific musical genres was an emotionally rewarding experience. The implications of this case for the evolving understanding of music perception, music misperception, music memory, and music-associated emotion are discussed.

  5. [Bodies and pleasures in male homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Luis Felipe

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnographic research investigating the cultural bases that guide the construction of corporeal events, especially those related to sex/eroticism, in the homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro. Data were gathered by means of biographic narrative interviews, direct observations and research-interventions. The main argument presented in this paper is that the diverse corporeal events in the studied community are based on the same conceptual structure that focuses on transgression of the "body/flesh" in the sense of St. Paul's concept: an exaltation of forbidden 'tesão', erotic pleasure only admissible for the purpose of reproduction. 'Flesh' instead of sublimated being exalted, constantly inspired and attracted to more and more erotic pleasure.

  6. Driving pleasure and perceptions of the transition from no automation to full self-driving automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I offer a sociological user perspective on increased self-driving automation, which has evolved from a long history associated with automobility. This study explores complex, perceived a priori driving pleasures in different scenarios involving self-driving cars. The methods used...... consisted of 32 in-depth interviews with participants who were given eight video examples (two video examples within four different scenarios) to watch. A numerical rating scales formed parts of the interviews. The findings revealed that driving pleasure when using increasingly automated driving...... technologies is very complex and must be seen within various contexts, including, for example, different speeds, road conditions, purposes, driving distances, and numbers of people in the car. Self-driving cars are not just about technology, increased safety, and better traffic flow, but are also dependent...

  7. Three Dimensional Parametric Analyses on Effect of Fibre Orientation for Stress Concentration Factor in Fibrous Composite Cantilever Plate with Central Circular Hole under Transverse Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE ABSTRACT: A number of analytical and numerical techniques are available for the two dimensional study of stress concentration around the hole(s in isotropic and composite plates subjected to in-plane or transverse loading conditions. The information on the techniques for three dimensional analyses of stress concentration factor (SCF around the hole in isotropic and composite plates subjected to transverse loading conditions is, however, limited. The present work emphasizes on the effect of fibre orientation (q on the stress concentration factor in fibrous composite plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading condition. The work is carried out for cantilever fibrous composite plates. The effects of thickness -to- width (T/A and diameter-to-width (D/A ratios upon SCF at different fibre orientation are studied. Plates of four different composite materials were considered for hole analysis in order to determine the sensitivity of SCF with elastic constants. Deflections in transverse direction were calculated and analysed. All results are presented in graphical form and discussed. The finite element formulation and its analysis were carried out using ANSYS package.ABSTRAK: Terdapat pelbagai teknik analitikal dan numerical untuk kajian tumpuan tegasan dua dimensi di sekeliling lubang-lubang dalam komposit isotropik dan plat pada satah atau keadaan bebanan melintang. Bagaimanapun, maklumat mengenai kaedah analisis tiga dimensi untuk faktor ketumpatan tegasan (SCF sekitar lubang dalam komposit isotropik dan plat pada keadaan bebanan melintang adalah terhad. Kertas ini menekankan kesan orientasi gentian (q pada faktor tumpuan tegasan dalam komposit plat bergentian dengan lubang berpusat di bawah keadaan bebanan melintang. Kajian ini dilkukan untuk cantilever plat komposit bergentian. Kesan ketebalan terhadap kelebaran plat (T/A dan diameter terhadap kelebaran komposit (D/A dengan SCF

  8. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Version of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joséphine Chaix

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS, a measure specifically designed to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure, was used to evaluate the presence of social anhedonia in patients as well as the general population. The first goal of this study was to validate the structure of the French version of the ACIPS. The second objective was to verify whether a one, two or three factor solution is most appropriate for the ACIPS scale. The French version of the ACIPS was tested on 263 French-speaking pre-graduate students or professional volunteers. For the confirmatory factor analysis, data were treated as categorical ordinal and all the models were estimated using a robust weighted least squares estimator with adjustments for the mean and variance. Three models were estimated. A one-factor model representing a general undifferentiated “pleasure” latent construct was first tested on the 17 ACIPS items. A two-factor model distinguishing anticipatory-pleasure and consummatory-pleasure was tested next. Finally, a three-factor model including subdomains of intimate social interactions, group social interactions, and social bonding was tested. The one and two-factor models showed a somewhat poor fit to the data. However, the goodness of fit of the three factor model was adequate. These results suggest that individuals who enjoyed interaction in one of these three subdomains were more likely to enjoy doing so in the two other domains. However, on the basis of the comparison between the one and three factor models, these three types of interactions may not be considered as indistinguishable. Rather, they represent distinct and theoretically meaningful dimensions. These results show the French version of the ACIPS is a useful and valid scale to measure the capacity of savoring different kinds of social relationships.

  10. Female condom acceptability in urban India: Examining the role of sexual pleasure

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Bindra, Nyamat; Dave, Bhaktiben; Sharma, Ritika; Sundarraman, Vikram; Thirupathur Dharuman, Sivakumar; Herbenick, Debby

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the acceptability of female condoms in urban India, with a focus on sexual pleasure. We conducted focus group discussions with 50 women and 19 men, as well as a small number of individual interviews with women (n = 3), in Chennai and New Delhi. Perceived benefits of female condoms included protection against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, increased sense of empowerment for women, and simple clean up. The most common drawback was reduc...

  11. The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved

    OpenAIRE

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of “pleasurable sadness” remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment ...

  12. Pleasure and Pain: Teaching Neuroscientific Principles of Hedonism in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food ...

  13. Intoxication as Feminist Pleasure: Drinking, Dancing, and Un-Dressing with/for Jenni Rivera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Garcia Hernandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In "Intoxication as Feminist Pleasure: Drinking, Dancing, and Un-Dressing with/for Jenni Rivera," Yessica Garcia Hernandez presents a subculture of unabashed, unambivalent, and unapologetic “wet” feminism. During the concerts of the Chicana singer, Jenni Rivera, intoxication is divorced from the pressures of respectability by both Rivera and her fans, who continue to celebrate the singer and her name brand tequila even after her death.

  14. Hall effects on free convection hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Rivlin-Ericksen fluid past a vertical plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt has been made to study the problem of free convection hydromagnetic flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past a porous vertical plate in a rotating frame of reference taking ohmic and viscous dissipations into account in the presence of Hall current. The nature of velocity profile shows the existence of multiple boundary layers. Their 'thickness' is seen to decrease with increasing values of Ekman, Hartman and Prandtl numbers and Hall parameter. The graphical study reveals that the increasing values of Hall parameter and Ekman number (for a fixed large value of Hall parameter) exert opposite influence on the flow. (author). 11 refs., 2 tables

  15. The Pleasures of Reading Mystery Fiction and Mystery Readers’ Book Selection Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yen Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The mystery fiction is a popular pleasure reading genre in Taiwan. This article describes a grounded theory study that explored the reading pleasures and selection behavior of mystery fans. Based on the in-depth interview with 21 engaged mystery readers, this study identified seven types of reading pleasures, i.e., a sense of achievement from puzzle solving, feelings of amazement from the revelation of truths, satisfaction of curiosity for the unknown, a sense of compensation from seeing justice, senses of empathy and sympathy from identifying with the story characters, and the reflection of the social issues and values raised in the stories. The charms of mystery fiction may be systematically described by following four of Hudson’s (1910 conceptualization of fiction elements: i.e. the plot, characters, time and place, and the author’s view of life prevailed in the stories. In regards to readers’ selection behavior, this study identified four selection approaches commonly used by the experienced readers to discover works that possibly meet their expectations, i.e., the subgenre-oriented, author-oriented, series-oriented, and story-oriented approaches. In addition, six factors may influence readers’ selection of works, i.e., availability of expert comments, trust and confidence in the publishers, book award information, adaptation into movies or television, quality of translation, and first impression of the physical books.

  16. Pleasure seeking and the aspect of longing for an object in perversion. A neuropsychoanalytical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2012-01-01

    In modern psychiatric classifications the term paraphilia has replaced the term perversion by changing the scope of the definitions from avoided procreation to failures of relationship-aspects of sexuality. Contemporary psychoanalysts also seem less interested in pleasure seeking aspects, which were so important within original Freudian thought, and instead concentrate interpretation on hostility and the history of the representation of objects. This paper discusses the connection between distinct object representations in perversions and attachment theory and neurobiological representations. It will discuss the observation that the neglect of pleasure seeking in perversion often results in a failure to recognise the addiction-like aspects of perversion, which seem to be particularly relevant to modern psychiatric and psychological thinking. The SEEKING-system (Panksepp, 1998) is used to conceptualise a neurobiological basis for pleasure seeking. This SEEKING-system may be "hijacked" by rewards in different forms of addiction as well as in sexual obsessions. The polarity between "drive representation" and "object representation," as created by Freud (1933, 1940a), may correspond to the polarity identified in contemporary thinking between the addictive or compulsive characteristics of sexual gratification (drive representation) and the influence of early object representation on the later ability to integrate instinctual wishes into relationships (object representation).

  17. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  18. Evaluation by means of magneto-acoustic emission and Barkhausen effect of time and space distribution of magnetic flux density in ferromagnetic plate magnetized by a C-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, Marek; Augustyniak, Boleslaw; Piotrowski, Leszek; Chmielewski, Marek; Sadowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results are shown of magneto-acoustic emission (MAE) and Barkhausen effect (BE) for two ferritic steel plates of different dimensions. The paper presents preliminary results of modelling the MAE, based on the finite element method (FEM), taking into account the key role of the eddy currents. Explanations are suggested as to the effects of MAE peak maximum growth, shift, as well as the characteristic BE profiles at the bottom of the large plates

  19. Making Accountable Teachers: The Terrors and Pleasures of Performativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jessica; Brass, Jory

    2018-01-01

    This article draws from Stephen Ball's work on markets, managerialism, and performativity to frame a comparative study that examines the reconstitution of the teacher-subject across a pivotal decade in which neoliberal standards and accountability reforms effected significant changes in US education. It juxtaposes two qualitative studies conducted…

  20. Beauty at a glance: The feeling of beauty and the amplitude of pleasure are independent of stimulus duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Vale, Lauren; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-12-01

    Over time, how does beauty develop and decay? Common sense suggests that beauty is intensely felt only after prolonged experience of the object. Here, we present one of various stimuli for a variable duration (1-30 s), measure the observers' pleasure over time, and, finally, ask whether they felt beauty. On each trial, participants (N = 21) either see an image that they had chosen as "movingly beautiful," see an image with prerated valence, or suck a candy. During the stimulus and a further 60 s, participants rate pleasure continuously using a custom touchscreen web app, EmotionTracker.com. After each trial, participants judge whether they felt beauty. Across all stimulus kinds, durations, and beauty responses, the dynamic pleasure rating has a stereotypical time course that is well fit by a one-parameter model with a brief exponential onset (roughly 2.5 s), a sustained plateau during stimulus presentation, and a long exponential decay (roughly 70 s). Across conditions, only the plateau amplitude varies. Beauty and pleasure amplitude are nearly independent of stimulus duration. The final beauty rating is positively correlated with pleasure amplitude (r = 0.60), and nearly independent of duration (r = 0.10). Beauty's independence from duration is unlike Bentham's 18th-century notion of value (utility), which he supposed to depend on the product of pleasure amplitude and duration. Participants report having felt pleasure as strongly after a mere 1 s stimulus as after longer durations, up to 30 s. Thus, we find that amplitude of pleasure is independent of stimulus duration.